Science.gov

Sample records for air-oil mist lubrication

  1. New Vapor/Mist Phase Lubricant Formulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    To meet the increased thermal stresses of future advanced aircraft engines, new lubricants will have to be developed to replace the currently used ester-based liquid lubricants. If a suitable conventional replacement cannot be found, a different lubrication method will have to be used. The conventional method circulates bulk lubricant (stored in a sump) through a lubricating system containing cooling and filtering elements. Solid lubricants have been studied as a replacement for bulk liquid lubricants, and have been found to provide reasonable lubrication for lightly loaded systems. Solid lubricants, however, have proved inadequate for highly loaded, high-speed applications. Vapor/mist phase lubrication (VMPL), on the other hand, may be a viable alternative. VMPL has been used successfully to lubricate high-temperature bearings or gears. It can be used as an emergency backup system or as the primary source of lubrication. With VMPL, minimal weight is added to the system and minimal debris is formed. It works over a wide temperature range.

  2. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  3. Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  4. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  5. Vapor/Mist Used to Lubricate Gears After Loss of Primary Lubrication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2001-01-01

    Loss of lubrication in rotorcraft drive systems is a demanding requirement placed on drive system manufacturers. The drive system must operate for at least 30 minutes once the primary lubrication system has failed. This test is a military requirement that must be passed prior to certification of the aircraft. As new aircraft engines, operating at higher speeds, are fielded, the requirements for the drive system become increasingly more difficult. Also, the drive system must be lightweight, which minimizes the opportunity to use the gear bodies to absorb the tremendous amount of heating that takes place. In many cases, the amount of heat generated because of the high speed and load requires an emergency lubrication system that negatively impacts the aircraft's weight, complexity, and cost. A single mesh spur gear test rig is being used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to investigate possible emergency lubrication system improvements that will minimize the impact of having these systems onboard rotorcraft. A technique currently being investigated uses a vapor/mist system to lubricate the contacting surfaces after the primary lubrication system has been shut down. A number of tests were conducted in which the vapor/mist used the same lubricant as the primary system, but at a greatly reduced flow rate. Each test was initiated with the primary lubrication system operational and at steady-state conditions for a given speed and load. Then the primary lubrication system was shut down, and the vapor/mist lubrication system was initiated. An example of the tests conducted is shown in the figures. These preliminary tests have uncovered a mechanism that provides a lubricious, carbonaceous solid on the surface that actually reduces the surface temperature of the meshing gear teeth during operation. Surface analysis of the carbonaceous solid revealed it was graphitic. This mechanism is the synthetic lubricant "coking" on the active profile of the gears, which reduces the

  6. A Preliminary Study on the Vapor/Mist Phase Lubrication of a Spur Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphates have been the primary compounds used in vapor/mist phase lubrication studies involving ferrous bearing material. Experimental results have indicated that the initial formation of an iron phosphate film on a rubbing ferrous surface, followed by the growth (by cationic diffusion) of a lubricious pyrophosphate-type coating over the iron phosphate, is the reason organophosphates work well as vapor/mist phase lubricants. Recent work, however, has shown that this mechanism leads to the depletion of surface iron atoms and to eventual lubrication failure. A new organophosphate formulation was developed which circumvents surface iron depletion. This formulation was tested by generating an iron phosphate coating on an aluminum surface. The new formulation was then used to vapor/mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox in a preliminary study.

  7. Feasibility Study of Vapor-Mist Phase Reaction Lubrication Using a Thioether Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    A primary technology barrier preventing the operation of gas turbine engines and aircraft gearboxes at higher temperatures is the inability of currently used liquid lubricants to survive at the desired operating conditions over an extended time period. Current state-of-the-art organic liquid lubricants rapidly degrade at temperatures above 300 C; hence, another form of lubrication is necessary. Vapor or mist phase reaction lubrication is a unique, alternative technology for high temperature lubrication. The majority of past studies have employed a liquid phosphate ester that was vaporized or misted, and delivered to bearings or gears where the phosphate ester reacted with the metal surfaces generating a solid lubricious film. This method resulted in acceptable operating temperatures suggesting some good lubrication properties, but the continuous reaction between the phosphate ester and the iron surfaces led to wear rates unacceptable for gas turbine engine or aircraft gearbox applications. In this study, an alternative non-phosphate liquid was used to mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox rig operating at 10,000 rpm under highly loaded conditions. After 21 million shaft revolutions of operation the gears exhibited only minor wear.

  8. Oil-air mist lubrication as an emergency system and as a primary lubrication system. [for helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of an emergency aspirator once-through lubrication system was demonstrated as a viable survivability concept for Army helicopter mainshaft engine bearings for periods as long as 30 minutes. It was also shown in an experimental study using a 46-mm bore bearing test machine that an oil-air mist once-through system with auxiliary air cooling is an effective primary lubrication system at speeds up to 2,500,000 DN for extended operating periods of at least 50 hours.

  9. Gear Mesh Loss-of-Lubrication Experiments and Analytical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Polly, Joseph; Morales, Wilfredo

    2011-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the loss-of-lubrication (LOL) characteristics of spur gears in an aerospace simulation test facility has been completed. Tests were conducted using two different emergency lubricant types: (1) an oil mist system (two different misted lubricants) and (2) a grease injection system (two different grease types). Tests were conducted using a NASA Glenn test facility normally used for conducting contact fatigue. Tests were run at rotational speeds up to 10000 rpm using two different gear designs and two different gear materials. For the tests conducted using an air-oil misting system, a minimum lubricant injection rate was determined to permit the gear mesh to operate without failure for at least 1 hr. The tests allowed an elevated steady state temperature to be established. A basic 2-D heat transfer simulation has been developed to investigate temperatures of a simulated gear as a function of frictional behavior. The friction (heat generation source) between the meshing surfaces is related to the position in the meshing cycle, the load applied, and the amount of lubricant in the contact. Experimental conditions will be compared to those from the 2-D simulation.

  10. European hazard classification advice for crude oil-derived lubricant base oils compared with the proposed mineral oil mist TLV.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Jan H; Lobo, Rupert C; Riley, Anthony J

    2003-11-01

    The notice of intended change for the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mist contains a notation for human carcinogenicity. A description is provided of the current European regulatory approach used to distinguish between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic mineral base oils on the basis of oil refining process and chemical marker information. This approach has proven effective in creating a market situation in the countries of the European Union where many customers require severely refined, non-carcinogenic oils. It is recommended that ACGIH consolidate the distinction between poorly and severely refined base oils in the recommended TLV for mineral oil mist and use different toxicological considerations to derive exposure control guidelines. PMID:14555432

  11. Preliminary Investigation of Molybdenum Disulfide-air-mist Lubrication for Roller Bearings Operating to DN Values of 1 x 10(exp 6) and Ball Bearings Operating to Temperatures of 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E F; Nemeth, Z N; Anderson, W J

    1951-01-01

    The effectiveness of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a bearing lubricant was determined at high temperature and at high speeds. A 1-inch-bore ball bearing operated at temperatures to 1000 F, a speed of 1725 rpm, and a thrust load of 20 pounds when lubricated only with MoS2-air mist. A 75-millimeter-bore cageless roller bearing, provided with a MoS2-syrup coating before operation, operated at DN values to 1 x 10(exp 6) with a load of 368 pounds.

  12. Lubrication of rolling element bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a broad survey of the lubrication of rolling-element bearings. Emphasis is on the critical design aspects related to speed, temperature, and ambient pressure environment. Types of lubrication including grease, jets, mist, wick, and through-the-race are discussed. The paper covers the historical development, present state of technology, and the future problems of rolling-element bearing lubrication.

  13. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  14. Lubrication of rolling-element bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The lubrication of rolling element bearings is surveyed. Emphasis is on the critical design aspects related to speed, temperature, and ambient pressure environment. Types of lubrication including grease, jets, mist, wick, and through the race are discussed. The historical development, present state of technology, and the future problems of rolling element bearing lubrication are discussed.

  15. Lubrication System Failure Baseline Testing on an Aerospace Quality Gear Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace drive systems are required to survive a loss-of-lubrication test for qualification. In many cases emergency lubrication systems need to be designed and utilized to permit the drive system to pass this difficult requirement. The weight of emergency systems can adversely affect the mission capabilities of the aircraft. The possibility to reduce the emergency system weight through the use of mist lubrication will be described. Mist lubrication involves the delivery of a minute amount of an organic liquid as a vapor or fine mist in flowing compressed air to rubbing surfaces. At the rubbing surface, the vapor or mist reacts to form a solid lubricating film. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline for gear behavior under oil depleted conditions. A reactive vapor-mist lubrication method is described and proposed as a candidate emergency lubrication system.

  16. MIST final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gloudemans, J.R. )

    1991-08-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to addresss the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program is reported in eleven volumes; Volumes 2 through 8 pertain to groups of Phase 3 tests by type, Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons. Volume 10 provides comparisons between the RELAP5 MOD2 calculations and MIST observations, and Volume 11 (with addendum) presents the later, Phase 4 tests. This is Volume 1 of the MIST final report, a summary of the entire MIST program. Major topics include: test advisory grop (TAG) issues; facility scaling and design; test matrix; observations; comparisons of RELAP5 calculations to MIST observations; and MIST versus the TAG issues. 11 refs., 29 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. MIST facility densitometer comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Childerson, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    Photon attenuation techniques were used in the Multi-Loop Integral Systems Test (MIST) facility to make void fraction and fluid density measurements. The MIST facility was a scaled physical model of a Babcock and Wilcox lowered loop, nuclear steam supply system. The facility was tested at typical pressurized water reactor fluid conditions. The MIST facility was designed for observing integral system response during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. The data from the MIST tests are used for improving confidence in safety codes. Dual-beam gamma densitometers provided an indication of the void fraction or mixture density of the fluid at the hot- and cold-leg nozzles.

  18. Water Mist Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002 in the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. The Center for the Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, is investigating the properties of mist fire suppression in microgravity with Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. These experiments consist of varying water droplet sizes and water mist concentrations applied to flame fronts of different propane/air mixtures. Observations from these tests will provide valuable information on the change of flame speed in the presence of water mist. Shown here is a flame front propagating through the Mist flame tube during 1-g testing at NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  19. Test Facility Simulation Results for Aerospace Loss-of-Lubrication of Spur Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Gargano, Lucas J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to receiving airworthiness certification, extensive testing is required during the development of rotary wing aircraft drive systems. Many of these tests are conducted to demonstrate the drive system's ability to operate at extreme conditions, beyond that called for in the normal to maximum power operating range. One of the most extreme tests is referred to as the loss-of-lubrication or run dry test. During this test, the drive system is expected to last at least 30 min without failure while the primary lubrication system is disabled for predetermined, scripted flight conditions. Failure of this test can lead to a partial redesign of the drive system or the addition of an emergency lubrication system. Either of these solutions can greatly increase the aircraft drive system cost and weight and extend the schedule for obtaining airworthiness certification. Recent work at NASA Glenn Research Center focused on performing tests, in a relevant aerospace environment, to simulate the behavior of spur gears under loss-of-lubrication conditions. Tests were conducted using a test facility that was used in the past for spur gear contact fatigue testing. A loss-oflubrication test is initiated by shutting off the single into mesh lubricating jet. The test proceeds until the gears fail and can no longer deliver the applied torque. The observed failures are typically plastically deformed gear teeth, due to the high tooth temperatures, that are no longer in mesh. The effect of several different variables to gear tooth condition during loss-of-lubrication have been tested such as gear pitch, materials, shrouding, lubrication condition, and emergency supplied mist lubrication in earlier testing at NASA. Recent testing has focused on newer aerospace gear steels and imbedding thermocouples in the shrouding to measure the air-oil temperatures flung off the gear teeth. Along with the instrumented shrouding, an instrumented spur gear was also tested. The instrumented spur gear had

  20. Autumn MIST 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fear, Robert; Woodfield, Emma

    2013-04-01

    Robert Fear and Emma Woodfield report on the Autumn MIST meeting, concerning the solar wind; magnetospheres of planets and comets; ionospheres, thermospheres and mesospheres and how these regions connect.

  1. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  2. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-11-07

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  3. Joint lubrication.

    PubMed

    McCutchen, C W

    1983-01-01

    The fine-pored, easily compressed articular cartilage provides animal joints with self-pressurized hydrostatic (weeping) lubrication. The solid skeletons of the cartilages press against each other, but so lightly that their rubbing is lubricated successfully by synovial fluid--a boundary lubricant too weak to lubricate ordinary bearings. PMID:6317095

  4. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  5. MITIGATION IMPACT SCREENING TOOL (MIST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MIST is intended to provide a back of the envelope, qualitative indication of the likely impacts of heat island mitigation strategies averaged at the city-scale. To run MIST, users follow three basic steps: 1. Select the city to model (240 available) 2. Define the mitigation ...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling and lubrication. (a) Engine cooling. Cool the engine during testing so its intake-air, oil, coolant, block,...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1147 Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist... nor more than 25 milligrams of silica mist, weighed as silica dust, per cubic meter of air. (d)...

  16. Lubrication handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    Information on lubricants from government reports, military specifications, qualified parts lists, and suppliers of commercial lubricants has been consolidated in one source. Handbook includes data on chemical and physical properties of solid, bonded solid, and liquid lubricants; dispersions and composites; and greases, oils, and hydraulic fluids.

  17. Elastocapillary mist collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Camille; Labbé, Romain; Rewakowicz, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are commonly used to collect droplets from an aerosol. In particular, woven textiles are used to harvest fresh water from fog, and coalescing filters made of non-woven entangled fibers are used to extract oil drops from gas streams. We propose a novel mist collector made of a forest of vertical flexible threads. As the droplets accumulate on the fibers, capillary bridges are formed, leading to the collapse of adjacent fibers thus forming liquid columns. This improve the liquid collection by preventing clogging, enabling high capture and precluding re-entrainment of drops in the gas stream due to the immediate coalescence of incoming droplets, and promoting fast drainage. We find that the collection flow rate is constant and can be adjusted by varying the fibers arrangement and flexibility. We show that there is an optimal situation for which this collection rate, i.e. the global efficiency, is maximal due to an elastocapillary coupling that we further characterize with a model experiment. Specifically, we study the drainage between two flexible fibers. Depending on the geometry and the fiber deformations, several flow regimes are observed. We characterize these regimes, and discuss the consequences on the drainage velocity, and thus the collection efficiency.

  18. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  19. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): MIST Facility Functional Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, T F; Koksal, C G; Moskal, T E; Rush, G C; Gloudemans, J R

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Functional Specification documents as-built design features, dimensions, instrumentation, and test approach. It also presents the scaling basis for the facility and serves to define the scope of work for the facility design and construction. 13 refs., 112 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  1. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  2. Emergency and microfog lubrication and cooling of bearings for Army helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once-through oil-mist (microfog) and coolant air system. A system was designed, manufactured, coupled with an existing rig and evaluation tests were performed using 46 mm bore split-inner angular-contact ball bearings under 1779N (400 lb.) thrust load. An emergency lubrication aspirator system was also manufactured and tested under lost lubricant conditions. The testing demonstrated the feasibility of using a mist oil and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed helicopter engine mainshaft bearing. The testing also demonstrated the feasibility of using an emergency aspirator lubrication system as a viable survivability concept for helicopter mainshaft engine bearing for periods as long as 30 minutes.

  3. Evaluation of antifriction bearing lubrication methods on motor life-cycle cost

    SciTech Connect

    Hodowanec, M.M.

    1999-12-01

    The number 1 cause of induction motor failures is bearing failure. Antifriction bearing failures most commonly are the consequences of inadequate lubrication. Antifriction motor bearings are found in four lubrication configurations: regreasable, sealed, oil mist, and oil lubricated. Bearings are oil lubricated when the operating conditions (i.e., bearing size, speed, thrust, etc.) require it. However, there is much debate about the best lubrication configuration, given a choice between regreasable, sealed, or oil-misted bearings. Within their own rights, all three methods have their advantages. Selection of the proper configuration is dependent upon many factors, such as motor size/type (i.e., bearing size/type), plant maintenance practice, bearing replacement availability/cost, duty cycle, environmental conditions, and downtime cost. This paper discusses the relationship between these factors and lubrication configuration, and presents an analysis of the subsequent impact on bearing life and system cost.

  4. Lubrication background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Surface topography, including the various physical methods of measuring surfaces, and the various lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, boundary, and mixed) are discussed. The historical development of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is outlined. The major accomplishments in four periods, the pre-1950's, the 1950's, the 1960's, and the 1970's are presented.

  5. Water Mist fire suppression experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002. This investigation will be flown as an Experimental Mounting Structure (EMS) insert into the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. (The investigation hardware is shown here mounted in a non-flight frame similar to the EMS.) Water Mist is a commercial research program by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, CO and Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. The program is focused on developing water mist as a replacement for bromine-based chemical fire suppression agents (halons). By conducting the experiments in microgravity, interference from convection currents is minimized and fundamental knowledge can be gained. This knowledge is incorporated into models, which can be used to simulate a variety of physical environments. The immediate objective of the project is to study the effect of a fine water mist on a laminar propagating flame generated in a propane-air mixture at various equivalence ratios. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the speed of the flame front is used as a measure of the effectiveness of fire suppression in this highly controlled experimental environment.

  6. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  7. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gloudemans, J.R. . Nuclear Power Div.)

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program is reported in 11 volumes. Volumes 2 through 8 pertain to groups of Phase 3 tests by type; Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons; Volume 10 provides comparisons between the RELAP5/MOD2 calculations and MIST observations, and Volume 11 (with addendum) presents the later Phase 4 tests. This is Volume 1 of the MIST final report, a summary of the entire MIST program. Major topics include, Test Advisory Group (TAG) issues, facility scaling and design, test matrix, observations, comparison of RELAP5 calculations to MIST observations, and MIST versus the TAG issues. MIST generated consistent integral-system data covering a wide range of transient interactions. MIST provided insight into integral system behavior and assisted the code effort. The MIST observations addressed each of the TAG issues. 11 refs., 29 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  9. Advanced Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Three Sun Coast Chemicals (SCC) of Daytona, Inc. products were derived from NASA technology: Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. NASA contractor Lockheed Martin Space Operations contacted SCC about joining forces to develop an environmentally safe spray lubricant for the Shuttle Crawler. The formula was developed over an eight-month period resulting in new products which are cost effective and environmentally friendly. Meeting all Environmental Protection Agency requirements, the SCC products are used for applications from train tracks to bicycle chains.

  10. Lubrication Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

  11. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  12. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  13. Electrostatic control of acid mist emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a two-phased study of the control of acid mist emissions using a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The goal of the study was to determine the degree of acid mist control that could be achieved when a compact WESP is used to replace or augment the mist eliminators in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Phase I of the study examined the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  14. Tethered Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Lynden

    2010-09-15

    We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

  15. Aviation Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

    Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

  16. Demystifying the selection of mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect

    Fabian, P.; Cusack, R.; Hennessey, P.; Neuman, M. )

    1993-11-01

    In any process where gases and liquids come in intimate contact, mists are generated by the entrainment of liquid droplets into the gas streams. The formation of such mists often results in process inefficiencies and product loss in evaporators, knockout drums, distillation columns, and environmental scrubbers. Besides, these mists can cause serious damage to rotating equipment. hence the need to know how best to remove the liquid droplets from a misty gas stream. Today, one can select from many classes of equipment, known as mist eliminators or entrainment separators, designed to remove the liquid droplets along with any solid particles from the gas stream. Before arriving at a selection, one must weigh several important factors: The sizes of droplets that the separator must remove; The pressure drop that can be tolerated in achieving the required level of mist removal; Susceptibility of the separator to plugging by solids, if solids are present; Liquid handling capability of the separator; Whether the mist eliminator can be installed inside existing equipment, or if it requires a stand alone vessel instead; The availability of the materials of construction that are compatible with the process; and Costs of the mists eliminator itself and other required vessels, piping, instrumentation, and utilities.

  17. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, G.O. . Nuclear Power Div. Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH . Research and Development Div.)

    1990-08-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility--the Once-Through Integral System (OTIS)--was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predication abnormal plant transients. The MIST Program is reported in 11 volumes. The program is summarized in Volume 1; Volumes 2 through 8 describes groups of tests by test type, Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons, Volume 10 provides comparisons between the calculations of RELAP5/MOD2 and MIST observations, and Volume 11 presents the later Phase 4 tests. This Volume 11 pertains to MIST Phase IV tests performed to investigate risk dominant transients and non-LOCA events. 12 refs., 229 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, G.O.

    1990-08-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once-Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Program is reported in 11 volumes. The program is summarized in Volume 1; Volumes 2 through 8 describes groups of tests by test type, Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons; Volume 10 provides comparisons between the calculations of RELAP5/MOD 2 and MIST observations, and Volume 11 presents the later Phase 4 tests. This Volume 11 addendum pertains to MIST natural circulation tests. 2 refs., 161 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  20. Liquid cryogenic lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1970-01-01

    Fluorinated polyethers are suitable lubricants for rolling-element bearings in cryogenic systems. Lubrication effectiveness is comparable to that of super-refined mineral oil lubricants operating at room temperature.

  1. Analysis of the mist lift process for mist flow open-cycle OTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R. L.

    1980-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a numerical analysis to study the open-cycle mist flow process for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Emphasis in the analysis is on the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow. The analysis is based on two one-dimensional models of the mist lift process: a single-group model describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and a multigroup model considers a spectrum of drop sizes. The single-group model predicts that the lift achieved in the mist lift process will be sensitive to the inlet parameters. Under conditions that lead to maximum lift in the model for a single drop size, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced performance. Because the growth of drops is important, sensitivity of the predicted performance of the mist lift to variations in the collision parameters has been studied.

  2. Engine Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

  3. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klingenfus, J.A.; Parece, M.V.

    1989-12-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) facility is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of- coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock Wilcox (B W) designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the B W Owners group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and B W. The unique features of the B W design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such a RELAP5/MOD2 and TRAC-PF1, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program included funding for seven individual RELAP pre- and post-test predictions. The comparisons against data and final conclusions are the subject of this volume of the MIST Final Report. 15 refs., 227 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. MIST (multiloop integral system test) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klingenfus, J.A.; Parece, M.V. . Engineering and Plant Services Div.)

    1990-04-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) facility is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of- coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock Wilcox (B W) designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the B W Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and B W. The unique features of the B W design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility --- the once-through integral system (OTIS) --- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5/MOD2 and TRAC-PF1, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program included funding for seven individual RELAP pre- and post-test predictions. The comparisons against data and final conclusions are the subject of this volume of the MIST Final Report. 15 refs., 227 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. The Water-Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist): Preliminary Results From The STS-107 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Amon, Francine; Gokoglu, Suleyman

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation has been conducted onboard the Space Shuttle to take advantage of the prolonged microgravity environment to study the effect of uniformly distributed clouds of polydisperse water mists on the speed and shape of propagating propane-air premixed flames. The suspension of a quiescent and uniform water mist cloud was confirmed during the microgravity tests. Preliminary results show good agreement with trends obtained by the numerical predictions of a computational model that uses a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation to simulate the two-phase, flame/mist interaction. Effective flame suppression is observed at progressively higher water loadings and smaller water droplet sizes. Other unusual flame behavior, such as flame front breakup and pulsating flames, is still under investigation. The promising results from the microgravity tests will be used to assess the feasibility of using water mists as fire suppressants on Earth and on spacecraft.

  6. Performance of industrial mist collectors over time.

    PubMed

    Boundy, M; Leith, D; Hands, D; Gressel, M; Burroughs, G E

    2000-12-01

    Effective, economical control of metalworking fluid mists at the source is important, because exposure to these mists may cause adverse health effects. This study investigated performance changes over time for industrial collectors that removed metalworking fluid mist in the laboratory and in a transmission plant. Aerosizers were used to measure the efficiency of each stage in several multistage collectors as a function of mist droplet diameter, for up to one year of continuous operation. Metal-mesh, first-stage filters operated at low pressure drops and were effective at removing droplets larger than 3 to 5 microns in diameter. Some second-stage filters worked better than others. Both "65 percent" and "95 percent" cartridge filters failed after only a few weeks; their efficiencies decreased substantially over that time. Pocket filters and cylindrical cartridges used as second-stage filters also decreased in efficiency for submicron droplets. Whereas filters for solid particles load continuously to form a dust cake that increases efficiency, mist filters form no cake and load only to the point where collection equals drainage. As a mist filter loads, the interstitial gas velocity increases, so that efficiency decreases for small droplets that collect by diffusion. Although a third-stage 95 percent DOP filter showed important decreases in efficiency over time for submicron droplets, third-stage HEPA filters operated with efficiencies that consistently approaches 100 percent for droplets of all sizes, even after one year of operation. These results suggest that the performance of second-stage filters can be improved if they can be made to drain collected liquid more effectively. For high efficiency, mist collectors should use a HEPA filter as a final stage. PMID:11141605

  7. Nano- and microstructure of air/oil/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Mata, Jitendra P; White, John W; Zank, Johann

    2009-04-01

    We report the creation of air/oil/water interfaces with variable-thickness oil films using polyisobutylene-based (PIB) surfactants cospread with long-chain paraffinic alkanes on clean water surfaces. The resultant stable oil layers are readily measurable with simple surface techniques, exhibit physical densities the same as expected for bulk oils, and are up to approximately 100 A thick above the water surface as determined using X-ray reflectometry. This provides a ready system for studying the competition of surfactants at the oil/water interface. Results from the competition of a nonionic polyamide surfactant or an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with the PIB surfactant are reported. However, this smooth oil layer does not account for the total volume of spread oil nor is the increase in thickness proportional to the film compression. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals surfactant and oil structures on the scale of 1 to 10 microm at the interface. At low surface pressure (pi < 24 mN m(-1)) large, approximately 10 microm inhomogeneities are observed. Beyond a phase transition observed at pi approximately = 24 mN m(-1), a structure with a spongy appearance and a microscale texture develops. These structures have implications for understanding the microstructure at the oil/water interface in emulsions. PMID:19714829

  8. Mist separation and sonochemiluminescence under pulsed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tuziuti, Toru

    2012-04-12

    Differences in the amount of water-mist separation and the intensity of luminol chemiluminescence for pulsed and continuous-wave (CW) ultrasound at 135 kHz have been investigated. The amount of mist generated is estimated using the cooling rate of a copper plate sprayed with the mist. For pulsed operation with an appropriate duty cycle, the cooling rate and the cooling rate per input power to the transducer are higher by 4 and 12 times compared to CW operation, respectively. This is due to the amplitude of the pulsed ultrasound being higher than that for CW ultrasound. Relatively low power pulsed operation can successfully produce both a higher sonochemiluminescence (SCL) intensity and cooling rate than those for CW ultrasound. The sonochemical reaction for pulsed ultrasound occurs at the same input power threshold as that for mist separation, whereas for CW ultrasound, the former threshold is lower than the latter. A higher number of large bubbles is produced with CW ultrasound than that with pulsed ultrasound. To achieve a sound pressure amplitude sufficient for mist separation near the surface of a liquid, it is necessary to expel these bubbles by changing the sound field from resonant standing waves to progressive waves that give rise to capillary waves on the liquid surface. PMID:22443489

  9. Multiscale analysis of liquid lubrication trends from industrial machines to micro-electrical-mechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Donald W; Irving, Douglas L; Kingon, Angus I; Krim, Jacqueline; Padgett, Clifford W

    2007-08-28

    An analytic multiscale expression is derived that yields conditions for effective liquid lubrication of oscillating contacts via surface flow over multiple time and length scales. The expression is a logistics function that depends on two quantities, the fraction of lubricant removed at each contact and a scaling parameter given by the logarithm of the ratio of the contact area to the product of the lubricant diffusion coefficient and the cycle time. For industrial machines the expression confirms the need for an oil mist. For magnetic disk drives, the expression predicts that existing lubricants are sufficient for next-generation data storage. For micro-electrical-mechanical systems, the expression predicts that a bound + mobile lubricant composed of tricresyl phosphate on an octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer will be effective only for temperatures greater than approximately 200 K and up to approximately MHz oscillation frequencies. PMID:17661501

  10. Lubrication with solids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

  11. Lifting the Mist on Gastric Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Varga, Julia; Greten, Florian R

    2016-01-01

    In a recent issue of Cancer Cell, Hayakawa et al. (2015) demonstrate that Mist1(+) gastric stem cells are supported by a specialized niche composed of Cxcl12(+) endothelium and Wnt5a-producing Cxcr4(+) innate lymphoid cells. In diffuse-type gastric cancer this perivascular stem cell niche is expanded and can be exploited for cancer therapy. PMID:26748749

  12. MISTING OF LOW VAPOR PRESSURE HALOCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a laboratory-scale study of the use of misting systems to provide total-flood fire protection with lower vapor pressure halocarbons. (NOTE: Several candidate Halon 1301 replacements with a low ozone-depletion potential have higher boiling points (usuall...

