Science.gov

Sample records for air-sea co2 exchange

  1. Temporal variability of air-sea CO2 exchange in a low-emission estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Stæhr, Peter Anton; Sørensen, Lise Lotte

    2016-07-01

    There is the need for further study of whether global estimates of air-sea CO2 exchange in estuarine systems capture the relevant temporal variability and, as such, the temporal variability of bulk parameterized and directly measured CO2 fluxes was investigated in the Danish estuary, Roskilde Fjord. The air-sea CO2 fluxes showed large temporal variability across seasons and between days and that more than 30% of the net CO2 emission in 2013 was a result of two large fall and winter storms. The diurnal variability of ΔpCO2 was up to 400 during summer changing the estuary from a source to a sink of CO2 within the day. Across seasons the system was suggested to change from a sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring to near neutral during summer and later to a source of atmospheric CO2 during fall. Results indicated that Roskilde Fjord was an annual low-emission estuary, with an estimated bulk parameterized release of 3.9 ± 8.7 mol CO2 m-2 y-1 during 2012-2013. It was suggested that the production-respiration balance leading to the low annual emission in Roskilde Fjord, was caused by the shallow depth, long residence time and high water quality in the estuary. In the data analysis the eddy covariance CO2 flux samples were filtered according to the H2Osbnd CO2 cross-sensitivity assessment suggested by Landwehr et al. (2014). This filtering reduced episodes of contradicting directions between measured and bulk parameterized air-sea CO2 exchanges and changed the net air-sea CO2 exchange from an uptake to a release. The CO2 gas transfer velocity was calculated from directly measured CO2 fluxes and ΔpCO2 and agreed to previous observations and parameterizations.

  2. Direct measurements of air-sea CO2 exchange over a coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Hamish A.; MacKellar, Mellissa C.; Gray, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere over coral reefs has relied on microscale measurements of pCO2 gradients across the air-sea interfacial boundary; shipboard measurements of air-sea CO2 exchange over adjacent ocean inferred to represent over reef processes or ecosystem productivity modeling. Here we present by way of case study the first direct measurements of air-sea CO2 exchange over a coral reef made using the eddy covariance method. Research was conducted during the summer monsoon over a lagoonal platform reef in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Results show the reef flat to be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of similar magnitude as coastal lakes, while adjacent shallow and deep lagoons were net sinks as was the surrounding ocean. This heterogeneity in CO2 exchange with the atmosphere confirms need for spatially representative direct measurements of CO2 over coral reefs to accurately quantify their role in atmospheric carbon budgets.

  3. Air-Sea Exchange Of CO2: A Multi-Technology Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengberg, A.; Almroth, E.; Anderson, L.; Hall, P.; Hjalmarsson, S.; Lefevre, D.; Omstedt, A.; Rutgersson, A.; Sahlee, E.; Smedman, A.; Wesslander, K.

    2006-12-01

    We report on experiences and results from a multidisciplinary project in which we try to elucidate the complex processes involved in air-sea exchange of CO2. This study was performed in the Baltic Sea (off the Swedish island Gotland) and combined the following technologies: - Meteorological measurements of wind, turbulence, temperature, humidity, humidity flux, CO2 and CO2 flux at several levels from a fixed observation tower - Hourly PCO2 measurements with a moored automatic instrument - Collection of dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity and turbidity data at different levels in the water column at 1-minute intervals - Daily light (PAR) and primary production measurements obtained with a moored automatic incubator - Daily primary production measurements using manual methods - Use of an acoustic current profiler to collect water column information on currents, turbulence, water level and waves - Repetitive water column profiles, from a ship, of dissolved inorganic carbon, oxygen, nutrients, alkalinity, pH, PAR, Chlorophyll A, salinity and temperature

  4. Comparison of CO2 Dynamics and Air-Sea Exchange in Contrasting Tropical Reef Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drupp, P. S.; De Carlo, E. H.; Mackenzie, F. T.; Shamberger, K. E.; Musielewicz, S. B.; Maenner-Jones, S.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Multiyear high temporal resolution CO2 records in three differing coral reef settings were obtained using buoys deployed in coastal waters of Oahu since June 2008. The buoys are located on the barrier reef of Kaneohe Bay and offshore of Honolulu, on the south shore of Oahu. Annualized CO2 air-sea fluxes at the three buoys ranged from +0.05 mol C/m2/yr offshore Honolulu on a fringing reef well mixed with the open ocean to -1.12 mol C/m2/yr on a barrier reef flat in Kaneohe Bay (positive values represent CO2 sinks from the atmosphere and negative values represent sources). These fluxes compare well to those estimated from previous studies in Kaneohe Bay as well as in other tropical reef environments. pCO2 measurements, made every 3 hours, at each location show strong temporal cycles on multiple time scales ranging from diel to seasonal at each buoy and an anticorrelation with pO2. These records, when combined with those of a prior buoy deployment in southern Kaneohe Bay and several synoptic studies, allow us to examine how the principal biological cycles of productivity/respiration and calcification/carbonate dissolution are influenced by changing water column properties, physical processes (e.g. residence time) and atmospheric conditions and how these processes ultimately impact the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere on hourly to interannual cycles. The data clearly demonstrate the need for high frequency pCO2 data to characterize completely and accurately short-term local changes in the CO2-carbonic acid system parameters and how these changes overprint the longer scale process of ocean acidification as a result of invasion of CO2 into the ocean due to emissions of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere. Since many coral reef ecosystems are still sources of CO2 to the atmosphere because of positive net ecosystem calcification, and in some instances net heterotrophy, such data are even more critical in terms of assessing future changes in the direction

  5. Decadal trends in air-sea CO2 exchange in the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2016-05-01

    Highly productive Antarctic shelf systems, like the Ross Sea, play important roles in regional carbon budgets, but the drivers of local variations are poorly quantified. We assess the variability in the Ross Sea carbon cycle using a regional physical-biogeochemical model. Regionally, total partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increases are largely controlled by the biological pump and broadly similar to those in the offshore Southern Ocean. However, this masks substantial local variability within the Ross Sea, where interannual fluctuations in total pCO2 are driven by the biological pump and alkalinity, whereas those for anthropogenic pCO2 are related to physical processes. Overall, the high degree of spatial variability in the Ross Sea carbon cycle causes extremes in aragonite saturation that can be as large as long-term trends. Therefore, Antarctic shelf polynya systems like the Ross Sea will be strongly affected by local processes in addition to larger-scale phenomena.

  6. Biofilm-like properties of the sea surface and predicted effects on air-sea CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, Oliver; Stolle, Christian; Van Thuoc, Chu; The Thu, Pham; Mari, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Because the sea surface controls various interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, it has a profound function for marine biogeochemistry and climate regulation. The sea surface is the gateway for the exchange of climate-relevant gases, heat and particles. Thus, in order to determine how the ocean and the atmosphere interact and respond to environmental changes on a global scale, the characterization and understanding of the sea surface are essential. The uppermost part of the water column is defined as the sea-surface microlayer and experiences strong spatial and temporal dynamics, mainly due to meteorological forcing. Wave-damped areas at the sea surface are caused by the accumulation of surface-active organic material and are defined as slicks. Natural slicks are observed frequently but their biogeochemical properties are poorly understood. In the present study, we found up to 40 times more transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), the foundation of any biofilm, in slicks compared to the underlying bulk water at multiple stations in the North Pacific, South China Sea, and Baltic Sea. We found a significant lower enrichment of TEP (up to 6) in non-slick sea surfaces compared to its underlying bulk water. Moreover, slicks were characterized by a large microbial biomass, another shared feature with conventional biofilms on solid surfaces. Compared to non-slick samples (avg. pairwise similarity of 70%), the community composition of bacteria in slicks was increasingly (avg. pairwise similarity of 45%) different from bulk water communities, indicating that the TEP-matrix creates specific environments for its inhabitants. We, therefore, conclude that slicks can feature biofilm-like properties with the excessive accumulation of particles and microbes. We also assessed the potential distribution and frequency of slick-formation in coastal and oceanic regions, and their effect on air-sea CO2 exchange based on literature data. We estimate that slicks can reduce CO2

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of air-sea CO2 exchange of alongshore waters in summer near Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Hiroki; Oechel, Walter C.

    2014-03-01

    Alongshore water off Barrow, Alaska is a useful area for studying the carbon cycle of the Arctic coastal sea, because the different coastal characteristics extant in the area likely represent much larger regions of the coastal water of the western Arctic Ocean. Especially noteworthy is the inflow shelf water transferred northward by the Arctic Coastal Current into the Chukchi Sea from the North Pacific and turbid water in the Elson Lagoon where a significant amount of coastal erosion has been reported along the extensive coastal line and where a part of the water from the lagoon drains into the Beaufort Sea adjacent to the Chukchi Sea. To investigate spatial and temporal variations of air-sea CO2 flux (CO2 flux) of the alongshore water, partial pressure of CO2 of surface seawater (pCO2sw) was measured in summer, 2007 and 2008, and CO2 flux was directly measured by eddy covariance at a fixed point for the Beaufort Sea in summer 2008. Measured pCO2sw in the Chukchi Sea side was the lowest in the beginning of the measurement season and increased later in the season both in 2007 and 2008. The average CO2 flux estimated based on pCO2sw in the Chukchi Sea side was -0.10 μmol m-2 s-1 (±0.1 s.d.) using the sign convention of positive fluxes into the atmosphere from the ocean. pCO2sw in the Beaufort Sea and the Elson Lagoon was relatively higher in early summer and decreased in the middle of the summer. The overall average CO2 flux was -0.07 μmol m-2 s-1 (±0.1 s.d.) for the Beaufort Sea side and -0.03 μmol m-2 s-1 (±0.07 s.d.) for the Elson Lagoon respectively, indicating a sink of CO2 despite high carbon inflows from the terrestrial margin into the Elson Lagoon. A strong sink of CO2 was often observed from the Beaufort Sea by eddy covariance in the middle of the summer. This sink activity in the middle summer in the Beaufort Sea and Elson Lagoon was likely due to biological carbon uptake as inferred by low apparent oxygen utilization and high chlorophyll

  8. Influence of precipitation on the CO2 air-sea flux, an eddy covariance field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarsky, Alexander; Steinhoff, Tobias; Marandino, Christa

    2016-04-01

    During the SPACES-OASIS cruise (July-August 2015) from Durban, SA to Male, MV direct fluxes of CO2 and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The cruise covered areas of sources and sinks for atmospheric CO2, where the bulk concentration gradient measurements resembled the Takahashi (2009) climatology. Most of the time, bulk CO2 fluxes (F=k* [cwater-cair]), calculated with the parametrization (k) by Nightingale et al. 2000, were in general agreement with direct EC measurements. However, during heavy rain events, the directly measured CO2 fluxes were 4 times higher than predicted. It has been previously described that rain influences the k parametrization of air-sea gas exchange, but this alone cannot explain the measured discrepancy. There is evidence that freshwater input and a change in the carbonate chemistry causes the water side concentration of ?c=cwater-cair to decrease. Unfortunately this cannot be detected by most bulk measurement systems. Using the flux measurements of an additional gas like DMS, this rain influence can be evaluated as DMS does not react to changes in the carbonate system and has a different solubility. A pending question is if the enhanced flux of CO2 in the ocean is sequestered into the ocean mixed layer and below. This question will be tackled using the GOTM model to understand the implications for the global carbon cycle.

  9. Annual and seasonal fCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, S. K.; Chierici, M.; Counillon, F.; Omar, A.; Nondal, G.; Johannessen, T.; Olsen, A.

    2013-03-01

    The Barents Sea is the strongest CO2 sink in the Arctic region, yet estimates of the air-sea CO2 flux in this area show a large span reflecting uncertainty as well as significant variability both seasonally and regionally. Here we use a previously unpublished data set of seawater CO2 fugacity (fCO2), and map these data over the western Barents Sea through multivariable linear regressions with SeaWiFS/MODIS remote sensing and TOPAZ model data fields. We find that two algorithms are necessary in order to cover the full seasonal cycle, mainly because not all proxy variables are available for the entire year, and because variability in fCO2 is driven by different mechanisms in summer and winter. A comprehensive skill assessment indicates that there is a good overall correspondence between observations and predictions. The algorithms are also validated using two independent data sets, with good results. The gridded fCO2 fields reveal tight links between water mass distribution and fCO2 in all months, and particularly in winter. The seasonal cycle show peaks in the total air-sea CO2 influx in May and September, caused by respectively biological drawdown of CO2 and low sea ice concentration leaving a large open water area. For 2007 the annual average air-sea CO2 flux is - 48 ± 5 gC m- 2, which is comparable to previous estimates.

  10. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed-layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, N. R.; Garley, R.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Mathis, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea-ice-covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea-ice as "melt ponds" and below sea-ice as "interface waters") and mixed-layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At 19 stations, the salinity (∼0.5 to <6.5), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; ∼20 to <550 μmol kg-1) and total alkalinity (TA; ∼30 to <500 μmol kg-1) of above-ice melt pond water was low compared to the co-located underlying mixed layer. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in these melt ponds was highly variable (∼<10 to >1500 μatm) with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7) to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (>8.2 to 10.8). All of the observed melt ponds had very low (<0.1) saturation states (Ω) for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals such as aragonite (Ωaragonite). Our data suggest that sea-ice generated alkaline or acidic type melt pond water. This melt water chemistry dictates whether the ponds are sources of CO2 to the atmosphere or CO2 sinks. Below-ice interface water CO2-carbonate chemistry data also indicated substantial generation of alkalinity, presumably owing to dissolution of CaCO3 in sea-ice. The interface waters generally had lower pCO2 and higher pH/Ωaragonite than the co-located mixed layer beneath. Sea-ice melt thus contributed to the suppression of mixed-layer pCO2, thereby enhancing the surface ocean's capacity to uptake CO2 from the atmosphere. Our observations contribute to growing evidence that sea-ice CO2-carbonate chemistry is highly variable and its contribution to the complex factors that influence the balance of CO2 sinks and sources (and thereby ocean acidification) is difficult to

  11. Contribution of tropical cyclones to the air-sea CO2 flux: A global view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LéVy, M.; Lengaigne, M.; Bopp, L.; Vincent, E. M.; Madec, G.; Ethé, C.; Kumar, D.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.

    2012-06-01

    Previous case studies have illustrated the strong local influence of tropical cyclones (TCs) on CO2 air-sea flux ? suggesting that they can significantly contribute to the global ? In this study, we use a state-of-the art global ocean biochemical model driven by TCs wind forcing derived from a historical TCs database, allowing to sample the ? response under 1663 TCs. Our results evidence a very weak contribution of TCs to global ? one or two order of magnitude smaller than previous estimates extrapolated from case studies. This result arises from several competing effects involved in the ? response to TCs, not accounted for in previous studies. While previous estimates have hypothesized the ocean to be systematically oversaturated in CO2 under TCs, our results reveal that a similar proportion of TCs occur over oversaturated regions (i.e. the North Atlantic, Northeast Pacific and the Arabian Sea) and undersaturated regions (i.e. Westernmost North Pacific, South Indian and Pacific Ocean). Consequently, by increasing the gas exchange coefficient, TCs can generate either instantaneous CO2 flux directed from the ocean to the atmosphere (efflux) or the opposite (influx), depending on the CO2 conditions at the time of the TC passage. A large portion of TCs also occurs over regions where the ocean and the atmosphere are in near equilibrium, resulting in very weak instantaneous fluxes. Previous estimates also did not account for any asynchronous effect of TCs on ? during several weeks after the storm, oceanic pCO2 is reduced in response to vertical mixing, which systematically causes an influx anomaly. This implies that, contrary to previous estimates, TCs weakly affect the CO2 efflux when they blow over supersaturated areas because the instantaneous storm wind effect and post-storm mixing effect oppose with each other. In contrast, TCs increase the CO2 influx in undersaturated conditions because the two effects add up. These compensating effects result in a very weak

  12. Large Temporal Variations in Air-Sea CO2 Flux off the Coast of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, J. K.; Sabine, C.; Cai, W.; Alin, S.

    2008-12-01

    Though the inner shelf is a small portion of global ocean area, its air-sea CO2 flux is disproportionately high. Due to its tight links with both terrestrial and oceanic systems, the inner shelf is likely to experience significant spatial and temporal variability. We measured the fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) continuously from July 2006 to June 2008 on a moored platform in Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary on Georgia's inner shelf. The long-term, high temporal resolution data has allowed us to begin to measure interannual variations in CO2 flux along the inner Georgia shelf. From July 2006-June 2007, the inner Georgia shelf was a CO2 sink (-3.26mmol/m2/day), while during following year, the shelf switched to being a source (2.26mmol/m2/day). Choice of wind data (satellite or buoy-derived) significantly alters these estimates of annual fluxes. QuikSCAT satellite wind data indicate a much larger sink (- 6.13mmol/m2/day) during 2006-2007, and a non-existent source (0.02mmol/m2/day) during 2007- 2008. An earlier, high-resolution spatial study from January 2005-May 2006 found that the inner shelf within the South Atlantic Bight may have been a source of 0.65 to 1.20mmol/m2/day, suggesting that the inner shelf may experience dramatic swings in CO2 flux. Though sea-surface temperature (SST) is the largest influence on surface water fCO2, average monthly SST varied little between both years; instead, possible explanations for the large variation in interannual CO2 flux include decreased biological production and increased river flow (and, hence carbon export) during 2007-2008. This is the first evidence of large-scale, annual switches in air-sea CO2 flux within an inner shelf, and it holds significant implications for global estimates of air-sea CO2 flux.

  13. The role of bubbles during air-sea gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Steven; Bushinsky, Seth

    2016-06-01

    The potential for using the air-sea exchange rate of oxygen as a tracer for net community biological production in the ocean is greatly enhanced by recent accuracy improvements for in situ measurements of oxygen on unmanned platforms. A limiting factor for determining the exchange process is evaluating the air-sea flux contributed by bubble processes produced by breaking waves, particularly during winter months under high winds. Highly accurate measurements of noble gases (Ne, Ar & Kr) and nitrogen, N2, in seawater are tracers of the importance of bubble process in the surface mixed layer. We use measured distributions of these gases in the ventilated thermocline of the North Pacific and an annual time series of N2 in the surface ocean of the NE Subarctic Pacific to evaluate four different air-water exchange models chosen to represent the range of model interpretation of bubble processes. We find that models must have an explicit bubble mechanism to reproduce concentrations of insoluble atmospheric gases, but there are periods when they all depart from observations. The recent model of Liang et al. (2013) stems from a highly resolved model of bubble plumes and categorizes bubble mechanisms into those that are small enough to collapse and larger ones that exchange gases before they resurface, both of which are necessary to explain the data.

  14. Spatio-temporal visualization of air-sea CO2 flux and carbon budget using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhenhong; Fang, Lei; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Renyi

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a novel visualization method to show the spatio-temporal dynamics of carbon sinks and sources, and carbon fluxes in the ocean carbon cycle. The air-sea carbon budget and its process of accumulation are demonstrated in the spatial dimension, while the distribution pattern and variation of CO2 flux are expressed by color changes. In this way, we unite spatial and temporal characteristics of satellite data through visualization. A GPU-based direct volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing is adopted to dynamically visualize the released or absorbed CO2 gas with shadow effects. A data model is designed to generate four-dimensional (4D) data from satellite-derived air-sea CO2 flux products, and an out-of-core scheduling strategy is also proposed for on-the-fly rendering of time series of satellite data. The presented 4D visualization method is implemented on graphics cards with vertex, geometry and fragment shaders. It provides a visually realistic simulation and user interaction for real-time rendering. This approach has been integrated into the Information System of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Air-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2) for the research and assessment of air-sea CO2 flux in the China Seas.

  15. In calm seas, precipitation drives air-sea gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-05-01

    In a series of experiments run in what resembles a heavily instrumented fish tank, Harrison et al. investigated the interwoven roles of wind and rain on air-sea gas exchange rates. Working with a 42-meterlong, 1-meter-wide, and 1.25-meter-tall experimental pool, the authors were able to control the wind speed, rainfall rate, water circulation speed, and other parameters, which they used to assess the effect of 24 different wind speed-rainfall rate combinations on the gas exchange rate of sulfur hexafuoride, a greenhouse gas. In trials that lasted up to 3 hours, the authors collected water samples from the tank at regular intervals, tracking the concentration of the dissolved gas.

  16. ASGAMAGE, the Air-Sea Gas Exchange/MAGE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oost, Wiebe; Jacobs, Cor; Kohsiek, Wim; Goossens, Guus; van der Horn, Jaap; Sprung, Detlev; Rapsomanikis, Spyros; Kenntner, Thomas; Reiner, Thomas; Bowyer, Peter; Larsen, Søren; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kunz, Gerard; Hall, Alan; Liss, Peter; Malin, Gill; Upstill-Goddard, Rob; Woolf, David; Graham, Angus; Nightingale, Phil; Fairall, Chris; Hare, Jeff; Dissly, Richard; Tans, Pieter; Anderson, Bob; Smith, Stu

    The ASGAMAGE project addressed the problem of the large discrepancy between the chemistry based and micrometeorological methods and aimed to determine any geophysical parameters apart from the wind speed that affect air-sea gas exchange in an effort to reduce the uncertainty in the global carbon balance. Experiments were performed in the spring and fall of 1996 at and near a research platform off the Dutch coast and two surface layer models were developed for the gas exchange process. The results gave a reduction of the difference between the two types of methods from an order of magnitude to a factor of two as well as indications for the causes of the remaining difference.

  17. Observational Studies of Parameters Influencing Air-sea Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimpf, U.; Frew, N. M.; Bock, E. J.; Hara, T.; Garbe, C. S.; Jaehne, B.

    A physically-based modeling of the air-sea gas transfer that can be used to predict the gas transfer rates with sufficient accuracy as a function of micrometeorological parameters is still lacking. State of the art are still simple gas transfer rate/wind speed relationships. Previous measurements from Coastal Ocean Experiment in the Atlantic revealed positive correlations between mean square slope, near surface turbulent dis- sipation, and wind stress. It also demonstrated a strong negative correlation between mean square slope and the fluorescence of surface-enriched colored dissolved organic matter. Using heat as a proxy tracer for gases the exchange process at the air/water interface and the micro turbulence at the water surface can be investigated. The anal- ysis of infrared image sequences allow the determination of the net heat flux at the ocean surface, the temperature gradient across the air/sea interface and thus the heat transfer velocity and gas transfer velocity respectively. Laboratory studies were carried out in the new Heidelberg wind-wave facility AELOTRON. Direct measurements of the Schmidt number exponent were done in conjunction with classical mass balance methods to estimate the transfer velocity. The laboratory results allowed to validate the basic assumptions of the so called controlled flux technique by applying differ- ent tracers for the gas exchange in a large Schmidt number regime. Thus a modeling of the Schmidt number exponent is able to fill the gap between laboratory and field measurements field. Both, the results from the laboratory and the field measurements should be able to give a further understanding of the mechanisms controlling the trans- port processes across the aqueous boundary layer and to relate the forcing functions to parameters measured by remote sensing.

  18. Natural Air-Sea Flux of CO2 in Simulations of the NASA-GISS Climate Model: Sensitivity to the Physical Ocean Model Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanou, A.; Gregg, Watson W.; Romanski, J.; Kelley, M.; Bleck, R.; Healy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G. A.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.

    2013-01-01

    Results from twin control simulations of the preindustrial CO2 gas exchange (natural flux of CO2) between the ocean and the atmosphere are presented here using the NASA-GISS climate model, in which the same atmospheric component (modelE2) is coupled to two different ocean models, the Russell ocean model and HYCOM. Both incarnations of the GISS climate model are also coupled to the same ocean biogeochemistry module (NOBM) which estimates prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2. Model intercomparison is carried out at equilibrium conditions and model differences are contrasted with biases from present day climatologies. Although the models agree on the spatial patterns of the air-sea flux of CO2, they disagree on the strength of the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean sinks mainly because of kinematic (winds) and chemistry (pCO2) differences rather than thermodynamic (SST) ones. Biology/chemistry dissimilarities in the models stem from the different parameterizations of advective and diffusive processes, such as overturning, mixing and horizontal tracer advection and to a lesser degree from parameterizations of biogeochemical processes such as gravitational settling and sinking. The global meridional overturning circulation illustrates much of the different behavior of the biological pump in the two models, together with differences in mixed layer depth which are responsible for different SST, DIC and nutrient distributions in the two models and consequently different atmospheric feedbacks (in the wind, net heat and freshwater fluxes into the ocean).

  19. Air-sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian M.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    We present air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector) were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l.), each from a different period during 2014-2015. At sampling heights ≥ 18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤ ±20 % in the mean) agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air-sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m-2 d-1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l.) than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m-2 d-1), consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater). Finally, we found the detection limit of the air-sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m-2 d-1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m-2 d-1 over 24 h).

  20. Reconstruction of super-resolution fields of ocean pCO2 and air-sea fluxes of CO2 from satellite imagery in the Southeastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, I.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Yahia, H.; Garbe, C.; Paulmier, A.; Dewitte, B.; Illig, S.; Dadou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of Green House Gases GHGs fluxes at the air-sea interface at high resolution is crucial to accurately quantify the role of the ocean in the absorption and emission of GHGs. In this paper we present a novel method to reconstruct maps of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2, pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4 km) using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Ocean Colour (OC) data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). Inference of super-resolution of pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes is performed using novel nonlinear signal processing methodologies that prove efficient in the context of oceanography. The theoretical background comes from the Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism which unlocks the geometrical determination of cascading properties of physical intensive variables. As a consequence, a multiresolution analysis performed on the signal of the so-called singularity exponents allows the correct and near optimal cross-scale inference of GHGs fluxes, as the inference suits the geometric realization of the cascade. We apply such a methodology to the study offshore of the Benguela area. The inferred representation of oceanic partial pressure of CO2 improves and enhances the description provided by CarbonTracker, capturing the small scale variability. We examine different combinations of Ocean Colour and Sea Surface Temperature products in order to increase the number of valid points and the quality of the inferred pCO2 field. The methodology is validated using in-situ measurements by means of statistical errors. We obtain that mean absolute and relative errors in the inferred values of pCO2 with respect to in-situ measurements are smaller than for CarbonTracker.

  1. Air-sea gas transfer for two gases of different solubility (CO2 and O2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutgersson, A.; Andersson, A.; Sahlée, E.

    2016-05-01

    At the land-based marine measuring site Östergarnsholm in the Baltic Sea, the eddy covariance technique was used to measure air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen. High- frequency measurements of oxygen were taken with a Microx TX3 optode using the luminescence lifetime technique. The system gives reasonable oxygen fluxes after the limited frequency response of the sensor was corrected for. For fluxes of carbon dioxide the LICOR-7500 instrument was used. Using flux data to estimate transfer velocities indicates higher transfer velocity for oxygen compared to carbon dioxide for winds above 5 m/s. There are too few data for any extensive conclusions, but a least-square fit of the data gives a cubic wind speed dependence of oxygen corresponding to k 660 = 0.074U 3 10. The more effective transfer for oxygen compared to carbon dioxide above 5 m/s is most likely due to enhanced efficiency of oxygen exchange across the surface. Oxygen has lower solubility compared with carbon dioxide and might be more influenced by near surface processes such as microscale wave breaking or sea spray.

  2. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange across contrasting biogeochemical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ryan; Schneider-Zapp, Klaus; Upstill-Goddard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Air-sea gas exchange is important to the global partitioning of CO2.Exchange fluxes are products of an air-sea gas concentration difference, ΔC, and a gas transfer velocity, kw. The latter is controlled by the rate of turbulent diffusion at the air-sea interface but it cannot be directly measured and has a high uncertainty that is now considered one of the greatest challenges to quantifying net global air-sea CO2 exchange ...(Takahashi et al., 2009). One important control on kw is exerted by sea surface surfactants that arise both naturally from biological processes and through anthropogenic activity. They influence gas exchange in two fundamental ways: as a monolayer physical barrier and through modifying sea surface hydrodynamics and hence turbulent energy transfer. These effects have been demonstrated in the laboratory with artificial surfactants ...(Bock et al., 1999; Goldman et al., 1988) and through purposeful surfactant releases in coastal waters .(.).........().(Brockmann et al., 1982) and in the open ocean (Salter et al., 2011). Suppression of kwin these field experiments was ~5-55%. While changes in both total surfactant concentration and the composition of the natural surfactant pool might be expected to impact kw, the required in-situ studies are lacking. New data collected from the coastal North Sea in 2012-2013 shows significant spatio-temporal variability in the surfactant activity of organic matter within the sea surface microlayer that ranges from 0.07-0.94 mg/L T-X-100 (AC voltammetry). The surfactant activities show a strong winter/summer seasonal bias and general decrease in concentration with increasing distance from the coastline possibly associated with changing terrestrial vs. phytoplankton sources. Gas exchange experiments of this seawater using a novel laboratory tank and gas tracers (CH4 and SF6) demonstrate a 12-45% reduction in kw compared to surfactant-free water. Seasonally there is higher gas exchange suppression in the summer

  3. Effect of Sampling Depth on Air-Sea CO2 Flux Estimates in River-Stratified Arctic Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. A.; Papakyriakou, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    In summer-time Arctic coastal waters that are strongly influenced by river run-off, extreme stratification severely limits wind mixing, making it difficult to effectively sample the surface 'mixed layer', which can be as shallow as 1 m, from a ship. During two expeditions in southwestern Hudson Bay, off the Nelson, Hayes, and Churchill River estuaries, we confirmed that sampling depth has a strong impact on estimates of 'surface' pCO2 and calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes. We determined pCO2 in samples collected from 5 m, using a typical underway system on the ship's seawater supply; from the 'surface' rosette bottle, which was generally between 1 and 3 m; and using a niskin bottle deployed at 1 m and just below the surface from a small boat away from the ship. Our samples confirmed that the error in pCO2 derived from typical ship-board versus small-boat sampling at a single station could be nearly 90 μatm, leading to errors in the calculated air-sea CO2 flux of more than 0.1 mmol/(m2s). Attempting to extrapolate such fluxes over the 6,000,000 km2 area of the Arctic shelves would generate an error approaching a gigamol CO2/s. Averaging the station data over a cruise still resulted in an error of nearly 50% in the total flux estimate. Our results have implications not only for the design and execution of expedition-based sampling, but also for placement of in-situ sensors. Particularly in polar waters, sensors are usually deployed on moorings, well below the surface, to avoid damage and destruction from drifting ice. However, to obtain accurate information on air-sea fluxes in these areas, it is necessary to deploy sensors on ice-capable buoys that can position the sensors in true 'surface' waters.

  4. In situ evaluation of air-sea CO2 gas transfer velocity in an inner estuary using eddy covariance - with a special focus on the importance of using reliable CO2-fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, E. T.; Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B.; Sejr, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The air-sea exchange of CO2 or CO2 flux is driven by the difference in the partial pressure of CO2 in the water and the atmosphere (ΔpCO2), the solubility of CO2 (K0) and the gas transfer velocity (k) (Wanninkhof et al., 2009;Weiss, 1974) . ΔpCO2 and K0 are determined with relatively high precision and it is estimated that the biggest uncertainty when modelling the air-sea flux is the parameterization of k. As an example; the estimated global air-sea flux increases by 70 % when using the parameterization by Wanninkhof and McGillis (1999) instead of Wanninkhof (1992) (Rutgersson et al., 2008). In coastal areas the uncertainty is even higher and only few studies have focused on determining transfer velocity for the coastal waters and even fewer on estuaries (Borges et al., 2004;Rutgersson et al., 2008). The transfer velocity (k600) of CO2 in the inner estuary of Roskilde Fjord, Denmark was investigated using eddy covariance CO2 fluxes (ECM) and directly measured ΔpCO2 during May and June 2010. The data was strictly sorted to heighten the certainty of the results and the outcome was; DS1; using only ECM, and DS2; including the inertial dissipation method (IDM). The inner part of Roskilde Fjord showed to be a very biological active CO2 sink and preliminary results showed that the average k600 was more than 10 times higher than transfer velocities from similar studies of other coastal areas. The much higher transfer velocities were estimated to be caused by the greater fetch and shallower water in Roskilde Fjord, which indicated that turbulence in both air and water influence k600. The wind speed parameterization of k600 using DS1 showed some scatter but when including IDM the r2 of DS2 reached 0.93 with an exponential parameterization, where U10 was based on the Businger-Dyer relationships using friction velocity and atmospheric stability. This indicates that some of the uncertainties coupled with CO2 fluxes calculated by the ECM are removed when including the IDM.

  5. DOGEE-SOLAS: The Role of Surfactants in Air-Sea Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, M. E.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.; Nightingale, P.

    2008-12-01

    One of the major aims of DOGEE-SOLAS was to improve our understanding of the role of surfactants in air- sea gas exchange. With this in mind we carried out a number of artificial surfactant releases on a research cruise in the North Atlantic (D320), during June-July of 2007. We used oleyl alcohol, a surrogate for natural surfactants which is relatively cheap and easy to obtain (it is used in the manufacture of cosmetics). The main release overlaid a dual tracer "patch" of SF6 and 3He; our aim was to directly compare values of the gas transfer velocity, kw, estimated within the surfactant covered patch with those estimated quasi- simultaneously in a second, surfactant-free patch about 20km away. A second release in conjunction with colleagues from the University of Hawaii had the aim of measuring DMS fluxes by eddy correlation both inside and outside a surfactant slick, and a third was undertaken in the path of one of two 14m ASIS (Air-Sea Interaction Spar) buoys operated by the University of Miami for direct comparison of surfactant effects on the fluxes of CO2, H2O, heat and momentum (eddy correlation) etc. We present here some preliminary findings from the work.

  6. Air-sea CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance in a coastal station in Baja California, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, L.; Ocampo-Torres, F. J.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of wave-associated parameters controlling turbulent CO2 fluxes through the air-sea water interface is evaluated in a coastal region. The study area, located within the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México, was found to be a weak sink of CO2 with a mean flux of -1.32 µmol m-2s-1. The low correlation found between flux and wind speed (r = 0.09), suggests that the influence of other forcing mechanisms, besides wind, is important for gas transfer modulation through the sea surface, at least for the conditions found in this study. In addition, the results suggest that for short periods where an intensification of the wave conditions occurs, a CO2 flux response increases the transport of gas to the ocean.

  7. Quantifying air-sea gas exchange using noble gases in a coastal upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. C.; Stanley, R. H. R.; Nicholson, D. P.; Squibb, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    The diffusive and bubble-mediated components of air-sea gas exchange can be quantified separately using time-series measurements of a suite of dissolved inert gases. We have evaluated the performance of four published air-sea gas exchange parameterizations using a five-day time-series of dissolved He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe concentration in Monterey Bay, CA. We constructed a vertical model including surface air-sea gas exchange and vertical diffusion. Diffusivity was measured throughout the cruise from profiles of turbulent microstructure. We corrected the mixed layer gas concentrations for an upwelling event that occurred partway through the cruise. All tested parameterizations gave similar results for Ar, Kr, and Xe; their air-sea fluxes were dominated by diffusive gas exchange during our study. For He and Ne, which are less soluble, and therefore more sensitive to differences in the treatment of bubble-mediated exchange, the parameterizations gave widely different results with respect to the net gas exchange flux and the bubble flux. This study demonstrates the value of using a suite of inert gases, especially the lower solubility ones, to parameterize air-sea gas exchange.

  8. Synoptic evaluation of carbon cycling in Beaufort Sea during summer: contrasting river inputs, ecosystem metabolism and air-sea CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Coupel, P.; Else, B.; Nahavandian, S.; Lansard, B.; Raimbault, P.; Papakyriakou, T.; Gratton, Y.; Fortier, L.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2013-10-01

    The accelerated decline in Arctic sea ice combined with an ongoing trend toward a more dynamic atmosphere is modifying carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean. A critical issue is to understand how net community production (NCP; the balance between gross primary production and community respiration) responds to changes and modulates air-sea CO2 fluxes. Using data collected as part of the ArcticNet-Malina 2009 expedition in southeastern Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean), we synthesize information on sea ice, wind, river, water column properties, metabolism of the planktonic food web, organic carbon fluxes and pools, as well as air-sea CO2 exchange, with the aim of identifying indices of ecosystem response to environmental changes. Data were analyzed to develop a non-steady-state carbon budget and an assessment of NCP against air-sea CO2 fluxes. The mean atmospheric forcing was a mild upwelling-favorable wind (~5 km h-1) blowing from the N-E and a decaying ice cover (<80% concentration) was observed beyond the shelf, the latter being fully exposed to the atmosphere. We detected some areas where the surface mixed layer was net autotrophic owing to high rates of primary production (PP), but the ecosystem was overall net heterotrophic. The region acted nonetheless as a sink for atmospheric CO2 with a mean uptake rate of -2.0 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2d-1. We attribute this discrepancy to: (1) elevated PP rates (>600 mg C m-2d-1) over the shelf prior to our survey, (2) freshwater dilution by river runoff and ice melt, and (3) the presence of cold surface waters offshore. Only the Mackenzie River delta and localized shelf areas directly affected by upwelling were identified as substantial sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (>10mmol C m-2d-1). Although generally <100 mg C m-2d-1, daily PP rates cumulated to a total PP of ~437.6 × 103 t C, which was roughly twice higher than the organic carbon delivery by river inputs (~241.2 × 103 t C). Subsurface PP represented 37.4% of total PP for the

  9. Inference of super-resolution ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes from non-linear and multiscale processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Sudre, Joel; Garçon, Veronique; Yahia, Hussein; Dewitte, Boris; Garbe, Christoph; Illig, Séréna; Montes, Ivonne; Dadou, Isabelle; Paulmier, Aurélien; Butz, André

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the role of submesoscale activity is emerging as being more and more important to understand global ocean properties, for instance, for accurately estimating the sources and sinks of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) at the air-sea interface. The scarcity of oceanographic cruises and the lack of available satellite products for GHG concentrations at high resolution prevent from obtaining a global assessment of their spatial variability at small scales. In this work we develop a novel method to reconstruct maps of CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4km) using SST and ocean colour data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). The responsible process for propagating the information between scales is related to cascading properties and multiscale organization, typical of fully developed turbulence. The methodology, based on the Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism, makes use, from the knowledge of singularity exponents, of the optimal wavelet for the determination of the energy injection mechanism between scales. We perform a validation analysis of the results of our algorithm using pCO2 ocean data from in-situ measurements in the upwelling region off Namibia.

  10. CO2 air-sea fluxes across the Portuguese estuaries Tagus and Sado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. P.; Cabeçadas, G.; Nogueira, M.

    2009-04-01

    Generally, estuaries and proximal shelves under the direct influence of river runoff and large inputs of organic matter are mostly heterotrophic and, therefore, act as a carbon source. In this context the CO2 dynamics in Tagus and Sado estuaries (SW Portugal) was studied under two different climate and hydrological situations. These moderately productive mesotidal coastal-plain lagoon-type estuaries, localised in the center of Portugal and distant 30-40 km apart, present quite different freshwater inflows, surface areas and water residence times. A study performed in 2001 revealed that the magnitude of CO2 fluxes in the two estuarine systems varied seasonally. CO2 emissions during the huge rainfall winter were similar in both estuaries, reaching a mean value of ~50 mmol m-2 d-1, while in spring emissions from Sado were ~6 times higher then Tagus ones, attaining a mean value of 62 mmol m-2 d-1. Nevertheless, in both sampling periods, Sado estuary showed, within the upper estuary (salinity

  11. Air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Brian J.; Miller, Scott D.

    2016-07-01

    Direct carbon dioxide flux measurements using eddy covariance from an icebreaker in the high-latitude Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal ice zone are reported. Fluxes were combined with the measured water-air carbon dioxide partial pressure difference (ΔpCO2) to compute the air-sea gas transfer velocity (k, normalized to Schmidt number 660). The open water data showed a quadratic relationship between k (cm h-1) and the neutral 10 m wind speed (U10n, m s-1), kopen = 0.245 U10n2 + 1.3, in close agreement with decades old tracer-based results and much lower than cubic relationships inferred from previous open ocean eddy covariance studies. In the marginal ice zone, the effective gas transfer velocity decreased in proportion to sea ice cover, in contrast with predictions of enhanced gas exchange in the presence of sea ice. The combined open water and marginal ice zone results affect the calculated magnitude and spatial distribution of Southern Ocean carbon flux.

  12. Air-sea heat exchange, an element of the water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and variation of water vapor, clouds and precipitation are examined. Principal driving forces for these distributions are energy exchange and evaporation at the air-sea interface, which are also important elements of air-sea interaction studies. The overall aim of air-sea interaction studies is to quantitatively determine mass, momentum and energy fluxes, with the goal of understanding the mechanisms controlling them. The results of general circulation simulations indicate that the atmosphere in mid-latitudes responds to changes in the oceanic surface conditions in the tropics. This correlation reflects the strong interaction between tropical and mid-latitude conditions caused by the transport of heat and momentum from the tropics. Studies of air-sea exchanges involve a large number of physica, chemical and dynamical processes including heat flux, radiation, sea-surface temperature, precipitation, winds and ocean currents. The fluxes of latent heat are studied and the potential use of satellite data in determining them evaluated. Alternative ways of inferring heat fluxes will be considered.

  13. Impacts of air-sea exchange coefficients on snowfall events over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jung-Yoon; Kwon, Young Cheol

    2016-08-01

    Snowfall over the Korean Peninsula is mainly associated with air mass transformation by the fluxes across the air-sea interface during cold-air outbreaks over the warm Yellow Sea. The heat and momentum exchange coefficients in the surface flux parameterization are key parameters of flux calculations across the air-sea interface. This study investigates the effects of the air-sea exchange coefficients on the simulations of snowfall events over the Korean Peninsula using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two snowfall cases are selected for this study. One is a heavy snowfall event that took place on January 4, 2010, and the other is a light snowfall event that occurred on December 23-24, 2011. Several sensitivity tests are carried out with increased and decreased heat and momentum exchange coefficients. The domain-averaged precipitation is increased (decreased) with increased (decreased) heat exchange coefficient because the increased (decreased) surface heat flux leads to more (less) moist conditions in the low level of the atmosphere. On the other hand, the domain-averaged precipitation is decreased (increased) with increased (decreased) momentum exchange coefficient because the increased (decreased) momentum coefficient causes reduction (increase) of wind speed and heat flux. The variation of precipitation in the heat exchange coefficient experiments is much larger than that in the momentum exchange coefficient experiments because the change of heat flux has a more direct impact on moisture flux and snowfall amount, while the change of momentum flux has a rather indirect impact via wind speed changes. The low-pressure system is intensified and moves toward North when the heat exchange coefficient is increased because warming and moistening of the lower atmosphere contributes to destabilize the air mass, resulting in the change of precipitation pattern over the Korean Peninsula in the heat exchange coefficient experiments.

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Western English Channel based on two years of FerryBox deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Latimier, M.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Vernet, M.; Bozec, Y.

    2014-12-01

    From January 2011 to January 2013, a FerryBox system was installed on a Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), which crossed the Western English Channel (WEC) between Roscoff (France) and Plymouth (UK) up to 3 times a day. The FerryBox continuously measured sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescence and partial pressure of CO2 (from April 2012) along the ferry track. Sensors were calibrated based on 714 bimonthly surface samplings with precisions of 0.016 for SSS, 3.3 μM for DO, 0.40 μg L- 1 for Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) (based on fluorescence measurements) and 5.2 μatm for pCO2. Over the 2 years of deployment (900 crossings), we reported 9% of data lost due to technical issues and quality checked data was obtained to allow investigation of the dynamics of biogeochemical processes related to air-sea CO2 fluxes in the WEC. Based on this unprecedented high-frequency dataset, the physical structure of the WEC was assessed using SST anomalies and the presence of a thermal front was observed around the latitude 49.5°N, which divided the WEC in two main provinces: the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the all-year well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC). These hydrographical properties strongly influenced the spatial and inter-annual distributions of phytoplankton blooms, which were mainly limited by nutrients and light availability in the nWEC and the sWEC, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes were also highly related to hydrographical properties of the WEC between late April and early September 2012, with the sWEC a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1, whereas the nWEC acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 of 6.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1. The study of short time-scale dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes revealed that an intense and short (less than 10 days) summer bloom in the nWEC contributed to 29% of the CO2 sink during the productive period, highlighting the necessity for high frequency observations in coastal

  15. Synoptic evaluation of carbon cycling in the Beaufort Sea during summer: contrasting river inputs, ecosystem metabolism and air-sea CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Coupel, P.; Else, B.; Nahavandian, S.; Lansard, B.; Raimbault, P.; Papakyriakou, T.; Gratton, Y.; Fortier, L.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2014-05-01

    The accelerated decline in Arctic sea ice and an ongoing trend toward more energetic atmospheric and oceanic forcings are modifying carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean. A critical issue is to understand how net community production (NCP; the balance between gross primary production and community respiration) responds to changes and modulates air-sea CO2 fluxes. Using data collected as part of the ArcticNet-Malina 2009 expedition in the southeastern Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean), we synthesize information on sea ice, wind, river, water column properties, metabolism of the planktonic food web, organic carbon fluxes and pools, as well as air-sea CO2 exchange, with the aim of documenting the ecosystem response to environmental changes. Data were analyzed to develop a non-steady-state carbon budget and an assessment of NCP against air-sea CO2 fluxes. During the field campaign, the mean wind field was a mild upwelling-favorable wind (~ 5 km h-1) from the NE. A decaying ice cover (< 80% concentration) was observed beyond the shelf, the latter being fully exposed to the atmosphere. We detected some areas where the surface mixed layer was net autotrophic owing to high rates of primary production (PP), but the ecosystem was overall net heterotrophic. The region acted nonetheless as a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an uptake rate of -2.0 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2 d-1 (mean ± standard deviation associated with spatial variability). We attribute this discrepancy to (1) elevated PP rates (> 600 mg C m-2 d-1) over the shelf prior to our survey, (2) freshwater dilution by river runoff and ice melt, and (3) the presence of cold surface waters offshore. Only the Mackenzie River delta and localized shelf areas directly affected by upwelling were identified as substantial sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (> 10 mmol C m-2 d-1). Daily PP rates were generally < 100 mg C m-2 d-1 and cumulated to a total PP of ~ 437.6 × 103 t C for the region over a 35-day period. This amount was about twice the

  16. On the calculation of air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the presence of temperature and salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Donlon, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    The presence of vertical temperature and salinity gradients in the upper ocean and the occurrence of variations in temperature and salinity on time scales from hours to many years complicate the calculation of the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) across the sea surface. Temperature and salinity affect the interfacial concentration of aqueous CO2 primarily through their effect on solubility with lesser effects related to saturated vapor pressure and the relationship between fugacity and partial pressure. The effects of temperature and salinity profiles in the water column and changes in the aqueous concentration act primarily through the partitioning of the carbonate system. Climatological calculations of flux require attention to variability in the upper ocean and to the limited validity of assuming "constant chemistry" in transforming measurements to climatological values. Contrary to some recent analysis, it is shown that the effect on CO2 fluxes of a cool skin on the sea surface is large and ubiquitous. An opposing effect on calculated fluxes is related to the occurrence of warm layers near the surface; this effect can be locally large but will usually coincide with periods of low exchange. A salty skin and salinity anomalies in the upper ocean also affect CO2 flux calculations, though these haline effects are generally weaker than the thermal effects.

  17. Estimating lake-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.E.; Striegl, R.G.; Stannard, D.I.; Michmerhuizen, C.M.; McConnaughey, T.A.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Lake-atmosphere CO2 flux was directly measured above a small, woodland lake using the eddy covariance technique and compared with fluxes deduced from changes in measured lake-water CO2 storage and with flux predictions from boundary-layer and surface-renewal models. Over a 3-yr period, lake-atmosphere exchanges of CO2 were measured over 5 weeks in spring, summer, and fall. Observed springtime CO2 efflux was large (2.3-2.7 ??mol m-2 s-1) immediately after lake-thaw. That efflux decreased exponentially with time to less than 0.2 ??mol m-2 s-1 within 2 weeks. Substantial interannual variability was found in the magnitudes of springtime efflux, surface water CO2 concentrations, lake CO2 storage, and meteorological conditions. Summertime measurements show a weak diurnal trend with a small average downward flux (-0.17 ??mol m-2 s-1) to the lake's surface, while late fall flux was trendless and smaller (-0.0021 ??mol m-2 s-1). Large springtime efflux afforded an opportunity to make direct measurement of lake-atmosphere fluxes well above the detection limits of eddy covariance instruments, facilitating the testing of different gas flux methodologies and air-water gas-transfer models. Although there was an overall agreement in fluxes determined by eddy covariance and those calculated from lake-water storage change in CO2, agreement was inconsistent between eddy covariance flux measurements and fluxes predicted by boundary-layer and surface-renewal models. Comparison of measured and modeled transfer velocities for CO2, along with measured and modeled cumulative CO2 flux, indicates that in most instances the surface-renewal model underpredicts actual flux. Greater underestimates were found with comparisons involving homogeneous boundary-layer models. No physical mechanism responsible for the inconsistencies was identified by analyzing coincidentally measured environmental variables.

  18. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the northwestern European shelf based on voluntary observing ship and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-09-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 data set based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in northwestern European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), wind speed (WND), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 data set (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT and LDEO databases and obtained good agreement between modeled and observed data. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.6 ± 0.3, -0.9 ± 0.3 and -0.5 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the northern Celtic Sea, southern Celtic sea and nWEC, respectively, whereas permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 mol C m-2 yr-1 in the sWEC and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over these provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -1.11 ± 0.32 Tg C yr-1 for this part of the northwestern European continental shelf. Our study showed that combining VOS data with satellite observations can be a powerful tool to

  19. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North-West European Shelf based on Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-04-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 dataset based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the Western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in north-west European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), the gas transfer velocity coefficient (K), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with relative uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 dataset (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish Seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT database and obtained relatively robust results with an average precision of 4 ± 22 μatm in the seasonally stratified nWEC and the southern and northern CS (sCS and nCS), but less promising results in the permanently well-mixed sWEC, IS and Cap Lizard (CL) waters. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.4, -0.9 and -0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the nCS, sCS and nWEC, respectively, whereas, permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the sWEC, CL and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over six provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -0.95 Tg C year-1 for this

  20. Model estimating the effect of marginal ice zone processes on the phytoplankton primary production and air-sea flux of CO2 in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Anton; Sein, Dmitry; Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Gorchakov, Victor; Martjyanov, Stanislav

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed to assess the impact of sea ice on the primary production of phytoplankton (PPP) and air-sea CO2 flux in the Barents Sea. To get the estimations, we apply a three-dimensional eco-hydrodynamic model based on the Princeton Ocean Model which includes: 1) a module of sea ice with 7 categories, and 2) the 11-component module of marine pelagic ecosystem developed in the St. Petersburg Branch, Institute of Oceanology. The model is driven by atmospheric forcing, prescribed from the reanalysis NCEP / NCAR, and conditions on the open sea boundary, prescribed from the regional model of the atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-ocean biogeochemistry, developed at Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg. Comparison of the model results for the period 1998-2007 with satellite data showed that the model reproduces the main features of the evolution of the sea surface temperature, seasonal changes in the ice extent, surface chlorophyll "a" concentration and PPP in the Barents Sea. Model estimates of the annual PPP for whole sea, APPmod, appeared in 1.5-2.3 times more than similar estimates, APPdata, from satellite data. The main reasons for this discrepancy are: 1) APPdata refers to the open water, while APPmod, to the whole sea area (under the pack ice and marginal ice zone (MIZ) was produced 16 - 38% of PPP); and 2) values of APPdata are underestimated because of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum. During the period 1998-2007, the modelled maximal (in the seasonal cycle) sea ice area has decreased by 15%. This reduction was accompanied by an increase in annual PPP of the sea at 54 and 63%, based, respectively, on satellite data and the model for the open water. According to model calculations for the whole sea area, the increase is only 19%. Using a simple 7-component model of oceanic carbon cycle incorporated into the above hydrodynamic model, the CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and sea has been estimated in different conditions. In the absence of biological

  1. Occurrence and air-sea exchange of phthalates in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian; Lohmann, Rainer; Caba, Armando; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Air and seawater samples were taken simultaneously to investigate the distribution and air-sea gas exchange of phthalates in the Arctic onboard the German Research Ship FS Polarstern. Samples were collected on expeditions ARK XX1&2 from the North Sea to the high Arctic (60 degrees N-85 degrees N) in the summer of 2004. The concentration of sigma6 phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-i-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)) ranged from 30 to 5030 pg L(-1) in the aqueous dissolved phase and from 1110 to 3090 pg m(-3) in the atmospheric gas phase. A decreasing latitudinal trend was present in the seawater and to a lesser degree in the atmosphere from the Norwegian coast to the high Arctic. Overall, deposition dominated the air-sea gas exchange for DEHP, while volatilization from seawater took place in the near-coast environment. The estimated net gas deposition of DEHP was 5, 30, and 190 t year(-1) for the Norwegian Sea, the Greenland Sea, and the Arctic, respectively. This suggests that atmospheric transport and deposition of phthalates is a significant process for their occurrence in the remote Atlantic and Arctic Ocean.

  2. An Approach to Minimizing Artifacts Caused by Cross-Sensitivity in the Determination of Air-Sea CO2 Flux Using the Eddy-Covariance Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ziqiang; Gao, Huiwang; Gao, Zengxiang; Wang, Renlei; Xue, Yuhuan; Yao, Xiaohong

    2013-07-01

    The air-sea CO2 flux was measured from a research vessel in the North Yellow Sea in October 2007 using an open-path eddy-covariance technique. In 11 out of 64 samples, the normalized spectra of scalars (C}2, water vapour, and temperature) showed similarities. However, in the remaining samples, the normalized CO2 spectra were observed to be greater than those of water vapour and temperature at low frequencies. In this paper, the noise due to cross-sensitivity was identified through a combination of intercomparisons among the normalized spectra of three scalars and additional analyses. Upon examination, the cross-sensitivity noise appeared to be mainly present at frequencies {<}0.8 Hz. Our analysis also suggested that the high-frequency fluctuations of CO2 concentration (frequency {>}0.8 Hz) was probably less affected by the cross-sensitivity. To circumvent the cross-sensitivity issue, the cospectrum in the high-frequency range 0.8-1.5 Hz, instead of the whole range, was used to estimate the CO2 flux by taking the contribution of the high frequency to the CO2 flux to be the same as the contribution to the water vapour flux. The estimated air-sea CO2 flux in the North Yellow Sea was -0.039 ± 0.048 mg m^{-2} s^{-1}, a value comparable to the estimates using the inertial dissipation method and Edson's method (Edson et al., J Geophys Res 116:C00F10, 2011).

  3. Oceanic Whitecaps and Their Role in Air-Sea Exchange Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazman, R. E.

    The book is based on the proceedings of the 1983 Whitecap Workshop, held at University College, Galway, Ireland. The 22 full-length papers and 18 abstracts of poster presentations that it contains cover a wide range of topics. The small-scale air-sea exchange processes triggered by the breaking of wind-generated gravity waves serve as the common ground from which specialized excursions are made into the fields of acoustics and optics of bubbly water, statistics and hydrodynamics of water waves, remote sensing, atmospheric electricity, and physicochemical hydrodynamics of bubbles, droplets, and water surfaces coated with organic films. The book opens with “The Life and Science of Alfred H. Woodcock” by Duncan Blanchard (State University of New York, Albany).

  4. Intraseasonal variability linked to sampling alias in air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Gregor, Luke; Lévy, Marina; Maenner, Stacy; Sabine, Christopher L.; Swart, Sebastiaan

    2015-10-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) contributes most of the uncertainty in contemporary estimates of the mean annual flux of carbon dioxide CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Attempts to reduce this uncertainty have aimed at resolving the seasonal cycle of the fugacity of CO2 (fCO2). We use hourly CO2 flux and driver observations collected by the combined deployment of ocean gliders to show that resolving the seasonal cycle is not sufficient to reduce the uncertainty of the flux of CO2 to below the threshold required to reveal climatic trends in CO2 fluxes. This was done by iteratively subsampling the hourly CO2 data set at various time intervals. We show that because of storm-linked intraseasonal variability in the spring-late summer, sampling intervals longer than 2 days alias the seasonal mean flux estimate above the required threshold. Moreover, the regional nature and long-term trends in storm characteristics may be an important influence in the future role of the SO in the carbon-climate system.

  5. Quantifying the air-sea CO2 flux at a time-series in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Nathalie; Veleda, Doris; Araujo, Moacyr; Caniaux, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Hourly fCO2 is recorded at a time-series at the PIRATA buoy located at 6oS 10oW in the eastern tropical Atlantic since June 2006. This site is located south and west of the seasonal Atlantic cold tongue and is affected by its propagation from June to September. Using an alkalinity-salinity relationship determined for the eastern tropical Atlantic and the observed fCO2, pH and the inorganic carbon concentration are calculated. The time-series of fCO2 exhibits strong intraseasonal, seasonal and interannual variability. On seasonal timescales, the variations of fCO2 and pH are mostly controlled by sea surface salinity. At interannual timescales, some important differences appear in 2011-2012: lower fCO2 and fluxes are observed from September to December 2011 and are explained by higher advection of salty waters at the mooring. In early 2012, the anomaly is still present and is associated with lower sea surface temperatures. No significant long-term trend is detected over the period 2006-2013 on CO2 and any other physical parameter. However, as atmospheric fCO2 is increasing over time, the outgassing of CO2 is reduced over the period 2006-2013 as the flux is mainly controlled by the difference of fCO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. A longer time-series is required to determine if any significant trend exists in this region.

  6. Variability of 14C reservoir age and air-sea flux of CO2 in the Peru-Chile upwelling region during the past 12,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Matthieu; Jackson, Donald; Maldonado, Antonio; Chase, Brian M.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of radiocarbon marine reservoir age through time and space limits the accuracy of chronologies in marine paleo-environmental archives. We report here new radiocarbon reservoir ages (ΔR) from the central coast of Chile (~ 32°S) for the Holocene period and compare these values to existing reservoir age reconstructions from southern Peru and northern Chile. Late Holocene ΔR values show little variability from central Chile to Peru. Prior to 6000 cal yr BP, however, ΔR values were markedly increased in southern Peru and northern Chile, while similar or slightly lower-than-modern ΔR values were observed in central Chile. This extended dataset suggests that the early Holocene was characterized by a substantial increase in the latitudinal gradient of marine reservoir age between central and northern Chile. This change in the marine reservoir ages indicates that the early Holocene air-sea flux of CO2 could have been up to five times more intense than in the late Holocene in the Peruvian upwelling, while slightly reduced in central Chile. Our results show that oceanic circulation changes in the Humboldt system during the Holocene have substantially modified the air-sea carbon flux in this region.

  7. Decline of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Arctic atmosphere and reversal of air-sea gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Falconer, R. L.; Barrie, L. A.; Fellin, P.

    1995-02-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are the most abundant organochlorine pesticides in the arctic atmosphere and ocean surface water. A compilation of measurements made between 1979-93 from stations in the Canadian and Norwegian Arctic and from cruises in the Bering and Chukchi seas indicates that atmospheric concentrations of α-HCH have declined significantly (p < 0.01), with a time for 50% decrease of about 4 y in summer-fall and 6 y in winter-spring. The 1992-93 levels of about 100 pg m-3 are 2-4 fold lower than values in the mid-1980s. The trend in γ-HCH is less pronounced, but a decrease is also suggested from measurements in the Canadian Arctic and the Bering-Chukchi seas. HCHs in ocean surface water have remained relatively constant since the early 1980s. The decline in atmospheric α-HCH has reversed the net direction of air-sea gas exchange to the point where some northern waters are now sources of the pesticide to the atmosphere instead of sinks.

  8. Air-sea exchange fluxes of synthetic polycyclic musks in the North Sea and the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian; Heemken, Olaf; Ruck, Wolfgang

    2007-08-15

    Synthetic polycyclic musk fragrances Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) were measured simultaneously in air and seawater in the Arctic and the North Sea and in the rural air of northern Germany. Median concentrations of gas-phase HHCB and AHTN were 4 and 18 pg m(-3) in the Arctic, 28 and 18 pg m(-3) in the North Sea, and 71 and 21 pg m(-3) in northern Germany, respectively. Various ratios of HHCB/AHTN implied that HHCB is quickly removed by atmospheric degradation, while AHTN is relatively persistent in the atmosphere. Dissolved concentrations ranged from 12 to 2030 pg L(-1) for HHCB and from below the method detection limit (3 pg L(-1)) to 965 pg L(-1) for AHTN with median values of 59 and 23 pg L(-1), respectively. The medians of volatilization fluxes for HHCB and AHTN were 27.2 and 14.2 ng m(-2) day(-1) and the depositional fluxes were 5.9 and 3.3 ng m(-2) day(-1), respectively, indicating water-to-air volatilization is a significant process to eliminate HHCB and AHTN from the North Sea. In the Arctic, deposition fluxes dominated the air-sea gas exchange of HHCB and AHTN, suggesting atmospheric input controls the levels of HHCB and AHTN in the polar region.

  9. Impacts of Atmospheric Modes of Variability on Air-Sea Heat Exchange in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Josey, Simon A.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Raitsos, Dionissios E.

    2014-05-01

    The potential impacts on Red Sea surface heat exchange of various major modes of atmospheric variability are investigated using the NASA Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric reanalysis and the Objectively Analyzed Air-Sea Flux dataset (OAFlux) merged satellite+reanalysis dataset. The mode impacts on surface net heat flux are quantified by calculating the heat flux anomaly that corresponds to a unit positive value of each index for each grid point. The seasonal effects of the atmospheric forcing are investigated considering two and four typical seasons of a calendar year. Considering two seasons, the impacts are strongest during the winter-centered part of the year (October to March) mainly over the northern sub-basin. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic - West Russia Pattern (EAWR), and the Indian Monsoon Index (IMI) have the greatest effects. They generate negative anomalies (by definition additional ocean heat loss) of 7-12 W/m2 in the northern Red Sea basin mean net heat flux for a unit positive value of the mode index. During the summer (April to September), the signal is smaller and the East Atlantic (EA) and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) modes have the strongest impact which is now located in the southern Red Sea (sub-basin anomalies of 4 W/m2 for unit positive mode index, negative for EA and positive for MEI). Results obtained by analysis carried out on the traditional four-season basis reveal that indices impact peaks during the typical boreal winter (DJF) with average anomalies of 12-18 W/m2 to be found in the northern part. It is noteworthy that during the winter, the EAWR generates negative anomalies around 30 W/m2 over the most of the central Red Sea. During the spring (MAM), summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) the anomalies are considerably lower, especially during the spring when the mode impacts are negligible. Atmospheric modes have a stronger effect on air-sea heat flux over the northern

  10. Effect of gas-transfer velocity parameterization choice on air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, Iwona; Piskozub, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The oceanic sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important part of the global carbon budget. Understanding uncertainties in the calculation of this net flux into the ocean is crucial for climate research. One of the sources of the uncertainty within this calculation is the parameterization chosen for the CO2 gas-transfer velocity. We used a recently developed software toolbox, called the FluxEngine (Shutler et al., 2016), to estimate the monthly air-sea CO2 fluxes for the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean, including the European Arctic, and for the global ocean using several published quadratic and cubic wind speed parameterizations of the gas-transfer velocity. The aim of the study is to constrain the uncertainty caused by the choice of parameterization in the North Atlantic Ocean. This region is a large oceanic sink of CO2, and it is also a region characterized by strong winds, especially in winter but with good in situ data coverage. We show that the uncertainty in the parameterization is smaller in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic than in the global ocean. It is as little as 5 % in the North Atlantic and 4 % in the European Arctic, in comparison to 9 % for the global ocean when restricted to parameterizations with quadratic wind dependence. This uncertainty becomes 46, 44, and 65 %, respectively, when all parameterizations are considered. We suggest that this smaller uncertainty (5 and 4 %) is caused by a combination of higher than global average wind speeds in the North Atlantic (> 7 ms-1) and lack of any seasonal changes in the direction of the flux direction within most of the region. We also compare the impact of using two different in situ pCO2 data sets (Takahashi et al. (2009) and Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) v1.5 and v2.0, for the flux calculation. The annual fluxes using the two data sets differ by 8 % in the North Atlantic and 19 % in the European Arctic. The seasonal fluxes in the Arctic computed from the two data sets disagree with each

  11. Air-Sea CO2 fluxes and NEP changes in a Baja California Coastal Lagoon during the anomalous North Pacific warm condition in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila López, M. D. C.; Martin Hernandez-Ayon, J. M.; Camacho-Ibar, V.; Sandoval Gil, J.; Mejía-Trejo, A.; Félix-Bermudez, A.; Pacheco-Ruiz, I.

