Science.gov

Sample records for air-sea heat fluxes

  1. Influence of surface kinematics on air-sea heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, Fabrice; Melville, Ken

    2004-11-01

    The top few meters of the oceanic boundary layer play a critical role in the transfers of momentum, gas, mass and heat between the atmosphere and the ocean. These exchanges must necessarily transfer through the surface, and presumably, the rates at which they do are influence by the dynamics of the surface layer. Heat flux in particular is regulated by the thin surface thermal layer which, at most, is only a few millimeter thick. We are specifically interested in the influence of small coherent structures of the surface turbulence on the heat flux. Using active and passive infrared imaging, we measured the evolution the surface velocity and temperature fields over small areas of a few square meters. High-resolution surface Eulerian velocity fields using cross-correlation techniques (PIV) are obtained. Using active marking of the surface with an infrared CO2 laser, we have not only shown that it is possible to directly recover the Langrangian surface velocity, but also, by marking appropriate patterns on the surface we have been able to measure the shear strain, vorticity, and surface divergence. With the penetration depth of infrared radiation at these wavelengths being a few microns, these techniques appear to be quite apt for direct measurements of ocean surface turbulence. We have also found that the flux of heat through the surface appears to be influenced by the surface wave field. We will discuss the results in the context of air sea heat flux and ocean surface turbulence.

  2. An assessment of air-sea heat fluxes from ocean and coupled reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivieso, Maria; Haines, Keith; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Chang, You-Soon; Drevillon, Marie; Ferry, Nicolas; Fujii, Yosuke; Köhl, Armin; Storto, Andrea; Toyoda, Takahiro; Wang, Xiaochun; Waters, Jennifer; Xue, Yan; Yin, Yonghong; Barnier, Bernard; Hernandez, Fabrice; Kumar, Arun; Lee, Tong; Masina, Simona; Andrew Peterson, K.

    2015-10-01

    Sixteen monthly air-sea heat flux products from global ocean/coupled reanalyses are compared over 1993-2009 as part of the Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP). Objectives include assessing the global heat closure, the consistency of temporal variability, comparison with other flux products, and documenting errors against in situ flux measurements at a number of OceanSITES moorings. The ensemble of 16 ORA-IP flux estimates has a global positive bias over 1993-2009 of 4.2 ± 1.1 W m-2. Residual heat gain (i.e., surface flux + assimilation increments) is reduced to a small positive imbalance (typically, +1-2 W m-2). This compensation between surface fluxes and assimilation increments is concentrated in the upper 100 m. Implied steady meridional heat transports also improve by including assimilation sources, except near the equator. The ensemble spread in surface heat fluxes is dominated by turbulent fluxes (>40 W m-2 over the western boundary currents). The mean seasonal cycle is highly consistent, with variability between products mostly <10 W m-2. The interannual variability has consistent signal-to-noise ratio (~2) throughout the equatorial Pacific, reflecting ENSO variability. Comparisons at tropical buoy sites (10°S-15°N) over 2007-2009 showed too little ocean heat gain (i.e., flux into the ocean) in ORA-IP (up to 1/3 smaller than buoy measurements) primarily due to latent heat flux errors in ORA-IP. Comparisons with the Stratus buoy (20°S, 85°W) over a longer period, 2001-2009, also show the ORA-IP ensemble has 16 W m-2 smaller net heat gain, nearly all of which is due to too much latent cooling caused by differences in surface winds imposed in ORA-IP.

  3. Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Ute; Czaja, Arnaud; Marshall, John

    2017-02-01

    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α, in {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with "fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤10 ° C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤10 {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}. In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feedback is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}. Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.

  4. The Impact of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer on Air-Sea Interfacial Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, P. J.; Wong, E.