  13. Solid Lubricant For Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1993-01-01

    Outer layer of silver lubricates, while intermediate layer of titanium ensures adhesion. Lubricating outer films of silver deposited on thin intermediate films of titanium on alumina substrates found to reduce sliding friction and wear. Films provide effective lubrication for ceramic seals, bearings, and other hot sliding components in advanced high-temperature engines.

  14. Lubricant rheology applied to elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winer, W. O.; Sanborn, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    Viscosity measurements in a high pressure rheometer, elastohydrodynamic simulator studies (including the development of a temperature measuring technique), and analytical fluid modeling for elastohydrodynamic contacts are described. The more recent research which is described concerns infrared temperature measurements in elastohydrodynamic contacts and the exploration of the glassy state of lubricants. A correlation, of engineering significance, was made between transient surface temperature measurements and surface roughness profiles. Measurements of glass transitions of lubricants and the study of the effect of rate processes on materials lead to the conclusion that typical lubricants go into the glassy state as they pass through the contact region of typical elastohydrodynamic contacts.

  15. Occupational asthma due to oil mists.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A S; Weir, D C; Burge, P S

    1988-01-01

    Twenty five patients who were exposed to oil mists at their place of work were investigated for possible work related asthma. Serial peak expiratory flow recordings showed 13 to have definite work related asthma, seven equivocal work related asthma, and three asthma unrelated to work; two had normal recordings. Subjects with work related asthma often produced different patterns of peak flow response during the working week; patterns also varied between patients. Six of these patients had bronchial tests with oil from their place of work. Three had asthma induced by exposure to unused (clean) soluble oil and one reacted to used but not to clean oil. The challenge tests in the remaining two gave inconclusive results. It is concluded that occupational asthma due to oil mists is common, the peak flow response is heterogeneous, and the provoking agent within the oil may vary from worker to worker. PMID:3406905

  16. Comparing materials used in mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Baleno, B.; Boles, G.L.; Telow, J.

    2007-11-15

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or wet scrubbers, are notoriously capital - and maintenance-intensive. Mist eliminators are an integral part of most wet FGD systems. These are available in a variety of materials - polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced polymer (FRP), polysulfone and stainless steel. The article discusses the material properties, performance attributes and relative cost differences associated with each of these four materials. It describes the common problems with mist eliminators - fouling and corrosion. These can be minimised by routine cleaning and use of chemical additives to prevent deposition. An analysis was carried out to compare the four materials at APS Cholla power plant. As a result the facility is retrofitting its remaining wet scrubber towers in Unit 2 with mist eliminators constructed from polysulfone as each of the current ones of the existing polypropylene needs replacing. Polysulfone is cheaper to clean and components require replacing less frequently than polypropylene. Switching from stainless steel to polypropylene has proved advantageous on 22 wet scrubbers operated by PPL Montana. 5 figs. 2 tabs.

  17. Lubrication of Nitinol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Glennon, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Nitinol 60, 60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti (55 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Ti) are sufficiently attractive to warrant its consideration as a lubricated triboelement. Triboelements are always run lubricated. The ability to lubricate Nitinol 60 by the oils usually used on spacecraft mechanisms--Pennzane 2001A, Krytox 143AC and Castrol 815Z--was experimentally determined. These oils were run in the boundary lubrication regime for Nitinol 60 balls running against Nitinol 60 counterfaces in the vacuum spiral orbit tribometer. Test results consisting of the coefficient of friction versus time (friction traces) and relative degradation rates of the oils are presented. Contrary to the inability to successfully lubricate other metal alloys with high titanium content, it was found that Nitinol 60 is able to be lubricated by these oils. Overall, the results presented here indicate that Nitinol 60 is a credible candidate material for bearing applications.

  18. Boundary lubrication: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the various lubrication regimes, with particular, emphasis on boundary lubrication, is presented. The types of wear debris and extent of surface damage is illustrated for each regime. The role of boundary surface films along with their modes of formation and important physical properties are discussed. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters on friction and wear in the boundary lubrication regime are considered.

  19. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  20. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  1. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  2. Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

  3. Self-lubricating gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demorest, K. E.

    1969-01-01

    Self-lubricating gear, designed for long term operation in a vacuum at high, low, and ambient temperatures, is constructed of alternating layers of metal and a dry lubricant material, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, with a suitable reinforcing material bonded into a laminated composite unit, which is machined to form a standard gear.

  4. High temperature lubricating process

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.W.; Shell, T.E.

    1979-10-04

    It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, such as in an engine being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining the following steps: a gas phase is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant; the gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface; the load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant; and the solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  5. Sporting Good Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sun Coast Chemicals was originally contracted by Lockheed Martin Space Operations to formulate a spray lubricant free of environmental drawbacks for the Mobile Launch Platform used to haul the Space Shuttle from the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building to a launch pad. From this work, Sun Coast introduced Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. Based on the original lubricant work, two more products have also been introduced. First, the X-1R Super Gun Cleaner and Lubricant protects guns from rust and corrosion caused by environmental conditions. Second, the X-1R Tackle Pack, endorsed by both fresh and saltwater guides and certain reel manufacturers, penetrates, cleans, reduces friction, lubricates, and provides extra protection against rust and corrosion.

  6. Mist control at a machining center, Part 2: Mist control following installation of air cleaners.

    PubMed

    Yacher, J M; Heitbrink, W A; Burroughs, G E

    2000-01-01

    At a machining center used to produce transaxle and transmission parts, aerosol instrumentation was used to quantitatively evaluate size-dependent mist generation of a synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) consisting primarily of water and triethanolamine (TEA). This information was used to select an air cleaner for controlling the mist. During most machining operations, the MWF was flooded over the part. These machining operations were performed in a nearly complete enclosure that was exhausted to an air cleaner consisting of three sections: a fall-out chamber, a trifilter section to capture metal chips and mist, and a 1.13 m3/sec (2400 ft3/min) blower. The partnering company requested that National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers perform an evaluation of the effectiveness of a commercially available air cleaner. After NIOSH researchers characterized mist generation at the machining centers and found that performance of a test air cleaner appeared to be suitable, the company installed more than 25 air cleaners on different machining centers in this plant and enclosed the corresponding fluid filtration unit. The facility also has implemented a maintenance program for the air cleaners that involves regularly scheduled filter changes; performance is ensured by monitoring static pressure. A NIOSH-conducted air sampling evaluation showed that area TEA concentrations were reduced from a geometric mean of 0.25 to 0.03 mg/m3. Personal total particulate concentrations were reduced from a geometric mean of 0.22 to 0.06 mg/m3. These results show the effectiveness of this combination of enclosure, ventilation, and filtration to greatly reduce the exposure to MWF mist generated in modern machining centers. PMID:10782201

  7. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  8. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  9. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83...

  10. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to...

  11. 40 CFR 60.83 - Standard for acid mist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for acid mist. 60.83 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants § 60.83 Standard for acid mist. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to...

  12. Mitigation of TNT and Destex explosion effects using water mist.

    PubMed

    Willauer, Heather D; Ananth, Ramagopal; Farley, John P; Williams, Frederick W

    2009-06-15

    The effects water mist has on the overpressures produced by the detonation of 50 lb equivalent of high explosives (HE) TNT and Destex in a chamber is reported. The overpressures for each charge density were measured with and without mist preemptively sprayed into the space. A droplet analyzer was placed in the chamber prior to the detonation experiments to characterize the water mist used to mitigate the explosion overpressures. The impulse, initial blast wave, and quasi-static overpressure measured in the blast mitigation experiments were reduced by as much as 40%, 36%, 35% for TNT and 43%, 25%, 33% for Destex when water mist was sprayed 60s prior to detonation at a concentration of 70 g/m(3) and droplet Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) 54 microm. These results suggest that current water mist technology is a potentially promising concept for the mitigation of overpressure effects produced from the detonation of high explosives. PMID:19097694

  13. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  14. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  15. Environmentally friendly lubricating oil candidate.

    PubMed

    Ozgülsün, A; Karaosmanoğlu, F

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic lubricating oils based on renewable sources, excluding petroleum, have a great importance among all of the lubricating oil alternatives that are included in the research field about clean and environmentally friendly lubricating oil technologies. One of the environmentally friendly lubricating oils is a vegetable oil-based product. In this study, the esterification product of oleic acid with a fraction of molasses fusel oil as a lubricating oil candidate was determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard tests. The results indicate that the ester product can be used as an environmental friendly lubricating oil or lubricating oil additive. PMID:10399269

  16. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  17. Liquid lubrication in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  18. Origins of hydration lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

  19. Origins of hydration lubrication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication. PMID:25585501

  20. Solid lubrication design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, B. B.; Yonushonis, T. M.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A single element traction rig was used to measure the traction forces at the contact of a ball against a flat disc at room temperature under combined rolling and sliding. The load and speed conditions were selected to match those anticipated for bearing applications in adiabatic diesel engines. The test program showed that the magnitude of traction forces were almost the same for all the lubricants tested; a lubricant should, therefore, be selected on the basis of its ability to prevent wear of the contact surfaces. Traction vs. slide/roll ratio curves were similar to those for liquid lubricants but the traction forces were an order of magnitude higher. The test data was used to derive equations to predict traction force as a function of contact stress and rolling speed. Qualitative design guidelines for solid lubricated concentrated contacts are proposed.

  1. Controlling a rabbet load and air/oil seal temperatures in a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    During a standard fired shutdown of a turbine, a loaded rabbet joint between the fourth stage wheel and the aft shaft of the machine can become unloaded causing a gap to occur due to a thermal mismatch at the rabbet joint with the bearing blower turned on. An open or unloaded rabbet could cause the parts to move relative to each other and therefore cause the rotor to lose balance. If the bearing blower is turned off during a shutdown, the forward air/oil seal temperature may exceed maximum design practice criterion due to "soak-back." An air/oil seal temperature above the established maximum design limits could cause a bearing fire to occur, with catastrophic consequences to the machine. By controlling the bearing blower according to an optimized blower profile, the rabbet load can be maintained, and the air/oil seal temperature can be maintained below the established limits. A blower profile is determined according to a thermodynamic model of the system.

  2. Air/Oil Seals R and D at AlliedSignal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullah, M. Rifat

    2006-01-01

    AlliedSignal aerospace company is committed to significantly improving the reliabilities of air/oil seals in their gas turbine engines. One motivation for this is that aircraft cabin air quality can be affected by the performance of mainshaft air/oil seals. In the recent past, coking related failure modes have been the focus of air/oil seal R&D at AlliedSignal. Many significant advances have been made to combat coke related failures, with some more work continuing in this area. This years R&D begins to address other commin failure modes. Among them, carbon seal "blistering" has been a chronic problem facing the sealing industry for many decades. AlliedSignal has launched an aggressive effort this year to solve this problem for our aerospace rated carbon seals in a short (one to two year) timeframe. Work also continues in developing more user-friendly tools and data for seal analysis & design. Innovations in seal cooling continue. Nominally non-contacting hydropad sealing concept is being developed for aerospace applications. Finally, proprietary work is in planning stages for development of a seal with the aggressive aim of zero oil leakage.

  3. Lubrication and cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V; Dowson, D

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of lubrication of human synovial joints have been analysed in terms of the operating conditions of the joint, the synovial fluid and articular cartilage. In the hip and knee during a walking cycle the load may rise up to four times body weight. In the knee on dropping one metre the load may go up to 25 time body weight. The elastic modulus of cartilage is similar to that of the synthetic rubber of a car tyre. The cartilage surface is rough and in elderly specimens the centre line average is 2-75 mum. The friction force generated in reciprocating tests shows that both cartilage and synovial fluid are important in lubrication. The viscosity-shear rate relationships of normal synovial fluid show that it is non-Newtonian. Osteoarthrosic fluid is less so and rheumatoid fluid is more nearly Newtonian. Experiments with hip joints in a pendulum machine show that fluid film lubrication obtains at some phases of joint action. Boundary lubrication prevails under certain conditions and has been examined with a reciprocating friction machine. Digestion of hyaluronate does not alter the boundary lubrication, but trypsin digestion does. Surface active substances (lauryl sulphate and cetyl 3-ammonium bromide) give a lubricating ability similar to that of synovial fluid. The effectiveness of the two substances varies with pH. Images Fig. 10 PMID:3490

  4. Lubrication by glycoprotein brushes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappone, Bruno; Ruths, Marina; Greene, George W.; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2006-03-01

    Grafted polyelectrolyte brushes show excellent lubricating properties under water and have been proposed as a model to study boundary lubrication in biological system. Lubricin, a glycoprotein of the synovial fluid, is considered the major boundary lubricant of articular joints. Using the Surface Force Apparatus, we have measured normal and friction forces between model surfaces (negatively charged mica, positively charged poly-lysine and aminothiol, hydrophobic alkanethiol) bearing adsorbed layers of lubricin. Lubricin layers acts like a versatile anti-adhesive, adsorbing on all the surfaces considered and creating a repulsion similar to the force between end-grafted polymer brushes. Analogies with polymer brushes also appear from bridging experiment, where proteins molecules are end-adsorbed on two opposing surfaces at the same time. Lubricin `brushes' show good lubricating ability at low applied pressures (P<0.5MPa), especially on negatively charged surfaces like mica. At higher load, the adsorbed layers wears and fails lubricating the surfaces, while still protecting the underlying substrate from wearing. Lubricin might thus be a first example of biological polyelectrolytes providing `brush-like' lubrication and wear-protection.

  5. Methods to improve lubricity of fuels and lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2009-06-16

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  6. Lubrication of Space Systems (c)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the current state-of-the-art tribology, some current and future perceived space lubrication problem areas, and some potential new lubrication technologies. It is the author's opinion that tribology technology, in general, has not significantly advanced over the last 20 to 30 years, even though some incremental improvements in the technology have occurred. There is a better understanding of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, some new lubricating and wear theories have been developed, and some new liquid and solid lubricants have been formulated. However, the important problems of being able to lubricate reliably at high temperatures or at cryogenic temperatures have not been adequately address.

  7. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  8. Investigation of vapor-phase lubrication in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Treuren, K.W.; Barlow, D.N.; Heiser, W.H.; Wagner, M.J.; Forster, N.H.

    1998-04-01

    The liquid oil lubrication system of current aircraft jet engines accounts for approximately 10--15% of the total weight of the engine. It has long been a goal of the aircraft gas turbine industry to reduce this weight. Vapor-Phase Lubrication (VPL) is a promising technology to eliminate liquid oil lubrication. The current investigation resulted in the first gas turbine to operate in the absence of conventional liquid lubrication. A phosphate ester, commercially known as DURAD 620B, was chosen for the test. Extensive research at Wright Laboratory demonstrated that this lubricant could reliably lubricate rolling element bearings in the gas turbine engine environment. The Allison T63 engine was selected as the test vehicle because of its small size and bearing configuration. Specifically, VPL was evaluated in the number eight bearing because it is located in a relatively hot environment, in line with the combustor discharge, and it can be isolated from the other bearings and the liquid lubrication system. The bearing was fully instrumented and its performance with standard oil lubrication was documented. Results of this baseline study were used to develop a thermodynamic model to predict the bearing temperature with VPL. The engine was then operated at a ground idle condition with VPL with the lubricant misted into the No. 8 bearing at 13 ml/h. The bearing temperature stabilized at 283 C within 10 minutes. Engine operation was continued successfully for a total of one hour. No abnormal wear of the rolling contact surfaces was found when the bearing was later examined. Bearing temperatures after engine shutdown indicated the bearing had reached thermodynamic equilibrium with its surroundings during the test.

  9. MIUS Integration and Subsystem Test (MIST) data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pringle, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    A data system for use in testing integrated subsystems of a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) is presented. The MIUS integration and subsystem test (MIST) data system is reviewed from its conception through its checkout and operation as the controlling portion of the MIST facility. The MIST data system provides a real time monitoring and control function that allows for complete evaluation of the performance of the mechanical and electrical subsystems, as well as controls the operation of the various components of the system. In addition to the aforementioned capabilities, the MIST data system provides computerized control of test operations such that minimum manpower is necessary to set up, operate, and shut down subsystems during test periods.

  10. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment: MISTE science requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the MISTE (Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment) is to provide a stringent test of scaling theory predictions for critical behavior near a liquid-gas critical point both in the asymptomatic and crossover regions.

  11. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has ... do without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts ...

  12. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has lost ... without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts decided ...

  13. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Test Group 36, Pump operation

    SciTech Connect

    Gloudemans, J.R. . Nuclear Power Div.)

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP-5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. 7 refs., 321 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Control of acid mist emissions from FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    Improved control of acid mist emissions can be achieved by replacing or augmenting the conventional mist eliminators with a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). This paper describes a two-phased study performed to determine the degree of control that can be achieved with this approach. Phase I was a study of the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  15. Mist Ejection of Silicon Microparticle Using a Silicon Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshinori; Murakami, Takaaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa; Itoh, Toshihiro

    The novel mist-jet technology using a silicon nozzle and a silicon reflector has been developed. Ejection of water mist containing the silicon microparticles is demonstrated. Impurities of the silicon microparticles ejected on the substrate are analyzed. It has been verified for the first time that the contamination is reduced by the silicon head. The silicon pattern drawn by the head is successfully formed.

  16. Water Mist Experiment Team in the NASA KC-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Members of the Water Mist experiment team float in the NASA KC-135 low-g aircraft during preflight tests of the experiment. At center is J. Thomas McKirnon (principal investigator); at right is Angel Abbud-Madrid (co-PI and project scientist). They are with the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space at the Colorado School of Mines. Water Mist will investigate how best to extinguish flames by using ultrafine droplets of water.

  17. Computational Chemistry and Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

  18. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  19. Space Station lubrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

  20. Assurance of lubricant supply in wet-lubricated space bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassow, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    Conventional lubrication techniques appear to be satisfactory, but rigorous proof of meeting a ten-year life requirement is lacking. One approach provides additional lubricant only when commanded from ground control, while the other passively augments lubrication at all times. Each technique has specific advantages, and selection should be related to the application to obtain optimum performance.

  1. Magnetically-controlled bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed magnetic-lubricant ball-bearing assembly has permanently-magnetized bearing retainer fabricated of porous material. Pores of retainer are filled with ferrolubricant. Surface tension causes retainer to deliver sufficient lubricant to nonmagnetic ball bearings.

  2. High-temperature bearing lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1968-01-01

    Synthetic paraffinic oil lubricates ball bearings at temperatures in the 600 degrees F range. The lubricant contains antiwear and antifoam additives, is thermally stable in the high temperature range, but requires protection from oxygen.

  3. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  4. High-Temperature Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1980's, Lewis Research Center began a program to develop high-temperature lubricants for use on future aircraft flying at three or more times the speed of sound, which can result in vehicle skin temperatures as high as 1,600 degrees Fahrenheit. A material that emerged from this research is a plasma-sprayed, self-lubricating metal- glass-fluoride coating able to reduce oxidation at very high temperatures. Technology is now in commercial use under the trade name Surf-Kote C-800, marketed by Hohman Plating and Manufacturing Inc. and manufactured under a patent license from NASA. Among its uses are lubrication for sliding contact bearings, shaft seals for turbopumps, piston rings for high performance compressors and hot glass processing machinery; it is also widely used in missile and space applications.

  5. Basic lubrication equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Lubricants, usually Newtonian fluids, are assumed to experience laminar flow. The basic equations used to describe the flow are the Navier-Stokes equation of motion. The study of hydrodynamic lubrication is, from a mathematical standpoint, the application of a reduced form of these Navier-Stokes equations in association with the continuity equation. The Reynolds equation can also be derived from first principles, provided of course that the same basic assumptions are adopted in each case. Both methods are used in deriving the Reynolds equation, and the assumptions inherent in reducing the Navier-Stokes equations are specified. Because the Reynolds equation contains viscosity and density terms and these properties depend on temperature and pressure, it is often necessary to couple the Reynolds with energy equation. The lubricant properties and the energy equation are presented. Film thickness, a parameter of the Reynolds equation, is a function of the elastic behavior of the bearing surface. The governing elasticity equation is therefore presented.

  6. Inserts Automatically Lubricate Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Inserts on ball-separator ring of ball bearings provide continuous film of lubricant on ball surfaces. Inserts are machined or molded. Small inserts in ball pockets provide steady supply of lubricant. Technique is utilized on equipment for which maintenance is often poor and lubrication interval is uncertain, such as household appliances, automobiles, and marine engines.

  7. Environmental Capability of Liquid Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerbower, A.

    1973-01-01

    The methods available for predicting the properties of liquid lubricants from their structural formulas are discussed. The methods make it possible to design lubricants by forecasting the results of changing the structure and to determine the limits to which liquid lubricants can cope with environmental extremes. The methods are arranged in order of their thermodynamic properties through empirical physical properties to chemical properties.

  8. Anti-misting additives for jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grens, E. A., II; Williams, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The ignition characteristics of sprays, created by wind shear action, of Jet-A fuel containing polyisobutylene additives wee examined over ranges of air velocities from 45 to 90 m/s and of fuel/air mass ratios of 0.20 to 8.0. Ignition was by calibrated sparks of energies up to about 0.5 J and by a butane/oxygen flame at 165 J/s. The polymeric additives studied included the grades L80, L160, and L200 from Exxon Chemical and B200 and B230 from BASF. The ignition suppression ability of the additives, as well as their observed anti-misting (AM) behavior, ranked exactly as their molecular weights (viscosity average, M sub v) with 400-500 ppm of L80 (M sub v = 0.68 x 1,000,000) being required to suppress ignition of a spray at 51 m/s, 1.8 fuel/air mass ratio, by a 0.55 J spark while only 10 ppm of B230 (M sub v = 7.37 x 1,000,000) was required for the same conditions. The additive concentrations (L160) required for ignition suppression increased with increasing air velocity and with increasing fuel/air ratio.

  9. Instrumentation, control and data management for the MIST (Modular Integrated Utility System) Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celino, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    An appendix providing the technical data required for computerized control and/or monitoring of selected MIST subsystems is presented. Specific computerized functions to be performed are as follows: (1) Control of the MIST heating load simulator and monitoring of the diesel engine generators' cooling system; (2) Control of the MIST heating load simulator and MIST heating subsystem including the heating load simulator; and (3) Control of the MIST air conditioning load simulator subsystem and the MIST air conditioning subsystem, including cold thermal storage and condenser water flows.

  10. Self-lubricating gearset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binge, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Gearset fabricated from molybdenum sulfide filled polyimide allows attention-free operation in vacuum and at extreme temperatures. Ring gear drives pinion gear on shaft in skewed-axis arrangement. Because loads are shared among multiple meshing teeth, self-lubricating material is strong enough to accomodate high gear ratio.

  11. Estolides: biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estolides were originally developed as a cost effective derivative from vegetable oil sources to overcome the problems associated with standard vegetable oils as lubricants. Classic estolides are formed by the formation of a carbocation at the site of unsaturation that can undergo nucleophilic addi...

  12. A new solid lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

    1969-01-01

    Friction and wear life studies on burnished films of the compound graphite fluoride have demonstrated its potential as a solid lubricant material. It is effective in moist air, dry air, or in dry argon at temperatures up to approximately 400 degrees C.

  13. SURFACTANTS IN LUBRICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surfactants are one of the most widely applied materials by consumers and industry. The application areas for surfactants span from everyday mundane tasks such as cleaning, to highly complex processes involving the formulation of pharmaceuticals, foods, pesticides, lubricants, etc. Even though sur...

  14. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  15. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  16. Glass microsphere lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the

  17. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a supermarket mist machine.

    PubMed

    Barrabeig, I; Rovira, A; Garcia, M; Oliva, J M; Vilamala, A; Ferrer, M D; Sabrià, M; Domínguez, A

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected 12 customers of a supermarket in a town in Catalonia, Spain, between August and November 2006. An epidemiological and environmental investigation was undertaken. Preliminary investigation showed that all patients had visited the same supermarket in this town where a mist machine was found in the fish section. Water samples were collected from the machine and from the supermarket's water distribution system when high-risk samples were excluded. Environmental samples from the mist machine and clinical samples from two patients tested positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 and had the same molecular pattern. The PFGE pattern detected in the clinical and mist-machine isolates had never previously been identified in Catalonia prior to the outbreak and has not been identified since. Four days after turning off the machine, new cases ceased appearing. Molecular study supports the hypothesis that the mist machine from the fish section of the supermarket was the source of infection. We believe it is essential to include exposure to mist machines in any legionellosis epidemiological survey. PMID:20392306

  18. Velocity of mist droplets and suspending gas imaged separately.

    PubMed

    Kuethe, Dean O; McBride, Amber; Altobelli, Stephen A

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of the velocity of water droplets and velocity of the suspending gas, hexafluoroethane, are presented for a vertical and horizontal mist pipe flow. In the vertical flow, the upward velocity of the droplets is clearly slower than the upward velocity of the gas. The average droplet size calculated from the average falling velocity in the upward flow is larger than the average droplet size of mist drawn from the top of the pipe measured with a multi-stage aerosol impactor. Vertical flow concentrates larger particles because they have a longer transit time through the pipe. In the horizontal flow there is a gravity-driven circulation with high-velocity mist in the lower portion of the pipe and low-velocity gas in the upper portion. MRI has the advantages that it can image both phases and that it is unperturbed by optical opacity. A drawback is that the droplet phase of mist is difficult to image because of low average spin density and because the signal from water coalesced on the pipe walls is high. To our knowledge these are the first NMR images of mist. PMID:22361269

  19. Velocity of mist droplets and suspending gas imaged separately

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuethe, Dean O.; McBride, Amber; Altobelli, Stephen A.

    2012-03-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of the velocity of water droplets and velocity of the suspending gas, hexafluoroethane, are presented for a vertical and horizontal mist pipe flow. In the vertical flow, the upward velocity of the droplets is clearly slower than the upward velocity of the gas. The average droplet size calculated from the average falling velocity in the upward flow is larger than the average droplet size of mist drawn from the top of the pipe measured with a multi-stage aerosol impactor. Vertical flow concentrates larger particles because they have a longer transit time through the pipe. In the horizontal flow there is a gravity-driven circulation with high-velocity mist in the lower portion of the pipe and low-velocity gas in the upper portion. MRI has the advantages that it can image both phases and that it is unperturbed by optical opacity. A drawback is that the droplet phase of mist is difficult to image because of low average spin density and because the signal from water coalesced on the pipe walls is high. To our knowledge these are the first NMR images of mist.

  20. Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  1. Lubricity of military jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Liberio, P.D.; Garver, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    In 1954, a corrosion inhibitor additive was required in JP-4, a wide cut gasoline type aviation turbine fuel, to alleviate corrosion carry-over from ground fuel systems to aircraft. The additive was blamed for fuel filtration problems and removed from the JP-4 specification in 1965. Almost immediately, the U.S. Air Force started experiencing lubricity problems with fuel pumps and controllers. Fuel controller tests showed that when a corrosion inhibitor was added to the fuel, the lubricity problem was alleviated. The effectiveness of the corrosion inhibitor additives as lubricity improvers was then studied. A variety of test methods evolved for use in evaluating the effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor as a lubricity improver. In 1989, the ball-on-cylinder lubricity evaluator (BOCLE) test was added to MIL-I-25017, a military specification for fuel soluble corrosion inhibitor/lubricity improver, to determine lubricity effectiveness of the corrosion inhibitor additives. Since the revision of this specification, all corrosion inhibitor/lubricity improver additives on the qualified products list, QPL-25017, have been tested using the BOCLE. Due to aircraft engine redesign, MIL-T-25524, a thermally stable turbine fuel, recently required the addition of a lubricity additive. Concerns were raised to the effect that corrosion inhibitor/lubricity improver would have on the thermal stability of thermally stable turbine fuel. Recent jet fuel thermal oxidation tester and BOCLE evaluation of the additives in thermally stable turbine fuel addressed these concerns. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

    1988-01-01

    A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

  3. 30 CFR 72.701 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists. Respiratory equipment approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall... mists. When the exposure is for prolonged periods, other measures to protect such persons or to...