    2015-12-01

    The present study examines the temporal variability of seawater carbonate chemistry and air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in a Baja California Mediterranean-climate coastal lagoon. This study was carried out from Nov-2013 to Nov-2014, a period in which anomalous warm conditions were present in the North Pacific Ocean influenced the local oceanography in the adjacent coastal waters off Baja California. These ocean conditions resulted on a negative anomaly of upwelling index, which led to summer-like season (weak upwelling condition) that could be observed in the response of carbon dynamics and metabolic status in San Quintín Bay. Minor changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration during spring months (~100 µmol kg-1) where observed and were associated to biological processes within the lagoon. High DIC (~2200 µmol kg-1), pCO2 (~800 μatm), and minimum pH (~7.8) values were observed in summer, reflecting the predominance of respiration processes apparently mostly linked to the remineralization of sedimentary organic matter supplied from macroalgal blooms. San Quintín Bay acted as a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere during the study period, with maximum value observed in July (~10 mmol C m-2 d-1). Temporal biomass production of macroalgae contributed to about 50% of total FCO2 estimated in spring-summer seasons, that was a potencial internal source of organic matter to fuel respiration processes in San Quintín Bay. Eelgrass metabolism contributes in a lower degree in total FCO2. During the anomalous ocean conditions in 2014, the lagoon switched seasonally between net heterotrophy and net autotrophy during the study period, where photosynthesis and respiration processes in the lagoon were closer to a balance. Whole-system metabolism and FCO2 clearly indicated the strong dependence of San Quintín Bay on upwelling conditions and benthic metabolism activity, which was mainly controlled by dominant primary producer communities.

  12. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Rice, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average alpha-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average gamma-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (alpha-HCH, average 79% saturation; gamma-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for alpha-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of gamma-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  13. Occurrence and air/sea-exchange of novel organic pollutants in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, R.; Xie, Z.

    2006-12-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that several classes of chemicals act as biologically relevant signalling substances. Among these chemicals, many, including PCBs, DDT and dioxins, are semi-volatile, persistent, and are capable of long-range atmospheric transport via atmospheric circulation. Some of these compounds, e.g. phthalates and alkylphenols (APs) are still manufactured and consumed worldwide even though there is clear evidence that they are toxic to aquatic organisms and can act as endocrine disruptors. Concentrations of NP, t-OP and NP1EO, DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, and DEHP have been simultaneously determined in the surface sea water and atmosphere of the North Sea. Atmospheric concentrations of NP and t-OP ranged from 7 to 110 pg m - 3, which were one to three orders of magnitude below coastal atmospheric concentrations already reported. NP1EO was detected in both vapor and particle phases, which ranged from 4 to 50 pg m - 3. The concentrations of the phthalates in the atmosphere ranged from below the method detection limit to 3.4 ng m - 3. The concentrations of t-OP, NP, and NP1EO in dissolved phase were 13-300, 90-1400, and 17-1660 pg L - 1. DBP, BBP, and DEHP were determined in the water phase with concentrations ranging from below the method detection limit to 6.6 ng L - 1. This study indicates that atmospheric deposition of APs and phthalates into the North Sea is an important input pathway. The net fluxes indicate that the air sea exchange is significant and, consequently the open ocean and polar areas will be an extensive sink for APs and phthalates.

  14. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinckley, Daniel A.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Rice, Clifford P.

    1991-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for Organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average α-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average γ-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (α-HCH, average 79% saturation; γ-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for α-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of γ-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  15. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  16. Simulation and Observation of Global Variations in Surface Exchange and Atmospheric Mixing Ratios of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, A.; Conner-Gausepohl, S.; Kawa, S.; Baker, I. T.; Zhu, Z.; Brown, M.; Vay, S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Philpott, A.; Collatz, G.; Schaefer, K.; Kleist, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have performed a simulation of hourly variations of terrestrial surface fluxes and the atmospheric mixing ratio of carbon dioxide from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2004, and have evaluated the simulation by comparison to a number of observations. Terrestrial photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration were computed using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB), driven by diurnally-varying weather analyzed by the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation System (DAS), with vegetation parameters specified using imagery from the NOAA Advanced High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). CO2 emissions due to the combustion of fossil fuel and to air-sea gas exchange were also prescribed as boundary forcing to the atmospheric transport Parameterized Chemical Transport model (PCTM). Preliminary results showed reasonable agreement with spatial and synoptic variations, but suffered from a systematic offset with respect to the observed seasonal cycle of CO2 at many flask observing stations. Subsequent analysis showed that these problems were traceable to temporal interpolation of the satellite vegetation imagery and the treatment of leaf-to-canopy scaling in SiB, which have both been substantially revised as a result of these analyses. Comparisons to eddy covariance data at several sites, to tower-based continuous observations of CO2 mixing ratio, and to data collected by airborne sampling show that the coupled simulation successfully captures many features of the observed temporal and spatial variations of terrestrial surface exchange and atmospheric transport of CO2. The simulations demonstrate the sensitivity of both surface exchange and atmospheric transport of CO2 to synoptic weather events in middle latitudes, and suggest that high-frequency variations in continental [CO2] data can be interpreted in terms of surface flux anomalies.

  17. A SOLAS challenge: How can we test test feedback loops involving air-sea exchange?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebert, B. J.

    2004-12-01

    It is now well accepted that the Earth System links biological and physical processes in the water, on land, and in the air, creating countless feedback loops and dependencies that are at best difficult to quantify. One example of interest to SOLAS scientists is the suspension and long-range transport of dust from Asia, which may or may not interact with acidic air pollutants, that may increase the biological availability of iron, thereby increasing primary productivity in parts of the Pacific. This could increase DMS emissions and modify the radiative impact of Pacific clouds, affecting the climate and the hydrological system that limits the amount of dust lofted each year. Air-sea exchange is central to many such feedbacks: Variations in productivity in upwelling waters off Peru probably change DMS emissions and modify the stratocumulus clouds that blanket that region, thereby feeding back to productivity. The disparate time and space scales of the controlling processes make it difficult to observationally constrain such systems without the use of multi-year time-series and intensive multiplatform process studies. Unfortunately, much of the infrastructure for funding Earth science is poorly suited for supporting multidisciplinary research. For example, NSF's program managers are organized into disciplines and sub-disciplines, and rely on disciplinary reviewer communities that are protective of their slices of the funding pie. It is easy to find authors of strong, innovative, cross-disciplinary (yet unsuccessful) proposals who say they'll never try it again, because there is so little institutional support for interfacial research. Facility issues also complicate multidisciplinary projects, since there are usually several allocating groups that don't want to commit their ships, airplanes, or towers until the other groups have done so. The result is that there are very few examples of major interdisciplinary projects, even though IGBP core programs have articulated

  18. Changing controls on oceanic radiocarbon: New insights on shallow-to-deep ocean exchange and anthropogenic CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.; Key, R.; Khatiwala, S.; Giraud, X.

    2012-10-01

    The injection of radiocarbon (14C) into the atmosphere by nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s has provided a powerful tracer to investigate ocean physical and chemical processes. While the oceanic uptake of bomb-derived 14C was primarily controlled by air-sea exchange in the early decades after the bomb spike, we demonstrate that changes in oceanic 14C are now primarily controlled by shallow-to-deep ocean exchange, i.e., the same mechanism that governs anthropogenic CO2 uptake. This is a result of accumulated bomb 14C uptake that has rapidly decreased the air-sea gradient of 14C/C (Δ14C) and shifted the main reservoir of bomb 14C from the atmosphere to the upper ocean. The air-sea Δ14C gradient, reduced further by fossil fuel dilution, is now weaker than before weapons testing in most regions. Oceanic 14C, and particularly its temporal change, can now be used to study the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. We examine observed changes in oceanic Δ14C between the WOCE/SAVE (1988-1995) and the CLIVAR (2001-2007) eras and simulations with two ocean general circulation models, the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean Model (ECCO). Observed oceanic Δ14C and its changes between the 1980s-90s and 2000s indicate that shallow-to-deep exchange is too efficient in ECCO and too sluggish in CCSM. These findings suggest that mean global oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 between 1990 and 2007 is bounded by the ECCO-based estimate of 2.3 Pg C yr-1 and the CCSM-based estimate of 1.7 Pg C yr-1.

  19. Effect of sea sprays on air-sea momentum exchange at severe wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yu.; Ezhova, E.; Semenova, A.; Soustova, I.

    2012-04-01

    Wind-wave interaction at extreme wind speed is of special interest now in connection with the problem of explanation of the sea surface drag saturation at the wind speed exceeding 30 m/s. The idea on saturation (and even reduction) of the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance of the sea surface at hurricane wind speed was first suggested in [1] on the basis of theoretical analysis of sensitivity of maximum wind speed in a hurricane to the ratio of the enthalpy and momentum exchange coefficients. Both field [2-4] and laboratory [5] experiments confirmed that at hurricane wind speed the sea surface drag coefficient is significantly reduced in comparison with the parameterization obtained at moderate to strong wind conditions. Two groups of possible theoretical mechanisms for explanation of the effect of the sea surface drag reduction can be specified. In the first group of models developed in [6,7], the sea surface drag reduction is explained by peculiarities of the air flow over breaking waves. Another approach more appropriate for the conditions of developed sea exploits the effect of sea drops and sprays on the wind-wave momentum exchange. Papers[8,9] focused on the effect of the sea drops on stratification of the air-sea boundary layer similar to the model of turbulent boundary layer with the suspended particles [10], while papers [11-13] estimated the momentum exchange of sea drops and air-flow. A mandatory element of the spray induced momentum flux is a parameterization of the momentum exchange between droplets and air flow, which determines the "source function" in the momentum balance equation. In this paper a model describing the motion of a spume droplet, the wind tear away from the crest of a steep surface wave, and then falling into the water. We consider two models for the injection of droplets into the air flow. The first one assumes that the drop starts from the surface at the orbital velocity of the wave. In the second model we consider droplets from

  20. The organic sea surface microlayer in the upwelling region off Peru and implications for air-sea exchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Galgani, L.

    2015-07-01

    The sea surface microlayer (SML) is at the very surface of the ocean, linking the hydrosphere with the atmosphere, and central to a range of global biogeochemical and climate-related processes. The presence and enrichment of organic compounds in the SML have been suggested to influence air-sea gas exchange processes as well as the emission of primary organic aerosols. Among these organic compounds, primarily of plankton origin, are dissolved exopolymers, specifically polysaccharides and proteins, and gel particles, such as Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) and Coomassie Stainable Particles (CSP). These organic substances often accumulate in the surface ocean when plankton productivity is high. Here, we report results obtained in December 2012 during the SOPRAN Meteor 91 cruise to the highly productive, coastal upwelling regime off Peru. Samples were collected from the SML and from ~ 20 cm below, and were analyzed for polysaccharidic and proteinaceous compounds, gel particles, total and dissolved organic carbon, bacterial and phytoplankton abundance. Our study provides insight to the physical and biological control of organic matter enrichment in the SML, and discusses the potential role of organic matter in the SML for air-sea exchange processes.

  1. Intense air-sea exchange and heavy rainfall: impact of the northern Adriatic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, P.; Davolio, S.

    2016-02-01

    Over the northern Adriatic basin, intense air-sea interactions are often associated with heavy precipitation over the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. In this study, a high-resolution mesoscale model is employed to simulate three severe weather events and to evaluate the effect of the sea surface temperature on the intensity and location of heavy rainfall. The sensitivity tests show that the impact of SST varies among the events and it mainly involves the modification of the PBL characteristics and thus the flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography.

  2. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained. PMID:26236090

  3. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the northern South China Sea: implications for land outflow and air-sea exchange.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Hairong; Li, Xiangdong; Xu, Weihai; Jones, Kevin C

    2007-06-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by developing countries in Southeast Asia, where persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), are still used legally or illegally, and are of concern. Yet little is known about the distribution of OCPs in the water and atmosphere over SCS, as well as their air-sea equilibrium status and time trends. In this study, ship-board air samples and surface seawater collected in the northern SCS between September 6 and 22, 2005 were analyzed for selected OCPs. The measured OCP concentrations in the atmosphere over the northern SCS were influenced by proximity to source regions and air mass origins. The highest atmospheric OCP concentrations were found at sampling sites adjacent to continental South China. OCPs in surface seawater showed significant spatial variations, with the highest concentration observed in a water sample from off Vietnam. The coastal currents were suggested to play a key role in the delivery of waterborne OCPs in the northern SCS. Time trend, land outflow, and air-sea exchange of selected OCPs in the SCS were investigated, by comparison of this dataset with historical data.

  4. Tropical Intraseasonal Air-Sea Exchanges during the 1997 Pacific Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.; Chou, S.-H.; Wang, Zihou

    1999-01-01

    The Madden Julian Oscillations (MJO) and associated westerly wind (WW) events account for much of the tropical intraseasonal variability (TISV). The TISV has been suggested as an important stochastic forcing that may be one of the underlying causes for the observed irregularities of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recent observational studies and theories of interannual to interdecadal-scale variability suggest that ENSO may arise from different mechanisms depending on the basic states. The Pacific warming event of 1997, being associated with a period of strong MJO and WW events, serves as a natural experiment for studying the possible role of TISV in triggering an ENSO event. We have performed a combined statistical and composite analysis of surface WW events based on the assimilated surface wind and sea level pressure for the period of 1980-1993, the SSM/I wind for the period of 1988-1997, and OLR. Results indicates that extratropical forcing contribute significantly to the evolution of MJO and establishment of WW events over the Pacific warm pool. Following the major WW events, there appeared an eastward extension of equatorial warm SST anomalies from the western Pacific warm pool. Such tropical-extratropical interaction is particularly clear in the winter of 96-97 that leads to the recent warming event in 1997/98. From the above discussion, our current study on this subject is based on the hypothesis that 1) there is an enhanced air-sea interaction associated with TISV and the northerly surges from the extratropics in the initial phase of the 97/98 warming event, and 2) the relevant mechanisms are functions of the basic state of the coupled system (in terms of SST distribution and atmospheric mean circulation) that varies at the interannual and interdecadal time scale. We are analyzing the space-time structure of the northerly surges, their association with air-sea fluxes and upper ocean responses during the period of September 1996 to June 1997. The

  5. Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of α-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 ± 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 ± 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS) GCMs. Here, HadOCC is coupled to the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting meteorology to undertake a sensitivity analysis of its twenty biological parameters. Analyses are performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W) to assess variability in parameter sensitivities at different locations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. We perform the analysis using one-at-a-time perturbations and using a statistical emulator, and compare results. The most sensitive parameters are generic to many NPZD ocean ecosystem models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosythesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Exchanges in Leaves. I. Discrimination Between 14CO2 and 12CO2 in Photosynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Yemm, E. W.; Bidwell, R. G. S.

    1969-01-01

    In order to measure CO2 exchange reactions by leaves using isotopes of CO2, it is necessary to know precisely the discrimination against 14CO2 by leaves. Earlier determinations of discrimination are at variance, and may be inaccurate because of assumptions made about the rate of photorespiration. Maize leaves evolve little or no CO2 in light, and so provide suitable material for this measurement. Discrimination against 14CO2 in photosynthesis by maize leaves is almost precisely the same as in CO2 absorption by NaOH solution, amounting to 2.1 and 2.0% respectively. The agreement between these values and their close approximation to the relative rates of diffusion of 12CO2 and 14CO2, calculated from Graham's law, shows that diffusion into the leaf is primarily responsible for discrimination against 14CO2 in photosynthesis. PMID:16657206

  8. Monitoring Exchange of CO2 - A KISS Workshop Report 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles; Wennberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The problem and context: Can top-down estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes resolve the anthropogenic emissions of China, India, the United States, and the European Union with an accuracy of +/-10% or better?The workshop "Monitoring Exchange of Carbon Dioxide" was convened at the Keck Institute for Space Studies in Pasadena, California in February 2010 to address this question. The Workshop brought together an international, interdisciplinary group of 24 experts in carbon cycle science, remote sensing, emissions inventory estimation, and inverse modeling. The participants reviewed the potential of space-based and sub-orbital observational and modeling approaches to monitor anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the presence of much larger natural fluxes from the exchange of CO2 between the land, atmosphere, and ocean. This particular challenge was motivated in part by the NRC Report "Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions" [Pacala et al., 2010]. This workshop report includes several recommendations for improvements to observing strategies and modeling frameworks for optimal and cost-effective monitoring of carbon exchange

  9. Bidirectional air-sea exchange and accumulation of POPs (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs) in the nocturnal marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Meixner, Franz X.; Vrana, Branislav; Efstathiou, Christos I.; Kohoutek, Jiři; Kukučka, Petr; Mulder, Marie D.; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Rusina, Tatsiana P.; Song, Guo-Zheng; Tsapakis, Manolis

    2016-05-01

    As a consequence of long-range transported pollution, air-sea exchange can become a major source of persistent organic pollutants in remote marine environments. The vertical gradients in the air were quantified for 14 species, i.e. four parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), three organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and two polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in the gas-phase at a remote coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea in summer. Most vertical gradients were positive (Δc/Δz > 0), indicating downward (net depositional) flux. Significant upward (net volatilisational) fluxes were found for three PAHs, mostly during daytime, and for two OCPs, mostly during night-time, as well as for one PCB and one PBDE during part of the measurements. While phenanthrene was deposited, fluoranthene (FLT) and pyrene (PYR) seem to undergo flux oscillation, hereby not following a day-night cycle. Box modelling confirms that volatilisation from the sea surface has significantly contributed to the night-time maxima of OCPs. Fluxes were quantified based on eddy covariance. Deposition fluxes ranged from -28.5 to +1.8 µg m-2 day-1 for PAHs and -3.4 to +0.9 µg m-2 day-1 for halogenated compounds. Dry particle deposition of FLT and PYR did not contribute significantly to the vertical flux.

  10. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability.

  11. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability. PMID:24504355

  12. Air-sea transfer of gas phase controlled compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Bell, T. G.; Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Brooks, I. M.; Nightingale, P. D.

    2016-05-01

    Gases in the atmosphere/ocean have solubility that spans several orders of magnitude. Resistance in the molecular sublayer on the waterside limits the air-sea exchange of sparingly soluble gases such as SF6 and CO2. In contrast, both aerodynamic and molecular diffusive resistances on the airside limit the exchange of highly soluble gases (as well as heat). Here we present direct measurements of air-sea methanol and acetone transfer from two open cruises: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The transfer of the highly soluble methanol is essentially completely airside controlled, while the less soluble acetone is subject to both airside and waterside resistances. Both compounds were measured concurrently using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer, with their fluxes quantified by the eddy covariance method. Up to a wind speed of 15 m s-1, observed air-sea transfer velocities of these two gases are largely consistent with the expected near linear wind speed dependence. Measured acetone transfer velocity is ∼30% lower than that of methanol, which is primarily due to the lower solubility of acetone. From this difference we estimate the “zero bubble” waterside transfer velocity, which agrees fairly well with interfacial gas transfer velocities predicted by the COARE model. At wind speeds above 15 m s-1, the transfer velocities of both compounds are lower than expected in the mean. Air-sea transfer of sensible heat (also airside controlled) also appears to be reduced at wind speeds over 20 m s-1. During these conditions, large waves and abundant whitecaps generate large amounts of sea spray, which is predicted to alter heat transfer and could also affect the air-sea exchange of soluble trace gases. We make an order of magnitude estimate for the impacts of sea spray on air-sea methanol transfer.

  13. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a High Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüers, J.; Westermann, S.; Piel, K.; Boike, J.

    2014-01-01

    The annual variability of CO2 exchange in most ecosystems is primarily driven by the activities of plants and soil microorganisms. However, little is known about the carbon balance and its controlling factors outside the growing season in arctic regions dominated by soil freeze/thaw-processes, long-lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a High Arctic tundra area on the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy-covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to zero grams carbon per square meter per year, but shows a very strong seasonal variability. Four major CO2 exchange seasons have been identified. (1) During summer (ground snow-free), the CO2 exchange occurs mainly as a result of biological activity, with a predominance of strong CO2 assimilation by the ecosystem. (2) The autumn (ground snow-free or partly snow-covered) is dominated by CO2 respiration as a result of biological activity. (3) In winter and spring (ground snow-covered), low but persistent CO2 release occur, overlain by considerable CO2 exchange events in both directions associated with changes of air masses and air and atmospheric CO2 pressure. (4) The snow melt season (pattern of snow-free and snow-covered areas), where both, meteorological and biological forcing, resulting in a visible carbon uptake by the high arctic ecosystem. Data related to this article are archived under: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.809507.

  14. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds (< 0 means net-deposition, > 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  15. Carbonate chemistry and air-sea CO2 flux at a fixed point in a NW Mediterranean Bay, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carlo, E. H.; Mousseau, L.; Passafiume, O.; Drupp, P. S.; Gattuso, J.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the Service d'Observation de la Rade de Villefranche-sur-Mer (SO-RADE) is to study the temporal variability of hydrological conditions as well as the abundance and composition of holo- and meroplankton at a fixed station in the bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer, North West Mediterranean. The weekly data collected at this site, designated as "Point B (43° 41.10'N - 7° 18.94'E), since 1957 are recognized as a long-term time series describing the evolution of the hydrological conditions in a coastal environment. Since 2007, historical measurements of hydrological and biological conditions have been complemented by measurements of the CO2-carbonate system parameters. In this contribution we present CO2-carbonate system parameters and ancillary data for the period 2007-2010. The data are evaluated in the context of the physical and biogeochemical processes that contribute to the fluxes of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. Seasonal cycles of seawater pCO2 are controlled principally by variations in temperature, showing maxima in the summer and minima during the winters. Normalization of pCO2 to the mean seawater temperature (18oC) results in an apparent reversal of the seasonal cycle with maxima observed in the winters and minima in the summers, consistent with a control of pCO2 by primary productivity. Calculations of "instantaneous fluxes" of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere show this area to be primarily a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere during the summer and a weak sink during the winter and near neutral overall (range: -0.3 to +0.3 mmol CO2 m-2 h-1, average: 0.02 mmol CO2 m-2 h-1). We will also provide projections of errors incurred from the estimation of annualized fluxes of CO2 based on weekly measurements relative to daily and high-frequency (3 h) data such as those obtained at the Hawaii Kilo Nalu coastal time series station, which shows similar behavior to the Point B location despite significant differences in climate and hydrological

  16. Annual CO2 budget and seasonal CO2 exchange signals at a high Arctic permafrost site on Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüers, J.; Westermann, S.; Piel, K.; Boike, J.

    2014-11-01

    The annual variability of CO2 exchange in most ecosystems is primarily driven by the activities of plants and soil microorganisms. However, little is known about the carbon balance and its controlling factors outside the growing season in Arctic regions dominated by soil freeze/thaw processes, long-lasting snow cover, and several months of darkness. This study presents a complete annual cycle of the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics for a high Arctic tundra area at the west coast of Svalbard based on eddy covariance flux measurements. The annual cumulative CO2 budget is close to 0 g C m-2 yr-1, but displays a strong seasonal variability. Four major CO2 exchange seasons have been identified. (1) During summer (snow-free ground), the CO2 exchange occurs mainly as a result of biological activity, with a dominance of strong CO2 assimilation by the ecosystem. (2) The autumn (snow-free ground or partly snow-covered) is dominated by CO2 respiration as a result of biological activity. (3) In winter and spring (snow-covered ground), low but persistent CO2 release occurs, overlayed by considerable CO2 exchange events in both directions associated with high wind speed and changes of air masses and atmospheric air pressure. (4) The snow melt season (pattern of snow-free and snow-covered areas) is associated with both meteorological and biological forcing, resulting in a carbon uptake by the high Arctic ecosystem. Data related to this article are archived at http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.809507.

  17. Wheat response to CO2 enrichment: CO2 exchanges transpiration and mineral uptakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, M.; Ducloux, H.; Richaud, C.

    1986-01-01

    When simulating canopies planted in varied densities, researchers were able to demonstrate that increase of dry matter production by enhancing CO2 quickly becomes independant of increase of leaf area, especially above leaf area index of 2; dry matter gain results mainly from photosynthesis stimulation per unit of surface (primary CO2 effect). When crop density is low (the plants remaining alone a longer time), the effects of increasing leaf surface (tillering, leaf elongation here, branching for other plants etc.) was noticeable and dry matter simulation factor reached 1.65. This area effect decreased when canopy was closed in, as the effect of different surfaces no longer worked. The stimulation of photosynthesis reached to the primary CO2 effect. The accumulation in dry matter which was fast during that phase made the original weight advantage more and more neglectible. Comparison with short term measurements showed that first order long term effect of CO2 in wheat is predictible with short term experiment, from the effect of CO2 on photosynthesis measured on reference sample.

  18. Biology and air-sea gas exchange controls on the distribution of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittner, A.; Gruber, N.; Mix, A. C.; Key, R. M.; Tagliabue, A.; Westberry, T. K.

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of observations and sensitivity experiments with a new three-dimensional global model of stable carbon isotope cycling elucidate processes that control the distribution of δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the contemporary and preindustrial ocean. Biological fractionation and the sinking of isotopically light δ13C organic matter from the surface into the interior ocean leads to low δ13CDIC values at depths and in high latitude surface waters and high values in the upper ocean at low latitudes with maxima in the subtropics. Air-sea gas exchange has two effects. First, it acts to reduce the spatial gradients created by biology. Second, the associated temperature-dependent fractionation tends to increase (decrease) δ13CDIC values of colder (warmer) water, which generates gradients that oppose those arising from biology. Our model results suggest that both effects are similarly important in influencing surface and interior δ13CDIC distributions. However, since air-sea gas exchange is slow in the modern ocean, the biological effect dominates spatial δ13CDIC gradients both in the interior and at the surface, in contrast to conclusions from some previous studies. Calcium carbonate cycling, pH dependency of fractionation during air-sea gas exchange, and kinetic fractionation have minor effects on δ13CDIC. Accumulation of isotopically light carbon from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning has decreased the spatial variability of surface and deep δ13CDIC since the industrial revolution in our model simulations. Analysis of a new synthesis of δ13CDIC measurements from years 1990 to 2005 is used to quantify preformed and remineralized contributions as well as the effects of biology and air-sea gas exchange. The model reproduces major features of the observed large-scale distribution of δ13CDIC as well as the individual contributions and effects. Residual misfits are documented and analyzed. Simulated surface and subsurface δ13CDIC are influenced by

  19. (13) CO2 /(12) CO2 exchange fluxes in a clamp-on leaf cuvette: disentangling artefacts and flux components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao Ying; Schäufele, Rudi; Feneis, Wolfgang; Schnyder, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Leaks and isotopic disequilibria represent potential errors and artefacts during combined measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ). This paper presents new protocols to quantify, minimize, and correct such phenomena. We performed experiments with gradients of CO2 concentration (up to ±250 μmol mol(-1) ) and δ(13) CCO2 (34‰), between a clamp-on leaf cuvette (LI-6400) and surrounding air, to assess (1) leak coefficients for CO2 , (12) CO2 , and (13) CO2 with the empty cuvette and with intact leaves of Holcus lanatus (C3 ) or Sorghum bicolor (C4 ) in the cuvette; and (2) isotopic disequilibria between net photosynthesis and dark respiration in light. Leak coefficients were virtually identical for (12) CO2 and (13) CO2 , but ∼8 times higher with leaves in the cuvette. Leaks generated errors on Δ up to 6‰ for H. lanatus and 2‰ for S. bicolor in full light; isotopic disequilibria produced similar variation of Δ. Leak errors in Δ in darkness were much larger due to small biological : leak flux ratios. Leak artefacts were fully corrected with leak coefficients determined on the same leaves as Δ measurements. Analysis of isotopic disequilibria enabled partitioning of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and indicated inhibitions of dark respiration in full light (H. lanatus: 14%, S. bicolor: 58%).

  20. Air-Sea Exchange and Budget of Sulfur and Oxygen-Containing Volatile Organic Compounds in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, H.; Omori, Y.; Inomata, S.; Iwata, T.; Kameyama, S.

    2015-12-01

    By combining proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gradient flux (GF) technique, in situ measurement of air-sea fluxes of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was developed and deployed. Starting in 2008, we made in situ observations of air-sea fluxes at 15 locations as well as underway observations of marine air/surface seawater bulk concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, during eight research cruises by R/V Hakuho-Maru. The fluxes of biogenic trace gases, DMS and isoprene, were always positive, with the magnitudes being in accordance with previously reported. In contrast, the fluxes of oxygenated VOCs including acetone and acetaldehyde varied from negative to positive, suggesting that the tropical and subtropical Pacific are a source, while the North Pacific is a sink. A basin-scale budget of VOCs were determined for 4 biogeochemical provinces in the Pacific Ocean, and the role of oceans for VOCs were discussed with respect to physical and biogeochemical processes.

  1. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K J; Richardson, S J; Miles, N L

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2-3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute

  2. Biology and air-sea gas exchange controls on the distribution of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittner, A.; Gruber, N.; Mix, A. C.; Key, R. M.; Tagliabue, A.; Westberry, T. K.

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of observations and sensitivity experiments with a new three-dimensional global model of stable carbon isotope cycling elucidate the processes that control the distribution of δ13C in the contemporary and preindustrial ocean. Biological fractionation dominates the distribution of δ13CDIC of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) due to the sinking of isotopically light δ13C organic matter from the surface into the interior ocean. This process leads to low δ13CDIC values at dephs and in high latitude surface waters and high values in the upper ocean at low latitudes with maxima in the subtropics. Air-sea gas exchange provides an important secondary influence due to two effects. First, it acts to reduce the spatial gradients created by biology. Second, the associated temperature dependent fractionation tends to increase (decrease) δ13CDIC values of colder (warmer) water, which generates gradients that oppose those arising from biology. Our model results suggest that both effects are similarly important in influencing surface and interior δ13CDIC distributions. However, air-sea gas exchange is slow, so biological effect dominate spatial δ13CDIC gradients both in the interior and at the surface, in constrast to conclusions from some previous studies. Analysis of a new synthesis of δ13CDIC measurements from years 1990 to 2005 is used to quantify preformed (δ13Cpre) and remineralized (δ13Crem) contributions as well as the effects of biology (Δδ13Cbio) and air-sea gas exchange (δ13C*). The model reproduces major features of the observed large-scale distribution of δ13CDIC, δ13Cpre, δ13Crem, δ13C*, and Δδ13Cbio. Residual misfits are documented and analyzed. Simulated surface and subsurface δ13CDIC are influenced by details of the ecosystem model formulation. For example, inclusion of a simple parameterization of iron limitation of phytoplankton growth rates and temperature-dependent zooplankton grazing rates improves the agreement with δ13CDIC

  3. Effects of elevated CO 2 on gas exchange characteristics of alpine grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemer, M.

    The ecosystem-level gas exchange characteristics of an alpine grassland treated with a combination of elevated CO 2 and moderate additions of NPK fertilizer during the third season of experimental treatments are described. Mid-season maximum daytime net ecosystem CO 2 flux (NEC max) increased significantly under elevated CO 2 (+45%), whereas nighttime NEC was unaffected by the CO 2 treatment. Since daytimke NEC under elevated CO 2 underwent a seasonal decline, only moderate carbon surpluses accumulated under elevated CO 2. The observed seasonal decline in daytime NEC may be due to reduced sink strength once maximum aboveground biomass is attained and appears to be a regulatory mechanism of ecosystem carbon accumulation. Moderate additions of NPK fertilizer stimulated both day-(+39%) and nighttime NEC (+29%) due to increased plant biomass, independent of CO 2 treatment. Yet there is no indication that enhanced mineral nutrient status will increase ecosystem responsiveness to elevated CO 2.

  4. Vertical and horizontal soil CO2 transport and its exchanges with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Domingo, Francisco; Oyonarte, Cecilio

    2015-04-01

    The CO2 efflux from soils to the atmosphere constitutes one of the major fluxes of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is a key determinant for sources and sinks of CO2 in land-atmosphere exchanges. Because of their large global magnitude, even small changes in soil CO2 effluxes directly affect the atmospheric CO2 content. Despite much research, models of soil CO2 efflux rates are highly uncertain, with the positive or negative feedbacks between underground carbon pools and fluxes and their temperature sensitivities in future climate scenarios largely unknown. Now it is necessary to change the point of view regarding CO2 exchange studies from an inappropriately conceived static system in which all respired CO2 is directly emitted by molecular processes to the atmosphere, to a dynamic system with gas transport by three different processes: convection, advection and molecular diffusion. Here we study the effects of wind-induced advection on the soil CO2 molar fraction during two years in a shrubland plateau situated in the Southeast of Spain. A borehole and two subterranean profiles (vertical and horizontal) were installed to study CO2 transport in the soil. Exchanges with the atmosphere were measured by an eddy covariance tower. In the vertical profile, two CO2 sensors (GMP-343, Vaisala) were installed at 0.15m and 1.5m along with soil temperature and humidity probes. The horizontal profile was designed to measure horizontal movements in the soil CO2 molar fraction due to down-gradient CO2 from the plant, where the majority CO2 is produced, towards bare soil. Three CO2 sensors (GMM-222, Vaisala) were installed, the first below plant (under-plant), the second in bare soil separated 25 cm from the first sensor (near-plant) and the third in bare soil at 25 cm from the second sensor (bare soil). The results show how the wind induces the movement of subterranean air masses both horizontally and vertically, affecting atmospheric CO2 exchanges. The eddy covariance tower

  5. The organic sea-surface microlayer in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru and potential implications for air-sea exchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Anja; Galgani, Luisa

    2016-02-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is at the uppermost surface of the ocean, linking the hydrosphere with the atmosphere. The presence and enrichment of organic compounds in the SML have been suggested to influence air-sea gas exchange processes as well as the emission of primary organic aerosols. Here, we report on organic matter components collected from an approximately 50 µm thick SML and from the underlying water (ULW), ˜ 20 cm below the SML, in December 2012 during the SOPRAN METEOR 91 cruise to the highly productive, coastal upwelling regime off the coast of Peru. Samples were collected at 37 stations including coastal upwelling sites and off-shore stations with less organic matter and were analyzed for total and dissolved high molecular weight (> 1 kDa) combined carbohydrates (TCCHO, DCCHO), free amino acids (FAA), total and dissolved hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA, DHAA), transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), Coomassie stainable particles (CSPs), total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC, DOC), total and dissolved nitrogen (TN, TDN), as well as bacterial and phytoplankton abundance. Our results showed a close coupling between organic matter concentrations in the water column and in the SML for almost all components except for FAA and DHAA that showed highest enrichment in the SML on average. Accumulation of gel particles (i.e., TEP and CSP) in the SML differed spatially. While CSP abundance in the SML was not related to wind speed, TEP abundance decreased with wind speed, leading to a depletion of TEP in the SML at about 5 m s-1. Our study provides insight to the physical and biological control of organic matter enrichment in the SML, and discusses the potential role of organic matter in the SML for air-sea exchange processes.

  6. Methanogenesis and CO 2 exchange in an ombrotrophic peat bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, David; Thomas, Katie L.; Benstead, Julie; Davies, Kevin L.; Lloyd, Siôn H.; Arah, Jonathan R. M.; Stephen, Karl D.

    Methanogenesis was studied in water-saturated peat cores from hollows in Ellergower Moss, New Galloway, Scotland. The concentration of CH 4, increased with depth from 0.8 μM at the surface to reach a plateau of 500 μM at 14 cm; at this depth CO 2 concentrations often reached 10 fold those of CH 4. O 2 decreased from near air saturation to less than 10 nM at 6 cm depth. Argon transport from the top of the core downwards occurred more rapidly (D=0.8-7×10 -8 m 2 s -1, dependent on depth) than could be accounted for by simple diffusion through the peat. Vascular plants ( Molinia, Eriophorum and Carex) had well-developed roots and were adapted to water-logged conditions in that they possessed extensive aerenchymatous lacunae throughout their roots, shoots and leaves. As well as facilitating O 2 diffusion downwards to submerged tissues, this system enables rapid diffusion upwards of CH 4. This process of gaseous transport in vascular plants is subject to control by stomata. Emission rates of CO 2 and CH 4 thus show diurnal rhythms at constant temperature. Free-run of CO 2 oscillation in the dark at 15 cm depth indicates circadian clock control. The temperature sensitivity of CH 4 emission is remarkably high ( Q10=3.0 between 10 and 20°C in the dark); in cores kept under natural conditions of temperature and daylight the daily rhythms entrain to the peat temperature cycles.

  7. X-ray diffraction study of K- and Ca-exchanged montmorillonites in CO2 atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Giesting, Paul; Guggenheim, Stephen; Koster van Groos, August F; Busch, Andreas

    2012-05-15

    Powder X-ray diffraction shows that K- and Ca-exchanged montmorillonites swell upon interacting with CO(2) at ambient temperatures, depending on their initial hydration state. K-exchanged montmorillonite swells rapidly to a maximum d(001) of ∼12.2 Å. In contrast, Ca-exchanged montmorillonite swells more slowly, but reaches a maximum d(001) of ∼15.1 Å. Reaction kinetics differ significantly between the K- and Ca-exchanged montmorillonite complexes. Expansion of K-exchanged montmorillonite samples was rapid, occurring on time scales of tens of minutes or less. The Ca-exchanged montmorillonite samples continued to expand over periods up to 42 h. Aging of both K- and Ca-exchanged montmorillonite complexes at elevated CO(2) pressure for 1-2 days resulted in greater stability when CO(2) pressure was released. The observed intercalation reactions have important consequences for carbon sequestration: (1) CO(2) absorption by swelling clays may represent a significant pathway for storage of CO(2). (2) The swelling of smectites under CO(2) pressure may have a significant impact on the permeability of caprock formations. PMID:22494460

  8. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  9. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea, the Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2016-06-01

    The air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury (mainly Hg(0)) in the tropical ocean is an important part of the global Hg biogeochemical cycle, but the related investigations are limited. In this study, we simultaneously measured Hg(0) concentrations in surface waters and overlaying air in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea (SCS), Hainan Island, China, for 13 days on January-February 2015. The purpose of this study was to explore the temporal variation of Hg(0) concentrations in air and surface waters, estimate the air-sea Hg(0) flux, and reveal their influencing factors in the tropical coastal environment. The mean concentrations (±SD) of Hg(0) in air and total Hg (THg) in waters were 2.34 ± 0.26 ng m(-3) and 1.40 ± 0.48 ng L(-1), respectively. Both Hg(0) concentrations in waters (53.7 ± 18.8 pg L(-1)) and Hg(0)/THg ratios (3.8 %) in this study were significantly higher than those of the open water of the SCS in winter. Hg(0) in waters usually exhibited a clear diurnal variation with increased concentrations in daytime and decreased concentrations in nighttime, especially in cloudless days with low wind speed. Linear regression analysis suggested that Hg(0) concentrations in waters were positively and significantly correlated to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (R (2) = 0.42, p < 0.001). Surface waters were always supersaturated with Hg(0) compared to air (the degree of saturation, 2.46 to 13.87), indicating that the surface water was one of the atmospheric Hg(0) sources. The air-sea Hg(0) fluxes were estimated to be 1.73 ± 1.25 ng m(-2) h(-1) with a large range between 0.01 and 6.06 ng m(-2) h(-1). The high variation of Hg(0) fluxes was mainly attributed to the greatly temporal variation of wind speed.

  10. CO2 exchange in the Hudson Bay lowlands: Community characteristics and multispectral reflectance properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.

    1994-01-01

    Net ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured during the 1990 growing season (June to August) along a transect starting 10 km inland from James Bay and extending 100 km interior to Kinosheo Lake, Ontario. Sites were chosen in three distinct areas: a coastal fen, an interior fen, and a bog. For the most productive sites in the bog, net daily uptake rates reached a maximum of 2.5 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d with an area-weighted exchange of 0.3 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d near midsummer. This site was estimated to be a net carbon source of 9 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) to the atmosphere over a 153-day growing season. The interior fen was less productive on a daily basis with a net maximum uptake of 0.5 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d and with corresponding area-weighted uptake of 0.1 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d during midsummer. Early and late season release of carbon to the atmosphere resulted in a net loss of 21 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) over the growing season from this site. The coastal fen was the most productive site with uptake rates peaking near 1.7 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d which corresponded to an area-weighted uptake of 0.8 g C-CO2 m(exp -2)/d during midsummer and an estimated net uptake of 6 g C-CO2 m(exp -2) for the growing season. Associated with net CO2 exchange measurements, multispectral reflectance properties of the sites were measured over the growing season using portable radiometers. These properties were related to exchange rates with the goal of examining the potential for satellite remote sensing to monitor biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in this biome. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) computed from surface reflectance was correlated with net CO2 exchange for all sites with the exception of areas with large proportions of Sphagnum moss cover. These mosses have greater near-infrared reflectance than typical surrounding vegetation and may require special adjustment for regional exchange/remote sensing applications.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of a model of CO2 exchange in tundra ecosystems by the adjoint method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waelbroek, C.; Louis, J.-F.

    1995-01-01

    A model of net primary production (NPP), decomposition, and nitrogen cycling in tundra ecosystems has been developed. The adjoint technique is used to study the sensitivity of the computed annual net CO2 flux to perturbation in initial conditions, climatic inputs, and model's main parameters describing current seasonal CO2 exchange in wet sedge tundra at Barrow, Alaska. The results show that net CO2 flux is most sensitive to parameters characterizing litter chemical composition and more sensitive to decomposition parameters than to NPP parameters. This underlines the fact that in nutrient-limited ecosystems, decomposition drives net CO2 exchange by controlling mineralization of main nutrients. The results also indicate that the short-term (1 year) response of wet sedge tundra to CO2-induced warming is a significant increase in CO2 emission, creating a positive feedback to atmosphreic CO2 accumulation. However, a cloudiness increase during the same year can severely alter this response and lead to either a slight decrease or a strong increase in emitted CO2, depending on its exact timing. These results demonstrate that the adjoint method is well suited to study systems encountering regime changes, as a single run of the adjoint model provides sensitivities of the net CO2 flux to perturbations in all parameters and variables at any time of the year. Moreover, it is shown that large errors due to the presence of thresholds can be avoided by first delimiting the range of applicability of the adjoint results.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of a model of CO2 exchange in tundra ecosystems by the adjoint method

    SciTech Connect

    Waelbroek, C.; Louis, J.F. |

    1995-02-01

    A model of net primary production (NPP), decomposition, and nitrogen cycling in tundra ecosystems has been developed. The adjoint technique is used to study the sensitivity of the computed annual net CO2 flux to perturbation in initial conditions, climatic inputs, and model`s main parameters describing current seasonal CO2 exchange in wet sedge tundra at Barrow, Alaska. The results show that net CO2 flux is most sensitive to parameters characterizing litter chemical composition and more sensitive to decomposition parameters than to NPP parameters. This underlines the fact that in nutrient-limited ecosystems, decomposition drives net CO2 exchange by controlling mineralization of main nutrients. The results also indicate that the short-term (1 year) response of wet sedge tundra to CO2-induced warming is a significant increase in CO2 emission, creating a positive feedback to atmosphreic CO2 accumulation. However, a cloudiness increase during the same year can severely alter this response and lead to either a slight decrease or a strong increase in emitted CO2, depending on its exact timing. These results demonstrate that the adjoint method is well suited to study systems encountering regime changes, as a single run of the adjoint model provides sensitivities of the net CO2 flux to perturbations in all parameters and variables at any time of the year. Moreover, it is shown that large errors due to the presence of thresholds can be avoided by first delimiting the range of applicability of the adjoint results.

  13. [CO2 turbulent exchange in a broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-bing; Guan, De-xin; Sun, Xiao-min; Shi, Ting-ting; Han, Shi-jie; Jin, Chang-jie

    2007-05-01

    The measurement of CO2 turbulent exchange in a broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains by an open-path eddy covariance system showed that with near neutral atmospheric stratification, the CO2 and vertical wind components over canopy in inertial subrange followed the expected -2/3 power law, and the dominant vertical eddy scale was about 40 m. The frequency ranges of eddy contributions to CO2 fluxes were mostly within 0.01-2.0 Hz, and the eddy translated by low frequency over canopy contributed more of CO2 fluxes. The open-path eddy covariance system could satisfy the estimation of turbulent fluxes over canopy, but the CO2 fluxes between forest and atmosphere were generally underestimated at night because the increment of non turbulent processes, suggesting that the CO2 fluxes estimated under weak turbulence needed to revise correspondingly.

  14. Alpine lee cyclogenesis influence on air-sea heat exchanges and marine atmospheric boundary layer thermodynamics over the western Mediterranean during a Tramontane/Mistral event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamant, Cyrille

    2003-02-01

    Data from a recent field campaign are used to analyze the nonstationary aspects of air-sea heat exchanges and marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) thermodynamics over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) in connection with synoptic forcing. The data set includes measurements made from a wide range of platforms (sea-borne, airborne, and space-borne) as well as three-dimensional atmospheric modeling. The analysis focuses on the 24 March 1998 Tramontane/Mistral event. It is shown that the nonstationary nature of the wind regime over the GoL was controlled by the multistage evolution of an Alpine lee cyclone over the Tyrrhenian Sea (between Sardinia and continental Italy). In the early stage (low at 1014 hPa) the Tramontane flow prevailed over the GoL. As the low deepened (1010 hPa), the prevailing wind regime shifted to a well-established Mistral that peaked around 1200 UTC. In the afternoon the Mistral was progressively disrupted by a strengthening outflow coming from the Ligurian Sea in response to the deepening low over the Tyrrhenian Sea (1008 hPa) and the channelling induced by the presence of the Apennine range (Italy) and the Alps. In the evening the Mistral was again well established over the GoL as the depression continued to deepen (1002 hPa) but moved to the southeast, reducing the influence of outflow from the Ligurian Sea on the flow over the GoL. The air-sea heat exchanges and the structure of the MABL over the GoL were observed to differ significantly between the established Mistral period and the disrupted Mistral period. In the latter period, surface latent and sensible heat fluxes were reduced by a factor of 2, on average. During that latter period, air-sea moisture exchanges were mainly driven by dynamics, whereas during the former period, both winds and vertical moisture gradients controlled moisture exchanges. The MABL was shallower during the latter period (0.7 km instead of 1.2 km) because of reduced surface turbulent heat fluxes and increased wind shear

  15. Enhanced Seasonal Exchange of CO2 by Northern Ecosystems - Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Keeling, R. F.; Piper, S. C.; Patra, P. K.; Stephens, B. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Welp, L. R.; Sweeney, C.; Tans, P. P.; Kelley, J. J.; Daube, B. C.; Kort, E. A.; Santoni, G.; Bent, J. D.; Thomas, R.; Prentice, I. C.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term measurements of atmospheric CO2 have revealed increasing amplitude in seasonal variations at Northern Hemisphere sites. In a recent paper1, we extended the analysis of seasonal CO2 amplitude using aircraft data from 1958-61 and 2009-11 and found large increases of 50% in the mid-troposphere north of 45°N. Changes in amplitude south of 45°N were less than 25%. The observations indicate that seasonal CO2 exchanges with northern terrestrial ecosystems must have increased by 30-60% over the past 50 years. The increased exchange is likely widespread over northern ecosystems but it must be focused in boreal forests to match the observed spatial pattern in the aircraft data. Small decreases in seasonal CO2 exchange of subtropical and tropical regions may also contribute to CO2 amplitude changes. The required increases in seasonal CO2 exchange in northern ecosystems are larger than simulated by terrestrial models, indicating the models do not capture substantial ecological changes occurring since 1960. This presentation will give an overview of the recent paper1, highlighting the atmospheric evidence for a dominant influence from boreal forests and from the main growing season months. It will also expand on the investigation of modeled changes in seasonal CO2 flux using CMIP5 and other model intercomparisons, including the modeled influences of carbon vs climate drivers. 1. Graven et al. 2013, Enhanced Seasonal Exchange of CO2 by Northern Ecosystems Since 1960, Science, 341, 6150, 1085-1089. DOI: 10.1126/science.1239207

  16. Effects of elevated CO(2) on chloroplast components, gas exchange and growth of oak and cherry.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C J; Taylor, J M; Wilkins, D; Besford, R T

    1997-05-01

    Specific chloroplast proteins, gas exchange and dry matter production in oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings and clonal cherry (Prunus avium L. x pseudocerasus Lind.) plants were measured during 19 months of growth in climate-controlled greenhouses at ambient (350 vpm) or elevated (700 vpm) CO(2). In both species, the elevated CO(2) treatment increased the PPFD saturated-rate of photosynthesis and dry matter production. After two months at elevated CO(2), Prunus plants showed significant increases in leaf (55%) and stem (61%) dry mass but not in root dry mass. However, this initial stimulation was not sustained: treatment differences in net assimilation rate (A) and plant dry mass were less after 10 months of growth than after 2 months of growth, suggesting acclimation of A to elevated CO(2) in Prunus. In contrast, after 10 months of growth at elevated CO(2), leaf dry mass of Quercus increased (130%) along with shoot (356%) and root (219%) dry mass, and A was also twice that of plants grown and measured at ambient CO(2). The amounts of Rubisco and the thylakoid-bound protein cytochrome f were higher in Quercus plants grown for 19 months in elevated CO(2) than in control plants, whereas in Prunus there was less Rubisco in plants grown for 19 months in elevated CO(2) than in control plants. Exposure to elevated CO(2) for 10 months resulted in increased mean leaf area in both species and increased abaxial stomatal density in Quercus. There was no change in leaf epidermal cell size in either species in response to the elevated CO(2) treatment. The lack of acclimation of photosynthesis in oak grown at elevated CO(2) is discussed in relation to the production and allocation of dry matter. We propose that differences in carbohydrate utilization underlie the differing long-term CO(2) responses of the two species.

  17. A new approach to quantifying internal diffusion resistances and CO2 isotope exchange in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jason; Ogée, Jérôme; Burlett, Régis; Gimeno, Teresa; Genty, Bernard; Jones, Samuel; Wohl, Steven; Bosc, Alexandre; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of atmospheric CO2 can constrain the global CO2 budget at a range of scales, offering the potential to partition net CO2 exchanges into their component gross fluxes and provide insights to linkages between C and water cycles. However, there are significant limitations to utilizing the δ18O of CO2 to constrain C budgets because of uncertainties associated with the isotopic exchange of CO2 with terrestrial water pools. Leaf water in particular represents a critical pool with ongoing debates about its enrichment in heavy isotopes during transpiration and the hydration of CO2 and its oxygen isotope exchange with this pool. Isotopic heterogeneity of the leaf water, the spatial distribution and activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) within leaves, and resistance to diffusion of CO2 from the substomatal cavity to chloroplasts are all key components with important uncertainties. Better constraints on these would significantly improve our ability to understand and model the global C budget as well as yield insights to fundamental aspects of leaf physiology. We report results using a new measurement system that permits the simultaneous measurement of the 13C and 18O composition of CO2 and the 18O isotopic composition of leaf transpiration. As this new approach permits rapid alteration of the isotopic composition of gases interacting with the leaf, key model parameters can be derived directly and simultaneously. Hence, our approach dos not rely on separate measurements shifted in time from the gas exchange measurements or that may not quantify the relevant scale of heterogeneity (e.g., CA enzyme assays or bulk leaf water extraction and analysis). In particular, this new method explicitly distinguishes the leaf mesophyll resistance to CO2 transport relevant for photosynthesis from the resistance required for interpreting the δ18O of CO2 and allows us to derive other relevant parameters directly. This new measurement system and modeling

  18. Ocean-atmosphere exchange of organic carbon and CO2 surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Calleja, M. Ll.; Dachs, J.; Del Vento, S.; Pastor, M.; Palmer, M.; Agustí, S.; Duarte, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    Exchangeable organic carbon (OC) dynamics and CO2 fluxes in the Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer were highly variable, but the region appeared to be a net sink for OC and nearly in balance for CO2. Surface exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC) measurements had a 43 ± 3 (standard error, hereafter SE) μmol C L-1 overall mean and represented around 66% of surface non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Antarctic waters, while the mean concentration of the gaseous fraction of organic carbon (GOC H-1) was 46 ± 3 SE μmol C L-1. There was a tendency towards low fugacity of dissolved CO2 (fCO2-w) in waters with high chlorophyll a (Chl a) content and high fCO2-w in areas with high krill densities. However, such relationships were not found for EDOC. The depth profiles of EDOC were also quite variable and occasionally followed Chl a profiles. The diel cycles of EDOC showed two distinct peaks, in the middle of the day and the middle of the short austral dark period, concurrent with solar radiation maxima and krill night migration patterns. However, no evident diel pattern for GOC H-1 or CO2 was observed. The pool of exchangeable OC is an important and active compartment of the carbon budget surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula and adds to previous studies highlighting its importance in the redistribution of carbon in marine environments.

  19. Air-sea exchange of dimethylsulfide in the Southern Ocean: Measurements from SO GasEx compared to temperate and tropical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Archer, S. D.; Huebert, B. J.

    2011-04-01

    In the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (SO GasEx), we measured an atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentration of 118 ± 54 pptv (1σ), a DMS sea-to-air flux of 2.9 ± 2.1 μmol m-2 d-1 by eddy covariance, and a seawater DMS concentration of 1.6 ± 0.7 nM. Dividing flux by the concurrent air-sea concentration difference yields the transfer velocity of DMS (kDMS). The kDMS in the Southern Ocean was significantly lower than previous measurements in the equatorial east Pacific, Sargasso Sea, northeast Atlantic, and southeast Pacific. Normalizing kDMS for the temperature dependence in waterside diffusivity and solubility results in better agreement among various field studies and suggests that the low kDMS in the Southern Ocean is primarily due to colder temperatures. The higher solubility of DMS at a lower temperature results in greater airside control and less transfer of the gas by bubbles formed from breaking waves. The final normalized DMS transfer velocity is similar to k of less soluble gases such as carbon dioxide in low-to-moderate winds; in high winds, DMS transfer velocity is significantly lower because of the reduced bubble-mediated transfer.

  20. Ecoregion Framework Facilitating Synthesis and Up-scaling of Tower CO2 Exchange Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, T. G.; Wylie, B. K.; Howard, D. M.; Zhang, L.

    2015-12-01

    As the flux-tower studies of terrestrial CO2 exchange are currently approaching the stage of generalization and up-scaling, there is a growing need for an effective framework for these efforts facilitating comparative analysis and synthesis of flux tower data. Developed in the 1980s to denote a region with recurring patterns of ecosystems with similar climatic, vegetation, soil, and relief conditions, during the past decades the ecoregion concept was widely used as a tool combining modeling, GIS and remote sensing techniques in environmental and nature conservation project at the national and international scale. We describe application of the ecoregion approach to synthesis and up-scaling of the tower CO2 exchange measurements in the three major ecoregions of the Great Plains: Shortgrass steppe (SGS), Mixed prairie (MP), and Tallgrass prairie (TP). Original data of tower CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements during the 1996-2013 period covering 23 years at 6 sites in SGS, 86 years at 21 sites in MP, and 80 years at 24 sites in TP were partitioned into the gross photosynthesis (Pg) and ecosystem respiration (Re) components using the light-soil temperature-VPD response method. We present ecoregion-specific multivariate models relating gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and major ecosystem-scale ecophysiological parameters (photosynthetic capacity, apparent quantum yield, light-use efficiency, daytime respiration intensity) to on-site (climatic, plant, soil) and remotely sensed (NDVI) drivers of CO2 exchange. Superposition of these models on GIS layers of appropriate drivers was used to describe geographic patterns (maps) of photosynthesis, respiration, net CO2 exchange and ecophysiological parameters across the Great Plains. The source-sink activity at the ecoregion-scale was quantified by calculating spatial integrals of CO2 exchange characteristic over GIS pixels represented by the tower measurements.

  1. Exfoliation Propensity of Oxide Scale in Heat Exchangers Used for Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Shingledecker, John P.; Kung, Steve; Wright, Ian G.; Nash, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle systems offer the possibility of improved efficiency in future fossil energy power generation plants operating at temperatures of 650 C and above. As there are few data on the oxidation/corrosion behavior of structural alloys in sCO2 at these temperatures, modeling to predict the propensity for oxide exfoliation is not well developed, thus hindering materials selection for these novel cycles. The ultimate goal of this effort is to provide needed data on scale exfoliation behavior in sCO2 for confident alloy selection. To date, a model developed by ORNL and EPRI for the exfoliation of oxide scales formed on boiler tubes in high-temperature, high-pressure steam has proven useful for managing exfoliation in conventional steam plants. A major input provided by the model is the ability to predict the likelihood of scale failure and loss based on understanding of the evolution of the oxide morphologies and the conditions that result in susceptibility to exfoliation. This paper describes initial steps taken to extend the existing model for exfoliation of steam-side oxide scales to sCO2 conditions. The main differences between high-temperature, high-pressure steam and sCO2 that impact the model involve (i) significant geometrical differences in the heat exchangers, ranging from standard pressurized tubes seen typically in steam-producing boilers to designs for sCO2 that employ variously-curved thin walls to create shaped flow paths for extended heat transfer area and small channel cross-sections to promote thermal convection and support pressure loads; (ii) changed operating characteristics with sCO2 due to the differences in physical and thermal properties compared to steam; and (iii) possible modification of the scale morphologies, hence properties that influence exfoliation behavior, due to reaction with carbon species from sCO2. The numerical simulations conducted were based on an assumed sCO2 operating schedule and several

  2. Kinetics of CO2 exchange with carbonic anhydrase immobilized on fiber membranes in artificial lungs.

    PubMed

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Federspiel, W J

    2015-06-01

    Artificial lung devices comprised of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) coated with the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), accelerate removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from blood for the treatment of acute respiratory failure. While previous work demonstrated CA coatings increase HFM CO2 removal by 115 % in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), testing in blood revealed a 36 % increase compared to unmodified HFMs. In this work, we sought to characterize the CO2 mass transport processes within these biocatalytic devices which impede CA coating efficacy and develop approaches towards improving bioactive HFM efficiency. Aminated HFMs were sequentially reacted with glutaraldehyde (GA), chitosan, GA and afterwards incubated with a CA solution, covalently linking CA to the surface. Bioactive CA-HFMs were potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0119 m(2)) and tested for esterase activity and CO2 removal under various flow rates with PBS, whole blood, and solutions containing individual blood components (plasma albumin, red blood cells or free carbonic anhydrase). Results demonstrated that increasing the immobilized enzyme activity did not significantly impact CO2 removal rate, as the diffusional resistance from the liquid boundary layer is the primary impediment to CO2 transport by both unmodified and bioactive HFMs under clinically relevant conditions. Furthermore, endogenous CA within red blood cells competes with HFM immobilized CA to increase CO2 removal. Based on our findings, we propose a bicarbonate/CO2 disequilibrium hypothesis to describe performance of CA-modified devices in both buffer and blood. Improvement in CO2 removal rates using CA-modified devices in blood may be realized by maximizing bicarbonate/CO2 disequilibrium at the fiber surface via strategies such as blood acidification and active mixing within the device.

  3. A Comparative Data-Based Modeling Study on Respiratory CO2 Gas Exchange during Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Ansermino, J. Mark; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to derive a minimally complex but credible model of respiratory CO2 gas exchange that may be used in systematic design and pilot testing of closed-loop end-tidal CO2 controllers in mechanical ventilation. We first derived a candidate model that captures the essential mechanisms involved in the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process. Then, we simplified the candidate model to derive two lower-order candidate models. We compared these candidate models for predictive capability and reliability using experimental data collected from 25 pediatric subjects undergoing dynamically varying mechanical ventilation during surgical procedures. A two-compartment model equipped with transport delay to account for CO2 delivery between the lungs and the tissues showed modest but statistically significant improvement in predictive capability over the same model without transport delay. Aggregating the lungs and the tissues into a single compartment further degraded the predictive fidelity of the model. In addition, the model equipped with transport delay demonstrated superior reliability to the one without transport delay. Further, the respiratory parameters derived from the model equipped with transport delay, but not the one without transport delay, were physiologically plausible. The results suggest that gas transport between the lungs and the tissues must be taken into account to accurately reproduce the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process under conditions of wide-ranging and dynamically varying mechanical ventilation conditions. PMID:26870728

  4. Soil and Atmospheric CO2 Exchanges in Great Basin Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipps, L. E.; Ivanovich, S.; Or, D.; Turcu, V.

    2001-12-01

    Seasonal changes in net CO2 exchange for three plant communities typical of the cold desert Great Basin biome, and primary factors governing CO2 exchange are studied. The communities include Agropyron desertorum (crested wheatgrass), Artemisia tridentata (sagebrush) and Juniperus osteosperma (Utah Juniper). Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was estimated for each site with open-path eddy covariance systems. Soil CO2 fluxes were independently estimated at local scales using both surface chambers and a new gradient method based upon continuous and passive monitoring of CO2 concentrations at various soil depths. Eddy covariance-determined NEE values were directed towards the soil surface in the early spring when water was available. As the ecosystems became drier, periods of downward flux became shorter, until fluxes were always upward in the crested wheatgrass and sage communities. The Juniper maintained some downward fluxes much longer into the summer, indicating net photosynthesis was sometimes greater than soil respiration. All sites responded rapidly to even small rain events, by exhibiting temporary downward NEE values. Estimates of soil CO2 fluxes by surface chamber and gradient methods were in good agreement with each other, however, these were often inconsistent with the larger scale eddy covariance estimates, even in the absence of active vegetation. The causes of these apparent discrepancies are being investigated.