    2015-12-01

    The upper ocean heat content has been observed to be increasing over the past few decades much of which has been attributed to anthropogenic effects resulting in an increase in greenhouse gases thereby increasing the amounts of incoming longwave (LWin) radiation impinging onto the ocean's surface. However, the penetration depth of LWin extends to micrometer scales, where the ocean's thermal skin layer (TSL) exists, and does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean thereby raising the conundrum of how does the upper ocean warm with increasing levels of infrared (IR) radiation. The TSL consists of a strong temperature gradient on the aqueous side of the interface that sustains the upward heat flux by molecular conduction. As such, we hypothesize the heat lost through the air-sea interface which is controlled by the TSL, modulates the amount of heat stored in the upper few meters of the ocean. An analysis of properties of the retrieved TSL profiles from a shipboard IR spectrometer with heat fluxes (specifically LWin) and wind speeds from two cruises limited to night-time data are presented. We also show a comparison between these properties with current published viscous layer models. The results indicate that the data have an inherent wind speed dependence with net flux thereby requiring a segregation of the data into wind speed bins to acknowledge the effects of wind-driven shear in the analysis. The temperature differences derived from the models indicates that at low wind speeds (<2 m/s), where wind-driven shear effects are negligible and buoyancy effects dominate, the TSL profile's gradient is decreasing with increased LWin which leads to a lowered net heat flux and is in agreement with our hypothesis. However our field results show an opposite effect (higher gradient at higher LWin) which is believed to be due to the formation of a thicker TSL at low winds. The presence of a thicker TSL suggests that more of the vertical temperature gradient lies

  5. Relationships Between the Bulk-Skin Sea Surface Temperature Difference, Wind, and Net Air-Sea Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to evaluate and improve models for the bulk-skin temperature difference to the point where they could accurately and reliably apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. To accomplish this goal, work was conducted in three primary areas. These included production of an archive of available data sets containing measurements of the skin and bulk temperatures and associated environmental conditions, evaluation of existing skin layer models using the compiled data archive, and additional theoretical work on the development of an improved model using the data collected under diverse environmental conditions. In this work we set the basis for a new physical model of renewal type, and propose a parameterization for the temperature difference across the cool skin of the ocean in which the effects of thermal buoyancy, wind stress, and microscale breaking are all integrated by means of the appropriate renewal time scales. Ideally, we seek to obtain a model that will accurately apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. A summary of the work in each of these areas is included in this report. A large amount of work was accomplished under the support of this grant. The grant supported the graduate studies of Sandra Castro and the preparation of her thesis which will be completed later this year. This work led to poster presentations at the 1999 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting and 2000 IGARSS meeting. Additional work will be presented in a talk at this year's American Meteorological Society Air-Sea Interaction Meeting this May. The grant also supported Sandra Castro during a two week experiment aboard the R/P Flip (led by Dr. Andrew Jessup of the Applied Physics Laboratory) to help obtain additional shared data sets and to provide Sandra with a fundamental understanding of the physical processes needed in the models. In a related area, the funding also partially supported Dr. William Emery and Daniel

  6. The Measurement of Air-Sea Fluxes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-09

    induced by the motion of the wave (in a wave following coordinate system the rotor appears as an eddy in the wave trough). Strictly speaking, this is a...Droplet distribution and dispersion processes on breaking wind waves . jai. e . Tohoku University er. , Geophysics, 21, 1-25. Lai R.J. and O.H. Shemdin ...seaspray, Chapter 10 in Surface Waves and Fluxes: Current Theory ana Remote Sensing, G. Geernaert and W. Plant, Ed., Reidel, Holland. -4- 1 I 3. Fairall

  7. Parameterization of air sea gas fluxes at extreme wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Craig; D'Asaro, Eric