  4. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  10. Lubrication of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

  11. Shearing stability of lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

  12. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved. PMID:21430777

  13. 42 CFR 84.1140 - Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1140 Dust, fume, and mist respirators; performance...

  14. Mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A.; Gentle, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    The causes for breakdown in the lubricant film of mineral oils are discussed. It is stated that the critical point is caused by desorption of the naturally occurring surface active agent and can be described by thermodynamic analysis. The effect of different metals in lubrication is surveyed. The problem of breakdown in elastohydrodynamic lubrication is treated phenomenologically by studying traction. The topics considered are classical and non-Newtonian explanations, anomalous film thickness and viscosity effects, surface roughness contributions, and solidification of the lubricant. Reasons for the apparent granular traction characteristics are examined.

  15. Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

  16. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  17. Effective modification of particle surface properties using ultrasonic water mist.

    PubMed

    Genina, Natalja; Räikkönen, Heikki; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Antikainen, Osmo; Siiriä, Simo; Veski, Peep; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to design a new technique to modify particle surface properties and, through that, to improve flowability of poorly flowing drug thiamine hydrochloride and pharmaceutical sugar lactose monohydrate of two different grades. The powdered particles were supplied by a vibratory feeder and exposed to an instantaneous effect of water mist generated from an ultrasound nebulizer. The processed and original powders were evaluated with respect to morphology (scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spatial filtering technique), flow, and solid state properties. It was found that rapid exposition of pharmaceutical materials by water mist resulted in the improvement of powder technical properties. The evident changes in flowability of coarser lactose were obviously due to smoothing of particle surface and decreasing in the level of fines with very slight increment in particle size. The changes in thiamine powder flow were mainly due to narrowing in particle size distribution where the tendency for better flow of finer lactose was related to surface and size modifications. The aqueous mist application did not cause any alteration of the crystal structures of the studied materials. The proposed water mist treatment technique appears to be a robust, rapid, and promising tool for the improvement of the technological properties of pharmaceutical powders. PMID:19288203

  18. Mist/steam cooling in a 180{degree} tube bend

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental study on mist/steam cooling in a highly heated, horizontal 180{degree} tube bend has been performed. The mist/steam mixture is obtained by blending fine water droplets (3{approximately}15 microns) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bar. The test section consists of a thin wall ({approximately}0.9 mm), welded, circular, stainless steel 180-degree tube (20 mm ID) with a straight section downstream of the curved section, and is heated directly by a DC power supply. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet to steam mass ratio at about 2%. The results show that the heat transfer performance of steam can be significantly improved by adding mist into the main flow. Due to the effect of centrifugal force, the outer wall of the test section always exhibits a higher heat transfer enhancement than the inner wall. The highest enhancement occurs at a location on the outer wall about 45{degree} downstream of the inlet of the test section. Generally, only a small number of droplets can survive the 180{degree} turn and be present in the downstream straight section, as observed by a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) system. The overall cooling enhancement of the mist/steam flow ranges from 40% to 300%. It increases as the main steam flow increases, but decreases as the wall heat flux increases.

  19. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L

    2014-08-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology. PMID:25093147

  20. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Siljander, Breana R.; Wang, Anthony C.; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J.; Sullivan, Stephen E.; Tai, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology. PMID:25093147

  1. Mist Formation in Heat Exchanger of Air-Conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Isao; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Shibata, Yutaka

    The mist formation is found occasionally at the outlet of the air-conditioner, especially in the high temperature and high humidity environment. When the condensation takes place, a certain degree of the super-saturation is needed. Some researchers introduced the critical saturation model1-3) into the condensation process concerning with the super-saturation. However, under the ordinary environmental conditions where air-conditioners are installed, there are many nuclei for the phase change such as dusts in the humid air. They may offer the trigger to condense; that is to form the mist. In this research, with taking into account the super-saturation depending on the diameter of foreign nucleus, the mist formation is numerically predicted by solving boundary layer equations for the cold parallel plate channel simulating the heat exchanger of air-conditioner with the slit fins. The effects of the humidity and channel dimension on the mist formation rate and on heat and mass transfer are investigated. In addition, the numerical results are compared with those for the plate channel reported previously.

  2. KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

  3. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  4. Engine sealing and lubrication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1975-01-01

    Engine sealing programs are discussed which are directed toward the two major classes of engine seals: engine shaft seals and primary gas path seals. In addition, some concepts and results from fundamental lubrication research, as it pertains to the lubrication of bearings, are presented.

  5. Air-Lubricated Lead Screw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Air lubricated lead screw and nut carefully machined to have closely matched closely fitting threads. Compressed air injected into two plenums encircle nut and flow through orifices to lubricate mating threads. Originally developed to position precisely interferometer retroreflector for airborne measurement of solar infrared radiation, device now has positioning accuracy of 0.25 micron.

  6. Evaluating Solid-Lubricant Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes experimental techniques for measuring properties of solid-lubricant films. Discusses experimental parameters. Reviews basic pin-on-disk configurations and methods of preparing disks and applying solid lubricants. Techniques for constant-temperature testing, low-contact-stress testing, and temperature-versus-time testing presented. Suggests methods of measuring pin-wear volume and recommends ways of presenting data.

  7. Lubricant Coating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    "Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

  8. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The isothermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) of a point contact was analyzed numerically by simultaneously solving the elasticity and Reynolds equations. In the elasticity analysis the contact zone was divided into equal rectangular areas, and it was assumed that a uniform pressure was applied over each area. In the numerical analysis of the Reynolds equation, a phi analysis (where phi is equal to the pressure times the film thickness to the 3/2 power) was used to help the relaxation process. The EHL point contact analysis is applicable for the entire range of elliptical parameters and is valid for any combination of rolling and sliding within the contact.

  9. Succinimide lubricating oil dispersant

    SciTech Connect

    Wisotsky, M.J.; Bloch, R.; Brownwell, D.W.; Chen, F.J.; Gutierrez, A.

    1987-08-11

    A lubricating oil composition is described exhibiting improved dispersancy in both gasoline and diesel engines comprising a major amount of lubricating oil and 0.5 to 10 weight percent of a dispersant, the dispersant being prepared in a sequential process comprising the steps of: (a) in a first step reacting an oil-soluble polyolefin succinic anhydride, the olefin being a C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ olefin and an alkylene polyamine of the formula H/sub 2/N(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/(NH(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/)/sub m/sup -// NH/sub 2/ wherein n is 2 or 3 and m is 0 to 10, in a molar ratio of about 1.0 to 2.2 moles of polyolefin succinic anhydride per mole of polyamine, and (b) reacting the product of step (a) with dicarboxylic acid anhydride selected from the group consisting of maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride in sufficient molar proportions to provide a total mole ratio of about 2,3 to 3.0 moles of anhydride compounds per mole of polyamine.

  10. 7 CFR 2902.46 - Forming lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Forming lubricants. 2902.46 Section 2902.46... Items § 2902.46 Forming lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication during... forming lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.46 - Forming lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Forming lubricants. 3201.46 Section 3201.46... Designated Items § 3201.46 Forming lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication... preference for qualifying biobased forming lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.46 - Forming lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Forming lubricants. 3201.46 Section 3201.46... Designated Items § 3201.46 Forming lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication... preference for qualifying biobased forming lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.46 - Forming lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forming lubricants. 3201.46 Section 3201.46... Designated Items § 3201.46 Forming lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication... preference for qualifying biobased forming lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have...

  14. Potentiometer, constant tension and lubrication device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Wiper assembly is described for feedback potentiometers which provides self cleaning, self lubrication, and tension within controlled limits. Each end of the assembly contains loose fitting leather pad thoroughly soaked in wiper lubricating fluid. Cleaning and lubrication of potentiometer resulting from use of lubrication soaked leather accomplishes noise free operation.

  15. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  16. Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, P. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

  17. Lubricant Rheology in Concentrated Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, B. O.

    1984-01-01

    Lubricant behavior in highly stressed situtations shows that a Newtonian model for lubricant rheology is insufficient for explanation of traction behavior. The oil film build up is predicted by using a Newtonian lubricant model except at high slide to roll ratios and at very high loads, where the nonNewtonian behavior starts to be important already outside the Hertzian contact area. Static and dynamic experiments are reported. In static experiments the pressure is applied to the lubricant more than a million times longer than in an EHD contact. Depending on the pressure-temperature history of the experiment the lubricant will become a crystallized or amorphous solid at high pressures. In dynamic experiments, the oil is in an amorphous solid state. Depending on the viscosity, time scale, elasticity of the oil and the bearing surfaces, the oil film pressure, shear strain rate and the type of lubricant, different properties of the oil are important for prediction of shear stresses in the oil. The different proposed models for the lubricant, which describe it to a Newtonian liquid, an elastic liquid, a plastic liquid and an elastic-plastic solid.

  18. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (ΔP(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions. PMID:25528229

  19. Corrosion inhibition by control of gas composition during mist drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Snyder, T.L.

    1981-05-01

    Chemical compositional specifications have been generated for inert gases which reduce drill string corrosion when used in conjunction with mist drilling processes. These specifications are based on the assumption that the corrosion rate is dependent on the dissolved gaseous species concentrations. Data taken both from the literature and from a mist drilling field test with nitrogen in Valle Grande, NM, relate corrosion rates to fluid compositions. These solution compositions are then associated with gas phase compositions using equilibrium data available from the literature and material balances. Two sources of gas were considered: cryogenically purified nitrogen from air and exhaust gas from a diesel engine, which contain (in addition to N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/) CO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and CO. A maximum concentration of 50 ppM O/sub 2/ in the gas phase is recommended to alleviate pitting corrosion.

  20. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  1. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications description of the adhesion, friction, abrasion, and wear behavior of solid film lubricants and related tribological materials, including diamond and diamond-like solid films. The book details the properties of solid surfaces, clean surfaces, and contaminated surfaces as well as discussing the structures and mechanical properties of natural and synthetic diamonds; chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film; surface design and engineering toward wear-resistant, self-lubricating diamond films and coatings. The author provides selection and design criteria as well as applications for synthetic and natural coatings in the commercial, industrial and aerospace industries..

  2. Automotive Lubricant Specification and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, M. F.

    This chapter concerns commercial lubricant specification and testing, drawing together the many themes of previous chapters. Military lubricant standards were a very strong initial influence during World War II and led to the separate historical development of the North American and European specification systems. The wide range of functions that a successful lubricant must satisfy is discussed, together with issues of balancing special or universal applications, single or multiple engine tests, the philosophy of accelerated testing and the question of 'who sets the standards?' The role of engine tests and testing organisations is examined.

  3. Lubricant effects on bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1986-01-01

    Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

  4. Investigations of lubricant rheology as applied to elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, S.; Turchina, V.; Jakobsen, J.; Sanborn, D. M.; Winer, W. O.

    1973-01-01

    The pressure viscometer was modified to permit the measurement of viscosity at elevated pressures and shear stresses up to 5 x 10 to the 6th power N/sq m (720 psi). This shear stress is within a factor of three of the shear stress occurring in a sliding ehd point contact such as occurs in the ehd simulator. Viscosity data were taken on five lubricant samples, and it was found that viscous heating effects on the viscosity were predominant and not non-Newtonian behavior at the high shear stresses. The development of the infrared temperature measuring technique for the ehd simulator was completed, and temperature data for a set of operating conditions and one lubricant are reported. The numerical analysis of the behavior of nonlinear lubricants in the lubrication of rollers is reported.

  5. Sampling Odor Substances by Mist-Cyclone System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Osamu; Jiang, Zhiheng; Toyama, Shigeki

    2009-05-01

    Many techniques have been developed to measure odor substances. However most of those methods are based on using aquatic solutions(1),(2). Many odor substances specifically at low density situation, are difficult to dissolve into water. To absorb odor substances and obtain highest concentration solutions are key problems for olfactory systems. By blowing odor substances contained air mixture through mist of water and then separating the liquid from two-phases fluid with a cyclone unit a high concentration solution was obtained.

  6. Piezoviscosity In Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Hamrock, Bernard J.; Brewe, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Developments in theory of lubrication. Analysis of piezoviscous-rigid regime of lubrication of two ellipsoidal contacts. Begins with Reynolds equation for point contact. Equation nondimensionalized using Roelands empirical formula and Dowson and Higginson formula. Equation solved numerically. Solutions obtained for full spectrum of conditions to find effects of dimensionless load, speed, parameters of lubricated and lubricating materials, and angle between direction of rolling and direction of entrainment of lubricant.

  7. Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holinski, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

  8. A Proposal for a Mist Cooling Control and Measurement Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Craig; Nakao, Masaki; Nishioka, Masatoshi; Nabeshima, Minako; Mizuno, Takeo

    Fine water mist sprays with average droplet diameters around 20 microns are being increasingly used as an energy-efficient means of cooling outdoor and semi-enclosed spaces such as rail platforms and shopping arcades. At high relative humidity there is a higher risk of wetting people and the ground beneath mist nozzles. Automated control systems are often set to run above a set dry bulb temperature and below a set relative humidity. Experiments show that mist evaporation rates before reaching the ground are closely related to the difference between the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures, here labeled ΔTWB. Changing the operating parameters to include a minimum ΔTWB can allow use at higher relative humidity levels. If a common 28°C, 70% condition is sufficient to prevent floor-wetting, then a condition of 28°C with a ΔTWB > 4.3K should still prevent floor-wetting. This would allow operation at 75% relative humidity near 39°C.

  9. Aviation-fuel lubricity evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Fuel-system components have experienced problems with the slipperiness or lubricity of the fuel back to the early 1960's. As a consequence of the level of refinement necessary for the PWA 523 fuel (now designated MIL-T-38219 grade JP-7) to obtain its high-temperature stability, many of the polar compounds contributing to lubricity had been removed, resulting in abnormal hydraulic fuel-pump wear. A lubricity-enhancing compound was developed (PWA 536) to eliminate the wear problem. High-pressure piston-type fuel pumps were one of the first parts of the engine fuel system to exhibit problems related to fuel properties. One early problem manifested itself as corrosion of silver-plated slipper pads and was related to carryover of residual-chlorides fuel. Fuel controls were another part of the engine fuel system susceptible to fuel properties. Lack of lubricity agents caused fuel control sliding servo valves to stick.

  10. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Ebru; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (∼4,000–130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold–graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions. PMID:27350035

  11. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of smooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Fully flooded, elastohydrodynamically lubricated contacts are considered. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis requires the simultaneous solution of the elastically, viscosity, density, and Reynolds equations. The most important practical aspect of elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory is the determination of the minimum film thickness within the conjunction. The maintenance of a fluid film of adequate magnitude is an essential feature of the correct operation of lubricated machine elements. The results show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the ellipticity parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. Film thickness equations are developed for materials of high elastic modulus, such as metal, and for materials of low elastic modulus, such as rubber.

  12. Calculation of fire extinguishment time with water mist in an enclosed room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenyu

    2010-12-01

    The fire extinguishment time is a major factor to evaluate the efficiency of fire extinguishment with water mist. In this paper the fire extinguishment time with water mist in an enclosed room is calculated. Before adding water mist, the chemical kinetics plays the role in combustion, where a dimensionless math model is established by using the Semenov theory. After adding water mist, the diffusion plays the role instead. Then another math model containing water mist and dominated by oxygen concentration is established. The fire temperature is integrated from Tm to extinguishment temperature TB and the extinguishment time can be obtained. The calculated values are compared with the experimental data under different conditions. The results show that this model can predict the fire extinguishment time accurately. Besides, this model also can be used to determine the critical water mist flux and evaluate which fire extinguishment mechanisms dominate the extinguishment.

  13. The difference of detecting water mist and smoke by electromagnetic wave in simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Cui, Bing; Xiao, Si

    2015-10-01

    Although mist is similar to smoke in morphology, their compositions are very different. Therefore there is a significant difference between mist and smoke when detected by electromagnetic wave. This paper puts forward a kind of feasible solution based on Ansoft HFSS software about how to determine the forest fire by distinguishing mist and smoke above the forest. The experiments simulate the difference between mist and smoke model when detected by electromagnetic wave in different wavelengths. We find the mist and smoke model cannot absorb or reflect electromagnetic wave efficiently in Megahertz band. While in Gigahertz band mist model began to absorb and reflect electromagnetic wave above 650 Gigahertz band, but no change in smoke model. And the biggest difference appears in Terahertz band.

  14. The Fluid Dynamics of Secondary Cooling Air-Mist Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández C., I.; Acosta G., F. A.; Castillejos E., A. H.; Minchaca M., J. I.

    2008-10-01

    For the conditions of thin-slab continuous casting, air-mist secondary cooling occurs in the transition-boiling regime, possibly as a result of an enhanced intermittent contact of high- momentum water drops with the hot metallic surface. The dynamics of the intermittent contact or wetting/dewetting process should be primarily dependent on the drop size, drop impact-velocity and -angle and water-impact flux, which results from the nozzle design and the interaction of the drops with the conveying and entrained air stream. The aim of this article was to develop a model for predicting the last three parameters based on the design and operating characteristics of air-mist nozzles and on experimentally determined drop-size distributions. To do this, the Eulerian fluid-flow field of the air in three dimensions and steady state and the Lagrangian velocities and trajectories of water drops were computed by solving the turbulent Navier Stokes equation for the air coupled to the motion equation for the water drops. In setting this model, it was particularly important to specify appropriately the air-velocity profile at the nozzle orifice, as well as, the water-flux distribution, and the velocities (magnitude and angle) and exit positions of drops with the different sizes generated, hence special attention was given to these aspects. The computed drop velocities, water-impact flux distributions, and air-mist impact-pressure fields compared well with detailed laboratory measurements carried out at ambient temperature. The results indicate that under practical nozzle-operating conditions, the impinging-droplet Weber numbers are high, over most of the water footprint, suggesting that the droplets should establish an intimate contact with the solid surface. However, the associated high mean-droplet fluxes hint that this contact may be obstructed by drop interference at the surface, which would undermine the heat-extraction effectiveness of the impinging mist. The model also points

  15. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Dugger, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  16. Equations For Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Of Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1993-01-01

    Equation for thickness of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubricant film in rolling-element bearing reduced to simplified form involving only inside and outside diameters of bearing, speed of rotation, parameter related to type of lubricant, and viscosity of lubricant at temperature of bearing. In addition, experimentally derived graph of EHD-film-thickness-reduction factor as function of contact-lubricant-flow number. Accounts for lubricant starvation within Hertzian contact. Graph relating ratio of minimum film thickness to composite roughness of bearing surfaces and to lubrication-life correction factor also provided. Life-correction factor used to determine resultant life of bearing.

  17. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications: Introduction and Background. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction and historical background to the field of tribology, especially solid lubrication and lubricants and sets them in the perspective of techniques and materials in lubrication. Also, solid and liquid lubrication films are defined and described.

  18. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 1; Introduction and Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction and historical background to the field of tribology, especially solid lubrication and lubricants and sets them in the perspective of techniques and materials in lubrication. Also, solid and liquid lubrication films are defined and described.

  19. Tribological Behavior of Aqueous Copolymer Lubricant in Mixed Lubrication Regime.

    PubMed

    Ta, Thi D; Tieu, A Kiet; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Qiang; Kosasih, Prabouno B; Zhang, Jie; Deng, Guanyu

    2016-03-01

    Although a number of experiments have been attempted to investigate the lubrication of aqueous copolymer lubricant, which is applied widely in metalworking operations, a comprehensive theoretical investigation at atomistic level is still lacking. This study addresses the influence of loading pressure and copolymer concentration on the structural properties and tribological performance of aqueous copolymer solution of poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PPO-PEO-PPO) at mixed lubrication using a molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. An effective interfacial potential, which has been derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, was employed for the interactions between the fluid's molecules and iron surface. The simulation results have indicated that the triblock copolymer is physisorption on iron surface. Under confinement by iron surfaces, the copolymer molecules form lamellar structure in aqueous solution and behave differently from its bulk state. The lubrication performance of aqueous copolymer lubricant increases with concentration, but the friction reduction is insignificant at high loading pressure. Additionally, the plastic deformation of asperity is dependent on both copolymer concentration and loading pressure, and the wear behavior shows a linear dependence of friction force on the number of transferred atoms between contacting asperities. PMID:26828119

  20. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOEpatents

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  1. Fine-Water-Mist Multiple-Orientation-Discharge Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butz, James R.; Turchi, Craig S.; Kimball, Amanda; McKinnon, Thomas; Riedel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    A fine-water-mist fire-suppression device has been designed so that it can be discharged uniformly in any orientation via a high-pressure gas propellant. Standard fire extinguishers used while slightly tilted or on their side will not discharge all of their contents. Thanks to the new design, this extinguisher can be used in multiple environments such as aboard low-gravity spacecraft, airplanes, and aboard vehicles that may become overturned prior to or during a fire emergency. Research in recent years has shown that fine water mist can be an effective alternative to Halons now banned from manufacture. Currently, NASA uses carbon dioxide for fire suppression on the International Space Station (ISS) and Halon chemical extinguishers on the space shuttle. While each of these agents is effective, they have drawbacks. The toxicity of carbon dioxide requires that the crew don breathing apparatus when the extinguishers are deployed on the ISS, and Halon use in future spacecraft has been eliminated because of international protocols on substances that destroy atmospheric ozone. A major advantage to the new system on occupied spacecraft is that the discharged system is locally rechargeable. Since the only fluids used are water and nitrogen, the system can be recharged from stores of both carried aboard the ISS or spacecraft. The only support requirement would be a pump to fill the water and a compressor to pressurize the nitrogen propellant gas. This system uses a gaseous agent to pressurize the storage container as well as to assist in the generation of the fine water mist. The portable fire extinguisher hardware works like a standard fire extinguisher with a single storage container for the agents (water and nitrogen), a control valve assembly for manual actuation, and a discharge nozzle. The design implemented in the proof-of-concept experiment successfully extinguished both open fires and fires in baffled enclosures.

  2. Spectroscopic Analysis of Perfluoropolyether Lubricant Degradation During Boundary Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The degradation of a branched perfluoropolyether (PFPE) under boundary lubrication conditions was studied using mu-FTIR and mu-Raman spectroscopies. Stainless steel (440C) discs coated with thin (600A), uniform films of the PFPE were tested in a ball-on-disc apparatus until various levels of friction coefficient were attained. Discs were then examined using the above techniques. When the friction coefficient surpassed the value obtained with an un-lubricated control, the lubricant film had either been physically displaced or partially transformed in to a 'friction polymer'. Infrared analysis of this 'friction polymer' indicated the presence of a polymeric fluorinated acid species (R(sub f)COOH). Raman spectroscopy indicated the presence of amorphous carbon in the wear track and in the friction polymer. Some reaction mechanisms are suggested to explain the results.

  3. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system. PMID:14518575

  4. Evolution of the Mobile Information SysTem (MIST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Archer, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The Mobile Information SysTem (MIST) had its origins in the need to determine whether commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies could improve intervehicular activities (IVA) on International Space Station (ISS) crew maintenance productivity. It began with an exploration of head mounted displays (HMDs), but quickly evolved to include voice recognition, mobile personal computing, and data collection. The unique characteristic of the MIST lies within its mobility, in which a vest is worn that contains a mini-computer and supporting equipment, and a headband with attachments for a HMD, lipstick camera, and microphone. Data is then captured directly by the computer running Morae(TM) or similar software for analysis. To date, the MIST system has been tested in numerous environments such as two parabolic flights on NASA's C-9 microgravity aircraft and several mockup facilities ranging from ISS to the Altair Lunar Sortie Lander. Functional capabilities have included its lightweight and compact design, commonality across systems and environments, and usefulness in remote collaboration. Human Factors evaluations of the system have proven the MIST's ability to be worn for long durations of time (approximately four continuous hours) with no adverse physical deficits, moderate operator compensation, and low workload being reported as measured by Corlett Bishop Discomfort Scale, Cooper-Harper Ratings, and the NASA Total Workload Index (TLX), respectively. Additionally, through development of the system, it has spawned several new applications useful in research. For example, by only employing the lipstick camera, microphone, and a compact digital video recorder (DVR), we created a portable, lightweight data collection device. Video is recorded from the participants point of view (POV) through the use of the camera mounted on the side of the head. Both the video and audio is recorded directly into the DVR located on a belt around the waist. This data is then transferred to

  5. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  6. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  7. Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

  8. 14 CFR 33.39 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operate. In wet sump engines, this requirement must be met when only one-half of the maximum lubricant... allow installing a means of cooling the lubricant. (c) The crankcase must be vented to the atmosphere...

  9. 14 CFR 33.39 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operate. In wet sump engines, this requirement must be met when only one-half of the maximum lubricant... allow installing a means of cooling the lubricant. (c) The crankcase must be vented to the atmosphere...

  10. 14 CFR 33.39 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operate. In wet sump engines, this requirement must be met when only one-half of the maximum lubricant... allow installing a means of cooling the lubricant. (c) The crankcase must be vented to the atmosphere...

  11. 14 CFR 33.39 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate. In wet sump engines, this requirement must be met when only one-half of the maximum lubricant... allow installing a means of cooling the lubricant. (c) The crankcase must be vented to the atmosphere...

  12. Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants

    DOEpatents

    Ohi, James; De La Cruz, Jose L.; Lacey, Paul I.

    2006-01-03

    A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.

  13. Metalworking corrosion inhibition/drawing lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, H.F.; Wantling, S.J.

    1980-05-06

    A metalworking lubricant composition is disclosed which is effective as both a corrosion inhibitor and drawing lubricant and comprises a mineral oil and an additive combination of barium lanolate soap and barium sulfonate.

  14. 42 CFR 84.1149 - Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and mist... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1149 Airflow resistance tests; all dust, fume, and...

  15. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Temple, Patrick J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ozone and acid-mist exposures on the leaf chemistry of Jeffrey pine and giant sequoia seedlings grown in filtered-air greenhouses were investigated. Acid-mist treatments (pH 4.1, 3.4, 2.7, or 2.0) were administered for 3 h, and ozone exposures (0, 0.10, and 0.20 microliter/liter), which followed acid-mist treatments, for 4 h, each for three days a week for six to nine weeks. It was found that seedlings were more susceptible to acid-mist and acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone. Acid mist treatment resulted in higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur (both present in acid mist) as well as Na. Leaves of giant sequoia exhibited increased K and decreased Mn, while Jeffrey pine showed increases in Fe and Mn. In sequoia leaves, concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Ba decreased. Acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in both conifer species. Extensive changes induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of changes in spectral reflectance of conifer seedlings observed after three weeks of fumigation.

  16. Treating Self-Injury: Water Mist Spray versus Facial Screening or Forced Arm Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In three single-subject experiments with three profoundly retarded adolescent females, the effect of water mist spray on self-injurious and collateral behaviors was compared with either facial screening or forced arm exercise. Results suggested that while water mist spray is effective, it may be less so than alternative procedures. (Author/JW)

  17. RESPIRABLE PARTICLES AND MISTS IN MOUSE PULMONARY INFECTIVITY MODEL. EFFECT OF CHRONIC OR INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of respirable-sized sulfuric acid mist or mixtures containing acid mist and carbon particles (A-C) on the susceptibility to bacterial and viral respiratory infection were studied in mice and hamsters. Both species showed mortalities upon single 3-hour exposure to 600 ...

  18. Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior Using a Water Mist: Initial Response Suppression and Generalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Michael F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of a fine mist of water applied to the face contingent upon self-injurious behavior (SIB) exhibited by profoundly retarded persons. Results indicated that the water mist procedure may be an effective alternative to traditional punishment techniques. (Author)

  19. Water Misting: Treating Self-Injurious Behavior in a Multiply Handicapped, Visually Impaired Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, A.; Beckwith, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    A water mist was employed as a punisher to reduce head hitting in a 10-year-old multiply handicapped, visually impaired child. Results indicated that water mist alone was effective in reducing the frequency of head hits during meals, but other situations required the addition of primary reinforcers, stimulus control, or both. (Author/JDD)

  20. Lubricants and Their Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betton, C. I.

    Environmental considerations have increased in importance in the last two decades and lubricants are part of that. The REACH Regulations apply to the components of lubricants. About 50% of a lubricant can be reclaimed using refining processes ranging from acid/clay treatment through to distillation/hydrogenation to produce up to Gp. II quality re-refined base oils. The major possible contaminants are the PAHs, which are effectively removed by optimised distillation/hydrogenation, metals, remnants of VI improvers, water and untreated acids. Sulphur contents of these base oils must be viewed differently from those of virgin mineral base oils. Certain PAHs are recognised carcinogens and pose a health and safety risk and must be controlled. The use of re-refined base oils is driven by the concept of 'sustainability', to minimise pollution and maximise the use of resources.