  5. Recent advances in developing COS as a tracer of Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaf, D.; Stimler, K.; Yakir, D.

    2012-04-01

    Potential use of COS as tracer of CO2 flux into vegetation, based on its co-diffusion with CO2 into leaves without outflux, stimulated research on COS-CO2 interactions. Atmospheric measurements by NOAA in recent years, across a global latitudinal transect, indicated a ratio of the seasonal drawdowns in COS and CO2 (normalized to their respective ambient concentrations) of about 6. We carried out leaf-scale gas exchange measurements of COS and CO2 in 22 plant species of deciduous, evergreen trees, grasses, and shrubs, under a range of light intensities and ambient COS concentrations (using mid IR laser spectroscopy). A narrow range in the normalized ratio of the net uptake rates of COS and CO2 (termed leaf relative uptake; LRU) was observed with a mean value of 1.61±0.26. These results reflect the dominance of stomatal conductance over both COS and CO2 uptake, imposing a relatively constant ratio between the two fluxes, except under low light conditions when CO2, but not COS, metabolism is light limited. A relatively constant ratio under common ambient conditions will facilitate the application of COS as a tracer of gross photosynthesis from leaf to global scales. We also report first eddy flux measurements of COS/CO2 at the ecosystem scales. Preliminarily results indicate a ratio of the COS flux, Fcos, to net ecosystem CO2 exchange, NEE, of 3-5 (termed ecosystem relative uptake; ERU). Combining measurements of COS and CO2 and the new information on their ratios at different scales should permit the direct estimation of gross CO2 uptake, GPP, by land ecosystems according to: GPP=NEE*ERU/LRU. In addition, we show that COS effect on stomatal conductance may require a special attention. Increasing COS concentrations between 250 and 2800 pmol mol-1 (enveloping atmospheric levels) stimulate stomatal conductance. It seems likely that the stomata are responding to H2S produced in the leaves from COS.

  6. Drivers of long-term variability in CO2 net ecosystem exchange in a temperate peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Campbell, C.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Drewer, J.; Coyle, M.; Anderson, M.; Skiba, U.; Nemitz, E.; Billett, M. F.; Sutton, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variability, which subsequently affects the carbon (C) sink strength of catchments across multiple temporal scales. Long-term studies are needed to fully capture the natural variability and therefore identify the key hydrometeorological drivers in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Since 2002, NEE has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance at Auchencorth Moss, a temperate lowland peatland in central Scotland. Hence this is one of the longest peatland NEE studies to date. For 11 years, the site was a consistent, yet variable, atmospheric CO2 sink ranging from -5.2 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -64.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing season. Mean winter air temperature explained 87% of the inter-annual variability in the sink strength of the following summer, indicating an effect of winter climate on local phenology. Ecosystem respiration (Reco) was enhanced by drought, which also depressed gross primary productivity (GPP). The CO2 uptake rate during the growing season was comparable to three other sites with long-term NEE records; however, the emission rate during the dormant season was significantly higher. To summarise, the NEE of the peatland studied is modulated by two dominant factors: - phenology of the plant community, which is driven by winter air temperature and impacts photosynthetic potential and net CO2 uptake during the growing season (colder winters are linked to lower summer NEE), - water table level, which enhanced soil respiration and decreased GPP during dry spells. Although summer dry spells were sporadic during the study period, the positive effects of the current climatic trend towards milder winters on the site's CO2 sink strength could be offset by changes in precipitation patterns especially during the growing season.

  7. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  8. Seasonality of diffusive exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene across the air-sea interface of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Meng-Der; Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E; Lee, Chon-Lin

    2008-12-15

    Gaseous and dissolved concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in the ambient air and water of Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon, Taiwan, from December 2003 to January 2005. During the rainy season (April to September), gaseous PCB and HCB concentrations were low due to both scavenging by precipitation and dilution by prevailing southwesterly winds blown from the atmosphere of the South China Sea. In contrast, trace precipitation and prevailing northeasterly winds during the dry season (October to March) resulted in higher gaseous PCB and HCB concentrations. Instantaneous air-water exchange fluxes of PCB homologues and HCB were calculated from 22 pairs of air and water samples from Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon. All net fluxes of PCB homologues and HCB in this study are from water to air (net volatilization). The highest net volatile flux observed was +172 ng m(-)(2) day(-1) (dichlorobiphenyls) in December, 2003 due to the high wind speed and high dissolved concentration. The PCB homologues and HCB fluxes were significantly governed by dissolved concentrations in Kaohsiung Harbor lagoon. For low molecular weight PCBs (LMW PCBs), their fluxes were also significantly correlated with wind speed. The net PCB and HCB fluxes suggest that the annual sums of 69 PCBs and HCB measured in this study were mainly volatile (57.4 x 10(3) and 28.3 x 10(3) ng m(-2) yr(-1), respectively) and estimated yearly, 1.5 kg and 0.76 kg of PCBs and HCB were emitted from the harbor lagoon surface waters to the ambient atmosphere. The average tPCB flux in this study was about one-tenth of tPCB fluxes seen in New York Harbor and in the Delaware River, which are reported to be greatly impacted by PCBs.

  9. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in a temperate loblolly pine forest grown under ambient and elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. L.; Zhou, Y.; Russo, R. S.; Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Varner, R. K.; Sive, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation, soil and ecosystem level carbonyl sulfide (COS) exchange was observed at Duke Forest, a temperate loblolly pine forest, grown under ambient (Ring 1, R1) and elevated (Ring 2, R2) CO2. During calm meteorological conditions, ambient COS mixing ratios at the top of the forest canopy followed a distinct diurnal pattern in both CO2 growth regimes, with maximum COS mixing ratios during the day (R1=380±4 pptv and R2=373±3 pptv, daytime mean ± standard error) and minimums at night (R1=340±6 pptv and R2=346±5 pptv, nighttime mean ± standard error) reflecting a significant nighttime sink. Nocturnal vegetative uptake (-11 to -21 pmol m-2s-1, negative values indicate uptake from the atmosphere) dominated nighttime net ecosystem COS flux estimates (-10 to -30 pmol m-2s-1) in both CO2 regimes. In comparison, soil uptake (-0.8 to -1.7 pmol m-2 s-1) was a minor component of net ecosystem COS flux. In both CO2 regimes, loblolly pine trees exhibited substantial COS consumption overnight (50% of daytime rates) that was independent of CO2 assimilation. This suggests current estimates of the global vegetative COS sink, which assume that COS and CO2 are consumed simultaneously, may need to be reevaluated. Ambient COS mixing ratios, species specific diurnal patterns of stomatal conductance, temperature and canopy position were the major factors influencing the vegetative COS flux at the branch level. While variability in branch level vegetative COS consumption measurements in ambient and enhanced CO2 environments could not be attributed to CO2 enrichment effects, estimates of net ecosystem COS flux based on ambient canopy mixing ratio measurements suggest less nighttime uptake of COS in R2, the CO2 enriched environment.

  10. Carbonyl sulfide exchange in a temperate loblolly pine forest grown under ambient and elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. L.; Zhou, Y.; Russo, R. S.; Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Varner, R. K.; Sive, B. C.

    2009-08-01

    Vegetation, soil and ecosystem level carbonyl sulfide (COS) exchange was observed at Duke Forest, a temperate loblolly pine forest, grown under ambient (Ring 1, R1) and elevated (Ring 2, R2) carbon dioxide (CO2). During calm meteorological conditions, ambient COS mixing ratios at the top of the forest canopy followed a distinct diurnal pattern in both CO2 growth regimes, with maximum COS mixing ratios during the day (R1=380±4 pptv and R2=373±3 pptv, daytime mean ±standard error) and minimums at night (R1=340±6 pptv and R2=346±5 pptv, nighttime mean ±standard error) reflecting a significant nighttime sink. Nocturnal vegetative uptake (-11 to -21 pmol m-2 s-1, negative values indicate uptake from the atmosphere) dominated nighttime net ecosystem COS flux estimates (-10 to -30 pmol m-2 s-1) in both CO2 regimes. In comparison, soil uptake (-0.8 to -1.7 pmol m-2 s-1) was a minor component of net ecosystem COS flux. In both CO2 regimes, loblolly pine trees exhibited substantial COS consumption overnight (50% of daytime rates) that was independent of CO2 assimilation. This suggests current estimates of the global vegetative COS sink, which assume that COS and CO2 are consumed simultaneously, may need to be reevaluated. Ambient COS mixing ratios, species specific diurnal patterns of stomatal conductance, temperature and canopy position were the major factors influencing the vegetative COS flux at the branch level. While variability in branch level vegetative COS consumption measurements in ambient and enhanced CO2 environments could not be attributed to CO2 enrichment effects, estimates of net ecosystem COS flux based on ambient canopy mixing ratio measurements suggest less nighttime uptake of COS in R2, the CO2 enriched environment.

  11. Rapid exchange between atmospheric CO2 and carbonate anion intercalated within magnesium rich layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Pathik; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Deguchi, Kenzo; Ohki, Shinobu; Tansho, Masataka; Shimizu, Tadashi; Eisaku, Nii; Sasai, Ryo; Labuta, Jan; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Iyi, Nobuo

    2014-10-22

    The carbon cycle, by which carbon atoms circulate between atmosphere, oceans, lithosphere, and the biosphere of Earth, is a current hot research topic. The carbon cycle occurring in the lithosphere (e.g., sedimentary carbonates) is based on weathering and metamorphic events so that its processes are considered to occur on the geological time scale (i.e., over millions of years). In contrast, we have recently reported that carbonate anions intercalated within a hydrotalcite (Mg0.75Al0.25(OH)2(CO3)0.125·yH2O), a class of a layered double hydroxide (LDH), are dynamically exchanging on time scale of hours with atmospheric CO2 under ambient conditions. (Ishihara et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18040-18043). The use of (13)C-labeling enabled monitoring by infrared spectroscopy of the dynamic exchange between the initially intercalated (13)C-labeled carbonate anions and carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2. In this article, we report the significant influence of Mg/Al ratio of LDH on the carbonate anion exchange dynamics. Of three LDHs of various Mg/Al ratios of 2, 3, or 4, magnesium-rich LDH (i.e., Mg/Al ratio = 4) underwent extremely rapid exchange of carbonate anions, and most of the initially intercalated carbonate anions were replaced with carbonate anions derived from atmospheric CO2 within 30 min. Detailed investigations by using infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR revealed that magnesium rich LDH has chemical and structural features that promote the exchange of carbonate anions. Our results indicate that the unique interactions between LDH and CO2 can be optimized simply by varying the chemical composition of LDH, implying that LDH is a promising material for CO2 storage and/or separation.

  12. Validation of a Size-resolved Parameterization of Primary Organic Carbon in Fresh Marine Aerosols for Use in Air-Sea Exchange Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kieber, D. J.; Frossard, A. A.; Russell, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Marine aerosol production by bursting bubbles at the ocean surface is the largest source of aerosol mass in the atmosphere. The size-resolved organic and inorganic composition of marine aerosols has significant impacts on atmospheric chemistry, aerosol and cloud microphysics and radiative transfer. Recent estimates suggest that the global production flux of particulate organic matter (POM) associated with nascent marine aerosol may exceed the total production flux of particulate POM from secondary pathways involving gas-phase precursors. Observed size-resolved fluxes of marine-derived POM taken in the N. Atlantic Ocean, while limited, suggest that Langmuir-type sorption processes may be the limiting factor controlling the association of marine organic material with bubble plume surface area, and consequently, the size-resolved POM mass and number fluxes. A similar set of observations - including seawater temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentrations - were made during a spring 2010 cruise of the R/V Atlantis in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Chlorophyll a concentrations - as a proxy for marine OM - ranged from ~3 to 30 μg L-1 which exceeds that of the N. Atlantic studies by up to an order of magnitude. Significant relationships between chl-a, particle number production and particulate OM enrichments were observed. These data provide an excellent opportunity to validate and refine a previously formulated size-resolved inorganic/organic marine aerosol source function using in situ seawater composition and state constraints. This formulation will serve as the basis for atmospheric chemistry and climate simulations, and further our understanding of aerosol production and air-sea exchange processes.

  13. First principles derived, transferable force fields for CO2 adsorption in Na-exchanged cationic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hanjun; Kamakoti, Preeti; Ravikovitch, Peter I; Aronson, Matthew; Paur, Charanjit; Sholl, David S

    2013-08-21

    The development of accurate force fields is vital for predicting adsorption in porous materials. Previously, we introduced a first principles-based transferable force field for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites (Fang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 10692). In this study, we extend our approach to CO2 adsorption in cationic zeolites which possess more complex structures. Na-exchanged zeolites are chosen for demonstrating the approach. These methods account for several structural complexities including Al distribution, cation positions and cation mobility, all of which are important for predicting adsorption. The simulation results are validated with high-resolution experimental measurements of isotherms and microcalorimetric heats of adsorption on well-characterized materials. The choice of first-principles method has a significant influence on the ability of force fields to accurately describe CO2-zeolite interactions. The PBE-D2 derived force field, which performed well for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites, does not do so for Na-exchanged zeolites; the PBE-D2 method overestimates CO2 adsorption energies on multi-cation sites that are common in cationic zeolites with low Si/Al ratios. In contrast, a force field derived from the DFT/CC method performed well. Agreement was obtained between simulation and experiment not only for LTA-4A on which the force field fitting is based, but for other two common adsorbents, NaX and NaY.

  14. Influence of soil erosion on CO2 exchange within the CarboZALF manipulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of the time limited land cover and the vigorous crop growth. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore we established the interdisciplinary project 'CarboZALF' in 2009. In our field experiment CarboZALF-D we are monitoring CO2 fluxes for soil-plant systems, which cover all landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Albic Cutanic Luvisol, Calcic Cutanic Luvisol, Calcaric Regosol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Furthermore, we induced erosion / deposition in a manipulation experiment. Automated chamber systems (2.5 m, basal area 1 m2, transparent) are placed at the manipulated sites as well as at one site neither influenced by erosion, nor by deposition. CO2 flux modelling of high temporal resolution includes ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Modelling includes gap filling which is needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. In our presentation we would like to show results of the CO2 exchange measurements for one year. Differences are most pronounced between the non-eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco and NEE compared to the Albic Cutanic Luvisol. The eroded soil (Calcic Cutanic Luvisol) demonstrated CO2fluxes intermediate between the non-affected and depositional site. Site-specific consequences for the soil C stocks will be also discussed in the presentation.

  15. Microbial, Physical and Chemical Drivers of COS and 18O-CO2 Exchange in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, L. K.; Boye, K.; Whelan, M.; Pang, E.; von Sperber, C.; Brueggemann, N.; Berry, J. A.; Welander, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of CO2 are potential tools for differentiating the contributions of photosynthesis and respiration to the balance of global carbon cycling. These processes are coupled at the leaf level via the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which hydrolyzes CO2 in the first biochemical step of the photosynthetic pathway (CO2 + H2O ⇌ HCO3- + H+) and correspondingly structural analogue COS (COS + H2O → CO2 + H2S). CA also accelerates the exchange of oxygen isotopes between CO2 and H2O leading to a distinct isotopic imprint [1]. The biogeochemical cycles of these tracers include significant, yet poorly characterized soil processes that challenge their utility for probing the carbon cycle. In soils, microbial CA also hydrolyze COS and accelerate O isotope exchange between CO2 and soil water. Soils have been observed to emit COS by undetermined processes. To account for these soil processes, measurements are needed to identify the key microbial, chemical, and physical factors. In this study, we survey COS and δ18O exchange in twenty different soils spanning a variety of biomes and soil properties. By comparing COS fluxes and δ18O-CO2 values emitted from moist soils we investigate whether the same types of CA catalyze these two processes. Additionally, we seek to identify the potential chemical drivers of COS emissions by measuring COS fluxes in dry soils. These data are compared with soil physical (bulk density, volumetric water content, texture), chemical (pH, elemental analysis, sulfate, sulfur K-edge XANES), and microbial measurements (biomass and phylogeny). Furthermore, we determine the abundance and diversity of CA-encoding genes to directly link CA with measured soil function. This work will define the best predictors for COS fluxes and δ18O-CO2 values from our suite of biogeochemical measurements. The suitability of identified predictor variables can be tested in follow-up studies and applied for modeling

  16. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  17. [Net CO2 exchange and carbon isotope flux in Acacia mangium plantation].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lu-Liu; Sun, Gu-Chou; Zhao, Ping; Cai, Xi-An; Zeng, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Quan

    2009-11-01

    By using stable carbon isotope technique, the leaf-level 13C discrimination was integrated to canopy-scale photosynthetic discrimination (Deltacanopy) through weighted the net CO2 assimilation (Anet) of sunlit and shaded leaves and the stand leaf area index (L) in an A. mangium plantation, and the carbon isotope fluxes from photosynthesis and respiration as well as their net exchange flux were obtained. There was an obvious diurnal variation in Deltacanopy, being lower at dawn and at noon time (18.47 per thousand and 19.87 per thousand, respectively) and the highest (21.21 per thousand) at dusk. From the end of November to next May, the Deltacanopy had an increasing trend, with an annual average of (20.37 +/- 0.29) per thousand. The carbon isotope ratios of CO2 from autotrophic respiration (excluding daytime foliar respiration) and heterotrophic respiration were respectively (- 28.70 +/- 0.75) per thousand and (- 26.75 +/- 1.3) per thousand in average. The delta13 C of nighttime ecosystem-respired CO2 in May was the lowest (-30.14 per thousand), while that in November was the highest (-28.01 per thousand). The carbon isotope flux of CO2 between A. mangium forest and atmosphere showed a midday peak of 178.5 and 217 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) x per thousand in May and July, with the daily average of 638.4 and 873.2 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) x per thousand, respectively. The carbon isotope flux of CO2 absorbed by canopy leaves was 1.6-2.5 times higher than that of CO2 emitted from respiration, suggesting that a large sum of CO2 was absorbed by A. mangium, which decreased the atmospheric CO2 concentration and improved the environment.

  18. Climatic regulation of seasonal and inter-annual variability in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) from terrestrial ecosystems varies seasonally and inter-annually because of temporal variation in climate. If we are predict climate-caused variation in NEE, we must understand how climatic variation influences NEE and its components, CO2 uptake and CO2 loss. ...

  19. Nitrous oxide and methane in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters in the Strait of Gibraltar: Air-sea fluxes and inter-basin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Paz, M.; Huertas, I. E.; Flecha, S.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-11-01

    The global ocean plays an important role in the overall budget of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), as both gases are produced within the ocean and released to the atmosphere. However, for large parts of the open and coastal oceans there is little or no spatial data coverage for N2O and CH4. Hence, a better assessment of marine emissions estimates is necessary. As a contribution to remedying the scarcity of data on marine regions, N2O and CH4 concentrations have been determined in the Strait of Gibraltar at the ocean Fixed Time series (GIFT). During six cruises performed between July 2011 and November 2014 samples were collected at the surface and various depths in the water column, and subsequently measured using gas chromatography. From this we were able to quantify the temporal variability of the gas air-sea exchange in the area and examine the vertical distribution of N2O and CH4 in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. Results show that surface Atlantic waters are nearly in equilibrium with the atmosphere whereas deeper Mediterranean waters are oversaturated in N2O, and a gradient that gradually increases with depth was detected in the water column. Temperature was found to be the main factor responsible for the seasonal variability of N2O in the surface layer. Furthermore, although CH4 levels did not reveal any feature clearly associated with the circulation of water masses, vertical distributions showed that higher concentrations are generally observed in the Atlantic layer, and that the deeper Mediterranean waters are considerably undersaturated (by up to 50%). Even though surface waters act as a source of atmospheric N2O during certain periods, on an annual basis the net N2O flux in the Strait of Gibraltar is only 0.35 ± 0.27 μmol m-2 d-1, meaning that these waters are almost in a neutral status with respect to the atmosphere. Seasonally, the region behaves as a slight sink for atmospheric CH4 in winter and as a source in spring and fall. Approximating

  20. Drivers of long-term variability in CO2 net ecosystem exchange in a temperate peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Campbell, C.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Drewer, J.; Coyle, M.; Anderson, M.; Skiba, U.; Nemitz, E.; Billett, M. F.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variability, which subsequently affects the carbon sink strength of catchments across multiple temporal scales. Long-term studies are needed to fully capture the natural variability and therefore identify the key hydrometeorological drivers in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. NEE has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance at Auchencorth Moss, a temperate lowland peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Hence this is one of the longest peatland NEE studies to date. For 11 yr, the site was a consistent, yet variable, atmospheric CO2 sink ranging from -5.2 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -64.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing season. Mean winter air temperature explained 87% of the inter-annual variability in the sink strength of the following summer, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant productivity exhibited a marked hysteresis with respect to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) over the growing season, indicative of two separate growth regimes. Ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary productivity (GPP) were closely correlated (ratio 0.74), suggesting that autotrophic processes were dominant. Whilst the site was wet most of the year (water table depth <5 cm) there were indications that heterotrophic respiration was enhanced by drought, which also depressed GPP. NEE was compared to 5 other peatland sites which have published long-term NEE records. The CO2 uptake rate during the growing season was comparable to 3 other European sites, however the emission rate during the dormant season was significantly higher.

  1. Ocean-Atmosphere coupling and CO2 exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, R.; Pezzi, L. P.; Carmargo, R.; Acevedo, O. C.

    2013-05-01

    The establishment of the INTERCONF Program (Air-Sea Interactions at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone) in 2004 and subsequent developing of projects such as the SIMTECO (Integrated System for Monitoring the Weather, the Climate and the Ocean in the South of Brazil) and ACEx (Atlantic Ocean Carbon Experiment) from 2010 in Brazil brought to light the importance of understanding the impact of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean's mesoscale variability on the modulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the synoptic scale. Recent results of all these projects showed that the ABL modulation, as well as the ocean-atmosphere turbulent (heat, momentum and CO2) fluxes are dependent on the behavior of the ocean's surface thermal gradients, especially those found in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone and at the southern coast off Brazil during the winter. As expected, when atmospheric large scale systems are not present over the study area, stronger heat fluxes are found over regions of higher sea surface temperature (SST) including over warm core eddies shed towards the subantarctic (cold) environment. In the coastal region off southern Brazil, the wintertime propagation of the Brazilian Costal Current (La Plata Plume) acts rising the chlorophyll concentration over the continental shelf as well as diminishing considerably the SST - hence producing prominent across-shore SST gradients towards the offshore region dominated by the Brazil Current waters. Owing to that, heat fluxes are directed towards the ocean in coastal waters that are also responsible for the carbon sinking off Brazil in wintertime. All this description is dependent on the synoptic atmospheric cycle and strongly perturbed when transient systems (cold fronts, subtropical cyclones) are present in the area. However, remote sensing data used here suggest that the average condition of the atmosphere directly responding to the ocean's mesoscale variability appears to imprint a signal that extends from the

  2. Atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2 and O3 in the Central Amazon Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Song-Miao; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bakwin, Peter S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1990-01-01

    An eddy correlation measurement of O3 deposition and CO2 exchange at a level 10 m above the canopy of the Amazon forest, conducted as part of the NASA/INPE ABLE2b mission during the wet season of 1987, is presented. It was found that the ecosystem exchange of CO2 undergoes a well-defined diurnal variation driven by the input of solar radiation. A curvilinear relationship was found between solar irradiance and uptake of CO2, with net CO2 uptake at a given solar irradiance equal to rates observed over forests in other climate zones. The carbon balance of the system appeared sensitive to cloud cover on the time scale of the experiment, suggesting that global carbon storage might be affected by changes in insolation associated with tropical climate fluctuations. The forest was found to be an efficient sink for O3 during the day, and evidence indicates that the Amazon forests could be a significant sink for global ozone during the nine-month wet period and that deforestation could dramatically alter O3 budgets.

  3. Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Bakwin, P. S.; Jacob, D. J.; Anderson, S. M.; Kebabian, P. L.; Mcmanus, J. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Eddy correlation flux measurements and concentration profiles of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO2 were combined to provide a comprehensive record of atmosphere-biosphere exchange for these gases over a 30-day period in July-August 1988 in the Yukon-Kuskokwin River Delta of Alaska. Over 90 percent of net ecosystem exchanges of THC were due to methane. Lakes and wet meadow tundra provided the major sources of methane. The average fluxes from lake, dry tundra, and wet tundra were 11 +/- 3, 29 +/- 3, and 57 +/- 6 mg CH4/sq m/d, respectively. The mean remission rate for the site was 25 mg/sq m/d. Maximum uptake of CO2 by the tundra was 1.4 gC/sq m/d between 1000 and 1500 hrs, and nocturnal respiration averaged 0.73 gC/sq m/d. Net uptake of CO2 was 0.30 gC/sq m/d for the 30 days of measurement; methane flux accounted for 6 percent of CO2 net uptake.

  4. Growing season net ecosystem CO2 exchange of two desert ecosystems with alkaline soils in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; van der Tol, Christiaan; Luo, Geping; Su, Zhongbo

    2014-01-01

    Central Asia is covered by vast desert ecosystems, and the majority of these ecosystems have alkaline soils. Their contribution to global net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is of significance simply because of their immense spatial extent. Some of the latest research reported considerable abiotic CO2 absorption by alkaline soil, but the rate of CO2 absorption has been questioned by peer communities. To investigate the issue of carbon cycle in Central Asian desert ecosystems with alkaline soils, we have measured the NEE using eddy covariance (EC) method at two alkaline sites during growing season in Kazakhstan. The diurnal course of mean monthly NEE followed a clear sinusoidal pattern during growing season at both sites. Both sites showed significant net carbon uptake during daytime on sunny days with high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but net carbon loss at nighttime and on cloudy and rainy days. NEE has strong dependency on PAR and the response of NEE to precipitation resulted in an initial and significant carbon release to the atmosphere, similar to other ecosystems. These findings indicate that biotic processes dominated the carbon processes, and the contribution of abiotic carbon process to net ecosystem CO2 exchange may be trivial in alkaline soil desert ecosystems over Central Asia. PMID:24455157

  5. Investigating Liquid CO2 as a Coolant for a MTSA Heat Exchanger Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Iacomini, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO 2) control for a future Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. CO 2 removal and rejection is accomplished by driving a sorbent through a temperature swing of approximately 210 K to 280 K . The sorbent is cooled to these sub-freezing temperatures by a Sublimating Heat Exchanger (SHX) with liquid coolant expanded to sublimation temperatures. Water is the baseline coolant available on the moon, and if used, provides a competitive solution to the current baseline PLSS schematic. Liquid CO2 (LCO2) is another non-cryogenic coolant readily available from Martian resources which can be produced and stored using relatively low power and minimal infrastructure. LCO 2 expands from high pressure liquid (5800 kPa) to Mars ambient (0.8 kPa) to produce a gas / solid mixture at temperatures as low as 156 K. Analysis and experimental work are presented to investigate factors that drive the design of a heat exchanger to effectively use this sink. Emphasis is given to enabling efficient use of the CO 2 cooling potential and mitigation of heat exchanger clogging due to solid formation. Minimizing mass and size as well as coolant delivery are also considered. The analysis and experimental work is specifically performed in an MTSA-like application to enable higher fidelity modeling for future optimization of a SHX design. In doing so, the work also demonstrates principles and concepts so that the design can be further optimized later in integrated applications (including Lunar application where water might be a choice of coolant).

  6. Atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2 and O3 in the central Amazon Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Song-Miao; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bakwin, Peter S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1990-09-01

    Measurements of vertical fluxes for CO2 and O3 were made at a level 10 m above the canopy of the Amazon forest during the wet season, using eddy correlation techniques. Vertical profiles of CO2 and O3 were recorded continuously from above the canopy to the soil surface, and forest floor respiration was measured using soil enclosures. Nocturnal respiration of CO2 by the forest ecosystem averaged 2.57 kgC/ha/h, with about 85% from the forest floor. During the daytime, CO2 was taken up at a mean rate of 4.4 kgC/ha/h. Net ecosystem uptake of carbon dioxide increased with solar flux by 0.015 (kgC/ha/h)/(W m-2), corresponding to fixation of 0.0076 moles CO2 per mole photons (about 0.017 moles CO2 per mole of absorbed photons at photosynthetically active wavelengths). The relationship between net ecosystem exchange and solar flux was virtually the same in the Amazon forest as in forests in Canada (Desjardins et al., 1982, 1985) and Tennessee (Baldocchi et al., 1987a,b). The relatively high efficiency for utilization of light (about 30% of the theoretical maximum) and the strong dependence of net CO2 uptake on solar flux suggest that light may significantly regulate net ecosystem exchange and carbon storage in the tropical forest. Changes in the distribution of cloud cover, associated for example with climatic shifts, might induce globally significant changes in carbon storage. Rates for uptake of O3 averaged 2.3×1011 molecules cm-2s-1 in the daytime (10 hours, 700-1700 hours), dropping by roughly a factor of 10 during the 14 hours from dusk to dawn. The mean O3 deposition velocity at 40 m was 0.26 cm s-1 in the night and 1.8 cm s-1 in the day. Diurnal variation of O3 deposition was regulated both by stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer and by stomatal response to light and water deficit. The total flux of O3 to the forest was limited largely by supply from the free troposphere above. Deposition of O3 to the forest canopy appears to be a regionally, and

  7. Atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2 and O3 in the central Amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wofsy, Steven C.; Bakwin, Peter S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    1990-09-01

    Measurements of vertical fluxes for CO2 and O3 were made at a level 10 m above the canopy of the Amazon forest during the wet season, using eddy correlation techniques. Vertical profiles of CO2 and O3 were recorded continuously from above the canopy to the soil surface, and forest floor respiration was measured using soil enclosures. Nocturnal respiration of CO2 by the forest ecosystem averaged 2.57 kgC/ha/h, with about 85% from the forest floor. During the daytime, CO2 was taken up at a mean rate of 4.4 kgC/ha/h. Net ecosystem uptake of carbon dioxide increased with solar flux by 0.015 (kgC/ha/h)/(W m-2), corresponding to fixation of 0.0076 moles CO2 per mole photons (about 0.017 moles CO2 per mole of absorbed photons at photosynthetically active wavelengths). The relationship between net ecosystem exchange and solar flux was virtually the same in the Amazon forest as in forests in Canada (Desjardins et al., 1982, 1985) and Tennessee (Baldocchi et al., 1987ab). The relatively high efficiency for utilization of light (about 30% of the theoretical maximum) and the strong dependence of net CO2 uptake on solar flux suggest that light may significantly regulate net ecosystem exchange and carbon storage in the tropical forest. Changes in the distribution of cloud cover, associated for example with climatic shifts, might induce globally significant changes in the carbon storage. Rates for uptake of O3 averaged 2.3×1011 molecules cm-2 s-1 in the daytime (10 hours, 700-1700 hours) dropping by roughly a factor of 10 during the 14 hours from dusk to dawn. The mean O3 deposition velocity at 40 m was 0.26 cm s-1 in the night and 1.8 cm s-1 in the day. Diurnal variation of O3 deposition was regulated both by stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer and by stomatal response to light and water deficit. The total flux of O3 to the forest was limited largely by supply from the free troposphere above. Deposition of O3 to the forest canopy appears to be a regionally, and

  8. Electrical Resistivity Measurements in Sandstone During CH4 Hydrate Formation and CH4-CO2 Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkedal, K.; Hauge, L.; Ersland, G.; Graue, A.

    2012-12-01

    The electrical properties of hydrate bearing sediments change with mineralogy, porosity, hydrate saturation, brine salinity, and mobility of the formation brine. Reliable calibration data is therefore essential for correct interpretation. Electrical resistivity measurements have been conducted on homogeneous Bentheim sand during CH4 hydrate formation. Various initial conditions (salinity and Sw) were used to determine the robustness of resistivity as a measure of hydrate saturation. Two setups with different electrode-arrangements were used; the first setup was a four electrode core holder without imaging capabilities, the second a two-electrode core holder used in combination with MRI to calibrate saturation data. The agreement between the two setups was good and there was little variation in phase angle. An initial resistivity decrease was observed at the initiation of hydrate growth for all experiments. This effect was more pronounced with lower initial salinities. Further increase in hydrate saturation resulted in reduced pore connectivity and increased tortuosity which resulted in increased resistivity (45-2487 kΩ). Only CH4 and water were used to form hydrate. The brine NaCl concentration of the remaining brine solution therefore increased during hydrate growth. Dynamic Rw and R0 values were incorporated into Archie's equations to account for changes in brine composition during hydrate formation. Resistivity was also measured during exchange between CH4-hydrate and CO2. There was an immediate resistivity and pressure response as CO2 was introduced to the system. This may be explained by higher water activity and CO2-hydrate growth at the trans-axial core face as CO2 is the preferred guest molecule at the experimental conditions. A spontaneous exchange therefore occurs, where the change in enthalpy accelerates the exchange. The resistivity showed a continuous decreasing trend after CO2 was introduced. This is explained by local in-equilibrium where

  9. Robust increase of seasonal amplitude in simulated terrestrial CO2 exchange in last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatomi, M. I.; Ito, A.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing climatic change is expected to affect terrestrial carbon budget by altering growing period and photosynthetic and respiratory processes. Indeed, a recent atmospheric study (Graven et al. 2013) shows that seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2 concentration has bee increased since 1960. Because of the lack of long-term observational data except phenology, it is difficult to confirm such enhancement of vegetation activity through a direct approach. Therefore, we examined the simulated terrestrial CO2 exchange by a process-based model (VISIT) from 1901 to 2010, using the MsTMIP protocol. Several metrics were used to characterize the seasonal amplitude: maximum photosynthetic uptake and respiratory release and cumulative net biome production (NBP). To separate the effects of climatic change and elevated atmospheric increase, two simulation results (climate, climate+CO2) were compared. The results showed that the seasonal amplitude defined as the maximum?minimum cumulative NBP in the Northern Hemisphere increased by 16% from the 1960s to the 2000s. Such increase in seasonal amplitude was more evident in North America and Europe, compared with Siberia and Asia. In the climate-only simulation, northern seasonal amplitude decreased from 1965 to 1980, a climatic cooling period, and then increased since then. These results indicate that the observed increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration amplitude is largely attributable to enhanced terrestrial vegetation activity. We would compare these results with those by other terrestrial ecosystem models and possibly with some observational record.

  10. An Enhanced Engineering Perspective of Global Climate Systems and Statistical Formulation of Terrestrial CO2 Exchanges

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Yuanshun; Baek, Seung H.; Garcia-Diza, Alberto; Tsui, Kwok; Zhuang, Jie; Yang, Bai

    2012-01-01

    This paper designs a comprehensive approach based on the engineering machine/system concept, to model, analyze, and assess the level of CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, which is an important factor in understanding changes in global climate. The focus of this article is on spatial patterns and on the correlation between levels of CO2 fluxes and a variety of influencing factors in eco-environments. The engineering/machine concept used is a system protocol that includes the sequential activities of design, test, observe, and model. This concept is applied to explicitly include various influencing factors and interactions associated with CO2 fluxes. To formulate effective models of a large and complex climate system, this article introduces a modeling technique that will be referred to as Stochastic Filtering Analysis of Variance (SFANOVA). The CO2 flux data observed from some sites of AmeriFlux are used to illustrate and validate the analysis, prediction and globalization capabilities of the proposed engineering approach and the SF-ANOVA technology. The SF-ANOVA modeling approach was compared to stepwise regression, ridge regression, and neural networks. The comparison indicated that the proposed approach is a valid and effective tool with similar accuracy and less complexity than the other procedures.

  11. The simultaneous measurement of low rates of CO2 and O2 exchange in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Willms, J R; Dowling, A N; Dong, Z M; Hunt, S; Shelp, B J; Layzell, D B

    1997-12-15

    An instrument for measuring low rates of biological O2 exchange using an open-flow gas analysis system is described. A novel differential O2 sensor that is capable of measuring as little as 0.4 Pa O2 against a back-ground of ambient air (20,900 Pa O2), yet has a dynamic range of +/- 2000 Pa O2 (i.e., +/- ca. 2% O2) is described. Baseline drift was typically less than 0.025 Pa min-1. The differential O2 sensor was incorporated into a respiratory quotient/photosynthetic quotient analyzer that contained other environmental sensors for atmospheric pressure, absolute O2 and CO2 concentration, temperature of the differential O2 sensor block, and differential pressure between reference and sample streams. Protocols for how these sensors can be used to calibrate the differential O2 sensor and to improve its stability with time are described. Together, the differential O2 sensor, the environmental sensors, and the simple calibration techniques allow for simultaneous, noninvasive, and accurate measurements of O2 and CO2 exchange in tissues with metabolic rates as low as about 0.1 mumol O2 or CO2 h-1. Example data are provided in which O2 differentials of 3 to 41 Pa O2 were measured in an open-flow system. PMID:9417789

  12. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600) = 8.3 ± 0.4 and 8.1 ± 0.6 cm h−1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11 ± 23.69 and 171.13 ± 20.28 mmol C m−2 d−1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  13. Analysing net CO2 exchanges over an arable crop across multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blei, Emanuel; Toet, Sylvia; Revill, Andrew; Solis Parejo, Jose; Keane, Ben; Vallack, Harry; Stockdale, James; Ineson, Phil; Levy, Pete; Skiba, Ute; Drewer, Julia; Famulari, Daniela; Williams, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    There is a critical need to better understand and up-scale greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural activities to support adaptation and mitigation activities at national scales. A major unknown is the intrinsic scale of variability in fluxes from chamber to field scales. This variation is linked to heterogeneity in management, soils and microclimate. We made greenhouse gas fluxes measurements on a commercially operated rapeseed-oil field in the east of England for a month from the start of the growing season until the second fertiliser application (18th March to 16th April 2014). Our methods included using (1) sporadic box chamber measurements of light response curves of CO2 exchanges; (2) a novel automated cable-operated chamber system (SkyLine) developed by the University of York to measure CO2 fluxes continuously from 18 chambers in the field; (3) an Eddy covariance system measuring CO2 fluxes from a larger area on another part of the same field. For each data set a simple model resolving gross primary production and ecosystem respiration, and using LAI, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and air temperature as drivers, was tuned to estimate net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for rapeseed oil. We assess the model performance and parameter estimates across the three methods and discuss the implications for scaling fluxes and correcting biases in upscaling.

  14. CO2 and CH4 exchange from ditch networks in two floodplain fens.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Kieran; Heppell, Catherine; Belyea, Lisa; Baird, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Historically, many peatlands were drained using ditches. These ditches are now often used to control water levels in sites under conservation management, though they can be a significant atmospheric source of both CO2 and CH4. Studies have already been undertaken on ditches in ombrotrophic peatlands (bogs), but little work has been done on C exchanges in drainage ditches in floodplain fens. This study quantified C exchange in drainage ditches at two floodplain fens, Sutton Fen (52°45'N 001°30'E) and Strumpshaw Fen (52°36'N 001°27'E), in The Norfolk Broadlands of England. C exchange was quantified between 19th June 2012 and 2nd September 2013 using floating static chambers. Ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and CH4 fluxes were measured and a seasonal pattern was observed in all three, with the highest fluxes in late summer. Both sites were sources of CO2 and CH4. The few previous studies of C fluxes from ditches in floodplain fens have suggested flux ranges of 69.6 to 199 mg CO2 m2 h-1 for both Reco and NEE, and 1.2 to 366 mg CH4 m2 h-1 (positive means a flux to the atmosphere). For Reco, NEE and CH4, our values were generally at the higher end of the reported values. Reco ranged from 3.66 to 420.18 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 and 28.35 to 257.07 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 for Sutton and Strumpshaw, respectively. The highest flux was observed in September 2013 at Strumpshaw (506.03 mg CO2 m-2 h-1). NEE ranged from -80.64 to 786.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 and -70.72 to 229.75 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 for Sutton and Strumpshaw, respectively. The majority of NEE fluxes were positive (a source), apart from April, June and July 2013, where a small uptake occurred. Sutton had significantly greater CH4 emissions than Strumpshaw, with values ranging from 0.46 to 733.72 and 0.05 to 89.11 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, respectively. This difference may have been related to ditch water SO42- concentrations, which were higher at Strumpshaw (23.11 ± 1.26 mg L-1) than at Sutton (17.78 ± 1.68 mg L-1

  15. CO2 exchange of a temperate fen during the conversion from moderately rewetting to flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koebsch, Franziska; Glatzel, Stephan; Hofmann, Joachim; Forbrich, Inke; Jurasinski, Gerald

    2013-06-01

    Year-round flooding provides a common land management practice to reestablish the natural carbon dioxide (CO2) sink function of drained peatlands. Here we present eddy covariance measurements of net CO2 exchange from a temperate fen during three consecutive growing seasons (May-October) that span a period of conversion from moderately rewetting to flooding. When we started our measurements in 2009, the hydrological conditions were representative for the preceding 20 years with a mean growing season water level (MWGL) of 0 cm but considerably lower water levels in summer. Flooding began in 2010 with an MWGL of 36 cm above the surface. The fen was a net CO2 sink throughout all growing seasons (2009: -333.3 ± 12.3, 2010: -294.1 ± 8.4, 2011: -352.4 ± 5.1 g C m-2), but magnitudes of canopy photosynthesis (CP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) differed distinctively. Rates of CP and Reco were high before flooding, dropped by 46% and 61%, respectively, in 2010, but increased again during the beginning of growing season 2011 until the water level started to rise further due to strong rainfalls during June and July. We assume that flooding decreases not only the CO2 release due to inhibited Reco under anaerobic conditions but also CO2 sequestration rates are constricted due to decreased CP. We conclude that rewetting might act as a disturbance for a plant community that has adapted to drier conditions after decades of drainage. However, if the recent species are still abundant, a rise in CP and autotrophic Reco can be expected after plants have developed plastic response strategies to wetter conditions.

  16. Relating Leaf Nitrogen, Leaf Photosynthesis and Canopy CO2 Exchange in a Temperate Winter Barley Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, R.; Boegh, E.; Herbst, M.; Friborg, T.

    2012-12-01

    Net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the soil-vegetation interface (NEE) is controlled by a wide range of biochemical and biophysical processes where leaf photosynthesis is often the most important. In mechanistically and physically based photosynthesis models (e.g. Farquhar et al. 1980) leaf nutrient status is a limiting factor for the photosynthetic capacity since it is implicitly incorporated through the parameters of maximum rate of carboxylation of CO2 (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). These are closely related to leaf nitrogen concentration (Na) and leaf chlorophyll content (Cab) and often show a characteristic seasonal dynamic. When simulating CO2 exchange, model outputs are sensitive to leaf photosynthetic capacity, which is labour consuming to verify through field measurements. A less time consuming method is to measure leaf "greenness" (SPAD), which is closely related to chlorophyll content and thus photosynthetic capacity. In the present study field measurements of leaf photosynthesis (LI-6400, LICOR Inc.), leaf reflectance (SPAD-502, Minolta), and LAI (LAI-2000, LICOR Inc.) were conducted on agricultural fields in Western Denmark during one growing season. The leaf photosynthesis measurements provided the basis for estimating photosynthetic capacity. SPAD measurements and LAI was measured with a higher spatial and temporal resolution. SPAD readings were calibrated against Cab and Na analyzed on leaf material in the laboratory and later correlated to photosynthetic capacity. These data were used to parameterize a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal model that was run for the growing season 2012 to estimate NEE. As a part of the hydrological observatory HOBE (hobe.dk), fluxes of greenhouse gasses are continuously measured by eddy covariance systems at three field sites in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark, providing the basis for estimating the exchange of energy, water vapour, and CO2 on canopy scale. One of

  17. Emerging Patterns In The Isotopic Composition Of Soil CO2 Concentrations, Soil CO2 Production, And Soil-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange At The Watershed Scale: On The Intersection Between Hydrology And Biology In The Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Liang, L.; Lorenzo, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Stable isotopes are commonly used to understand how physical and biological processes mediate the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Numerous studies have described fundamental relationships between environmental variables, the carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of recently assimilated sugars in plants, litter, soil carbon, or recently respired CO2. However, studies that examine the spatial variability of the 13C content of forest soils at the landscape scale are lacking. We report on measurements of the carbon isotopic composition of soil CO2 concentrations (δ13CC), soil CO2 production (δ13CP), and soil-atmosphere CO2 exchange (δ13CD) across a subalpine forest of the northern Rocky Mountains of Montana over two growing seasons. We evaluate the variability of these measurements across different landscape positions. Our analysis demonstrates that soil moisture and the lateral redistribution of soil water are strong predictors of the spatial variability of δ13CC, δ13CP, and δ13CD at the watershed scale. We suggest that there are concomitant yet independent effects of soil water on physical (i.e., soil gas diffusivity) and biological (i.e., photosynthetic activity) processes that mediate the 13C composition of forest soils. We show systematic spatial variability in the δ13C of forest soils at the landscape scale that can be useful to accurately predict and model land-atmosphere CO2 exchange over complex terrain.

  18. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A. W.; Andres, R. J.; Davis, K. J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, D. J.; Huntzinger, D. N.; de Jong, B.; Kurz, W. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Vargas, R.; Wei, Y.; West, T. O.; Woodall, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, "best" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990-2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.

  19. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, A.W.; Andres, R.J.; Davis, K.J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, D.J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, W.A.; McGuire, Anthony; Vargas, Rodrigo I.; Wei, Y.; West, Tristram O.; Woodall, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from −890 to −280 Tg C yr−1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, "best" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are −472 ± 281 Tg C yr−1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and −360 Tg C yr−1 (with an interquartile range of −496 to −337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr−1 and assuming the estimate of −472 Tg C yr−1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was

  20. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    DOE PAGES

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; et al

    2015-01-21

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North Americanmore » land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, \\"best\\" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4

  1. [Effect of air temperature and rainfall on wetland ecosystem CO2 exchange in China].

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiao-jing; Han, Guang-xuan

    2015-10-01

    Wetland can be a potential efficient sink to reduce global warming due to its higher primary productivity and lower carbon decomposition rate. While there has been a series progress on the influence mechanism of ecosystem CO2 exchange over China' s wetlands, a systematic metaanalysis of data still needs to be improved. We compiled data of ecosystem CO2 exchange of 21 typical wetland vegetation types in China from 29 papers and carried out an integrated analysis of air temperature and precipitation effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP), the response of NEE to PAR, and the response of Reco to temperature. The results showed that there were significant responses (P<0.05) of NEE (R2 = 50%, R2=57%), GPP (R2 = 60%, R2 = 50%) Reco (R2 = 44%, R2=50%) with increasing air temperature and enhanced precipitation on the annual scale. On the growing season scale, air temperature accounted for 50% of the spatial variation of NEE, 36% of GPP and 19% of Reco, respectively. Both NEE (R2 = 33%) and GPP (R2 =25%) were correlated positively with precipitation (P<0.05). However, the relationship between Reco and precipitation was not significant (P>0.05). Across different Chinese wetlands, both precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on apparent quantum yield (α) or ecosystem respiration in the daytime (Reco,day, P>0.05). The maximum photosynthesis rate (Amax) was remarkably correlated with precipitation (P <0.01), but not with air temperature. Besides, there was no significant correlation between basal respiration (Rref) and precipitation (P>0.05). Precipitation was negatively correlated with temperature sensitivity of Reco (Q10, P<0.05). Furthermore, temperature accounted for 35% and 46% of the variations in temperature sensitivity of Reco (Q10) and basal respiration (Rref P<0.05), respectively. PMID:26995905

  2. Dynamic Patterns, Parameters, and Climatic Response of CO2 Exchange of Agricultural Crops: Monocotyledons VS. Dicotyledons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, T. G.; Wylie, B. K.; Howard, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Net CO2 exchange data from long-term flux tower measurements in monocotyledonous (wheat, maize) and dicotyledonous (soybeans, alfalfa, peas, peanuts) crops were partitioned into photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R) using the light-soil temperature-VPD response method. Analysis of the resulting time series of P and R revealed patterns of temporal and phenological dynamics in these plant groups. We established differences in ranges and dynamic patterns of P and R as well as CO2 exchange parameters (quantum yield, photosynthetic capacity, respiration rate, light-use efficiency, curvature of the VPD response). Weekly P and R data combined with remotely sensed 7-day eMODIS NDVI allow identification of the quasi-linear relationships between P, R, and NDVI, as well as estimation of parameters of NDVI response (start of the growing season, duration of the linearity period, slope of NDVI response). While the linear-like patterns occur early in the season, later the flux response to NDVI becomes less pronounced, and for the whole season the flux-NDVI relationship assumes a hysteresis-like pattern. Introduction of VPD and soil moisture limitation as well as phenological controls (growing degree days) leads to more flexible models for P and R in relation to NDVI and on-site drivers. These models allow mapping of the cropland CO2 exchange at regional and larger scales (e.g., the Great Plains). Significant relationships of the crop GPP to the seasonally integrated NDVI were also established, providing an opportunity for mapping of crop productivity using geographically distributed historic NDVI data. On the other hand, long time series (6 to 12 years and longer) of weekly P and R data lead to models of annual photosynthesis and respiration in response to climatic factors that may be used for prognostic purposes. We developed a model of maize GPP on the Great Plains in relation to the sum of temperatures above 5 °C and the hydrologic year precipitation. The model describes 75

  3. Growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of hydroponically grown peanut in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanciel, K.; Mortley, D. G.; Hileman, D. R.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of 'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. Plants were exposed to concentrations of 400 (ambient), 800, and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in reach-in growth chambers. Foliage fresh and dry weights increased with increased CO2 up to 800 micromoles mol-1, but declined at 1200 micromoles mol-1. The number and the fresh and dry weights of pods also increased with increasing CO2 concentration. However, the yield of immature pods was not significantly influenced by increased CO2. Total seed yield increased 33% from ambient to 800 micromoles mol-1 CO2, and 4% from 800 to 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Harvest index increased with increasing CO2. Branch length increased while specific leaf area decreased linearly as CO2 increased from ambient to 1200 micromoles mol-1. Net photosynthetic rate was highest among plants grown at 800 micromoles mol-1. Stomatal conductance decreased with increased CO2. Carboxylation efficiency was similar among plants grown at 400 and 800 micromoles mol-1 and decreased at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 micromoles mol-1 had positive effects on peanut growth and yield, but above 800 micromoles mol-1 enrichment seed yield increased only marginally.

  4. Growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of hydroponically grown peanut in response to CO2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stanciel, K; Mortley, D G; Hileman, D R; Loretan, P A; Bonsi, C K; Hill, W A

    2000-02-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of 'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. Plants were exposed to concentrations of 400 (ambient), 800, and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in reach-in growth chambers. Foliage fresh and dry weights increased with increased CO2 up to 800 micromoles mol-1, but declined at 1200 micromoles mol-1. The number and the fresh and dry weights of pods also increased with increasing CO2 concentration. However, the yield of immature pods was not significantly influenced by increased CO2. Total seed yield increased 33% from ambient to 800 micromoles mol-1 CO2, and 4% from 800 to 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Harvest index increased with increasing CO2. Branch length increased while specific leaf area decreased linearly as CO2 increased from ambient to 1200 micromoles mol-1. Net photosynthetic rate was highest among plants grown at 800 micromoles mol-1. Stomatal conductance decreased with increased CO2. Carboxylation efficiency was similar among plants grown at 400 and 800 micromoles mol-1 and decreased at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 micromoles mol-1 had positive effects on peanut growth and yield, but above 800 micromoles mol-1 enrichment seed yield increased only marginally.

  5. Anomalies in coral reef community metabolism and their potential importance in the reef CO2 source-sink debate.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, J R; Barnes, D J

    1998-05-26

    It is not certain whether coral reefs are sources of or sinks for atmospheric CO2. Air-sea exchange of CO2 over reefs has been measured directly and inferred from changes in the seawater carbonate equilibrium. Such measurements have provided conflicting results. We provide community metabolic data that indicate that large changes in CO2 concentration can occur in coral reef waters via biogeochemical processes not directly associated with photosynthesis, respiration, calcification, and CaCO3 dissolution. These processes can significantly distort estimates of reef calcification and net productivity and obscure the contribution of coral reefs to global air-sea exchange of CO2. They may, nonetheless, explain apparent anomalies in the metabolic performance of reefs close to land and reconcile the differing experimental findings that have given rise to the CO2 debate.

  6. ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER THE ECOSYSTEM C EXCHANGE IN A YOUNG DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (EC) [ambient CO2 (AC) + 190 ppm] and elevated temperature (ET) [ambient temperature (AT) + 3.6 °C] on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of seedling Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mesocosms. As the study utilized seedlings in reconstruc...

  7. Autochamber measurements of Net Ecosystem (CO2) Exchange at a subarctic mire in Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthall, M.; Parker-Smith, X.; Lawrence, R. D.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Northern latitude wetlands (>~50°N) are characterized by cold and wet conditions that result in low decomposition rates for plant litter. This process promotes the sequestration of carbon (C) in the form of organic matter (i.e. peat) and the formation of widespread peatands. Peatlands, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, have accumulated C by removing atmospheric CO2 for approximately the past 10,000 years. Historically, peatlands represent a net C sink; however, increases in the global average temperature could alter peatlands ability to store carbon. With a warming climate and permafrost thaw, the pool of once stable soil organic C available for decomposition is increasing. Like all terrestrial ecosystems, a number of environmental factors (e.g. peat temperature and vegetation) play important roles in governing the fate of C in peatlands. Projected climate change is expected to affect these regulating factors. Subarctic peatlands in zones of discontinuous permafrost are experiencing widespread environmental changes due to climate warming. In this study, we present net ecosystem (CO2) exchange and δ13C-CO2 data from Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden (68°22'N, 19°03'E). Measurements were made using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer connected to automatic chambers placed in the three predominant ecosystems (a dry, elevated Palsa; an intermediate thaw regime dominated by Sphagnum spp. and; a completely thawed, inundated site dominated by Eriophorum angustifolium). Team was mentored by Mr. Ryan Lawrence from The University of New Hampshire.

  8. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors.

    PubMed

    You, Yan; Niu, Can; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Yating; Bai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jiefeng; He, Fei; Zhang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies. Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr(-1)). AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions. Field tests were conducted in classrooms, dormitories, meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers. Indoor temperature, relative humidity (RH), and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded. Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved: duplicate precision was within 10%, and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs. Average AERs were 1.22, 1.37, 1.10, 1.91 and 0.73 hr(-1) in dormitories, air-conditioned classrooms, classrooms with an air circulation cooling system, reading rooms, and meeting rooms, respectively. In an elderly particulate matter exposure study, all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr(-1) in fall, and 0.12 to 1.39 hr(-1) in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  9. Canopy development, CO(2) exchange and carbon balance of a modeled agroforestry tree.

    PubMed

    Nygren, P; Kiema, P; Rebottaro, S

    1996-09-01

    We developed a whole-canopy CO(2) exchange simulation model to study effects of pruning on the carbon balance of trees. Model inputs include global short-wave radiation, photosynthetic photon flux density (PFD), air temperature, time series of the development of canopy diameter, height and total leaf area during the simulation period and local geographical and atmospheric parameters. Canopy structure is derived stochastically from the time series of canopy development and growth functions of individual phytoelements. The PFD incident on a phytoelement is computed from the average gap frequency of the canopy and the binary random probability of sunflecks on the phytoelement. Instantaneous CO(2) assimilation rate of each phytoelement is computed from PFD and phytoelement age. Assimilation rates are integrated over space and time to estimate whole-canopy CO(2) assimilation. The model was used to study carbon balance in five sources of the leguminous agroforestry tree Erythrina poeppigiana (Walpers) O.F. Cook during two 6-month pruning intervals. The canopy description appeared to be realistic. According to the simulations, cumulative assimilation did not provide enough carbon for tree growth until two months after pruning, indicating dependence of tree growth on reserve carbohydrates. The two most productive sources, which had the most open canopies, were the most dependent on reserve carbohydrates after pruning. PMID:14871680

  10. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across northern Eurasia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rawlins, M.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Kimball, J.S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J.C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-01-01

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m−2 yr−2, equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in model

  11. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    DOE PAGES

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; et al

    2015-07-28

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate modelmore » simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m⁻² yr⁻², equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in

  12. Biophysical remote sensing and terrestrial CO2 exchange at Cape Bounty, Melville Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Fiona Marianne

    Cape Bounty, Melville Island is a partially vegetated High Arctic landscape with three main plant communities: polar semi-desert (47% of the study area), mesic tundra (31%) , and wet sedge meadows (7%). The objective of this research was to relate biophysical measurements of soil, vegetation, and CO2 exchange rates in each vegetation type to high resolution satellite data from IKONOS-2, extending plot level measurements to a landscape scale. Field data was collected through six weeks of the 2008 growing season. Two IKONOS images were acquired, one on July 4th and the other on August 2nd. Two products were generated from the satellite data: a land-cover classification and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The three vegetation types were found to have distinct soil and vegetation characteristics. Only the wet sedge meadows were a net sink for CO2; soil respiration tended to exceed photosynthesis in the sparsely vegetated mesic tundra and polar semi-desert. Scaling up the plot measurements by vegetation type area suggested that Cape Bounty was a small net carbon source (0.34 +/- 0.47 g C m-2 day-1) in the summer of 2008. NDVI was strongly correlated with percent vegetation cover, vegetation volume, soil moisture, and moderately with soil nitrogen, biomass, and leaf area index (LAI). Photosynthesis and respiration of CO2 both positively correlated with NDVI, most strongly when averaged over the season. NDVI increased over time in every vegetation type, but this change was not reflected in any significant measured changes in vegetation or CO2 flux rates. A simple spatial model was developed to estimate Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) at every pixel on the satellite images based on NDVI, temperature and incoming solar radiation. It was found that the rate of photosynthesis per unit NDVI was higher early in the growing season. The model estimated a mean flux to the atmosphere of 0.21 g C m-2 day-1 at the time of image acquisition on July 4th, and -0.07 g C m

  13. CO2 exchange following peat extraction - a comparison of two paired restored/unrestored peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria; Pelletier, Luc; Nugent, Kelly; Rankin, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Peat extraction is an important industry in parts of Canada and elsewhere globally. The resulting disturbance from drainage and vacuum-harvesting is mitigated through best practices which now incorporate restoration intended to return the peatland's biodiversity and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange to that resembling the pre-disturbance state. We examine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in two sets of paired peatlands. Within each pair, the extraction year was the same and the sites were treated identically post-extraction in terms of management (blocking drains or leveling as applicable). The first pair is located in the vicinity of Rivière-du-Loup, Québec, Canada and were harvested in 1980. The Bois-des-Bel (BDB) site was restored in 1999 following the methods of Quinty and Rochefort (2003). GHG fluxes have been studied at various points since restoration (e.g. Strack and Zuback, 2013) largely using chamber measurements. The site now hosts a thriving bog ecosystem with Sphagnum, Eriophorum and shrub communities. A site 30 km away near Saint-Alexandre de Kamouraska (SAK) was managed post-harvest as BDB with drains blocked but was left unrestored and now has only sparse Eriophorum with invasive species. The second pair of peatlands represents a newly extracted site near Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada. One field was restored (SBR) in autumn 2012 as per the Québec sites but with ditches infilled when the fields were levelled while the other (SBU) was left unrestored. In the summer of 2013, eddy covariance towers were installed at each location and measured NEE continuously at 10Hz throughout the subsequent periods. BDB and SBR remain operational today while SBU was removed in fall 2014 and SAK in fall 2015. In this presentation, we will focus on the coincident years of operation. After 15 years, BDB has measured NEE in the range of that observed at natural peatlands. A summer sink and winter release lead to annual uptake of CO2. At SAK, the lack of establishment

  14. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 with rapidly changing high Arctic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Emmerton, Craig A; St Louis, Vincent L; Humphreys, Elyn R; Gamon, John A; Barker, Joel D; Pastorello, Gilberto Z

    2016-03-01

    High Arctic landscapes are expansive and changing rapidly. However, our understanding of their functional responses and potential to mitigate or enhance anthropogenic climate change is limited by few measurements. We collected eddy covariance measurements to quantify the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 with polar semidesert and meadow wetland landscapes at the highest latitude location measured to date (82°N). We coupled these rare data with ground and satellite vegetation production measurements (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) to evaluate the effectiveness of upscaling local to regional NEE. During the growing season, the dry polar semidesert landscape was a near-zero sink of atmospheric CO2 (NEE: -0.3 ± 13.5 g C m(-2) ). A nearby meadow wetland accumulated over 300 times more carbon (NEE: -79.3 ± 20.0 g C m(-2) ) than the polar semidesert landscape, and was similar to meadow wetland NEE at much more southerly latitudes. Polar semidesert NEE was most influenced by moisture, with wetter surface soils resulting in greater soil respiration and CO2 emissions. At the meadow wetland, soil heating enhanced plant growth, which in turn increased CO2 uptake. Our upscaling assessment found that polar semidesert NDVI measured on-site was low (mean: 0.120-0.157) and similar to satellite measurements (mean: 0.155-0.163). However, weak plant growth resulted in poor satellite NDVI-NEE relationships and created challenges for remotely detecting changes in the cycling of carbon on the polar semidesert landscape. The meadow wetland appeared more suitable to assess plant production and NEE via remote sensing; however, high Arctic wetland extent is constrained by topography to small areas that may be difficult to resolve with large satellite pixels. We predict that until summer precipitation and humidity increases enough to offset poor soil moisture retention, climate-related changes to productivity on polar semideserts may be restricted.

  15. Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2 with Rapidly Changing High Arctic Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    High Arctic landscapes are expansive and changing rapidly. However our understanding of their functional responses and potential to mitigate or enhance anthropogenic climate change is limited by few measurements. We collected eddy covariance measurements to quantify the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 with polar semidesert and meadow wetland landscapes at the highest-latitude location measured to date (82°N). We coupled these rare data with ground and satellite vegetation production measurements (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) to evaluate the effectiveness of upscaling local to regional NEE. During the growing season, the dry polar semidesert landscape was a near zero sink of atmospheric CO2 (NEE: -0.3±13.5 g C m-2). A nearby meadow wetland accumulated over two magnitudes more carbon (NEE: -79.3±20.0 g C m-2) than the polar semidesert landscape, and was similar to meadow wetland NEE at much more southern latitudes. Polar semidesert NEE was most influenced by moisture, with wetter surface soils resulting in greater soil respiration and CO2 emissions. At the meadow wetland, soil heating enhanced plant growth, which in turn increased CO2 uptake. Our upscaling assessment found that polar semidesert NDVI measured on site was low (mean: 0.120-0.157) and similar to satellite measurements (mean: 0.155-0.163). However, weak plant growth resulted in poor satellite NDVI-NEE relationships and created challenges for remotely-detecting changes in the cycling of carbon on the polar semidesert landscape. The meadow wetland appeared more suitable to assess plant production and NEE via remote-sensing, however high Arctic wetland extent is constrained by topography to small areas that may be difficult to resolve with large satellite pixels. We predict that until summer precipitation and humidity increases substantially, climate-related changes of dry high Arctic landscapes may be restricted by poor soil moisture retention, and therefore have some inertia against

  16. Estimation of Regional Net CO2 Exchange over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biraud, S. C.; Riley, W. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Torn, M. S.; Cooley, H. S.