    2007-06-01

    Air-sea flux measurements of O 2 and N 2 obtained during Hurricane Frances in September 2004 [D'Asaro, E. A. and McNeil, C. L., 2006. Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at extreme wind speeds. Journal Marine Systems, this edition.] using air-deployed neutrally buoyant floats reveal the first evidence of a new regime of air-sea gas transfer occurring at wind speeds in excess of 35 m s - 1 . In this regime, plumes of bubbles 1 mm and smaller in size are transported down from near the surface of the ocean to greater depths by vertical turbulent currents with speeds up to 20-30 cm s - 1 . These bubble plumes mostly dissolve before reaching a depth of approximately 20 m as a result of hydrostatic compression. Injection of air into the ocean by this mechanism results in the invasion of gases in proportion to their tropospheric molar gas ratios, and further supersaturation of less soluble gases. A new formulation for air-sea fluxes of weakly soluble gases as a function of wind speed is proposed to extend existing formulations [Woolf, D.K, 1997. Bubbles and their role in gas exchange. In: Liss, P.S., and Duce, R.A., (Eds.), The Sea Surface and Global Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 173-205.] to span the entire natural range of wind speeds over the open ocean, which includes hurricanes. The new formulation has separate contributions to air-sea gas flux from: 1) non-supersaturating near-surface equilibration processes, which include direct transfer associated with the air-sea interface and ventilation associated with surface wave breaking; 2) partial dissolution of bubbles smaller than 1 mm that mix into the ocean via turbulence; and 3) complete dissolution of bubbles of up to 1 mm in size via subduction of bubble plumes. The model can be simplified by combining "surface equilibration" terms that allow exchange of gases into and out of the ocean, and "gas injection" terms that only allow gas to enter the ocean. The model was tested against the

  8. Air-sea heat exchange, an element of the water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and variation of water vapor, clouds and precipitation are examined. Principal driving forces for these distributions are energy exchange and evaporation at the air-sea interface, which are also important elements of air-sea interaction studies. The overall aim of air-sea interaction studies is to quantitatively determine mass, momentum and energy fluxes, with the goal of understanding the mechanisms controlling them. The results of general circulation simulations indicate that the atmosphere in mid-latitudes responds to changes in the oceanic surface conditions in the tropics. This correlation reflects the strong interaction between tropical and mid-latitude conditions caused by the transport of heat and momentum from the tropics. Studies of air-sea exchanges involve a large number of physica, chemical and dynamical processes including heat flux, radiation, sea-surface temperature, precipitation, winds and ocean currents. The fluxes of latent heat are studied and the potential use of satellite data in determining them evaluated. Alternative ways of inferring heat fluxes will be considered.

  9. Air-sea heat fluxes associated to mesoscale eddies in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and their dependence on different regional conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyba, Inés M.; Saraceno, Martín; Solman, Silvina A.

    2016-11-01

    Heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere largely represent the link between the two media. A possible mechanism of interaction is generated by mesoscale ocean eddies. In this work we evaluate if eddies in Southwestern Atlantic (SWA) Ocean may significantly affect flows between the ocean and the atmosphere. Atmospherics conditions associated with eddies were examined using data of sea surface temperature (SST), sensible (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. On average, we found that NCEP-CFSR reanalysis adequately reflects the variability expected from eddies in the SWA, considering the classical eddy-pumping theory: anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies cause maximum positive (negative) anomalies with maximum mean anomalies of 0.5 °C (-0.5 °C) in SST, 6 W/m2 (-4 W/m2) in SHF and 12 W/m2 (-9 W/m2) in LHF. However, a regional dependence of heat fluxes associated to mesoscale cyclonic eddies was found: in the turbulent Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region they are related with positive heat flux anomaly (ocean heat loss), while in the rest of the SWA they behave as expected (ocean heat gain). We argue that eddy-pumping do not cool enough the center of the cyclonic eddies in the BMC region simply because most of them trapped very warm waters when they originate in the subtropics. The article therefore concludes that in the SWA: (1) a robust link exists between the SST anomalies generated by eddies and the local anomalous heat flow between the ocean and the atmosphere; (2) in the BMC region cyclonic eddies are related with positive heat anomalies, contrary to what is expected.