  1. Tethered Lubricants for Small Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lynden A. Archer

    2006-01-09

    The objective of this research project is two-fold. First, to fundamentally understand friction and relaxation dynamics of polymer chains near surfaces; and second, to develop novel self-lubricated substrates suitable for MEMS devices. During the three-year performance period of this study the PI and his students have shown using theory and experiments that systematic introduction of disorder into tethered lubricant coatings (e.g. by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) mixtures or SAMs with nonlinear, branched architectures) can be used to significantly reduce the friction coefficient of a surface. They have also developed a simple procedure based on dielectric spectroscopy for quantifying the effect of surface disorder on molecular relaxation in lubricant coatings. Details of research accomplishments in each area of the project are described in the body of the report.

  2. Engineering lubrication in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-04-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional

  3. Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional

  4. 7 CFR 3201.38 - Firearm lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Firearm lubricants. 3201.38 Section 3201.38... Designated Items § 3201.38 Firearm lubricants. (a) Definition. Lubricants that are designed for use in firearms to reduce the friction and wear between the moving parts of a firearm, and to keep the...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.38 - Firearm lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Firearm lubricants. 3201.38 Section 3201.38... Designated Items § 3201.38 Firearm lubricants. (a) Definition. Lubricants that are designed for use in firearms to reduce the friction and wear between the moving parts of a firearm, and to keep the...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.38 - Firearm lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Firearm lubricants. 3201.38 Section 3201.38... Designated Items § 3201.38 Firearm lubricants. (a) Definition. Lubricants that are designed for use in firearms to reduce the friction and wear between the moving parts of a firearm, and to keep the...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6375 - Patient lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient lubricant. 880.6375 Section 880.6375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.6375 Patient lubricant. (a) Identification. A patient lubricant is a device intended for...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6375 - Patient lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Patient lubricant. 880.6375 Section 880.6375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.6375 Patient lubricant. (a) Identification. A patient lubricant is a device intended for...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6375 - Patient lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient lubricant. 880.6375 Section 880.6375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.6375 Patient lubricant. (a) Identification. A patient lubricant is a device intended for...

  10. Research on liquid lubricants for space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Lewis Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes, and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  11. 21 CFR 880.6375 - Patient lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Patient lubricant. 880.6375 Section 880.6375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.6375 Patient lubricant. (a) Identification. A patient lubricant is a device intended for...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6375 - Patient lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Patient lubricant. 880.6375 Section 880.6375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.6375 Patient lubricant. (a) Identification. A patient lubricant is a device intended for...

  13. Research on Liquid Lubricants for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Glenn Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  14. 14 CFR 33.71 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lubrication system. 33.71 Section 33.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.71 Lubrication system. (a) General. Each lubrication...

  15. FGD (flue gas desulfurization) mist eliminator system troubleshooting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.D.; Jones, A.F.; Keeth, R.J. . Stearns-Roger Div.)

    1990-10-01

    Problems with the mist elimination system (MES) in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have occurred since the application of FGD technology to utility boilers in the late 1960s. Availability studies have found that failure of the MES is the second most common cause of FGD system outages. Moreover, MES problems often result in additional operating and maintenance costs and can cause particulate emission problems. This manual, prepared under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), contains a troubleshooting methodology for systematically identifying and addressing the underlying cause(s) of MES problems. It is based on information collected in an ongoing EPRI program to determine the causes of MES problems and evaluate potential solutions. This program involves the characterization of MES problems and development of potential solutions at various utility FGD systems. Further work at utility FGD systems is planned along with the evaluation of various MES designs at a pilot test facility to continue to improve the ability to troubleshoot mist eliminators. 2 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Viscometric and misting properties of polymer-modified fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grens, E. A., II; Williams, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Solutions of polyisobutylenes L160, L200, B200, and B230 in Jet-A were prepared at concentrations up to 3000 ppm. These polymers have molecular weights in the range 5 to 9 x 1,00,000 and have previously been shown to induce anti-misting properties in Jet-A. In connection with the pumpability of such solutions, especially at low temperatures, the shear viscosity, eta, of these solutions was measured at temperatures 25 C, 0 C, and -25 C. Concentration-dependence of eta was very similar for all four polymer solutes, the increase of eta(c) at 3000 ppm being roughly four-fold (relative to Jet-A) for the L-series and five-fold for the B-series. This behavior prevailed at all temperatures, and there was no evidence of phase separation or other chemical instability at -25 C at any concentration. In the more practical c-range for anti-misting applications, say within 1000 ppm, the increase of eta(c) was only twofold.

  17. Water Mist Interaction with Flame Spreading Against Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Chenthil; Kumar, Amit

    2010-11-01

    Water mist fire-suppression systems have gained importance since chemical agents like Halons are being phased out for environment preservation. The present study focuses on the effect of water mist droplet size and concentration in inhibiting the flame spreading downward over thin solid fuel at different gravity levels. The water droplets are introduced into the air stream at pre-specified concentration and droplet size. An Eulerian-Eulerian two phase model is used for this particular study. The polydisperse spray is modeled using the moments of the droplet size distribution function. The gas phase is modeled by full Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow along with the conservation equations of mass, energy & species. A one-step Arrhenius reaction between fuel vapor and oxygen is assumed. The gas radiation equation is solved using DOM. The solid fuel considered is assumed to burn ideally to form fuel vapors without melting. The thin solid fuel is modeled by equations of continuity and energy. The pyrolysis of fuel is modeled as one-step, zeroth-order Arrhenius kinetics. For the dilute sprays, droplet sizes below 100μm are increasingly effective in reducing the flame temperature.

  18. FarAway: shoot video through haze, mist, and smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmi, Amos

    2005-05-01

    Anybody can mount a zooming lens on his camera and observe distant objects. FarAway penetrates the blanket of haze that obscures such objects, regardless of the origin - mist, smoke, dust, rain, aerosols, etc. The system works with live Video, 25 frames/second, performing the restoration in real time on a PC hardware. No pre-knowledge about the obscurants, targets or distances is required. The novelty lies in performance; the system does not use image-processing tricks or contrast-stretching, but rather restores the original true image with its true colors. The current version is capable of relative-contrast enhancement of up to 90 times in color and up to 130 in B/W or NIR, the limit dictated by electrical noise. Facing the sun, this means a three-fold and more increase in detection and recognition ranges. Both color and NIR systems were extensively and successfully tested under rain, mists, haze and dust storms at ranges from 0.2 to 65 km. Turbulence effects are treated crudely, reducing apparent turbulence dance and smear by a factor of 2 to 4. Tests have proved its superiority over existing top-rank military systems. A related technology is Very Far Away. While Far Away uses commercial as-is cameras, the Very Far Away uses a specially designed color camera. The special camera allows extension of the visibility range by a further 70%.

  19. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Test Group 35, Noncondensibles and venting

    SciTech Connect

    Gloudemans, J.R. . Nuclear Power Div.)

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was a scaled 2-by-4 (2 hot legs and 4 cold legs) physical model of a Babcock Wilcox (B W), lowered-loop, nuclear steam supply system (NSSS). MIST was designed to operate at typical plant pressures and temperatures. Experimental data obtained from this facility during post-small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) testing are used for computer code benchmarking. The MIST interactions are of intrinsic interest because they may provide insight into expected plant behavior. MIST was necessarily atypical of a plant in certain important respects, however. The MIST interactions therefore are not to be applied directly to a plant. 5 refs., 239 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Gearing up for synthetic lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, S.

    1993-07-01

    Much of today's plant machinery operates at faster speeds, closer tolerances and higher temperatures than ever before. Without the help of lubricants to reduce wear, remove heat, and prevent corrosion, the chemical process industries would grind to a halt. Traditional, petroleum-derived products--called mineral oils-- have long starred in these roles. But today, synthetics, such as polyalphaolefins, carboxylic acid esters, phosphate esters and polyglycols are stealing the limelight, thanks to their inherent resistance to oxidation and hydrolysis and their extended range of service temperatures. The paper reviews the advantages of the synthetic lubricants.

  1. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench..., fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters; minimum requirements. (a) Gas mask canisters containing filters for protection against dusts, fumes, mists, and...

  5. Silencing Mist1 Gene Expression Is Essential for Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Anju; Humphrey, Sean E.; Steele, Rebecca E.; Hess, David A.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are tasked with synthesizing, packaging and secreting vast quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Because the synthesis of high levels of hydrolases is potentially dangerous, the pancreas is prone to acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a wealth of information concerning the broad phenotype associated with pancreatitis, little is understood regarding specific transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses. In this study, we examined the importance of the acinar-specific maturation transcription factor MIST1 to AP damage and organ recovery. Analysis of wild-type and Mist1 conditional null mice revealed that Mist1 gene transcription and protein accumulation were dramatically reduced as acinar cells underwent ADM alterations during AP episodes. To test if loss of MIST1 function was primarily responsible for the damaged status of the organ, mice harboring a Cre-inducible Mist1 transgene (iMist1) were utilized to determine if sustained MIST1 activity could alleviate AP damage responses. Unexpectedly, constitutive iMist1 expression during AP led to a dramatic increase in organ damage followed by acinar cell death. We conclude that the transient silencing of Mist1 expression is critical for acinar cells to survive an AP episode, providing cells an opportunity to suppress their secretory function and regenerate damaged cells. The importance of MIST1 to these events suggests that modulating key pancreas transcription networks could ease clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26717480

  6. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1993-04-08

    In our second year of funding we began the testing phase of a number of new classes of lubricants. Three different testing collaborations have already begun and a fourth one is In the works with Dr. Stephen Hsu of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Hsu also plans to test some of the same materials for us that Shell Development is studying. With Dr. Bill Jones of NASA, we are studying the effects of branching an high temperature lubricant properties in perfluoropolyethers, Initially Bill Jones is comparing the lubrication and physical properties of perfluorotetraglyme and the following two spherical perfluoropolyethers, Note that one contains a fluorocarbon chain and the other one contains a fluorocarbon ether chain. The synthesis of these was reported in the last progress report. With Professor Patricia Thiel of Iowa State University, we are working on studies of perfluoromethylene oxide ethers and have prepared a series of four of these polyethers to study in collaboration with her research group. These perfluoromethylene oxide ethers have the best low temperature properties of any known lubricants. Thiel's group is studying their interactions with metals under extreme conditions. Thirdly, we have also begun an Interaction with W. August Birke of Shell Development Company in Houston for whom we have already prepared samples of the chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyether lubricants whose structures appear on page 54 of our research proposal. Each of these four structures is thought to have potential as lubricant additives to motor oils. We also have underway syntheses of other fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants. These new materials which are also promising as antifriction additives for motor oils appear ahead of the perfluoro additives as Appendix I to the progress report. Additionally for Birke and Shell Development we have at their request prepared the novel compound perfluoro salicylic acid. This synthesis was suggested by the

  7. Lung-cancer mortality in workers exposed to sulfuric acid mist and other acid mists in steel-pickling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, J.J.; Leveton, J.; Knox, K.; Bloom, T.; McQuiston, T.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1165 steel workers who had been exposed to sulfuric acid and other acid mists during steel-pickling operations were studied to determine whether there was any evidence of respiratory cancer which could be linked to these exposures. These workers had been employed at three large midwestern steel-manufacturing operations where acid was used to remove oxides from newly produced steel. Cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung showed increased mortality in this study. Deaths from buccal cavity, pharynx, and larynx cancers were at normal levels. Deaths from nonmalignant respiratory diseases were lower than normal rates. The excess lung-cancer cases occurred both in workers who had been exposed only to sulfuric-acid mists and in those exposed only to other acids. The authors conclude that there was an increased risk of lung cancer in workers exposed to sulfuric acid and in workers exposed to other acids. Continued monitoring of lung-cancer rates is recommended by the authors, since other acids have replaced sulfuric acid to a great degree.

  8. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  9. Thin Film Solid Lubricant Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoy, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Tribological coatings for high temperature sliding applications are addressed. A sputter-deposited bilayer coating of gold and chromium is investigated as a potential solid lubricant for protection of alumina substrates during sliding at high temperature. Evaluation of the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films on alumina substrates is presented.

  10. Lubricant Selection Manual, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Lowry, J. A.; Dufrane, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    Future spacecraft must be designated to operate for very long time periods in space. For example, a target goal for the Space Station is 30 years of operation. Although the actual life may be significantly less than this optimistic goal, the life will certainly be a critical issue in design. The bearings on primary components such as the alpha and beta joints must obviously be designed and lubricated with the objective of optimum performance life. In addition to these joints, there will be numerous other tribological (rubbing or rolling) interfaced that will be required to function for the life of the spacecraft. A major key to adequate performance of tribological interface is proper lubrication. Lubricants can be divided into two basic classes: solid films and liquids. Both types have been used extensively in space applications. Both have advantages and disadvantages that must be carefully considered in their selection. The purpose here is to summarize selection criteria for liquid and solid lubricants applied to long-life spacecraft.

  11. Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

  12. Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

  13. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  14. Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

  15. Percutaneous carbon dioxide mist treatment has protective effects in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Takanori; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Masayuki; Shimada, Kenei; Miura, Katsuyuki; Iwao, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Izumi, Yasukatsu

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous treatment with carbon dioxide (CO2) mist, CO2 gas dissolved in water, contributes to improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated pretreatment with CO2 mist on cardiac dysfunction after MI. The CO2 mist was generated by a dry mist production unit. The whole body of rats below the axilla was wrapped in a polyethylene bag, which was sealed and filled with the CO2 mist in the draft cabinet for 30 min daily for 7 days. MI was induced by ligation of the coronary artery in untreated (UT), CO2 gas-pretreated (CG), and CO2 mist-pretreated (CM) rats. The infarct size and the increase in oxidative stress due to MI were significantly smaller in the CM rats than in the UT rats. Furthermore, the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibrosis-related genes, such as transforming growth factor-β1, was significantly suppressed in the CM rats. The CM rats had a better left ventricular ejection fraction than the UT rats 7 days after MI. These parameters in the CG rats were the same as in the UT group. Thus, CO2 mist preparative treatment may be potentially useful for the reduction of MI. PMID:25906762

  16. Characteristics of sprinklers and water spray mists for fire safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, Louise A.; Lavelle, Stephen P.; Nolan, P. F.

    1991-04-01

    In order to predict the type of sprinkler or spray head required for fire safety in buildings and transport systems (e.g. aircraft) it is necessary to model the interaction of water droplets with the thermally buoyant fire gases. Such modelling requires a detailed knowledge of the mean droplet size, the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity and trajectory. Many existing systems for the characterisation of droplets are indirect in that an optical property is measured and the results are subject to "black box" data processing. A direct method can be developed using a synchronised metal vapour laser and high speed cine camera with appropriate optics. Results on both sprinkler and spray mist will be presented and a basis for the choice of active fire protection systems will be outlined.

  17. [Mist irrigation system at drilling in spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Takao; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Date, Isao

    2010-12-01

    The "mist irrigation system" (MIS) is a new and effective method at drilling in spinal surgery. In this report, MIS is introduced with subsequent demonstration that visibility at drilling is better with MIS because of the reduction of smoke, blood and irrigation water. Additionally using a 5 mm-thick acryl plate, the time for perforation by drilling and temperature after drilling with MIS, drip-irrigation (DI) or no irrigation, were measured respectivily. Using the acryl plate significantly reduced drilling time and high temperature after perforation in the group without irrigation were recognized, compared to cases in the groups with MIS or DI. The results might indicate that the high temperature of the drill might melt the acryl plate immediately. As a conclusion, MIS might help surgeons to drill in the deep and narrow operative field. Additionally it might help to reduce the risks of heat injury to neuronal tissue by cooling efficiently. PMID:21160102

  18. MIST Final Report: Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Michael A.; Medvick, Patricia A.; Foley, Michael G.; Foote, Harlan P.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Renholds, Andrea S.

    2008-03-15

    The Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology (MIST) program was undertaken to advance exploitation tools for Long Wavelength Infra Red (LWIR) hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) analysis as applied to the discovery and quantification of nuclear proliferation signatures. The program focused on mitigating LWIR image background clutter to ease the analyst burden and enable a) faster more accurate analysis of large volumes of high clutter data, b) greater detection sensitivity of nuclear proliferation signatures (primarily released gasses) , and c) quantify confidence estimates of the signature materials detected. To this end the program investigated fundamental limits and logical modifications of the more traditional statistical discovery and analysis tools applied to hyperspectral imaging and other disciplines, developed and tested new software incorporating advanced mathematical tools and physics based analysis, and demonstrated the strength and weaknesses of the new codes on relevant hyperspectral data sets from various campaigns. This final report describes the content of the program and the outlines the significant results.

  19. Chemical characteristics of aerosol mists in phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Nall, J Wesley; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Of the carcinogens listed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), strong inorganic mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a known human carcinogen. In this study, aerosol sampling was conducted at 24 locations in eight Florida phosphoric acid and concentrated fertilizer manufacturing plants and two locations as background in Winter Haven and Gainesville, Florida, using dichotomous samplers. The locations were selected where sulfuric acid mist may potentially exist, including sulfuric acid pump tank areas, belt or rotating table phosphoric acid filter floors, sulfuric acid truck loading/unloading stations, phosphoric acid production reactors (attack tanks), and a concentrated fertilizer granulator during scrubbing with a weak sulfuric acid mixture. An ion chromatography system was used to analyze sulfate and other water soluble ion species. In general, sulfate, fluoride, ammonium, and phosphate were the major species in the fertilizer facilities. For the rotating table/belt phosphoric acid filter floor, phosphate and fluoride were the dominant species for PM10, and the maximum concentrations were 170 and 106 microg/m3, respectively. For the attack tank, fluoride was the dominant species for PM10, and the maximum concentration was 462 microg/m3. At the sulfuric acid pump tank, sulfate was the dominant species, and the maximum PM10 sulfate concentration was 181 microg/m3. The concentration of PM10 sulfate including ammonium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and sulfuric acid were lower than 0.2 mg/m3 at all locations. The aerosols at the filter floor and the attack tank were acidic. The coarse mode aerosol at the sulfuric acid pump tank (an outdoor location) was acidic, whereas the fine mode aerosol was neutral to basic. PMID:17162477

  20. USDOE Top-of-Rail Lubricant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mohumad F. Alzoubi; George R. Fenske; Robert A. Erck; Amrit S. Boparai

    2002-02-01

    Lubrication of wheel/rail systems has been recognized for the last two decades as a very important issue for railroads. Energy savings and less friction and wear can be realized if a lubricant can be used at the wheel/rail interface. On the other hand, adverse influences are seen in operating and wear conditions if improper or excessive lubrication is used. Also, inefficiencies in lubrication need to be avoided for economic and environmental reasons. The top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant concept was developed by Texaco Corporation to lubricate wheels and rails effectively and efficiently. Tranergy Corporation has been developing its SENTRAEN 2000{trademark} lubrication system for the last ten years, and this revolutionary new high-tech on-board rail lubrication system promises to dramatically improve the energy efficiency, performance, safety, and track environment of railroads. The system is fully computer-controlled and ensures that all of the lubricant is consumed as the end of the train passes. Lubricant quantity dispensed is a function of grade, speed, curve, and axle load. Tranergy also has its LA4000{trademark} wheel and rail simulator, a lubrication and traction testing apparatus. The primary task of this project was collecting and analyzing the volatile and semivolatile compounds produced as the lubricant was used. The volatile organic compounds were collected by Carbotrap cartridges and analyzed by adsorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The semivolatile fraction was obtained by collecting liquid that dripped from the test wheel. The collected material was also analyzed by GC/MS. Both of these analyses were qualitative. The results indicated that in the volatile fraction, the only compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund List of Analytes detected were contaminants either in the room air or from other potential contamination sources in the laboratory. Similarly, in the semivolatile fraction none of the detected

  1. Flow analysis on sea-water mists flows among bridge beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Masaaki; Oshiro, Daigo

    2014-04-01

    In the subtropical islands enclosed in the ocean, there is a problem that corrosion of structures progresses quickly because of high temperature and humidity and adhesion of sea-water mists flying from sea. Authors are interested in corrosion of bridge made of weatherability steel. Therefore, it needs to investigate the flow structure around bridge beams and motion of sea-water mist (droplet). In this paper, authors attempt flow visualization and PIV to understand the flow structures around bridge beams and numerical approach of motion of droplets to understand the collision of seawater mists on the bridge wall.

  2. Solid lubrication design methodology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallini, R. A.; Wedeven, L. D.; Ragen, M. A.; Aggarwal, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    The high temperature performance of solid lubricated rolling elements was conducted with a specially designed traction (friction) test apparatus. Graphite lubricants containing three additives (silver, phosphate glass, and zinc orthophosphate) were evaluated from room temperature to 540 C. Two hard coats were also evaluated. The evaluation of these lubricants, using a burnishing method of application, shows a reasonable transfer of lubricant and wear protection for short duration testing except in the 200 C temperature range. The graphite lubricants containing silver and zinc orthophosphate additives were more effective than the phosphate glass material over the test conditions examined. Traction coefficients ranged from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.6. By curve fitting the traction data, empirical equations for slope and maximum traction coefficient as a function of contact pressure (P), rolling speed (U), and temperature (T) can be developed for each lubricant. A solid lubricant traction model was incorporated into an advanced bearing analysis code (SHABERTH). For comparison purposes, preliminary heat generation calculations were made for both oil and solid lubricated bearing operation. A preliminary analysis indicated a significantly higher heat generation for a solid lubricated ball bearing in a deep groove configuration. An analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing configuration showed a potential for a low friction solid lubricated bearing.

  3. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308....308 Lubricating oil and test fuel. (a) Lubricating oil. (1) Use the engine lubricating oil which meets... specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (2) For two-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture...

  4. 40 CFR 91.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuel. 91.308....308 Lubricating oil and test fuel. (a) Lubricating oil. (1) Use the engine lubricating oil which meets... specifications of the lubricating oil used for the test. (2) For two-stroke engines, the fuel/oil mixture...

  5. Performance of two MOV lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, J.B.; Cline, T.

    1996-12-01

    Recent testing at Battelle has shown that a synthetic grease (Mobil 28) provides both improved friction coefficient and lower rate-of-loading (ROL) characteristics. Duke Power nuclear plants currently use an antiseize (N5000) as a motor operated valve (MOV) stem lubricant but they are considering changing to Mobil 28. However, it is not practical to completely remove all the residual antiseize from the steam threads when changing to a new lubricant. The testing performed during this study was to determine the friction coefficient and ROL effects for Mobil 28 when applied to a valve stem with residual N5000. This testing demonstrated how mixtures of Mobil 28 and N5000 perform under varying MOV conditions.

  6. Homegrown lubricants and plastics. [Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1988-10-01

    A small bushy lesquerella plant of the mustard family growing wild in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas produces seeds that may be used to make lubricants, plastics, protective coatings, surfactants, and pharmaceuticals. The plant thrives on poor soils that receive as little as 10 inches of rain a year. Studies to date indicate that target yields can be reached with a reasonable breeding effort coupled with agronomic research.

  7. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  8. Performance Of Perfluoropolyalkylether Lubricant System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K.; Masuda, S.; Lin, Wen-Huey; Bierschenk, T.; Kawa, H.; Juhlke, T.; Lagow, R.

    1995-01-01

    Perfluoro-polyalkylethers (PFPAE) constitute class of fluids having characteristics of high thermal oxidative stability, good vicosity-temperature characteristics, good elastohydrodynamic film-forming capabilities, low volatility, and non-flammability. One unfortunate drawback PFPAE causes severe metal corrosion and fluid degradation when used in oxidizing atmosphere. Reports of interest deal with synthesis of PFPAE-type liquids and development of additive to reduce oxidizing atmosphere degradation. Properties and molecular structures reported in detail. Also lubricant performance over range of conditions.

  9. The PM-200 lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma sprayed composite coating of metal-bonded chromium carbide with additions of silver and thermochemically stable fluorides were previously reported to be lubricative in pin on desk bench tests from room temperature to 900 C. An early coating formulation of this type, designated as PS-200, was successfully tested as a cylinder coating in a Stirling engine at a TRRT of 760 C in a hydrogen atmosphere, and as a backup lubricant for gas bearings to 650 C. A subsequent optimization program has shown that tribological properties are further improved by increasing the solid lubricant content. The improved coating is designated as PS-212. The same powder formulation was used to make free-standing powder metallurgy (PM-212) parts by sintering or hot isostatic pressing. The process is very attractive for making parts that cannot be readily plasma sprayed such as bushings and cylinders that have small bore diameters and/or high length to diameter ratios. The properties of coatings and free-standing parts fabricated from these powders are reviewed.

  10. Experiment and prediction of fire extinguishment with water mist in an enclosed room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianbo; Yang, Lijun

    2013-02-01

    The correlation between oxygen concentration and fire temperature when fire was extinguished with water mist was theoretically studied. The Semenov theory was applied to analyze the critical condition when fire was extinguished with water mist, from which the correlation could be obtained. The water mist experiments were carried out by varying the fire size, atomizer number, ceiling height, system pressure, and pre-burn time in an enclosed room. The oxygen concentration near the edge of the liquid pool and the fire temperature above the center of the liquid pool were measured. A comparison of the experimental data with the correlation was made under different conditions. The results showed that fire extinguishment was a stochastic process which could be affected by many factors. This theoretical model could predict the correlation between fire temperature and oxygen concentration when fire was extinguished with water mist in an enclosed room and it can also be treated as a critical condition for fire extinguishment.

  11. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be provided to persons exposed for short periods to inhalation hazards from gas, dusts, fumes, or mist. When the exposure is for prolonged periods, other measures to...

  12. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be provided to persons exposed for short periods to inhalation hazards from gas, dusts, fumes, or mist. When the exposure is for prolonged periods, other measures to...

  13. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be provided to persons exposed for short periods to inhalation hazards from gas, dusts, fumes, or mist. When the exposure is for prolonged periods, other measures to...

  14. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be provided to persons exposed for short periods to inhalation hazards from gas, dusts, fumes, or mist. When the exposure is for prolonged periods, other measures to...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1146 - Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1146 Lead fume test for dust, fume, and mist... oxygen-gas flame on molten lead. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test...

  19. The Mesoscale Ionospheric Simulation Testbed (MIST) Regional Data Assimilation Model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comberiate, J.; Kelly, M. A.; Miller, E.; Paxton, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Mesoscale Ionospheric Simulation Testbed (MIST) provides a regional nowcast and forecast of electron density values and has sufficient resolution to include equatorial plasma bubbles. The SSUSI instrument on the DMSP F18 satellite has high-resolution nightly observations of plasma bubbles at 8 PM local time throughout the current solar maximum. MIST can assimilate SSUSI UV observations, GPS TEC measurements, and SCINDA S4 readings simultaneously into a single scintillation map over a region of interest. MIST also models ionospheric physics to provide a short-term UHF scintillation forecast based on assimilated data. We will present examples of electron density and scintillation maps from MIST. We will also discuss the potential to predict scintillation occurrence up to 6 hours in advance using observations of the equatorial arcs from SSUSI observations at 5:30 PM local time on the DMSP F17 satellite.

  20. 30 CFR 70.305 - Respiratory equipment; gas, dusts, fumes, or mists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 shall be provided to persons exposed for short periods to inhalation hazards from gas, dusts, fumes, or mist. When the exposure is for prolonged periods, other measures to...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Respirator types Pressure tightness test 1 Isoamyl acetate test 84.1141 84.1142 Dusts: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Fumes: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 X X Mists: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Dusts, Fumes, and Mists:...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Respirator types Pressure tightness test 1 Isoamyl acetate test 84.1141 84.1142 Dusts: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Fumes: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 X X Mists: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Dusts, Fumes, and Mists:...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Respirator types Pressure tightness test 1 Isoamyl acetate test 84.1141 84.1142 Dusts: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Fumes: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 X X Mists: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Dusts, Fumes, and Mists:...

  4. Mist eliminators for freshwater production from open-cycle OTEC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Penney, T.

    1983-12-01

    For freshwater production from open-cycle OTEC systems, the suitability of commercially available mist eliminators is examined. The mist eliminators are characterized in terms of their liquid collection efficiencies, allowable vapor velocities at the onset of reentrainment, and pressure losses. Suitable design modifications can be projected to allow steam velocities of up to 35 m/s, with a corresponding parasitic power loss of less than 5% of the gross potential of an open-cycle OTEC power system.