    2004-12-01

    Estimating spatially distributed ecosystem CO2 exchange is an important component of the North American Carbon Program. We describe here a methodology to estimate Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) over the Southern Great Plains, using: (1) data from the Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in Oklahoma and Kansas; (2) meteorological forcing data from the Mesonet facilities; (3) soil and vegetation types from 1 km resolution USGS databases; (4) vegetation status (e.g., LAI) from 1 km satellite measurements of surface reflectance (MODIS); (5) a tested land-surface model; and (6) a coupled land-surface and meteorological model (MM5/ISOLSM). This framework allows us to simulate regional surface fluxes in addition to ABL and free troposphere concentrations of CO2 at a continental scale with fine-scale nested grids centered on the ARM central facility. We use the offline land-surface and coupled models to estimate regional NEE, and compare predictions to measurements from the 9 Extended Facility sites with eddy correlation measurements. Site level comparisons to portable ECOR measurements in several crop types are also presented. Our approach also allows us to extend bottom-up estimates to periods and areas where meteorological forcing data are unavailable.

  17. Assessment of Model Estimates of Land-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Across Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.

    2014-12-01

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity and mobilization of soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) dynamics through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and the component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time as simulated by a set of process models over a region spanning the drainage basin of northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations were conducted over the period 1960-2009 at 0.5 degree resolution. Performance benchmarks are made through comparisons of model estimates and CO2 fluxes derived from tower eddy covariance measurements and satellite data driven GPP estimates. The site comparisons show the timing of peak summer productivity to be well simulated. Modest overestimates in model GPP and ER are also found, which are relatively higher for two boreal forest validation sites. Averaged across the models, NEP increases by 135% of the mean (10% to 400% among the models) from the first to last ten years of record (1960-1969 vs 2000-2009), with a weakening terrestrial carbon sink indicated over recent decades. Vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) increased by 8 to 30%, contributing to soil carbon storage gains, while model mean residence time for soil organic carbon decreased by -10% (-5% to -16% among the models) due to enhanced litter decomposition and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) losses offsetting soil carbon inputs. Our analysis points to improvements in model elements controlling vegetation productivity and soil respiration as being most beneficial for reducing uncertainty in land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. These advances require collection of new field data in key areas and the incorporation of spatial information on vegetation characteristics into models.

  18. Direct Measurement of Air-Sea Exchange of N2O5 and ClNO2 at a Polluted Coastal Site (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, T. H.; Kim, M.; Ryder, O. S.; Farmer, D.

    2013-12-01

    The reactive uptake of N2O5 at aqueous interfaces can serve as both an efficient NOx removal mechanism and regionally significant halogen activation process through the production of photo-labile ClNO2 molecules. Both the reaction rate and ClNO2 product yield are a complex function of the chemical composition and chloride molarity of the reactive surface. To date, analysis of the impact of N2O5 chemistry on oxidant loadings in the marine boundary layer has been limited to reactions occurring on aerosol particles, with little attention paid to reactions occurring at the air-sea interface. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the air-sea flux of N2O5 and ClNO2 made via eddy covariance in the polluted marine boundary layer in La Jolla, CA. We observe rapid N2O5 deposition to the ocean surface, while ClNO2 deposition rates were significantly lower and fastest during the first three hours following sunset. The results are interpreted using a time-dependent box-model, suggesting that under conditions characterized by shallow marine boundary layer heights (< 100 m) and representative aerosol reactive uptake coefficients (< 0.01), N2O5 deposition to the ocean surface can account for over 50% of the total N2O5 loss rate.

  19. Exchange integrals in magnetoelectric hexagonal ferrite (SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19): A density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Min; Shao, Bin; Lu, Yuan; Zuo, Xu

    2014-05-01

    The exchange integrals in magnetoelectric hexagonal ferrite SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19 have been calculated by using density functional theory. To get 10 inter-sublattice and 3 intra-sublattice exchange integrals, the electronic structures and total energies of 20 spin arrangements have been calculated with General Gradient Approximation (GGA) + U method. The dependence of exchange integrals on U has been studied. The comparison between the exchange integrals in SrFe12O19 and those in SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19 shows that substitution of Co and Ti decreases the most interactions involving the 12 k sites. The investigation based on our exchange integrals indicates that magnetic interaction between R and S blocks reduces significantly in SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19.

  20. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange.

    PubMed

    Alden, Caroline B; Miller, John B; Gatti, Luciana V; Gloor, Manuel M; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana S; Correia, Caio S C; Domingues, Lucas G; Joiner, Joanna; Krol, Maarten C; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Peters, Wouter; Shiga, Yoichi P; Thoning, Kirk; van der Velde, Ivar R; van Leeuwen, Thijs T; Yadav, Vineet; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2016-10-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1-8 × 10(6)  km(2) ) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  1. Measurement of CO2 exchange between Boreal forest and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Black, T Andrew; Gaumont-Guay, David; Jassal, Rachhpal S; Amiro, Brian D; Jarvis, Paul G; Gower, Stith T; Kelliher, Frank M; Dunn, Allison; Wofsy, Steven C

    2005-01-01

    The Boreal forest is the world's second largest forested biome occupying the circumpolar region between 50 degrees N and 70 degrees N. This heterogeneous biome stores about 25% of all terrestrial carbon. We have reviewed EC measurements of CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and Boreal forests, and assessed progress in understanding the controlling processes. We have assessed net ecosystem productivity, the net balance between net primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration, measured using the EC method, for 38 Boreal forest sites. Gross ecosystem productivity has been estimated by adding day-time EC-measured CO2 fluxes to respiration estimated from night-time relationships between respiration and temperature. Maximum midday values of gross ecosystem productivity vary from 33 pmol m(-2) s(-1) for aspen to 6 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for larch stands. Long-term EC flux measurements, ongoing at nine Boreal sites, have shown the strong impact of spring weather and growing season water balance on annual net ecosystem productivity. Estimation of net biome production, incorporating the effects of disturbance resulting from forest fires and logging, has progressed significantly in recent years. After disturbance, summer measurements in Boreal chronosequences suggest that it takes about 10 years before growing season carbon uptake offsets the decomposition emissions. Small-scale exchange rate measurements using chambers and manipulative experiments such as stem girdling and soil heating help to understand the processes and mechanisms playing major roles in the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems. Aircraft EC flux measurements, convective boundary layer carbon budgets, and (13)C/12C changes in the atmosphere play an important role in validating estimates of regional carbon exchange based on scaled up EC measurements. Atmospheric inverse models are an important approach to studying regional and global carbon balance but need further improvement to yield reliable

  2. Long-term dynamics of production, respiration, and net CO2 exchange in two sagebrush-steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmanov, T.G.; Svejcar, T.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Angell, R.F.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Wylie, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a synthesis of long-term measurements of CO2 exchange in 2 US Intermountain West sagebrush-steppe ecosystems. The locations near Burns, Oregon (1995-2001), and Dubois, Idaho (1996-2001), are part of the AgriFlux Network of the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (F c) during the growing season were continuously recorded at flux towers using the Bowen ratio-energy balance technique. Data were partitioned into gross primary productivity (Pg) and ecosystem respiration (Re) using the light-response function method. Wintertime fluxes were measured during 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 and used to model fluxes in other winters. Comparison of daytime respiration derived from light-response analysis with nighttime tower measurements showed close correlation, with daytime respiration being on the average higher than nighttime respiration. Maxima of Pg and Re at Burns were both 20 g CO2?? m-2??d-1 in 1998. Maxima of Pg and R e at Dubois were 37 and 35 g CO2??m -2??d-1, respectively, in 1997. Mean annual gross primary production at Burns was 1 111 (range 475-1 715) g CO2?? m-2??y-1 about 30% lower than that at Dubois (1 602, range 963-2 162 g CO2??m-2??y-1). Across the years, both ecosystems were net sinks for atmospheric CO2 with a mean net ecosystem CO2 exchange of 82 g CO2?? m-2??y-1 at Burns and 253 g CO2?? m-2??y-1 at Dubois, but on a yearly basis either site could be a C sink or source, mostly depending on precipitation timing and amount. Total annual precipitation is not a good predictor of carbon sequestration across sites. Our results suggest that Fc should be partitioned into Pg and Re components to allow prediction of seasonal and yearly dynamics of CO2 fluxes.

  3. CO2 and CH4 exchange by Phragmites australis under different climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Ortiz, Penélope; Chojnickic, Bogdan H.; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Kowalska, Natalia; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Fernández, Néstor; Urbaniak, Marek; Olejnik, Janusz; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2015-04-01

    The key role of wetlands regarding global warming is the resulting balance between net CO2 assimilation, via photosynthesis, and CO2 and CH4 emissions, given the potential to release stored carbon, because of the high temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic soil respiration and anoxic conditions. However, it is still unknown whether wetlands will convert from long-term carbon sinks to sources as a result of climate change and other anthropogenic effects such as land use changes. Phragmites australis is one of the most common species found in wetlands and is considered the most globally widespread and productive plant species in this type of ecosystem. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyse the GHG exchange (CO2 and CH4) of two wetlands with Phragmites australis as the dominant species under different climates using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The first site, Padul, is located in southern Spain, with a sub-humid warm climate, characterised by a mean annual temperature of 16°C and annual precipitation of ca. 470 mm, with a very dry summer. The second site, Rzecin is located in Poland with a mean annual temperature of 8°C, and annual precipitation around 600mm with no dry season. The Padul EC station is equipped with two infrared gas analysers to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes (LI-7200 and LI-7700 respectively) while the Rzecin EC station has the same CH4 sensor as Padul, but also a sensor measuring both GHG fluxes (DLT-100 Fast Methane Analyser, Los Gatos). In this study, we present: i) the results of a CH4 analyser inter-comparison campaign (LI-7700 vs. Los Gatos), ii) a comparative analysis of the functional behaviour of respiration and photosynthesis in both sites testing relationships between CO2 fluxes measured with the EC technique and meteorological variables such as temperature and direct or diffuse radiation and iii) the CH4 dynamicsat both sites by identifying, when possible, annual, seasonal and diurnal patterns.

  4. Milk pH as a function of CO2 concentration, temperature, and pressure in a heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-12-01

    Raw skim milk, with or without added CO2, was heated, held, and cooled in a small pilot-scale tubular heat exchanger (372 ml/min). The experiment was replicated twice, and, for each replication, milk was first carbonated at 0 to 1 degree C to contain 0 (control), 600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 ppm added CO2 using a continuous carbonation unit. After storage at 0 to 1 degree C, portions of milk at each CO2 concentration were heated to 40, 56, 72, and 80 degrees C, held at the desired temperature for 30 s (except 80 degrees C, holding 20 s) and cooled to 0 to 1 degree C. At each temperature, five pressures were applied: 69, 138, 207, 276, and 345 kPa. Pressure was controlled with a needle valve at the heat exchanger exit. Both the pressure gauge and pH probe were inline at the end of the holding section. Milk pH during heating depended on CO2 concentration, temperature, and pressure. During heating of milk without added CO2, pH decreased linearly as a function of increasing temperature but was independent of pressure. In general, the pH of milk with added CO2 decreased with increasing CO2 concentration and pressure. For milk with added CO2, at a fixed CO2 concentration, the effect of pressure on pH decrease was greater at a higher temperature. At a fixed temperature, the effect of pressure on pH decrease was greater for milk with a higher CO2 concentration. Thermal death of bacteria during pasteurization of milk without added CO2 is probably due not only to temperature but also to the decrease in pH that occurs during the process. Increasing milk CO2 concentration and pressure decreases the milk pH even further during heating and may further enhance the microbial killing power of pasteurization.

  5. Interactions and exchange of CO2 and H2O in coals: an investigation by low-field NMR relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Yanbin; Liu, Dameng; Elsworth, Derek; Pan, Zhejun

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which CO2 and water interact in coal remain unclear and these are key questions for understanding ECBM processes and defining the long-term behaviour of injected CO2. In our experiments, we injected helium/CO2 to displace water in eight water-saturated samples. We used low-field NMR relaxation to investigate CO2 and water interactions in these coals across a variety of time-scales. The injection of helium did not change the T2 spectra of the coals. In contrast, the T2 spectra peaks of micro-capillary water gradually decreased and those of macro-capillary and bulk water increased with time after the injection of CO2. We assume that the CO2 diffuses through and/or dissolves into the capillary water to access the coal matrix interior, which promotes desorption of water molecules from the surfaces of coal micropores and mesopores. The replaced water mass is mainly related to the Langmuir adsorption volume of CO2 and increases as the CO2 adsorption capacity increases. Other factors, such as mineral composition, temperature and pressure, also influence the effective exchange between water and CO2. Finally, we built a quantified model to evaluate the efficiency of water replacement by CO2 injection with respect to temperature and pressure. PMID:26817784

  6. Interactions and exchange of CO2 and H2O in coals: an investigation by low-field NMR relaxation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxiao; Yao, Yanbin; Liu, Dameng; Elsworth, Derek; Pan, Zhejun

    2016-01-28

    The mechanisms by which CO2 and water interact in coal remain unclear and these are key questions for understanding ECBM processes and defining the long-term behaviour of injected CO2. In our experiments, we injected helium/CO2 to displace water in eight water-saturated samples. We used low-field NMR relaxation to investigate CO2 and water interactions in these coals across a variety of time-scales. The injection of helium did not change the T2 spectra of the coals. In contrast, the T2 spectra peaks of micro-capillary water gradually decreased and those of macro-capillary and bulk water increased with time after the injection of CO2. We assume that the CO2 diffuses through and/or dissolves into the capillary water to access the coal matrix interior, which promotes desorption of water molecules from the surfaces of coal micropores and mesopores. The replaced water mass is mainly related to the Langmuir adsorption volume of CO2 and increases as the CO2 adsorption capacity increases. Other factors, such as mineral composition, temperature and pressure, also influence the effective exchange between water and CO2. Finally, we built a quantified model to evaluate the efficiency of water replacement by CO2 injection with respect to temperature and pressure.

  7. The Role of Laboratory Experiments in the Design of the Field Trial of CO2 Exchange in Methane Hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. J.; Hester, K. C.; Stevens, J.

    2012-12-01

    The recent field trial at the Ignik Sikumi #1 well on the North Slope of Alaska of the CO2 exchange for CH4 in natural gas hydrates was successful in large part due to the extensive planning of the operation that accounted for a wide range of contingencies. Much of the planning was directed by specific laboratory tests of the CO2 exchange mechanism under reservoir conditions. The original laboratory tests of the CO2 exchange process were conducted under idealized conditions of partial initial water saturations, a pure CO2 stream and P-T conditions well into the methane hydrate stability field. The more recent experiments evaluated the role of excess water in the hydrate-saturated sands and the effectiveness of various CO2/N2 gas mixtures in driving the exchange process. There was concern over injecting a hydrate former into a sand interval filled with reactive water that would result in additional hydrate formation at the well face. Since it was not possible to use a pure stream of liquid CO2, gas mixtures provided a solution to the injectivity issue. The laboratory tests demonstrated that the gas mixtures maintained and sometimes enhanced the permeability of the hydrate-saturated sand pack without significant dissociation of the original hydrate. The tests also indicated that the gas mixtures were as efficient and fast in exchanging CO2 for CH4 in the hydrate structure as was the original pure liquid CO2 stream. The experiments with a fiber-optic temperature sensor down the length of the sand pack demonstrated the local nature of the initial hydrate formation and exchange process.

  8. Biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in tundra ecosystems - Community characteristics and relationships with multispectral surface reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.; Bartlett, David S.; Fan, Song-Miao; Bakwin, Peter S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    CO2 exchange rates were measured at selected tundra sites near Bethel, Alaska using portable, climate-controlled, instrumented enclosures. The empirically modeled exchange rate for a representative area of vegetated tundra was 1.2 +/- 1.2 g/sq m/d, compared to a tower-measured exchange over the same time period of 1.1 +.0- 1.2 g/sq m/d. Net exchange in response to varying light levels was compared to wet meadow and dry upland tundra, and to the net exchange measured by the micrometeoroidal tower technique. The multispectral reflectance properties of the sites were measured and related to exchange rates in order to provide a quantitative foundation for the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in the tundra biome.

  9. Long-term CO2 exchange at ICOS supersite in Northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea; Hatakka, Juha; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Penttilä, Timo; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2013-04-01

    The ICOS ecosystem station of Sodankylä is situated in northern Finland (67°21'N, 26°38'E), 100 km north of the Arctic Circle. The Arctic Research Center of Finnish Meteorological Institute offers excellent facilities for the long-term measurements in harsh high-latitude conditions and provides extensive set of supporting environmental measurements. The eddy covariance measurements of CO2 exchange over a Scots pine forest have been running since January 2000 as a part of various EU projects (LAPP, Carboeuroflux, Carboeurope-IP). Presently this station belongs to one of the supersites in the ICOS. Due to the cool and short summer the annual NEE is typically relatively small in most ecosystems at these latitudes. At Sodankylä forest the annual NEE varies from being a sink to being a source of CO2. On the average, the ecosystem has actually acted as a net source of carbon during the recent decade. The tree inventory conducted in the forest, however, suggests that the trees are growing and thus accumulating carbon. In order to understand this discrepancy we have initiated some new studies in the area. One suggested reason for the imbalance is the growth of the reindeer population since 1950s, which has resulted in the disappearance of the thick lichen (Cladonia spp.) cover from the ground. We estimated the influence of this lichen carpet on the soil respiration by installing automatic soil chambers on grazed and ungrazed forest floor on the area which has been partly fenced since 1950s. We also analyzed soil samples from both sides of this fence in order to compare soil carbon content with and without the insulating lichen cover. We have conducted similar soil C survey at the actual flux measurement site twice, in 2004 and 2011, in order to assess the long-term carbon loss from the soil. One possible error source of the flux measurements is the limited fetch of the EC measurements in certain wind directions. In east, the measurement forest is bounded by a peatland

  10. Relationships between CH4 emission, biomass, and CO2 exchange in a subtropical grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Happell, James D.; Bartlett, David S.

    1991-01-01

    Methane flux was linearly correlated with plant biomass (r = 0.97, n = 6 and r = 0.95, n = 8) at two locations in a Florida Everglades Cladium marsh. One location, which had burned 4 months previously, exhibited a greater increase in methane flux as a function of biomass relative to sites at an unburned location. However, methane flux data from both sites fit a single regression (r = 0.94, n = 14) when plotted against net CO2 exchange suggesting that either methanogenesis in Everglades marl sediments is fueled by root exudation below ground, or that factors which enhance photosynthetic production and plant growth are also correlated with methane production and flux in this oligotrophic environment. The data presented are the first to show a direct relationship between spatial variability in plant biomass, net ecosystem production, and methane emission in a natural wetland.

  11. Land-atmosphere CO2 exchange simulated by a land surface process model coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, Gordon B.

    1995-02-01

    CO2 uptake during plant photosynthesis and CO2 loss during plant and microbial respiration were added to a land surface process model to simulate the diurnal and annual cycles of biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange. The model was coupled to a modified version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model version 2 (CCM2), and the coupled model was run for 5 years. The geographic patterns of annual net primary production are qualitatively similar to other models. When compared by vegetation type, annual production and annual microbial respiration are consistent with other models, except for needleleaf evergreen tree vegetation, where production is too high, and semidesert vegetation, where production and microbial respiration are too low. The seasonality of the net CO2 flux agrees with other models in the southern hemisphere and the tropics. The diurnal range is large for photosynthesis and lower for plant and microbial respiration, which agrees with qualitative expectations. The simulation of the central United States is poor due to temperature and precipitation biases in the coupled model. Despite these deficiencies the current approach is a promising means to include terrestrial CO2 fluxes in a climate system model that simulates atmospheric CO2 concentrations, because it alleviates important parameterization discrepancies between standard biogeochemical models and the land surface models typically used in general circulation models, and because the model resolves the diurnal range of CO2 exchange, which can be large (15 - 45 micromol CO2 sq m/s).

  12. A model of the CO2 exchanges between biosphere and atmosphere in the tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labgaa, Rachid R.; Gautier, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    A physical model of the soil thermal regime in a permafrost terrain has been developed and validated with soil temperature measurements at Barrow, Alaska. The model calculates daily soil temperatures as a function of depth and average moisture contents of the organic and mineral layers using a set of five climatic variables, i.e., air temperature, precipitation, cloudiness, wind speed, and relative humidity. The model is not only designed to study the impact of climate change on the soil temperature and moisture regime, but also to provide the input to a decomposition and net primary production model. In this context, it is well known that CO2 exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere are driven by soil temperature through decomposition of soil organic matter and root respiration. However, in tundra ecosystems, net CO2 exchange is extremely sensitive to soil moisture content; therefore it is necessary to predict variations in soil moisture in order to assess the impact of climate change on carbon fluxes. To this end, the present model includes the representation of the soil moisture response to changes in climatic conditions. The results presented in the foregoing demonstrate that large errors in soil temperature and permafrost depth estimates arise from neglecting the dependence of the soil thermal regime on soil moisture contents. Permafrost terrain is an example of a situation where soil moisture and temperature are particularly interrelated: drainage conditions improve when the depth of the permafrost increases; a decrease in soil moisture content leads to a decrease in the latent heat required for the phase transition so that the heat penetrates faster and deeper, and the maximum depth of thaw increases; and as excepted, soil thermal coefficients increase with moisture.

  13. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 with rapidly changing high Arctic landscapes.

    PubMed

    Emmerton, Craig A; St Louis, Vincent L; Humphreys, Elyn R; Gamon, John A; Barker, Joel D; Pastorello, Gilberto Z

    2016-03-01

    High Arctic landscapes are expansive and changing rapidly. However, our understanding of their functional responses and potential to mitigate or enhance anthropogenic climate change is limited by few measurements. We collected eddy covariance measurements to quantify the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 with polar semidesert and meadow wetland landscapes at the highest latitude location measured to date (82°N). We coupled these rare data with ground and satellite vegetation production measurements (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) to evaluate the effectiveness of upscaling local to regional NEE. During the growing season, the dry polar semidesert landscape was a near-zero sink of atmospheric CO2 (NEE: -0.3 ± 13.5 g C m(-2) ). A nearby meadow wetland accumulated over 300 times more carbon (NEE: -79.3 ± 20.0 g C m(-2) ) than the polar semidesert landscape, and was similar to meadow wetland NEE at much more southerly latitudes. Polar semidesert NEE was most influenced by moisture, with wetter surface soils resulting in greater soil respiration and CO2 emissions. At the meadow wetland, soil heating enhanced plant growth, which in turn increased CO2 uptake. Our upscaling assessment found that polar semidesert NDVI measured on-site was low (mean: 0.120-0.157) and similar to satellite measurements (mean: 0.155-0.163). However, weak plant growth resulted in poor satellite NDVI-NEE relationships and created challenges for remotely detecting changes in the cycling of carbon on the polar semidesert landscape. The meadow wetland appeared more suitable to assess plant production and NEE via remote sensing; however, high Arctic wetland extent is constrained by topography to small areas that may be difficult to resolve with large satellite pixels. We predict that until summer precipitation and humidity increases enough to offset poor soil moisture retention, climate-related changes to productivity on polar semideserts may be restricted. PMID:26279166

  14. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mixing ratios for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B.-G. J.; Desai, A. R.; Stephens, B. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Burns, S. P.; Watt, A. S.; Heck, S. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2011-09-01

    There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are difficult to measure often due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport in complex terrain. Using five years of CO2 mixing ratio observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON), five statistical (subsetting) filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mixing ratios. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diurnal variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mixing ratio variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that even when standardized to common subset sizes these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to constrain subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales.

  15. Inter-annual variability in Alaskan net ecosystem CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, Kristina; Lindaas, Jakob; Commane, Roisin; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella; Chang, Rachel; Kelly, Richard; Miller, Charles; Wofsy, Steven; Lin, John

    2015-04-01

    The high-latitude biospheric carbon cycle's responses to climate change are predicted to have an important role in determining future atmospheric concentrations of CO2. In response to warming soil and air temperatures, Arctic wetlands have been observed to increase rates of both soil C efflux and vegetation C uptake through photosynthesis. However, insights into the regional-scale consequences of these processes for net C uptake have been limited by the large uncertainties existing in process-based model estimates of Arctic net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). The Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM) instead provides data-driven, satellite-based estimates of high-latitude NEE, using a framework which specifically accounts for polar influences on NEE. PolarVPRM calculates NEE as the sum of respiration (R) and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE), where GEE refers to the light-dependent portion of NEE: NEE= -GEE + R. Meteorological inputs for PolarVPRM are provided by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), and land surface inputs are acquired from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Growing season R is calculated from air temperature, and subnivean R is calculated according to soil temperature. GEE is calculated according to shortwave radiation, air temperature, and MODIS-derived estimates of soil moisture and vegetation biomass. Previously, model validation has indicated that PolarVPRM showed reasonably good agreement with eddy covariance observations at nine North American Arctic sites, of which three were used for calibration purposes. For this project, PolarVPRM NEE was calculated year-round across Alaska at a three-hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1 6°×1 4° (latitude × longitude). The objective of this work was to gain insight into inter-annual variability in Alaskan NEE, R and GEE, and an understanding of which meteorological and land surface drivers account for these observed patterns

  16. Net uptake of atmospheric CO2 by coastal submerged aquatic vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Tokoro, Tatsuki; Hosokawa, Shinya; Miyoshi, Eiichi; Tada, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Kenta; Montani, Shigeru; Kayanne, Hajime; Kuwae, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    ‘Blue Carbon’, which is carbon captured by marine living organisms, has recently been highlighted as a new option for climate change mitigation initiatives. In particular, coastal ecosystems have been recognized as significant carbon stocks because of their high burial rates and long-term sequestration of carbon. However, the direct contribution of Blue Carbon to the uptake of atmospheric CO2 through air-sea gas exchange remains unclear. We performed in situ measurements of carbon flows, including air-sea CO2 fluxes, dissolved inorganic carbon changes, net ecosystem production, and carbon burial rates in the boreal (Furen), temperate (Kurihama), and subtropical (Fukido) seagrass meadows of Japan from 2010 to 2013. In particular, the air-sea CO2 flux was measured using three methods: the bulk formula method, the floating chamber method, and the eddy covariance method. Our empirical results show that submerged autotrophic vegetation in shallow coastal waters can be functionally a sink for atmospheric CO2. This finding is contrary to the conventional perception that most near-shore ecosystems are sources of atmospheric CO2. The key factor determining whether or not coastal ecosystems directly decrease the concentration of atmospheric CO2 may be net ecosystem production. This study thus identifies a new ecosystem function of coastal vegetated systems; they are direct sinks of atmospheric CO2. PMID:24623530

  17. Water and CO2 Exchange for Different Land Use in Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D. R.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Diaz, M.; Tatsch, J. D.; Acevedo, O. C.; Zimermann, H. R.; Rubert, G. C.; Acosta, R.; Campos Velho, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa is the newest and most unknown Brazilian Biome. It is located in the Southern portion of the country, as well as part of Argentina and the entire Uruguay, and is formed principally by natural grasslands that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock. In recent decades it has gone through a process of intense land use change and degradation, with the replacement of natural vegetation by rice paddy crops, soybean and exotic forests. Recent studies show that the Pampa has only 36% of its original vegetation in Brazil. Research on carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in Pampa Biome are recent. It is known that the Pampa natural areas contain high stocks of soil organic carbon, and therefore their conservation is relevant for climate change mitigation. However, the net exchange of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere are unknown. To fill this gap, a flux tower network, SULFLUX - www.ufsm.br/sulfux, was created. Currently, SULFLUX comprises three flux towers in the Pampa biome, two of them being over natural vegetation and the other one over a rice paddy. The flux towers are nearly 100 km apart from each other. We examine the effects of climate on carbon fluxes of through the year 2014. Analysis of temporal variability in water and CO2 fluxes are examined at daily to annual scales. Overall, regional variability in climatic drivers, land use and soil proprieties appears to have a greater effect on evapotranspiration than on net carbon exchange.

  18. Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange.

    PubMed

    Alden, Caroline B; Miller, John B; Gatti, Luciana V; Gloor, Manuel M; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana S; Correia, Caio S C; Domingues, Lucas G; Joiner, Joanna; Krol, Maarten C; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Peters, Wouter; Shiga, Yoichi P; Thoning, Kirk; van der Velde, Ivar R; van Leeuwen, Thijs T; Yadav, Vineet; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2016-10-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate-carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1-8 × 10(6)  km(2) ) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  19. A clear oscillation of the interlayer exchange coupling in Co2FeAl/Cr/Co2FeAl structure with MgO capping layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jianli; Sha, Lei; Zhang, Delin; Jiang, Yong

    2012-10-01

    We have studied the interlayer exchange coupling in Co2FeAl (CFA)/Cr/CFA/MgO multilayers via both experiments and numerical simulation. Magnetization measurement on the films shows a clear oscillation attenuation behavior with the thickness (0.6 nm < t < 10 nm) of the Cr spacer layer, and the oscillation period is about 2.1 nm. The numerical simulation demonstrates that the interlayer exchange coupling between CFA layers is 90° coupling having an oscillation behavior, which is in good agreement with the experiments. MgO capping layer is supposed to be a key factor for the clear periodic oscillation behavior in CFA/Cr/CFA trilayers.

  20. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire: field measurements and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Karataeva, Tatiana; Zatsarinnaya, Dina; Novenko, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a karst-hole sphagnum peat mire situated at the boundary between broad-leaved and forest-steppe zones in the central part of European Russia (54.06N, 37.59E, 260 m a.s.l.) was described using results of field measurements and simulations with Mixfor-3D model. The area of the mire is about 1.2 ha and it is surrounded by a broadleaved forest stand. It is a typical peat mire according to water and mineral supply as well as to vegetation composition. The vegetation of the peripheral parts of the mire is typical eutrophic whereas the vegetation in its central part is represented by meso-oligothrophic plant communities. To describe the spatial variability of NEE and ET within the mire a portable measuring system consisting of a transparent ventilated chamber combined with an infrared CO2 and H2O analyzer LI-840A (Li-Cor, USA) was used. The measurements were provided along a transect from the southern peripheral part of the mire to its center under sunny clear-sky weather conditions in the period from May to September of 2012 and from May 2013 to October 2013. The chamber method was used for measurements of NEE and ET fluxes because of small size of the mire, a very uniform surrounding forest stand and the mosaic mire vegetation. All these factors promote very heterogeneous exchange conditions within the mire and make it difficult to apply, for example, an eddy covariance method that is widely used for flux measurements in the field. The results of the field measurements showed a significant spatial and temporal variability of NEE and ET that was mainly influenced by incoming solar radiation, air temperature and ground water level. During the entire growing season the central part of the mire was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere (up to 6.8±4.2 µmol m-2 s-1 in June) whereas its peripheral part, due to strong shading by the surrounding forest, was mainly a source of

  1. Seasonal variations of net CO2 exchange in European Arctic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, T.; Soegaard, H.; Lloyd, C. R.; Aurela, M.; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Nordstroem, C.

    The carbon dioxide exchange in arctic and subarctic terrestrial ecosystems has been measured using the eddy-covariance method at sites representing the latitudinal and longitudinal extremes of the European Arctic sea areas as part of the Land Arctic Physical Processes (LAPP) project. The sites include two fen (Kaamanen and Kevo) and one mountain birch ecosystems in subarctic northern Finland (69°N) fen, heathland, and snowbed willow ecosystems in northeastern Greenland (74°N) and a polar semidesert site in Svalbard (79°N). The measurement results, which are given as weekly average diurnal cycles, show the striking seasonal development of the net CO2 fluxes. The seasonal periods important for the net CO2 fluxes, i.e. winter, thaw, pre-leaf, summer, and autumn can be identified from measurements of the physical environment, such as temperature, albedo, and greenness. During the late winter period continuous efflux is observed at the permafrost-free Kaamanen site. At the permafrost sites, efflux begins during the thaw period, which lasts about 3-5 weeks, in contrast to the Kaamanen site where efflux continues at the same rate as during the winter. Seasonal efflux maximum is during the pre-leaf period, which lasts about 2-5 weeks. The summer period lasts 6 weeks in NE Greenland but 10-14 weeks in northern Finland. During a high summer week, the mountain birch ecosystem had the highest gross photosynthetic capacity, GPmax, followed by the fen ecosystems. The polar semidesert ecosystem had the lowest GPmax. By the middle of August, noon uptake fluxes start to decrease as the solar elevation angle decreases and senescence begins within the vascular plants. At the end of the autumn period, which lasts 2-5 weeks, topsoil begins to freeze at the end of August in Svalbard; at the end of September at sites in eastern Greenland; and one month later at sites in northern Finland.

  2. Biophysical controls on net ecosystem CO2 exchange over a semiarid shrubland in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, X.; Zha, T. S.; Wu, B.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Gong, J. N.; Qin, S. G.; Chen, G. P.; Kellomäki, S.; Peltola, H.

    2014-03-01

    The carbon (C) cycling in semiarid and arid areas remains largely unexplored, despite the wide distribution of drylands globally. Rehabilitation practices have been carried out in many desertified areas, but information on the C sequestration potential of recovering vegetation is still largely lacking. Using the eddy-covariance technique, we measured the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) over a recovering shrub ecosystem in northwest China throughout 2012 in order to (1) quantify NEE and its components, (2) examine the dependence of C fluxes on biophysical factors at multiple timescales. The annual budget showed a gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) of 456 ± 8 g C m-2 yr-1 and an ecosystem respiration (Re) of 379 ± 3 g C m-2 yr-1, resulting in a net C sink of 77 ± 7 g C m-2 yr-1. The maximum daily NEE, GEP and Re were -4.7, 6.8 and 3.3 g C m-2 day-1, respectively. Both the maximum C assimilation rate (i.e., at optimum light intensity) and the quantum yield varied strongly over the growing season, being higher in summer and lower in spring and autumn. At the half-hourly scale, water stress exerted a major control over daytime NEE, and interacted with heat stress and photoinhibition in constraining C fixation by the vegetation. Low soil moisture also reduced the temperature sensitivity of Re (Q10). At the synoptic scale, rain events triggered immediate pulses of C release from the ecosystem, followed by peaks of CO2 uptake 1-2 days later. Over the entire growing season, leaf area index accounted for 45 and 65% of the seasonal variation in NEE and GEP, respectively. There was a linear dependence of daily Re on GEP, with a slope of 0.34. These results highlight the role of abiotic stresses and their alleviation in regulating C cycling in the face of an increasing frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events.

  3. CO2 Exchange in a Methane Hydrate Reservoir: Ignik Sikumi #1 Alaska Field Trial Operations and Summary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, K. C.; Farrell, H.; Howard, J. J.; Martin, K.; Raterman, K.; Schoderbek, D.; Smith, B.; Silpngarmlert, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the winter of 2012, a CO2 exchange field trial was performed at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of CO2 hydrate exchange technology, developed in the laboratory, on a natural methane hydrate-bearing reservoir. This included verifying the chemical exchange of CO2 with methane in addition to maintaining injectivity. Drilled in 2011, the Ignik Sikumi #1 well was perforated in February 2012. The pilot was designed as a 'huff and puff' style test where a single well is used first for injection then followed with production. The target for the test was a 10 m sand zone estimated to contain 70-80% hydrate saturation. For 13 days, over 5600 m3 of a CO2 mixture (77mol% N2, 23 mol% CO2) were injected in the hydrate-bearing interval. Injectivity was maintained over this period. Following injection, flow back commenced over a 30 day period. The production started by maintaining a bottom hole pressure above the dissociation pressure above methane hydrate. At later times, the bottom hole pressure was lowered causing both pore space fluids to be produced along with dissociation of non-exchanged original methane hydrate. In total, over 23,700 m3 of methane was produced over the production period.

  4. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B.-G. J.; Desai, A. R.; Stephens, B. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Burns, S. P.; Watt, A. S.; Heck, S. L.; Sweeney, C.

    2012-02-01

    There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON), five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  5. Towards a consistent approach of measuring and modelling CO2 exchange with manual chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Vytas; Vaidya, Shrijana; Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Günther, Anke; Gundlach, Laura; Hagemann, Ulrike; Elsgaard, Lars; Augustin, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Determining ecosystem CO2 exchange with the manual closed chamber method has been applied in the past for e.g. plant, soil or treatment on a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. Its major limitation is the discontinuous data acquisation challenging any gap-filling procedures. In addition, both data acquisition and gap-filling of closed chamber data have been carried out in different ways in the past. The reliability and comparability of the derived results from different closed chamber studies has therefore remained unclear. Hence, this study compares two different approaches of obtaining fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) either via sunrise to noon or via gradually-shaded mid-day measurements of transparent chamber fluxes (i.e. net ecosystem exchange, NEE) and opaque chamber fluxes (i.e., ecosystem respiration, RECO) on a field experiment plot in NE Germany cropped with a lucerne-clover-grass mix. Additionally, we compare three approaches of pooling RECO data for consecutive modelling of annual balances of NEE, i.e. campaign-wise (single measurement day RECO models), seasonal-wise (one RECO model for the entire study period), and cluster-wise (two RECO models representing low-/high-vegetation-stage data) modelling. The annual NEE balances of the sunrise to noon measurements are insensitive towards differing RECO modelling approaches (-101 to -131 g C m-2), whereas the choice of modelling annual NEE balances with the shaded mid-day measurements must be taken carefully (-200 to 425 g C m-2). In addition, the campaign-wise RECO modelling approach is very sensitive to daily data pooling (sunrise vs. mid-day) and only advisable when the diurnal variability of CO2 fluxes and environmental parameters (i.e. photosynthetically active radiation, temperature) is sufficiently covered. The seasonal- and cluster-wise approaches lead to robust NEE balances with only little variation in terms of daily data collection. We therefore recommend sunrise to noon measurements and

  6. Towards a consistent approach of measuring and modelling CO2 exchange with manual chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Vytas; Vaidya, Shrijana; Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Günther, Anke; Gundlach, Laura; Hagemann, Ulrike; Elsgaard, Lars; Augustin, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Determining ecosystem CO2 exchange with the manual closed chamber method has been applied in the past for e.g. plant, soil or treatment on a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. Its major limitation is the discontinuous data acquisation challenging any gap-filling procedures. In addition, both data acquisition and gap-filling of closed chamber data have been carried out in different ways in the past. The reliability and comparability of the derived results from different closed chamber studies has therefore remained unclear. Hence, this study compares two different approaches of obtaining fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) either via sunrise to noon or via gradually-shaded mid-day measurements of transparent chamber fluxes (i.e. net ecosystem exchange, NEE) and opaque chamber fluxes (i.e., ecosystem respiration, RECO) on a field experiment plot in NE Germany cropped with a lucerne-clover-grass mix. Additionally, we compare three approaches of pooling RECO data for consecutive modelling of annual balances of NEE, i.e. campaign-wise (single measurement day RECO models), seasonal-wise (one RECO model for the entire study period), and cluster-wise (two RECO models representing low-/high-vegetation-stage data) modelling. The annual NEE balances of the sunrise to noon measurements are insensitive towards differing RECO modelling approaches (-101 to -131 g C m‑2), whereas the choice of modelling annual NEE balances with the shaded mid-day measurements must be taken carefully (-200 to 425 g C m‑2). In addition, the campaign-wise RECO modelling approach is very sensitive to daily data pooling (sunrise vs. mid-day) and only advisable when the diurnal variability of CO2 fluxes and environmental parameters (i.e. photosynthetically active radiation, temperature) is sufficiently covered. The seasonal- and cluster-wise approaches lead to robust NEE balances with only little variation in terms of daily data collection. We therefore recommend sunrise to noon measurements

  7. Environment and phenology: CO2 net ecosystem exchange and CO2 flux partitioning at an acid and oligotrophic mire system in northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gažovič, Michal; Peichl, Matthias; Vermeij, Ilse; Limpens, Juul; Nilsson, Mats. B.

    2015-04-01

    Static chamber and environmental measurements in combination with vegetation indices (i.e. vascular green area (VGA) and the greenness chromatic color index (gcc) derived from digital camera images) were used to investigate effects of environment and phenology on the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and CO2 flux partitioning at the Degerö Stormyr site in northern Sweden (64°11' 23.565" N, 19°33' 55.291 E) during two environmentally different years. Our measurement design included a control plot, a moss plot (where vascular plants were removed by clipping) and four heterotrophic respiration (RH) collars (where all green moss and vascular plant biomass were removed) to partition between soil heterotrophic and plant autotrophic (moss and vascular plants) respiration (RA), as well as between moss and vascular plant gross primary production (GPP). Environmental conditions, especially the shallow snow cover, peat soil frost and cold spring in 2014 caused delayed onset of spring green up, reduced soil respiration flux and reduced GPP of vascular plants. Soil temperature measured in 26 cm depth started to rise from spring temperatures of ~ 0.6 °C in 2013 and 0.15 °C in 2014 about 20 days earlier in 2013 compared to 2014. With earlier onset of the growing season and higher soil temperatures in 2013, heterotrophic soil respiration was higher in year 2013 than in year 2014. In 2013, RH dominated the total ecosystem respiration in all months but June and August. On contrary, autotrophic respiration dominated ecosystem respiration in all months of 2014. In both years, vascular plants and mosses were more or less equally contributing to autotrophic respiration. We measured higher GPP in year 2013 compared to year 2014. Also VGA and gcc were higher in spring and throughout the rest of 2013 compared to 2014. The onset of VGA was delayed by ~ 10 days in 2014. In general, total GPP was dominated by GPP of vascular plants in both years, although moss GPP had substantial

  8. Effects of episodic flooding on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a supratidal wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guangxuan; Chu, Xiaojing; Xing, Qinghui; Li, Dejun; Yu, Junbao; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Guangmei; Mao, Peili; Rafique, Rashad

    2015-08-01

    Episodic flooding due to intense rainfall events is characteristic in many wetlands, which may modify wetland-atmosphere exchange of CO2. However, the degree to which episodic flooding affects net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is poorly documented in supratidal wetlands of coastal zone, where rainfall-driven episodic flooding often occurs. To address this issue, the ecosystem CO2 fluxes were continuously measured using the eddy covariance technique for 4 years (2010-2013) in a supratidal wetland in the Yellow River Delta. Our results showed that over the growing season, the daily average uptake in the supratidal wetland was -1.4, -1.3, -1.0, and -1.3 g C m-2 d-1 for 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. On the annual scale, the supratidal wetland functioned as a strong sink for atmospheric CO2, with the annual NEE of -223, -164, and -247 g C m-2 yr-1 for 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The mean diurnal pattern of NEE exhibited a smaller range of variation before episodic flooding than after it. Episodic flooding reduced the average daytime net CO2 uptake and the maximum rates of photosynthesis. In addition, flooding clearly suppressed the nighttime CO2 release from the wetland but increased its temperature sensitivity. Therefore, effects of episodic flooding on the direction and magnitude of NEE should be considered when predicting the ecosystem responses to future climate change in supratidal wetlands.

  9. Inter-annual variability of summertime CO2 exchange in Northern Eurasia inferred from GOSAT XCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, M.; Mabuchi, K.; Shirai, T.; Inoue, M.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Yoshida, Y.; Belikov, D.; Maksyutov, S.

    2016-10-01

    Northern Eurasia is one of the largest terrestrial carbon reservoirs on the Earth’s surface. However, since the coverage of surface CO2 observations is still limited, the response to the climate variability remains uncertain. We estimated monthly CO2 fluxes for three sub-regions in Northern Eurasia (north of ∼60°N), Northeastern Europe, Western Siberia and Eastern Siberia, using CO2 retrievals from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The variations of estimated CO2 fluxes were examined in terms of the regional climate variability, for the three consecutive growing seasons of 2009–2011. The CO2 fluxes estimated using GOSAT data are highly correlated with the surface temperature anomalies in July and August (r > 0.8) while no correlation is found in the CO2 fluxes estimated only using surface observations. The estimated fluxes from GOSAT data exhibit high negative correlations with one-month lagged positive precipitation anomalies in late summer (r > ‑0.7) through surface temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The results indicate that GOSAT data reflects the changes in terrestrial biospheric processes responding to climate anomalies. In 2010, a large part of Eurasia experienced an extremely hot and dry summer, while cold and wet weather conditions were recorded in Western Siberia. The CO2 fluxes estimated from GOSAT data showed a reduction of net CO2 uptake in Northeastern Europe and Eastern Siberia, but the enhancement of net CO2 uptake in Western Siberia. These opposite sub-regional flux anomalies can be explained by the different climate anomalies on a sub-regional scale in Northern Eurasia. Thus, this study demonstrates that space-based observations by GOSAT compensate for the lack of ground-based observational coverage so as to better capture the inter-annually varying atmosphere-terrestrial biosphere CO2 exchange on a regional scale.

  10. Plant functional types define magnitude of drought response in peatland CO2 exchange.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Jan J; Mooij, Wolf M; Bragazza, Luca; Robroek, Bjorn J M

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands are important sinks for atmospheric carbon (C), yet the role of plant functional types (PFTs) for C sequestration under climatic perturbations is still unclear. A plant-removal experiment was used to study the importance of vascular PFTs for the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) during (i.e., resistance) and after (i.e., recovery) an experimental drought. The removal of PFTs caused a decrease of NEE, but the rate differed between microhabitats (i.e., hummocks and lawns) and the type of PFTs. Ericoid removal had a large effect on NEE in hummocks, while the graminoids played a major role in the lawns. The removal of PFTs did not affect the resistance or the recovery after the experimental drought. We argue that the response of Sphagnum mosses (the only PFT present in all treatments) to drought is dominant over that of coexisting PFTs. However, we observed that the moment in time when the system switched from C sink to C source during the drought was controlled by the vascular PFTs. In the light of climate change, the shifts in species composition or even the loss of certain PFTs are expected to strongly affect the future C dynamics in response to environmental stress. PMID:24649652

  11. On the Global Oxygen Anomaly and Air-Sea Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hernan E.; Keeling, Ralph F.

    2001-01-01

    A new climatology of monthly air-sea oxygen fluxes throughout the ice-free surface global ocean is presented. The climatology is based on weighted linear least squares regressions using heat flux monthly anomalies for spatial and temporal interpolation of historical O2 data. The seasonal oceanic variations show that the tropical belt (20 S - 20 N) is characterized by relatively small air-sea fluxes when compared to the middle to high latitudes (40 deg - 70 deg). The largest and lowest seasonal fluxes occur during summer and winter in both hemispheres. By means of an atmospheric transport model we show that our climatology is in better agreement with the observed amplitude and phasing of the variations in atmospheric O2/N2 ratios because of seasonal air-sea exchanges at baseline stations in the Pacific Ocean than with previous air-sea O2 climatologies. Our study indicates that the component of the air-sea O2 flux that correlates with heat flux dominates the large-scale air-sea O2 exchange on seasonal timescales. The contribution of each major oceanic basin to the atmospheric observations is described. The seasonal net thermal (SNO(sub T)) and biological (SNO(sub B)) outgassing components of the flux are examined in relation to latitudinal bands, basin-wide, and hemispheric contributions. The Southern Hemisphere's SNO(sub B) (approximately 0.26 Pmol) and SNO(sub T) (approximately 0.29 Pmol) values are larger than the Northern Hemisphere's SNO(sub B) (approximately 0.15 Pmol) and SNO(sub T) (approximately 0.16 Pmol) values (1 Pmol = 10(exp 15) mol). We estimate a global extratropical carbon new production during the outgassing season of 3.7 Pg C (1 Pg = 10(exp 15) g), lower than previous estimates with air-sea O2 climatologies.

  12. CO2 exchange of CAM exhibiting succulents in the southern Namib desert in relation to microclimate and water stress.

    PubMed

    Von Willert, D J; Brinckmann, E; Eller, B M; Scheitler, B

    1983-09-01

    The responses of CO2 exchange and overnight malate accumulation of leaf and stem succulent CAM-plants to water stress and the particular climatic conditions of fog and föhn in the southern Namib desert have been investigated. In most of the investigated CAM plants a long term water stress gradually attenuated any uptake of external CO2 and led to CO2 release throughout day and night. No CAM-idling was observed. Rainfall or irrigation immediately restored daytime CO2 uptake while the recovery of the nocturnal CO2 uptake was delayed. Dawn peak of photosynthesis was only found in well watered plants but was markedly reduced by the short term water stress of a föhn-storm. Morning fog with its higher diffuse light intensity compared with clear days increased photosynthetic CO2 uptake considerably. Even in well watered plants nocturnal CO2 uptake and malate accumulation were strongly affected by föhn indicating that the water vapour pressure deficit during the night determines the degree of acidification.

  13. Structure, exchange stiffness, and magnetic anisotropy of Co2MnAlxSi1-x Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Takahide; Hamrle, Jaroslav; Sakuraba, Yuya; Gaier, Oksana; Oogane, Mikihiko; Sakuma, Akimasa; Hillebrands, Burkard; Takanashi, Koki; Ando, Yasuo

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated the exchange constant A (exchange stiffness D) and the magnetic anisotropy of Co2MnAlxSi1-x (CMAS) Heusler compounds as a function of the film composition. In case of Co2MnSi, A was found to be 23.5 pJ/m (D =5.86 meV nm2). Furthermore, A decreased with an increase in the Al content x. In the case of Co2MnAl, it was found to be 4.8 pJ/m (D =1.90 meV nm2). Finally, the cubic anisotropy constant K1 of CMAS films was found to be small (below 10 kJ/m3) and did not exhibit simple dependence on x.

  14. CO2 and H2O Vapor Exchanges across Growing Seasons in Rainfed Corn-Soybean Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dynamics of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2O (water) vapor exchanges above corn and soybean canopies in rainfed environments provide insights into how these cropping systems respond to the combination of management and meteorological conditions. There is limited information on the C (carbon) dynamics in...

  15. Biophysical controls on net ecosystem CO2 exchange over a semiarid shrubland in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, X.; Zha, T. S.; Wu, B.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Gong, J. N.; Qin, S. G.; Chen, G. P.; Qian, D.; Kellomäki, S.; Peltola, H.

    2014-09-01

    The carbon (C) cycling in semiarid and arid areas remains largely unexplored, despite the wide distribution of drylands globally. Rehabilitation practices have been carried out in many desertified areas, but information on the C sequestration capacity of recovering vegetation is still largely lacking. Using the eddy-covariance technique, we measured the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) over a recovering shrub ecosystem in northwest China throughout 2012 in order to (1) quantify NEE and its components and to (2) examine the dependence of C fluxes on biophysical factors at multiple timescales. The annual budget showed a gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) of 456 g C m-2 yr-1 (with a 90% prediction interval of 449-463 g C m-2 yr-1) and an ecosystem respiration (Re) of 379 g C m-2 yr-1 (with a 90% prediction interval of 370-389 g C m-2 yr-1), resulting in a net C sink of 77 g C m-2 yr-1 (with a 90% prediction interval of 68-87 g C m-2 yr-1). The maximum daily NEE, GEP and Re were -4.7, 6.8 and 3.3 g C m-2 day-1, respectively. Both the maximum C assimilation rate (i.e., at the optimum light intensity) and the quantum yield varied over the growing season, being higher in summer and lower in spring and autumn. At the half-hourly scale, water deficit exerted a major control over daytime NEE, and interacted with other stresses (e.g., heat and photoinhibition) in constraining C fixation by the vegetation. Low soil moisture also reduced the temperature sensitivity of Re (Q10). At the synoptic scale, rain events triggered immediate pulses of C release from the ecosystem, followed by peaks of CO2 uptake 1-2 days later. Over the entire growing season, leaf area index accounted for 45 and 65% of the seasonal variation in NEE and GEP, respectively. There was a linear dependence of daily Re on GEP, with a slope of 0.34. These results highlight the role of abiotic stresses and their alleviation in regulating C cycling in the face of an increasing frequency and intensity of extreme

  16. Improved method for measuring the apparent CO2 photocompensation point resolves the impact of multiple internal conductances to CO2 to net gas exchange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been growing concern about methods used to measure the CO2 photocompensation point, a vital parameter to model leaf photosynthesis. the CO2 photocompensation point is often measured as the common intercept of several CO2 response curves, but this method may over-estimate the CO2 photocompe...

  17. Response of potato gas exchange and productivity to phosphorus deficiency and CO2 enrichment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The degree to which crops respond to atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment (CO2) may be influenced by their nutrition level. While the majority of CO2 and plant nutrition studies focus on nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is also required in relatively high amounts for important crops such as potato. To de...

  18. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene and β-pinene for rosemary and α-pinene, linalool and β-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 μg Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 μg C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 μmol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 μg C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  19. The impact of land use on the net ecosystem CO2 exchanges in the West African Sudanian Savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauder, Matthias; Quansah, Emmanuel; Annor, Thompson; Balogun, Ahmed A.; Amekudzi, Leonard K.; Bliefernicht, Jan; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The land surface in West Africa has been considerably changed within the past decade due to various anthropogenic measures such as an increased agricultural activity. However, the impact of these land use changes on land-atmosphere exchange processes such as net ecosystems exchange is not well known for this highly vulnerable region. To tackle this problem, the effects of land use on the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) along a transect of three contrasting ecosystems have been investigated on seasonal and annual time scales using the Eddy Covariance method. The ecosystems were grassland (GL), a mixture of fallow and cropland (CR) in the Upper East Region of Ghana, and a nature reserve (NR) near Pô in the Nahouri Province of Burkina Faso. The results for January to December 2013 showed that the ecosystems of the three sites served as net sinks of CO2 during the rainy season (May to October) and net sources of CO2 during the dry season (November to April). However, NR was a net sink of CO2 during the wet to dry transition period (November to December). On an annual timescale, only NR served as a net sink of CO2 from the atmosphere into the ecosystem, while the others were net sources of CO2 into the atmosphere. Furthermore, the study revealed that the three contrasting ecosystems responded to environmental and physiological factors based on the ecosystem functional types. This suggests that land use and land use management may play a significant role in the diurnal to annual sequestration and efflux patterns of NEE and its composite fluxes, gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), over the West African Sudanian Savannas.

  20. Effects of lung volume and O2 and CO2 content on cutaneous gas exchange in frogs.

    PubMed

    Malvin, G M; Hlastala, M P

    1986-11-01

    The effects of lung O2 and CO2 content and volume on cutaneous gas exchange and perfusion were investigated in the frog, Rana pipiens. (Ha)-anesthetized frogs were equilibrated with 9.5% Freon-22 (Fr, chlorodifluoromethane) and 1.1% Ha. Cutaneous elimination of Fr, Ha, and CO2 into a small sample chamber on the abdomen was measured with a mass spectrometer. Introducing an air mixture into the lung decreased cutaneous Fr, Ha, and CO2 elimination. Lung inflation with an O2 mixture decreased cutaneous gas elimination more than with the air mixture. Inflation with a N2 mixture had no effect. The response to lung inflation with the air mixture was not affected by adding 4.8% CO2 to the air mixture or by atropine. Voluntary lung ventilation decreased CO2 and Fr elimination. The results indicate that intrapulmonary O2 is a factor regulating skin breathing. If a change in lung volume is also a factor, it requires a concomitant change in lung O2. Intrapulmonary CO2 and cholinergic nerves are not involved in cutaneous respiration across the abdomen.

  1. Estimating gas exchange of CO2 and CH4 between headwater systems and the atmosphere in Southwest Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somlai, Celia; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Bastviken, David; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying the role of inland water systems in terms of carbon sinks and sources and their connection to the terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes is fundamental for improving the balance approach of regional and global carbon budgets. Recent research showed that freshwater bodies emit significant amounts of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere. The extent of the emissions from small streams and headwaters, however, remains uncertain due to a limited availability of data. Studies have shown that headwater systems receive most of the terrestrial organic carbon, have the highest dissolved CO2 concentration and the highest gas exchange velocities and cover the largest fractional surface area within fluvial networks. The gas exchange between inland waters and the atmosphere is controlled by two factors: the difference between the dissolved gas concentration and its atmospheric equilibrium concentration, and the gas exchange velocity. The direct measurement of the dissolved gas concentration of greenhouse gases can be measured straightforwardly, for example, by gas chromatography from headspace extraction of water sample. In contrast, direct measurement of gas exchange velocity is more complex and time consuming, as simultaneous measurements with a volatile and nonvolatile inert tracer gas are needed. Here we analyze measurements of gas exchange velocities, concentrations and fluxes of dissolved CO2 and CH4, as well as loads of total organic and inorganic carbon in 10 reaches in headwater streams in Southwest Sweden. We compare the gas exchange velocities measured directly through tracer injections with those estimated through various empirical approaches, which are based on modelled and measured current velocity, stream depth and slope. Furthermore, we estimate the resulting uncertainties of the flux estimates. We also present different time series of dissolved CO2, CH4 and O2 concentration, water temperature, barometric pressure, electro conductivity, and pH values

  2. Patterns and controls of CO2 exchange from developed land in the mid-continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, J. P.; Balogun, A. A.; Bauer, M. E.; Peters, E. B.; Wu, J.

    2006-12-01

    The rate at which wildlands and croplands are being developed for human settlement in the Unites States currently exceeds population growth by a factor of two to four. In the mid-continental U.S., the region of the first NACP intensive experiment, the area occupied by traditionally defined urban areas (cities and towns) is 4%, whereas the area covered by relatively lower density residential development is approximately 11% (Radeloff et al. 2005). Developed land areas represent major sources of CO2 and other radiatively- important trace gases due to the concentration of human activities that consume fossil fuels. However, they are also ecosystems with significant tree cover and green spaces that take up CO2 and soils that release CO2. Direct measurements are needed to quantify the land-based sources and sinks of CO2 in developed areas, especially lower density residential land, which is the type that accounts for most of the land- use change. Scaling CO2 exchange from developed land up to heterogeneous regions (10's to 100's of km) requires the integration of continuous in-situ measurements, biophysical models, and remote sensing. We measured CO2, water vapor, and energy fluxes using the eddy covariance technique on a 170-m tall radio transmission tower above a suburban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN. We made concurrent measurements from a mobile tower over an un-irrigated, experimental turfgrass field that is similar to residential lawns in the study area. A preliminary land-cover classification using an new treatment of shadow areas was developed using QuickBird imagery from 2003. A suite of biophysical measurements was made at 7-10 day intervals on a replicated set of sample locations stratified by land cover type. Results from the 2006 growing season showed that seasonal drought and temperature both strongly modulated CO2 exchange, varying from net uptake of 0.79 g m^-2 d^-^1 under mesic conditions to net loss of 1.56 g m^-2 d^-^1 under

  3. Periodic ventilation: Consequences for the bodily CO2 stores and gas exchange efficiency.

    PubMed

    Malte, Christian Lind; Malte, Hans; Wang, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Using a mathematical model of CO2 transport, we investigated the underlying cause of why and to what extent periodic ventilation is less efficient for CO2 excretion/elimination compared to continuous/tidal ventilation leading to elevated CO2 stores unless mean alveolar minute ventilation () is elevated. The model predicts that the reduced efficiency of periodic ventilation is intrinsic to the sequential arrangement and differences in the relative storage capacities (product of size and CO2 capacitance coefficient) of the lungs, blood and tissues that leads to predominant blood and tissue storage during apnoeic periods. Consequently, overall CO2 transport becomes more prone to perfusion and diffusion limitation during periodic ventilation. At constant cardiac output (Q.) inefficiency will increase with the apnoeic duration (tap) concomitant with increasing blood and tissues CO2 storage and with the relative time spent apnoeic (tap/tcyc) due to increasing V.A/Q. mismatch. Conversely, temporal variation of Q. to better match V.A can reduce inefficiency radically. Thus such adjustment in blood flow is necessary for efficient CO2 elimination in periodic ventilation.

  4. Geospatial variability of soil CO2-C exchange in the main terrestrial ecosystems of Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Thomazini, A; Francelino, M R; Pereira, A B; Schünemann, A L; Mendonça, E S; Almeida, P H A; Schaefer, C E G R

    2016-08-15

    Soils and vegetation play an important role in the carbon exchange in Maritime Antarctica but little is known on the spatial variability of carbon processes in Antarctic terrestrial environments. The objective of the current study was to investigate (i) the soil development and (ii) spatial variability of ecosystem respiration (ER), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), soil temperature (ST) and soil moisture (SM) under four distinct vegetation types and a bare soil in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, as follows: site 1: moss-turf community; site 2: moss-carpet community; site 3: phanerogamic antarctic community; site 4: moss-carpet community (predominantly colonized by Sanionia uncinata); site 5: bare soil. Soils were sampled at different layers. A regular 40-point (5×8 m) grid, with a minimum separation distance of 1m, was installed at each site to quantify the spatial variability of carbon exchange, soil moisture and temperature. Vegetation characteristics showed closer relation with soil development across the studied sites. ER reached 2.26μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1) in site 3, where ST was higher (7.53°C). A greater sink effect was revealed in site 4 (net uptake of 1.54μmolCO2m(-2)s(-1)) associated with higher SM (0.32m(3)m(-3)). Spherical models were fitted to describe all experimental semivariograms. Results indicate that ST and SM are directly related to the spatial variability of CO2 exchange. Heterogeneous vegetation patches showed smaller range values. Overall, poorly drained terrestrial ecosystems act as CO2 sink. Conversely, where ER is more pronounced, they are associated with intense soil carbon mineralization. The formations of new ice-free areas, depending on the local soil drainage condition, have an important effect on CO2 exchange. With increasing ice/snow melting, and resulting widespread waterlogging, increasing CO2 sink in terrestrial ecosystems is expected for Maritime Antarctica. PMID:27110991

  5. Quantifying and Reducing Uncertainty in Eddy Covariance CO2 Exchange Estimates With Large Data Gaps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur, J. J.; Arain, M. A.; Peichl, M.

    2009-05-01

    Roving eddy covariance (rEC) applications involve cycling a single, portable rEC system through numerous ecosystems of interest at frequencies of weeks to months. This approach provides capability to measure energy, water and carbon exchanges in many more ecosystems with minimum resources. This approach has been adopted at many flux stations with multiple towers or sites. However, data gaps introduce large uncertainty when sums of annual exchanges are estimated from these measurements. Quantifying reliable carbon uptake/loss estimates, and reducing uncertainty is challenging. Analyses were performed with 5 years of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements made over an age-sequence of managed eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) forests in southern Ontario, Canada. Measurements and synthetic data produced from a permanent closed-path EC system at the 70-year-old site were used to assess uncertainty on annual NEE sums caused by open-path rEC operation at three younger sites (35, 20 and 7 years old). Data was removed both randomly (to simulate short gaps due to typical EC operation), and systematically (to simulate 2-week to 2-month long gaps associated with rEC operation). Numerous gap scenarios were created, with annual data coverage ranging from 35 to 70%. Both Ameriflux Howland (HOW) and Fluxnet Canada Research Network (FCRN) gap-filling models were applied to the gapped-data to produce annual NEE estimates. Both gap-filling methods estimated a baseline uncertainty of ± 25 g C m-2 yr-1, that was associated with short gaps from regular EC operation only. However, when applied to datasets with long rEC gaps, a large discrepancy in gap-filling model performance was evident. The HOW method produced much less overall uncertainty (± 30 to 45 g C m-2 yr-1) in annual sums than the FCRN method (± 45 to > 200 g C m-2 yr-1). Uncertainty in annual sums increased with increases to overall gap frequency and length, as a result of inadequate parameterization of gap

  6. Rate of disappearance of labeled carbon dioxide from the lungs of humans during breath holding: a method for studying the dynamics of pulmonary CO2 exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Richard W.; Puy, Ricardo J. M.; Raub, William F.; Forster, Robert E.