  10. Ocean Winds and Turbulent Air-Sea Fluxes Inferred From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Mark A.; Gille, Sarah T.; Jackson, Daren L.; Roberts, J. Brent; Wick, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Air-sea turbulent fluxes determine the exchange of momentum, heat, freshwater, and gas between the atmosphere and ocean. These exchange processes are critical to a broad range of research questions spanning length scales from meters to thousands of kilometers and time scales from hours to decades. Examples are discussed (section 2). The estimation of surface turbulent fluxes from satellite is challenging and fraught with considerable errors (section 3); however, recent developments in retrievals (section 3) will greatly reduce these errors. Goals for the future observing system are summarized in section 4. Surface fluxes are defined as the rate per unit area at which something (e.g., momentum, energy, moisture, or CO Z ) is transferred across the air/sea interface. Wind- and buoyancy-driven surface fluxes are called surface turbulent fluxes because the mixing and transport are due to turbulence. Examples of nonturbulent processes are radiative fluxes (e.g., solar radiation) and precipitation (Schmitt et al., 2010). Turbulent fluxes are strongly dependent on wind speed; therefore, observations of wind speed are critical for the calculation of all turbulent surface fluxes. Wind stress, the vertical transport of horizontal momentum, also depends on wind direction. Stress is very important for many ocean processes, including upper ocean currents (Dohan and Maximenko, 2010) and deep ocean currents (Lee et al., 2010). On short time scales, this horizontal transport is usually small compared to surface fluxes. For long-term processes, transport can be very important but again is usually small compared to surface fluxes.

  11. Air-Sea Fluxes in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica from In Situ Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, S. L.; Cassano, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2009, the first unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were flown over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica to collect information regarding air-sea interactions over a wintertime coastal polynya. The UAVs measured wind, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity in flights parallel to the downslope wind flow over the polynya, and in a series of vertical profiles at varying distances from the coast. During three flights on three different days, sufficient measurements were collected to calculate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes over varying oceanic surface states, including frazil, pancake, and rafted ice, with background winds greater than 15 ms-1. During the three flights, sensible heat fluxes upwards of 600 Wm-2 were estimated near the coast, with maximum latent heat fluxes near 160 Wm-2 just downwind of the coast. The calculated accelerations due to the momentum flux divergence were on the order of 10-3 ms-2. In addition to the fluxes, changes in the overall momentum budget, including the horizontal pressure gradient force, were also calculated during the three flights. This presentation will summarize the methodology for calculating the fluxes from the UAV data, present the first ever in situ estimates of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes and overall momentum budget estimates over Terra Nova Bay, and compare the UAV flux calculations to flux measurements taken during other field campaigns in other regions of the Antarctic, as well as to model estimates over Terra Nova Bay.

  12. Air-Sea Spray Airborne Radar Profiler Characterizes Energy Fluxes in Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Esteban-Fermandez, D.

    2010-01-01

    A report discusses ASAP (Air-sea Spray Airborne Profiler), a dual-wavelength radar profiler that provides measurement information about the droplet size distribution (DSD) of sea-spray, which can be used to estimate heat and moisture fluxes for hurricane research. Researchers have recently determined that sea spray can have a large effect on the magnitude and distribution of the air-sea energy flux at hurricane -force wind speeds. To obtain information about the DSD, two parameters of the DSD are required; for example, overall DSD amplitude and DSD mean diameter. This requires two measurements. Two frequencies are used, with a large enough separation that the differential frequency provides size information. One frequency is 94 GHz; the other is 220 GHz. These correspond to the Rayleigh and Mie regions. Above a surface wind speed of 10 m/ s, production of sea spray grows exponentially. Both the number of large droplets and the altitude they reach are a function of the surface wind speed.

  13. Air-Sea Fluxes in Hurricanes From GPS Dropsondes and a Fully Coupled Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desflots, M.; Chen, S.; Zhao, W.; Bao, J.