  5. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Respirator types Pressure tightness test 1 Isoamyl acetate test 84.1141 84.1142 Dusts: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Fumes: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 X X Mists: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Dusts, Fumes, and Mists:...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1158 - Dust, fume, and mist tests; respirators with filters; minimum requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Respirator types Pressure tightness test 1 Isoamyl acetate test 84.1141 84.1142 Dusts: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Fumes: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 X X Mists: Air Contamination Level not less than 0.05 mg/M3 or 2 mppcf X Dusts, Fumes, and Mists:...

  7. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  8. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  9. Pyrolytic Carbon As A Lubricant In Hot Ceramic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Davis, L. C.

    1996-01-01

    Pyrolytic carbon proves useful as solid lubricant in ceramic bearings in advanced gas-turbine engines, where high temperatures destroy liquid lubricants. Ethylene gas made to flow past bearings and pyrolized to replenish carbon lubricant particles.

  10. Testing and Lubrication for Single Race Bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, R.G.

    1998-03-04

    Three ES and H-compatible lubricants (Environment, Safety and Health) for single race bearing applications and one hybrid-material single race bearings were evaluated and compared against single race bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in stronglink mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, bearings lubricated with titanium carbide (TiC) on the balls, bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and bearings lubricated with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. The bearings were maintained in a preloaded state in bearing cartridges during cycling and vibration tests. Bearings with electrophoretically deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings lubricated with Vydax and were the best performing candidate. All candidates were suitable for low preload applications. Bearings with TiC coated balls and bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers performed well at high preloads, though not as well as bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposition of MoS{sub 2}. Bearings with silicon nitride balls were not suitable for high preload applications.

  11. Physical and chemical properties of refrigeration lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Motoshi

    1999-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of refrigeration lubricants are discussed. Although much attention has been focused on the performance of candidate lubricants for use with hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in order to obtain satisfactory lubrication performance in compressors, the properties of the lubricants themselves have not been well discussed. In this paper, the properties of refrigeration lube base stocks and of lube-refrigerant mixtures are described, specifically the viscosity, density, and refrigerant solubility, the change in viscosity and density due to solution with HFCs, and the insulation properties of the base stocks and the refrigerant mixture.

  12. Liquid-Solid Self-Lubricated Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armada, S.; Schmid, R.; Equey, S.; Fagoaga, I.; Espallargas, N.

    2013-02-01

    Self-lubricated coatings have been a major topic of interest in thermal spray in the last decades. Self-lubricated coatings obtained by thermal spray are exclusively based on solid lubricants (PTFE, h-BN, graphite, MoS2, etc.) embedded in the matrix. Production of thermal spray coatings containing liquid lubricants has not yet been achieved because of the complexity of keeping a liquid in a solid matrix during the spraying process. In the present article, the first liquid-solid self-lubricating thermal spray coatings are presented. The coatings are produced by inserting lubricant-filled capsules inside a polymeric matrix. The goal of the coating is to release lubricant to the system when needed. The first produced coatings consisted solely of capsules for confirming the feasibility of the process. For obtaining such a coating, the liquid-filled capsules were injected in the thermal spray flame without any other feedstock material. Once the concept and the idea were proven, a polymer was co-sprayed together with the capsules to obtain a coating containing the lubricant-filled capsules distributed in the solid polymeric matrix. The coatings and the self-lubricated properties have been investigated by means of optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and tribological tests.

  13. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    This chapter describes powerful analytical techniques capable of sampling tribological surfaces and solid-film lubricants. Some of these techniques may also be used to determine the locus of failure in a bonded structure or coated substrate; such information is important when seeking improved adhesion between a solid-film lubricant and a substrate and when seeking improved performance and long life expectancy of solid lubricants. Many examples are given here and through-out the book on the nature and character of solid surfaces and their significance in lubrication, friction, and wear. The analytical techniques used include the late spectroscopic methods.

  14. Lubrication system with tolerance for reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor); McCune, Michael E. (Inventor); Dobek, Louis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A lubrication system includes an auxiliary lubricant tank 48, a supply conduit 58 extending from a source of lubricant 26 to the auxiliary lubricant tank. A reduced-G bypass line 108 branches from the conduit and enters the auxiliary tank at a first elevation E.sub.1. The system also includes an auxiliary tank discharge conduit 116, a portion of which resides within the tank. The resident portion has an opening 122 at least partially at a second elevation E.sub.2 higher than the first elevation.

  15. Lubrication System with Tolerance for Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor); McCune, Michael E. (Inventor); Dobek, Louis J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A lubrication system includes an auxiliary lubricant tank 48, a supply conduit 58 extending from a source of lubricant 26 to the auxiliary lubricant tank. A reduced-G bypass line 108 branches from the conduit and enters the auxiliary tank at a first elevation E.sub.1. The system also includes an auxiliary tank discharge conduit 116, a portion of which resides within the tank. The resident portion has an opening 122 at least partially at a second elevation E.sub.2 higher than the first elevation.

  16. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Test Group 34, Steam generator tube rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Gloudemans, J.R. . Nuclear Power Div.)

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility--the Once Through Integral System (OTIS)--was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program is reported in 11 volumes. The program is summarized in Volume 1; Volumes 2 through 8 describes groups of tests by test type; Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons; Volume 10 provides comparisons between the calculations of RELAP5/MOD2 and MIST observations, and Volume 11 presents the later Phase 4 tests. This Volume 6 pertains to Test Group 34, Steam Generator Tube Rupture. The specifications, conduct, observations, and results of these tests are described. 6 refs., 189 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Stem growth reduction in mature Sitka spruce trees exposed to acid mist.

    PubMed

    Crossley, A; Sheppard, L J; Cape, J N; Smith, R I; Harvey, F J

    1997-01-01

    An eighteen-year-old clone of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) growing in the field was used to evaluate the whole tree response of 'mature' Sitka spruce to acid mist treatment. The mist, an equimolar mixture of H(2)SO(4) and NH(4)NO(3) at pH 2.5 with or without particles (soda glass ballotini < 20 microm diameter), was applied twice weekly (equivalent to 4 mm precipitation week(-1)) throughout the growing season, May-November 1990-1992. The annual dose of S, N, H applied as mist (at 51, 48 and 3.3 kg ha(-1), respectively) was 2.5 times that measured in the Scottish uplands. Throughout the experiment there was no evidence of visible injury symptoms, yet there was a highly significant reduction (p < 0.02) in the stem-area increment relative to the stem area at the start, measured using vernier dendrometer bands. There was no significant difference between the (acid mist + particle) and the acid mist only treatments. The mean relative stem-area increment over two complete growing seasons (1991-1992) was 65% for control trees, but only 53% for acid-misted trees. PMID:15093418

  18. Influence of liquid lubricant properties on their performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedeven, V.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of lubricant properties on performance is considered in connection with various mechanisms of lubrication. The effects of temperature and pressure on viscosity, which is important in hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication, is presented using a correlation postulated by Roelands. Under elastohydrodynamic conditions it is important to distinguish between the influence of lubricant properties within the inlet region and the Hertz region since each performs different functions. The role of lubricant transport properties such as surface tension is considered in connection with lubricant starvation. Since the lubrication of practical surfaces usually involves boundary as well as hydrodynamic mechanisms, both the chemical and physical properties significantly influence the lubricant's performance.

  19. Self-lubricating polymer composites and polymer transfer film lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of self-lubricating polymers and polymer composites in space is somewhat limited today. In general, they are only used when other methods are inadequate. There is potential, however, for these materials to make a significant impact on future space missions if properly utilized. Some of the different polymers and fillers used to make self-lubricating composites are surveyed. The mechanisms of composite lubrication and wear, the theory behind transfer film lubricating mechanisms, and some factors which affect polymer composite wear and transfer are examined. In addition, some of the current space tribology application areas for self-lubricating polymer composites and polymer transfer are mentioned.

  20. LUBRICATED TRANSPORT OF VISCOUS FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPH, DANIEL D

    2004-06-21

    We became the acknowledged world leaders in the science fundamentals of the technology of water lubricated pipelines focusing on stability, numerical and experimental studies. We completed the first direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric core flow. We showed that the pressure at the front of the wave is large (the fluid enters a converging region) and it pushes the interface in, steepening the wave at its front. At the backside of the wave, behind the crest, the pressure is low (diverging flow) and it pulls the interface to the wall, smoothing the backside of the wave. The steepening of the wave can be regarded as a shock up by inertia and it shows that dynamics works against the formation of long waves which are often assumed but not justified in the analysis of such problems. We showed that the steep wave persists even as the gap between the core and the wall decreases to zero. The wave length also decreases in proportion, so that the wave shape is preserved in this limit. This leads to the first mathematical solution giving rise sharkskin. The analysis also showed that there is a threshold Reynolds number below which the total force reckoned relative to a zero at the wave crest is negative, positive above, and we conjectured, therefore that inertia is required to center a density matched core and to levitate the core off the wall when the density is not matched. Other work relates to self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth.

  1. Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    On-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces was studied. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

  2. Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study showed that on-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings can be accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented, in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

  3. Lubricity studies with biodiesel and related compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, the alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, possesses excellent lubricity. This feature has rendered biodiesel of special interest for blending with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels with poor lubricity. However, some minor components, mainly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols, of ...

  4. Progress in environmentally friendly lubricant development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally friendly lubricants comprise ingredients derived from natural raw materials such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. There is a great deal of interest in such lubricants because of their potential economic, environmental, health, and safety benefits over petroleum-based prod...

  5. MODIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environmental-friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils have excellent lubricity, but poor oxidation and low-temperature stability. This paper presents a series of structural modifications of veget...

  6. VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  7. Glass molding process with mold lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Davey, Richard G.

    1978-06-27

    Improvements are provided in glass forming processes of the type wherein hot metal blank molds are employed by using the complementary action of a solid film lubricant layer, of graphite dispersed in a cured thermoset organopolysiloxane, along with an overspray of a lubricating oil.

  8. Biobased, environmentally friendly lubricants for processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil based lubricants have excellent lubricity, biodegradability, good viscosity temperature characteristics and low evaporation loss, but poor thermos-oxidative stability and cold flow properties. This paper presents a systematic approach to improve the oxidative and cold flow behavior of...

  9. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.47 - Gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gear lubricants. 3201.47 Section 3201.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.47 Gear lubricants....

  11. Advances in bio-lubricant development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-lubricants are those based on natural sources such as those harvested from farms. There is a great deal of interest in bio-lubricants because of their potential to provide a number of environmental, health, safety, and economic benefits over petroleum-based products. It is anticipated that wid...

  12. 14 CFR 33.71 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lubrication system. 33.71 Section 33.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.71 Lubrication system....

  13. Control Methods of Operational Properties of Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysyannikova, N.; Kovalski, B.; Bezborodov, Yu; Lysyannikov, A.; Kravtsova, Ye; Shram, V.; Kovaleva, M.

    2016-06-01

    Some results of thermal-oxidation and temperature stability testing of motor oils are presented. The catalytic influence of metals on oxidizing processes in lubricants with use of steel 45 was determined. The parameters for identification of oils by groups of operational properties and quantity indicators of the influence of metals on oxidizing processes of lubricants are offered.

  14. 30 CFR 56.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 56.14204 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14204 - Machinery lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machinery lubrication. 57.14204 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14204 Machinery lubrication. Machinery...

  16. Lubrication of rotary rock bits

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhail, J.; Gardner, H.

    1996-12-01

    The rotary rock bit is designed so that both the bearings and cutting structure work together as one unit. Should the bearings wear prematurely before the cutting structure is worn out, then the complete bit will rapidly deteriorate leading to a shortened bit life. The optimum bit run is when the bearings and cutting structure wear out simultaneously, having obtained a good footage and rate of penetration. This paper discusses reasons why users of rotary air blast hole bits encounter premature bit failure due to bearing failure. It also discusses a lubrication system designed for rotary rock bits to combat bearing failure.

  17. Transfer Lubrication For Cryogenic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, S. A.; Kannel, J. W.; Dufrane, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents evaluation of bronze-filled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), known as Salox M, as cage material for ball bearings in high-pressure turbopumps for liquid oxygen. Material evaluated as potentially longer-lived replacement for glass-filled PTFE, known as Armalon. Cage transfers PTFE to balls to form solid lubricant film. However, glass fibers in glass-filled material tend to interfere with transfer. Two cage-design concepts developed; one involves metal-reinforced cage of bronze-filled PTFE; other calls for bronze-filled PTFE inserts in metal structure.

  18. Bearing, gearing, and lubrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of selected NASA research programs on rolling-element and fluid-film bearings, gears, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication are reported. Advances in rolling-element bearing material technology, which have resulted in a significant improvement in fatigue life, and which make possible new applications for rolling bearings, are discussed. Research on whirl-resistant, fluid-film bearings, suitable for very high-speed applications, is discussed. An improved method for predicting gear pitting life is reported. An improved formula for calculating the thickness of elastohydrodynamic films (the existence of which help to define the operating regime of concentrated contact mechanisms such as bearings, gears, and cams) is described.

  19. A High Temperature Vapor Phase Lubrication Study Utilizing a Thioether Liquid Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Graham, E. Earl; Galvin, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Much of the experimental work on vapor phase lubrication has employed certain organo phosphorous compounds as the vapor phase lubricant. Graham and Klaus, for instance, used tricresyl phosphate (TCP) and tributyl phosphate to vapor phase lubricate a four-ball wear tester using M50 steel balls at 370 C. Makki and Graham were able to vapor phase lubricate a reciprocating pin on plate tribometer using 1018 steel at 280 C with TCP vapor. Although a few organo phosphorous compounds, such as TCP, have been successfully used as vapor phase lubricants in many laboratory experiments, many problems remain unsolved. Two areas of concern relate to the 'durability' of phosphate deposited films and to the ability of the lubricating system to "self-recover" when vapor phase lubricated with an organo phosphorous compound. Durability refers to the ability of the deposited film to provide effective lubrication, for a period of time, after the vapor flow to the lubricating surfaces has been interrupted. Vapor phase lubrication tests, conducted at Cleveland State University with their high temperature tribometer, revealed that when TCP vapor flow to the lubricating surfaces was interrupted the frictional coefficient of the system rapidly increased from a value less than 0.1 to a value of 0.3 which was selected as our failure point. Self-recovery means the ability of the vapor phase lubricant to reduce the frictional coefficient of the lubricating system back down to value less than 0.1 after startup of the interrupted vapor flow. Lubrication tests conducted at Cleveland State University revealed that the high temperature tribometer could not self-recover after startup of the interrupted TCP vapor flow.

  20. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): Final report: Test group 30, mapping tests

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, G.O. . Nuclear Power Div.)

    1989-12-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program is reported in 11 volumes. The program is summarized in Volume 1; Volumes 2 through 8 describe groups of tests by test type; Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons; Volume 10 provides comparisons between the calculations of RELAP5/MOD2 and MIST observations, and Volume 11 presents the later Phase 4 tests. This Volume 2 pertains to MIST mapping tests performed to traverse the early post-SBLOCA events slowly. The tests investigated the effect of test-to-test variations in boundary system controls, and only the primary fluid mass varied during a specific test in this test group. 5 refs., 415 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species.

    PubMed

    Westman, W E; Temple, P J

    1989-01-01

    Seedlings of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were more susceptible to leaf chemical changes following exposure to acid mist (pH 3.4-2.0) or acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone (0.1-0.2 microl/litre), when plants were exposed to alternating doses of these pollutants for 6-9 weeks. Under acid mist treatment, leaves exhibited higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur, two elements applied in acid mist. In addition, levels of foliar sodium, and, in the case of giant sequia, potassium, as well, increased under acid mist treatment. Iron and manganese were also mobilized, resulting in significant increases in these elements in pine, and decreases in manganese in giant sequoia foliage. The acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in pine, and, to a less significant extent, in giant sequoia. Calcium, magnesium, barium and strontium were differentially accumulated in giant sequoia compared to Jeffrey pine. Under acid mist treatment, all of these elements (except strontium) declined in concentration in giant sequoia, with calcium showing the most significant trend. The more extensive changes in leaf chemistry induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of significant changes in spectral reflectance of these seedlings after 3 weeks of fumigation. Limited foliage samples collected from these two species in 1985 and 1986 in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks in the southern Sierra Nevada do not in themselves indicate any clearcut or severe effects of ozone alone on leaf chemistry of these species, but a mild influence of nitrate-laden acid deposition, possibly in combination with ozone, is consistent with the rise in nitrogen and lignin levels in Jeffrey pine on sites observed to have moderate visible injury symptoms. No firm conclusions about effects of pollutants on leaf chemistry in these field sites is possible without further study. PMID:15092463

  2. Vermiculite as a component of thread lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminskii, S.E.; Shibryaev, S.B.; Lyubinin, I.A.; Nemets, V.L.

    1994-09-01

    Thread lubricants are used in threaded joints of piping and pump/compressor equipment of drilling units in order to protect the threads against wear and galling during the operations of making up and breaking the joints; the lubricants also serve as a seal against the pressure of liquid and gaseous media. Commercial thread lubricants contain fillers to provide the required level of antigalling, antiwear, and sealing properties. Powders of lead, copper, zinc, and their compounds are widely used as fillers; other materials that are used include finely dispersed molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene. The concentrations of these components in commercial thread lubricants may be as high as 60-70%,{sup *} so that the lubricants are quite expensive. Lead compounds have the further disadvantages of toxicity, requiring special protective measures in the production, storage, and application of the lubricants - i.e., these materials are ecologically hazardous. Production of specialized thread lubricants is limited by shortages of fillers, and hence general-purpose greases are almost universally used in threaded joints - greases that are inferior to thread lubricants in their set of tribotechnical properties. The end results are premature wear and leakage of the joints, losses of oil and gas, and environmental pollution. In this connection, it is of interest to use layered minerals, in particular vermiculite, in thread lubricant formulations. Heat-treated and milled vermiculite, which has a structure similar to graphite, is resistant to oxidation and to attack by corrosive media; it has a high upper temperature limit of serviceability as a lubricant, and it is readily available and inexpensive. Major reserves of vermiculite have been explored in the Kola Peninsula (Kovdor deposit), in the Urals (Potaninsk and Buldymsk deposits) and in Siberia (Sludyanka deposit).

  3. Preliminary results of the water-mist fire auppression experiment from the STS-107 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; McKinnon, J.; Gokoglu, S.

    A discussion of the preliminary results of the Water-Mist Fire Suppression experiment (Mist) from the STS-107 mission of the Space Shuttle is presented. The overall objective of the project is to study the feasibility of developing fine-water- mist systems as the next generation of fire suppressants that may replace the currently used halon-based systems. Halons (fluoro-bromo -carbons) are so effective at fire suppression that in the past it was not necessary to evaluate other options. However, as is well known now, halons are powerful ozone-depleting agents in the stratosphere. The realization of this attribute led to the ban of the manufacture of halons in the industrialized world by the Montreal Protocols starting in 1995. The Mist experiment studies the influence of water mists on premixed flames propagating in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions and evaluates the role of thermal, physical, and chemical mechanisms in the water-mist/flame interaction. Prior to the orbital flight, a numerical simulation of this interaction was developed and reduced- gravity ground experiments were conducted to obtain the preliminary data necessary to define the scientific objectives and technical issues of the spacecraft experiments. The effects of droplet size and water concentration on the laminar flame speed and flame shape are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. A simplified numerical simulation of the flame/mist interaction shows the effect of water mist on flame speed and evaluates the relative importance of the latent and sensible heats of water droplets on fire suppression. The microgravity tests of the Mist experiment are performed in the Combustion Module (CM-2) facility in the Space Shuttle. These tests explore the efficacy of three droplet sizes and three water concentrations on the propagation of lean, stoichiometric, and rich premixed propane-air flames. The long duration and quality of microgravity in the spaceflight provide the required

  4. Evaluation of misting controls to reduce respirable silica exposure for brick cutting.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Bryan R; Shulman, Stanley; Maynard, Andrew; Williams, Dena; Watkins, Daniel

    2005-08-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.7 million workers in the United States are potentially exposed to respirable crystalline silica, with a large percentage having been exposed to silica concentrations higher than the limits set by current standards and regulations. The purpose of this study is to characterize the use of water-misting engineering controls to reduce exposure to respirable crystalline silica for construction workers engaged in the task of brick cutting. Since data concerning the efficacy of engineering controls collected at worksites is often confounded by factors such as wind, worker skill level, the experiments were conducted in a laboratory environment. A completely enclosed testing chamber housed the brick-cutting saw. Respirable dust concentrations were measured using the Model 3321 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. Specifically, the laboratory experiment was designed to compare dust suppression through water misting using conventional freely flowing water techniques. Brass atomizing nozzles with three flow rates were used for making this comparison: low (5.0 ml s(-1) or 4.8 gal h(-1)), medium (9.0 ml s(-1) or 8.6 gal h(-1)) and high (18 ml s(-1) or 17.3 gal h(-1)). The flow rate for freely flowing water, using manufacturer-supplied equipment, was 50 ml s(-1) (48 gal h(-1)). The experiment consisted of five replications of five samples each (low-misting, medium-misting, high-misting, freely flowing water and no control). The order of sampling within each replicate was randomized. Estimates of dust reduction showed that low-misting nozzles reduced the respirable mass fraction of dust by about 63%, medium-misting nozzles by about 67%, high-misting nozzles by about 79% and freely flowing water by about 93%. Based on these results, it may be feasible to use misting to control respirable silica dust instead of freely flowing water. This strategy is of practical interest to the construction industry which must frequently limit the amount of water used on

  5. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  6. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  7. A combined experimental and theoretical study of supercooling by two-phase mist flows

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zhihua.

    1991-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of cooling enhancement by mist flow was performed for a square channel with a smooth wall. A new method is proposed for the turbulent deposition of droplets from two-phase mist flow into the wall of the channel. The proposed analytical model shows satisfactory agreement with observations from an experimental measurement using a particle-sizing two-dimensional reference-model laser-Doppler anemometry technique. Supercooling is defined as the simultaneous attainment of high heat flux and a low temperature of a surface to be cooled. Surface cooling is by evaporation from the exposed side of the film. The film is maintained by the continuous deposition of a stream of turbulent mist. An analytical model is provided for the heat-transfer enhancement coefficient due to mist supercooling. Also, experiments were carried out to investigate cooling enhancement. A substantial supercooling by mist flow is reported. The effects on supercooling of flow rate, droplet concentration and size, and wall heat flux are also reported.

  8. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 pretest predictions of MIST experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.; Siebe, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the Integral System Test (IST) program initiated in June 1983 to provide integral system test data on specific issues and phenomena relevant to post small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) in Babcock and Wilcox plant designs. The Multi-Loop Integral System Test (MIST) facility is the largest single component in the IST program. During Fiscal Year 1986, Los Alamos performed five MIST pretest analyses. The five experiments were chosen on the basis of their potential either to approach the facility limits or to challenge the predictive capability of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code. Three SBLOCA tests were examined which included nominal test conditions, throttled auxiliary feedwater and asymmetric steam-generator cooldown, and reduced high-pressure-injection (HPI) capacity, respectively. Also analyzed were two ''feed-and-bleed'' cooling tests with reduced HPI and delayed HPI initiation. Results of the tests showed that the MIST facility limits would not be approached in the five tests considered. Early comparisons with preliminary test data indicate that the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code is correctly calculating the dominant phenomena occurring in the MIST facility during the tests. Posttest analyses are planned to provide a quantitative assessment of the code's ability to predict MIST transients.

  9. Performance and stability of the mist-lift process for open-cycle OTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1982-02-01

    In the mist flow proposal for open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), the thermal energy of the warm water is converted into gravitational potential energy causing the water to flow vertically upward as a low-pressure two-phase flow of small droplets in water vapor. The gravitational energy is then converted to electrical energy using a standard hydraulic turbine. The results of SERI's analytical studies of the mist lift process are summarized. Several computer models have been developed: a single-drop-size steady-state (SDS) model; a multiple-drop-size steady-state model including drop coalescence and drop breakup (MDS-B model), and a single-drop-size transient (SDT) model. Results from the multiple-drop-size model indicate that drop growth is rapid up to a mean diameter of about 0.5 mm, and that the drop size spectrum changes little thereafter. Parametric studies performed with the SDS model showed that the range of performance of the mist lift process is large, and showed the effects of design parameters on performance. Results of the transient model suggest that the mist lift process is stable to variations in major parameters as long as the variations are confined to the steady-state operational limits of the particular mist lift tube. Listings of the computer programs used in the study are included as appendices.

  10. Construct Validity of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Rujvi; Weinborn, Michael; Kellogg, Emily J.; Bucks, Romola S.; Velnoweth, Aimee; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) is a clinical measure of prospective memory (PM). There is emerging support for the sensitivity and ecological relevance of the MIST in clinical populations. In the present study, the construct validity of the MIST was evaluated in 40 younger (18–30 years), 24 young-old (60–69 years), and 37 old-old (70+ years) healthy adults. Consistent with expectations derived from the PM and aging literature, older adults demonstrated lower scores on the MIST’s primary scale scores (particularly on the time-based scale), but slightly better performance on the semi-naturalistic 24-hour trial. Among the healthy older adults, the MIST showed evidence of both convergent (e.g., verbal fluency) and divergent (e.g., visuoperception) correlations with standard clinical tests, although the magnitude of those correlations were comparable across the time- and event-based scales. Together, these results support the discriminant and convergent validity of the MIST as a measure of PM in healthy older adults. PMID:24752386

  11. The interaction of water mists and premixed propane-air flames under low-gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Riedel, Edward P.; McKinnon, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions has been conducted to define the scientific and technical objectives of the experiments to be performed on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station microgravity environments. The inhibiting characteristics of water mists in propagating flames of propane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios are studied. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the laminar flame speed are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. Flame speed and propagation behavior are monitored by a video camera. Reduced gravity is obtained with an aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. Measurements and qualitative observations from the low-gravity experiments clearly show the effect of water mist on flame speed abatement, flame shape, and radiant emission. For lean propane-air mixtures, the flame speed increases at first with low water-mist concentrations and then decreases below its dry value when higher water-mist volumes are introduced in the tube. This phenomenon may be due in part to the heating of the unburned mixture ahead of the flame as a result of radiation absorption by the water droplets. For rich propane-air mixtures, similar behavior of flame speed vs. water concentration is encountered but in this case is mostly due to the formation of cellular flames. At high water loads both lean and rich flames exhibit extinction before reaching the end of the tube.

  12. Research on bearing lubricants for use in a high vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Hass, H.

    1972-01-01

    Work, during the research program, was concentrated on lubricant development, gear lubrication and evaluation, providing coated test specimens, advising NASA contractors about solid lubrication specific applications, and investigation of new method of attaching lubricating solids to bearing surfaces by sputtering technique.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.43 - Chain and cable lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chain and cable lubricants. 2902.43 Section 2902.43... Items § 2902.43 Chain and cable lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication in... and cable lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  14. 7 CFR 2902.43 - Chain and cable lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chain and cable lubricants. 2902.43 Section 2902.43... Items § 2902.43 Chain and cable lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide lubrication in... and cable lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  15. Solid lubricant materials for high temperatures: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1985-01-01

    Solid lubricants that can be used above 300 C in air are discussed, including coatings and self-lubricating composite bearing materials. The lubricants considered are representative dichalcogenides, graphite, graphite fluoride, polyimides, soft oxides, oxidatively stable fluorides, and hard coating materials. A few general design considerations revelant to solid lubrication are interspersed.

  16. Double angle seal forming lubricant film

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A lubricated piston rod seal which inhibits gas leaking from a high pressure chamber on one side of the seal to a low pressure chamber on the other side of the seal. A liquid is supplied to the surface of the piston rod on the low pressure side of the seal. This liquid acts as lubricant for the seal and provides cooling for the rod. The seal, which can be a plastic, elastomer or other material with low elastic modulus, is designed to positively pump lubricant through the piston rod/seal interface in both directions when the piston rod is reciprocating. The capacity of the seal to pump lubricant from the low pressure side to the high pressure side is less than its capacity to pump lubricant from the high pressure side to the low pressure side which ensures that there is zero net flow of lubricant to the high pressure side of the seal. The film of lubricant between the seal and the rod minimizes any sliding contact and prevents the leakage of gas. Under static conditions gas leakage is prevented by direct contact between the seal and the rod.