    1968-01-01

    The dynamics of CO2 exchange in the lungs of man was studied by observing the rate of disappearance of a stable isotope of CO2 (13CO2) from the alveolar gas during breath holding. Over 50% of the inspired isotope disappeared within the first 3 sec followed by a moderately rapid logarithmic decline in which one-half of the remaining 13CO2 disappeared every 10 sec. The large initial disappearance of 13CO2 indicated that alveolar 13CO2 equilibrated in less than 3 sec with the CO2 stored in the pulmonary tissues and capillary blood. The volume of CO2 in the pulmonary tissues calculated from this initial disappearance was 200 ml or 0.33 ml of CO2 per milliliter of pulmonary tissue volume. The alveolar to end-capillary gradient for 13CO2 was calculated by comparing the simultaneous disappearance rates of 13CO2 and acetylene. At rest and during exercise this gradient for 13CO2 was either very small or not discernible, and diffusing capacity for CO2 (DLCO2) exceeded 200 ml/(min × mm Hg). After the administration of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor the rate of disappearance of 13CO2 decreased markedly. DLCO2 fell to 42 ml/(min × mm Hg) and at least 70% of the exchange of 13CO2 with the CO2 stores in the pulmonary tissues and blood was blocked by the inhibitor. These changes were attributed to impairment of exchange of 13CO2 with the bicarbonate in the pulmonary tissues and blood. The pH of the pulmonary tissues (Vtis) was determined by a method based on the premise that the CO2 space in the pulmonary tissues blocked by the inhibitor represented total bicarbonate content. At an alveolar PCO2 of 40 mm Hg pH of Vtis equalled 6.97 ± 0.09. PMID:5658586

  7. Effect of nano-silica spheres template on CO2 capture of exchange resin-based nanoporous carbons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a nanoporous carbon-based adsorbent with a higher specific surface area was directly prepared from polystyrene-based cation exchange resin (PCER) by carbonization of a mixture of nano-silica spheres. The silica/PCER composites were carbonized at 1173 K with different silica/PCER ratios. The effects of nano-silica spheres content on the pore structures of nanoporous carbons were investigated by N2 full isotherms. The CO2 capture capacity was measured by CO2 isothermal adsorption at 298 K and 1 bar. From the results, it was found that the nano-silica spheres/PCER ratio had a major influence on the CO2 capture capacity and the textural properties of the prepared nanoporous carbons. The specific surface area and total pore volume, as well as the pore size of the nanoporous carbons increased with increasing silica/PCER ratio. PMID:23646745

  8. Application of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer vegetation index to study atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, I. Y.; Tucker, C. J.; Prentice, K. C.

    1987-01-01

    Normalized difference vegetation indices derived from radiances measured by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer were used to prescribe the phasing of terrestrial photosynthesis. The satellite data were combined with field data on soil respiration and a global map of net primary productivity to obtain the seasonal exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. The monthly fluxes of CO2 thus obtained were employed as source/sink functions in a global three-dimensional atmospheric tracer transport model to simulate the annual oscillations of CO2 in the atmosphere. The results demonstrate that satellite data of high spatial and temporal resolution can be used to provide quantitative information about seasonal and longer-term variations of photosynthetic activity on a global scale.

  9. A multiscale and multidisciplinary investigation of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange over the rocky mountains of colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Oncley, S.P.; Burns, Sean P.; Stephens, B.B.; Lenschow, D.H.; Campos, T.; Monson, Russell K.; Schimel, D.S.; Sacks, W.J.; De Wekker, S. F. J.; Lai, C.-T.; Lamb, B.; Ojima, D.; Ellsworth, P.Z.; Sternberg, L.S.L.; Zhong, S.; Clements, C.; Moore, D.J.P.; Anderson, D.E.; Watt, A.S.; Hu, Jiawen; Tschudi, M.; Aulenbach, S.; Allwine, E.; Coons, T.

    2010-01-01

    A field study combined with modeling investigation demonstrated that the organization of CO2 transport by mountain terrain strongly affects the regional CO2 budget. Atmospheric dynamics can lead to complicated flows generated by inhomogeneous landscapes, topography or synoptic weather systems. The field campaign conducted of a ground deployment, the Carbon in the Mountain Experiment (CME04), and an aircraft deployment of the national Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130, the Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (ACME04) over the period of spring to fall of 2004 to cover the seasonal variation of ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange. The role of the mountain circulation in CO2 transport can be played over seemingly flat terrain by mesoscale flows generated by various physical processes. The three dimensional observation strategy considered can also be applied over flat terrain.

  10. Sea surface carbon dioxide at the Georgia time series site (2006-2007): Air-sea flux and controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Sabine, Christopher; Jones, Stacy; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Jiang, Li-Qing; Reimer, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in surface seawater was continuously recorded every three hours from 18 July 2006 through 31 October 2007 using a moored autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) system deployed on the Gray's Reef buoy off the coast of Georgia, USA. Surface water pCO2 (average 373 ± 52 μatm) showed a clear seasonal pattern, undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in cold months and generally oversaturated in warm months. High temporal resolution observations revealed important events not captured in previous ship-based observations, such as sporadically occurring biological CO2 uptake during April-June 2007. In addition to a qualitative analysis of the primary drivers of pCO2 variability based on property regressions, we quantified contributions of temperature, air-sea exchange, mixing, and biological processes to monthly pCO2 variations using a 1-D mass budget model. Although temperature played a dominant role in the annual cycle of pCO2, river inputs especially in the wet season, biological respiration in peak summer, and biological production during April-June 2007 also substantially influenced seawater pCO2. Furthermore, sea surface pCO2 was higher in September-October 2007 than in September-October 2006, associated with increased river inputs in fall 2007. On an annual basis this site was a moderate atmospheric CO2 sink, and was autotrophic as revealed by monthly mean net community production (NCP) in the mixed layer. If the sporadic short productive events during April-May 2007 were missed by the sampling schedule, one would conclude erroneously that the site is heterotrophic. While previous ship-based pCO2 data collected around this buoy site agreed with the buoy CO2 data on seasonal scales, high resolution buoy observations revealed that the cruise-based surveys undersampled temporal variability in coastal waters, which could greatly bias the estimates of air-sea CO2 fluxes or annual NCP, and even produce contradictory results.

  11. Exploration of spin state and exchange integral of cobalt ions in stoichiometric ZnCo2O4 spinel oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Xiangli; Li, Liping; Li, Guangshe

    2016-04-01

    This work reports on spin state and exchange integral of cobalt ions in stoichiometric ZnCo2O4 nanoparticles with varying particle size from about 24 to 105 nm. Cobalt ions in ZnCo2O4 nanoparticles are present as trivalence in mixed spin state. The effective magnetic moment is distributed in the range of 2.1 ˜ 1.31 μB at room temperature with coarsening of nanoparticles. Further, it is demonstrated that stoichiometric ZnCo2O4 undergoes a magnetic transition from paramagnetism to antiferromagnetism with decrease of temperature, showing a transition temperature of about 5 K. The standard molar entropy and enthalpy for 24 nm ZnCo2O4 are 170.6 ± 1.7 J K-1 mol-1 and 28.2 ± 0.3 kJ mol-1 at 298.15 K, respectively. Based on the heat capacity data, the exchange integral is determined to be 4.16 × 10-22 J. The results report here are really important for further understanding the magnetic and electronic properties of spinel oxides.

  12. Enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange caused by amplified plant productivity in northern ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Keeling, Ralph; Heimann, Martin; Thonicke, Kirsten; Zaehle, Sönke; Reichstein, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric monitoring has shown an increase in the seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide (CO2) in high northern latitudes (> 40°N) since the 1960s. The much stronger increase of the seasonal CO2 amplitude in high latitudes compared to low latitudes suggests that northern ecosystems are experiencing large changes in carbon cycle dynamics. However the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood and current climate/carbon cycle models under-estimate observed changes in the seasonal CO2 amplitude. Here we aim to explain the observed latitudinal gradient of seasonal CO2 amplitude trends by contrasting observations from long-term monitoring sites of atmospheric CO2 concentration, satellite observation of vegetation greenness, and global observation-based datasets of gross primary production and net biome productivity, with results from the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model coupled to the TM3 atmospheric transport model. Our results demonstrate that the latitudinal gradient of the enhanced seasonal CO2 amplitude is mainly driven by positive trends in photosynthetic carbon uptake caused by recent climate change and mediated by changing vegetation cover in boreal and arctic ecosystems. Climate change affects processes such as plant physiology, phenology, water availability, and vegetation dynamics, ultimately leading to increased plant productivity and vegetation cover in northern ecosystems in the last decades. Thereby photosynthetic carbon uptake has reacted much more strongly to warming than respiratory carbon release processes. Continued long-term observation of atmospheric CO2 together with ground and satellite observations of land surface and vegetation dynamics will be the key to detect, model, and better predict changes in high-latitude land/carbon cycle dynamics.

  13. The Influence of Internal Model Variability in GEOS-5 on Interhemispheric CO2 Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Melissa; Erickson, David; Kendall, Wesley; Fu, Joshua; Ott, Leslie; Pawson, Steven

    2012-01-01

    An ensemble of eight atmospheric CO2 simulations was completed employing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Earth Observation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) for the years 2000-2001, each with initial meteorological conditions corresponding to different days in January 2000 to examine internal model variability. Globally, the model runs show similar concentrations of CO2 for the two years, but in regions of high CO2 concentrations due to fossil fuel emissions, large differences among different model simulations appear. The phasing and amplitude of the CO2 cycle at Northern Hemisphere locations in all of the ensemble members is similar to that of surface observations. In several southern hemisphere locations, however, some of the GEOS-5 model CO2 cycles are out of phase by as much as four months, and large variations occur between the ensemble members. This result indicates that there is large sensitivity to transport in these regions. The differences vary by latitude-the most extreme differences in the Tropics and the least at the South Pole. Examples of these differences among the ensemble members with regard to CO2 uptake and respiration of the terrestrial biosphere and CO2 emissions due to fossil fuel emissions are shown at Cape Grim, Tasmania. Integration-based flow analysis of the atmospheric circulation in the model runs shows widely varying paths of flow into the Tasmania region among the models including sources from North America, South America, South Africa, South Asia and Indonesia. These results suggest that interhemispheric transport can be strongly influenced by internal model variability.

  14. The Seasonal and Diurnal Patterns of net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange in a Subtropical Montane Cloud Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, H.; Lai, C.; Wu, C.; Hsia, Y.

    2008-12-01

    difference suggested that water droplets deposited on leaves might partially block the pathway of the gas exchange through stomata as canopy immersed in the very humid air. However, CO2 fluxes did not cease during foggy periods, as also supported by sap flow and leaf chamber measurements, the morphological characteristics of leaf or/and canopy structure might contribute to the well adaptability of this subtropical montane cloud forest to the humid environment.

  15. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have reported that stomata regulate leaf gas-exchange around &ldq...

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of biotic exchange of CO2. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Inez

    1995-01-01

    Our research is focused on a better quantification of the variations in C02(sub) exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and the factors responsible for these exchanges. The principal approach is to infer the variations in the exchanges from variations in the atmospheric C02(sub) distribution.

  17. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange measured by autochambers during the snow-covered season at a temperate peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubier, Jill; Crill, Patrick; Mosedale, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured at a temperate peatland in southeastern New Hampshire. Classified as a mineral-poor fen owing to deep, water-logged peats that are influenced to a limited extent by groundwater, the ecosystem is dominated by plants such as sedges (Carex spp.) and evergreen shrubs. Ten automatic chambers measured fluxes every 3 h by sampling changes in headspace concentration of CO2 from November 2000 through March 2001. The fen was covered in snow for most of this period and CO2 was emitted from the snow pack throughout the winter. The largest fluxes were associated with ground temperatures of 0°C and with declining atmospheric pressure. CO2 effluxes up to 3 µmol m-2 s-1 were recorded when the ground temperature reached the thaw point. Fluxes were lower when the ground temperature rose above 0°C, however, suggesting that the large fluxes were associated with a build up and release of stored CO2 degassing as soon as the ground thawed, or by enhanced microbial activity associated with freeze-thaw dynamics. The large number of thaw events coupled with frequent short-term releases of CO2 suggest that degassing occurred on a regular basis with changes in atmospheric pressure and/or microbial decomposition occurred beneath the snowpack. The extent of soil freezing prior to thaw was also an important factor, with colder soils yielding smaller CO2 emissions upon thaw. Although most of the observed CO2 flux was efflux from the ecosystem, occasional CO2 uptake by the ecosystem of up to 1 µmol m-2 s-1 was also observed, indicating small rates of photosynthesis even during winter. Photosynthesis occurred only when the ground temperature was >0°C. The implications for a warmer climate are unclear. If warmer winter temperatures yield less snow in the temperate region, then soils could freeze more deeply and result in lower CO

  18. Hyperspectral measurements for estimating biophysical parameters and CO2 exchanges in a rice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, M.; Migliavacca, M.; Meroni, M.; Manca, G.; Cogliati, S.; Busetto, L.; Picchi, V.; Galvagno, M.; Colombo, R.; Seufert, G.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this work was to monitor the main biophysical and structural parameters as well as the CO2 exchanges between atmosphere and a terrestrial ecosystem from remote and high spectral resolution spectroradiometric measurements. Estimation of photosynthetic rate or gross primary productivity from remotely sensed data is based on the light use efficiency model (LUE), which states that carbon exchange is a function of the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (APAR) and the radiation use efficiency (ɛ) which represents the conversion efficiency of energy to fixed carbon. Hyperspectral data were used in this study in order to derived both the APAR of green vegetation and the ɛ term. The experimental site was a rice paddy field in North Italy equipped with an Eddy Covariance (EC) flux measurement tower (Castellaro IES-JRC site). Intensive field campaigns were conducted during summer 2007 and 2008. In each sampling day, canopy optical properties, canopy structure, biophysical and ecophysiological parameters were measured. EC fluxes were calculated with a time step of 30 minutes according to EUROFLUX methodology. Measured half-hourly net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was partitioned to derive half hourly gross ecosystem production (GEP). Canopy reflectance spectra were collected under clear sky conditions using two portable spectrometers (HR4000, OceanOptics, USA) characterised by different spectral resolutions. A spectrometer characterised by a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of 0.13 nm was used to estimate steady-state fluorescence (F) and a second one with a FWHM of 2.8 nm was used for the computation of traditional vegetation indices (e.g. NVDI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and SAVI, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and PRI (Photochemical Reflectance Index, Gamon et al. 1992). F was estimated by exploiting a variation of the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) principle (Plascyk 1975): the spectral fitting method described in Meroni

  19. Towards up-scaling restored wetland CO2 and CH4 exchange in the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, C. S.; Knox, S. H.; Koteen, L. E.; Matthes, J. H.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Returning agricultural land to wetlands in the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta of northern California (hereafter, the Delta) can help reverse the land subsidence that is currently threatening a large proportion of California's water supply. Wetland restoration maintains plant productivity while drastically reducing the rapid peat decomposition that has occurred since this region was drained for agricultural use in the 1850s. Rebuilding the peat soils i) protects California's water supply by reducing pressure on levies, and ii) mitigates globally rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The more anaerobic soil environment of wetlands, however, promotes methane (CH4) production, a 25x more potent greenhouse gas than CO2. It is therefore important to understand the impact of wetland restoration on both these gases to evaluate both subsidence reversal and climate change mitigation goals. To this end, we are conducting eddy covariance measurements of gas exchange in restored Delta wetlands to quantify ecosystem-scale sequestration/emission of CO2 and CH4. The ultimate goal of these measurements is to be able to predict the effects of wetland restoration on Delta-wide fluxes of these important greenhouse gases. Wetlands, however, are spatially variable ecosystems, varying in substrate, plant species, plant density, and open water fraction, to name a few. Extending site-level measurements to other areas therefore requires attributing spatial variability in CO2 and CH4 exchange to respective sources and identifying spatially available indicators of this change. This poster presents preliminary results evaluating the spatial variability of CO2 and CH4 fluxes in two restored Delta wetlands and how this variability can be up-scaled to region-wide estimates using remotely sensed indicators.

  20. Air-sea energy exchanges measured by eddy covariance during a localised coral bleaching event, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the widely claimed association between climate change and coral bleaching, a paucity of data exists relating to exchanges of heat, moisture and momentum between the atmosphere and the reef-water surface. We present in situ measurements of reef-water-air energy exchanges made using the eddy covariance method during a summer coral bleaching event at Heron Reef, Australia. Under settled, cloud-free conditions and light winds, daily net radiation exceeded 800 W m-2, with up to 95% of the net radiation during the morning partitioned into heating the water column, substrate and benthic cover including corals. Heating was exacerbated by a mid-afternoon low tide when shallow reef flat water reached 34°C and near-bottom temperatures 33°C, exceeding the thermal tolerance of corals, causing bleaching. Results suggest that local to synoptic scale meteorology, particularly clear skies, solar heating, light winds and the timing of low tide were the primary controls on coral bleaching.

  1. On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived therefrom in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (net ecosystem exchange - NEE; gross primary production - GPP), and some key ecophysiological variables related to NEE and GPP (light use efficiency - ɛ; initial quantum yield - α; and GPP at saturating light - GPPmax) for grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data (400-1000 nm), CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that hyperspectral VIs generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables and that they generally exhibited more skill in estimating midday and daily average GPP and NEE, as well as GPPmax, than α and ɛ. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water content related VIs (e.g. CI, NPCI, WI), reflecting seasonal changes in biophysical parameters controlling the photosynthesis process, explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. A limitation of the hyperspectral sensors is that their cost is still high and the use laborious. At the eddy covariance with a limited budget and without technical support, we suggest to use at least dual or four channels low cost sensors in the the following spectral regions: 400-420 nm; 500-530 nm; 750-770 nm; 780-800 nm and 880-900 nm. In addition, our findings have major implications for up-scaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote and proximal sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies

  2. The potential role of sea spray droplets in facilitating air-sea gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, E. L.; Vlahos, P.; Monahan, E. C.

    2016-05-01

    For over 30 years, air-sea interaction specialists have been evaluating and parameterizing the role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea gas exchange. To our knowledge, no one, however, has studied the mirror image process of whether sea spray droplets can facilitate air-sea gas exchange. We are therefore using theory, data analysis, and numerical modeling to quantify the role of spray on air-sea gas transfer. In this, our first formal work on this subject, we seek the rate-limiting step in spray-mediated gas transfer by evaluating the three time scales that govern the exchange: τ air , which quantifies the rate of transfer between the atmospheric gas reservoir and the surface of the droplet; τ int , which quantifies the exchange rate across the air-droplet interface; and τ aq , which quantifies gas mixing within the aqueous solution droplet.

  3. Elevated CO(2) and temperature alter net ecosystem C exchange in a young Douglas fir mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Tingey, David T; Lee, E Henry; Phillips, Donald L; Rygiewicz, Paul T; Waschmann, Ronald S; Johnson, Mark G; Olszyk, David M

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the effects of elevated CO(2) (EC) [ambient CO(2) (AC) + 190 ppm] and elevated temperature (ET) [ambient temperature (AT) + 3.6 degrees C] on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of seedling Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mesocosms. As the study utilized seedlings in reconstructed soil-litter-plant systems, we anticipated greater C losses through ecosystem respiration (R(e)) than gains through gross photosynthesis (GPP), i.e. negative NEE. We hypothesized that: (1) EC would increase GPP more than R(e), resulting in NEE being less negative; and (2) ET would increase R(e) more than GPP, resulting in NEE being more negative. We also evaluated effects of CO(2) and temperature on light inhibition of dark respiration. Consistent with our hypothesis, NEE was a smaller C source in EC, not because EC increased photosynthesis but rather because of decreased respiration resulting in less C loss. Consistent with our hypothesis, NEE was more negative in ET because R(e) increased more than GPP. The light level that inhibited respiration varied seasonally with little difference among CO(2) and temperature treatments. In contrast, the degree of light inhibition of respiration was greater in AC than EC. In our system, respiration was the primary control on NEE, as EC and ET caused greater changes in respiration than photosynthesis.

  4. [CO2-exchange in tundra ecosystems of Vaygach Island during the unusually warm and dry vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Zamolodchikov, D G

    2015-01-01

    In summer of 2013, field studies of CO2-exchange in tundra ecosystems of Vaygach Island have been conducted using the chamber method. The models are developed that establish relationships between CO2 fluxes and key ecological factors such as temperature, photosynthetic active radiation, leaf mass of vascular plants, and depth of thawing. According to the model estimates, in 2013 vegetation season tundra ecosystems of Vaygach Island have been appearing to be a CO2 source to the atmosphere (31.9 ± 17.1 g C m(-2) season(-1)) with gross primary production equal to 136.6 ± 18.9 g C m(-2) season(-1) and ecosystem respiration of 168.5 ± ± 18.4 g C m(-2) season(-1). Emission of CO2 from the soil surface (soil respiration) has been equal, on the average, to 67.3% of the ecosystem respiration. The reason behind carbon losses by tundra ecosystems seems to be unusually warm and dry weather conditions in 2013 summer. The air temperature during summer months has been twice as high as the climatic norm for 1961-1990. Last decades, researches in the circumpolar Arctic revealed a growing trend to the carbon sink from the atmosphere to tundra ecosystems. This trend can be interrupted by unusually warm weather situations becoming more frequent and of larger scale.

  5. Using Sea Level to Probe Linkages Between Heat Transport Convergence, Heat Storage Rate, and Air-Sea Heat Exchange in the Subtropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L.; Kelly, K. A.; Booth, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Annual mean surface heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in midlatitudes are maximum in the Gulf Stream and that surface flux is driven by geostrophic heat transport convergence. Evidence is mounting that on interannual times scales, the surface flux of heat in the Gulf Stream region is controlled by the amount of heat that is stored in the region and that the heat storage rate is in turn controlled by geostrophic heat transport convergence. In addition, variations in meridional heat transport have been linked to the meridional overturning circulation just to the south of the Gulf Stream at the RAPID/MOCHA array at 26.5N, suggesting that changes in the meridional overturning circulation might be linked to surface heat exchange in the Gulf Stream. The twenty-year record of satellite sea level (SSH) along with high quality surface heat fluxes allow a detailed evaluation of the interaction between stored oceanic heat in this region and surface heat fluxes on interannual times scales. Using gridded sea level from AVISO as a proxy for upper ocean heat content along with surface turbulent heat flux from OAFlux, we evaluate the lagged correlations between interannual surface turbulent heat fluxes and SSH variability. Previous work has shown that where advection is small lagged correlations between SST (sea surface temperature) and surface turbulent heat flux are generally antisymmetric about zero lag with negative correlations when SST leads and positive correlations when SST lags. This indicates that surface heat fluxes force SST anomalies that at later times are damped by surface fluxes. In contrast, the lagged correlation between SSH anomalies and the turbulent flux of heat in the Gulf Stream region show a distinctly asymmetric relationship about zero-lag. The correlations are negative when SSH leads but are not significant when SSH lags indicating the dominant role in heat transport convergence in driving heat content changes, and that the heat content

  6. A Data Base of Nutrient Use, Water Use, CO2 Exchange, and Ethylene Production by Soybeans in a Controlled Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.; Sharifi, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    A data set is given describing daily nutrient and water uptake, carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, ethylene production, and carbon and nutrient partitioning from a 20 sq m stand of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. McCall] for use in bioregenerative life support systems. Stand CO2 exchange rates were determined from nocturnal increases in CO2 (respiration) and morning drawdowns (net photosynthesis) to a set point of 1000 micromol/ mol each day (i.e., a closed system approach). Atmospheric samples were analyzed throughout growth for ethylene using gas chromatography with photoionization detection (GC/PH)). Water use was monitored by condensate production from the humidity control system, as well as water uptake from the nutrient solution reservoirs each day. Nutrient uptake data were determined from daily additions of stock solution and acid to maintain an EC of 0.12 S/m and pH of 5.8. Dry mass yields of seeds, pods (without seeds), leaves, stems, and roots are provided, as well as elemental and proximate nutritional compositions of the tissues. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar documenting set point adjustments and the occasional equipment or sensor failure.

  7. Mineral nutrition and elevated [CO(2)] interact to modify δ(13)C, an index of gas exchange, in Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John D; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    The effects of the past century's increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) have been recorded in the stable carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of the annual growth rings of trees. The isotope record frequently shows increases in photosynthetic CO2 uptake relative to stomatal conductance, which estimates the CO2 concentration gradient across the stomata (ca - ci). This variable, which is one control over the net photosynthetic rate, has been suggested as a homeostatic gas-exchange set point that is easy to estimate from δ(13)C and [CO2]. However, in high-latitude conifer forests, the literature is mixed; some studies show increases in (ca - ci) and others show homeostasis. Here we present leaf and tree-ring δ(13)C data from a controlled experiment that tested factorial combinations of elevated [CO2] (365 and 700 ∝mol mol(-1)) and fertilization on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in northern Sweden. We found first that the leaf carbon pool was contaminated by the current photosynthate in the older leaf cohorts. This is the reverse of the common observation that older photosynthate reserves can be used to produce new tissue; here the older tissue contains recent photosynthate. We found that the tree-ring data lack such contamination and in any case they better integrate over the canopy and the growing season than do leaves. In the second and third years of treatment, elevated [CO2] alone increased (ca - ci) by 38%; when combined with fertilization, it increased (ca - ci) by 60%. The results of this study support the idea that annual rings provide a clearer isotopic signal than do foliage age-classes. The tree-ring data show that inferred (ca - ci) depends not only on [CO2], but also on mineral-nutrient status. The differences in (ca - ci) are sufficiently large to account for the treatment-induced increase in wood-volume production in these stands.

  8. Temperature effects on microbial respiration assessed with CO2-exchange and continuous culture techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmeier, C.; Min, K.; Song, C.; Ballantyne, F.; Billings, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work attempts to incorporate requirements of soil microorganisms for carbon and other resources, and how these requirements may respond to temperature, into theoretical concepts of soil organic matter decomposition and climate change. Because of the difficulties of measuring resource fluxes in natural soils, empirical data to guide these concepts remain scarce. Here, we present an experimental system that combines continuous culture techniques with CO2 measurements to study carbon fluxes through microbes in a reductionist, controlled environment amenable to experimental manipulation. In this pilot study, we quantified mass specific respiration rates (MSR) and δ13C of respired CO2 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, a Gram-negative bacterium common to soils, grown at 15°C and 25°C with otherwise identical environmental conditions. The microbes were grown in a 1.9 L bioreactor, in 0.9 L of nutrient medium with C:N:P atomic ratios of 100:10:3, and with 10 mM cellobiose as the carbon source. A peristaltic pump continuously supplied the bioreactor with sterile medium, and removed medium from the bioreactor, at a rate of 63 mL h-1. Both vessels were contained within a temperature incubator, and stir bars provided continuously well mixed volumes. CO2-free air was continuously bubbled through the reactor medium so to provide the microbes with O2; a cavity ring down spectrometer withdrew reactor headspace air and measured concentration and δ13C of the CO2. Air supply was regulated with a pressure/mass flow controller to approx. 27 mL min-1. In both temperature regimes, the pH of the bioreactor as well as concentration and δ13C of the CO2 in the head space air were constant over the course of 1 d, such that any imbalances in the CO2-H2CO3 equilibrium were considered negligible in the assessment of microbial respiration rates and the δ13C of respired CO2. After this time period, reactor medium was passed through a 0.22 μm filter and the filtrate dried for 24 h to obtain

  9. Enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange caused by amplified plant productivity in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Rödenbeck, Christian; Keeling, Ralph; Heimann, Martin; Thonicke, Kirsten; Zaehle, Sönke; Reichstein, Markus

    2016-02-12

    Atmospheric monitoring of high northern latitudes (above 40°N) has shown an enhanced seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide (CO2) since the 1960s, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The much stronger increase in high latitudes relative to low ones suggests that northern ecosystems are experiencing large changes in vegetation and carbon cycle dynamics. We found that the latitudinal gradient of the increasing CO2 amplitude is mainly driven by positive trends in photosynthetic carbon uptake caused by recent climate change and mediated by changing vegetation cover in northern ecosystems. Our results underscore the importance of climate-vegetation-carbon cycle feedbacks at high latitudes; moreover, they indicate that in recent decades, photosynthetic carbon uptake has reacted much more strongly to warming than have carbon release processes.

  10. Gas exchange and CO2 flux in the tropical Atlantic Ocean determined from Rn-222 and pCO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Takahashi, T.; Chipman, D. W.; Ledwell, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The piston velocity for the tropical Atlantic Ocean has been determined from 29 radon profiles measured during the TTO Tropical Atlantic Study. By combining these data with the pCO2 data measured in the surface water and air samples, the net flux of CO2 across the sea-air interface has been calculated for the tropical Atlantic. The dependence of the piston velocity on wind speed is discussed, and possible causes for the high sea-to-air CO2 flux observed in the equatorial zone are examined.

  11. Age-dependent impacts of peatland restoration on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of blanket bogs in Northern Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambley, Graham; Hill, Timothy; Saunders, Matthew; Arn Teh, Yit

    2015-04-01

    The Flow Country of Northern Scotland is the largest area of contiguous blanket bog in the UK covering an area in excess of 400 km2. This region is the single largest peat and soil C repository in the UK, and plays a key role in mediating regional atmospheric exchanges of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapour (H2O). However, these peatlands were subject to significant afforestation in the 1980s, where large areas of blanket bog were drained and planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta), resulting in modifications to micro-topographic features, vegetation composition and soil properties such as bulk density and water holding capacity, all of which are known to influence the production and emission of key GHGs. Since the late 1990s restoration work has been undertaken to remove forest plantations and to restore the peatland areas by raising the water table, predominantly by drain and furrow blocking, in order to encourage the recolonisation of Sphagnum species. Here we report findings from an eddy covariance study of CO2 and H2O exchange from an unmanaged peatland and a chronosequence of restored peatland sites, which were felled in 1998 and 2004. Located within the Forsinard Flows National Nature Reserve in Northern Scotland, these sites are being studied to better understand the key drivers of carbon dynamics in these ecosystems and also assess the age-dependent impacts of peatland restoration on the net CO2 sink strength. Preliminary data show rates of CO2 uptake increased with time since restoration, with peak assimilation rates of -9.9 and -14.4 micro mol CO2 m-2 s-1 measured at the 10 and 16 year old restoration sites, respectively. Carbon losses through ecosystem respiration followed a similar pattern. The data collected to date indicates that while peatland restoration is actively increasing CO2 uptake at each of the sites, more long-term observational data is required to

  12. Interannual variability of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and its component fluxes in a subalpine Mediterranean ecosystem (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Domingo, Francisco; Arnau-Rosalén, Eva; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Pérez-Priego, Óscar; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2015-04-01

    Recent decades under climate change have seen increasing interest in quantifying the carbon (C) balance of different terrestrial ecosystems, and their behavior as sources or sinks of C. Both CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and identification of its drivers are key to understanding land-surface feedbacks to climate change. The eddy covariance (EC) technique allows measurements of net ecosystem C exchange (NEE) from short to long time scales. In addition, flux partitioning models can extract the components of net CO2 fluxes, including both biological processes of photosynthesis or gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (Reco), and also abiotic drivers like subsoil CO2 ventilation (VE), which is of particular relevance in semiarid environments. The importance of abiotic processes together with the strong interannual variability of precipitation, which strongly affects CO2 fluxes, complicates the accurate characterization of the C balance in semiarid landscapes. In this study, we examine 10 years of interannual variability of NEE and its components at a subalpine karstic plateau, El Llano de los Juanes, in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Results show annual NEE ranging from 55 g C m-2 (net emission) to -54 g C m-2 (net uptake). Among C flux components, GPP was the greatest contributing 42-57% of summed component magnitudes, while contributions by Reco and VE ranged from 27 to 46% and from 3 to 18%, respectively. Annual precipitation during the studied period exhibited high interannual variability, ranging from 210 mm to 1374 mm. Annual precipitation explained 50% of the variance in Reco, 59% of that in GPP, and 56% for VE. While Reco and GPP were positively correlated with annual precipitation (correlation coefficient, R, of 0.71 and 0.77, respectively), VE showed negative correlation with this driver (R = -0.74). During the driest year (2004-2005), annual GPP and Reco reached their lowest values, while contribution of

  13. Low impact of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange of a Northern-Norwegian blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Magnus; Bjerke, J. W.; Drake, B. G.; Engelsen, O.; Hansen, G. H.; Parmentier, F. J. W.; Powell, T. L.; Silvennoinen, H.; Sottocornola, M.; Tømmervik, H.; Weldon, S.; Rasse, D. P.

    2015-02-01

    Northern peatlands hold large amounts of organic carbon (C) in their soils and are as such important in a climate change context. Blanket bogs, i.e. nutrient-poor peatlands restricted to maritime climates, may be extra vulnerable to global warming since they require a positive water balance to sustain their moss dominated vegetation and C sink functioning. This study presents a 4.5 year record of land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange from the Andøya blanket bog in northern Norway. Compared with other peatlands, the Andøya peatland exhibited low flux rates, related to the low productivity of the dominating moss and lichen communities and the maritime settings that attenuated seasonal temperature variations. It was observed that under periods of high vapour pressure deficit, net ecosystem exchange was reduced, which was mainly caused by a decrease in gross primary production. However, no persistent effects of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange dynamics were observed, indicating that under present conditions and within the range of observed meteorological conditions the Andøya blanket bog retained its C uptake function. Continued monitoring of these ecosystem types is essential in order to detect possible effects of a changing climate.

  14. Climatic and management drivers of CO2 exchanges by a production crop: analysis over three successive 4-year cycles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysse, Pauline; Moureaux, Christine; Bodson, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges between crops and the atmosphere are influenced by both climatic and crop management drivers. The investigated crop, situated at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (candidate ICOS site) in the Hesbaye region in Belgium and managed for more than 70 years using conventional farming practices, was monitored over three complete sugar beet/winter wheat/potato/winter wheat rotation cycles from 2004 to 2016. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chambers, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), autotrophic respiration, heterotrophic respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). Meteorological data and crop management practices were also recorded. Climatic and seasonal evolutions of the carbon balance components were studied and crop carbon budgets were computed both at the yearly and crop rotation cycle scales. On average over the 12 years, NEE was negative but NBP was positive, i.e. as far as carbon exportation by harvest are included in the budget, the site behaved as a carbon source. Impacts of both meteorological drivers and crop management operations on CO2 exchanges were analyzed and compared between crop types, years, and rotation cycles. The uncertainties associated to the carbon fluxes were also evaluated and discussed.

  15. Sensitivity of mesquite shrubland CO2 exchange to precipitation in contrasting physiographic settings 1871

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Life-history characteristics and functional traits of dominant organisms may interact with abiotic factors to shape ecosystem processes such as net primary productivity. For example, in terrestrial environments, physiographic position may interact with plant ontogeny to constrain ecosystem exchanges...

  16. Evaluation of the swell effect on the air-sea gas transfer in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea gas transfer processes are one of the most important factors regarding global climate and long-term global climate changes. Despite its importance, there is still a huge uncertainty on how to better parametrize these processes in order to include them on the global climate models. This uncertainty exposes the need to increase our knowledge on gas transfer controlling mechanisms. In the coastal regions, breaking waves become a key factor to take into account when estimating gas fluxes, however, there is still a lack of information and the influence of the ocean surface waves on the air-sea interaction and gas flux behavior must be validated. In this study, as part of the "Sea Surface Roughness as Air-Sea Interaction Control" project, we evaluate the effect of the ocean surface waves on the gas exchange in the coastal zone. Direct estimates of the flux of CO2 (FCO2) and water vapor (FH2O) through eddy covariance, were carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 in a coastal station located at the Northwest of Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México. For the same period, ocean surface waves are recorded using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) with a sampling rate of 2 Hz and located at 10 m depth about 350 m away from the tower. We found the study area to be a weak sink of CO2 under moderate wind and wave conditions with a mean flux of -1.32 μmol/m2s. The correlation between the wind speed and FCO2 was found to be weak, suggesting that other physical processes besides wind may be important factors for the gas exchange modulation at coastal waters. The results of the quantile regression analysis computed between FCO2 and (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness and (4) water temperature, show that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with FCO2; Nevertheless, the behavior of their relation varies along the probability distribution of FCO2, with the linear regression

  17. CO2 and water vapour exchange in four alpine herbs at two altitudes and under varying light and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Rawat, A S; Purohit, A N

    1991-06-01

    CO2 and water vapour exchange rates of four alpine herbs namely: Rheum emodi, R. moorcroftianum, Megacarpaea polyandra and Rumex nepalensis were studied under field conditions at 3600 m (natural habitat) and 550 m altitudes. The effect of light and temperature on CO2 and water vapour exchange was studied in the plants grown at lower altitude. In R. moorcroftianum and R. nepalensis, the average photosynthesis rates were found to be about three times higher at 550 m as compared to that under their natural habitat. However, in M. polyandra, the CO2 exchange rates were two times higher at 3600 m than at 550 m but in R. emodi, there were virtually no differences at the two altitudes. These results indicate the variations in the CO2 exchange rates are species specific. The change in growth altitude does not affect this process uniformly.The transpiration rates in R. emodi and M. polyandra were found to be very high at 3600 m compared to 550 m and are attributed to overall higher stomatal conductance in plants of these species, grown at higher altitude. The mid-day closure of stomata and therefore, restriction of transpirational losses of water were observed in all the species at 550 m altitude. In addition to the effect of temperature and relative humidity, the data also indicate some endogenous rhythmic control of stomatal conductance.The temperature optima for photosynthesis was close to 30°C in M. polyandra and around 20°C in the rest of the three species. High temperature and high light intensity, as well as low temperature and high light intensity, adversely affect the net rate of photosynthesis in these species.Both light compensation point and dark respiration rate increased with increasing temperature.The effect of light was more prominent on photosynthesis than the effect of temperature, however, on transpiration the effect of temperature was more prominent than the effect of light intensity.No definite trends were found in stomatal conductance with respect to

  18. Air-sea interactions and precipitation over the tropical oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this lecture, the author principally discusses air-sea exchanges that are relevant to climate and global problems. The processes of interest are those acting over time scales of months to decades, which in some instances are influenced by smaller-time-scale processes, down to the diurnal time scale. The repsective influence of these processes varies with regions, seasons and scales over which they occur and, because these processes are mostly nonlinear, scale interactions can be quite complex. Owing to the breadth of the topic addressed, the discussion is mostly focused on the tropical regions where air-sea interactions and precipitation processes eventually affect the entire globe. This allows a look in more detail at some air-sea processes, such as those associated with the El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO). This oscillation, which affects the climate of the entire globe, acts over periods of a year or longer and is caused, primarily, by sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the tropical Pacific. As a result, SST variability is often used as an indicator of coupled ocean-atmosphere low-frequency variability. Global or basin scale processes can uniquely be observed from space-born instruments with the coverage required. Space based techniques have been developed during the last decade which can now be used to illustrate the scientific issues presented and the presentation concludes with an overview of some Earth Observing System (EOS) capabilities for addressing air-sea interactions and hydrology issues.

  19. Towards a Better Understanding of the Oxygen Isotope Signature of Atmospheric CO2: Determining the 18O-Exchange Between CO2 and H2O in Leaves and Soil On-line with Laser-Based Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangi, L.; Rothfuss, Y.; Vereecken, H.; Brueggemann, N.

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen isotope signature of carbon dioxide (δ18O-CO2) is a powerful tool to disentangle CO2 fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems, as CO2 attains a contrasting 18O signature by the interaction with isotopically different soil and leaf water pools during soil respiration and photosynthesis, respectively. However, using the δ18O-CO2 signal to quantify plant-soil-atmosphere CO2 fluxes is still challenging due to a lack of knowledge concerning the magnitude and effect of individual fractionation processes during CO2 and H2O diffusion and during CO2-H2O isotopic exchange in soils and leaves, especially related to short-term changes in environmental conditions (non-steady state). This study addresses this research gap by combined on-line monitoring of the oxygen isotopic signature of CO2 and water vapor during gas exchange in soil and plant leaves with laser-based spectroscopy, using soil columns and plant chambers. In both experimental setups, the measured δ18O of water vapor was used to infer the δ18O of liquid water, and, together with the δ18O-CO2, the degree of oxygen isotopic equilibrium between the two species (θ). Gas exchange experiments with different functional plant types (C3 coniferous, C3 monocotyledonous, C3 dicotyledonous, C4) revealed that θ and the influence of the plant on the ambient δ18O-CO2 (CO18O-isoforcing) not only varied on a diurnal timescale but also when plants were exposed to limited water availability, elevated air temperature, and abrupt changes in light intensity (sunflecks). Maximum θ before treatments ranged between 0.7 and 0.8 for the C3 dicotyledonous (poplar) and C3 monocotyledonous (wheat) plants, and between 0.5 and 0.6 for the conifer (spruce) and C4 plant (maize) while maximum CO18O-isoforcing was highest in wheat (0.03 m s-1 ‰), similar in poplar and maize (0.02 m s-1 ‰), and lowest in spruce (0.01 m s-1 ‰). Multiple regression analysis showed that up to 97 % of temporal dynamics in CO18O-isoforcing could be

  20. An anion exchange approach to Bi2WO6 hollow microspheres with efficient visible light photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefeng; Huang, Baibiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zeyan; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Dai, Ying

    2012-10-01

    An anion exchange strategy is explored to synthesize Bi(2)WO(6) hollow microspheres based on the microscale Kirkendall effect. The as-prepared Bi(2)WO(6) hollow microspheres display high CO(2) adsorption capacity and visible light photocatalytic conversion efficiency of CO(2) into methanol without the aid of any co-catalyst. PMID:22914674

  1. Environment or development? Lifetime net CO2 exchange and control of the expression of Crassulacean acid metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2007-01-01

    The relative influence of plant age and environmental stress signals in triggering a shift from C(3) photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the annual halophytic C(3)-CAM species Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was explored by continuously monitoring net CO(2) exchange of whole shoots from the seedling stage until seed set. Plants exposed to high salinity (400 mm NaCl) in hydroponic culture solution or grown in saline-droughted soil acquired between 11% and 24% of their carbon via net dark CO(2) uptake involving CAM. In contrast, plants grown under nonsaline, well-watered conditions were capable of completing their life cycle by operating in the C(3) mode without ever exhibiting net CO(2) uptake at night. These observations are not consistent with the widely expressed view that the induction of CAM by high salinity in M. crystallinum represents an acceleration of preprogrammed developmental processes. Rather, our study demonstrates that the induction of the CAM pathway for carbon acquisition in M. crystallinum is under environmental control.

  2. Dynamics of CO2-exchange and C-budgets due to soil erosion: Insights from a 4 years observation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Garcia Alba, Juana; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of reduced wintertime plant cover and vigorous crop growth during summer. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore, the interdisciplinary project "CarboZALF" was established in Dedelow/Prenzlau (NE-Germany) in 2009. Within the field experiment CarboZALF-D, CO2 fluxes for the soil-plant systems were monitored, covering typical landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Automated chamber systems, each consisting of four transparent chambers (2.5 m height, basal area 2.25 m2), were placed along gradients at both measurement sites. Monitored CO2 fluxes were gap-filled on a high-temporal resolution by modelling ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Gap-filling was e.g. needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. The monitored crop rotation was corn-winter wheat (2 a), sorghum-winter triticale and alfalfa (1.5 a). In our presentation we would like to show insights from a 4 years observation period, with prounounced differences between the eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco, GPP and NEE compared to the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol. Site-specific NEE and C-balances were positively related to soil C-stocks as well as biomass production, and generated a minor C-sink in case of the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and a highly variable C-source in case of the

  3. Regenerable device for scrubbing breathable air of CO2 and moisture without special heat exchanger equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tepper, E. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The device concerns the circulation of cabin air through canisters which absorb and adsorb carbon dioxide, together with excess moisture, and return the scrubbed air to the cabin for recirculation. A coating on an inert substrate in granular form absorbs and adsorbs the impurities at standard temperatures and pressures, but desorbs such impurities at low pressures (vacuum) and standard temperatures. This fact is exploited by making the device in a stack of cells consisting of layers or cells which are isolated from one another flow-wise and are connected to separate manifolds and valving systems into two separate subsets. A first subset may be connected for the flow breathable air therethrough until the polyethyleneimine of its cells is saturated with CO2 and H2O. During the same period the second subset of cells is manifolded to a vacuum source.

  4. The influence of vegetation and relief heterogeneity on turbulent exchange of CO2 between land surface and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhartova, Juliya; Levashova, Natalia; Volkova, Elena; Olchev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The possible effect of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and relief on horizontal and vertical turbulent exchange of CO2 was described using a process-based two-dimensional (2D) turbulent exchange models (Mukhartova et al. 2015). As a key area for this modeling study the hilly territory situated at the boundary between broadleaf forest and steppe zones in European part of Russia (Tula region) was selected. The vegetation cover in the study region is represented by complex mosaic of crop areas, grasslands, pastures, mires and groves. The very heterogeneous vegetation cover and complex dissected relief make very difficult an adequate determining the local and regional CO2 fluxes using experimental methods only. The two-dimensional model based on solution of the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using well-known one-and-a-half order (TKE) closure scheme is applied. For description of the plant canopy photosynthesis and respiration rates the model uses an aggregated approach based on the model of Ball et al (1987) in Leuning modification (1990, 1995), the Beer-Lambert equation for the description of solar radiation penetration within a plant canopy (Monsi, Saeki 1953), and also an algorithm describing the response of stomatal conductance of the leaves to incoming photosynthetically active radiation. All necessary input parameters describing the photosynthesis and respiration properties of different plants and soil types in the study region were measured in the field or taken from the literature. The system of differential equations in the model is numerically solved by the finite-difference method. It is assumed that the influence of ground surface heterogeneities at the upper boundary of computing domain is very low and the pressure excess can be therefore considered as zero. The concentration of CO2 at the upper boundary of computing domain is assumed to be equal to some background value. It is also assumed that all boundaries between different

  5. Improved method for measuring the apparent CO2 photocompensation point resolves the impact of multiple internal conductances to CO2 to net gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Walker, Berkley J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing interest in accurate and comparable measurements of the CO2 photocompensation point (Γ*), a vital parameter to model leaf photosynthesis. The Γ* is measured as the common intersection of several CO2 response curves, but this method may incorrectly estimate Γ* by using linear fits to extrapolate curvilinear responses and single conductances to convert intercellular photocompensation points (Ci *) to chloroplastic Γ*. To determine the magnitude and minimize the impact of these artefacts on Γ* determinations, we used a combination of meta-analysis, modelling and original measurements to develop a framework to accurately determine Ci *. Our modelling indicated that the impact of using linear fits could be minimized based on the measurement CO2 range. We also propose a novel method of analysing common intersection measurements using slope-intercept regression. Our modelling indicated that slope-intercept regression is a robust analytical tool that can help determine if a measurement is biased because of multiple internal conductances to CO2 . Application of slope-intercept regression to Nicotiana tabacum and Glycine max revealed that multiple conductances likely have little impact to Ci * measurements in these species. These findings present a robust and easy to apply protocol to help resolve key questions concerning CO2 conductance through leaves.

  6. Temporal patterns of net CO2 exchange for a tropical semideciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, George L.; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Zeilhofer, Peter; de Souza Nogueira, José

    2011-09-01

    The carbon cycling of tropical ecosystems has received considerable attention over the last 1-2 decades; however, interactions between climate variation and tropical forest net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) are still uncertain. To reduce this uncertainty, and assess the biophysical controls on NEE, we used the eddy covariance method over a 3 year period (2005-2008) to measure the CO2 flux and energy balance for a 25-28 m tall, mature tropical semideciduous forest located near Sinop Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study period encompassed warm-dry, cool-wet, and cool-dry climate conditions, and based on previous research, we hypothesized that the net CO2 accumulation of the semideciduous forest would be lower during periods of drought. Using time series of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), a NEE-light-use model, and path analysis, we found that the estimated quantum yield (a', μmol CO2μmol photons-1) was directly affected by temporal variations in the EVI, precipitation, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), while the optimal rate of gross primary production (FGPP,opt, μmol m-2 s-1) was directly affected by the EVI and PAR. However, indirect effects of precipitation on the a' and FGPP,opt were stronger than direct effects because variations in precipitation also lead to variations in the EVI and the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Daytime ecosystem respiration (FRE,day, μmol m-2 s-1) was directly affected by temporal variations in temperature and VPD and indirect effects of other variables were of lesser importance. Net ecosystem CO2 uptake was often higher in the dry season than the wet season, not because of a dry season "green-up" but because rates of ecosystem respiration declined relatively more than rates of canopy photosynthesis. Over interannual timescales, average daily NEE increased over the 3 year study period and was highest in 2007-2008, which was also the driest year in terms of rainfall. However, 2007-2008 was also the coolest year

  7. More than just CO2: Multiple trace gas exchange measurements at a temperate mountain grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems exchange a large number of different trace gases to/from the atmosphere, however the vast majority of FLUXNET sites quantifies only the fluxes of carbon dioxide and when assessing the carbon or greenhouse gas balance neglect other carbon or greenhouse gas fluxes. This causes an overestimation of the role of carbon dioxid exchange for the ecosystem carbon and greenhouse gas balance, the magnitude of which is largely unconstrained Here we use the eddy covariance method (and variants thereof) with a large variety of analytical methods to quantify the exchange of multiple trace gases to/from a mountain grassland, partly for a time period of over a decade. The monitored trace gas fluxes cover: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and several volatile organic compounds. The main result of our study is that carbon dioxide is the major contributor to the gaseous carbon and greenhouse gas budget at this temperate mountain grassland, which however may be significantly modulated by other trace gases may, at least during some years. Differences between source and sink periods for the different trace gases and the underlying drivers are discussed and annual budgets, for some compounds covering multiple years up to decades, are presented. We conclude that multiple trace gas flux measurements help to elucidate the importance of the exchange of carbon dioxide for the ecosystem carbon and greenhouse gas budget.

  8. Effects of permafrost melting on CO2 and CH4 exchange of a poorly drained black spruce lowland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickland, K.P.; Striegl, R.G.; Neff, J.C.; Sachs, T.

    2006-01-01

    Permafrost melting is occurring in areas of the boreal forest region where large amounts of carbon (C) are stored in organic soils. We measured soil respiration, net CO2 flux, and net CH4 flux during May-September 2003 and March 2004 in a black spruce lowland in interior Alaska to better understand how permafrost thaw in poorly drained landscapes affects land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 exchange. Sites included peat soils underlain by permafrost at ???0.4 m depth (permafrost plateau, PP), four thermokarst wetlands (TW) having no permafrost in the upper 2.2 m, and peat soils bordering the thermokarst wetlands having permafi7ost at ???0.5 in depth (thermokarst edges, TE). Soil respiration rates were not significantly different among the sites, and 5-cm soil temperature explained 50-91% of the seasonal variability in soil respiration within the sites. Groundcover vegetation photosynthesis (calculated as net CO2 minus soil respiration) was significantly different among the sites (TW > TE > PP), which can be partly attributed to the difference in photosynthetically active radiation reaching the ground at each site type. Methane emission rates were 15 to 28 times greater fi7om TW than from TE and PP. We modeled annual soil respiration and groundcover vegetation photosynthesis using soil temperature and radiation data, and CH4 flux by linear interpolation. We estimated all sites as net C gas sources to the atmosphere (not including tree CO2 uptake at PP and TE), although the ranges in estimates when accounting for errors were large enough that TE and TW may have been net C sinks. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Microgravity does not alter plant stand gas exchange of wheat at moderate light levels and saturating CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Stutte, G; Chapman, D

    2005-10-01

    Plant stand gas exchange was measured nondestructively in microgravity during the Photosynthesis Experiment Subsystem Testing and Operations experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station. Rates of evapotranspiration and photosynthesis measured in space were compared with ground controls to determine if microgravity directly affects whole-stand gas exchange of Triticum aestivum. During six 21-day experiment cycles, evapotranspiration was determined continuously from water addition rates to the nutrient delivery system, and photosynthesis was determined from the amount of CO2 added to maintain the chamber CO2 concentration setpoint. Plant stand evapotranspiration, net photosynthesis, and water use efficiency were not altered by microgravity. Although leaf area was significantly reduced in microgravity-grown plants compared to ground control plants, leaf area distribution was not affected enough to cause significant differences in the amounts of light absorbed by the flight and ground control plant stands. Microgravity also did not affect the response of evapotranspiration to changes in chamber vapor pressure difference of 12-day-old wheat plant stands. These results suggest that gravity naïve plants grown at moderate light levels (300 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) behave the same as ground control plants. This implies that future plant-based regenerative life support systems can be sized using 1 g data because water purification and food production rates operate at nearly the same rates as in 1 g at moderate light levels. However, it remains to be verified whether the present results are reproducible in plants grown under stronger light levels.

  10. Parameterization of a coupled CO2 and H2O gas exchange model at the leaf scale of Populus euphratica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G. F.; Li, X.; Su, Y. H.; Huang, C. L.

    2010-03-01

    The following two models were combined to simultaneously predict CO2 and H2O gas exchange at the leaf scale of Populus euphratica: a Farquhar et al. type biochemical sub-model of photosynthesis (Farquhar et al., 1980) and a Ball et al. type stomatal conductance sub-model (Ball et al., 1987). The photosynthesis parameters [including maximum carboxylation rate allowed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylation rate (Vcmax), potential light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax), triose phosphate utilization (TPU) and day respiration (Rd)] were determined by using the genetic algorithm (GA) method based on A/Ci data. Values of Vcmax and Jmax standardized at 25 °C were 75.09±1.36 (mean ± standard error), 117.27±2.47, respectively. The stomatal conductance sub-model was calibrated independently. Prediction of net photosynthesis by the coupled model agreed well with the validation data, but the model tended to underestimate transpiration rates. Overall, the combined model generally captured the diurnal patterns of CO2 and H2O exchange resulting from variation in temperature and irradiation.

  11. Ecosystem CO2 and CH4 exchange in a mixed tundra and a fen within a hydrologically diverse Arctic landscape: 1. Modeling versus measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R. F.; Humphreys, E. R.; Lafleur, P. M.

    2015-07-01

    CO2 and CH4 exchange are strongly affected by hydrology in landscapes underlain by permafrost. Hypotheses for these effects in the model ecosys were tested by comparing modeled CO2 and CH4 exchange with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance from 2006 to 2009, and with CH4 fluxes measured with surface chambers in 2008, along a topographic gradient at Daring Lake, NWT. In an upland tundra, rises in net CO2 uptake in warmer years were constrained by declines in CO2 influxes when vapor pressure deficits (D) exceeded 1.5 kPa and by rises in CO2 effluxes with greater active layer depth. Consequently, net CO2 uptake rose little with warming. In a lowland fen, CO2 influxes declined less with D and CO2 effluxes rose less with warming, so that rises in net CO2 uptake were greater than those in the tundra. Greater declines in CO2 influxes with warming in the tundra were modeled from greater soil-plant-atmosphere water potential gradients that developed under higher D in drained upland soil, and smaller rises in CO2 effluxes with warming in the fen were modeled from O2 constraints to heterotrophic and belowground autotrophic respiration from a shallow water table in poorly drained lowland soil. CH4 exchange modeled during July and August indicated very small influxes in the tundra and larger effluxes characterized by afternoon emission events caused by degassing of warming soil in the fen. Emissions of CH4 modeled from degassing during soil freezing in October-November contributed about one third of the annual total.

  12. CO(2) and O(2) Exchanges in the CAM Plant Ananas comosus (L.) Merr: Determination of Total and Malate-Decorboxylation-Dependent CO(2)-Assimilation Rates; Study of Light O(2)-Uptake.

    PubMed

    Cote, F X; Andre, M; Folliot, M; Massimino, D; Daguenet, A

    1989-01-01

    Photosynthesis and light O(2)-uptake of the aerial portion of the CAM plant Ananas comosus (L.) merr. were studied by CO(2) and O(2) gas exchange measurements. The amount of CO(2) which was fixed during a complete day-night cycle was equal to the amount of total net O(2) evolved. This finding justifies the assumption that in each time interval of the light period, the difference between the rates of net O(2)-evolution and of net light atmospheric CO(2)-uptake give the rates of malate-decarboxylation-dependent CO(2) assimilation. Based upon this hypothesis, the following photosynthetic characteristics were observed: (a) From the onset of the light to midphase IV of CAM, the photosynthetic quotient (net O(2) evolved/net CO(2) fixed) was higher than 1. This indicates that malate-decarboxylation supplied CO(2) for the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle during this period. (b) In phase III and early phase IV, the rate of CO(2) assimilation deduced from net O(2)-evolution was 3 times higher than the maximum rate of atmospheric CO(2)-fixation during phase IV. A conceivable explanation for this stimulation of photosynthesis is that the intracellular CO(2)-concentration was high because of malate decarboxylation. (c) During the final hours of the light period, the photosynthetic quotient decreased below 1. This may be the result of CO(2)-fixation by phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase activity and malate accumulation. Based upon this hypothesis, the gas exchange data indicates that at least 50% of the CO(2) fixed during the last hour of the light period was stored as malate. Light O(2)-uptake determined with (18)O(2) showed two remarkable characteristics: from the onset of the light until midphase IV the rate of O(2)-uptake increased progressively; during the following part of the light period, the rate of O(2)-uptake was 3.5 times higher than the maximum rate of CO(2)-uptake. When malate decarboxylation was reduced or suppressed after a night in a CO(2)-free atmosphere or

  13. Improvement of the GEOS-5 AGCM upon Updating the Air-Sea Roughness Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Molod, A.; Oman, L. D.; Song, I.-S.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of an air-sea roughness parameterization over the ocean that more closely matches recent observations of air-sea exchange is examined in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. Surface wind biases in the GEOS-5 AGCM are decreased by up to 1.2m/s. The new parameterization also has implications aloft as improvements extend into the stratosphere. Many other GCMs (both for operational weather forecasting and climate) use a similar class of parameterization for their air-sea roughness scheme. We therefore expect that results from GEOS-5 are relevant to other models as well.

  14. Improvement of the GEOS-5 AGCM upon updating the air-sea roughness parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Molod, A. M.; Oman, L. D.; Song, I.-S.

    2011-09-01

    The impact of an air-sea roughness parameterization over the ocean that more closely matches recent observations of air-sea exchange is examined in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. Surface wind biases in the GEOS-5 AGCM are decreased by up to 1.2m/s. The new parameterization also has implications aloft as improvements extend into the stratosphere. Many other GCMs (both for operational weather forecasting and climate) use a similar class of parameterization for their air-sea roughness scheme. We therefore expect that results from GEOS-5 are relevant to other models as well.

  15. Net Exchange of CO2 in a Mid-Latitude Forest.

    PubMed

    Wofsy, S C; Goulden, M L; Munger, J W; Fan, S M; Bakwin, P S; Daube, B C; Bassow, S L; Bazzaz, F A

    1993-05-28

    The eddy correlation method was used to measure the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide continuously from April 1990 to December 1991 in a deciduous forest in central Massachusetts. The annual net uptake was 3.7 +/- 0.7 metric tons of carbon per hectare per year. Ecosystem respiration, calculated from the relation between nighttime exchange and soil temperature, was 7.4 metric tons of carbon per hectare per year, implying gross ecosystem production of 11.1 metric tons of carbon per hectare per year. The observed rate of accumulation of carbon reflects recovery from agricultural development in the 1800s. Carbon uptake rates were notably larger than those assumed for temperate forests in global carbon studies. Carbon storage in temperate forests can play an important role in determining future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  16. Net exchange of CO2 in a mid-latitude forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wofsy, S. C.; Goulden, M. L.; Munger, J. W.; Fan, S.-M.; Bakwin, P. S.; Daube, B. C.; Bassow, S. L.; Bazzaz, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The eddy correlation method was used to measure the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide continuously from April 1990 to December 1991 in a deciduous forest in central Massachusetts. The annual net uptake was 3.7 +/- 0.7 metric tons of carbon per hectare per year. Ecosystem respiration calculated from the relation between nighttime exchange and soil temperature, was 7.4 metric tons of carbon per hectare per year, implying gross ecosystem production of 11.1 metric tons of carbon per hectare per year. The observed rate of accumulation of carbon reflects recovery from agricultural development in the 1800s. Carbon uptake rates were notably larger than those assumed for temperate forests in global carbon studies. Carbon storage in temperate forests can play an important role in determining future concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  17. Interfacial exchange coupling in cubic Heusler Co2FeZ (Z = Al and Si)/tetragonal Mn3Ga bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, R.; Suzuki, K.; Sugihara, A.; Ma, Q. L.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.; Ando, Y.; Mizukami, S.

    2015-05-01

    We have fabricated bilayer films of tetragonal Heusler-like D022 Mn3Ga and cubic Heusler Co2FeZ (Z = Si and Al) on (100) single-crystalline MgO substrates and investigated their structural and interfacial exchange coupling. The coupling in the Mn3Ga/Co2FeAl bilayer was either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, depending on annealing temperature, whereas only antiferromagnetic exchange coupling was observed in the Mn3Ga/Co2FeSi bilayers. The effects of annealing on the structure and coupling strength in the bilayers are discussed.

  18. Simulation and Observation of Global Atmospheric CO2 from 2009-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, A.; O'Dell, C. W.; Baker, D. F.; Parazoo, N.; McKeown, R.; Baker, I. T.; Kawa, S. R.; Doney, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    We compare global variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations using a comprehensive model of surface carbon cycling and atmospheric transport to retrievals of column CO2 mole fraction from near-infrared spectroscopy from the GOSAT mission. Surface carbon exchanges due to photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and air-sea gas exchange are computed every hour. These fluxes are used as input to a global atmospheric tranport model to obtain three-dimensional fields of CO2, which are sampled at the time and location of quality-screened GOSAT data retrieved by the Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS) team. The system is operated on a 0.5° x 0.67° grid (dx ~ 50 km), providing global mesoscale coverage, and has good skill at replicating diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal variations over vegetated land surfaces. It is driven by meteorological output from the NASA Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System. Surface weather from the system drives calculations of terrestrial ecosystem metabolism (radiation, precipitation, humidity, temperature) and air-sea gas exchange (wind), with other input data coming from satellite data products. Simulated spatial patterns and seasonal variations of simulated and observed column CO2 exhibit broad agreement, but some offsets in latitude and seasonal variations are noted. These are attributed to both model and satellite retrieval errors.