    2006-12-01

    The importance of the surface fluxes for tropical cyclone (TC) intensity has long been recognized. However, accurate surface fluxes under extreme high-wind conditions are difficult to determine due to the lack of direct observations. The physical processes controlling the air-sea fluxes and the exchange coefficients for the enthalpy and momentum fluxes are not well understood. Furthermore, a large amount of sea spray produced by the breaking waves in high winds further complicates the processes at the air-sea interface. To understand the behaviour of the surface fluxes and the atmospheric and upper ocean boundary layers in a hurricane, we use a high-resolution (1-2 km grid spacing), fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model. The components of the coupled model system are the 5th generation Pennsylvania State University/ National Center for Atmospheric Research non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (MM5), WAVEWATCH III (WW3), and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution three-dimensional upper ocean model (WHOI 3DPWP). The coupled model used in this study includes the CBLAST wind-wave coupling parameterization and a sea spray parameterization that include the effects of the surface waves. The sea spray parameterization was initially developed by Fairall et al. (1994) and modified by Bao et al. (2000). The model simulated air-sea fluxes and atmospheric profiles from several numerical experiments of a 5-day simulation of Hurricane Frances (2004) are compared with the Global Positioning System (GPS) dropsonde data. The coupled model simulations of Frances reproduce the observed storm track and intensity quite well. The observed cold wake at the ocean surface and the asymmetry in the air-sea fluxes are also evident in the model simulations. More detailed analysis is currently underway to better understand the physical processes affecting air-sea fluxes in hurricanes as well as their contribution to the storm structure and intensity.

  14. Controls on air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean east of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, J.; Strutton, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    The temperate latitudes of the world oceans (~30-50° north and south) are strong sinks for atmospheric CO2 on a mean annual basis. Due to sparse data, the Southern Ocean is the least understood of these CO2 sink regions, with estimates of the annual air-sea CO2 flux varying by as much as 100%, depending upon the calculation method. This work investigates processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean, with a focus on the Pacific sector east of Australia. We quantify the effects of temperature, biological drawdown, and the large-scale general circulation on seawater pCO2 on seasonal and annual timescales, and discuss the balance of these forcings. We expressly consider the impact of the general circulation on the air-sea CO2 flux, which we showed in a previous study to determine the location of the North Pacific carbon sink region. Worldwide, the regions of strong atmospheric CO2 uptake are all located in deep western boundary currents and their extensions, suggesting a larger role for the general circulation in forcing these sinks than is currently acknowledged or understood. Understanding the processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean is critical for predicting how this gas exchange will change in the future.

  15. Narrowing the spread in CMIP5 model projections of air-sea CO2 fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci

    2016-01-01

    Large spread appears in the projection of air-sea CO2 fluxes using the latest simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Here, two methods are applied to narrow this spread in 13 CMIP5 models. One method involves model selection based on the ability of models to reproduce the observed air-sea CO2 fluxes from 1980 to 2005. The other method involves constrained estimation based on the strong relationship between the historical and future air-sea CO2 fluxes. The estimated spread of the projected air-sea CO2 fluxes is effectively reduced by using these two approaches. These two approaches also show great agreement in the global ocean and three regional oceans of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, including the average state and evolution characteristics. Based on the projections of the two approaches, the global ocean carbon uptake will increase in the first half of the 21st century then remain relatively stable and is projected to be 3.68–4.57 PgC/yr at the end of 21st century. The projections indicate that the increase in the CO2 uptake by the oceans will cease at the year of approximately 2070. PMID:27892473

  16. A Numerical Study of the Role of Air-Sea Fluxes in Extratropical Cyclogenesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Extratropical Cyclogenesis; Air-sea Fluxes; Surface Fluxes; Ocean Cyclogenesis; Polar Low;KDiabatic Processes 20. \\#@SYrNACY (Coie. on Po~wes li It nRaea@inF...parameterization scheme and the Randall version of the Deardorff planetary boundary layer parameterization. Idealized initial conditions are speci- fied ...hydo- static equation. The reference geopotential profile is speci- fied at 300S (spring regime) in the balance routine to match the temperature field