  17. Robust and Drain Resistant Lubricated Omniphobic Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Cassidee; Damle, Viraj; Sun, Xiaoda; Roopesh, Ajay; Doudrick, Kyle; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    The implications of omniphobic fabrics range from stainproof clothing to civilian and military protection from chemical weapons. The challenge comes in developing a product that remains effective in repelling droplets of liquids with a wide range of surface tensions even after being subjected to various stimuli imposed by human use. Omniphobic fabrics can be made by infusing hydrophobic nanoparticle coated fibers with a low surface energy lubricant. These types of lubricant impregnated surfaces can shed large deposited droplets as well as condensed microdroplets of variety of low surface tension liquids. However, here we show that lubricated omniphobic fabrics can easily lose their properties due to degradation of the nanostructure coating or drainage of the lubricant upon contact with a porous surface. We also demonstrate that this issue can be resolved with use of cross-linked polymer coated fibers that are swollen with the lubricant. Use of flexible polymers avoids structure degradation due to fabric deformation, while swelling of the polymer with lubricant minimizes lubricant drainage upon contact maintaining the omniphobic characteristics of the fabric. KR acknowledges startup funding from ASU and collaborative effort with Dr. Tim Burgin and James R. Lee from Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division.

  18. Determining the Thermal Properties of Space Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maldonado, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Many mechanisms used in spacecrafts, such as satellites or the space shuttle, employ ball bearings or gears that need to be lubricated. Normally this is not a problem, but in outer space the regular lubricants that are used on Earth will not function properly. Regular lubricants will quickly vaporize in the near vacuum of space. A unique liquid called a perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPE) has an extremely low vapor pressure, around l0(exp -10) torr at 20 C, and has been used in numerous satellites and is currently used in the space shuttle. Many people refer to the PFPEs as "liquid Teflon". PFPE lubricants however, have a number of problems with them. Lubricants need many soluble additives, especially boundary and anti-wear additives, in them to function properly. All the regular known boundary additives are insoluble in PFPEs and so PFPEs lubricate poorly under highly loaded conditions leading to many malfunctioning ball bearings and gears. JAXA, the Japanese Space Agency, is designing and building a centrifuge rotor to be installed in the International Space Station. The centrifuge rotor is part of a biology lab module. They have selected a PFPE lubricant to lubricate the rotor s ball bearings and NASA bearing experts feel this is not a wise choice. An assessment of the centrifuge rotor design is being conducted by NASA and part of the assessment entails knowing the physical and thermal properties of the PFPE lubricant. One important property, the thermal diffusivity, is not known. An experimental apparatus was set up in order to measure the thermal diffusivity of the PFPE. The apparatus consists of a constant temperature heat source, cylindrical Pyrex glassware, a thermal couple and digital thermometer. The apparatus was tested and calibrated using water since the thermal diffusivity of water is known.

  19. Interactive Cytokine Regulation of Synoviocyte Lubricant Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Blewis, Megan E.; Lao, Brian J.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Bugbee, William D.; Firestein, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine regulation of synovial fluid (SF) lubricants, hyaluronan (HA), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is important in health, injury, and disease of synovial joints, and may also provide powerful regulation of lubricant secretion in bioreactors for articulating tissues. This study assessed lubricant secretion rates by human synoviocytes and the molecular weight (MW) of secreted lubricants in response to interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17, IL-32, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), applied individually and in all combinations. Lubricant secretion rates were assessed using ELISA and binding assays, and lubricant MW was assessed using gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. HA secretion rates were increased ∼40-fold by IL-1β, and increased synergistically to ∼80-fold by the combination of IL-1β + TGF-β1 or TNF-α + IL-17. PRG4 secretion rates were increased ∼80-fold by TGF-β1, and this effect was counterbalanced by IL-1β and TNF-α. HA MW was predominantly <1 MDa for controls and individual cytokine stimulation, but was concentrated at >3 MDa after stimulation by IL-1β + TGF-β1 + TNF-α to resemble the distribution in human SF. PRG4 MW was unaffected by cytokines and similar to that in human SF. These results contribute to an understanding of the relationship between SF cytokine and lubricant content in health, injury, and disease, and provide approaches for using cytokines to modulate lubricant secretion rates and MW to help achieve desired lubricant composition of fluid in bioreactors. PMID:19908966

  20. Torquing preload in a lubricated bolt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    The tension preload obtained by torquing a 7/8 in. diam UNC high strength bolt was determined for lubricated and dry conditions. Consistent preload with a variation of + or - 3% was obtained when the bolt head area was lubricated prior to each torque application. Preload tensions nearly 70% greater than the value predicted with the commonly used formula occurred with the lubricated bolt. A reduction to 39% of the initial preload was observed during 50 torque applications without relubrication. Little evidence of wear was noted after 203 cycles of tightening.

  1. Regulation of epithelial morphogenesis by the G protein-coupled receptor mist and its ligand fog.

    PubMed

    Manning, Alyssa J; Peters, Kimberly A; Peifer, Mark; Rogers, Stephen L

    2013-11-12

    Epithelial morphogenesis is essential for shaping organs and tissues and for establishment of the three embryonic germ layers during gastrulation. Studies of gastrulation in Drosophila have provided insight into how epithelial morphogenesis is governed by developmental patterning mechanisms. We developed an assay to recapitulate morphogenetic shape changes in individual cultured cells and used RNA interference-based screening to identify Mist, a Drosophila G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) that transduces signals from the secreted ligand Folded gastrulation (Fog) in cultured cells. Mist functioned in Fog-dependent embryonic morphogenesis, and the transcription factor Snail regulated expression of mist in zygotes. Our data revealed how a cell fate transcriptional program acts through a ligand-GPCR pair to stimulate epithelial morphogenetic shape changes. PMID:24222713

  2. Regulation of Epithelial Morphogenesis by the G-Protein Coupled Receptor Mist and its Ligand Fog*

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Alyssa J.; Peters, Kimberly A.; Peifer, Mark; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is essential for shaping organs and tissues and for establishment of the three embryonic germ layers during gastrulation. Studies of gastrulation in Drosophila have provided insight into how epithelial morphogenesis is governed by developmental patterning mechanisms. We developed an assay to recapitulate morphogenetic shape changes in individual cultured cells, and used RNAi-based screening to identify Mist, a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that transduces signals from the secreted ligand Folded gastrulation (Fog) in cultured cells. Mist functioned in Fog-dependent embryonic morphogenesis, and the transcription factor Snail regulated expression of mist in zygotes. Our data revealed how a cell fate transcriptional program acts through a ligand-GPCR pair to stimulate epithelial morphogenetic shape changes. PMID:24222713

  3. Lipoid pneumonia caused by oil mist exposure from a steel rolling tandem mill

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.R.; Balmes, J.R.; Robins, J.M.; Smith, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Five of nine active tandem mill operators exposed at work to aerosolized hydrocarbon mist were referred for evaluation of respiratory complaints. The worker with the longest exposure had reduced lung volumes; he was admitted to the hospital for detailed study. Exercise studies revealed work load limited by ventilation and arterial oxygen desaturation. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed evidence of lipoid pneumonia. Assessment of the mill revealed levels of respirable oil mist by personal samplers throughout the area far below the currently accepted standard of 5 mg/M3. These findings confirm a 20-year-old hypothesis of J.G. Jones regarding the hazard of oil mist in this industrial setting.

  4. Effective Removal of Oil-mist and Odorous Component By Using Photocatalyst with Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Teruo; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Onishi, Hajime; Tada, Yukio; Takimoto, Akira

    The air cleaning is one of the social problems from the view of the living environment and the health recently. A commercial kitchen and food factory generate the exhaust gas including the odorous components and the oil-mist, but it is difficult to clean this gas without frequent maintenance for disposal of oil. Various ideas have been suggested and used for it, but the decisive solution has not been found yet. This paper is concerning of proposal of the photocatalyst method which used the condensation together to clean the gas including oil-mist and odorous component, and it was clarified experimentally about the influence of operation condition and surface shape of the condensation side for the removal of oil-mist and the odorous components of formaldehyde, amine and ammonia.

  5. Heat transfer optimization for air-mist cooling between a stack of parallel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Roy J.

    2010-06-01

    A theoretical model is developed to predict the upper limit heat transfer between a stack of parallel plates subject to multiphase cooling by air-mist flow. The model predicts the optimal separation distance between the plates based on the development of the boundary layers for small and large separation distances, and for dilute mist conditions. Simulation results show the optimal separation distance to be strongly dependent on the liquid-to-air mass flow rate loading ratio, and reach a limit for a critical loading. For these dilute spray conditions, complete evaporation of the droplets takes place. Simulation results also show the optimal separation distance decreases with the increase in the mist flow rate. The proposed theoretical model shall lead to a better understanding of the design of fins spacing in heat exchangers where multiphase spray cooling is used.

  6. Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: a discussion of alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard; White, Eugene M

    2006-09-01

    NIOSH published a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids (MWF) in 1998 that was designed to prevent respiratory disorders associated with these industrial lubricants. The REL of 0.4 mg/m(3) (as a time-weighted average for up to 10 hours) was for the fraction of aerosol corresponding to deposition in the thoracic region of the lungs. This nonregulatory occupational exposure limit (OEL) corresponded to approximately 0.5 mg/m(3) for total particulate mass. Although this REL was designed to prevent respiratory disorders from MWF exposures, NIOSH acknowledged that exposures below the REL may still result in occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis--two of the most significant respiratory illnesses associated with MWF. In the 8 years since the publication of the NIOSH MWF REL, neither the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) nor the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended an exposure limit for water-soluble MWF specifically, other than their previous exposure limits for mineral oil. An informal effort to benchmark companies involved in the manufacture of automobiles and automotive parts in North America indicated that most companies are using the NIOSH MWF REL as a guide for the purchase of new equipment. Furthermore, most companies have adopted a goal to limit exposures to below 1.0 mg/m3. We failed to find any company that has strictly enforced an OEL of 1.0 mg/m(3) through the use of either administrative controls or personal protective equipment, when engineering controls failed to bring the exposures to below this limit. We also found that most companies have failed to implement specific medical surveillance programs for those employees exposed to MWF mist above 1.0 mg/m(3). Organization Resources Counselors (ORC) published in 1999 (on their website) a "best practices" manual for maintaining MWF systems and reducing the likelihood of MWF-related illnesses. The emphasis of this

  7. Solvent dewaxing of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-04-09

    This paper describes improvement in a process for producing a dewaxed lubricating oil from a wax-bearing mineral oil by the steps comprising; mixing the oil with a dewaxing solvent thereby forming an oil-solvent mixture, chilling the oil-solvent mixture to a dewaxing temperature thereby crystallizing the wax and forming an oil-solvent crystalline wax mixture, separating the oil-solvent-crystalline wax mixture to form a dewaxed oil-solvent mixture and crystalline wax, steam stripping the dewaxed oil-solvent mixture at a temperature of 300{degrees}F to 600{degrees}F and pressure of 1 atm to 3 atm, to yield a solvent free dewaxed oil.

  8. Coatings for wear and lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in the tribological uses of rf-sputtered and ion plated films of solid film lubricants (laminar solids, soft metals, organic polymers) and wear resistant refractory compounds (carbides, nitrides, silicides) are reviewed. The sputtering and ion plating potentials and the corresponding coatings formed were evaluated relative to the friction coefficient, wear endurance life and mechanical properties. The tribological and mechanical properties for each kind of film are discussed in terms of film adherence, coherence, density, grain size, morphology, internal stresses, thickness, and substrate conditions such as temperature, topography, chemistry and dc-biasing. The ion plated metallic films in addition to improved tribological properties also have better mechanical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue life.

  9. Autoclaving of lubricated dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Hegna, I K; Kardel, K; Kardel, M

    1978-03-01

    Test organisms forced mechanically into lubricated, rotating dental instruments (handpieces) were all killed during autoclaving at 134 degrees C for 8 min, even when protected by serum and oil. The test organisms were: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Also when testing the sterility of autoclaved simulated instrument surfaces (brass cylinders and pieces of a cotton fabric) which had been inoculated with bacteria and dried before they were sprayed with oil, there was no growth of the test organisms. In addition to the other test organisms, spores of Bacillus subtilis and Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria isolated from used handpieces that had been exposed to several autoclavings were used. Some of the handpieces that had been left to dry after use in the dentist's office before they were autoclaved, were shown not to be sterile. Therefore, the authors suggest that autoclaving of the instruments should take place shortly after use and prescribed cleaning. PMID:274800

  10. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, June 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    We have started to make a number of classes of new perfluoropolyethers both in the solid lubricant area and liquid lubricant area. We have prepared some chlorofluoroethers for testing as additives for normal petroleum and polyalphaolefin lubricants which are so widely used in the United States. Perfluoropolyethers are not soluble in hydrocarbons. On the other hand, these chlorofluoropolyethers are soluble in substantial amounts in simple hydrocarbons. These are uniquely capable of being additives that flow with the motor oil or the polyalphaolefin.

  11. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two

  12. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Mist Cooling for the Electra Hibachi

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, V.; Sadowski, D.; Shin, S.; Schoonover, K.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    2005-04-15

    An experimental and numerical investigation has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of gas/liquid mist as a means of cooling the Electra hibachi structure. The aim is to quantify the effect of various operating and design parameters, viz. gas/liquid combination, gas velocity, liquid mass fraction, liquid atomization nozzle design (i.e. spray geometry, cone angle, and droplet size distribution), and heat flux on mist cooling effectiveness. The data are used to validate a mechanistic model which can be used to predict the hibachi foil's response under prototypical pulsed operating conditions.A fully-instrumented experimental test facility has been designed and constructed. The facility includes three electrically-heated test sections, including a channel with prototypical Electra hibachi dimensions. Water is used as the mist liquid, with air, or helium, as the carrier gas. Three mist generating nozzles with significantly different spray characteristics are used. Values of the local heat transfer coefficient along the channel surface are measured for a wide range of operating conditions. The data indicate that mist cooling can increase the heat transfer coefficients by nearly an order of magnitude compared to forced convection using only the carrier gas. Comparison has been made between the data and predictions of a mechanistic three-dimensional computer program for transient two-phase flow in the channel coupled with heat conduction in the surrounding structure; excellent agreement has been obtained. The results indicate that gas/liquid mist can effectively cool the Electra hibachi structure within the design constraints imposed on circulating power requirements.

  13. Degradation of organic gases using ultrasonic mist generated from TiO2 suspension.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Kazuhiko; Noshiroya, Daisuke; Handa, Misako; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Namiki, Norikazu

    2010-09-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of organic gases with mist particles that were formed by ultrasonic atomization of a TiO(2) suspension was performed with three different ultraviolet light sources. Three aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs; toluene, p-xylene, and styrene) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) were chosen as model organic gases for the degradation experiment. Under UV(365) irradiation, toluene was decomposed by a photocatalytic reaction on the surface of mist particles. Under UV(254+185) irradiation, the removal efficiency and mineralization ratio of the VOC gases were higher than those under UV(365) or UV(254) irradiation. Under UV(254+185) irradiation, it was found that VOC gases were immediately degraded and converted to water-soluble intermediates by not only direct photolysis but also oxidation by OH radical, since the removal efficiency of several organic gases depended on the reaction rate with OH radical and the primary effect of generated ozone was to complete the mineralization of the intermediates. On the other hand, water-soluble aldehyde gases were rapidly trapped by mist particles before reaction on their surface. Furthermore, water-soluble intermediates that formed via the decomposition of VOC gases were completely trapped in the mist and were not detected at the reactor exit. Therefore, notable secondary particle generation was not observed, even under UV(254+185) irradiation. Based on these results as well as the size distribution of the mist droplets, it was found that primarily submicron-scale droplets contributed to the photocatalytic reaction. Lastly, we propose a mechanism for the degradation of organic gaseous pollutants on the surface of mist particles. PMID:20705323

  14. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per... Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. 84.1143 Section 84.1143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. 84.1143 Section 84.1143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. 84.1143 Section 84.1143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. 84.1143 Section 84.1143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. 84.1143 Section 84.1143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1143 Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter...

  1. The basics of powder lubrication in high-temperature powder-lubricated dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.; Walton, J.F. )

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a novel powder-lubricated rotor bearing system damper concept for use in high-temperature, high-speed rotating machinery such as advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. The approach discussed herein consists of replacing a conventional oil lubrication or frictional damper system with a powder lubrication system that uses the process particulates or externally fed powder lubricant. Unlike previous work in this field, this approach is based on the postulate of the quasi-hydrodynamic nature of powder lubrication. This postulate is deduced from past observation and present verification that there are a number of basic features of powder flow in narrow interfaces that have the characteristic behavior of fluid film lubrication. In addition to corroborating the basic mechanism of powder lubrication, the conceptual and experimental work performed in this program provides guidelines for selection of the proper geometries, materials, and powders suitable for this tribological process. The present investigation describes the fundamentals of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication and defines the rationale underlying the design of the test facility. The performance and the results of the experimental program present conclusions reached regarding design requirements as well as the formulation of a proper model of quasi-hydrodynamic powder lubrication.

  2. Health effects of oil mists: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, C R

    1989-05-01

    Metal cutting/grinding fluids are of three basic types: straight oil (insoluble), oil-in-water emulsions (soluble) and synthetic/semisynthetic. All contain a variety of additives to improve performance. Human exposure occurs primarily by direct skin contact with the liquid or by skin and respiratory contact after fluid misting. Dermatitis caused by primary or direct skin irritation is the most prevalent health effect of exposure to cutting fluids. Occasionally allergic dermatitis is seen which is related to the development of sensitization to one or more of the additive components. Recent studies indicate that long-term exposure to cutting fluids does not result in increased incidences of lung cancer, urinary bladder cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, or death from non-malignant respiratory diseases. Long-term exposure to certain cutting fluids, however, is believed to have resulted in certain types of skin cancer, especially scrotal cancer. It is likely that these carcinogenic responses were caused by contact with polycyclic aromatic compounds (PCA) of 3-7 rings. Modern base oils which are severely refined have very low levels of PCA, are not carcinogenic in animal bioassays, and are unlikely to be carcinogenic in man. This is not necessarily true for re-refined oils which may contain significant levels of PCA and polychlorinated biphenyls derived from comingling used cutting oils with used engine oils and transformer oils. Cutting oils, themselves, generally do not accumulate significant levels of carcinogenic PCA during use. Additives, in theory, can cause a variety of health effects either directly or through the generation of reaction products such as nitrosamines. In actual use, adverse health effects appear to be limited to occasional instances of allergic contact dermatitis. Nitrosamines are extremely carcinogenic in test animals; although no human cancer cases directly attributable to nitrosamine contamination have been observed, nitrosating agents and

  3. Plant Habitat Telemetry / Command Interface and E-MIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Uriae M.

    2013-01-01

    (CAD) software was used to draft the E-MIST circuit. This required several component libraries to be created. Coding the sensors and obtaining sensor data involved using the Arduino Uno developmental board and coding language, and properly wiring peripheral sensors to the microcontroller (the central control unit of the experiment).

  4. Experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of water mist automated fire extinguishing systems for oil transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Nyashina, G. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Volkov, R. S.

    2015-11-01

    Experimental investigation of regularities of carryover of water mist droplets (radius of 50 - 500 μm) by high temperature (500 - 1800 K) products of combustion of typical petroleum products (oil, gasoline, kerosene, etc.) was carried out. The panoramic optical methods and high-speed hardware and software systems were used. Speeds of droplets after mixing with oncoming high temperature gases were determined. Conditions of continuation of droplets movement through combustion products with preservation of initial trajectory in spite of intensive evaporation and braking were found. The predictive evaluation of effectiveness of water mist use for extinguishing of fires involving oil and typical petroleum products.

  5. Experimental Evaluation the Effectiveness of Water Mist Fire Extinguishing Systems at Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyashina, G. S.; Medvedev, V. V.; Shevyrev, S. A.; Vysokomornaya, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    Currently mist water is one of the most promising areas of fire protection. We performed an experimental study of phase transformations drops of water mist (range 50 - 500 microns) in motion in a high-temperature (500 - 2000 K) typical products of combustion of petroleum products (gasoline, kerosene, acetone, alcohol). We used high speed (the speed of shooting at least 105 frames per second) and optical methods of recording streams of liquid and gas medium. We determined the effect of the parameters of the test process (the initial temperature and the initial droplet size) at the rate of evaporation of atomized water under these conditions.

  6. Remote lubrication system for conveyor bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, C.L. Jr.

    1993-08-03

    In an assembly having a hard-to-reach rotary means supported by a bearing to be lubricated, a housing enclosing said bearing, and a fixed frame means for mounting said rotary means through said housing, a lubrication system is described comprising: access ports in said housing for communicating lubricant to said bearing; an elongated channel of predetermined length having at least two ends in said fixed frame means in fluid communication with at least one of said access ports located between said ends; means for sealing the ports not aligned with said channel; and stationary conduit means leading to a remote location in fluid communication with said channel; whereby lubricant is communicated through said conduit means, said channel, and at least one of said access ports for application to said bearing from a remote location.

  7. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  8. Burnishing technique improves lubrication of threaded fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruper, J. L.

    1965-01-01

    Burnishing a molydisulfide coating into the thread surfaces of fasteners eliminates the need for binders and vehicles which ensure coverage and retention of the lubricant during fastening. The coating may be applied by any convenient method.

  9. High temperature rare earth solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Rare earth trifluorides have potential use as lubricating fillers for mechanical carbons and as coatings on metallic substrates. Friction experiments show that they are effective in reducing metallic wear.

  10. High-Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA PS400 is a solid lubricant coating invented for high-temperature tribological applications. This plasma-sprayed coating is a variant of the previously patented PS304 coating, and has been formulated to provide higher density, smoother surface finish, and better dimensional stability. This innovation is a new composite material that provides a means to reduce friction and wear in mechanical components. PS400 is a blend of a nickel-molybdenum binder, chrome oxide hardener, silver lubricant, and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic lubricant that can either be sprayed or deposited by other means, such as powder metallurgy. The resulting composite material is then finished by grinding and polishing to produce a smooth, self-lubricating surface.

  11. Fundamental considerations for future solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

    1969-01-01

    Properties important to the performance of solid lubricants are discussed. Those properties include shear characteristics, coherence between particles, resistance to cold flow, adherence to the substrate, applicable chemical thermodynamics and kinetics of materials and environments, polymorphism, and rheology. The following generalizations are made: (1) chemical thermodynamics and kinetics are powerful tools for use in determining the useful environments and methods of application for solid film lubricants; (2) the primary requirement for a solid lubricant is low shear strength; (3) the rheology of solid film constituents and formulations is likely to be of vital importance to performance and life; and (4) adherence and mobility of surface films is another primary requirement for long lived solid lubricants.

  12. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  13. Overview of liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall status report on liquid lubricants for use in high-performance turbojet engines is presented. Emphasis is placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is iven of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some nine candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Also, alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of of continuing work on improving high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of fluid base stocks is discussed.

  14. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

    1992-07-01

    Information contained in this reporters designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. Swell measurements have been made on approximately 50% of the proposed elastomers (94 total)in both the lubricant (7 total) and refrigerant (10 total) materials. Swell behavior in the these fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

  15. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  16. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  17. Tribometer for Lubrication Studies in Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a new way to evaluate the liquid lubricants used in ball bearings in space mechanisms. For this evaluation, a liquid lubricant is exercised in the rolling contact vacuum tribometer shown in the photo. This tribometer, which is essentially a thrust bearing with three balls and flat races, has contact stresses similar to those in a typical preloaded, angular contact ball bearing. The rotating top plate drives the balls in an outward-winding spiral orbit instead of a circular path. Upon contact with the "guide plate," the balls are forced back to their initial smaller orbit radius; they then repeat this spiral orbit thousands of times. The orbit rate of the balls is low enough, 2 to 5 rpm, to allow the system to operate in the boundary lubrication regime that is most stressful to the liquid lubricant. This system can determine the friction coefficient, lubricant lifetime, and species evolved from the liquid lubricant by tribodegradation. The lifetime of the lubricant charge is only few micrograms, which is "used up" by degradation during rolling. The friction increases when the lubricant is exhausted. The species evolved by the degrading lubricant are determined by a quadrupole residual gas analyzer that directly views the rotating elements. The flat races (plates) and 0.5-in.-diameter balls are of a configuration and size that permit easy post-test examination by optical and electron microscopy and the full suite of modern surface and thin-film chemical analytical techniques, including infrared and Raman microspectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, the simple sphere-on-a-flat-plate geometry allows an easy analysis of the contact stresses at all parts of the ball orbit and an understanding of the frictional energy losses to the lubricant. The analysis showed that when the ball contacts the guide plate, gross sliding occurs between the ball and rotating upper plate as the ball forced back to a smaller

  18. Polymer Lubricants For Use In Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes tests of lubricating properties of 10 polymer-based materials - in particular, polyimides - in vacuum. Commercially available materials, in forms of solid bodies and films on metals, were tested on pin-on-disk apparatus in vacuum. Best low-wear, low-friction material was 80 PMDA/20 BTDA solid-body polyimide. Friction and wear properties of most polyimides so good in vacuum that solid-lubricant additives not necessary.

  19. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  20. New Lubricants Protect Machines and the Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 1994, NASA and Lockheed Martin Space Operations commissioned Sun Coast Chemicals of Daytona Inc to develop a new type of lubricant that would be safe for the environment and help "grease the wheels" of the shuttle-bearing launcher platform. Founded in 1989, Sun Coast Chemicals is known amongst the racing circuit for effective lubricants that help overcome engine and transmission problems related to heat and wear damage. In a matter of weeks, Sun Coast Chemical produced the biodegradable, high-performance X-1R Crawler Track Lube. In 1996, Sun Coast Chemical determined there was a market for this new development, and introduced three derivative products, Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lubricant, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid, and then quickly followed with a gun lubricant/cleaner and a fishing rod and reel lubricant. Just recently, Sun Coast introduced the X-1R Corporation, which folds the high-performance, environmentally safe benefits into a full line of standard automotive and specially formulated racing products. The entire X-1R automotive product line has stood up to rigorous testing by groups such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Oakland University (Rochester, Michigan), and Morgan-McClure Motorsports (Abingdon, Virginia). The X-1R Corporation also markets "handy packs" for simple jobs around the house, consisting of a multi-purpose, multi-use lubricant and grease. In 2003, The X-1R Corporation teamed up with Philadelphia-based Penn Tackle Manufacturing Co., a leading manufacturer of fishing tackle since 1932, to jointly develop and market a line of advanced lubrication products for saltwater and freshwater anglers

  1. Tribology experiment. [journal bearings and liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    A two-dimensional concept for Spacelab rack 7 was developed to study the interaction of liquid lubricants and surfaces under static and dynamic conditions in a low-gravity environment fluid wetting and spreading experiments of a journal bearing experiments, and means to accurately measure and record the low-gravity environment during experimentation are planned. The wetting and spreading process of selected commercial lubricants on representative surface are to the observes in a near-zero gravity environment.

  2. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  3. Investigation of lubricants under boundary friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidebroek, E; Pietsch, E

    1942-01-01

    Numerous observations of such lubrication processes within range of boundary friction on journal bearings and gear tooth profiles have strengthened the supposition that it should be possible to study the attendant phenomena with engineering methods and equipment. These considerations formed the basis of the present studies, which have led to the discovery of relations governing the suitability of bearing surfaces and the concept of "lubricating quality."

  4. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-06-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Relative humidity is large in the mist-fog-mist cycle, and aerosols most efficient in interacting with visible radiation are hydrated and compose the accumulation mode. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of these hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 0.4 μm were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, under ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with a cumulated fog duration of 96 h, and a cumulated mist-fog-mist cycle duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down from 5 to a few kilometres, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and some aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the aerosol accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Nha also increased on average by 60 % after fog formation. Consequently, the mean contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% from hydrated aerosols smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% from larger aerosols. The standard deviation was large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or 3 times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1. We observed an influence of

  5. Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F.

    1978-01-01

    The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

  6. Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants. Final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1997-07-01

    Part one of this research provides manufacturers of components of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a useful list of lubricant additives, sources, functional properties and chemical species. The list in part one is comprised of domestic lubricant additive suppliers and the results of a literature search that was specifically targeted for additives reported to be useful in polyolester chemistry.

  7. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  8. Mist Interval and Hormone Concentration Influence Rooting of Florida and Piedmont Azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native azalea (Rhododendron spp.) vegetative propagation information is limited. The objective of this experiment is to determine optimal levels of K-IBA and mist intervals for propagation of Florida azalea (Rhododendron austrinum) and Piedmont azalea (Rhododendron canescens). Florida azalea roote...