  19. Effects of winter temperature and summer drought on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a temperate peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Campbell, Claire; Dinsmore, Kerry; Drewer, Julia; Coyle, Mhairi; Anderson, Margaret; Skiba, Ute; Nemitz, Eiko; Billett, Michael; Sutton, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Northern peatlands are one of the most important global sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); their ability to sequester C is a natural feedback mechanism controlled by climatic variables such as precipitation, temperature, length of growing season and period of snow cover. In the UK it has been predicted that peatlands could become a net source of carbon in response to climate change with climate models predicting a rise in global temperature of ca. 3oC between 1961-1990 and 2100. Land-atmosphere exchange of CO2in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variations, which have significant short- and long-term effects on carbon sink strength. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) at Auchencorth Moss (55° 47'32 N, 3° 14'35 W, 267 m a.s.l.), a temperate peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Auchencorth Moss is a low-lying, ombrotrophic peatland situated ca. 20 km south-west of Edinburgh. Peat depth ranges from 5 m and the site has a mean annual precipitation of 1155 mm. The vegetation present within the flux measurement footprint comprises mixed grass species, heather and substantial areas of moss species (Sphagnum spp. and Polytrichum spp.). The EC system consists of a LiCOR 7000 closed-path infrared gas analyser for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and water vapour and of a Gill Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer. Over the 10 year period, the site was a consistent yet variable sink of CO2 ranging from -34.1 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -69.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing seasons and mean winter air temperature explained 93% of the variability in summertime sink strength, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant development and productivity were stunted by colder winters causing a net reduction in the annual carbon sink strength of this peatland where autotrophic processes are thought to be

  20. A comprehensive carbon dioxide analysis system for estimating CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, A.; Parazoo, N.; Lokupitiya, R. S.; Baker, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions due to combustion of fossil fuel can be estimated from observations of variations in atmospheric trace gases in time and space. Quantitative interpretation of these variations requires accounting for stronger changes due to other processes such as ecosystem metabolism, biomass burning, and air-sea gas exchange that operate on global scales. We have developed and tested an analysis system for assimilation of CO2 variations measured by a combination of sampling, in-situ, and remotely-sensed observations. The system combines existing models of CO2 exchanges due to hourly photosynthesis and respiration, daily air-sea gas exchange, biomass burning, fossil fuel emissions, and atmospheric transport. This comprehensive system allows direct comparison to the observed record of both in-situ and remotely sensed atmospheric CO2 at hourly timescales. By design, we decompose surface fluxes of CO2 into the atmosphere into “fast processes” that are well-understood and modeled using mechanistic algorithms, and more slowly-varying fluxes due to land use change, incorrect specification of decomposing carbon pools, and other persistent biases in the forward component models. These slowly varying components are then estimated from atmospheric obervations by the Maximum Likelihood Ensembe Filter, a data assimilation framework. The system is operated on a 0.5° x 0.67° grid, providing global mesoscale coverage, and has good skill at replicating diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal variations over vegetated land surfaces. It is driven by meteorological output from the NASA Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System. Surface weather from the system drives calculations of terrestrial ecosystem metabolism (radiation, precipitation, humidity, temperature) and air-sea gas exchange (wind), with other input data coming from satellite data products.

  1. Effect of permafrost thaw on CO2 and CH4 exchange in a western Alaska peatland chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Carmel E.; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Varner, Ruth K.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Koch, Joshua C.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Manies, Kristen; Torre Jorgenson, M.

    2014-08-01

    Permafrost soils store over half of global soil carbon (C), and northern frozen peatlands store about 10% of global permafrost C. With thaw, inundation of high latitude lowland peatlands typically increases the surface-atmosphere flux of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. To examine the effects of lowland permafrost thaw over millennial timescales, we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 exchange along sites that constitute a ˜1000 yr thaw chronosequence of thermokarst collapse bogs and adjacent fen locations at Innoko Flats Wildlife Refuge in western Alaska. Peak CH4 exchange in July (123 ± 71 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1) was observed in features that have been thawed for 30 to 70 (<100) yr, where soils were warmer than at more recently thawed sites (14 to 21 yr; emitting 1.37 ± 0.67 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1 in July) and had shallower water tables than at older sites (200 to 1400 yr; emitting 6.55 ± 2.23 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1 in July). Carbon lost via CH4 efflux during the growing season at these intermediate age sites was 8% of uptake by net ecosystem exchange. Our results provide evidence that CH4 emissions following lowland permafrost thaw are enhanced over decadal time scales, but limited over millennia. Over larger spatial scales, adjacent fen systems may contribute sustained CH4 emission, CO2 uptake, and DOC export. We argue that over timescales of decades to centuries, thaw features in high-latitude lowland peatlands, particularly those developed on poorly drained mineral substrates, are a key locus of elevated CH4 emission to the atmosphere that must be considered for a complete understanding of high latitude CH4 dynamics.

  2. Observations of net soil exchange of CO2 in a dryland show experimental warming increases carbon losses in biocrust soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony N.; Reed, Sasha C.; Grote, Ed; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Many arid and semiarid ecosystems have soils covered with well-developed biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) made up of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs living at the soil surface. These communities are a fundamental component of dryland ecosystems, and are critical to dryland carbon (C) cycling. To examine the effects of warming temperatures on soil C balance in a dryland ecosystem, we used infrared heaters to warm biocrust-dominated soils to 2 °C above control conditions at a field site on the Colorado Plateau, USA. We monitored net soil exchange (NSE) of CO2 every hour for 21 months using automated flux chambers (5 control and 5 warmed chambers), which included the CO2 fluxes of the biocrusts and the soil beneath them. We observed measurable photosynthesis in biocrust soils on 12 % of measurement days, which correlated well with precipitation events and soil wet-up. These days included several snow events, providing what we believe to be the first evidence of substantial photosynthesis underneath snow by biocrust organisms in drylands. Overall, biocrust soils in both control and warmed plots were net CO2 sources to the atmosphere, with control plots losing 62 ± 8 g C m−2 (mean ± SE) over the first year of measurement and warmed plots losing 74 ± 9 g C m−2. Between control and warmed plots, the difference in soil C loss was uncertain over the course of the entire year due to large and variable rates in spring, but on days during which soils were wet and crusts were actively photosynthesizing, biocrusts that were warmed by 2 °C had a substantially more negative C balance (i.e., biocrust soils took up less C and/or lost more C in warmed plots). Taken together, our data suggest a substantial risk of increased C loss from biocrust soils with higher future temperatures, and highlight a robust capacity to predict CO2 exchange in biocrust soils using easily measured environmental parameters.

  3. Isotopic partitioning of net ecosystem CO2 exchange reveals the importance of methane oxidation in a boreal peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselquist, Niles; Peichl, Matthias; Öquist, Mats; Crill, Patrick; Nilsson, Mats

    2016-04-01

    Partitioning net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) into its different flux components is crucial as it provides a mechanistic framework to better assess how the terrestrial carbon cycle may respond to projected environmental change. This is especially important for northern boreal peatlands, which store approximately one-quarter of the world's soil carbon and yet at the same time are projected to experience some of the greatest environmental changes in the future. Using an experimental setup with automated chambers for measuring NEE (transparent chambers), ecosystem respiration (Reco; opaque chambers) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh; opaque chambers on vegetation-free trenched plots) in combination with continuous measurements of δ13C using near-infrared, diode-laser-based cavity-ring down spectroscopy (Picarro G1101-i analyzer), we partitioned NEE of CO2 into gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and autotrophic respiration (Ra) using two different approaches (i.e., chamber- and isotope-based methods) in a boreal peatland in northern Sweden (Degerö). Given that δ13C was continuously measured in each chamber, we were also able to further partition Rh into soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization by saprotrophic microbes and the oxidation of methane (CH4) by methanotrophic bacteria. During the ten day measurement period (in late July 2014), the average daily NEE flux at the mire was -0.6 g C m-2 d-1. Overall, the two partitioning approaches yielded similar estimates for the different NEE component fluxes. Average daily fluxes of Rh and Ra were similar in magnitude, yet these two flux components showed contrasting diurnal responses: Ra was greatest during the day whereas there was little diurnal variation in Rh. In general, average 13C signature of CO2 efflux from the Rh chambers (-41.1 ± 0.6 ‰) was between the 13C signature of SOM (-25.8 ± 0.6 ‰) and CH4 in pore water (-69.0 ± 0.8 ‰). Assuming that

  4. [CAM in Tillandsia usneoides: Studies on the pathway of carbon and the dependency of CO2-exchange on light intensity, temperature and water content of the plant].

    PubMed

    Kluge, M; Lange, O L; Eichmann, M V; Schmid, R

    1973-12-01

    Tillandsia usneoides, in the common sense a non-succulent plant, exhibits CO2 exchange characterized by net CO2 dark fixation during the night and depression of CO2 exchange during the day. Malate has been demonstrated to accumulate during CO2 dark fixation and to be converted to carbohydrates in light. Thus, T. usneoides exhibits CAM like typical succulents.Net CO2 uptake during the day is increased with net CO2 output being suppressed in duration of time and extent when light intensity increases. Furthermore, a slight increase in CO2 fixation during the following night can be observed if the plants were treated with high light intensity during the previous day.Curves of CO2 exchange typical for CAM are obtained if T. usneoides is kept at 15°C and 20°C. Lower temperature tend to increase CO2 uptake during the day and to inhibit CO2 dark fixation. Temperatures higher than 20°C favour loss of CO2 by respiration, which becomes apparent during the whole day and night at 30°C and higher temperatures. Thus, T. usneoides gains carbon only at temperatures well below 25°C.Net CO2 uptake during the day occurs only in moist plant material and is inhibited in plants cept under water stress conditions. However, CO2 uptake during the night is clearly favoured if the plants dry out. Therefore dry plants gain more carbon than moist ones.Curves of CO2 exchange typical for CAM were also obtained with 13 other species of the genus Tillandsia.The exhibition of CAM by the non-succulent T. usneoides calls for a new definition of the term "succulence" if it is to remain useful in characterizing this metabolic pathway. Because CO2-fixing cells of T. usneoides possess relatively large vacuoles and are relatively poor in chloroplasts, they resembles the assimilatory cells of typical CAM-exhibiting succulents. Therefore, if "succulence" only means the capacity of big vacuoles to store malate, the assimilatory cells in T. usneoides are succulent. It seems to be useful to investigate

  5. Effects of Pre-industrial and Future Atmospheric CO2 concentration on Net Ecosystem Exchange on Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalhori, A. A. M.; Deutschman, D.; Cheng, Y.; Oechel, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystem carbon dioxide flux was studied between 1997 and 2000 under six different CO2 concentrations (250 ppm, 350 ppm, 450 ppm, 550 ppm, 650 ppm, and 750 ppm) using CO2 LT (CO2 controlled, naturally Lit, Temperature controlled) null balance chambers in Southern California chaparral dominated by Adenostoma fasciculatum. The purpose of this study is to evaluate possible effects of altered levels of atmospheric CO2 concentrations on carbon fluxes in a natural chaparral ecosystem. Here we present that the increase of CO2 from near pre-industrial levels of around 250 ppm to recent past CO2 levels of 350 ppm are sufficient to increase NEE. These data indicate that chaparral ecosystems will increase carbon sequestration under elevated CO2 levels and that under elevated atmospheric CO2 there will be greater sink or reduced source of ecosystem CO2 to the atmosphere as a result of improved moisture status. The effect of elevated CO2 on increasing NEE was greatest during the warm and dry season versus the cold and wet season. Further, it appears that increasing atmospheric CO2 will have greater relative effects in areas of increasing water stress as CO2 treatment effects on NEE were greater in modestly dry years and with longer periods of drought. The daily maximum NEE difference between the lowest (250 ppm) and the highest (750 ppm) CO2 concentrations treatments for January was -0.127gC m-2 h-1, but for June was -0.267 gC m-2 h-1 in this study, which was a 210 percent increase. The differences between the lower treatments and higher treatments were greater in the later years indicating there was an accumulative effect. Cumulative of net ecosystem exchange (gC m-2) between 1/1/1997 and 1/1/2001 under six different CO2 concentration is presented in the figure attached.

  6. Loss of Homeostatic Gas Exchange in Eastern Hemlock in Response to Pollution and Rising CO2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayback, S. A.; Gagen, M. H.; Lini, A.; Cogbill, C. V.

    2014-12-01

    In eastern North American, multiple environmental effects, natural and anthropogenic, may impinge upon tree-ring based stable carbon isotope ratios when examined over long time periods. Investigation of relationships between a Vermont (USA) eastern hemlock δ¹³C (1849-2010) chronology and local and regional climate variables, as well as a regional sulfur dioxide time series revealed the decoupling of δ¹³C from significant climate drivers such as May-August maximum temperature (r=0.50, p<0.01) and, raise the possibility that this decoupling can be attributed to foliar and soil leaching of calcium due to acidic deposition since the 1960s. Further, investigation of derived photosynthetic isotope discrimination (Δ¹³C) time series showed an overall decreasing trend in Δ¹³C in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (ca), but with a slight rise in Δ¹³C in the last decade. Comparison of time series of leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (ci), ci/ca, and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) showed homeostatic maintenance of ci levels against ca until 1965 and rising iWUE. Then, ci increased proportional (1965-2000) and later at the same rate as ca (2001-2010) and iWUE leveled off indicating a potential loss of sensitivity to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. This more recent passive response may be an indication of a loss of homeostatic maintenance of stomatal control and/or may be linked to changing climate in the region (e.g., wetter conditions).

  7. Review of the findings of the Ignik Sikumi CO2-CH4 gas hydrate exchange field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian J.; Boswell, Ray; Collett, Tim S.; Farrell, Helen; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; White, Mark D.

    2014-08-01

    The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Trial was conducted by ConocoPhillips in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas, and Metals National Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey within the Prudhoe Bay Unit on the Alaska North Slope (ANS) during 2011 and 2012. The 2011 field program included drilling the vertical test well and performing extensive wireline logging through a thick section of gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs that provided substantial new insight into the nature of ANS gas hydrate occurrences. The 2012 field program involved an extended, scientific field trial conducted within a single vertical well (“huff-and-puff” design) through three primary operational phases: 1) injection of a gaseous phase mixture of CO2, N2, and chemical tracers; 2) flowback conducted at down-hole pressures above the stability threshold for native CH4-hydrate, and 3) extended (30-days) flowback at pressures below the stability threshold of native CH4-hydrate. Ignik Sikumi represents the first field investigation of gas hydrate response to chemical injection, and the longest-duration field reservoir response experiment yet conducted. Full descriptions of the operations and data collected have been fully reported by ConocoPhillips and are available to the science community. The 2011 field program indicated the presence of free water within the gas hydrate reservoir, a finding with significant implications to the design of the exchange trial – most notably the use of a mixed gas injectant. While this decision resulted in a complex chemical environment within the reservoir that greatly tests current experimental and modeling capabilities – without such a mixture, it is apparent that injection could not have been achieved. While interpretation of the field data are continuing, the primary scientific findings and implications of the program are: 1) gas hydrate destabilizing is self-limiting, dispelling any notion of the potential for

  8. Water, energy and CO2 exchange over a seasonally flooded forest in the Sahel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergoat, L.; Le Dantec, V.; Timouk, F.; Hiernaux, P.; Mougin, E.; Manuela, G.; Diawara, M.

    2014-12-01

    In semi-arid areas like the Sahel, perennial water bodies and temporary-flooded lowlands are critical for a number of activities. In some cases, their existence is simply a necessary condition for human societies to establish. They also play an important role in the water and carbon cycle and have strong ecological values. As a result of the strong multi-decadal drought that impacted the Sahel in the 70' to 90', a paradoxical increase of ponds and surface runoff has been observed ("Less rain, more water in the ponds", Gardelle 2010). In spite of this, there are excessively few data documenting the consequence of such a paradox on the water and carbon cycle. Here we present 2 years of eddy covariance data collected over the Kelma flooded Acacia forest in the Sahel (15.50 °N), in the frame of the AMMA project. The flooded forest is compared to the other major component of this Sahelian landscape: a grassland and a rocky outcrop sites. All sites are involved in the ALMIP2 data/LSM model comparison. The seasonal cycle of the flooded forest strongly departs from the surroundings grassland and bare soil sites. Before the rain season, the forest displays the strongest net radiation and sensible heat flux. Air temperature within the canopy reaches extremely high values. During the flood, it turns to the lowest sensible heat flux. In fact, due to an oasis effect, this flux is negative during the late flood. Water fluxes turn from almost zero in the dry season to strong evaporation during the flood, since it uses additional energy provided by negative sensible heat flux. The eddy covariance fluxes are consistent with sap flow data, showing that the flood greatly increases the length of the growing season. CO2 fluxes over the forest were twice as large as over the grassland, and the growing season was also longer, giving a much larger annual photosynthesis. In view of these data and data over surroundings grasslands and bare soil, as well as data from a long-term ecological

  9. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Law, Rachel M.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rayner, Peter J.; Röedenbeck, Christian; Krol, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decade) and the Midwest United States (0.08 PgC/decade). Seasonal cross-correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between net carbon exchange and temperature/precipitation anomalies during the western United States growing season with warmer, dryer conditions leading reduced carbon uptake. This relationship is consistent with "global change-type drought" dynamics which drive increased vegetation mortality, increases in dry woody material, and increased wildfire occurrence. This finding supports the contention that future climate change may increase carbon loss in this region. Similarly, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation are accompanied by decreased net carbon uptake in the Midwestern United States toward the end of the growing season. Additionally, intensified net carbon uptake during the eastern boreal North America growing season is led by increased precipitation anomalies in the previous year, suggesting the influence of "climate memory" carried by regional snowmelt water. The two regions of boreal North America exhibit opposing seasonal carbon-temperature relationships with the eastern half experiencing a net carbon loss with near coincident increases in temperature and the western half showing increased net carbon uptake. The carbon response in the boreal west region lags the temperature anomalies by roughly 6 months. This opposing carbon-temperature relationship in boreal North America may be a combination of different dominant vegetation types, the amount and timing of snowfall, and temperature anomaly differences across boreal North America.

  10. Marsh-atmosphere CO2 exchange in a New England salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbrich, Inke; Giblin, Anne E.

    2015-09-01

    We studied marsh-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide in a high marsh dominated salt marsh during the months of May to October in 2012-2014. Tidal inundation at the site occurred only during biweekly spring tides, during which we observed a reduction in fluxes during day and night. We estimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (Reco) using a modified PLIRTLE model, which requires photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as control variables. NDVI decreased during inundation, when the marsh canopy was submerged. Two-time series of NDVI, including and excluding effects of tidal inundation, allowed us to quantify the flux reduction during inundation. The effect of the flux reduction was small (2-4%) at our site, but is likely higher for marshes at a lower elevation. From May to October, GPP averaged -863 g C m-2, Reco averaged 591 g C m-2, and NEE averaged -291 g C m-2. In 2012, which was an exceptionally warm year, we observed an early start of net carbon uptake but higher respiration than in 2013 and 2014 due to higher-air temperature in August. This resulted in the lowest NEE during the study period (-255.9±6.9 g C m-2). The highest seasonal net uptake (-336.5±6.3 g C m-2) was observed in 2013, which was linked to higher rainfall and temperature in July. Mean sea level was very similar during all 3 years which allowed us to isolate the importance of climatic factors.

  11. Tracking CO2 flux: Seasonal Patterns, Net Ecosystem Exchange and Site Comparisons of Environmental Variables at a Boreal Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, G.; Bubier, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    Peatlands play a significant role in the global carbon cycle sequestering approximately one-third of the global pool of soil carbon. An increased understanding of the carbon cycle in these critical ecosystems is imperative to further our comprehension of the role they play in future global warming. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide was measured at Mer Bleue Bog in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from May through August 2000. Dominant species at Mer Bleue included Ledum groenlandicum, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Eriophorum vaginatum, Carex oligosperma and Sphagnum species. In order to understand the controls and variability of NEE a range of sites were considered, including a beaver pond, a bog and a poor fen. This study aimed at comparing overall seasonal patterns and ranges of NEE, photosynthesis and respiration and understanding the relationships with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), water table, temperature, species composition and plant biomass. A clear lexan and teflon film climate-controlled chamber was used to measure the rate of respiration and photosynthesis on a bi-weekly basis in all sites. The chamber was attached to a LI-COR 6200 portable photosynthesis system, which included a LI-6250 infrared gas analyzer, quantum sensor and data logger. Shrouds of different mesh sizes were used to regulate the amount of light entering the chamber in order to measure NEE at a wide range of PAR. An opaque shroud was used to measure ecosystem respiration. Photosynthesis was calculated as the difference between NEE and respiration. Seasonal patterns showed a peak season from June 23rd through July 15th where higher PAR and temperature levels led to increased photosynthesis and respiration measurements. Although NEE rates at the sites varied, during peak season NEE ranged in increasing order: bog hummock and hollow (6 to -6.5 μ mol CO2 m{-2} s{-1}) < beaver pond (6 to -7 μ mol CO2 m{-2} s{-1}) < poor fen (10 to -8 μ mol CO2 m{-2}s {-1}).

  12. CO2 and O2 Gas Exchange in an Experimental Model of the Btlss with Plant Wastes and Human Wastes Included in the Mass Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    2016-07-01

    Mass exchange processes in the new experimental model of the biotechnical life support system (BTLSS) constructed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS have a higher degree of closure than in the previous BTLSS, and, thus, the technologies employed in the new system are more complex. Therefore, before closing the loops of mass exchange processes for several months, the new model of the BTLSS was run to match the technologies employed to cultivate plants and the methods used to involve inedible plant parts and human wastes into the mass exchange with the CO2 absorption rate and the amount of the resulting O2. The plant compartment included vegetables grown on the soil-like substrate (SLS) (chufa, beet, carrot, radish, and lettuce), plants hydroponically grown on expanded clay aggregate (wheat, soybean, watercress), and plants grown in aquaculture (common glasswort and watercress). Nutrient solutions for hydroponically grown plants were prepared by using products of physicochemical mineralization of human wastes. Growing the plants in aquaculture enabled maintaining NaCl concentration in the irrigation solution for hydroponically grown plants at a level safe for the plants. Inedible plant biomass was added to the SLS. Three cycles of closing the system were run, which lasted 7, 7, and 10 days. The comparison of the amount of CO2 fed into the system over 24 h (simulating human respiration) and the amount of CO2 daily exhaled by a 70-kg middle-aged human showed that between 1% and 4% of the daily emissions of CO2 were assimilated in the system, and about 3% of the average human daily O2 requirement accumulated in the system. Plant productivity was between 4 and 4.7% of the human daily vegetable requirement, or between 3 and 3.5% of the total human daily food requirement. Thus, testing of the BTLSS showed a match between the technologies employed to arrange mass exchange processes. This study was supported by the grant of the Russian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-14-00599).

  13. Disentangling leaf area and environmental effects on the response of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange to diffuse radiation.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Cernusca, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about why the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of some ecosystems is less sensitive to diffuse radiation than others and about the role other environmental factors play in determining the response of NEE to diffuse radiation. Using a six-year data set from a temperate mountain grassland in Austria we show that differences between ecosystems may be reconciled based on their green area index (GAI; square meter green plant area per square meter ground area) - the sensitivity to diffuse radiation increasing with GAI. Our data suggest diffuse radiation to have a negligible influence on NEE below a GAI of 2 m(2) m(-2). Changes in air/soil temperature and air humidity concurrent with the fraction of diffuse radiation were found to amplify the sensitivity of the investigated temperate mountain grassland ecosystem to diffuse radiation.

  14. CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange of a triticale field: I. Leaf level porometry and upscaling to canopy level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, J.; Lösch, R.; Meixner, F. X.; Ammann, C.

    1996-05-01

    Within the frame of an extended field experiment the CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange between a triticale field and the atmosphere was measured during the period between heading and harvest in the summer of 1995. Diurnal courses of H 2O loss, CO 2 gain and leaf conductance were obtained together with microclimatic parameters for leaves of different insertion levels. Patterns of dependence of leaf gas exchange on microclimatic conditions were determined. Based on the results of porometric measurements and crop structural parameters (LAI) gas exchange was scaled up to canopy level.

  15. CO2 fluxes exchanged by a 4-year crop rotation cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubinet, M.; Moureaux, C.; Bodson, B.; Dufranne, D.; Heinesch, B.; Suleau, M.; Vancutsem, F.; Vilret, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study analyses carbon fluxes exchanged by a production crop during a four year cycle. Between 2004 and 2008, the successive crops were sugar beet, winter wheat, potato and again winter wheat. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chamber, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Autotrophic Respiration, Heterotrophic Respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). The whole cycle budget showed that NEE was negative and the rotation behaved as a sink of 1.59 kgC m-2 over the 4-year rotation. However, if exports were deducted from the budget, the crop would become a small source of 0.22 (+/- 0.14) kgC m-2, which also suggests that the crop soil carbon content decreased. This could partly be explained by the crop management, as neither farmyard manure nor slurry had been applied to the crop for more than 10 years and as cereal straw had been systematically exported for livestock. This result is also strongly dependent on climate: the fluxes were subjected to a large inter-annual variability due to differences between crops but also to climate variability. In particular, the mild winter and the dry spring underwent in 2007 induced an increase of the biomass fraction that returned to the soil, at the expense of harvested biomass. If 2007 had been a ‘normal' year, the carbon emission by the crop rotation would have been twice as great. This is analysed more in detail in a companion presentation (Dufranne et al., this session). The impacts of some farmer interventions were quantified. In particular, the impact of ploughing was found to be limited both in intensity (1 to 2 micromol m-2 s-1) and duration (not more than 1 day). Seasonal budgets showed that, during cropping periods, the TER/GPP ratio varied between 40 and 60% and that TER was dominated mainly by the

  16. Pan-Arctic modelling of net ecosystem exchange of CO2

    PubMed Central

    Shaver, G. R.; Rastetter, E. B.; Salmon, V.; Street, L. E.; van de Weg, M. J.; Rocha, A.; van Wijk, M. T.; Williams, M.

    2013-01-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of C varies greatly among Arctic ecosystems. Here, we show that approximately 75 per cent of this variation can be accounted for in a single regression model that predicts NEE as a function of leaf area index (LAI), air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The model was developed in concert with a survey of the light response of NEE in Arctic and subarctic tundras in Alaska, Greenland, Svalbard and Sweden. Model parametrizations based on data collected in one part of the Arctic can be used to predict NEE in other parts of the Arctic with accuracy similar to that of predictions based on data collected in the same site where NEE is predicted. The principal requirement for the dataset is that it should contain a sufficiently wide range of measurements of NEE at both high and low values of LAI, air temperature and PAR, to properly constrain the estimates of model parameters. Canopy N content can also be substituted for leaf area in predicting NEE, with equal or greater accuracy, but substitution of soil temperature for air temperature does not improve predictions. Overall, the results suggest a remarkable convergence in regulation of NEE in diverse ecosystem types throughout the Arctic. PMID:23836790

  17. Net CO2 and water exchanges of trees and grasses in a semi-arid region (Gourma, Mali)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dantec, Valérie; Kergoat, Laurent; Timouk, Franck; Hiernaux, Pierre; Mougin, Eric

    2010-05-01

    An improved understanding of plant and soil processes is critical to predict land surface-atmosphere water exchanges, especially in semi-arid environments, where knowledge is still severely lacking. Within the frame of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Project (AMMA), eddy covariance and sapflow stations have been installed to document the intensity, the temporal variability and the main drivers of net CO2 fluxes, water fluxes and contribution of the trees to these fluxes in a pastoral Sahelian landscape. Indeed, although the importance of vegetation in the West African monsoon system has long been postulated, extremely few data were available sofar to test and develop land surface models. In particular, data documenting seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of vegetation/atmosphere exchanges did not exist at 15° N in West Africa before AMMA. The site is located in the Gourma, Mali. Vegetation in this area is sparse and mainly composed of annual grasses and forbs, and trees. Vegetation is organized according to soil type and lateral water redistribution, with bare soil with scattered trees on shallow soils and rocky outcrops (35% of the area), annual grasses and scattered trees on sandy soils (65% of the area), and more dense canopies of grasses and trees growing in valley bottoms over clay soil. To quantify tree transpiration in the overall evapotranspiration flux, sapflow measurements, associated to soil moisture measurements, have been conducted on the main tree species (Acacia senegal, A. seyal, A. raddiana, Combretum glutinosum, Balanites aegyptiaca) in a grassland site and in an open forest site, where eddy covariance fluxes measured the total flux. Using this dataset, we have studied the effects of plant diversity on carbon and water fluxes at the foot-print scale and seasonal dynamics of fluxes due to plant phenology and variations of soil water content (SWC). Carbon fluxes were documented as well, over two years. NEE was close to 0 during the dry season

  18. Tuning a physically-based model of the air-sea gas transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. D.; Robinson, I. S.; Woolf, D. K.

    Air-sea gas transfer velocities are estimated for one year using a 1-D upper-ocean model (GOTM) and a modified version of the NOAA-COARE transfer velocity parameterization. Tuning parameters are evaluated with the aim of bringing the physically based NOAA-COARE parameterization in line with current estimates, based on simple wind-speed dependent models derived from bomb-radiocarbon inventories and deliberate tracer release experiments. We suggest that A = 1.3 and B = 1.0, for the sub-layer scaling parameter and the bubble mediated exchange, respectively, are consistent with the global average CO 2 transfer velocity k. Using these parameters and a simple 2nd order polynomial approximation, with respect to wind speed, we estimate a global annual average k for CO 2 of 16.4 ± 5.6 cm h -1 when using global mean winds of 6.89 m s -1 from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 1954-2000. The tuned model can be used to predict the transfer velocity of any gas, with appropriate treatment of the dependence on molecular properties including the strong solubility dependence of bubble-mediated transfer. For example, an initial estimate of the global average transfer velocity of DMS (a relatively soluble gas) is only 11.9 cm h -1 whilst for less soluble methane the estimate is 18.0 cm h -1.

  19. Decadal trends in the seasonal-cycle amplitude of terrestrial CO2 exchange resulting from the ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models

    DOE PAGES

    Ito, Akihiko; Inatomi, Motoko; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; King, Anthony W.; Mao, Jiafu; Wei, Yaxing; Post, W. Mac; et al

    2016-05-12

    The seasonal-cycle amplitude (SCA) of the atmosphere–ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rate is a useful metric of the responsiveness of the terrestrial biosphere to environmental variations. It is unclear, however, what underlying mechanisms are responsible for the observed increasing trend of SCA in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Using output data from the Multi-scale Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), we investigated how well the SCA of atmosphere–ecosystem CO2 exchange was simulated with 15 contemporary terrestrial ecosystem models during the period 1901–2010. Also, we made attempt to evaluate the contributions of potential mechanisms such as atmospheric CO2, climate, land-use, and nitrogen deposition, throughmore » factorial experiments using different combinations of forcing data. Under contemporary conditions, the simulated global-scale SCA of the cumulative net ecosystem carbon flux of most models was comparable in magnitude with the SCA of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Results from factorial simulation experiments showed that elevated atmospheric CO2 exerted a strong influence on the seasonality amplification. When the model considered not only climate change but also land-use and atmospheric CO2 changes, the majority of the models showed amplification trends of the SCAs of photosynthesis, respiration, and net ecosystem production (+0.19 % to +0.50 % yr–1). In the case of land-use change, it was difficult to separate the contribution of agricultural management to SCA because of inadequacies in both the data and models. The simulated amplification of SCA was approximately consistent with the observational evidence of the SCA in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Large inter-model differences remained, however, in the simulated global tendencies and spatial patterns of CO2 exchanges. Further studies are required to identify a consistent explanation for the simulated and observed amplification trends, including their underlying

  20. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2: evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voelker, Steven L.; Brooks, J. Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Bader, Martin K.-F.; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M.; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dawson, Todd E.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P.; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W.; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D.; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Plumpton, Heather J.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R.; Siegwolf, Rolf T.W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Talhelm, Alan F.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Van De Water, Peter K.; Ward, Joy K.; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2], ca, is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2], ci, a constant drawdown in CO2(ca − ci), and a constant ci/ca. These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca. The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca. To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ13C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca-induced changes in ci/ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca − ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci. Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca, when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca, when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain.

  1. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2 : evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Steven L; Brooks, J Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C; Anderson, Rebecca; Bader, Martin K-F; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L; Dawson, Todd E; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina; Plumpton, Heather J; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Stambaugh, Michael C; Talhelm, Alan F; Tardif, Jacques C; Van de Water, Peter K; Ward, Joy K; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2 ], ca , is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2 ], ci , a constant drawdown in CO2 (ca  - ci ), and a constant ci /ca . These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca . The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca . To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca -induced changes in ci /ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca  - ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci . Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca , when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca , when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain.

  2. A dynamic leaf gas-exchange strategy is conserved in woody plants under changing ambient CO2 : evidence from carbon isotope discrimination in paleo and CO2 enrichment studies.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Steven L; Brooks, J Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C; Anderson, Rebecca; Bader, Martin K-F; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Becklin, Katie M; Beerling, David; Bert, Didier; Betancourt, Julio L; Dawson, Todd E; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guyette, Richard P; Körner, Christian; Leavitt, Steven W; Linder, Sune; Marshall, John D; Mildner, Manuel; Ogée, Jérôme; Panyushkina, Irina; Plumpton, Heather J; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Saurer, Matthias; Smith, Andrew R; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Stambaugh, Michael C; Talhelm, Alan F; Tardif, Jacques C; Van de Water, Peter K; Ward, Joy K; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO2 ], ca , is expected to affect stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange of woody plants, thus influencing energy fluxes as well as carbon (C), water, and nutrient cycling of forests. Researchers have proposed various strategies for stomatal regulation of leaf gas-exchange that include maintaining a constant leaf internal [CO2 ], ci , a constant drawdown in CO2 (ca  - ci ), and a constant ci /ca . These strategies can result in drastically different consequences for leaf gas-exchange. The accuracy of Earth systems models depends in part on assumptions about generalizable patterns in leaf gas-exchange responses to varying ca . The concept of optimal stomatal behavior, exemplified by woody plants shifting along a continuum of these strategies, provides a unifying framework for understanding leaf gas-exchange responses to ca . To assess leaf gas-exchange regulation strategies, we analyzed patterns in ci inferred from studies reporting C stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C) or photosynthetic discrimination (∆) in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms that grew across a range of ca spanning at least 100 ppm. Our results suggest that much of the ca -induced changes in ci /ca occurred across ca spanning 200 to 400 ppm. These patterns imply that ca  - ci will eventually approach a constant level at high ca because assimilation rates will reach a maximum and stomatal conductance of each species should be constrained to some minimum level. These analyses are not consistent with canalization toward any single strategy, particularly maintaining a constant ci . Rather, the results are consistent with the existence of a broadly conserved pattern of stomatal optimization in woody angiosperms and gymnosperms. This results in trees being profligate water users at low ca , when additional water loss is small for each unit of C gain, and increasingly water-conservative at high ca , when photosystems are saturated and water loss is large for each unit C gain

  3. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) enhances CO2 exchange rates in freshwater Marsh ecosystems in the Florida everglades.

    PubMed

    Malone, Sparkle L; Staudhammer, Christina L; Oberbauer, Steven F; Olivas, Paulo; Ryan, Michael G; Schedlbauer, Jessica L; Loescher, Henry W; Starr, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the relationships between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), water level, precipitation patterns and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates in the freshwater wetland ecosystems of the Florida Everglades. Data was obtained over a 5-year study period (2009-2013) from two freshwater marsh sites located in Everglades National Park that differ in hydrology. At the short-hydroperiod site (Taylor Slough; TS) and the long-hydroperiod site (Shark River Slough; SRS) fluctuations in precipitation patterns occurred with changes in ENSO phase, suggesting that extreme ENSO phases alter Everglades hydrology which is known to have a substantial influence on ecosystem carbon dynamics. Variations in both ENSO phase and annual net CO2 exchange rates co-occurred with changes in wet and dry season length and intensity. Combined with site-specific seasonality in CO2 exchanges rates, El Niño and La Niña phases magnified season intensity and CO2 exchange rates at both sites. At TS, net CO2 uptake rates were higher in the dry season, whereas SRS had greater rates of carbon sequestration during the wet season. As La Niña phases were concurrent with drought years and extended dry seasons, TS became a greater sink for CO2 on an annual basis (-11 to -110 g CO2 m-2 yr-1) compared to El Niño and neutral years (-5 to -43.5 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). SRS was a small source for CO2 annually (1.81 to 80 g CO2 m-2 yr-1) except in one exceptionally wet year that was associated with an El Niño phase (-16 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Considering that future climate predictions suggest a higher frequency and intensity in El Niño and La Niña phases, these results indicate that changes in extreme ENSO phases will significantly alter CO2 dynamics in the Florida Everglades.

  4. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Enhances CO2 Exchange Rates in Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems in the Florida Everglades

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Sparkle L.; Staudhammer, Christina L.; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Olivas, Paulo; Ryan, Michael G.; Schedlbauer, Jessica L.; Loescher, Henry W.; Starr, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the relationships between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), water level, precipitation patterns and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates in the freshwater wetland ecosystems of the Florida Everglades. Data was obtained over a 5-year study period (2009–2013) from two freshwater marsh sites located in Everglades National Park that differ in hydrology. At the short-hydroperiod site (Taylor Slough; TS) and the long-hydroperiod site (Shark River Slough; SRS) fluctuations in precipitation patterns occurred with changes in ENSO phase, suggesting that extreme ENSO phases alter Everglades hydrology which is known to have a substantial influence on ecosystem carbon dynamics. Variations in both ENSO phase and annual net CO2 exchange rates co-occurred with changes in wet and dry season length and intensity. Combined with site-specific seasonality in CO2 exchanges rates, El Niño and La Niña phases magnified season intensity and CO2 exchange rates at both sites. At TS, net CO2 uptake rates were higher in the dry season, whereas SRS had greater rates of carbon sequestration during the wet season. As La Niña phases were concurrent with drought years and extended dry seasons, TS became a greater sink for CO2 on an annual basis (−11 to −110 g CO2 m−2 yr−1) compared to El Niño and neutral years (−5 to −43.5 g CO2 m−2 yr−1). SRS was a small source for CO2 annually (1.81 to 80 g CO2 m−2 yr−1) except in one exceptionally wet year that was associated with an El Niño phase (−16 g CO2 m−2 yr−1). Considering that future climate predictions suggest a higher frequency and intensity in El Niño and La Niña phases, these results indicate that changes in extreme ENSO phases will significantly alter CO2 dynamics in the Florida Everglades. PMID:25521299

  5. CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange of a triticale field: II. Micrometeorological flux studies and comparison with upscaling from porometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Meixner, F. X.; Busch, J.; Lösch, R.

    1996-05-01

    During June and July 1995 a field experiment was conducted at a 9 ha field of cereal crop (triticale) located in Bellheim, Germany. Our investigation focused on the exchange processes of H 2O and CO 2 and micrometeorological quantities within and above the triticale canopy. Data were collected by porometer measurements at leaf scale, and canopy scale flux measurements using eddy correlation techniques. Due to the senescent state of triticale, the CO 2 exchange was generally small. The micrometeorological flux data are compared to estimates which were upscaled from porometer measurements. The results of one particular day are selected for presentation. The good agreement for both the CO 2 and H 2O fluxes, indicates that a relatively simple and direct upscaling procedure from single leaf porometry data may correctly describe the net exchange of an entire canopy.

  6. Increasing NDVI values in northern Alaska: studies that mix shrub density, spectral and CO2 exchange measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Smith, A.; Lewis, A.; Sullivan, P.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Delineating the mechanisms and consequences of changes in tundra landscapes is central to predicting the functional ecology of Alaska in the 21st Century. Evidence has been mounting during the last decade that shrub communities are expanding in the Arctic and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values which measure surface greenness are rising. Several studies have suggested that NDVI increases are being driven by increases in shrub abundance. While it is clear that NDVI has increased across vegetation types, it is not clear that NDVI values are increasing in moist acidic tundra (MAT), the most extensive vegetation type in arctic Alaska and the one most likely to be changed by global warming. The MAT is important to large mammal herbivores such as caribou which provide subsistence for indigenous people. The focus of this research was to determine what rising NDVI values actually mean in the MAT. The degree to which tundra community composition affects NDVI is still very poorly understood. In order to clarify the role of shrub encroachment per se as opposed to other functional groups in driving increases in NDVI, we measured functional group composition in moist acidic tundra in conjunction with hand-held measures of NDVI and direct CO2 exchange measurements to explicitly link spectral properties, shrub, graminoid and bryophyte density and trace gas feedbacks to atmospheric chemistry. Point frame data shows a shrub coverage of Betula nana (Dwarf Birch) and Salix pulchra (Diamond Leaf Willow) combined of 5% to 35% in MAT. Our results seem to indicate that high shrub density (>30%) corresponds to peak season NDVI values greater than .75 whereas low shrub density correspond to values below .65 (R2=.66). Furthermore, NDVI is closely correlated with canopy leaf area and greater leaf area is associated with higher rates of gross and net ecosystem CO2 uptake.

  7. Biophysical controls on light response of net CO2 exchange in a winter wheat field in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaojuan; Li, Jun; Yu, Qiang; Lin, Zhonghui

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impacts of biophysical factors on light response of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), CO2 flux was measured using the eddy covariance technique in a winter wheat field in the North China Plain from 2003 to 2006. A rectangular hyperbolic function was used to describe NEE light response. Maximum photosynthetic capacity (P max) was 46.6 ± 4.0 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and initial light use efficiency (α) 0.059 ± 0.006 µmol µmol(-1) in April-May, two or three times as high as those in March. Stepwise multiple linear regressions showed that P max increased with the increase in leaf area index (LAI), canopy conductance (g c) and air temperature (T a) but declined with increasing vapor pressure deficit (VPD) (P<0.001). The factors influencing P max were sorted as LAI, g c, T a and VPD. α was proportional to ln(LAI), g c, T a and VPD (P<0.001). The effects of LAI, g c and T a on α were larger than that of VPD. When T a>25°C or VPD>1.1-1.3 kPa, NEE residual increased with the increase in T a and VPD (P<0.001), indicating that temperature and water stress occurred. When g c was more than 14 mm s(-1) in March and May and 26 mm s(-1) in April, the NEE residuals decline disappeared, or even turned into an increase in g c (P<0.01), implying shifts from stomatal limitation to non-stomatal limitation on NEE. Although the differences between sunny and cloudy sky conditions were unremarkable for light response parameters, simulated net CO2 uptake under the same radiation intensity averaged 18% higher in cloudy days than in sunny days during the year 2003-2006. It is necessary to include these effects in relevant carbon cycle models to improve our estimation of carbon balance at regional and global scales.

  8. pCO2 distribution and CO2 flux on the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea during summer 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Baoxiao; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Ma, Qingxia

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of pH, total alkalinity (TA), partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) and air-sea CO2 flux ( FCO2) were conducted for the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) during August 2011. Variations in pCO2 distribution and FCO2 magnitude during the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) (2003-2009), and the potential effects of the TGD on the air-sea CO2 exchange were examined. Results showed that the ECS acts as an overall CO2 sink during summer, with pCO2 ranging from 107 to 585 μatm and an average FCO2 of -6.39 mmol/(m2 ·d). Low pCO2 (<350 μatm) levels were observed at the central shelf (28°-32°N, 123°-125.5°E) where most CO2-absorption occurred. High pCO2 (>420 μatm) levels were found in the Changjiang estuary and Hangzhou Bay which acted as the main CO2 source. A negative relationship between pCO2 and salinity ( R 2=0.722 0) in the estuary zone indicated the predominant effect of the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) on the seawater CO2 system, whereas a positive relationship ( R 2=0.744 8) in the offshore zone revealed the influence of the Taiwan Current Warm Water (TCWW). Together with the historical data, our results indicated that the CO2 sink has shown a shift southwest while FCO2 exhibited dramatic fluctuation during the construction of the TGD, which is located in the middle reaches of the Changjiang. These variations probably reflect fluctuation in the Changjiang runoff, nutrient import, phytoplankton productivity, and sediment input, which are likely to have been caused by the operations of the TGD. Nevertheless, the potential influence of the TGD on the CO2 flux in the ECS is worthy of further study.

  9. Hydrological Controls on Ecosystem CO2 and CH4 Exchange in a MIXED Tundra and a FEN within an Arctic Landscape UNDER Current and Future Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R. F.; Humphreys, E.; Lafleur, P.

    2014-12-01

    Variation in CO2 and CH4 exchange in years with contrasting weather is strongly affected by hydrology in landscapes underlain by permafrost. Hypotheses for this variation were incorporated into the ecosystem model ecosys which simulated CO2 and CH4 fluxes along a topographic gradient within an arctic landscape at Daring Lake, NWT, Canada. Fluxes modelled at mixed tundra and fen sites within the gradient were compared with CO2 fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers from 2006 to 2009, and with CH4 fluxes measured with surface chambers in 2008. Slopes and correlation coefficients from regressions of modelled vs. measured CO2 fluxes were 1.0 ± 0.1 and 0.7 - 0.8 for both sites in all years. At the mixed tundra site, rises in net CO2 uptake in warmer years with earlier snowmelt were constrained by midafternoon declines in CO2 influxes when vapor pressure deficits (D) exceeded 1.5 kPa, and by rises in CO2 effluxes with greater active layer depth (ALD). Consequently annual net CO2 uptake at this site rose little with warming. At the fen site, CO2 influxes declined less with D and CO2 effluxes rose less with warming, so that rises in net CO2 uptake in warmer years were greater than those at the mixed tundra site. The greater declines in CO2 influxes with warming at the mixed tundra site were modelled from greater soil-plant-atmosphere water potential gradients that developed in drier soil, and the smaller rises in CO2 effluxes with warming at the fen site were modelled from O2 constraints to heterotrophic and below-ground autotrophic respiration that limited their responses to greater ALD. Modelled and measured CH4 exchange during July and August indicated very small influxes at the mixed tundra site, and larger emissions at the fen site. Emissions of CH4 modelled during soil freezing in October - November contributed about one-third of the annual total, and so should be included in estimates of annual emissions. These contrasting responses to warming under current

  10. Metal loading determines the stabilization pathway for Co2+ in titanate nanowires: ion exchange vs. cluster formation.

    PubMed

    Madarász, D; Pótári, G; Sápi, A; László, B; Csudai, C; Oszkó, A; Kukovecz, Á; Erdőhelyi, A; Kónya, Z; Kiss, J

    2013-10-14

    Co nanoparticles were produced and characterized on protonated titanate nanowires. Co deposits were obtained after low-temperature decomposition of Co2(CO)8 on titanate nanostructures. The carbonylation was carried out by vapor-phase adsorption in a fluidized bed reactor and the decarbonylation processes were followed by FT-IR spectroscopy and microbalance combined with temperature programmed reaction mass spectrometry. The band gap of Co-decorated titanate nanostructures determined by UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy decreased sharply from 3.14 eV to 2.41 eV with increasing Co content up to 2 wt%. The Co-decorated titanate morphology was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction (ED). The chemical environment of Co deposition was studied by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A certain amount of cobalt underwent an ion exchange process. Higher cobalt loadings led to the formation of nanosized-dispersed particles complexed to oxygen vacancies. The average sizes were found to be mostly between 2 and 6 nm. This size distribution and the measured band gap could be favorable regimes for some important low-temperature thermal- and photo-induced catalytic reactions.

  11. Characterizing water, energy and CO2 exchange for a Sky Island subalpine forest in the southwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Mitic, C. M.; Shuttleworth, J.; Harlow, C.; Bales, R.

    2003-04-01

    well as time, and is directly related to canopy characteristics and aspect. An important observation was that during the pre-monsoon season, the trees basically shut down, with the exception of brief periods in the morning and or afternoon where CO2 uptake directly correlates with low rates of evapotranspiration. For the most part of the day evapotranspiration (E) fluctuates around zero, and becomes negative (moisture been extracted from the atmosphere, i.e. advection) around noon. This means that the evaporative fraction (E/E+H) is zero, Bowen Ratio (H/E) is extremely large, and radiative heating i.e. sensible heat flux, dominates the energy budget. During the post-monsoon period (September) the ecosystem recovers very rapidly with Bowen Ratios of approximately one and high levels of CO2 uptake. Evapotranspiration appears to be responsive to multiple thresholds of vapor pressure deficit (vpd), peaking at vpd below 1 kPa, going to a reduced plateau between 1 and 2 kPa and shutting down at vpds greater than 2 kPa.

  12. The effects of soil and air temperature on CO2 exchange and net biomass accumulation in Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Rasilo, Terhi; Villemot, Julie; Ilvesniemi, Hannu

    2012-06-01

    Soil temperature is proposed to affect the photosynthetic rate and carbon allocation in boreal trees through sink limitation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on CO(2) exchange, biomass partitioning and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi of boreal tree species. We measured carbon allocation, above- and below-ground CO(2) exchange and the species composition of associated ECM fungi in the rhizosphere of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies K.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings grown in soil maintained at 7-12, 12-15 and 16-22 °C. We found increased root biomass and photosynthetic rate at higher soil temperatures, but simultaneously with photosynthesis rate, higher temperature generally increased soil respiration as well as shoot, and root and rhizosphere respiration. The net CO(2) exchange and seedling biomass did not increase significantly with increasing temperature due to a concomitant increase in carbon assimilation and respiration rates. The 2-month-long growth period in different soil temperatures did not alter the ECM fungi species composition and the below-ground carbon sink strength did not seem to be directly related to ECM biomass and species composition in any of the tree species. Ectomycorrhizal species composition and number of mycorrhiza did not explain the CO(2) exchange results at different temperatures.

  13. Implications of a Changing Arctic on Summertime Surface Seawater pCO2 Variations in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgers, T.; Miller, L. A.; Thomas, H.; Else, B. G. T.; Gosselin, M.; Papakyriakou, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic marine carbonate chemistry and rates of air-sea CO2 exchange are anticipated to be affected by current changes in sea-ice structure and extent, freshwater inputs, ocean circulation patterns, and the seasonality of phytoplankton blooms. This study examines how such changes will impact rates of air-sea CO2 exchange in northern Baffin Bay, Nares Strait, and the eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. This complex oceanographic region includes the North Water polynya; one of the most biologically productive areas in the Arctic Ocean, and the convergence site of the warm West Greenland Current with cold exported Arctic waters. Continuous measurements of atmospheric and surface seawater CO2 (pCO2) were collected onboard the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen during its 2013 and 2014 summer cruises. Surface seawater pCO2 displayed considerable variability (145 - 389 ppm), but never exceeded atmospheric concentrations. Calculated CO2 fluxes ranged from 0 to -45 mmol m-2 day-1 (oceanic uptake), and were estimated using the Sweeney et al. (2007) parameterization with in-situ wind speed measurements. Ancillary measurements of chlorophyll a reveal low productivity in surface waters during mid-summer with isolated sub-surface blooms. This is likely the result of nutrient limitation within the highly stratified polar mixed layer (PML). Measurements of stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) and total alkalinity were used to estimate freshwater inputs (sea-ice melt vs. meteoric water) to the PML. These and in-situ observations of sea ice cover were used to interpret seawater pCO2 variations. Surface waters influenced by sea-ice melt exhibit lower pCO2 than those influenced by meteoric water. The results of this investigation shed light on the future role of this region as a summertime sink of atmospheric CO2.

  14. Air-Sea Interactions over Lakes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Alejandro; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2016-10-01

    The exchange of methane between the atmosphere and surface liquid reservoirs dominates the short time-scale methanological cycle. In this study, previous two-dimensional simulations of the exchange of methane vapor, sensible heat and momentum between the atmosphere and lakes are updated with the inclusion of radiative forcing, three dimensions, and realistic coastlines. Titan's air-sea exchange in two dimensions indicated that the exchange process was self-limiting. Evaporation from lakes produced a shallow but extremely stable marine layer that suppressed turbulent exchange. Furthermore, the circulation associated with the higher buoyancy of methane-rich atmosphere over the lake was offset by the oppositely directed thermal sea breeze circulation, which muted the mean wind. Two major weaknesses of this previous work were the lack of radiative forcing and the imposition of two dimensionality, which limited the full range of dynamical solutions. Based on early theoretical studies, it was thought that magnitude of turbulent energy flux exchanges would be much larger than radiative fluxes, thereby justifying the neglect of radiation, but the two-dimensional simulations indicated that this was not a valid assumption. The dynamical limitations of two-dimensional simulations are well known. Vorticity stretching (i.e., circulation intensification through vertical motion) is not possible and it is also not possible to produce dynamically balanced gradient wind-type circulations. As well, the irregular shape of a realistic coastline cannot be expressed in two dimensions, and these realistic structures will generally induce complex convergence and divergence circulations in the atmosphere. The impact of radiative forcing and the addition of the third dimension on the air-sea exchange are presented.

  15. Atmospheric N deposition and feedbacks on net ecosystem CO2 exchange at a semi-natural peatland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2013-04-01

    Large areas of Northern Germany have been converted from natural peat bogs to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. This is the case at our study site - a semi-natural raised bog - which although located in a natural park, is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and highly emitting animal husbandry farms. In this study, we use a combined approach of two independent methods to quantify atmospheric N deposition. We further investigate possible feedbacks of seasonal variation in N deposition on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Fluxes of ammonia (NH3) and its atmospheric reactants are measured by a KAPS-denuder system. Additionally, total N input from the atmosphere into a soil-plant model ecosystem is investigated by a 15N dilution method called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI). With this approach, we allocate atmospheric N after its uptake by the ecosystem into its different fractions and investigate both plant-species effects (Lolium multiflorum, Eriophorum vaginatum) and influences of the plant biomass production induced by different amounts of fertilizer addition. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements are carried out to measure NEE. Maximum NH3 depositions of 0.41 ± 0.04 kg ha-1 week-1 were found in spring 2012. The proportion of fluxes of other N compounds such as HNO3, aerosol NH4 and NO3 was usually around 20 % of total dry N measured by KAPS denuders. In total, dry N deposition was 11.2 ± 0.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 over the first year of experiments. Complemented with wet N measurements using bulk samplers, total N depositions of about 25.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 were found. The mean atmospheric N uptake determined with the ITNI system was 3.99 ± 0.82 mg N g-1 dry weight from July to October 2011. About two third of total deposited airborne N was allocated in above-ground plant biomass and roots. Upscaling of data based on pot

  16. Vertical variation in canopy structure and CO(2) exchange of oak-maple forests: influence of ozone, nitrogen, and other factors on simulated canopy carbon gain.

    PubMed

    Reich, P. B.; Ellsworth, D. S.; Kloeppel, B. D.; Fownes, J. H.; Gower, S. T.

    1990-12-01

    Stand-level and physiological measurements were made for oak and maple species common in Wisconsin forests. Scaling relationships were identified to allow the development of a model for estimating net carbon exchange at the levels of a leaf, canopy stratum, and whole canopy. Functional relationships were determined between tissue gas exchange rates and perceived controlling variables. Vertical variation in leaf properties and in the distribution of foliage by weight, area, and species were characterized for several closed canopy forests. Forest canopies were divided into four horizontal strata to develop predictive models for canopy gas exchange. Leaf and canopy layer carbon dioxide exchange rates were predicted using leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per area, ozone exposure, predawn leaf water potential, photosynthetically active radiation, and vapor pressure deficit as driving variables. Direct measurements of leaf gas exchange were used to validate the components (subroutines) of the model. Net carbon dioxide exchange was simulated for canopy layers at 5-min intervals over a diurnal time course. Simulations of canopy CO(2) exchange were made for a 30-m tall, mixed oak-maple forest under hypothetical ambient and greater-than-ambient ozone pollution regimes. Daily canopy net CO(2) exchange was predicted for seven forest stands and compared with estimates of aboveground net primary production, N availability, leaf area index, and canopy N.

  17. Interactive effects between nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2 on growth and gas exchange of papaya seedling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevation of CO2 in the atmosphere will change requirements for minerals, mainly nitrogen, altering the relationship between nutrients demand and growth of the plants. We evaluated the interacting effects between CO2 concentrations (390 or 750 µL L-1) and nitrogen levels (3mM or 8mM) on the growth, ...

  18. The Simulation of the Opposing Fluxes of Latent Heat and CO2 over Various Land-Use Types: Coupling a Gas Exchange Model to a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyers, Mark; Krüger, Andreas; Werner, Christiane; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Zacharias, Stefan; Kerschgens, Michael

    2011-04-01

    A mesoscale meteorological model (FOOT3DK) is coupled with a gas exchange model to simulate surface fluxes of CO2 and H2O under field conditions. The gas exchange model consists of a C3 single leaf photosynthesis sub-model and an extended big leaf (sun/shade) sub-model that divides the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions. Simulated CO2 fluxes of the stand-alone version of the gas exchange model correspond well to eddy-covariance measurements at a test site in a rural area in the west of Germany. The coupled FOOT3DK/gas exchange model is validated for the diurnal cycle at singular grid points, and delivers realistic fluxes with respect to their order of magnitude and to the general daily course. Compared to the Jarvis-based big leaf scheme, simulations of latent heat fluxes with a photosynthesis-based scheme for stomatal conductance are more realistic. As expected, flux averages are strongly influenced by the underlying land cover. While the simulated net ecosystem exchange is highly correlated with leaf area index, this correlation is much weaker for the latent heat flux. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is associated with transpirational water loss via the stomata, and the resulting opposing surface fluxes of CO2 and H2O are reproduced with the model approach. Over vegetated surfaces it is shown that the coupling of a photosynthesis-based gas exchange model with the land-surface scheme of a mesoscale model results in more realistic simulated latent heat fluxes.

  19. Air-surface exchange of H2O, CO2, and O3 at a tallgrass prairie in relation to remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wesely, M. L.; Cook, D. R.; Hart, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Parameters derived from eddy correlation measurements of the air-surface exchange rates of H2O, CO2, and O3 over a tallgrass prairie are examined in terms of their relationships with spectral reflectance data remotely sensed from aircraft and satellites during the four 1987 intensive field campaigns of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The surface conductances were strongly modulated by photosynthetically active radiation received at the surface when the grass was green and well watered; mesophyll resistances were large for CO2 but negligible for H2O and O3.

  20. Spatial and temporal CO2 exchanges measured by Eddy Correlation over a temperate intertidal flat and their relationships to net ecosystem production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsenaere, P.; Lamaud, E.; Lafon, V.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Bretel, P.; Delille, B.; Deborde, J.; Loustau, D.; Abril, G.

    2011-06-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were performed over a temperate intertidal mudflat in southwestern France using the micrometeorological Eddy Correlation (EC) technique. EC measurements were carried out in two contrasting sites of the Arcachon lagoon during four periods and in three different seasons (autumn 2007, summer 2008, autumn 2008 and spring 2009). In this paper, spatial and temporal variations in vertical CO2 exchanges at the diurnal, tidal and seasonal scales are presented and discussed. In addition, satellite images of the tidal flat at low tide were used to link the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) with the occupation of the mudflat by primary producers, particularly by Zostera noltii meadows. CO2 fluxes during the four deployments showed important spatial and temporal variations, with the lagoon rapidly shifting from a sink to a source of CO2. CO2 fluxes showed generally low negative (influx) and positive (efflux) values and ranged from -13 to 19 μmol m-2 s-1 at maximum. Low tide and daytime conditions were always characterised by an uptake of atmospheric CO2. In contrast, during immersion and during low tide at night, CO2 fluxes where positive, negative or close to zero, depending on the season and the site. During the autumn of 2007, at the innermost station with a patchy Zostera noltii bed (cover of 22 ± 14 % in the wind direction of measurements), CO2 influx was -1.7 ± 1.7 μmol m-2 s-1 at low tide during the day, and the efflux was 2.7 ± 3.7 μmol m-2 s-1 at low tide during the night. A gross primary production (GPP) of 4.4 μmol m-2 s-1 during emersion could be attributed mostly to microphytobenthic communities. During immersion, the water was a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, suggesting strong heterotrophy or resuspension of microphytobenthic cells. During the summer and autumn of 2008, at the central station with a dense eelgrass bed (92 ± 10 %), CO2 uptakes at low tide during the day were -1.5 ± 1.2 and -0.9 ± 1.7 μmol m-2 s-1

  1. Continuous-flow IRMS technique for determining the 17O excess of CO2 using complete oxygen isotope exchange with cerium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozek, D. J.; van der Veen, C.; Kliphuis, M.; Kaiser, J.; Wiegel, A. A.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an analytical system for analysis of all single substituted isotopologues (12C16O17O, 12C16O18O, 13C16O16O) in nanomolar quantities of CO2 extracted from stratospheric air samples. CO2 is separated from bulk air by gas chromatography and CO2 isotope ratio measurements (ion masses 45 / 44 and 46 / 44) are performed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The 17O excess (Δ17O) is derived from isotope measurements on two different CO2 aliquots: unmodified CO2 and CO2 after complete oxygen isotope exchange with cerium oxide (CeO2) at 700 °C. Thus, a single measurement of Δ17O requires two injections of 1 mL of air with a CO2 mole fraction of 390 μmol mol-1 at 293 K and 1 bar pressure (corresponding to 16 nmol CO2 each). The required sample size (including flushing) is 2.7 mL of air. A single analysis (one pair of injections) takes 15 minutes. The analytical system is fully automated for unattended measurements over several days. The standard deviation of the 17O excess analysis is 1.7‰. Multiple measurements on an air sample reduce the measurement uncertainty, as expected for the statistical standard error. Thus, the uncertainty for a group of 10 measurements is 0.58‰ for Δ 17O in 2.5 h of analysis. 100 repeat analyses of one air sample decrease the standard error to 0.20‰. The instrument performance was demonstrated by measuring CO2 on stratospheric air samples obtained during the EU project RECONCILE with the high-altitude aircraft Geophysica. The precision for RECONCILE data is 0.03‰ (1σ) for δ13C, 0.07‰ (1σ) for δ18O and 0.55‰ (1σ) for δ17O for a sample of 10 measurements. This is sufficient to examine stratospheric enrichments, which at altitude 33 km go up to 12‰ for δ17O and up to 8‰ for δ18O with respect to tropospheric CO2 : δ17O ~ 21‰ Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW), δ18O ~ 41‰ VSMOW (Lämmerzahl et al., 2002). The samples measured with our analytical technique agree with available data for

  2. Air-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Else, Brent; Borges, Alberto V.; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Delille, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    Sea ice covers about 7% of the Earth surface at its maximum seasonal extent. For decades sea ice was assumed to be an impermeable and inert barrier for air - sea exchange of CO2 so that global climate models do not include CO2 exchange between the oceans and the atmosphere in the polar regions. However, uptake of atmospheric CO2 by sea ice cover was recently reported raising the need to further investigate pCO2 dynamics in the marine cryosphere realm and related air-ice CO2 fluxes. In addition, budget of CO2 fluxes are poorly constrained in high latitudes continental shelves [Borges et al., 2006]. We report measurements of air-ice CO2 fluxes above the Canadian continental shelf and compare them to previous measurements carried out in Antarctica. We carried out measurements of pCO2 within brines and bulk ice, and related air-ice CO2 fluxes (chamber method) in Antarctic first year pack ice ("Sea Ice Mass Balance in Antarctica -SIMBA" drifting station experiment September - October 2007) and in Arctic first year land fast ice ("Circumpolar Flaw Lead" - CFL, April - June 2008). These 2 experiments were carried out in contrasted sites. SIMBA was carried out on sea ice in early spring while CFL was carried out in from the middle of the winter to the late spring while sea ice was melting. Both in Arctic and Antarctic, no air-ice CO2 fluxes were detected when sea ice interface was below -10°C. Slightly above -10°C, fluxes toward the atmosphere were observed. In contrast, at -7°C fluxes from the atmosphere to the ice were significant. The pCO2 of the brine exhibits a same trend in both hemispheres with a strong decrease of the pCO2 anti-correlated with the increase of sea ice temperature. The pCO2 shifted from a large over-saturation at low temperature to a marked under-saturation at high temperature. These air-ice CO2 fluxes are partly controlled by the permeability of the air-ice interface, which depends of the temperature of this one. Moreover, air-ice CO2 fluxes are

  3. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration and nitrate: ammonium ratios on gas exchange and growth of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated how different nitrogen forms affect growth and photosynthetic responses of cassava to CO2 concentration. Cassava was grown in 12-L pots in a greenhouse (30/25o C day / night) at 390 or 750 ppm of CO2. Three nitrogen treatments were applied: (a) 12 mM NO3-, (b) 6 mM NO3- + 6 mM N...