  17. CLIVAR-GSOP/GODAE Ocean Synthesis Inter-Comparison of Global Air-Sea Fluxes From Ocean and Coupled Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivieso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The GODAE OceanView and CLIVAR-GSOP ocean synthesis program has been assessing the degree of consistency between global air-sea flux data sets obtained from ocean or coupled reanalyses (Valdivieso et al., 2014). So far, fifteen global air-sea heat flux products obtained from ocean or coupled reanalyses have been examined: seven are from low-resolution ocean reanalyses (BOM PEODAS, ECMWF ORAS4, JMA/MRI MOVEG2, JMA/MRI MOVECORE, Hamburg Univ. GECCO2, JPL ECCOv4, and NCEP GODAS), five are from eddy-permitting ocean reanalyses developed as part of the EU GMES MyOcean program (Mercator GLORYS2v1, Reading Univ. UR025.3, UR025.4, UKMO GloSea5, and CMCC C-GLORS), and the remaining three are couple reanalyses based on coupled climate models (JMA/MRI MOVE-C, GFDL ECDA and NCEP CFSR). The global heat closure in the products over the period 1993-2009 spanned by all data sets is presented in comparison with observational and atmospheric reanalysis estimates. Then, global maps of ensemble spread in the seasonal cycle, and of the Signal to Noise Ratio of interannual flux variability over the 17-yr common period are shown to illustrate the consistency between the products. We have also studied regional variability in the products, particularly at the OceanSITES project locations (such as, for instance, the TAO/TRITON and PIRATA arrays in the Tropical Pacific and Atlantic, respectively). Comparisons are being made with other products such as OAFlux latent and sensible heat fluxes (Yu et al., 2008) combined with ISCCP satellite-based radiation (Zhang et al., 2004), the ship-based NOC2.0 product (Berry and Kent, 2009), the Large and Yeager (2009) hybrid flux dataset CORE.2, and two atmospheric reanalysis products, the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis (referred to as ERAi, Dee et al., 2011) and the NCEP/DOE reanalysis R2 (referred to as NCEP-R2, Kanamitsu et al., 2002). Preliminary comparisons with the observational flux products from OceanSITES are also underway. References Berry, D

  18. Modeling air/sea flux parameters in a coastal area: A comparative study of results from the TOGA COARE model and the NOAA Buoy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopkin, Kristin; Mizak, Connie; Gilbert, Sherryl; Subramanian, Vembu; Luther, Mark; Poor, Noreen

    Because estuaries and coastal regions are particularly susceptible to nutrient over-enrichment due to their close proximity to source-rich regions, a goal of the BRACE study was to improve estimates of nitrogen air/sea transfer rates in the Tampa Bay Estuary. Our objective was to critically evaluate two air/sea gas exchange models to determine their efficacy for use in a coastal region, with the ultimate goal of improving nitrogen exchange estimates in Tampa Bay. We used meteorological data and oceanographic parameters collected hourly at an instrumented tower located in Middle Tampa Bay, Florida. The data was used to determine the friction velocity and the turbulent flux of heat and moisture across the air/sea interface and then compared with modeled parameters at the same offshore site. On average both models underpredicted sensible heat flux and there was considerable scatter in the data during stable conditions, indicating that nitrogen gas exchange rates may also be underestimated. Model improvement, however, was observed with friction velocity comparisons. Model inter-comparisons of sensible heat flux and friction velocity suggest excellent agreement between the TOGA COARE and the NOAA Buoy models, but model estimated heat transfer coefficients and latent heat fluxes did not agree as well. Based on our analysis, we conclude that both models are suitable for use in a coastal environment to estimate nitrogen air/sea gas exchange, although the NOAA Buoy model requires fewer meteorological inputs. However, if the purpose is to conduct more sophisticated microscale modeling of air/sea interactions, we recommend the TOGA COARE model.