  9. MIST: a web-based irrigation scheduling tool for Mississippi crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased reliance on supplemental irrigation has begun to deplete the alluvial aquifer in the Mississippi Delta region. To alleviate nonproductive overuse of groundwater resources, we are developing a web-based irrigation scheduling tool. The Mississippi Irrigation Scheduling Tool (MIST) uses a wat...

  10. Plasma-Assisted Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zinc Oxide Films for Flexible Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-assisted mist chemical vapor deposition of ZnO films was performed for transparent conductive oxide formation of flexible electronics. In this study, ZnO films deposition using atmospheric-pressure He plasma generated by a micro-hollow cathode-type plasma source has been demonstrated. To obtain detail information according to generation of species in the plasma, the optical emission spectra of the atmospheric pressure He plasma with and without mist were measured. The result without mist shows considerable emissions of He lines, emissions attributed to the excitation and dissociation of air including N2 and O2 (N, O, and NO radials, and N2 molecule; N2 second positive band and first positive band), while the results with mist showed strong emissions attributed to the dissociation of H2O (OH and H radicals). The deposition of ZnO films was performed using atmospheric-pressure He plasma. The XRD patterns showed no crystallization of the ZnO films irradiated with pure He. On the other hand, the ZnO film crystallized with the irradiation with He/O2 mixture plasma. These results indicate that the atmospheric-pressure He/O2 mixture plasma has sufficient reactivity necessary for the crystallization of ZnO films at room temperature. This work was supported partly by The Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(C)) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  11. Measuring tropospheric HNO3 - Problems and prospects for Nylon filter and mist chamber techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1990-05-01

    A series of laboratory and field measurements was performed to evaluate the mist chamber technique for determining tropospheric HNO3 concentrations. Both the mist chamber and standard Nylon filter techniques exhibit high collection efficiency and excellent agreement measuring HNO3 vapors from a permeation source. When simultaneously sampling ambient air in eastern Virginia, the Nylon filter measured an average of 70 percent higher HNO3 concentration than the mist chamber technique. The results indicate that O3 causes a low-level positive artifact interference in HNO3 measurements performed with the filter technique. This O3-induced error is small, however, compared to the large difference between atmospheric HNO3 concentrations determined with the two techniques. It is hypothesized that unidentified (organic?) nitrogen species in the atmosphere react for form NO3(-) on the filter and this phenomenon may interfere with Nylon filter measurements of HNO3 vapor. These potential interferences did not appear to affect measurements of HNO3 with the mist chamber method.

  12. Communitywide outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a grocery store mist machine.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, F J; Hoge, C W; Farley, T A; Barbaree, J M; Breiman, R F; Benson, R F; McFarland, L M

    1992-04-01

    From 10 October through 13 November 1989, 33 patients were hospitalized with legionnaires' disease in Bogalusa, Louisiana. A case-control study revealed case-patients were more likely than controls to have shopped at grocery store A (93% vs. 52%; odds ratio [OR], 11.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-78.7) in the 10 days before illness. Among those who shopped at grocery store A, case-patients were more likely to shop for greater than 30 min (OR, 18.0; CI, 2.0-407.8) and to buy produce items located close to an ultrasonic mist machine (OR, 7.4; CI, 1.3-56.2). Employees of grocery store A were more likely than employees of other grocery stores in Bogalusa to have antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:128 to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1; relative risk, 2.9; CI, 1.3-6.8). Lp-1 was isolated from water in the reservoir of the mist machine. The monoclonal antibody subtype of the isolate was identical to organisms identified in two patients. Viable Lp-1 was isolated from mist produced by the machine. Aerosols from a grocery store mist machine were the source of this outbreak. PMID:1552203

  13. Instruction Workbook for Tracheostomy Suctioning and Misting in a School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Karen McKinney; Roach, Antionette Andolfatto

    The handbook presents California guidelines for training school personnel to provide skilled nursing procedures such as tracheostomy suctioning and misting for students with special health needs. The workbook begins with an overview of the anatomy and function of the respiratory system, specifically breathing mechanics. Part 2 considers the…

  14. Large viewing angle projection type electro-holography using new type mist 3D screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Koki; Zhao, Hongming; Takano, Kunihiko

    2008-02-01

    Recently, many type of 3-D displays are now being developed. We want to see 3-D moving image with comfortably and more expanded depth, Holography is different from the other 3-D display because natural stereoscopic image can be obtained. We have once developed a electro-holographic display using virtual image. But the viewing area is so small because the pixcel size of LCD is not so small. This time we developed the projection type electro-holographic display system. In the case of projection type holography [1], it needs to use the 3-D screen in order to project the reconstructed image clearly and viewing angle becomes wide. We developed the electro-holographic display system using mist 3-D screen. However, a reconstructed image with mist 3-D screen was flickered by gravity and flow of air. Then we considered to reduce the flicker of the image and we found that flicker could be reduced using flow controlled nozzle. Hence, at first we considered the most suitable shape of 3-D screen and then we constructed the array of flow controlled mist 3D screen. By the results of experiment we could get considerably high contrast 3-D moving image and get the viewing area more than 30°by this flow controlled nozzle attached new type mist 3-D screen and make clear the efficiency of this method.

  15. Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 1: Experimental system

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the airfoil cooling significantly for the future generation of advanced turbine systems (ATS), a fundamental experimental program has been developed to study the heat transfer mechanisms of mist/steam cooling under highly superheated wall temperatures. The mist/steam mixture was obtained by blending fine water droplets (3 {approximately} 15 {micro}m in diameter) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bars. Two mist generation systems were tested by using the pressure atomizer and the steam-assisted pneumatic atomizer, respectively. The test section, heated directly by a DC power supply, consisted of a thin-walled ({approximately} 0.9 mm), circular stainless steel tube with an ID of 20 mm and a length of 203 mm. Droplet size and distribution were measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system through view ports grafted at the inlet and the outlet of the test section. Mist transportation and droplet dynamics were studied in addition to the heat transfer measurements. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet mass ratios ranging from 1 {approximately} 6%.

  16. Growth and electrical properties of AlOx grown by mist chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Takayuki; Sanada, Masaru; Furuta, Mamoru

    2013-03-01

    Aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin films were grown using aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac)3) as a source solute by mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD). The AlOx thin films grown at temperatures above 400°C exhibited a breakdown field (EBD) over 6 MV/cm and a dielectric constant (κ) over 6. It is suggested that residual OH bonding in the AlOx thin films grown at temperatures below 375°C caused degradation of the breakdown field (EBD). With FC type mist CVD, the reaction proceeded efficiently (Ea = 22-24 kJ/mol) because the solvent, especially H2O, worked as a stronger oxygen source. The AlOx film could be grown at 450°C with a high deposition rate (23 nm/min) and smooth surface (RMS = 1.5 nm). Moreover, the AlOx thin films grown by mist CVD had excellent practicality as insulators because the gate leakage current (IG) of the oxide thin film transistor (TFT) with an IGZO/AlOx stack was suppressed below 1 pA at a gate voltage (VG) of 20 V.

  17. The effect of a coating material on mist cooling of hot metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Saka, Mitsuo; Tatsuta, Koichi

    1996-08-01

    The accurate knowledge of mist cooling characteristics is important for analyzing emergency cooling system under loss-of-coolant-accident conditions. Heat transfer characteristics of mist cooling are affected by many factors (Carbajo, 1985). Attention should be given to the effect of thermal conductance of surface materials on the cooling process of used fuels whose surfaces are oxided or contaminated by some impurities in the coolant. This paper deals with transient boiling heat transfer to mist flow of air-water mixture from hot metals coated with a thin layer of insulating (low thermal conductivity) material. The test specimens selected for the present experiment are silver and stainless steel disks whose heat transfer surface is coated with a refractory paint. The heated disk is plunged vertically into the mist flow and is cooled down to the saturation temperature of water under atmospheric pressure. The coating produces a great enhancement in heat transfer, especially in transition and film boiling regions. This enhancement becomes higher with increasing coating thickness. Heat transfer is more enhanced as mass velocity of water increases although it has a weak dependency on linear velocity of air.

  18. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis by a Cool-Mist Vaporizer a Detailed Microbiologic and Immunologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Chun; Choi, Jin Myung; Lee, Hyun Woo; Hong, Suhk; Kim, Chung Sook

    1989-01-01

    A patient with hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by a contaminated cool-mist vaporizer was evaluated. A detailed microbiologic and immunologic study was done, and a Pseudomonas species was isolated as the possible causative organism by inhalational provocative and serologic tests. PMID:2486849

  19. Measuring tropospheric HNO3 - Problems and prospects for Nylon filter and mist chamber techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    A series of laboratory and field measurements was performed to evaluate the mist chamber technique for determining tropospheric HNO3 concentrations. Both the mist chamber and standard Nylon filter techniques exhibit high collection efficiency and excellent agreement measuring HNO3 vapors from a permeation source. When simultaneously sampling ambient air in eastern Virginia, the Nylon filter measured an average of 70 percent higher HNO3 concentration than the mist chamber technique. The results indicate that O3 causes a low-level positive artifact interference in HNO3 measurements performed with the filter technique. This O3-induced error is small, however, compared to the large difference between atmospheric HNO3 concentrations determined with the two techniques. It is hypothesized that unidentified (organic?) nitrogen species in the atmosphere react for form NO3(-) on the filter and this phenomenon may interfere with Nylon filter measurements of HNO3 vapor. These potential interferences did not appear to affect measurements of HNO3 with the mist chamber method.

  20. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  1. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  2. Mechanisms of lubrication and wear of a bonded solid lubricant film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of how bonded solid lubricant films lubricate and wear (in general), the tribological properties of polyimide-bonded graphite fluoride films were studied (in specific). A pin-on-disk type of testing apparatus was used; but in addition to sliding a hemispherically tipped rider, a rider with a 0.95 mm diameter flat area was slid against the film. This was done so that a lower, less variable contact stress could be achieved. Two stages of lubrication occurred. In the first, the film supported the load. The lubricating mechanism consisted of the shear of a thin surface layer (of the film) between the rider and the bulk of the film. The second occurred after the bonded film had worn to the substrate, and consisted of the shear of very thin lubricant films between the rider and flat plateaus generated on the metallic substrate asperities. The film wear mechanism was strongly dependent on contact stress.

  3. A Study of Flame Propagation on Water-Mist Laden Gas Mixtures in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Riedel, E. P.; McKinnon, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    The use of water mists (very fine water sprays) for fire suppression is currently receiving increased attention as a replacement technology for halogen-based chemical agents-such as Halon 1301 (CF3Br)--the manufacturing of which has been banned by the Montreal Protocol due to their high ozone depletion potential. Water mist technology has been found effective for a wide range of applications such as Class B pool fires, shipboard machinery, aircraft cabins, computers, and electronic equipment. There are five distinct mechanisms by which water droplets may interact with a flame. First, the high enthalpy of vaporization of water (2450 kJ/kg) leads to heat removal from the flame front as the liquid droplets turn to steam. Second, as water vaporizes its volume increases approximately three orders of magnitude, which leads to the dilution of the oxygen and vaporized fuel required to maintain the flame. The third effect is the recombination of H-atoms and other radicals on the droplet surface. A fourth effect of water mists in fires is the retardation of surface propagation rates due to the wetting of walls and surfaces. The last potential impact of fine water mists affects the radiative propagation of the fire by forming an optically thick barrier to infrared radiation which prevents ignition of the unburned regions. Unfortunately, little fundamental information exists on the interaction of a flame with a water mist. To date, there is no widely accepted interpretation of the critical concentration of droplets required to suppress a flame or of the fundamental mechanisms involved in flame extinguishment by water mists. One of the main obstacles to obtaining such understanding is the difficulty of providing a simple, well-defined experimental setup for the flame front/water mist interaction. Some of the difficulty stems from the problem of generating, distributing and maintaining a homogeneous concentration of droplets throughout a chamber while gravity depletes the

  4. Experimental investigations of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Various experimental studies of elastohydrodynamic lubrication have been reviewed. The various types of machines used in these investigations, such as the disc, two and four ball, crossed-cylinders, and crossed-axes rolling disc machine, are described. The measurement of the most important parameters, such as film shape, film thickness, pressure, temperature, and traction, is considered. Determination of the film thickness is generally the most important of these effects since it dictates the extent to which the asperities on opposing surfaces can come into contact and thus has a direct bearing on wear and fatigue failure of the contacting surfaces. Several different techniques for measuring film thickness have been described, including electrical resistance, capacitance, X-ray, optical interferometry, laser beam diffraction, strain gage, and spring dynamometer methods. An attempt has been made to describe the basic concepts and limitations of each of these techniques. These various methods have been used by individual researchers, but there is no universally acceptable technique for measuring elastohydrodynamic film thickness. Capacitance methods have provided most of the reliable data for nominal line or rectangular conjunctions, but optical interferometry has proved to be the most effective procedure for elliptical contacts. Optical interferometry has the great advantage that it reveals not only the film thickness, but also details of the film shape over the complete area of the conjunction.

  5. MIST: An Open Source Environmental Modelling Programming Language Incorporating Easy to Use Data Parallelism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Model Integration System (MIST) is open-source environmental modelling programming language that directly incorporates data parallelism. The language is designed to enable straightforward programming structures, such as nested loops and conditional statements to be directly translated into sequences of whole-array (or more generally whole data-structure) operations. MIST thus enables the programmer to use well-understood constructs, directly relating to the mathematical structure of the model, without having to explicitly vectorize code or worry about details of parallelization. A range of common modelling operations are supported by dedicated language structures operating on cell neighbourhoods rather than individual cells (e.g.: the 3x3 local neighbourhood needed to implement an averaging image filter can be simply accessed from within a simple loop traversing all image pixels). This facility hides details of inter-process communication behind more mathematically relevant descriptions of model dynamics. The MIST automatic vectorization/parallelization process serves both to distribute work among available nodes and separately to control storage requirements for intermediate expressions - enabling operations on very large domains for which memory availability may be an issue. MIST is designed to facilitate efficient interpreter based implementations. A prototype open source interpreter is available, coded in standard FORTRAN 95, with tools to rapidly integrate existing FORTRAN 77 or 95 code libraries. The language is formally specified and thus not limited to FORTRAN implementation or to an interpreter-based approach. A MIST to FORTRAN compiler is under development and volunteers are sought to create an ANSI-C implementation. Parallel processing is currently implemented using OpenMP. However, parallelization code is fully modularised and could be replaced with implementations using other libraries. GPU implementation is potentially possible.

  6. Measuring tropospheric HNO sub 3 : Problems and prospects for nylon filter and mist chamber techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, R.W.; Vijgen, A.S.; Harriss, R.C. )

    1990-05-20

    The authors performed a series of laboratory and field measurements to evaluate the mist chamber technique for determining tropospheric HNO{sub 3} concentrations. Both the mist chamber and standard Nylon filter techniques exhibit high collection efficiency and excellent agreement measuring HNO{sub 3} vapors from a permeation source. When simultaneously sampling ambient air in eastern Virginia the Nylon filter measured an average of 70% higher HNO{sub 3} concentration than the mist chamber technique. Results indicate that O{sub 3} causes a low-level positive artifact interference in HNO{sub 3} measurements performed with the filter technique. This O{sub 3}-induced error is small, however, compared to the large difference between atmospheric HNO{sub 3} concentrations determined with the two techniques. The authors hypothesize that unidentified (organic ) nitrogen species in the atmosphere react for form NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} on the filter and this phenomenon may interfere with Nylon filter measurements of HNO{sub 3} vapor. These potential interferences did not appear to affect measurements of HNO{sub 3} with the mist chamber method, but they are continuing studies to evaluate potential interference from various atmospheric species. Because the mist chamber technique employs an aerosol prefilter, it is probably best suited for measuring HNO{sub 3} concentrations when particle-NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} levels are low. In light of the preliminary results, the authors caution users of the Nylon filter method to continue to critically evaluate this technique for specificity in determining HNO{sub 3} vapor phase concentrations in the atmosphere, particularly at low concentrations typical of the remote troposphere.

  7. Two-phase air/oil flow in aero engine bearing chambers: Characterization of oil film flows

    SciTech Connect

    Glahn, A.; Wittig, S.

    1996-07-01

    For the design of secondary air and lubrication oil systems, a sufficient knowledge of two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena under bearing chamber flow conditions is required. The characterization of oil film flows at the bearing chamber walls is one of the major tasks for a better understanding of these processes and, therefore, a necessity for improvements of the efficiency of aero engines. The present paper gives a contribution to this subject. Utilizing a fiber-optic LDV setup, measurements of oil film velocity profiles have been performed in the high-speed bearing chamber rig simulating real engine conditions. All data have been compared with different theoretical approaches, which have been derived from a force balance at a liquid film element, including geometric conditions and temperature dependent fluid properties, and by approaches for the eddy viscosity available in the literature.

  8. Enhancement of Perfluoropolyether Boundary Lubrication Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Ajayi, O. O.; Wedeven, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    A ball bearing simulator operating under starved conditions was used to perform screening tests to evaluate the boundary lubrication performance of a branched perfluoropolyether (PFPE), K-143 AB. Several approaches to enhance boundary lubrication were studied. These included: (1) soluble boundary additives, (2) bearing surface modifications, (3) 'run-in' surface films, and (4) ceramic bearing components. In addition, results were compared with two non-perfluorinated liquid lubricant formulations. Based on these tests, the following tentative conclusions can be made: (1) Substantial improvements in boundary lubrication performance were observed with a beta-diketone boundary additive and a tricresyl phosphate (TCP) liquid surface pretreatment, (2) the use of rough Si3N4 balls (R(sub a) = 40 micro-inch) also provided increases in test duration, but with concomitant abrasive wear, (3) moderate improvements were seen with two boundary additives (a phosphine and a phosphatriazine) and a neat (100%) fluid (a carboxylic acid terminated PFPE); and small improvements with surface pretreatments with synthetic hydrocarbons, a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating, and TiC coated 440 C and smooth Si3N4 balls (R(sub a) = 1 micro-inch), and (4) two non-PFPE lubricant formulations (a polyalphaolefin (PAO) and synthetic hydrocarbon) yielded substantial improvements.

  9. Additives for high temperature liquid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, C.; Yavrouian, A.H.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this task is to perform research for the Department of Energy (DOE) on the synthesis and characterization of additives for liquid lubricants which will lead to significant improvements in the major tribology task area of friction and wear reductions at high temperature. To this end JPL is surveying candidate precursor compounds which are soluble in liquid lubricants, synthesizing the most promising of these materials, characterizing them, and submitting these additives to NIST for evaluation. Calculations have been made to estimate the Hildebrand solubility parameters for candidate precursor compounds. The initial listing is confined to dinitrites which can form chelates with metals or their compounds. The goal is to find soluble additives that can react in situ with the bearing surface to form adherent lubricating film. Although none of the compounds listed match the solubility parameters of liquid lubricants, the lowest solubility parameters were calculated for dialkyl substituted compounds. In this case, there is probably sufficient solubility to provide adequate amounts of reactants on the metal surfaces. The conclusions are based on previous results where only 1/2 to 1% solubility was sufficient to give excellent lubrication.

  10. Solid Lubrication Fundamentals and Applications. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2000-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on the friction and wear properties of selected solid lubricating films to aid users in choosing the best lubricant, deposition conditions, and operational variables. For simplicity, discussion of the tribological properties of concern is separated into two parts. The first part of the chapter discusses the different solid lubricating films selected for study including commercially developed solid film lubricants: (1) bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), (2) magnetron-sputtered MoS2, (3) ion-plated silver, (4) ion-plated lead, (5) magnetron-sputtered diamondlike carbon (MS DLC), and (6) plasma-assisted, chemical-vapor-deposited diamondlike carbon (PACVD DEC) films. Marked differences in the friction and wear properties of the different films resulted from the different environmental conditions (ultrahigh vacuum, humid air, and dry nitrogen) and the solid film lubricant materials. The second part of the chapter discusses the physical and chemical characteristics, friction behavior, and endurance life of the magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films. The role of interface species and the effects of applied load, film thickness, oxygen pressure, environment, and temperature on the friction and wear properties are considered.

  11. Composites of porous metal and solid lubricants increase bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1967-01-01

    Self-lubricating composites of porous nickel and nickel-chromium alloy impregnated with a barium fluoride-calcium fluoride eutectic, and a thin film of solid lubricant increase wear life of load bearing surfaces.

  12. Mechanics of a gaseous film barrier to lubricant wetting of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prahl, J. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two analytical models, one based on simple hydrodynamic lubrication and the other on soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication, are presented and compared to delineate the dominant physical parameters that govern the mechanics of a gaseous film between a small droplet of lubricant and the outer race of a ball bearing. Both models are based on the balance of gravity forces, air drag forces, and air film lubrication forces and incorporate a drag coefficient C sub D and a lubrication coefficient C sub L to be determined from experiment. The soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model considers the effects of droplet deformation and solid-surface geometry; the simpler hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) model assumes that the droplet remains essentially spherical. The droplet's angular position depended primarily on the ratio of gas inertia to droplet gravity forces and on the gas Reynolds number and weakly on the ratio of droplet gravity forces to surface tension forces (Bond number) and geometric ratios for the soft EHL. An experimental configuration in which an oil droplet is supported by an air film on the rotating outer race of a ball bearing within a pressure-controlled chamber produced measurements of droplet angular position as a function of outer-race velocity droplet size and type, and chamber pressure.

  13. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Centers, P.W.

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 400 nm, composing the accumulation mode, which are the most efficient to interact with visible radiation, were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, in ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with cumulated fog duration of 95 h, and cumulated mist-fog-mist duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew up by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down to few km, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and a significant proportion of aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Moreover Nha increased on average by 60% after fog formation. Consequently the mean aerosol contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% for diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% beyond. The standard deviation is large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or three times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1). We observed an influence of the main formation process on Nha, but not on the contribution to fog extinction by aerosols

  15. Effect of metalworking fluid mist exposure on cross-shift decrement in peak expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Park, Donguk; Chin, Kuwon; Kwag, Hunseok; Youn, Kanwoo; Choi, Sangjun; Ha, Kwonchul; Yoon, Chungsik; Yim, Sanghyuk

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF) mist and cross-shift decrements in peak expiratory flow (PEF) were evaluated and their relationship was analyzed using several statistical methods. The objective of this study was to assess workers, exposure to MWF mineral mist and to find the MWF mist level for predicting cross-shift decrements in PEF. A total of 158 workers handling water-soluble MWF had MWF mist exposures with an arithmetic mean (AM) of 0.4 mg/m(3) (range: LOD-13.5 mg/m(3)), and 9.2% of workers (219) showed a cross-shift decline greater than 10% in PEF. MWF mist exposure and cross-shift decrements in PEF that were matched (n=113) were linearly significantly associated (R(2)=0.036, p=0.045) although the correlation was quite weak (r=0.189). We found a slight increase in cross-shift decrements in PEF with increased exposure to MWF aerosol mass concentration. The MWF mist exposure level was categorized into two or three groups by the cutoffs of either the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Recommended Exposure Level (NIOSH REL: 0.5 mg/m(3)) or the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Notice of Intended Change (ACGIH NIC: 0.2 mg/m(3)). The cross-shift decrement in PEF observed from workers exposed to > or =0.2 mg/m(3) was slightly higher than that of the exposure level of < or =0.2 mg/m(3) at p=0.207 while significant differences among categorized exposure groups (2 categories, <0.5 and > or =0.5 mg/m(3), or 3 categories, <0.2, 0.2-0.5 and > or =0.5 mg/m(3)) were not detected. In order to find out whether there is a specific level that allows us to predict cross-shift decrements in PEF, several statistical models were constructed. Logistic regression showed that the MWF concentration, whether treated as a continuous variable or a categorical variable, was not significantly associated with cross-shift decrements dichotomized by a cutoff of either 10% or 15% in PEF. We couldn't find evidence of a significant PEF decrement

  16. Practical Applications and Uses of Solid Lubricant Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stupp, B. C.

    1984-01-01

    Practical applications are illustrated with discussions covering the reasons for use of solid lubricants, required performance, lubricant selection, and results obtained for the various examples shown. The applications described cover a broad range of solid lubricants. Included are soft lamellar compounds, organic polymers, soft elemental metals, oxides and compounds for high temperature use. The illustrations selected cover a broad range of lubricant application techniques delineating the reasons for the different processing procedures which include bonded films, plasma spraying, sputtering, ion plating and electrodeposition.

  17. Correlation of rheological characteristics of lubricants with transmission efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.; Hoeglund, E.

    1985-01-01

    The power efficiency of a helicopter transmission has been analyzed for 11 lubricants by looking at the Newtonian and non-Newtonian properties of the lubricants. A non-Newtonian property of the lubricants was the limiting shear strength proportionality constant. The tests were performed on a high-pressure, short-time shear strength analyzer. A power efficiency formula that was obtained by analyzing the Newtonian and non-Newtonian properties of the lubricants is presented in detail.

  18. High temperature solid lubricants: When and where to use them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F) is reviewed. Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include the layer lattice compounds: MoS2, WS2, graphite and graphite fluoride, the high temperature polyimide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coating and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearing, and journal bearings.

  19. High temperature solid lubricants - When and where to use them.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F). Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include MoS2, WS2, graphite, graphite fluoride, the high temperature polymide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coatings and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearings, and journal bearings.

  20. Rheological effects on friction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachman, E. G.; Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation is presented of the friction in a rolling and sliding elastohydrodynamic lubricated contact. The rheological behavior of the lubricant is described in terms of two viscoelastic models. These models represent the separate effects of non-Newtonian behavior and the transient response of the fluid. A unified description of the non-Newtonian shear rate dependence of the viscosity is presented as a new hyperbolic liquid model. The transient response of viscosity, following the rapid pressure rise encountered in the contact, is described by a compressional viscoelastic model of the volume response of a liquid to an applied pressure step. The resulting momentum and energy equations are solved by an iterative numerical technique, and a friction coefficient is calculated. The experimental study was performed, with two synthetic paraffinic lubricants, to verify the friction predictions of the analysis. The values of friction coefficient from theory and experiment are in close agreement.

  1. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

    1992-10-01

    Information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on the availability of additional quantities of R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

  2. Electrophoretically-deposited solid film lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.; Panitz, J.K.J.; Vanecek, C.W.

    1995-04-01

    An aqueous-based process that uses electrophoresis to attract powdered lubricant in suspension to a charged target was developed. The deposition process yields coatings with low friction, complies with environmental safety regulations, requires minimal equipment, and has several advantages over processes involving organic binders or vacuum techniques. This work focuses on development of the deposition process, includes an analysis of the friction coefficient of the material in sliding contact with stainless steel under a range of conditions, and a functional evaluation of coating performance in a precision mechanical device application. Results show that solid lubricant films with friction coefficients as low as 0.03 can be produced. A 0.03 friction coefficient is superior to solid lubricants with binder systems and is comparable to friction coefficients generated with more costly vacuum techniques.

  3. Sputtering technology in solid film lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1978-01-01

    Potential and present sputtering technology is discussed as it applies to the deposition of solid film lubricants particularly MoS2, WS2, and PTFE. Since the sputtered films are very thin, the selection of the sputtering parameters and substrate condition is very critical as reflected by the lubricating properties. It was shown with sputtered MoS2 films that the lubricating characteristics are directly affected by the selected sputtering parameters (power density, pressure, sputter etching, dc-biasing, etc.) and the substrate temperature, chemistry, topography and the environmental conditions during the friction tests. Electron microscopy and other surface sensitive analytical techniques illustrate the resulting changes in sputtered MoS2 film morphology and chemistry which directly influence the film adherence and frictional properties.

  4. Traction behavior of two traction lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Rohn, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    In the analysis of rolling-sliding concentrated contacts, such as gears, bearings and traction drives, the traction characteristics of the lubricant are of prime importance. The elastic shear modulus and limiting shear stress properties of the lubricant dictate the traction/slip characteristics and power loss associated with an EHD contact undergoing slip and/or spin. These properties can be deducted directly from the initial slope m and maximum traction coefficient micron of an experimental traction curve. In this investigation, correlation equations are presented to predict m and micron for two modern traction fluids based on the regression analysis of 334 separate traction disk machine experiments. The effects of contact pressure, temperature, surface velocity, ellipticity ratio are examined. Problems in deducing lubricant shear moduli from disk machine tests are discussed.