  4. Tunable ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interfacial exchange coupling in perpendicularly magnetized L10-MnGa/Co2FeAl Heusler bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q. L.; Mizukami, S.; Zhang, X. M.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we report a tailorable exchange coupling (Jex) at the Mn62Ga38/Co2FeAl interface, where Mn62Ga38 and Co2FeAl alloys are tetragonal Heusler alloy with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and typical cubic Heusler alloy with soft magnetism, respectively. As the post annealing temperature (Ta) is lower than 375 °C, the Jex is ferromagnetic with strength controllable from 7.5 to 0.5 erg/cm2. Interestingly, as Ta increases higher than 400 °C, an antiferromagnetic Jex of -5.5 erg/cm2 is observed. The ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic transition is further evidenced by the spin dependent transport property of the magnetic tunnel junctions with Mn62Ga38/Co2FeAl as electrode. Based on structure characterization, the variation of Jex during annealing is discussed.

  5. Partitioning net ecosystem carbon exchange into net assimilation and respiration using 13CO2 measurements: A cost-effective sampling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OgéE, J.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Bariac, T.; Brunet, Y.; Berbigier, P.; Roche, C.; Richard, P.; Bardoux, G.; Bonnefond, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    The current emphasis on global climate studies has led the scientific community to set up a number of sites for measuring the long-term biosphere-atmosphere net CO2 exchange (net ecosystem exchange, NEE). Partitioning this flux into its elementary components, net assimilation (FA), and respiration (FR), remains necessary in order to get a better understanding of biosphere functioning and design better surface exchange models. Noting that FR and FA have different isotopic signatures, we evaluate the potential of isotopic 13CO2 measurements in the air (combined with CO2 flux and concentration measurements) to partition NEE into FR and FA on a routine basis. The study is conducted at a temperate coniferous forest where intensive isotopic measurements in air, soil, and biomass were performed in summer 1997. The multilayer soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA is adapted to compute 13CO2 flux and concentration profiles. Using MuSICA as a "perfect" simulator and taking advantage of the very dense spatiotemporal resolution of the isotopic data set (341 flasks over a 24-hour period) enable us to test each hypothesis and estimate the performance of the method. The partitioning works better in midafternoon when isotopic disequilibrium is strong. With only 15 flasks, i.e., two 13CO2 nighttime profiles (to estimate the isotopic signature of FR) and five daytime measurements (to perform the partitioning) we get mean daily estimates of FR and FA that agree with the model within 15-20%. However, knowledge of the mesophyll conductance seems crucial and may be a limitation to the method.

  6. Evaluation of variations in CO2 gas exchange in the atmosphere of the BTLSS with plants grown in a conveyor mode on the soil-like substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya

    2016-07-01

    The soil-like substrate (SLS) included in the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) exerts a substantial effect on its gas exchange. This effect is determined by the non-uniform rate of organic matter degradation in the SLS, on the one hand, and by the variable intensity of photosynthesis of the plants grown on it, on the other. The purpose of this study was to compare CO2 variations in the atmosphere of the higher plants - SLS system at different intervals in uneven-aged higher plant conveyers. The study showed that CO2 concentration could reach and exceed the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide acceptable for humans (over 1%) even when the conveyer interval was rather short. CO2 variations in the atmosphere of the higher plants - SLS system were determined not only by the frequency of adding plant waste to the SLS and the mass of the waste but also by the amount of the harvested actively photosynthesizing plant biomass. At the same time, no significant differences were found in the mineral and production components between the plants in different experiments. Results of the study can be used to optimize the conveyor interval and the associated effectiveness of mineralization of the plant waste added to the SLS and to stabilize the CO2 gas exchange. This study was carried out in the IBP SB RAS and supported by the grant of the Russian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-14-00599).

  7. Gas-exchange analysis of chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase antisense potatoes at different air humidities and at elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Muschak, M; Willmitzer, L; Fisahn, J

    1999-07-01

    Gas-exchange measurements were performed to analyze the leaf conductances and assimilation rates of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desireé) plants expressing an antisense construct against chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, EC 3.1.3.11) in response to increasing photon flux densities, different relative air humidities and elevated CO(2) concentrations. Assimilation rates (A) and transpiration rates (E) were observed during a stepwise increase of photon flux density. These experiments were carried out under atmospheric conditions and in air containing 500 micromol mol(-1) CO(2). In both gas atmospheres, two levels of relative air humidity (60-70% and 70-80%) were applied in different sets of measurements. Intercellular CO(2) concentration, leaf conductance, air-to-leaf vapour pressure deficit, and instantaneous water-use efficiency (A/E) were determined. As expected, assimilation rates of the FBPase antisense plants were significantly reduced as compared to the wild type. Saturation of assimilation rates in transgenic plants occurred at a photon flux density of 200 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas saturation in wild type plants was observed at 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Elevated ambient CO(2) levels did not effect assimilation rates of transgenic plants. At 70-80% relative humidity and atmospheric CO(2) concentration the FBPase antisense plants had significantly higher leaf conductances than wild-type plants while no difference emerged at 60-70%. These differences in leaf conductance vanished at elevated levels of ambient CO(2). Stomatal response to different relative air humidities was not affected by mesophyll photosynthetic activity. It is suggested that the regulation of stomatal opening upon changes in photon flux density is merely mediated by a signal transmitted from mesophyll cells, whereas the intercellular CO(2) concentration plays a minor role in this kind of stomatal response. The results are discussed with respect to stomatal control by

  8. Hydro-meteorological controls on the CO2 exchange variation in a mixed forest in the southern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottocornola, M.; Cavagna, M.; Zampedri, R.; Gianelle, D.

    2012-12-01

    We report about nine years (2003-2011) of eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes from the Lavarone mixed forest in the southern Italian Alps at 1350 m asl. This is a 110 years old humid forest, with an annual average air temperature of 7 °C and annual precipitation of about 1150 mm. The forest canopy peaks at around 32 m high and is dominated by fir (Abies alba), spruce (Picea abies) and some beech (Fagus sylvatica), with a LAI of about 9. A correlation coefficient analysis between the CO2 fluxes and hydro-meteorological variables measured at the same site indicates that the main drivers explaining the inter-annual variation in the CO2 fluxes are vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and precipitation, with higher CO2 uptake in more humid conditions. This result is partially surprising since Lavarone is a humid forest and in an ecosystem with high humidity, other drivers were expected to be more important than hydrological parameters. This suggests that the Lavarone forest has a very conservative strategy, closing the stomata as soon as humidity decreases just below an optimum threshold. The same analysis at a monthly time step indicates that during the growing season the Lavarone forest shows the same mechanisms as at the annual time step, stressing the role of VPD as an environmental driver, explaining both NEE and GEP. On the other hand, during the late winter and early spring, an higher CO2 sink is associated with higher air temperature and higher VPD. Among those studied, 2009 is an anomalous year, having experienced very high air temperatures and high and frequent precipitation, that triggered the highest GEP and highest net CO2 sink (lowest NEE). The climate change scenarios for the Alps agree about an increase of temperatures, but disagree on the future precipitation. If together with higher temperatures, the Alps will experience higher precipitation as well, the Lavarone and similar forest will likely increase their CO2 uptake.

  9. Direct Observation of sp-d Exchange Interactions in Colloidal Mn2+- and Co2+-Doped CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Paul I.; Santangelo, Steven A.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2007-03-23

    The defining attribute of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) is the existence of dopant-carrier magnetic exchange interactions. In this letter, we report the first direct observation of such exchange interactions in colloidal doped CdSe nanocrystals. Doped CdSe quantum dots were synthesized by thermal decomposition of (Me4N)2[Cd4(SePh)10] in the presence of TMCl2 (TM2+ ) Mn2+ or Co2+) in hexadecylamine and were characterized by several analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy, successful doping and the existence of giant excitonic Zeeman splittings in both Mn2+- and Co2+-doped wurtzite CdSe quantum dots are demonstrated unambiguously.

  10. Parameterization of the coupling CO2 and H2O gas exchange model at the leaf scale of Populus euphratica tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Li, X.; Su, Y.; Huang, C.

    2009-10-01

    The following two models were combined to predict simultaneously CO2 and H2O gas exchange at the leaf scale of Populus euphratica: a Farquhar et al. type biochemical sub-model of photosynthesis (Farquhar et al., 1980) and a Ball et al. type stomatal conductance sub-model (Ball et al., 1987). The photosynthesis parameters, Vcmax, Jmax, TPU, and Rd (maximum carboxylation rate allowed by ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), rate of phosynthetic electron transport, triose phosphate use, and day respiration) at the measurement temperature were determined by using the genetic algorithm (GA) method based on A/Ci data sets. The stomatal conductance sub-model was calibrated independently. Prediction of net photosynthesis by the coupled model agreed well with the validation data, but the model tended to underestimate rates of transpiration. Overall, the combined model generally captured the diurnal patterns of CO2and H2O exchange resulting from variation in temperature and irradiation.

  11. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Williams, Christopher A.; Schaefer, Kevin; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, A.; Baker, Ian; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Barr, Alan; Black, T. A.; Gu, Lianhong; Riciutto, Dan M.

    2010-12-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO2 exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO2 exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans 220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO2 exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was 10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  12. Elevated CO2 and warming effects on soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas exchange in agroecosystems: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) have been increasing dramatically in earth’s atmosphere since the industrial revolution, and are expected to continue increasing from ~385 ppmv today to more than 600 ppmv by the end of this century. Global surface temperatures are expected to ...

  13. Spatial and temporal CO2 exchanges measured by Eddy Covariance over a temperate intertidal flat and their relationships to net ecosystem production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsenaere, P.; Lamaud, E.; Lafon, V.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Bretel, P.; Delille, B.; Deborde, J.; Loustau, D.; Abril, G.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were performed over a temperate intertidal mudflat in southwestern France using the micrometeorological Eddy Covariance (EC) technique. EC measurements were carried out in two contrasting sites of the Arcachon flat during four periods and in three different seasons (autumn 2007, summer 2008, autumn 2008 and spring 2009). In addition, satellite images of the tidal flat at low tide were used to link the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) with the occupation of the mudflat by primary producers, particularly by Zostera noltii meadows. CO2 fluxes during the four deployments showed important spatial and temporal variations, with the flat rapidly shifting from sink to source with the tide. Absolute CO2 fluxes showed generally small negative (influx) and positive (efflux) values, with larger values up to -13 μmol m-2 s-1 for influxes and 19 μmol m-2 s-1 for effluxes. Low tide during the day was mostly associated with a net uptake of atmospheric CO2. In contrast, during immersion and during low tide at night, CO2 fluxes where positive, negative or close to zero, depending on the season and the site. During the autumn of 2007, at the innermost station with a patchy Zostera noltii bed (cover of 22 ± 14% in the wind direction of measurements), CO2 influx was -1.7 ± 1.7 μmol m-2 s-1 at low tide during the day, and the efflux was 2.7 ± 3.7 μmol m-2 s-1 at low tide during the night. A gross primary production (GPP) of 4.4 ± 4.1 μmol m-2 s-1 during emersion could be attributed to microphytobenthic communities. During the summer and autumn of 2008, at the central station with a dense eelgrass bed (92 ± 10%), CO2 uptakes at low tide during the day were -1.5 ± 1.2 and -0.9 ± 1.7 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Night time effluxes of CO2 were 1.0 ± 0.9 and 0.2 ± 1.1 μmol m-2 s-1 in summer and autumn, respectively, resulting in a GPP during emersion of 2.5 ± 1.5 and 1.1 ± 2.0 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively, attributed primarily to the

  14. Spatial and seasonal variability of the air-sea equilibration timescale of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel; Ito, Takamitsu; Takano, Yohei; Hsu, Wei-Ching

    2014-05-01

    The exchange of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere tends to bring near-surface waters toward equilibrium by reducing the partial pressure gradient across the air-water interface. However, the equilibration process is not instantaneous; in general there is a lag between forcing and response. The timescale of air-sea equilibration depends on several factors involving the depth of the mixed layer, temperature, salinity, wind speed, and carbonate chemistry. In this work, we use a suite of observational datasets to generate climatological and seasonal composite maps of the air-sea equilibration timescale. The relaxation timescale exhibits considerable spatial and seasonal variations, which are largely set by changes in mixed layer depth and wind speed. The net effect is dominated by the mixed layer depth; the gas exchange velocity and carbonate chemistry parameters only provide partial compensation. Broadly speaking, the adjustment timescale tends to increase with latitude. We compare the observationally-derived air-sea gas exchange timescale with a model-derived surface residence time and a data-derived horizontal transport timescale, which allows us to define two non-dimensional metrics of gas exchange efficiency. These parameters highlight the Southern Ocean, equatorial Pacific, and North Atlantic as regions of inefficient air-sea equilibration where carbon anomalies are likely to form and persist. The efficiency parameters presented here can serve as simple tools for understanding regional air-sea disequilibrium in both observations and models. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Impacts in the Deep-Sea: Is Maintaining a Metabolically Required CO2 Efflux Rate Challenging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Hofmann, A. F.; Brewer, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing ocean acidification from fossil fuel CO2 invasion, from temperature driven changes in respiration, and from possible leakage from sub-seabed geologic CO2 disposal has aroused concern over the impacts of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine life. Here we describe the rate problem for animals who must export CO2 at about the same rate at which O2 is consumed. We analyze the basic properties controlling CO2 export within the diffusive boundary of marine animals in a changing ocean in order to compare the challenges posed by O2 uptake under stress with the equivalent problem of CO2 expulsion. The problem is more complex than that for a non-reactive gas since, as with gas exchange of CO2 at the air-sea interface, the influence of the ensemble of reactions within the CO2 - HCO3- - CO3= acid-base system needs to be considered. These reactions appear as an enhancement factor which significantly facilitates CO2 efflux compared to O2 intake at equal temperature, pressure and flow rate under typical oceanic concentrations. Possibly as an adaptation to this chemical advantage marine animals typically can respond to external CO2 stress simply by metabolic adjustment. This is energetically more favorable than having to resort to mechanically increasing flow over their surface to thin the boundary layer as is required to alleviate O2 stress. Regionally as with O2 the combination of T, P, and pH/pCO2 creates a zone of maximum CO2 stress at around 1000 m depth. But the net result is that the combination of an increase in T combined with declining O2 poses a greater respiratory challenge to marine life than does increasing CO2. The relationships developed here allow a more accurate prediction of the impacts on marine life from the combined effects of changing T, O2, and CO2 than can be estimated from single variable studies.

  16. Spatiotemporal variations in CO2 flux in a fringing reef simulated using a novel carbonate system dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nadaoka, K.; Maeda, Y.; Miyajima, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Blanco, A. C.

    2013-03-01

    A carbonate system dynamics (CSD) model was developed in a fringing reef on the east coast of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan, by incorporating organic and inorganic carbon fluxes (photosynthesis and calcification), air-sea gas exchanges, and benthic cover of coral and seagrass into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The CSD model could reproduce temporal variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity in coral zones, but not in seagrass meadows. The poor reproduction in seagrass meadows can be attributed to significant contributions of submarine groundwater discharge as well as misclassification of remotely sensed megabenthos in this area. In comparison with offshore areas, the reef acted as a CO2 sink during the observation period when it was averaged over 24 h. The CSD model also indicated large spatiotemporal differences in the carbon dioxide (CO2) sink/source, possibly related to hydrodynamic features such as effective offshore seawater exchange and neap/spring tidal variation. This suggests that the data obtained from a single point observation may lead to misinterpretation of the overall trend and thus should be carefully considered. The model analysis also showed that the advective flux of DIC from neighboring grids is several times greater than local biological flux of DIC and is three orders of magnitude greater than the air-sea gas flux at the coral zone. Sensitivity tests in which coral or seagrass covers were altered revealed that the CO2 sink potential was much more sensitive to changes in coral cover than seagrass cover.

  17. Using eddy covariance to estimate air-sea gas transfer velocity for oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2016-07-01

    Air-sea gas transfer velocity for O2 is calculated using directly measured fluxes with the eddy covariance technique. It is a direct method and is frequently used to determine fluxes of heat, humidity, and CO2, but has not previously been used to estimate transfer velocities for O2, using atmospheric eddy covariance data. The measured O2 fluxes are upward directed, in agreement with the measured air-sea gradient of the O2 concentration, and opposite to the direction of the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes. The transfer velocities estimated from measurements are compared with prominent wind speed parameterizations of the transfer velocity for CO2 and O2, previously established from various measurement techniques. Our result indicates stronger wind speed dependence for the transfer velocity of O2 compared to CO2 starting at intermediate wind speeds. This stronger wind speed dependence appears to coincide with the onset of whitecap formation in the flux footprint and the strong curvature of a cubic wind-dependent function for the transfer velocity provides the best fit to the data. Additional data using the measured O2 flux and an indirect method (based on the Photosynthetic Quotient) to estimate oxygen concentration in water, support the stronger wind dependence for the transfer velocity of O2 compared to CO2.

  18. Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in brines affect supercritical CO2-brine-biotite interactions: ion exchange, biotite dissolution, and illite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Ray, Jessica R; Jun, Young-Shin

    2013-01-01

    For sustainable geologic CO(2) sequestration (GCS), a better understanding of the effects of brine cation compositions on mica dissolution, surface morphological change, and secondary mineral precipitation under saline hydrothermal conditions is needed. Batch dissolution experiments were conducted with biotite under conditions relevant to GCS sites (55-95 °C and 102 atm CO(2)). One molar NaCl, 0.4 M MgCl(2), or 0.4 M CaCl(2) solutions were used to mimic different brine compositions, and deionized water was used for comparison. Faster ion exchange reactions (Na(+)-K(+), Mg(2+)-K(+), and Ca(2+)-K(+)) occurred in these salt solutions than in water (H(+)-K(+)). The ion exchange reactions affected bump, bulge, and crack formation on the biotite basal plane, as well as the release of biotite framework ions. In these salt solutions, numerous illite fibers precipitated after reaction for only 3 h at 95 °C. Interestingly, in slow illite precipitation processes, oriented aggregation of hexagonal nanoparticles forming the fibrous illite was observed. These results provide new information for understanding scCO(2)-brine-mica interactions in saline aquifers with different brine cation compositions, which can be useful for GCS as well as other subsurface projects.

  19. Effects of extreme experimental drought and rewetting on CO2 and CH4 exchange in mesocosms of 14 European peatlands with different nitrogen and sulfur deposition.

    PubMed

    Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Zając, Katarzyna; Blodau, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The quantitative impact of intense drought and rewetting on gas exchange in ombrotrophic bogs is still uncertain. In particular, we lack studies investigating multitudes of sites with different soil properties and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition under consistent environmental conditions. We explored the timing and magnitude of change in CO2 (Respiration, Gross Primary Production - GPP, and Net Exchange - NE) and CH4 fluxes during an initial wet, a prolonged dry (~100 days), and a subsequent wet period (~230 days) at 12 °C in 14 Sphagnum peat mesocosms collected in hollows from bogs in the UK, Ireland, Poland, and Slovakia. The relationship of N and S deposition with GPP, respiration, and CH4 exchange was investigated. Nitrogen deposition increased CO2 fluxes and GPP more than respiration, at least up to about 15 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . All mesocosms became CO2 sources during drying and most of them when the entire annual period was considered. Response of GPP to drying was faster than that of respiration and contributed more to the change in NE; the effect was persistent and few sites recovered "predry" GPP by the end of the wet phase. Respiration was higher during the dry phase, but did not keep increasing as WT kept falling and peaked within the initial 33 days of drying; the change was larger when differences in humification with depth were small. CH4 fluxes strongly peaked during early drought and water table decline. After rewetting, methanogenesis recovered faster in dense peats, but CH4 fluxes remained low for several months, especially in peats with higher inorganic reduced sulfur content, where sulfate was generated and methanogenesis remained suppressed. Based on a range of European sites, the results support the idea that N and S deposition and intense drought can substantially affect greenhouse gas exchange on the annual scale.

  20. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, C. J.; Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S. C.; Noone, D. C.; Buenning, N. H.; Randerson, J. T.; Torn, M. S.; Welker, J.; White, J. W. C.; Vachon, R.; Farquhar, G. D.; Berry, J. A.

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluates the potential impact of clouds on ecosystem CO2 and CO2 isotope fluxes ("isofluxes") in two contrasting ecosystems (a broadleaf deciduous forest and a C4 grassland) in a region for which cloud cover, meteorological, and isotope data are available for driving the isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM). Our model results indicate a large impact of clouds on ecosystem CO2 fluxes and isofluxes. Despite lower irradiance on partly cloudy and cloudy days, predicted forest canopy photosynthesis was substantially higher than on clear, sunny days, and the highest carbon uptake was achieved on the cloudiest day. This effect was driven by a large increase in light-limited shade leaf photosynthesis following an increase in the diffuse fraction of irradiance. Photosynthetic isofluxes, by contrast, were largest on partly cloudy days, as leaf water isotopic composition was only slightly depleted and photosynthesis was enhanced, as compared to adjacent clear-sky days. On the cloudiest day, the forest exhibited intermediate isofluxes: although photosynthesis was highest on this day, leaf-to-atmosphere isofluxes were reduced from a feedback of transpiration on canopy relative humidity and leaf water. Photosynthesis and isofluxes were both reduced in the C4 grass canopy with increasing cloud cover and diffuse fraction as a result of near-constant light limitation of photosynthesis. These results suggest that some of the unexplained variation in global mean δ18O of CO2 may be driven by large-scale changes in clouds and aerosols and their impacts on diffuse radiation, photosynthesis, and relative humidity.

  1. Contributions of Deciduous and Evergreen Trees to the Seasonal Dynamics of CO2 and Water Vapor Exchange Over Developed Land in the Midcontinental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E. B.; Montgomery, R.; McFadden, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    Half the world's population currently lives in urbanized areas, a proportion expected to increase to 60% by 2030. The clearing of agricultural and natural ecosystems for urban and suburban development is consequently one of the fastest rates of land use change around the world. Although developed land areas represent major sources of CO2 and alter hydrology, they are also ecosystems with significant vegetation cover that takes up CO2 and humidifies the atmospheric boundary layer. Direct measurements are needed to develop a mechanistic understanding of how vegetation contributes to the land-based CO2 sinks and evapotranspiration in developed areas, especially residential developed land which accounts for most of the land-use change in the United States. We quantified whole-tree transpiration, and modeled canopy conductance and canopy photosynthesis using thermal dissipation sap flow and leaf-level gas exchange measurements on stands of deciduous and evergreen trees in a suburban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. A suite of environmental variables was continuously monitored at each site. During the 2007 growing season, seasonal drought and synoptic and diurnal variations of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) strongly controlled transpiration and photosynthesis in both the deciduous and the evergreen stands. The results are analyzed against a phenology data set (including leaf area index (LAI), and plant and soil biophysical properties) measured at a larger number of stands within a suburban region during the 2006 growing season. These results will allow us to determine the relative contributions of different tree plant functional types to the seasonal dynamics of CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration in developed land, and to scale up the effect of these land cover types on regional carbon and water budgets. This study is a contribution to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Mid-Continent Intensive Field Campaign.

  2. Ecosystem carbon balance in a drier future: land-atmosphere exchanges of CO2, water and energy across semiarid southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Goulden, M.; Litvak, M. E.; Kolb, T.; Yépez, E. A.; Oechel, W. C.; Meyers, T. P.; Papuga, S. A.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Maurer, G. E.; Dore, S.; Garatuza, J.; Bell, T. W.; Krishnan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The southwest US and northwest Mexico are predicted to become warmer and drier, increasing disturbance, shifting ecosystem composition, and altering global CO2 cycling. However, direct measurements of ecosystem land-atmosphere carbon and water exchange in this region have lagged behind those in wetter regions. In this presentation we present a synthesis of CO2, water, and energy exchanges made at 25 Southwest eddy covariance sites (3-10 years each, n = 174 years). This regional gradient includes desert shrublands, grasslands, savannas, and forests and spans ranges of 200 - 800 mm in mean annual precipitation and 2 - 24 ⁰C mean annual temperature, a climate space that has been underrepresented in flux databases and publications. We compare measured fluxes against state-of-the-art remote sensing and modeling products representing current best regional estimates. We find that 65% of annual net ecosystem production of CO2 (NEP) is explained by water availability. Meanwhile, most of the unexplained NEP variability is related to site-specific differences persisting over the observation years, suggesting slow-changing controls such as demography (plant type, age, structure) and legacies of disturbance. Disturbances that kill plants without removing biomass, such as drought, tend to decrease productivity and increase respiration, shifting sites from carbon sinks to sources. However, following disturbances that removed biomass, such as fire, both productivity and respiration decline, with minimal impacts on NEP. Remote sensing and modeling match mean CO2 uptake measurements across spatial gradients in climate and plant functional type. However, measured uptake reveals 200-400% greater interannual variability than model estimates. High variability and sensitivity to water help us understand why semiarid ecosystems dominate the interannual variability of the terrestrial carbon sink in global accounting studies.

  3. Causes of interannual variability in ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange in a northern Wisconsin forest using a Bayesian model calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuto, Daniel M; Butler, Martha; Davis, Kenneth; Cook, Bruce D

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide fluxes were examined over the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003 from 14 different sites in Upper Midwest (USA) to assess spatial variability of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange. These sites were exposed to similar temperature/precipitation regimes and spanned a range of vegetation types typical of the region (northern hardwood, mixed forest, red pine, jack pine, pine barrens and shrub wetland). The hardwood and red pine sites also spanned a range of stand ages (young, intermediate, mature). While seasonal changes in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and photosynthetic parameters were coherent across the 2 years at most sites, changes in ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) were not. Canopy height and vegetation type were important variables for explaining spatial variability of CO2 fluxes across the region. Light-use efficiency (LUE) was not as strongly correlated to GEP as maximum assimilation capacity (Amax). A bottom-up multi-tower land cover aggregated scaling of CO2 flux to a 2000 km(2) regional flux estimate found June to August 2003 NEE, ER and GEP to be -290 +/- 89, 408 +/- 48, and 698 +/- 73 gC m(-2), respectively. Aggregated NEE, ER and GEP were 280% larger, 32% smaller and 3% larger, respectively, than that observed from a regionally integrating 447 m tall flux tower. However, when the tall tower fluxes were decomposed using a footprint-weighted influence function and then re-aggregated to a regional estimate, the resulting NEE, ER and GEP were within 11% of the multi-tower aggregation. Excluding wetland and young stand age sites from the aggregation worsened the comparison to observed fluxes. These results provide insight on the range of spatial sampling, replication, measurement error and land cover accuracy needed for multi-tiered bottom-up scaling of CO2 fluxes in heterogeneous regions such as the Upper Midwest, USA. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of soil C stocks and interannual climatic variability on the CO2 and CH4 exchange of maize cultivated on mineral and organic soils in NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Madlen; Hagemann, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Mathias; Giebels, Michael; Albiac-Borraz, Elisa; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Due to its glacially influenced genesis and land use history, the soils of the Great Plain Region of NE-Germany show large differences in groundwater levels and soil carbon (C) stocks over short distances. Although generally featuring a rather dry climate, trace gas exchange at individual sites may be influenced by i) interannual climatic variability, particularly with respect to precipitation; as well as by ii) variability of soil C stocks. However, it is still unclear how these factors affect fluxes of CO2 and CH4, and if there is any positive or negative feedback on the C source or sink function of different soil types. We present measured and modeled CO2 and CH4 fluxes of minerally fertilized grain maize for three sites located near Paulinenaue, within the so-called Rhin-Havelluch, a shallow and drained paludification mire complex in NE Germany. The sites are characterized by a distinct gradient of 0-1 m soil organic C stocks: i) Arenosol (AR: mineral soil/distant groundwater; 8 000 g C m-2), ii) Gleysol (GL: organic soil/groundwater-dependent; 35 000 g C m-2), and iii) Histosol (HS: organic soil/near groundwater; 45 000 g C m-2). CO2 flux measurements of ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary production (GPP; calculated as difference between NEE and Reco) were conducted every four weeks using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. Measurement gaps of Reco and NEE were filled by using temperature or radiation-based models, respectively. CH4 fluxes were measured bi-weekly using a static closed chamber system with interval sampling, with gap filling via linear interpolation. Cumulated fluxes of CO2-C (Reco, GPP, NEE) and CH4-C were calculated for a period of four consecutive years (2007-2010). The intensity of CO2-C fluxes increased with growing soil organic C stocks (AR < GL < HS). Mean annual values of the years 2008-2010 for Reco ranged between 1 500 g C m-2 and 2 000 g C m-2; annual GPP fluxes ranged from

  5. Biological and physical controls on N2, O2, and CO2 distributions in contrasting Southern Ocean surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortell, Philippe D.; Bittig, Henry C.; Körtzinger, Arne; Jones, Elizabeth M.; Hoppema, Mario

    2015-07-01

    We present measurements of pCO2, O2 concentration, biological oxygen saturation (ΔO2/Ar), and N2 saturation (ΔN2) in Southern Ocean surface waters during austral summer, 2010-2011. Phytoplankton biomass varied strongly across distinct hydrographic zones, with high chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in regions of frontal mixing and sea ice melt. pCO2 and ΔO2/Ar exhibited large spatial gradients (range 90 to 450 µatm and -10 to 60%, respectively) and covaried strongly with Chl a. However, the ratio of biological O2 accumulation to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) drawdown was significantly lower than expected from photosynthetic stoichiometry, reflecting the differential time scales of O2 and CO2 air-sea equilibration. We measured significant oceanic CO2 uptake, with a mean air-sea flux (~ -10 mmol m-2 d-1) that significantly exceeded regional climatological values. N2 was mostly supersaturated in surface waters (mean ΔN2 of +2.5%), while physical processes resulted in both supersaturation and undersaturation of mixed layer O2 (mean ΔO2phys = 2.1%). Box model calculations were able to reproduce much of the spatial variability of ΔN2 and ΔO2phys along the cruise track, demonstrating significant effects of air-sea exchange processes (e.g., atmospheric pressure changes and bubble injection) and mixed layer entrainment on surface gas disequilibria. Net community production (NCP) derived from entrainment-corrected surface ΔO2/Ar data, ranged from ~ -40 to > 300 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and showed good coherence with independent NCP estimates based on seasonal mixed layer DIC deficits. Elevated NCP was observed in hydrographic frontal zones and stratified regions of sea ice melt, reflecting physical controls on surface water light fields and nutrient availability.

  6. Multi-Year Estimates of Regional Alaskan Net CO2 Exchange: Constraining a Remote-Sensing Based Model with Aircraft Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindaas, J.; Commane, R.; Luus, K. A.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Henderson, J.; Mountain, M. E.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, J. B.; Lin, J. C.; Daube, B. C.; Pittman, J. V.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaskan region has historically been a sink of atmospheric CO2, but permafrost currently stores large amounts of carbon that are vulnerable to release to the atmosphere as northern high-latitudes continue to warm faster than the global average. We use aircraft CO2 data with a remote-sensing based model driven by MODIS satellite products and validated by CO2 flux tower data to calculate average daily CO2 fluxes for the region of Alaska during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. Atmospheric trace gases were measured during CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) aboard the NASA Sherpa C-23 aircraft. For profiles along the flight track, we couple the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, and convolve these footprints of surface influence with our remote-sensing based model, the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis Respiration Model (PolarVPRM). We are able to calculate average regional fluxes for each month by minimizing the difference between the data and model column integrals. Our results provide a snapshot of the current state of regional Alaskan growing season net ecosystem exchange (NEE). We are able to begin characterizing the interannual variation in Alaskan NEE and to inform future refinements in process-based modeling that will produce better estimates of past, present, and future pan-Arctic NEE. Understanding if/when/how the Alaskan region transitions from a sink to a source of CO2 is crucial to predicting the trajectory of future climate change.

  7. Trace gas exchange in a high-Arctic valley: 3. Integrating and scaling CO2 fluxes from canopy to landscape using flux data, footprint modeling, and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soegaard, Henrik; Nordstroem, Claus; Friborg, Thomas; Hansen, Birger U.; Christensen, Torben R.; Bay, Christian

    2000-09-01

    Within the framework of the European Land Arctic Physical Processes project and as part of the Danish Research Council's Polar Program, a study on trace gas exchange in a high-arctic ecosystem was conducted in NE Greenland, May-August 1997. On the basis of carbon dioxide flux measurements from three dominant surface types, this paper reports on the upscaling of such measurements from canopy to landscape level. Over a three-week period starting in mid-July, the different surfaces revealed large differences in the CO2 flux with uptake rates ranging from 0.7 g C m-2 d-1 over the dwarf shrub heath to 3.0 g Cm-2 d-1 over denser parts of the fen, while willow snowbed revealed intermediate uptake rates. The carbon dioxide exchange could be simulated by a CO2 model, combining photosynthesis and soil respiration routines, for which the parametrization depended on the vegetation type. Results from the simulation were supported by a sensitivity analysis based on a three-dimensional footprint model where it was shown that the CO2 uptake was strongly related to the measured leaf area index. The CO2 model was used to calculate the spatial distribution in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) on the basis of Landsat satellite data acquired at the peak of the growing season and stratified according to vegetation type. It was found that there was a reasonable agreement between the satellite-based flux estimate (-0.77 g C m-2 d-1) and the CO2 flux found by areal weighting of the eddy correlation measurements (-0.88 g C m-2 d-1) for the specific study day. Finally, the summer season NEE was calculated for the whole Zackenberg Valley bottom. In June, there was a valley-wide carbon loss of 8.4±2.6 g C m-2 month-1, whereas the valley system accumulated 18.8±6.7 g C m-2 season-1 during the growing season (July-August).

  8. Soil-atmospheric exchange of CO2, CH4, and N2O in three subtropical forest ecosystems in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, X.; Liu, S.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Zhou, C.

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude, temporal, and spatial patterns of soil-atmospheric greenhouse gas (hereafter referred to as GHG) exchanges in forests near the Tropic of Cancer are still highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil-atmospheric CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. Soils in DNR forests behaved as N2O sources and CH4 sinks. Annual mean CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes (mean ?? SD) were 7.7 ?? 4.6MgCO2-Cha-1 yr-1, 3.2 ?? 1.2 kg N2ONha-1 yr-1, and 3.4 ?? 0.9 kgCH4-Cha-1 yr-1, respectively. The climate was warm and wet from April through September 2003 (the hot-humid season) and became cool and dry from October 2003 through March 2004 (the cool-dry season). The seasonality of soil CO2 emission coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high CO2 emission rates in the hot-humid season and low rates in the cool-dry season. In contrast, seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes were not clear, although higher CH4 uptake rates were often observed in the cool-dry season and higher N2O emission rates were often observed in the hot-humid season. GHG fluxes measured at these three sites showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. If this trend is representative at the regional scale, CO2 and N2O emissions and CH4 uptake in southern China may increase in the future in light of the projected change in forest age structure. Removal of surface litter reduced soil CO2 effluxes by 17-44% in the three forests but had no significant effect on CH4 absorption and N2O emission rates. This suggests that microbial CH4 uptake and N2O production was mainly related to the mineral soil rather than in the surface litter layer. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Developing multi-tracer approaches to constrain the parameterisation of leaf and soil CO2 and H2O exchange in land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogée, Jerome; Wehr, Richard; Commane, Roisin; Launois, Thomas; Meredith, Laura; Munger, Bill; Nelson, David; Saleska, Scott; Zahniser, Mark; Wofsy, Steve; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    The net flux of carbon dioxide between the land surface and the atmosphere is dominated by photosynthesis and soil respiration, two of the largest gross CO2 fluxes in the carbon cycle. More robust estimates of these gross fluxes could be obtained from the atmospheric budgets of other valuable tracers, such as carbonyl sulfide (COS) or the carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ13C and δ18O) of atmospheric CO2. Over the past decades, the global atmospheric flask network has measured the inter-annual and intra-annual variations in the concentrations of these tracers. However, knowledge gaps and a lack of high-resolution multi-tracer ecosystem-scale measurements have hindered the development of process-based models that can simulate the behaviour of each tracer in response to environmental drivers. We present novel datasets of net ecosystem COS, 13CO2 and CO18O exchange and vertical profile data collected over 3 consecutive growing seasons (2011-2013) at the Harvard forest flux site. We then used the process-based model MuSICA (multi-layer Simulator of the Interactions between vegetation Canopy and the Atmosphere) to include the transport, reaction, diffusion and production of each tracer within the forest and exchanged with the atmosphere. Model simulations over the three years captured well the impact of diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions on the net ecosystem exchange of each tracer. The model also captured well the dynamic vertical features of tracer behaviour within the canopy. This unique dataset and model sensitivity analysis highlights the benefit in the collection of multi-tracer high-resolution field datasets and the developement of multi-tracer land surface models to provide valuable constraints on photosynthesis and respiration across scales in the near future.

  10. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of an invasive plant infestation: new insights on the effects of phenology and management practices on structure and functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentag, Oliver; Detto, Matteo; Runkle, Benjamin; Hatala, Jaclyn; Vargas, Rodrigo; Kelly, Maggi; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    The net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (FC) of invasive plant infestations has been subject of few studies only. Perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium L.) is an aggressive invasive plant with severe economic and environmental consequences for infested ecosystems. A characteristic feature of pepperweed's phenological cycle is the dense arrangement of small white flowers during secondary inflorescence. Little is known about how pepperweed flowering and management practices such as mowing affect canopy structure and canopy photosynthesis (FA) and autotrophic respiration (FAR) and thus ecosystem respiration (FER; FC=FER-FA with FER=FAR+heterotrophic respiration [FHR]). To examine these effects we analyzed three years (2007-2010) of CO2 flux measurements made with eddy covariance, supporting environmental measurements and near-surface remote sensing data (canopy-scale reflectance, digital camera imagery) from a pepperweed-infested pasture in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The measurements cover three meteorologically similar summers (1 May - 30 September) that slightly differed in terms of land use practices. In 2007-2010, the site was subjected to year-round grazing by beef cattle, and in 2008, the site was additionally mowed in mid-May during flowering. We described structural changes in canopy development through seasonal changes in surface roughness for momentum transfer (z0m). Weekly soil CO2 efflux (≈ FHR) estimates from static chamber measurements made over bare soil were used to separate FER into FAR and FHR. We identified the onset of pepperweed's key phenological phases (i.e., germination, early vegetative growth, flowering, seed maturation, senescence, dormancy) through the integrated analysis of albedo of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), a broad-band green normalized difference vegetation index, and a digital camera-based color index. We used non-linear mixed-effects model analysis to investigate the combined

  11. Combining Microbial Enzyme Kinetics Models with Light Use Efficiency Models to Predict CO2 and CH4 Ecosystem Exchange from Flooded and Drained Peatland Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Jenerette, D.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Under California's Cap-and-Trade program, companies are looking to invest in land-use practices that will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a drained cultivated peatland system and a large source of CO2. To slow soil subsidence and reduce CO2 emissions, there is growing interest in converting drained peatlands to wetlands. However, wetlands are large sources of CH4 that could offset CO2-based GHG reductions. The goal of our research is to provide accurate measurements and model predictions of the changes in GHG budgets that occur when drained peatlands are restored to wetland conditions. We have installed a network of eddy covariance towers across multiple land use types in the Delta and have been measuring CO2 and CH4 ecosystem exchange for multiple years. In order to upscale these measurements through space and time we are using these data to parameterize and validate a process-based biogeochemical model. To predict gross primary productivity (GPP), we are using a simple light use efficiency (LUE) model which requires estimates of light, leaf area index and air temperature and can explain 90% of the observed variation in GPP in a mature wetland. To predict ecosystem respiration we have adapted the Dual Arrhenius Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model. The LUE-DAMM model allows accurate simulation of half-hourly net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a mature wetland (r2=0.85). We are working to expand the model to pasture, rice and alfalfa systems in the Delta. To predict methanogenesis, we again apply a modified DAMM model, using simple enzyme kinetics. However CH4 exchange is complex and we have thus expanded the model to predict not only microbial CH4 production, but also CH4 oxidation, CH4 storage and the physical processes regulating the release of CH4 to the atmosphere. The CH4-DAMM model allows accurate simulation of daily CH4 ecosystem exchange in a mature wetland (r2=0.55) and robust estimates of annual CH4 budgets. The LUE

  12. Digital photography for assessing the link between vegetation phenology and CO2 exchange in two contrasting northern ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkosalmi, Maiju; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Tanis, Cemal M.; Arslan, Ali N.; Kolari, Pasi; Böttcher, Kristin; Aalto, Tuula; Rainne, Juuso; Hatakka, Juha; Laurila, Tuomas

    2016-09-01

    Digital repeat photography has become a widely used tool for assessing the annual course of vegetation phenology of different ecosystems. By using the green chromatic coordinate (GCC) as a greenness measure, we examined the feasibility of digital repeat photography for assessing the vegetation phenology in two contrasting high-latitude ecosystems. Ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 fluxes and various meteorological variables were continuously measured at both sites. While the seasonal changes in GCC were more obvious for the ecosystem that is dominated by annual plants (open wetland), clear seasonal patterns were also observed for the evergreen ecosystem (coniferous forest). Daily and seasonal time periods with sufficient solar radiation were determined based on images of a grey reference plate. The variability in cloudiness had only a minor effect on GCC, and GCC did not depend on the sun angle and direction either. The daily GCC of wetland correlated well with the daily photosynthetic capacity estimated from the CO2 flux measurements. At the forest site, the correlation was high in 2015 but there were discernible deviations during the course of the summer of 2014. The year-to-year differences were most likely generated by meteorological conditions, with higher temperatures coinciding with higher GCCs. In addition to depicting the seasonal course of ecosystem functioning, GCC was shown to respond to environmental changes on a timescale of days. Overall, monitoring of phenological variations with digital images provides a powerful tool for linking gross primary production and phenology.

  13. The relationship between ocean surface turbulence and air-sea gas transfer velocity: An in-situ evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esters, L.; Landwehr, S.; Sutherland, G.; Bell, T. G.; Saltzman, E. S.; Christensen, K. H.; Miller, S. D.; Ward, B.

    2016-05-01

    Although the air-sea gas transfer velocity k is usually parameterized with wind speed, the so-called small-eddy model suggests a relationship between k and ocean surface dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy ɛ. Laboratory and field measurements of k and ɛ have shown that this model holds in various ecosystems. Here, field observations are presented supporting the theoretical model in the open ocean. These observations are based on measurements from the Air-Sea Interaction Profiler and eddy covariance CO2 and DMS air-sea flux data collected during the Knorr11 cruise. We show that the model results can be improved when applying a variable Schmidt number exponent compared to a commonly used constant value of 1/2. Scaling ɛ to the viscous sublayer allows us to investigate the model at different depths and to expand its applicability for more extensive data sets.

  14. CO2 and CH4 exchanges between land ecosystems and the atmosphere in northern high latitudes over the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.M.; Sarofim, M.C.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Felzer, B.S.; Sokolov, A.; Prinn, R.G.; Steudler, P.A.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high latitudes (above 50??N) exchange large amounts of CO2 and CH4 with the atmosphere each year. Here we use a process-based model to estimate the budget of CO 2 and CH4 of the region for current climate conditions and for future scenarios by considering effects of permafrost dynamics, CO 2 fertilization of photosynthesis and fire. We find that currently the region is a net source of carbon to the atmosphere at 276 Tg C yr -1. We project that throughout the 21st century, the region will most likely continue as a net source of carbon and the source will increase by up to 473 Tg C yr-1 by the end of the century compared to the current emissions. However our coupled carbon and climate model simulations show that these emissions will exert relatively small radiative forcing on global climate system compared to large amounts of anthropogenic emissions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Contribution of seasonal sub-Antarctic surface water variability to millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last deglaciation and Marine Isotope Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2015-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is thought to have played a key role in past atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2,atm) changes. Three main factors are understood to control the Southern Ocean's influence on CO2,atm, via their impact on surface ocean pCO2 and therefore regional ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes: 1) the efficiency of air-sea gas exchange, which may be attenuated by seasonal- or annual sea-ice coverage or the development of a shallow pycnocline; 2) the supply of CO2-rich water masses from the sub-surface and the deep ocean, which is associated with turbulent mixing and surface buoyancy- and/or wind forcing; and 3) biological carbon fixation, which depends on nutrient availability and is therefore influenced by dust deposition and/or upwelling. In order to investigate the possible contributions of these processes to millennial-scale CO2,atm variations during the last glacial and deglacial periods, we make use of planktonic foraminifer census counts and stable oxygen- and carbon isotope measurements in the planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) from marine sediment core MD07-3076Q in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic. These data are interpreted on the basis of a comparison of core-top and modern seawater isotope data, which permits an assessment of the seasonal biases and geochemical controls on the stable isotopic compositions of G. bulloides and N. pachyderma (s.). Based on a comparison of our down-core results with similar data from the Southeast Atlantic (Cape Basin) we infer past basin-wide changes in the surface hydrography of the sub-Antarctic Atlantic. We find that millennial-scale rises in CO2,atm over the last 70 ka are consistently linked with evidence for increased spring upwelling, and enhanced summer air-sea exchange in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic. Parallel evidence for increased summer export production would suggest that seasonal changes in upwelling and air-sea exchange exerted a dominant influence on surface pCO2 in

  16. Regional energy and CO2 exchange over transitional grassland of Inner Mongolia - a weight-shift microlight aircraft study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S.; Junkermann, W.; Wang, L.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Zheng, X. H.; Foken, T.

    2010-09-01

    In environmental science spatial representativeness of measurements is a general problem. Often ground-based measurements can be commenced only at the expense of either scale or resolution. Airborne platforms have been shown to overcome this problem. However typical research aircraft are expensive to operate or not even applicable, e.g. in remote areas. Unmanned aerial vehicles do not yet allow a comprehensive sensor package due to payload restrictions. Here the Weight-Shift Microlight Aircraft (WSMA) can provide an alternative. After successfully applying a WSMA to aerial imagery, aerosol and radiation transfer studies, the feasibility of Eddy Covariance (EC) flux measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) was explored. Careful calibration and validation was followed by application of the WSMA to comprehensive ABL soundings over the grassland of the Xilin River Catchment (XRC) in Inner Mongolia, China. The XRC is subject to vast human activity, which influence to capture was objective of measurements from June to August 2009. Simultaneously to the WSMA soundings, half-hourly tower EC fluxes were measured at 3 control sites, two of them non-grazed (C4 dominated Leymus, C3 dominated Stipa) and one heavily grazed (3 sheep unit ha-1y-1, HG). The idea of this setup was to a) validate the spatial representativity of process-based regional flux simulation and b) allow for scenario study of advancing grassland degradation. WSMA soundings took place around sun apex, and followed multiple repetitions of 2 to 80 km long line transects, organized in vertical stacks. Operational results at lowest flight level (50 m, AC50) averaged to fluxes of sensible heat QH = -177±78 Wm-2, latent heat QE = -78±40 Wm-2 and carbon dioxide QC = 0.02±0.2 mg CO2 m-2s-1 throughout the campaign. At a radiation budget QS* = -412±86 Wm-2, which was 16 % lower than the control sites, the energy balance from AC50 measurements was closed to 72±18 % on average. AC50 measured QH was found

  17. Inactivation of Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 promotes cyanobacterial calcification by upregulating CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Bo; Cheng, Hui-Min; Gao, Kun-Shan; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are important players in the global carbon cycle, accounting for approximately 25% of global CO2 fixation. Their CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are thought to play a key role in cyanobacterial calcification, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. In Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, a single Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger (Slr1336) controls the Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange reaction. We knocked out the exchanger and investigated the effects on cyanobacterial calcification and CCMs. Inactivation of slr1336 significantly increased the calcification rate and decreased the zeta potential, indicating a relatively stronger Ca(2+)-binding ability. Some genes encoding CCM-related components showed increased expression levels, including the cmpA gene, which encodes the Ca(2+)-dependent HCO3(-) transporter BCT1. The transcript level of cmpA in the mutant was 30 times that in wild type. A Western blot analysis further confirmed that protein levels of CmpA were higher in the mutant than the wild type. Measurements of inorganic carbon fluxes and O2 evolution proved that both the net HCO3(-) uptake rate and the BCT1 transporter supported photosynthetic rate in the slr1336 mutant were significantly higher than in the wild type. This would cause the mutant cells to liberate more OH(-) ions out of the cell and stimulate CaCO3 precipitation in the microenvironment. We conclude that the mutation of the Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger in Synechocystis promoted the cyanobacterial calcification process by upregulating CCMs, especially the BCT1 HCO3(-) transporter. These results shed new light on the mechanism by which CCM-facilitated photosynthesis promotes cyanobacterial calcification.

  18. High Latitude Forest Dynamics - CO2 EXCHANGE Measurements and Forest Growth at the Altitudinal Forest Line in High Subarctic Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, S.; Siivola, E.; Aakala, T.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Back, J. K.; Grace, J.; Vesala, T.

    2015-12-01

    Forests in high subarctic fell regions of Fennoscandia belong to the most northern forests in the world, a dynamic ecosystem vulnerable under a changing climate with treelines moving further north and also higher up slopes. An ecosystem is characterised by the interaction between micrometeorology, macroecology and the underlying terrain and topography. The current study is carried out at 68° North (Värriö strict nature reserve), the most sensitive zone of the high subarctic in Finnish Lapland. As the treeline is climbing up the slopes trees and eventually forests establish along the slopes leading to a greening of the area ("Greening of the Arctic" effect) and to an increase in CO2 uptake, also as a result of rising air temperatures and Nitrogen fertilization effects. Such developments and the little grazing (in this area) are leading to an increase in photosynthesising biomass. In order to fully understand the atmosphere - forest interaction in the fell region of Finnish Lapland, several important aspects are taken in consideration: its high latitudinal location, on-going climate change, polar day, its topographic characteristic and the dynamic of the progressing tree line. All these physiognomies cumulate in the capacity and efficiency of high latitude biomes in converting energy into photosynthate and contributing to removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Carrying out CO2 and energy exchange measurements at ecosystem level in such extreme environments are challenging in particular when trying to follow and fulfil established assumptions set out by the application of the eddy covariance technique. Results from the first four consecutive snow free growing seasons show this site to act as a sink for atmospheric CO2. We are investigating the orographic effect on the observed fluxes and evaluate the performance of the flux setup determining if the topography has any systematic effects on fluxes or whether its external properties bias the carbon balance.

  19. Bayesian optimization of the Community Land Model simulated biosphere-atmosphere exchange using CO2 observations from a dense tower network and aircraft campaigns over Oregon

    DOE PAGES

    Schmidt, Andres; Law, Beverly E.; Göckede, Mathias; Hanson, Chad; Yang, Zhenlin; Conley, Stephen

    2016-09-15

    Here, the vast forests and natural areas of the Pacific Northwest comprise one of the most productive ecosystems in the northern hemisphere. The heterogeneous landscape of Oregon poses a particular challenge to ecosystem models. We present a framework using a scaling factor Bayesian inversion to improve the modeled atmosphere-biosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. Observations from 5 CO/CO2 towers, eddy covariance towers, and airborne campaigns were used to constrain the Community Land Model CLM4.5 simulated terrestrial CO2 exchange at a high spatial and temporal resolution (1/24°, 3-hourly). To balance aggregation errors and the degrees of freedom in the inverse modeling system,more » we applied an unsupervised clustering approach for the spatial structuring of our model domain. Data from flight campaigns were used to quantify the uncertainty introduced by the Lagrangian particle dispersion model that was applied for the inversions. The average annual statewide net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was increased by 32% to 29.7 TgC per year by assimilating the tropospheric mixing ratio data. The associated uncertainty was decreased by 28.4% to 29%, on average over the entire Oregon model domain with the lowest uncertainties of 11% in western Oregon. The largest differences between posterior and prior CO2 fluxes were found for the Coast Range ecoregion of Oregon that also exhibits the highest availability of atmospheric observations and associated footprints. In this area, covered by highly productive Douglas-fir forest, the differences between the prior and posterior estimate of NEP averaged 3.84 TgC per year during the study period from 2012 through 2014.« less

  20. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2005-05-01

    One-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and current-year white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown in ambient (360 ppm) or twice ambient (720 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and at three soil temperatures (Tsoil = 7, 17 and 27 degrees C initially, increased to 10, 20 and 30 degrees C two months later, respectively) in a greenhouse for 4 months. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2.5 and 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) in jack pine in both CO2 treatments and g(s) and E in white birch in ambient [CO2], but enhanced instantaneous water-use efficiency (IWUE) in both species after 2.5 months of treatment. Treatment effects on g(s) and E remained significant throughout the 4-month study. Low Tsoil reduced maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax) in jack pine in elevated [CO2] after 2.5 months of treatment, but not after 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil increased actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in the light (DeltaF/Fm') in jack pine, but decreased DeltaF/Fm' in white birch after 4 months of treatment. In response to low Tsoil, photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation (Jc) decreased in jack pine after 2.5 months and in white birch after 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil increased the ratio of the photosynthetic linear electron transport to oxygenation (Jo) to the total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (Jo/J(T)) in both species after 2.5 months of treatment, but the effects became statistically insignificant in white birch after 4 months of treatment. High Tsoil decreased foliar N concentration in white birch. Elevated [CO2] increased Pn, IWUE and Jc but decreased Jo/J(T) in both species at both measurement times except Jc in white birch after 2.5 months

  1. Investigating the impact of light and water status on the exchange of COS, 13CO2, CO18O and H218O from bryophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, Teresa; Royles, Jessica; Ogee, Jerome; Jones, Samuel; Burlett, Regis; West, Jason; Sauze, Joana; Wohl, Steven; Genty, Bernard; Griffiths, Howard; Wingate, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    in the oxygen isotope discrimination of CO2. These data followed closely values predicted by our process-based model. We also observed a consistent pattern in the fluxes of CO2 and COS during the desiccation cycle. Initially when the bryophyte was wet and a barrier to diffusion existed, net CO2 and COS uptake rates were low. As the water film on the bryophyte disappeared the net rates of CO2 and COS uptake increased to a steady maximum rate whilst relative water content values remained above 100%. Thereafter, the bryophyte turned from a COS sink to a source. In this talk we will further explore how the COS exchange rate of bryophytes varies with light level and whether there is any evidence for differences in the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase with light and moisture status. We also use the data to develop and test a new theoretical model of COS exchange for astomatous plants for the first time.

  2. Beyond the Big Leaf: Quantifying Interactions between Canopy Structure and Canopy Photosynthesis Using Isotopic Partitioning of Net Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of CO2 in a Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asirwatham, J.; Wehr, R. A.; Saleska, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of the forest-atmosphere exchange of carbon isotopes can be used to partition the net total carbon exchange (measured by standard eddy covariance) into its photosynthetic and respiratory components. This partitioning requires an estimate of the isotopic signature of canopy-scale photosynthesis, which has been obtained to date by assuming that the canopy behaves like a single 'big leaf'. This assumption neglects the heterogeneity of the canopy both vertically and with respect to leaf angles: leaves at various heights and angles experience different sunlight, temperature, and wind, and are physiologically different as well. In order to explore errors associated with the big leaf assumption, we applied a big leaf isotopic partitioning algorithm to canopy-scale net fluxes of 13CO2, 12CO2, heat, and water generated by a multi-leaf isotopic canopy simulation. The simulation included micro-environmental heterogeneity produced by the canopy geometry (leaf angles and arrangement) as well as physiological variation among leaves, invoking leaf-level energy balance to determine leaf temperatures. Leaf behavior in the simulation was parameterized by leaf-level gas-exchange measurements of the relevant characteristics of a range of leaves in the canopy (e.g. limiting photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, daytime respiration). These measurements indicated that photosynthetic capacity increased with height in the canopy, but that within a given canopy layer, leaf behavior showed surprisingly little variability. They also indicated that stomatal conductance did not relate quasi-linearly to light or photosynthetic rate, but was instead roughly constant with light at all photosynthetic photon flux densities above 100 μE m-2 s-1. The multi-leaf simulation incorporating these leaf behaviors suggested that the big leaf assumption is valid under diffuse light conditions but can lead to significant errors under clear sky conditions.

  3. Development in a naturally acidified environment: Na+/H+-exchanger 3-based proton secretion leads to CO2 tolerance in cephalopod embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of pH homeostasis is a central feature of all animals to cope with acid–base disturbances caused by respiratory CO2. Although a large body of knowledge is available for vertebrate and mammalian pH regulatory systems, the mechanisms of pH regulation in marine invertebrates remain largely unexplored. Results We used squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana), which are known as powerful acid–base regulators to investigate the pH regulatory machinery with a special focus on proton secretion pathways during environmental hypercapnia. We cloned a Rhesus protein (slRhP), V-type H+-ATPase (slVHA) and the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (slNHE3) from S. lessoniana, which are hypothesized to represent key players in proton secretion pathways among different animal taxa. Specifically designed antibodies for S. lessoniana demonstrated the sub-cellular localization of NKA, VHA (basolateral) and NHE3 (apical) in epidermal ionocytes of early life stages. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that slNHE3, slVHA and slRhP are up regulated in response to environmental hypercapnia (pH 7.31; 0.46 kPa pCO2) in body and yolk tissues compared to control conditions (pH 8.1; 0.045 kPa pCO2). This observation is supported by H+ selective electrode measurements, which detected increased proton gradients in CO2 treated embryos. This compensatory proton secretion is EIPA sensitive and thus confirms the central role of NHE based proton secretion in cephalopods. Conclusion The present work shows that in convergence to teleosts and mammalian pH regulatory systems, cephalopod early life stages have evolved a unique acid–base regulatory machinery located in epidermal ionocytes. Using cephalopod molluscs as an invertebrate model this work provides important insights regarding the unifying evolutionary principles of pH regulation in different animal taxa that enables them to cope with CO2 induced acid–base disturbances. PMID:23988184

  4. Modelling Effects of Water Table Depth Variations on Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange of a Western Canadian Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezbahuddin, S.; Grant, R. F.; Flanagan, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Water table depth (WTD) is one of the key drivers affecting aggradation and degradation of peatlands. Variations in WTD can alter the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) and so cause a peatland to change between a sink and a source of carbon. Process based mathematical modelling can provide insights on WTD-net ecosystem productivity (NEP) interactions over peatlands. We deployed a process-based ecosystem model ecosys to examine the WTD effects on variations in NEP of a fen peatland in Alberta, Canada. Our modelled results showed that a growing season (May-August) WTD drawdown of ~0.3m from 2004-2007 caused more rapid decomposition in deeper peat layers so that Re increased by ~180 g C m-2 growing season -1. However, similar increase in GPP (~ 170 g C m-2 growing season -1) under deeper WTD condition due to more rapid microbial and root growth, and hence more rapid mineralization and nutrient uptake, left no net effect of WTD drawdown on NEP. The modelled ecosystem was overall a large sink of C (~ 100 g C m-2 yr-1) over the study period of 2004-2009. However, gradually diminishing GPP by ~ 70 g C m-2 growing season -1 with progressively deeper WTD during 2008-2009 indicated that further drawdown of WTD could alter the source sink status of these peatlands. These modelled results were corroborated against hourly eddy covariance (EC) net CO2 fluxes, latent heat and sensible heat fluxes (R2~0.75, a→0, b→1); and annual estimates of EC-gap filled NEP and partitioned GPP and Re over the site from 2004-2009. Our findings indicated the needs for coupling of soil-plant-atmosphere schemes for gases, water, energy, carbon and nutrients in models to adequately simulate WTD effects on peatland C stocks.

  5. What are the instrumentation requirements for measuring the isotopic composition of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 using eddy covariance methods?