  19. Air-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface temperature front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friehe, C. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Davidson, K. L.; Rogers, D. P.; Large, W. G.; Stage, S. A.; Crescenti, G. H.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Greenhut, G. K.; Li, F.

    1991-01-01

    The observed effects of sharp changes in sea surface temperature (SST) on the air-sea fluxes, surface roughness, and the turbulence structure in the surface layer and the marine atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. In situ flux and turbulence observations were carried out from three aircraft and two ships within the FASINEX framework. Three other aircraft used remote sensors to measure waves, microwave backscatter, and lidar signatures of cloud tops. Descriptions of the techniques, intercomparison of aircraft and ship flux data, and use of different methods for analyzing the fluxes from the aircraft data are described. Changing synoptic weather on three successive days yielded cases of wind direction both approximately parallel and perpendicular to a surface temperature front. For the wind perpendicular to the front, wind over both cold-to-warm and warm-to-cold surface temperatures occurred. Model results consistent with the observations suggest that an internal boundary layer forms at the SST.

  20. The atmospheric footprint of preindustrial, anthropogenic, and contemporary air-sea fluxes of CO2 estimated from an ocean inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Gruber, N. P.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    Air-sea exchange is a primary determinant of the spatial pattern of atmospheric carbon dioxide, yet there are substantial gaps in our understanding of the impact of the oceans on these gradients. Recent inverse modeling studies have used ocean interior observations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other tracers and Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) to estimate separately the natural air-sea flux that already existed in preindustrial times and the component of the air-sea flux that is due to the anthropogenic perturbation of atmospheric CO2. The sum of these components is the contemporary air-sea flux. Furthermore, the results from the ocean inversion have been combined with an analogous atmospheric inversion using surface observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and atmospheric transport models to estimate air- sea and air-land fluxes. This work suggested that there might be an unexpectedly large source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from tropical land regions. We use the air-sea fluxes estimated from this ocean inversion together with estimates of the seasonal cycle of these fluxes from ΔpCO2 observations and bulk parameterizations as boundary conditions for the Model for Ozone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART). The effects of preindustrial, anthropogenic, and contemporary air-sea fluxes on the spatial pattern of atmospheric CO2 are analyzed and the implications for ocean interior transport are discussed. In addition, we use atmospheric observations of 13C/12C isotopic ratios in carbon dioxide to independently test the finding of a large terrestrial source in the tropics, since the terrestrial biosphere discriminates against 13C much more strongly than the oceans.

  1. Air-sea fluxes in a climate model using hourly coupling between the atmospheric and the oceanic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fangxing; von Storch, Jin-Song; Hertwig, Eileen

    2016-06-01

    We analyse the changes in the air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and fresh water flux caused by increasing the ocean-atmosphere coupling frequency from once per day to once per hour in the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. We diagnose the relative influences of daily averaging and high-frequency feedbacks on the basic statistics of the air-sea fluxes at grid point level and quantify feedback modes responsible for large scale changes in fluxes over the Southern Ocean and the Equatorial Pacific. Coupling once per hour instead of once per day reduces the mean of the momentum-flux magnitude by up to 7 % in the tropics and increases it by up to 10 % in the Southern Ocean. These changes result solely from feedbacks between atmosphere and ocean occurring on time scales shorter than 1 day . The variance and extremes of all the fluxes are increased in most parts of the oceans. Exceptions are found for the momentum and fresh water fluxes in the tropics. The increases result mainly from the daily averaging, while the decreases in the tropics are caused by the high-frequency feedbacks. The variance increases are substantial, reaching up to 50 % for the momentum flux, 100 % for the fresh water flux, and a factor of 15 for the net heat flux. These diurnal and intra-diurnal variations account for up to 50-90 % of the total variances and exhibit distinct seasonality. The high-frequency coupling can influence the large-scale feedback modes that lead to large-scale changes in the magnitude of wind stress over the Southern Ocean and Equatorial Pacific. In the Southern Ocean, the dependence of the SST-wind-stress feedback on the mean state of SST, which is colder in the experiment with hourly coupling than in the experiment with daily coupling, leads to an increase of westerlies. In the Equatorial Pacific, Bjerknes feedback in the hourly coupled experiment reveals a diurnal cycle during the El Niño events, with the feedback being stronger in the nighttime than in the daytime and