  5. NASA Lessons Learned from Space Lubricated Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Predmore, Roamer E.

    2000-01-01

    This document reviews the lessons learned from short-life and long life lubricated space mechanisms. A short-life lubricated mechanisms complete their life test qualification requirements after a few cycles. The mechanisms include the hinges, motors and bearings for deployment, release mechanisms, latches, release springs and support shops. Performance testing can be difficult and expensive but must be accomplished. A long-life lubricated mechanisms requires up to 5 years of life testing, or 10 to 100 years of successful flight. The long-life mechanisms include reaction wheels, momentum wheels, antenna gimbals, solar array drives, gyros and despin mechanisms. Several instances of how a mechanisms failed either in test, or in space use, and the lessons learned from these failures are reviewed. The effect of the movement away from CFC-113 cleaning solvent to ODC (Ozone-Depleting Chemical) -free is reviewed, and some of the alternatives are discussed.

  6. Rheology and lubricity of hyaluronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jing; Krause, Wendy E.

    2007-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan) is an important component in synovial fluid (i.e., the fluid that lubricates our freely moving joints). Its presence results in highly viscoelastic solutions. In comparison to healthy synovial fluid, diseased fluid has a reduced viscosity and loss of lubricity. In osteoarthritis the reduction in viscosity results from a decline in both the molecular weight and concentration of HA. In our investigation, we attempt to correlate the rheological properties of HA solutions to changes in lubrication and wear. A nanoindenter will be used to evaluate the coefficient of friction and wear properties between the nanoindenter tip and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene in both the presence and absence of a thin film of HA solution.

  7. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on availability of additional R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

  8. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid 'tribofilms', which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant's anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm. PMID:27488799

  9. Wormgear geometry adopted for implementing hydrostatic lubrication and formulation of the lubrication problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1995-01-01

    The geometrical parameters for a wormgear intended to be used as the transmission in advanced helicopters are finalized. The resulting contact pattern of the meshing tooth surfaces is suitable for the implementation of hydrostatic lubrication Fluid film lubrication of the contact is formulated considering external pressurization as well as hydrodynamic wedge and squeeze actions. The lubrication analysis is aimed at obtaining the oil supply pressure needed to separate the worm and gear surfaces by a prescribed minimum film thickness. The procedure of solving the mathematical problem is outlined.

  10. Developing Standards to Qualify a Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a Fine Water Mist Portable Fire Extinguisher for use on the International Space Station. The International Space Station presently uses two different types of fire extinguishers: a water foam extinguisher in the Russian Segment, and a carbon dioxide extinguisher in the US Segment and Columbus and Kibo pressurized elements. Changes in emergency breathing equipment make Fine Water Mist operationally preferable. Supplied oxygen breathing systems allow for safe discharge of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher, without concerns of the crew inhaling unsafe levels of carbon dioxide. But the Portable Breathing Apparatus offers no more than 15 minutes of capability, and continued use of hose based supplied oxygen systems increases the oxygen content in a fire situation. NASA has developed a filtering respirator cartridge for use in a fire environment. It is qualified to provide up to 90 minutes of capability, and because it is a filtering respirator it does not add oxygen to the environment. The fire response respirator cartridge does not filter carbon dioxide, so a crew member discharging a CO2 fire extinguisher while wearing this filtering respirator would be at risk of inhaling unsafe levels of CO2. Fine Water Mist extinguishes a fire without creating a large volume of air with reduced oxygen and elevated CO2. Compared to the carbon dioxide based Portable Fire Extinguisher, the flight qualification of Fine Water Mist systems requires special care. Qualification of the CO2 based Portable Fire Extinguisher began with the assumption that any fire on ISS would be extinguished if the air in the fire environment reached a critical concentration of CO2. Qualification of a CO2 based system requires the developers to make assertions and assumptions about vehicle geometry and the ability of the extinguisher to deliver CO2 in different geometric configurations, but the developers did not need to make assertions or assumptions about the size of the fire, the

  11. Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a 'known human carcinogen' in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) report where phosphate fertilizer manufacture was listed as one of many occupational exposures to strong acids. To properly assess the occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists in modern facilities, approved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7903 and a cascade impactor were used for measuring the total sulfuric acid mist concentration and size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentration, respectively. Sampling was conducted at eight phosphate fertilizer plants and two background sites in Florida and there were 24 sampling sites in these plants. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) to quantify the water-soluble ion species. The highest sulfuric acid concentrations by the cascade impactor were obtained at the sulfuric acid pump tank area. When high aerosol mass concentrations (100 micro g m(-3)) were observed at this area, the sulfuric acid mists were in the coarse mode. The geometric mean sulfuric acid concentrations (+/-geometric standard deviation) of PM(23) (aerodynamic cut size smaller than 23 micro m), PM(10) and PM(2.5) from the cascade impactor were 41.7 (+/-5.5), 37.9 (+/-5.8) and 22.1 (+/-4.5) micro g m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean (+/-geometric standard deviation) for total sulfuric acid concentration from the NIOSH method samples was 143 (+/-5.08) micro g m(-3). Sulfuric acid mist concentrations varied significantly among the plants and even at the same location. The measurements by the NIOSH method were 1.5-229 times higher than those by the cascade impactor. Moreover, using the NIOSH method, the sulfuric acid concentrations measured at the lower flow rate (0.30 Lpm) were higher than those at the higher flow rate (0.45 Lpm). One possible reason for the significant differences between the results from the cascade impactor and the NIOSH method is the potential

  12. Evaluation of a new mist-chamber bioreactor for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Tscheschke, Bernd; Dreimann, Janis; von der Ruhr, Jürgen W; Schmidt, Timo; Stahl, Frank; Just, Lothar; Scheper, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    In this article we describe the development, the characterization and the evaluation of a novel bioreactor type for the cultivation of different pro- and eukaryotic cell-systems: the mist-chamber bioreactor. This innovative bioreactor meets the demand of cultivation systems for shear stress sensitive cells with high requirements for gas supply. Within the mist-chamber bioreactor the cells are cultivated inside an aerosol of vaporized medium generated by ultrasonic vaporization. In contrast to many established bioreactor systems the mist-chamber bioreactor offers an environment with an excellent gas supply without any impeller or gas bubble induced shear stress. A mist-chamber bioreactor prototype has been manufactured and characterized during this work. In the technical and chemical characterization we evaluated the vaporization process, resulting in a vaporization performance of 32 mL/h at working conditions. On this basis we calculated a biomass of 1.4 g (S. cerevisiae, qs  = 3.45 × 10-3 mol/g/h) and 3.4 g (Aspergillus niger, qs  = 1.33 × 10-3 mol/g/h) where the growth rate becomes limited by transport processes. Additionally, we determined a homogenous cultivation area to a height of 3 cm giving a total volume of 0.45 L for the cultivation. Medium components were examined according to their stability during vaporization with the result that all components are stable for at least 5 days. After the technical characterization we demonstrated the feasibility to cultivate S. cerevisiae and F. velupites in the mist-chamber bioreactor. The results demonstrated that the mist-chamber bioreactor is able to transport a sufficient amount of nutrients consistently to the cell samples and offers an excellent oxygen supply without any shear stress inducing aeration. Furthermore we successfully cultivated F. velupites in a solid state cultivation in a long term experiment. The data indicate that the new bioreactor concept can contribute to

  13. Evaluation of mist-net sampling as an index to productivity in Kirtland's Warblers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, J.; Kepler, C.; Sykes, P.; Bocetti, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    In summary, in our study (1) capture rates (number of HY birds/number of AHY birds) were not useful as a direct measure of productivity in Kirtland's Warblers because HY birds were about 1.7 times more likely than AHY birds to be captured in mist nets; (2) capture rates varied substantially among sites, presumably because of changes in habitat that affected movements during late summer (thus, capture rates at a single site did not provide a useful index to population-wide productivity); and (3) population-wide capture rates provided useful indices to population-wide productivity. As noted previously, the first two conclusions are already accepted by specialists in the use of mist netting to index productivity. Our study presents the first evidence that annual variation in relative capture rates is sufficiently small that mist netting at multiple sites in a region can provide a useful index to region-wide productivity. The region must be large relative to late-summer movements by the study species, which means that obtaining habitat-specific productivity rates will be possible only within large patches of habitat. It should also be recognized that many species will move much farther than Kirtland's Warblers (owing to their limited breeding distribution). Our results suggest that mist-netting programs like MAPS and the Constant Effort Sites used in Britain can provide useful measures of temporal patterns, large-scale spatial patterns, and year-specific patterns in avian productivity. Furthermore, unlike most nest-monitoring studies, mist netting in late summer measures season-long productivity, the quantity of greatest use in most demographic analyses. Late-summer mist netting thus appears to be a useful method for studying avian productivity provided that investigators realize that results from at least six to eight sites that are well distributed across a large region must be combined to obtain a valid index, and that results obtained in this manner describe

  14. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  16. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lubricating-oil systems. 56.50-80 Section 56.50-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-80 Lubricating-oil systems. (a) The lubricating oil system shall be...

  17. FY2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  18. 7 CFR 3201.43 - Chain and cable lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chain and cable lubricants. 3201.43 Section 3201.43... Designated Items § 3201.43 Chain and cable lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide... chain and cable lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.43 - Chain and cable lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chain and cable lubricants. 3201.43 Section 3201.43... Designated Items § 3201.43 Chain and cable lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide... chain and cable lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.43 - Chain and cable lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chain and cable lubricants. 3201.43 Section 3201.43... Designated Items § 3201.43 Chain and cable lubricants. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide... chain and cable lubricants. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  6. Tribological behavior of some candidate advanced space lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.K.; Snyder, C.E. Jr.; Gschwender, L.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Performance of a variety of space lubricants was compared under boundary and elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL). The types of fluids studied were naphthenic mineral oil, paraffinic mineral oil, polyalphaolefin, and silahydrocarbon. The silahydrocarbon and the polyalphaolefin lubricants exhibited lower traction under similar conditions. A specific additive package increased the traction of the polyalphaolefin. Volatility characteristics of some of these fluids were also studied. 10 refs.

  7. Bearings use dry self-lubricating cage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Glenn, D. C.; Scribbe, H. W.

    1968-01-01

    Rolling element bearings in spacecraft mechanical systems use solid lubricant composites of polytetrafluoroethylene in the bearing cage which functions as the lubricant reservoir. The cage spaces the rolling elements equally and provides the lubricant at the bearing load-carrying surface.

  8. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 90.308... Equipment Provisions § 90.308 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the...

  9. 40 CFR 90.308 - Lubricating oil and test fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., manufacturers may use the fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for gasoline-fueled engines. (2... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lubricating oil and test fuels. 90.308... Equipment Provisions § 90.308 Lubricating oil and test fuels. (a) Lubricating oil. Use the...

  10. Rotor self-lubricating axial stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A plurality of lubricating plugs are disposed in the stationary backup face adjacent to the axial stop face of a rotating impeller mounted in a turbopump for pumping liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. The stop face and the backup face are those surfaces which engage when the axial load on the impeller exceeds the load balancing capability. The plugs have a truncated conical configuration so as to be trapped in the backup face, and are disposed at varying radii on the face to provide complete surface lubrication. The plugs may be formed from Teflon, Kel-F or bronze filled Teflon.

  11. Rotor self-lubricating axial stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H.

    1988-01-01

    A series of lubricating plugs is located in the stationary backup face adjacent to the axial stop face of a rotating impeller mounted in a turbopump for pumping liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. The stop face and the backup face are those surfaces which engage when the axial load on the impeller exceeds the load balancing capability. The plugs have a truncated conical configuration so as to be trapped in the backup face, and are placed at varying radii on the face to provide complete surface lubrication. The plugs may be formed from Teflon, Kel-F or bronze filled Teflon.

  12. Ionic liquid lubrication at electrified interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingling; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-06-01

    The lubrication performances of ionic liquids at electrified interfaces have been investigated by using a reciprocating sliding tribometer. Experimental results indicated that the lubricity of the confined ionic liquids was markedly affected by the application of external electric field and strong interface electric field strength could result in high friction. The influence was more pronounced for the ionic liquid with a shorter alkyl side chain in particular. The main reason of the friction increment might be ascribed to the electrically influenced surface adsorption where the charged ions were structured to form robust and ordered layers.

  13. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  14. Sputtering technology in solid film lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1978-01-01

    Current and potential sputtering technology is reviewed as it applies primarily to the deposition of MoS2, though such lubricants as WS2 and PTFE are also considered. It is shown by electron microscopy and surface sensitive analytical techniques that the lubricating properties of sputtered MoS2 films are directly influenced by the sputtering parameters selected (i.e., power density, pressure, sputter etching, dc-biasing, etc.), substrate temperature, chemistry, topography, and environmental conditions during the friction test. Electron micrographs and diffractograms of sputtered MoS2 films clearly show the resultant changes in film morphology which affect film adherence and frictional properties.

  15. Enhanced mobility of Li-doped ZnO thin film transistors fabricated by mist chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hye-ji; Lee, Seul-Gi; Kim, H.; Park, Jin-Seong

    2014-05-01

    Mist chemical vapor deposition (mist-CVD)-processed, lithium (Li)-doped ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. Li doping significantly increases the field-effect mobility in TFTs up to ˜100 times greater than that of undoped ZnO. The addition of Li into mist-CVD-grown ZnO semiconductors leads to improved film quality, which results from the enhanced crystallinity and reduced defect states, including oxygen vacancies. Our results suggest that Li doping of ZnO-based oxide semiconductors could serve as an effective strategy for high-performance, mist-CVD-processed oxide TFTs with low-cost and low-temperature fabrication.

  16. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  17. Lubricants or lubricant additives composed of ionic liquids containing ammonium cations

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Jun [Knoxville, TN; Truhan, Jr.,; John J. [Cookeville, TN; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN; Blau, Peter J. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    A lubricant or lubricant additive is an ionic liquid alkylammonium salt. The alkylammonium salt has the structure R.sub.xNH.sub.(4-x).sup.+,[F.sub.3C(CF.sub.2).sub.yS(O).sub.2].sub.2N.sup- .- where x is 1 to 3, R is independently C.sub.1 to C.sub.12 straight chain alkyl, branched chain alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkyl substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl substituted alkyl, or, optionally, when x is greater than 1, two R groups comprise a cyclic structure including the nitrogen atom and 4 to 12 carbon atoms, and y is independently 0 to 11. The lubricant is effective for the lubrication of many surfaces including aluminum and ceramics surfaces.

  18. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the

  19. Enhanced ethylene emissions from red and Norway spruce exposed to acidic mists

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yimin; Wellburn, A.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Acidic cloudwater is believed to cause needle injury and to decrease winter hardiness in conifers. During simulations of these adverse conditions, rates of ethylene emissions from and levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in both red and Norway spruce needles increased as a result of treatment with acidic mists but amounts of 1-malonyl(amino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid remained unchanged. However, release of significant quantities of ethylene by another mechanism independent of ACC was also detected from brown needles. Application of exogenous plant growth regulators such as auxin, kinetic, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid (each 0.1 millimolar) had no obvious effects on the rates of basal or stress ethylene production from Norway spruce needles. The kinetics of ethylene formation by acidic mist-stressed needles suggest that there is no active inhibitive mechanism in spruce to prevent stress ethylene being released once ACC has been formed.

  20. Degradation of phenol in mists by a non-thermal plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    An, Guijie; Sun, Yifei; Zhu, Tianle; Yan, Xiao

    2011-08-01

    A link tooth wheel-cylinder non-thermal plasma reactor was set up to investigate the degradation of phenol in the mists. In addition, the decomposition efficiency of phenol, TOC removal, and byproduct formation were investigated. The stable discharge was achieved in both air and the mist condition. The decomposition efficiency and TOC removal increased with increasing the input power. For the input power of 3.6 W, the phenol decomposition and TOC removal reached 90% and 47%, respectively. Phenol degradation byproducts were identified as small molecular organic acids, including formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid. Their masses in the trapped solutions first increased and then decreased slightly with increasing the input power. Therefore, the biodegradation capacity of the phenol degradation byproducts can be improved. PMID:21628067

  1. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced more

  2. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in oil mist-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvholm, B.; Bake, B.; Lavenius, B.; Thiringer, G.; Vokmann, R.

    1982-06-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was registered and ventilatory function was determined in 164 men exposed to oil mist. The average exposure time was 16.2 years. One hundred fifty-nine office workers served as controls. The exposed men reported more respiratory symptoms: 14% of the exposed nonsmokers v. 2% of the nonsmoking controls having cough at least three months a year. There were non significant differences between spirometric measurements and chest roentgenograms of the men exposed to oil mist and those of the office workers. The lung function of 25 nonsmoking exposed men was further examined with other lung function tests. The mean values for closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau, total lung capacity, residual volume, elastic recoil at various lung volumes, and diffusion capacity did not differ significantly.

  3. Production of water mist from electrolyte surface in contact with atmospheric-pressure dc helium glow plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, K.; Ishigame, H.; Nishiyama, S.

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-liquid interaction is a new subject which has been opened by developments of atmospheric-pressure plasma sources. In this work, we adopted laser Mie scattering to examine an atmospheric-pressure dc helium glow plasma in contact with NaCl solution. The plasma was produced by applying a dc voltage between a stainless-steel gas nozzle and the electrolyte via a register of 100 k Ω. The gap distance between the electrolyte surface and the electrode was 4 mm. Helium as a working gas was fed from the nozzle toward the electrolyte surface. The discharge space was illuminated using a cw laser beam at a wavelength of 457 nm, and the scattered laser light was captured using a high-speed camera with an image intensifier via an interference filter at the laser wavelength. The scattered laser light told us the existence of particulates or water mists in the discharge space. The water mists were produced from the electrolyte surface explosively as well as randomly. The trajectories of the mists were basically parabolic. We sometimes observed the expansion of the mist size in the gas phase. The expansion was followed by the disappearance of the mist. This may be due to the evaporation of the mist, and is considered to be the production mechanism of Na in the gas phase.

  4. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  5. Slippery but Tough: The Rapid Fracture of Lubricated Frictional Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayart, E.; Svetlizky, I.; Fineberg, J.

    2016-05-01

    We study the onset of friction for rough contacting blocks whose interface is coated with a thin lubrication layer. High speed measurements of the real contact area and stress fields near the interface reveal that propagating shear cracks mediate lubricated frictional motion. While lubricants reduce interface resistances, surprisingly they significantly increase the energy dissipated Γ during rupture. Moreover, lubricant viscosity affects the onset of friction but has no effect on Γ . Fracture mechanics provide a new way to view the otherwise hidden complex dynamics of the lubrication layer.

  6. Slippery but Tough: The Rapid Fracture of Lubricated Frictional Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bayart, E; Svetlizky, I; Fineberg, J

    2016-05-13

    We study the onset of friction for rough contacting blocks whose interface is coated with a thin lubrication layer. High speed measurements of the real contact area and stress fields near the interface reveal that propagating shear cracks mediate lubricated frictional motion. While lubricants reduce interface resistances, surprisingly they significantly increase the energy dissipated Γ during rupture. Moreover, lubricant viscosity affects the onset of friction but has no effect on Γ. Fracture mechanics provide a new way to view the otherwise hidden complex dynamics of the lubrication layer. PMID:27232023

  7. Simulation of lubricating behavior of a thioether liquid lubricant by an electrochemical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.

    1984-01-01

    An electrochemical cell was constructed to explore the possible radical anion forming behavior of a thioether liquid lubricant. The electrochemical behavior of the thioether was compared with the electrochemical behavior of biphenyl, which is known to form radical anions. Under controlled conditions biphenyl undergoes a reversible reaction to a radical anion, whereas the thioether undergoes an irreversible reduction yielding several products. These results are discussed in relation to boundary lubrication.

  8. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the film formation properties of refrigeration lubricants using the ultrathin film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry technique and to study the effects of refrigerants on film formation. Film thickness measurements were conducted as a function of lubricant viscosity, speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. Based on the EHD film thickness data, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated for the test fluids at different temperatures and the effects of refrigerants on pressure-viscosity properties were investigated.

  9. A technique to prevent capturing birds in unattended, furled mist nets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A technique was developed to prevent the inadvertent capturing of birds in unattended mist nets left in place for long periods of time. This was accomplished by placing furled nets on top of 9-inch wide strips of 30-pound roofing felt secured to the ground between net support poles. All materials used are widely available and procedures used to make the felt strips and install them are described.

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. PMID:27208468

  11. Current Trends in Biobased Lubricant Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased lubricants are those comprising ingredients derived from natural raw materials such as those harvested from farms, forests, etc. Biolubricants provide a number of benefits over petroleum-based products including: biodegradability, renewability, and non-toxicity. As a result, manufacture ...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.14 - Penetrating lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... Designated Items § 3201.14 Penetrating lubricants. (a) Definition. Products formulated to provide light... the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product....

  13. Freon 21 bearing lubrication and coolant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodensieck, E. J.; Gustafson, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Lubrication and cooling of turbopump rotor bearings by liquid Freon 21 is reported. Freon expands in rotor bearing and acts as heat sink by removing heat during warming and evaporation. Gaseous Freon is removed by vacuum pump controlling rotor chamber operation.

  14. Scuffing and Lubrication of Gears and Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B.; Houpert, L.

    1986-01-01

    New Reynolds equation developed for elastohydrodynamic-lubrication analysis. Method developed to study macro- and micro-EHL, without restriction on load applied to contact. Macro-EHL refers to lubricantfilm thickness developed in inlet zone of EHL conjunction. Powerful tool used to study scuffing. Using new approach, researchers have analyzed stress concentrations near both bump and groove in bearing surface.

  15. 49 CFR 396.5 - Lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.5 Lubrication. Every motor carrier shall ensure that each motor vehicle subject to its control...

  16. 49 CFR 396.5 - Lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.5 Lubrication. Every motor carrier shall ensure that each motor vehicle subject to its control...

  17. 49 CFR 396.5 - Lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.5 Lubrication. Every motor carrier shall ensure that each motor vehicle subject to its control...

  18. 49 CFR 396.5 - Lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.5 Lubrication. Every motor carrier shall ensure that each motor vehicle subject to its control...

  19. 49 CFR 396.5 - Lubrication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.5 Lubrication. Every motor carrier shall ensure that each motor vehicle subject to its control...

  20. Considerations on the lubrication of spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briscoe, M.; Todd, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Space tribology and a number of precepts to guide designers in its application are discussed. Of the many techniques available all, without exception, have limitations in performance. Two processes are discussed in more detail and their limitations identified. Some performance results on a liquid space lubricant are given.

  1. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  2. 14 CFR 33.39 - Lubrication system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lubrication system. 33.39 Section 33.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.39...

  3. Fuels and Lubricants. Selecting and Storing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parady, W. Harold; Colvin, Thomas S.

    The manual presents basic information for the person who plans to operate or service tractors, trucks, industrial engines, and automobiles. It tells how to select the proper fuels and lubricants and how to store them properly. Although there are no prerequisites to the study of the text, a general knowledge of engines and mobile-type vehicles is…

  4. Piezoviscous effects in nonconformal contacts lubricated hydrodynamically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Y. R.; Hamrock, B. J.; Brewe, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis is concerned with the piezoviscous-rigid regime of lubrication for the general case of elliptical contacts. In this regime several formulas of the lubricant film thickness have been proposed by Hamrock and Dowson, by Dowson et al., and more recently by Houpert. However, either they do not include the load parameter W, which has a strong effect on film thickness, or they overestimate the film thickness by using the Barus formula for pressure-viscosity characteristics. The Roelands formula was used for the pressure-viscosity relationship. The effects of the dimensionless load, speed, and materials parameters, the radius ratio, and the lubricant entrainment direction were investigated. The dimensionless load parameter was varied over a range of one order of magnitude. The dimensionless speed parameter was varied by 5.6 times the lowest value. Conditions corresponding to the use of solid materials of steel, bronze, and silicon nitride and lubricants of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oil were considered in obtaining the exponent in the dimensionless materials parameter. The radius ratio was varied from 0.2 to 64 (a configuration approaching a line contact). Forty-one cases were used in obtaining a minimum film thickness formula. Contour plots indicate in detail the pressure developed between the contacting solids.

  5. Piezoviscous effects in nonconformal contacts lubricated hydrodynamically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Hamrock, Bernard J.; Brewe, David E.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis is concerned with the piezoviscous-rigid regime of lubrication for the general case of elliptical contacts. In this regime several formulas of the lubricant film thickness have been proposed by Hamrock and Dowson, by Dowson et al., and more recently by Houpert. However, either they do not include the load parameter W, which has a strong effect on film thickness, or they overestimate the film thickness by using the Barus formula for pressure-viscosity characteristics. The Roelands formula was used for the pressure-viscosity relationship. The effects of the dimensionless load, speed, and materials parameters, the radius ratio, and the lubricant entrainment direction were investigated. The dimensionless load parameter was varied over a range of one order of magnitude. The dimensionless speed parameter was varied by 5.6 times the lowest value. Conditions corresponding to the use of solid materials of steel, bronze, and silicon nitride and lubricants of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oil were considered in obtaining the exponent in the dimensionless materials parameter. The radius ratio was varied from 0.2 to 64 (a configuration approaching a line contact). Forty-one cases were used in obtaining a minimum film thickness formula. Contour plots indicate in detail the pressure developed between the contacting solids.

  6. 7 CFR 2902.38 - Firearm lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Firearm lubricants. 2902.38 Section 2902.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... reduce the friction and wear between the moving parts of a firearm, and to keep the weapon clean...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.38 - Firearm lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firearm lubricants. 2902.38 Section 2902.38 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... reduce the friction and wear between the moving parts of a firearm, and to keep the weapon clean...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.14 - Penetrating lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c... re-refined lubricating oil products. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.57 - Multipurpose lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Multipurpose lubricants. 3201.57 Section 3201.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.57...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.14 - Penetrating lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. (c... re-refined lubricating oil products. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of...

  11. Modified vegetable oils-based lubricant emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lubricants made from vegetable oils represent only a small section of the market today. Recent legislation, however, in both the United States and Europe, could begin to brighten their prospects due to their eco-friendly and biodegradable character, unlike petroleum oil-based products. In order to u...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.740 - Lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lubricants. 1065.740 Section 1065.740 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.740...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.740 - Lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lubricants. 1065.740 Section 1065.740 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.740...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.740 - Lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lubricants. 1065.740 Section 1065.740 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.740...

  15. Auto Mechanics: Auto Mechanic Service Specialist (Lubrication).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Virgil

    The unit of individualized learning activities is designed to provide training in the job skill, lubrication, for the prospective auto mechanic service specialist. The materials in the unit are divided into two sections. The developmental, or preliminary phase, for use by the instructor, includes brief descriptions of the job and of the student…

  16. 40 CFR 1065.740 - Lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lubricants. 1065.740 Section 1065.740 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.740...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.740 - Lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lubricants. 1065.740 Section 1065.740 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.740...

  18. Lubricant effect of rate-of-loading

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    A series of tests were conducted to establish the performance of a motor operated valve (MOV) stem lubricant. Battelle has assembled a MOV test stand to provide a means to test valve actuators and stems with representative valve load profiles and to accurately measure the actuator performance. The facility duplicates an actual MOV except that the stem thrust loads are generated hydraulically and seating loads are generated by mechanical stops. These tests were conducted at a high torque switch setting on a Limitorque SMB-0. Stem-stemnut pairs with known rate-of-loading (ROL) effects ranging from approximately zero to 30% were tested. The stems were lubricated with Mobil 28; a nuclear-grade synthetic grease. A test with a slow, linearly increasing load profile with torque switch trip occurring prior to seating (ramp test), was used to establish the magnitude of the ROL effect for a particular stem-stemnut. Data from these experiments were compared with results of similar EPRI tests which used different stem lubricants. Results with Mobil 28 yielded unexpected, consistent reduced ROL effects. In addition, the thread pressure threshold for limiting ROL effects was significantly reduced. A model of the squeeze film phenomena was developed to explain the experimental results. The model shows that the basic rheological properties of the lubricant, the thread composite surface roughness, and the thread type all have a significant influence on the magnitude of ROL effects.

  19. Tribology: Friction, lubrication, and wear technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blau, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: introduction and definitions of terms; friction concepts; lubrication technology concepts; wear technology concepts; and tribological transitions. This document is designed for educators who seek to teach these concepts to their students.

  20. Environmentally friendly lubricant development programs at USDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) carries out a wide range of programs to help in the development and commercialization of biobased lubricants. Widespread use of bioproducts will have wide ranging benefits to the environment, the rural economy, and the safety and well being of the A...