    PubMed

    Saleska, Scott R; Shorter, Joanne H; Herndon, Scott; Jiménez, Rodrigo; McManus, J Barry; Munger, J William; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2006-06-01

    Better quantification of isotope ratios of atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of CO2 could substantially improve our ability to probe underlying physiological and ecological mechanisms controlling ecosystem carbon exchange, but the ability to make long-term continuous measurements of isotope ratios of exchange fluxes has been limited by measurement difficulties. In particular, direct eddy covariance methods have not yet been used for measuring the isotopic composition of ecosystem fluxes. In this article, we explore the feasibility of such measurements by (a) proposing a general criterion for judging whether a sensor's performance is sufficient for making such measurements (the criterion is met when the contribution of sensor error to the flux measurement error is comparable to or less than the contribution of meteorological noise inherently associated with turbulence flux measurements); (b) using data-based numerical simulations to quantify the level of sensor precision and stability required to meet this criterion for making direct eddy covariance measurements of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2 fluxes above a specific ecosystem (a mid-latitude temperate forest in central Massachusetts, USA); (c) testing whether the performance of a new sensor-a prototype pulsed quantum cascade laser (QCL) based isotope-ratio absorption spectrometer (and plausible improvements thereon)-is sufficient for meeting the criterion in this ecosystem. We found that the error contribution from a prototype sensor (approximately 0.2 per thousand, 1 SD of 10 s integrations) to total isoflux measurement error was comparable to (1.5 to 2x) the irreducible 'meteorological' noise inherently associated with turbulent flux measurements above this ecosystem (daytime measurement error SD of approximately 60% of flux versus meteorological noise of 30-40% for instantaneous half-hour fluxes). Our analysis also shows that plausible instrument improvements (increase of sensor precision to approximately 0.1 per

  6. Warmer temperatures stimulate respiration and reduce net ecosystem productivity in a northern Great Plains grassland: Analysis of CO2 exchange in automatic chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    The interacting effects of altered temperature and precipitation are expected to have significant consequences for ecosystem net carbon storage. Here I report the results of an experiment that evaluated the effects of elevated temperature and altered precipitation on ecosystem CO2 exchange in a northern Great Plains grassland, near Lethbridge, Alberta Canada. Open-top chambers were used to establish an experiment in 2012 with three treatments (control, warmed, warmed plus 50% of normal precipitation input). A smaller experiment with only the two temperature treatments (control and warmed) was conducted in 2013. Continuous half-hourly net CO2 exchange measurements were made using nine automatic chambers during May-October in both years. My objectives were to determine the sensitivity of the ecosystem carbon budget to temperature and moisture manipulations, and to test for direct and indirect effects of the environmental changes on ecosystem CO2 exchange. The experimental manipulations resulted primarily in a significant increase in air temperature in the warmed treatment plots. A cumulative net loss of carbon or negative net ecosystem productivity (NEP) occurred during May through September in the warmed treatment (NEP = -659 g C m-2), while in the control treatment there was a cumulative net gain of carbon (NEP = +50 g C m-2). An eddy covariance system that operated at the site, over a footprint region that was not influenced by the experimental treatments, also showed a net gain of carbon by the ecosystem. The reduced NEP was due to higher plant and soil respiration rates in the warmed treatment that appeared to be caused by a combination of: (i) higher carbon substrate availability indirectly stimulating soil respiration in the warmed relative to the control treatment, and (ii) a strong increase in leaf respiration likely caused by a shift in electron partitioning to the alternative pathway respiration in the warmed treatment, particularly when exposed to high

  7. Towards constraining the stratosphere-troposphere exchange of radiocarbon: strategies of stratospheric 14CO2 measurements using AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huilin; Paul, Dipayan; Meijer, Harro; Miller, John; Kivi, Rigel; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) plays an important role in the carbon cycle studies to understand both natural and anthropogenic carbon fluxes, but also in atmospheric chemistry to constrain hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in the atmosphere. Apart from the enormous 14C emissions from nuclear bomb testing in the 1950s and 1960s, radiocarbon is primarily produced in the stratosphere due to the cosmogenic production. To this end, better understanding the stratospheric radiocarbon source is very useful to advance the use of radiocarbon for these applications. However, stratospheric 14C observations have been very limited so that there are large uncertainties on the magnitude and the location of the 14C production as well as the transport of radiocarbon from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Recently we have successfully made stratospheric 14C measurements using AirCore samples from Sodankylä, Northern Finland. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, which passively collects atmospheric air samples into a long piece of coiled stainless steel tubing during the descent of a balloon flight. Due to the relatively low cost of the consumables, there is a potential to make such AirCore profiling in other parts of the world on a regular basis. In this study, we simulate the 14C in the atmosphere and assess the stratosphere-troposphere exchange of radiocarbon using the TM5 model. The Sodankylä radiocarbon measurements will be used to verify the performance of the model at high latitude. Besides this, we will also evaluate the influence of different cosmogenic 14C production scenarios and the uncertainties in the OH field on the seasonal cycles of radiocarbon and on the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and based on the results design a strategy to set up a 14C measurement program using AirCore.

  8. Boat-Based Eddy Covariance Measurements of CO2 and H2O Exchange Over Amazon and Tapajos Rivers and Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Freitas, H.; Read, E.; Goulden, M.; Rocha, H.; Doughty, C.

    2004-12-01

    Recent reports suggest that gas evasion of carbon dioxide from the Amazon river and its tributaries to the atmosphere may play an important role in the regional carbon budget. These gas transfer rates were estimated using air-water concentration gradients and gas transfer coefficients (piston velocities) derived from floating chamber measurements. Chamber techniques have inherent uncertainties due to their effect on the near-surface air turbulence. The micrometeorological technique of eddy covariance is attractive since it is a direct measurement of gas exchange and samples over a much larger area. In August 2004, we mounted equipment on a small riverboat to measure CO2 and H2O fluxes from the rivers and lakes near Santarem, Para. The motion of the boat was recorded using an inertial measurement package combined with a GPS receiver, and subtracted from the measured winds. We experimented with both thin-wall Teflon tubing and headspace equilibrators to measure the concentration of CO2 in the water continuously. Our sampling strategy included both "under-way" measurements and stationary (moored) 24-hour measurements on the Amazon and Tapajos rivers, and lakes connected to these rivers. CO2 concentration in the Amazon river and a connected lake was 3000-5000 ppm, much higher than the Tapajos river and a connected lake (range 400-1200 ppm). The "signal-to-noise" ratio was therefore greater for fluxes measured above the Amazon. Preliminary calculations indicate fluxes of order 1-2 micromoles/m2/s over the Amazon and 0.6-1 micromoles/m2/s over the Tapajos, and the calculated gas transfer velocity agrees with existing ocean-based parameterizations.

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange Using Optical-IR and Microwave Sensors: Algorithm Development for the SMAP Decadal Survey Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. A.; Kimball, J. S.; Reichle, R. H.; Zhang, K.; McDonald, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    The global balance between photosynthesis, respiration, and disturbance determines whether ecosystems will continue to offset human CO2 emissions. Changes in temperature and moisture constraints can differentially affect photosynthesis and respiration, whereas disturbance and stand succession can push ecosystems far from steady state, shifting carbon source-sink dynamics. Remote sensing and ecosystem process model simulations allow us to characterize the climatic sensitivity of this balance, but effective model parameters are uncertain at continental scales. We developed a carbon model to derive daily net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) using MODIS GPP and surface soil moisture and temperature retrievals from AMSR-E as driving data. We apply Bayesian synthesis to parameterize the model with a range of FLUXNET tower CO2 measurements across representative global biomes, while accounting for error in flux observations, driving data, and model structure. Model fit diagnostics are compared to determine the relative value of remotely sensed information for accurate prediction of carbon fluxes. Model parameters vary with ecosystem type and indicate that most ecosystems have not reached soil organic carbon pools expected for steady state. Model fit is relatively more impacted by MODIS GPP than by AMSR-E temperature and moisture. AMSR-E moisture explains arid region fluxes, whereas temperature is a stronger predictor for high-latitude locations. The results of this study offer a benchmark for calibrating and assessing the incremental value of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission observations over information available from existing sensors. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission with scheduled 2013 launch date will provide moderate resolution soil moisture (10 km) and freeze-thaw state (1-3 km) information potentially providing new estimates of land surface processes, including daily NEE. This work was performed at The University of Montana and Jet

  10. Habitat stress initiates changes in composition, CO2 gas exchange and C-allocation as life traits in biological soil crusts.

    PubMed

    Colesie, Claudia; Green, T G Allan; Haferkamp, Ilka; Büdel, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) are the dominant functional vegetation unit in some of the harshest habitats in the world. We assessed BSC response to stress through changes in biotic composition, CO2 gas exchange and carbon allocation in three lichen-dominated BSC from habitats with different stress levels, two more extreme sites in Antarctica and one moderate site in Germany. Maximal net photosynthesis (NP) was identical, whereas the water content to achieve maximal NP was substantially lower in the Antarctic sites, this apparently being achieved by changes in biomass allocation. Optimal NP temperatures reflected local climate. The Antarctic BSC allocated fixed carbon (tracked using (14)CO2) mostly to the alcohol soluble pool (low-molecular weight sugars, sugar alcohols), which has an important role in desiccation and freezing resistance and antioxidant protection. In contrast, BSC at the moderate site showed greater carbon allocation into the polysaccharide pool, indicating a tendency towards growth. The results indicate that the BSC of the more stressed Antarctic sites emphasise survival rather than growth. Changes in BSC are adaptive and at multiple levels and we identify benefits and risks attached to changing life traits, as well as describing the ecophysiological mechanisms that underlie them.

  11. Habitat stress initiates changes in composition, CO2 gas exchange and C-allocation as life traits in biological soil crusts.

    PubMed

    Colesie, Claudia; Green, T G Allan; Haferkamp, Ilka; Büdel, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) are the dominant functional vegetation unit in some of the harshest habitats in the world. We assessed BSC response to stress through changes in biotic composition, CO2 gas exchange and carbon allocation in three lichen-dominated BSC from habitats with different stress levels, two more extreme sites in Antarctica and one moderate site in Germany. Maximal net photosynthesis (NP) was identical, whereas the water content to achieve maximal NP was substantially lower in the Antarctic sites, this apparently being achieved by changes in biomass allocation. Optimal NP temperatures reflected local climate. The Antarctic BSC allocated fixed carbon (tracked using (14)CO2) mostly to the alcohol soluble pool (low-molecular weight sugars, sugar alcohols), which has an important role in desiccation and freezing resistance and antioxidant protection. In contrast, BSC at the moderate site showed greater carbon allocation into the polysaccharide pool, indicating a tendency towards growth. The results indicate that the BSC of the more stressed Antarctic sites emphasise survival rather than growth. Changes in BSC are adaptive and at multiple levels and we identify benefits and risks attached to changing life traits, as well as describing the ecophysiological mechanisms that underlie them. PMID:24694713

  12. Habitat stress initiates changes in composition, CO2 gas exchange and C-allocation as life traits in biological soil crusts

    PubMed Central

    Colesie, Claudia; Allan Green, T G; Haferkamp, Ilka; Büdel, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) are the dominant functional vegetation unit in some of the harshest habitats in the world. We assessed BSC response to stress through changes in biotic composition, CO2 gas exchange and carbon allocation in three lichen-dominated BSC from habitats with different stress levels, two more extreme sites in Antarctica and one moderate site in Germany. Maximal net photosynthesis (NP) was identical, whereas the water content to achieve maximal NP was substantially lower in the Antarctic sites, this apparently being achieved by changes in biomass allocation. Optimal NP temperatures reflected local climate. The Antarctic BSC allocated fixed carbon (tracked using 14CO2) mostly to the alcohol soluble pool (low-molecular weight sugars, sugar alcohols), which has an important role in desiccation and freezing resistance and antioxidant protection. In contrast, BSC at the moderate site showed greater carbon allocation into the polysaccharide pool, indicating a tendency towards growth. The results indicate that the BSC of the more stressed Antarctic sites emphasise survival rather than growth. Changes in BSC are adaptive and at multiple levels and we identify benefits and risks attached to changing life traits, as well as describing the ecophysiological mechanisms that underlie them. PMID:24694713

  13. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  14. Transferable force-field for modelling of CO2, N2, O2 and Ar in all silica and Na+ exchanged zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujić, Bojan; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we propose a new force field for modelling of adsorption of CO2, N2, O2 and Ar in all silica and Na+ exchanged Si-Al zeolites. The force field has a standard molecular-mechanical functional form with electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions satisfying Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules and thus has a potential for further extension in terms of new molecular types. The parameters for the zeolite framework atom types are optimized by an iterative procedure minimizing the difference with experimental adsorption data for a number of different zeolite structures and Si:Al ratios. The new force field shows a good agreement with available experimental data including those not used in the optimization procedure, and which also shows a reasonable transferability within different zeolite topologies. We suggest a potential usage in screening of different zeolite structures for carbon capture and storage process, and more generally, for separation of other gases.

  15. Dependence of BiFeO3 thickness on exchange bias in BiFeO3/ Co2FeAl multiferroic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, D. L.; Wang, Y. H.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have grown BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films with different thickness on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Half-metallic Co2FeAl (CFA) films with a thickness of 5 nm were then grown on the BFO films by magnetron sputtering. Through the magnetic hysteresis loops of the BFO/CFA heterostructure, we observe a direct correlation between the thickness of the BFO film and exchange bias (EB) field. The EB field exhibits fluctuation behavior with a cyclical BFO thickness of 60 nm, which is close to the spiral modulation wavelength (62 nm) of BFO. It indicates the influence of spiral modulation on the EB in the BFO/CFA multiferroic structure.

  16. O(3P) + CO2 collisions at hyperthermal energies: dynamics of nonreactive scattering, oxygen isotope exchange, and oxygen-atom abstraction.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Laurence Y; Okumura, Mitchio; Zhang, Jianming; Minton, Timothy K; Paci, Jeffrey T; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M L; Camden, Jon P; Schatz, George C

    2012-01-12

    The dynamics of O((3)P) + CO(2) collisions at hyperthermal energies were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Crossed-molecular-beams experiments at = 98.8 kcal mol(-1) were performed with isotopically labeled (12)C(18)O(2) to distinguish products of nonreactive scattering from those of reactive scattering. The following product channels were observed: elastic and inelastic scattering ((16)O((3)P) + (12)C(18)O(2)), isotope exchange ((18)O + (16)O(12)C(18)O), and oxygen-atom abstraction ((18)O(16)O + (12)C(18)O). Stationary points on the two lowest triplet potential energy surfaces of the O((3)P) + CO(2) system were characterized at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory and by means of W4 theory, which represents an approximation to the relativistic basis set limit, full-configuration-interaction (FCI) energy. The calculations predict a planar CO(3)(C(2v), (3)A'') intermediate that lies 16.3 kcal mol(-1) (W4 FCI excluding zero point energy) above reactants and is approached by a C(2v) transition state with energy 24.08 kcal mol(-1). Quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations with collision energies in the range 23-150 kcal mol(-1) were performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d) and BMK/6-311G(d) levels. Both reactive channels observed in the experiment were predicted by these calculations. In the isotope exchange reaction, the experimental center-of-mass (c.m.) angular distribution, T(θ(c.m.)), of the (16)O(12)C(18)O products peaked along the initial CO(2) direction (backward relative to the direction of the reagent O atoms), with a smaller isotropic component. The product translational energy distribution, P(E(T)), had a relatively low average of = 35 kcal mol(-1), indicating that the (16)O(12)C(18)O products were formed with substantial internal energy. The QCT calculations give c.m. P(E(T)) and T(θ(c.m.)) distributions and a relative product yield that agree qualitatively with the experimental results, and the trajectories indicate that

  17. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R; Williams, Christopher A; Schaefer, Kevin; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M A; Baker, Ian; Barr, Alan; Black, T Andrew; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Davis, Kenneth J; Desai, Ankur R; Dietze, Michael; Dragoni, Danilo; Fischer, Marc; Flanagan, Lawrence; Grant, Robert; Gu, Lianghong; Hollinger, D; Izaurralde, Roberto C; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Law, Beverly E; Li, Longhui; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Ma, Siyan; Margolis, Hank; Matamala, R; McCaughey, Harry; Monson, Russell K; Oechel, Walter C; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T; Riciutto, Dan M; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Sprintsin, Michael; Sun, Jianfeng; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christine; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B

    2010-12-09

    There is a continued need for models to improve consistency and agreement with observations [Friedlingstein et al., 2006], both overall and under more frequent extreme climatic events related to global environmental change such as drought [Trenberth et al., 2007]. Past validation studies of terrestrial biosphere models have focused only on few models and sites, typically in close proximity and primarily in forested biomes [e.g., Amthor et al., 2001; Delpierre et al., 2009; Grant et al., 2005; Hanson et al., 2004; Granier et al., 2007; Ichii et al., 2009; Ito, 2008; Siqueira et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2008]. Furthermore, assessing model-data agreement relative to drought requires, in addition to high-quality observedCO2 exchange data, a reliable drought metric as well as a natural experiment across sites and drought conditions.

  18. Different Apparent Gas Exchange Coefficients for CO2 and CH4: Comparing a Brown-Water and a Clear-Water Lake in the Boreal Zone during the Whole Growing Season.

    PubMed

    Rantakari, Miitta; Heiskanen, Jouni; Mammarella, Ivan; Tulonen, Tiina; Linnaluoma, Jessica; Kankaala, Paula; Ojala, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The air-water exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) is a central process during attempts to establish carbon budgets for lakes and landscapes containing lakes. Lake-atmosphere diffusive gas exchange is dependent on the concentration gradient between air and surface water and also on the gas transfer velocity, often described with the gas transfer coefficient k. We used the floating-chamber method in connection with surface water gas concentration measurements to estimate the gas transfer velocity of CO2 (kCO2) and CH4 (kCH4) weekly throughout the entire growing season in two contrasting boreal lakes, a humic oligotrophic lake and a clear-water productive lake, in order to investigate the earlier observed differences between kCO2 and kCH4. We found that the seasonally averaged gas transfer velocity of CH4 was the same for both lakes. When the lakes were sources of CO2, the gas transfer velocity of CO2 was also similar between the two study lakes. The gas transfer velocity of CH4 was constantly higher than that of CO2 in both lakes, a result also found in other studies but for reasons not yet fully understood. We found no differences between the lakes, demonstrating that the difference between kCO2 and kCH4 is not dependent on season or the characteristics of the lake.

  19. Different Apparent Gas Exchange Coefficients for CO2 and CH4: Comparing a Brown-Water and a Clear-Water Lake in the Boreal Zone during the Whole Growing Season.

    PubMed

    Rantakari, Miitta; Heiskanen, Jouni; Mammarella, Ivan; Tulonen, Tiina; Linnaluoma, Jessica; Kankaala, Paula; Ojala, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The air-water exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) is a central process during attempts to establish carbon budgets for lakes and landscapes containing lakes. Lake-atmosphere diffusive gas exchange is dependent on the concentration gradient between air and surface water and also on the gas transfer velocity, often described with the gas transfer coefficient k. We used the floating-chamber method in connection with surface water gas concentration measurements to estimate the gas transfer velocity of CO2 (kCO2) and CH4 (kCH4) weekly throughout the entire growing season in two contrasting boreal lakes, a humic oligotrophic lake and a clear-water productive lake, in order to investigate the earlier observed differences between kCO2 and kCH4. We found that the seasonally averaged gas transfer velocity of CH4 was the same for both lakes. When the lakes were sources of CO2, the gas transfer velocity of CO2 was also similar between the two study lakes. The gas transfer velocity of CH4 was constantly higher than that of CO2 in both lakes, a result also found in other studies but for reasons not yet fully understood. We found no differences between the lakes, demonstrating that the difference between kCO2 and kCH4 is not dependent on season or the characteristics of the lake. PMID:26359720

  20. Second international conference on air-sea interaction and on meteorology and oceanography of the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held September 22--27, 1994 in Lisbon, Portugal. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on air-sea interactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. Open ocean gas transfer velocity derived from long-term direct measurements of the CO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, John; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Moat, Bengamin I.; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Srokosz, Meric A.

    2010-12-01

    Air-sea open ocean CO2 flux measurements have been made using the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique onboard the weathership Polarfront in the North Atlantic between September 2006 and December 2009. Flux measurements were made using an autonomous system ‘AutoFlux’. CO2 mass density was measured with an open-path infrared gas analyzer. Following quality control procedures, 3938 20-minute flux measurements were made at mean wind speeds up to 19.6 m/s, significantly higher wind speeds than previously published results. The uncertainty in the determination of gas transfer velocities is large, but the mean relationship to wind speed allows a new parameterisation of the gas transfer velocity to be determined. A cubic dependence of gas transfer on wind speed is found, suggesting a significant influence of bubble-mediated exchange on gas transfer.

  2. Effect of CO2 concentration on the carbon acquisition of bloom-forming marine phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, B.; Sültemeyer, D.; Riebesell, U.

    2003-04-01

    in CO2 availability may influence phytoplankton species succession and distribution. Potential effects on marine biogeochemical cycling and air-sea gas exchange, which could arise from changes in the relative contribution of different functional groups to overall primary production, will be discussed.

  3. Effects of management thinning on CO2 exchange by a plantation oak woodland in south-eastern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Crow, P.; Eaton, E. L.; Morison, J. I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Forest thinning, which removes some individual trees from a forest stand at intermediate stages of the rotation, is commonly used as a silvicultural technique and is a management practice that can substantially alter both forest canopy structure and carbon storage. Whilst a proportion of the standing biomass is removed through harvested timber, thinning also removes some of the photosynthetic leaf area and introduces a large pulse of woody residue (brash) to the soil surface which potentially can alter the balance of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Using a combination of eddy covariance (EC) and aerial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, this study investigated the effects of management thinning on the carbon balance and canopy structure in a commercially managed oak plantation in the south-east of England. Whilst thinning had a large effect on the canopy structure, increasing canopy complexity and gap fraction, the effects of thinning on the carbon balance were not as evident. In the first year post thinning, Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) was unaffected by the thinning, suggesting that the better illuminated ground vegetation and shrub layer partially compensated for the removed trees. NEE was reduced in the thinned area but not until two years after the thinning had been completed (2009); initially this was associated with an increase in ecosystem respiration (Reco). In subsequent years, NEE remained lower with reduced carbon sequestration in fluxes from the thinned area, which we suggest was in part due to heavy defoliation by caterpillars in 2010 reducing GPP in both sectors of the forest, but particularly in the east.

  4. Relating Soil CO2 Efflux and Root Respiration to Climate and Canopy Gas Exchange in Mature Ponderosa Pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, J.; Law, B. E.; Martin, J. G.; Vickers, D.

    2007-12-01

    Soil respiration (Fs) is the second largest flux of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and will play a key role during global climate change, yet our understanding of factors that control Fs are notably weak. We examined a six year automated chamber based record of Fs and the underlying components at a seasonally drought stressed pine forest in relation to climate and canopy gas exchange. Inter-annual variability of Fs was large (CV=17%) ranging between 612 and 1039 gC m-2y-1. On average 76 % of the variation of daily mean Fs could be quantified using a simple empirical model with year specific basal respiration rate, that was a linear function of above ground annual net primary productivity (ANPP), modulated by a common response to soil temperature and moisture. Using the natural range of climate variability across the 6 yrs to determine the degree of control on Fs by temperature and soil moisture; seasonal total Fs was twice as sensitive to soil moisture variability during the summer months compared to temperature variability during the same period and almost insensitive to the natural range of variability in spring temperature. Soil autotrophic respiration showed a strong seasonal pattern that was tightly linearly correlated with tree transpiration measured using sapflow techniques (r2=0.87) and gross ecosystem productivity (r2=0.81) as determined using the eddy flux approach. Diel patterns of soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration were consistent with location of carbon source in the soil profile and a simple diffusion model. Collectively the results suggest future models of soil respiration should consider the inclusion of canopy processes.

  5. Current net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violette, Aurélie; Heinesch, Bernard; Erpicum, Michel; Carnol, Monique; Aubinet, Marc; François, Louis

    2013-04-01

    For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both

  6. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  7. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  8. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  9. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean. PMID:26988138

  10. Joint Air Sea Interaction (JASIN) experiment, Northwest coast of Scotland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Businger, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The joint air sea interaction (JASIN) experiment took place off the Northwest coast of Scotland. Sea surface and boundary layer parameters were measured. The JASIN data was used as ground truth for various sensors on the SEASAT satellite.

  11. Ecosystem CO2/H2O fluxes are explained by hydraulically limited gas exchange during tree mortality from spruce bark beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, John M.; Massman, William J.; Ewers, Brent E.; Huckaby, Laurie S.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-06-01

    Disturbances are increasing globally due to anthropogenic changes in land use and climate. This study determines whether a disturbance that affects the physiology of individual trees can be used to predict the response of the ecosystem by weighing two competing hypothesis at annual time scales: (a) changes in ecosystem fluxes are proportional to observable patterns of mortality or (b) to explain ecosystem fluxes the physiology of dying trees must also be incorporated. We evaluate these hypotheses by analyzing 6 years of eddy covariance flux data collected throughout the progression of a spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic in a Wyoming Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forest and testing for changes in canopy conductance (gc), evapotranspiration (ET), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. We predict from these hypotheses that (a) gc, ET, and NEE all diminish (decrease in absolute magnitude) as trees die or (b) that (1) gc and ET decline as trees are attacked (hydraulic failure from beetle-associated blue-stain fungi) and (2) NEE diminishes both as trees are attacked (restricted gas exchange) and when they die. Ecosystem fluxes declined as the outbreak progressed and the epidemic was best described as two phases: (I) hydraulic failure caused restricted gc, ET (28 ± 4% decline, Bayesian posterior mean ± standard deviation), and gas exchange (NEE diminished 13 ± 6%) and (II) trees died (NEE diminished 51 ± 3% with minimal further change in ET to 36 ± 4%). These results support hypothesis b and suggest that model predictions of ecosystem fluxes following massive disturbances must be modified to account for changes in tree physiological controls and not simply observed mortality.

  12. The effect of varying soil moisture on the energy balance and CO2 exchange of sunflowers: A study using a mini weighing lysimeter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Espejo, A.; Verhoef, A.

    2003-04-01

    Soil moisture is, together with nitrogen, the most important limiting factor in the plant global production. Its spatial and temporal evolution will determine the energy, water and carbon budgets and the vegetation distribution. For vegetated surfaces, the evapotranspiration is a large component of the energy balance. Understanding the response of the plants to their environment is critical to estimate this flux. To study the evolution of the evapotranspiration under different conditions we have designed a high precision mini lysimeter system. The aim of this set-up is to get a better insight into the interaction between root-zone soil moisture and canopy exchange processes. The experiment consists of 25 soil-filled perspex boxes, which are arranged in a 5× 5-square. This set-up allows for flexibility in experimental set-up and vegetation types/soil moisture levels, and enables us to mimic within-field, or even within-region, variability, without the experimental difficulties encountered in field trials. The results show how soil water stress promotes a high variability in the canopy development and in the evapotranspiration, thereby affecting other components of the energy balance, especially the sensible heat flux. The effect of this variation on the CO_2 exchange and its impact on the water use efficiency by plants is also discussed. The results will be used to include the impact of soil water stress on canopy gas exchange in a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer model (SVAT). Furthermore, it will be tested how well a simple SVAT scheme can deal with within and between pixel variability. This study is deemed extremely relevant for large-scale remote sensing and to aid our understanding the impact of climate change on heterogeneous surfaces.

  13. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of climate and management

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Cernusca, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The role and relative importance of climate and cutting for the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 (NEE) of a temperate mountain grassland was investigated. Eddy covariance CO2 flux data and associated measurements of the green area index and the major environmental driving forces acquired during 2001-2006 at the study site Neustift (Austria) were analyzed. Driven by three cutting events per year which kept the investigated grassland in a stage of vigorous growth, the seasonal variability of NEE was primarily modulated by gross primary productivity (GPP). The role of environmental parameters in modulating the seasonal variability of NEE was obscured by the strong response of GPP to changes in the amount of green area, as well as the cutting-mediated decoupling of phenological development and the seasonal course of climate drivers. None of the climate and management metrics examined was able to explain the inter-annual variability of annual NEE. This is thought to result from (1) a high covariance between GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco) at the annual time scale which results in a comparatively small inter-annual variation of NEE, (2) compensating effects between carbon exchange during and outside the management period, and (3) changes in the biotic response to rather than the climate variables per se. GPP was more important in modulating inter-annual variations in NEE in spring and before the first and second cut, while Reco explained a larger fraction of the inter-annual variability of NEE during the remaining, in particular the post-cut, periods. PMID:24383047

  14. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of climate and management.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Cernusca, Alexander

    2008-04-27

    The role and relative importance of climate and cutting for the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 (NEE) of a temperate mountain grassland was investigated. Eddy covariance CO2 flux data and associated measurements of the green area index and the major environmental driving forces acquired during 2001-2006 at the study site Neustift (Austria) were analyzed. Driven by three cutting events per year which kept the investigated grassland in a stage of vigorous growth, the seasonal variability of NEE was primarily modulated by gross primary productivity (GPP). The role of environmental parameters in modulating the seasonal variability of NEE was obscured by the strong response of GPP to changes in the amount of green area, as well as the cutting-mediated decoupling of phenological development and the seasonal course of climate drivers. None of the climate and management metrics examined was able to explain the inter-annual variability of annual NEE. This is thought to result from (1) a high covariance between GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco) at the annual time scale which results in a comparatively small inter-annual variation of NEE, (2) compensating effects between carbon exchange during and outside the management period, and (3) changes in the biotic response to rather than the climate variables per se. GPP was more important in modulating inter-annual variations in NEE in spring and before the first and second cut, while Reco explained a larger fraction of the inter-annual variability of NEE during the remaining, in particular the post-cut, periods. PMID:24383047

  15. Rain pulse response of soil CO2 exchange by biological soil crusts and grasslands of the semiarid Colorado Plateau, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowling, David R.; Grote, E.E.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biological activity in arid grasslands is strongly dependent on moisture. We examined gas exchange of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), the underlying soil biotic community, and the belowground respiratory activity of C3 and C4 grasses over 2 years in southeast Utah, USA. We used soil surface CO2 flux and the amount and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of soil CO2 as indicators of belowground and soil surface activity. Soil respiration was always below 2 μmol m-2s-1 and highly responsive to soil moisture. When moisture was available, warm spring and summer temperature was associated with higher fluxes. Moisture pulses led to enhanced soil respiration lasting for a week or more. Biological response to rain was not simply dependent on the amount of rain, but also depended on antecedent conditions (prior moisture pulses). The short-term temperature sensitivity of respiration was very dynamic, showing enhancement within 1-2 days of rain, and diminishing each day afterward. Carbon uptake occurred by cyanobacterially dominated biocrusts following moisture pulses in fall and winter, with a maximal net carbon uptake of 0.5 μmol m-2s-1, although typically the biocrusts were a net carbon source. No difference was detected in the seasonal activity of C3 and C4 grasses, contrasting with studies from other arid regions (where warm- versus cool-season activity is important), and highlighting the unique biophysical environment of this cold desert. Contrary to other studies, the δ13C of belowground respiration in the rooting zone of each photosynthetic type did not reflect the δ13C of C3 and C4 physiology.

  16. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  17. Measuring the Effects of Disturbance & Climate on the CO2 & Energy Exchange of Ponderosa Pine Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly E. Law; Larry Mahrt

    2007-01-05

    The goal is to quantify and understand the influence of climate and disturbance on ecosystem processes and thus net carbon uptake by forests. The objective is to combine tower and ground-based observations to quantify the effects of disturbance on processes controlling carbon storage and CO{sub 2} and energy exchange in varying climatic conditions. Specific objectives are: (1) Investigate the effects of logging and fire on carbon storage and carbon dioxide and energy exchange in chronosequences of ponderosa pine, using consistent methodology; (2) Determine key environmental factors controlling carbon storage and carbon dioxide and energy exchange in these forests through a combination of measurements and process modeling; and (3) Assess spatial variation of the concentrations and transport in complex terrain. The eddy covariance method is used for measurements of CO2, water vapor, and energy exchanges in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests (burned in 2002 wildfire, 10 year-old stand, 90 year-old mature stand). The mature stand has been an AmeriFlux site since 2000 (following previous flux sites in young and old stands initiated in 1996). In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, a large suite of biological processes and ecosystem properties are determined for the purpose of developing independent forest carbon budgets and NEP estimates; these include photosynthesis, stand respiration, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes, annual litterfall, foliar chemistry, and bole increment, and soil organic matter among other parameters. The measurements are being integrated and evaluated with two ecosystem models (BIOME-BGC and SPA). Such analyses are needed to assess regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgets. The results will contribute scientific understanding of carbon processes, and will provide comprehensive data sets for forest managers and those preparing national carbon inventories to use in assessments of carbon sequestration in relation to interannual climate

  18. Effects of mesoscale eddies on global ocean distributions of CFC-11, CO2 and Δ14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachkar, Z.; Orr, J. C.; Dutay, J.-C.; Delecluse, P.

    2006-07-01

    Global-scale tracer simulations are typically made at coarse resolution without explicitly modeling eddies. Here we ask what role do eddies play in ocean uptake, storage, and meridional transport of transient tracers. We made global anthropogenic transient-tracer simulations in non-eddying (2°cosφ×2°, ORCA2) and eddying (½°cosφ×½°, ORCA05) versions of the ocean general circulation model OPA9. We focus on the Southern Ocean where tracer air-sea fluxes are largest. Eddies have little effect on global and regional bomb Δ14C uptake and storage. Yet for anthropogenic CO2 and CFC-11, increased eddy activity reduces southern extratropical uptake by 28% and 25% respectively. There is a similar decrease in corresponding inventories, which provides better agreement with observations. With higher resolution, eddies strengthen upper ocean vertical stratification and reduce excessive ventilation of intermediate waters by 20% between 60° S and 40° S. By weakening the Residual Circulation, i.e., the sum of Eulerian mean flow and the opposed eddy-induced flow, eddies reduce the supply of tracer-impoverished deep waters to the surface near the Antarctic divergence, thus reducing the air-sea tracer flux. Consequently, inventories for both CFC-11 and anthropogenic CO2 decrease because their mixed layer concentrations in that region equilibrate with the atmosphere on relatively short time scales (15 days and 6 months, respectively); conversely, the slow air-sea equilibration of bomb Δ14C of 6 years, gives surface waters little time to exchange with the atmosphere before they are subducted.

  19. Distribution and air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide on the Chukchi Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Repina, I. A.; Dudarev, O. V.; Charkin, A. N.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of long-term studies of the dynamics of carbonate parameters and air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes on the Chukchi Sea shelf during the summer. As a result of the interaction of physical and biological factors, the surface waters on the west of Chukchi Sea were undersaturated with carbon dioxide when compared with atmospheric air; the partial pressure of CO2 varied in the range from 134 to 359 μatm. The average value of CO2 flux in the Chukchi Sea per unit area varied in the range from-2.4 to-22.0 mmol /(m2 day), which is significantly higher than the average value of CO2 flux in the World Ocean. It has been estimated that the minimal mass of C absorbed by the surface of Chukchi Sea from the atmosphere during ice-free season is 13 × 1012 g; a great part of this carbon is transported to the deeper layers of sea and isolated from the atmosphere for a long period of time. The studies of the carbonate system of the Chukchi Sea, especially of its western part, will provide some new data on the fluxes of carbon dioxide in the Arctic Ocean and their changes. Our analysis can be used for an interpretation of the satellite assessment of CO2 fluxes and dissolved CO2 distribution in the upper layers of the ocean.

  20. Detecting sinks and sources of CO2 and CH4 by ferrybox-based measurements in the Baltic Sea: Three case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Bernd; Gülzow, Wanda; Sadkowiak, Bernd; Rehder, Gregor

    2014-12-01

    A fully automated measurement system for recording of the surface water CO2 partial pressure, pCO2, was deployed on VOS (voluntary observation ship) "Finnpartner/Finnmaid" in 2003. Since 2009, an amendment of the system also allows for the continuous detection of the surface water partial pressure of methane, pCH4. The ship commutes regularly at 2-3 day intervals between the Gulf of Finland (Helsinki) and the Mecklenburg Bight (Lübeck) in the southwest of the Baltic Sea. The pCO2 data in the central Gotland Sea showed a pronounced seasonality that was mainly controlled by the biological production and decomposition of organic matter in combination with stratification/mixing of the water column. CO2 consumption in spring/summer caused pCO2 that were by up to 300 μatm below the atmospheric level. In contrast, the pCO2 exceeded the atmospheric values during autumn/winter when deep mixing transports CO2-enriched water to the surface. To identify the central Baltic Sea as a sink or source for atmospheric CO2, an air-sea CO2 gas exchange balance was established for three selected years (2005, 2008 and 2009). During each year the surface water acted as a net sink for atmospheric CO2 with uptake rates ranging between 0.60 and 0.89 mol m- 2 yr- 1. The rates correspond approximately to the enhanced carbon burial in sediments during the last century and suggest a link between eutrophication and CO2 uptake. The data of the surface methane concentration are used to focus on situations were extraordinarily high methane concentrations were observed. Temporary methane peaks were observed south of the Island of Gotland, which could clearly be attributed to frequent upwelling events. Between spring 2012 and 2013, Finnmaid went at a few occasions to St. Petersburg in the east of the Gulf of Finland. Methane concentration of up to 130 nmol L- 1 where found close to the River Neva mouth but decreased rapidly to the west. The plume of methane-enriched waters was observed farthest to

  1. Is there a component of Pleistocene CO2 change associated with carbonate dissolution cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keir, Robin S.

    1995-10-01

    The only processes which could have decreased atmospheric CO2 during glacial climates without appreciably changing the carbon isotope distribution in the sea appear to be (1) dissolved calcium carbonate input to the ocean, e.g., coral reef buildup and erosion, (2) the ocean solubility pump, due to changes in surface temperature or air-sea exchange, or (3) decreased biological production of calcium carbonate. It is assumed here that one of these mechanisms caused part of the atmospheric CO2 changes recorded in the 200-kyr-long Vostok ice core. Two residual CO2 records are generated by scaling the δ13C difference between planktonic and benthic foraminifera in marine sediment cores to -82 ppm CO2 per 1‰ increase in Δδ13C and subtracting from this the measured CO2 concentration in the ice core. Both residual CO2 records exhibit two broad maximums between about 20-50 ka and 140-200 ka, indicating that during these times, about 40 ppm of the CO2 decrease from interglacial levels cannot be explained by the interaction of the ocean's biological and vertical mixing cycles. The shape of the residual CO2 curve is similar qualitatively to the variation of calcium carbonate in central equatorial Pacific sediments during this time period, which would imply that changes in dissolved carbonate input to the ocean contributed the added component of CO2 change. However, recent models of atmospheric CO2 change in response to changing alkaline input to the ocean exhibit about a 25 to 35 ppm decrease per 1013 mol yr-1 increase in dissolved CaCO3 input. If compensation for the changing input is occurring mostly within an area of about 40 × 106 km² below the lysocline in the Indo-Pacific, the change in carbonate accumulation rate corresponding to a -40 ppm CO2 change would be a minimum of 3 mg cm-2 yr-1. This can be compared to glacial increases of 0.5 to 1.0 mg cm-2 yr-1 during the last 200 kyr in central equatorial Pacific sediments. Thus, the added glacial accumulation of

  2. Climatic Impacts of a Stochastic Parameterization of Air-Sea Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The atmosphere and ocean are coupled by the exchange of fluxes across the ocean surface. Air-sea fluxes vary partly on scales that are too small and fast to be resolved explicitly in numerical models of weather and climate, making them a candidate for stochastic parameterization. This presentation proposes a nonlinear physical mechanism by which stochastic fluctuations in the air-sea buoyancy flux may modify the mean climate, even though the mean fluctuation is zero. The mechanism relies on a fundamental asymmetry in the physics of the ocean mixed layer: positive surface buoyancy fluctuations cannot undo the vertical mixing caused by negative fluctuations. The mechanism has much in common with Stommel's mixed-layer demon. The presentation demonstrates the mechanism in climate simulations with a comprehensive coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (SINTEX-G). In the SINTEX-G simulations with stochastic air-sea buoyancy fluxes, significant changes are detected in the time-mean oceanic mixed-layer depth, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric Hadley circulation, and net upward water flux at the sea surface. Also, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability is significantly increased. The findings demonstrate that noise-induced drift and noise-enhanced variability, which are familiar concepts from simple climate models, continue to apply in comprehensive climate models with millions of degrees of freedom. The findings also suggest that the lack of representation of sub-grid variability in air-sea fluxes may contribute to some of the biases exhibited by contemporary climate models.

  3. Process coupling and control over the response of net ecosystem CO2 exchange to climate variability and insect disturbance in subalpine forests of the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, R. K.; Moore, D. J.; Trahan, N. A.; Scott-Denton, L.; Burns, S. P.; Hu, J.; Bowling, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Following ten years of studies in subalpine forest ecosystems of the Western US, we have concluded that the tight coupling between gross primary productivity (GPP) and the autotrophic component of soil respiration (Ra) drives responses of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) to climate variability and insect disturbance. This insight has been gained through long-term eddy flux observations, manipulative plot experiments, analyses of dynamics in the stable isotope compositions of CO2 and H2O, and chamber gas-exchange measurements. Using past observations from these studies, we deployed model-data assimilation techniques and forecast weather/climate modeling to estimate how the coupling between GPP and Ra is likely to affect future (Year 2100) dynamics in NEE. The amount of winter snow and its melting dynamics in the spring represents the dominant control over interannual variation in GPP. Using the SIPNET ecosystem process model, combined with knowledge about the stable isotope content of different water sources, we estimated that approximately 75% of growing season GPP is coupled to the use of snowmelt water, whereas approximately 25% is coupled to summer rain. The tight coupling between GPP and winter snow pack drives a similar tight coupling between soil respiration (Rs) and winter snow pack. Manipulation of snow pack on forest plots has shown that Rs increases with increased snow pack, and this effect disappears when trees are girdled, which stops the transfer of GPP to roots and the soil rhizosphere. Higher-than-normal winter snowpacks cause the carbon isotope ratios of soil-respired CO2 to be depleted in 13C, reflecting a signal of lower photosynthetic water-use efficiency in the GPP that is transferred to the soil rhizosphere. Large-scale forest disturbance due to catastrophic tree mortality from mountain pine beetle attack causes an initial (2-3 year) reduction in Rs, which is attributable to the loss of GPP and its effect on Ra. This near-term reduction in Rs

  4. Balloons and Bottles: Activities on Air-Sea Heat Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphree, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to demonstrate how heating and cooling an air mass affects its temperature, volume, density, and pressure. Illustrates how thermal energy can cause atmospheric motion such as expansion, contraction, and winds. (Author/WRM)

  5. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air-sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and (14)C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes. PMID:27187527

  6. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air-sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and 14C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes.

  7. Improving red blood cell K-uptake and its impact on O(2)/CO(2) exchange, and NO-generation in microvascular CHD: a novel therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Almeida, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the entire world. In effect, reversion of angina or improvement of ECG remains an unrealistic therapeutic option for most patients. Unfortunately, most research clinical trials in these patients have focused on coronary atherosclerosis, even decades after the first observation that angina, and myocardial infarction may occur in the presence of normal coronary arteries. Further, there has been little attention from academic and pharmaceutical institutions on comparative therapeutic research as it has been recently addressed by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies in USA, and by a similar statement from the World Medical Association in the year 2000. This review, thus, has tried to present the best of our knowledge on the pathophysiology and management of CHD, along with other striking relevant but neglected findings with some recent patents. Four sections were included from the physiological principles of myocardial oxygen delivery, with emphasis on RBC sensing O(2) demand and delivery in myocardial ischemia, up to the recent advances on approaches intended to reverse angina and the ECG alteration in coronary heart disease. Finally, this review presents the principles, design and results of the first New Drug Application to address improvement in RBC K uptake, and consequently the chain of simultaneous tissue H/K and O(2)/CO(2) exchanges, and NO-generation, along with their promising therapeutic effect on reversion of angina, and ST-T alterations in coronary artery disease patients.

  8. Spaceborne Microwave Remote Sensing of Seasonal Freeze-Thaw Processes in the Terrestrial High Latitudes: Relationships with Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  9. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing of seasonal freeze-thaw processes in theterrestrial high l atitudes : relationships with land-atmosphere CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle C.; Kimball, John S.; Zhao, Maosheng; Njoku, Eni; Zimmermann, Reiner; Running, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth's Northern Hemisphere. These relatively abrupt transitions represent the closest analog to a biospheric and hydrologic on/off switch existing in nature, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. We utilize time series satellite-borne microwave remote sensing measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to examine spatial and temporal variability in seasonal freeze/thaw cycles for the pan-Arctic basin and Alaska. Regional measurements of spring thaw timing are derived using daily brightness temperature measurements from the 19 GHz, horizontally polarized channel, separately for overpasses with 6 AM and 6 PM equatorial crossing times. Spatial and temporal patterns in regional freeze/thaw dynamics show distinct differences between North America and Eurasia, and boreal forest and Arctic tundra biomes. Annual anomalies in the timing of thawing in spring also correspond closely to seasonal atmospheric CO2 concentration anomalies derived from NOAA CMDL arctic and subarctic monitoring stations. Classification differences between AM and PM overpass data average approximately 5 days for the region, though both appear to be effective surrogates for monitoring annual growing seasons at high latitudes.

  10. Historical changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in the eutrophied Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypens, N.; Borges, A. V.; Lancelot, C.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities after the Second World War have severely increased river nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] loads to European coastal areas. The resulting N: P: Si imbalance (compared to phytoplankton requirements) stimulated in the Southern North Sea the growth of Phaeocystis colonies modifying the functioning of the ecosystem and, therefore, the carbon but also the biogenic sulphur cycles. Phaeocystis is a significant producer of DMSP (dimethylsulphide propionate), the precursor of DMS. When emitted to the atmosphere the DMS has a cooling effect on the climate contrarily to the CO2 greenhouse gas. Since the late 1990's specific nutrient reduction policies have however considerably reduced P loads while N is maintained. In this application we explore, with a mathematical tool, the effects of changing N and P loads on air-sea CO2 exchanges and DMS marine emissions. The chosen model is the MIRO-CO2-DMS, a complex biogeochemical model describing carbon, biogenic sulphur and nutrient cycles in the marine domain. Model simulations are performed for the contemporary period since 1950, using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER model simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Results are discussing the importance of human activities and river inputs of carbon and nutrients on the eutrophication of coastal areas, their ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 and the importance of DMS emissions associated with phytoplankton blooms, especially Phaeocystis.

  11. Interaction Effect between Elevated CO2 and Fertilization on Biomass, Gas Exchange and C/N Ratio of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lotfiomran, Neda; Köhl, Michael; Fromm, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and interaction effects between elevated CO2 and nutrient supplies on growth and the C/N ratio of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings were studied. One-year-old beech saplings were grown in a greenhouse at ambient (385 ppm) and elevated CO2 (770 ppm/950 ppm), with or without fertilization for two growing seasons. In this study, emphasis is placed on the combined fertilization including phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen with two level of elevated CO2. The fertilized plants grown under elevated CO2 had the highest net leaf photosynthesis rate (Ac). The saplings grown under elevated CO2 had a significantly lower stomatal conductance (gs) than saplings grown under ambient air. No interaction effect was found between elevated CO2 and fertilization on Ac. A interaction effect between CO2 and fertilization, as well as between date and fertilization and between date and CO2 was detected on gs. Leaf chlorophyll content index (CCI) and leaf nitrogen content were strongly positively correlated to each other and both of them decreased under elevated CO2. At the end of both growing seasons, stem dry weight was greater under elevated CO2 and root dry weight was not affected by different treatments. No interaction effect was detected between elevated CO2 and nutrient supplies on the dry weight of different plant tissues (stems and roots). However, elevated CO2 caused a significant decrease in the nitrogen content of plant tissues. Nitrogen reduction in the leaves under elevated CO2 was about 10% and distinctly higher than in the stem and root. The interaction effect of elevated CO2 and fertilization on C/N ratio in plants tissues was significant. The results led to the conclusion that photosynthesis and the C/N ratio increased while stomatal conductance and leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO2 and nutrient-limited conditions. In general, under nutrient-limited conditions, the plant responses to elevated CO2 were decreased. PMID

  12. Material Exhibiting Efficient CO2 Adsorption at Room Temperature for Concentrations Lower Than 1000 ppm: Elucidation of the State of Barium Ion Exchanged in an MFI-Type Zeolite.

    PubMed

    Itadani, Atsushi; Oda, Akira; Torigoe, Hiroe; Ohkubo, Takahiro; Sato, Mineo; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Kuroda, Yasushige

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is well-known as a greenhouse gas that leads to global warming. Many efforts have been made to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plants, as well as to reduce the amounts of excess CO2 in the atmosphere to around 400 ppm. However, this is not a simple task, particularly in the lower pressure region than 1000 ppm. This is because the CO2 molecule is chemically stable and has a relatively low reactivity. In the present study, the CO2 adsorption at room temperature on MFI-type zeolites exchanged with alkaline-earth-metal ions, with focus on CO2 concentrations <1000 ppm, was investigated both experimentally and by calculation. These materials exhibited a particularly efficient adsorption capability for CO2, compared with other presented samples, such as the sodium-form and transition-metal ion-exchanged MFI-type zeolites. Ethyne (C2H2) was used as a probe molecule. Analyses were carried out with IR spectroscopy and X-ray absorption, and provided significant information regarding the presence of the M(2+)-O(2-)-M(2+) (M(2+): alkaline-earth-metal ion) species formed in the samples. It was subsequently determined that this species acts as a highly efficient site for CO2 adsorption at room temperature under very low pressure, compared to a single M(2+) species. A further advantage is that this material can be easily regenerated by a treatment, e.g., through the application of the temperature swing adsorption process, at relatively low temperatures (300-473 K). PMID:26990497

  13. Advances in Air-Sea Flux Measurement by Eddy Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, Byron W.; Huebert, Barry J.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Bariteau, Ludovic; Edson, James B.; Hare, Jeffrey E.; McGillis, Wade R.

    2014-09-01

    Eddy-correlation measurements of the oceanic flux are useful for the development and validation of air-sea gas exchange models and for analysis of the marine carbon cycle. Results from more than a decade of published work and from two recent field programs illustrate the principal interferences from water vapour and motion, demonstrating experimental approaches for improving measurement precision and accuracy. Water vapour cross-sensitivity is the greatest source of error for flux measurements using infrared gas analyzers, often leading to a ten-fold bias in the measured flux. Much of this error is not related to optical contamination, as previously supposed. While various correction schemes have been demonstrated, the use of an air dryer and closed-path analyzer is the most effective way to eliminate this interference. This approach also obviates density corrections described by Webb et al. (Q J R Meteorol 106:85-100, 1980). Signal lag and frequency response are a concern with closed-path systems, but periodic gas pulses at the inlet tip provide for precise determination of lag time and frequency attenuation. Flux attenuation corrections are shown to be 5 % for a cavity ring-down analyzer (CRDS) and dryer with a 60-m inlet line. The estimated flux detection limit for the CRDS analyzer and dryer is a factor of ten better than for IRGAs sampling moist air. While ship-motion interference is apparent with all analyzers tested in this study, decorrelation or regression methods are effective in removing most of this bias from IRGA measurements and may also be applicable to the CRDS.

  14. New research initiative on air sea interaction in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Rouault, M.; Leethorp, A.; Lutjeharms, J.R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Recent statistical results have demonstrated that the oceanic environment of Southern Africa plays a important regulating role in the climate of the subcontinent. Statistical teleconnections between oceanic temperature anomalies and precipitation over South Africa`s summer rainfall region have been demonstrated, even to the extent of being partially implicated in catastrophic floods. A research program to investigate the interaction between ocean and atmosphere in those ocean areas that have been identified as crucial to Southern Africa climate and rainfall has just started. The first step of this program was to set up a state of the art air-sea interaction measurement system aboard the antarctic research vessel S.A. Agulhas. The second step of the program was to install low cost automatic air sea interaction measurement systems on three research vessels which will provide an extensive database for air-sea interaction studies.

  15. On the difference in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between deciduous and evergreen forests in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Novick, Kimberly A; Oishi, A Christopher; Ward, Eric J; Siqueira, Mario B S; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Stoy, Paul C

    2015-02-01

    The southeastern United States is experiencing a rapid regional increase in the ratio of pine to deciduous forest ecosystems at the same time it is experiencing changes in climate. This study is focused on exploring how these shifts will affect the carbon sink capacity of southeastern US forests, which we show here are among the strongest carbon sinks in the continental United States. Using eight-year-long eddy covariance records collected above a hardwood deciduous forest (HW) and a pine plantation (PP) co-located in North Carolina, USA, we show that the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was more variable in PP, contributing to variability in the difference in NEE between the two sites (ΔNEE) at a range of timescales, including the interannual timescale. Because the variability in evapotranspiration (ET) was nearly identical across the two sites over a range of timescales, the factors that determined the variability in ΔNEE were dominated by those that tend to decouple NEE from ET. One such factor was water use efficiency, which changed dramatically in response to drought and also tended to increase monotonically in nondrought years (P < 0.001 in PP). Factors that vary over seasonal timescales were strong determinants of the NEE in the HW site; however, seasonality was less important in the PP site, where significant amounts of carbon were assimilated outside of the active season, representing an important advantage of evergreen trees in warm, temperate climates. Additional variability in the fluxes at long-time scales may be attributable to slowly evolving factors, including canopy structure and increases in dormant season air temperature. Taken together, study results suggest that the carbon sink in the southeastern United States may become more variable in the future, owing to a predicted increase in drought frequency and an increase in the fractional cover of southern pines. PMID:25168968

  16. On the difference in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between deciduous and evergreen forests in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Novick, Kimberly A; Oishi, A Christopher; Ward, Eric J; Siqueira, Mario B S; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Stoy, Paul C

    2015-02-01

    The southeastern United States is experiencing a rapid regional increase in the ratio of pine to deciduous forest ecosystems at the same time it is experiencing changes in climate. This study is focused on exploring how these shifts will affect the carbon sink capacity of southeastern US forests, which we show here are among the strongest carbon sinks in the continental United States. Using eight-year-long eddy covariance records collected above a hardwood deciduous forest (HW) and a pine plantation (PP) co-located in North Carolina, USA, we show that the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was more variable in PP, contributing to variability in the difference in NEE between the two sites (ΔNEE) at a range of timescales, including the interannual timescale. Because the variability in evapotranspiration (ET) was nearly identical across the two sites over a range of timescales, the factors that determined the variability in ΔNEE were dominated by those that tend to decouple NEE from ET. One such factor was water use efficiency, which changed dramatically in response to drought and also tended to increase monotonically in nondrought years (P < 0.001 in PP). Factors that vary over seasonal timescales were strong determinants of the NEE in the HW site; however, seasonality was less important in the PP site, where significant amounts of carbon were assimilated outside of the active season, representing an important advantage of evergreen trees in warm, temperate climates. Additional variability in the fluxes at long-time scales may be attributable to slowly evolving factors, including canopy structure and increases in dormant season air temperature. Taken together, study results suggest that the carbon sink in the southeastern United States may become more variable in the future, owing to a predicted increase in drought frequency and an increase in the fractional cover of southern pines.

  17. Western Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Study (W-PASS), Introduction and Highlights (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, A.

    2010-12-01

    Western Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Study (W-PASS), Introduction and Highlights Atsushi Tsuda Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo In the western Pacific (WESTPAC) region, dust originating from Asian and Australian arid regions to the North and South Pacific, biomass burning emissions from the Southeast Asia to sub-tropical Pacific, and other anthropogenic substances are transported regionally and globally to affect cloud and rainfall patterns, air quality, and radiative budgets downwind. Deposition of these compounds into the Asian marginal seas and onto the Pacific Ocean influence surface primary productivity and species composition. In the WESTPAC region, subarctic, subtropical oceans and marginal seas are located relatively narrow latitudinal range and these areas are influenced by the dust and anthropogenic inputs. Moreover, anthropogenic emission areas are located between the arid region and the oceans. The W-PASS (Western Pacific Air-Sea interaction Study) project has been funded for 5 years as a part of SOLAS-Japan activity in the summer of 2006. We aim to resolve air-sea interaction through field observation studies mainly using research vessels and island observatories over the western Pacific. We have carried out 5 cruises to the western North Pacific focusing on air-sea interactions. Also, an intensive marine atmospheric observation including direct atmospheric deposition measurement was accomplished by a dozen W-PASS research groups at the NIES Atmospheric and Aerosol Monitoring Station of Cape Hedo in the northernmost tip of the Okinawa main Island facing the East China Sea in the spring 2008. A few weak Kosa (dust) events, anthropogenic air outflows, typical local air and occupation of marine background air were identified during the campaign period. The W-PASS has four research groups mainly focusing on VOC emissions, air-sea gas exchange processes, biogeochemical responses to dust depositions and its modeling. We also

  18. [Effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching on the net primary productivity, soil heterotrophic respiration, and net CO2 exchange flux of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Run-Hua; Lai, Dong-Mei; Yan, Zheng-Yue; Jiang, Li; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2012-04-01

    In April-October, 2009, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching (MD) on the net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) , and net CO2 exchange flux (NEF(CO2)) of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, taking the traditional flood irrigation with no mulching (NF) as the control. With the increasing time, the NPP, Rh, and NEF(CO2) in treatments MD and NF all presented a trend of increasing first and decreased then. As compared with NF, MD increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP of cotton, and decreased the Rh. Over the whole growth period, the Rh in treatment MD (214 g C x m(-2)) was smaller than that in treatment NF (317 g C x m(-2)), but the NEF(CO2) in treatment MD (1030 g C x m(-2)) was higher than that in treatment NF (649 g C x m(-2)). Treatment MD could fix the atmospheric CO2 approximately 479 g C x m(-2) higher than treatment NF. Drip irrigation with plastic mulching could promote crop productivity while decreasing soil CO2 emission, being an important agricultural measure for the carbon sequestration and emission reduction of cropland ecosystems in arid area.

  19. OAFlux Satellite-Based High-Resolution Analysis of Air-Sea Turbulent Heat, Moisture, and Momentum Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lisan

    2016-04-01

    The Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) project at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has recently developed a new suite of products: the satellite-based high-resolution (HR) air-sea turbulent heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes over the global ocean from 1987 to the present. The OAFlux-HR fluxes are computed from the COARE bulk algorithm using air-sea variables (vector wind, near-surface humidity and temperature, and ocean surface temperature) derived from multiple satellite sensors and multiple missions. The vector wind time series are merged from 14 satellite sensors, including 4 scatterometers and 10 passive microwave radiometers. The near-surface humidity and temperature time series are retrieved from 11 satellite sensors, including 7 microwave imagers and 4 microwave sounders. The endeavor has greatly improved the depiction of the air-sea turbulent exchange on the frontal and meso-scales. The OAFlux-HR turbulent flux products are valuable datasets for a broad range of studies, including the study of the long-term change and variability in the oean-surface forcing functions, quantification of the large-scale budgets of mass, heat, and freshwater, and assessing the role of the ocean in the change and variability of the Earth's climate.

  20. Towards More Realistic Simulation of Air-Sea Interaction over Lakes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot; Soto, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The exchange of methane between the atmosphere and surface liquid reservoirs dominates the short time-scale methanological cycle. In this study, previous two-dimensional simulations of the exchange of methane vapor, sensible heat and momentum between the atmosphere and lakes are updated with the inclusion of radiative forcing and extended to three dimensions, including the introduction of realistic coastlines. Previous studies of Titan's air-sea exchange in two dimensions suggested that the exchange process was self-limiting. Evaporation from lakes produced a shallow but extremely stable marine layer that suppressed turbulent exchange. Furthermore, the circulation associated with the higher buoyancy of methane-rich atmosphere over the lake was offset by the oppositely directed thermal sea breeze circulation, which muted the mean wind. Two major weaknesses of this previous work were the lack of radiative forcing and the imposition of two dimensionality that limited the full range of dynamical solutions. Based on early theoretical studies, it was thought that magnitude of turbulent energy flux exchanges would be much larger than radiative fluxes, thereby justifying the neglect of radiation, but the two-dimensional simulations indicated that this was not a valid assumption. The dynamical limitations of two-dimensional simulations are well known. Vorticity stretching (i.e., circulation intensification through vertical motion) is not possible and it is also not possible to produce dynamically balanced gradient wind-type circulations. As well, the irregular shape of a realistic coastline cannot be expressed in two dimensions, and these realistic structures will generally induce complex convergence and divergence circulations in the atmosphere. The impact of radiative forcing and the addition of the third dimension on the air-sea exchange are presented.

  1. Developing and Applications of a Gap-filling Model for Eddy covariance CO2 Flux: Evaluating the Net Ecosystem Exchange of a Subtropical Evergreen Forest after a Server Environmental Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; CHEN, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Successful eddy covariance (EC) applications often challenged by several difficulties, including non-ideal micrometeorological conditions, instrument failures, measurement limitations, and lacking consistent footprint area. Consequently, the resultant gaps in the time series of EC measurements limit the use of these dataset and cause the uncertainty in a range of 1 to 2 ton C/ha/yr for evaluating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) after different CO2 gap-filling procedures (Saigusa et al., 2013). It is crucial to develop a suitable gap-filling model for EC CO2 flux observations to provide reliable long-term surface fluxes for numerous applications. In this study, a gap-filling model was developed for EC CO2 flux by linking the gap-filled water vapor fluxes estimated by Chen et al. (2012) and the optimal nearest QC/QA passed CO2 fluxes for interpolating CO2 flux gaps. Considering the atmosphere characteristics and controlling mechanisms of CO2 fluxes, measured hydrometerological and flux data at the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC) experimental watershed were separated into clear sky and cloudy/nighttime conditions. The successful applications of our gap-filling approaches were examined with various sizes of artificial CO2 gaps. Without any significant environmental disturbance in 2012, the annual NEE of this subtropical evergreen forest was estimated around 6.7 ton C/ha/yr as the amount of terrestrial CO2 sequestration. The effect of sever Typhoon Soulik (11-13, July, 2013) invasion on several ecosystem variables, such as changes of intrinsic water use efficiency, leaf area index, and canopy storage capacity, will be investigated to propose indicators for estimating NEE variations in association with environmental disturbances at this forest ecosystem.

  2. Processes affecting the stable isotope composition of calcite during precipitation on the surface of stalagmites: Laboratory experiments investigating the isotope exchange between DIC in the solution layer on top of a speleothem and the CO2 of the cave atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreybrodt, Wolfgang; Hansen, Maximilian; Scholz, Denis

    2016-02-01

    We present a theoretical derivation of the exchange time, τex, needed to establish isotopic equilibrium between atmospheric CO2 in a cave and HCO3- dissolved in a thin water film covering the surface of a speleothem. The result is τex = τredex · [HCO3-]/ (KH · pCO2 cave) , where τredex depends on the depth, a, of the water film and on temperature. [HCO3-] is the concentration of bicarbonate, pCO2 cave the partial pressure of CO2, and KH is Henry's constant. To test the theory we prepared stagnant or flowing thin films of a NaHCO3 solution and exposed them at 20 °C to an CO2 containing atmosphere of pCO2 500, 12,500, or 25,000 ppmV and defined isotope composition. The δ13C and δ18O values of the DIC in the solution were measured as a function of the exposure time. For stagnant films with depths between 0.06 and 0.2 cm the δ13C values exhibit an exponential approach towards isotope equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 with exchange time, τex. The δ18O values first evolve towards isotopic equilibrium with atmospheric CO2, reach a minimum value and then drift away from the isotopic equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 approaching a steady state caused by isotopic exchange of oxygen with water. The experimental findings are in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions. To further investigate isotope evolution in cave analogue conditions, a water film containing 5 mmol/L of NaHCO3 with a depth of 0.013 cm flowing down an inclined borosilicate glass plate was exposed to an atmosphere with pCO2 = 500 ppmV at a temperature of 20 °C. The δ13C and δ18O values were measured as a function of flow (exposure) time, t. The isotope compositions in the DIC of the water film decrease linear in time by δDIC (t) =δDIC (0) - (δDIC (0) -δDIC (∞)) · t /τex where δDIC (0) is the initial isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the water film and δDIC (∞) its final value. From these data an exchange time τex of ca. 7000 s was obtained

  3. Iron in the Ross Sea: 1. Impact on CO2 fluxes via variation in phytoplankton functional group and non-Redfield stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2005-03-01

    We present new model results examining nutrient and carbon biogeochemistry within the Ross Sea, focusing on the sensitivity of ecosystem dynamics to taxon-specific nutrient utilization parameters and the impact of alleviating Fe limitation of phytoplankton growth. The coupled ice-atmosphere-ocean ecosystem (CIAO) model of the Ross Sea was modified to include air-sea CO2 exchange and non-Redfield C/N/P uptake ratios of the dominant phytoplankton taxa. Model results show that the Ross Sea was a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2, driven by the high primary productivity prior to the onset of Fe limitation. Taxon-specific C/N/P uptake ratios controlled the relative rat