  2. Air-sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian M.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    We present air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector) were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l.), each from a different period during 2014-2015. At sampling heights ≥ 18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤ ±20 % in the mean) agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air-sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m-2 d-1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l.) than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m-2 d-1), consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater). Finally, we found the detection limit of the air-sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m-2 d-1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m-2 d-1 over 24 h).

  3. An air/sea flux model including the effects of capillary waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    An improved model of the air/sea interface is developed. The improvements consist in including the effect of capillary (surface tension) waves on the tropical surface fluxes and the consideration of the sea state, both of which increase the magnitude of tropical surface fluxes. Changes in surface stress are most significant in the low wind-speed regions, which include the areas where westerly bursts occur. It is shown that the changes, from the regular wind conditions to those of a westerly burst or El-Nino, can double when the effects of capillary waves are considered. This implies a much stronger coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere than is predicted by other boundary layer models.

  4. Balloons and Bottles: Activities on Air-Sea Heat Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphree, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to demonstrate how heating and cooling an air mass affects its temperature, volume, density, and pressure. Illustrates how thermal energy can cause atmospheric motion such as expansion, contraction, and winds. (Author/WRM)

  5. Influence of precipitation on the CO2 air-sea flux, an eddy covariance field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarsky, Alexander; Steinhoff, Tobias; Marandino, Christa

    2016-04-01

    During the SPACES-OASIS cruise (July-August 2015) from Durban, SA to Male, MV direct fluxes of CO2 and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The cruise covered areas of sources and sinks for atmospheric CO2, where the bulk concentration gradient measurements resembled the Takahashi (2009) climatology. Most of the time, bulk CO2 fluxes (F=k* [cwater-cair]), calculated with the parametrization (k) by Nightingale et al. 2000, were in general agreement with direct EC measurements. However, during heavy rain events, the directly measured CO2 fluxes were 4 times higher than predicted. It has been previously described that rain influences the k parametrization of air-sea gas exchange, but this alone cannot explain the measured discrepancy. There is evidence that freshwater input and a change in the carbonate chemistry causes the water side concentration of ?c=cwater-cair to decrease. Unfortunately this cannot be detected by most bulk measurement systems. Using the flux measurements of an additional gas like DMS, this rain influence can be evaluated as DMS does not react to changes in the carbonate system and has a different solubility. A pending question is if the enhanced flux of CO2 in the ocean is sequestered into the ocean mixed layer and below. This question will be tackled using the GOTM model to understand the implications for the global carbon cycle.

  6. Distribution and air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide on the Chukchi Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Repina, I. A.; Dudarev, O. V.; Charkin, A. N.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of long-term studies of the dynamics of carbonate parameters and air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes on the Chukchi Sea shelf during the summer. As a result of the interaction of physical and biological factors, the surface waters on the west of Chukchi Sea were undersaturated with carbon dioxide when compared with atmospheric air; the partial pressure of CO2 varied in the range from 134 to 359 μatm. The average value of CO2 flux in the Chukchi Sea per unit area varied in the range from-2.4 to-22.0 mmol /(m2 day), which is significantly higher than the average value of CO2 flux in the World Ocean. It has been estimated that the minimal mass of C absorbed by the surface of Chukchi Sea from the atmosphere during ice-free season is 13 × 1012 g; a great part of this carbon is transported to the deeper layers of sea and isolated from the atmosphere for a long period of time. The studies of the carbonate system of the Chukchi Sea, especially of its western part, will provide some new data on the fluxes of carbon dioxide in the Arctic Ocean and their changes. Our analysis can be used for an interpretation of the satellite assessment of CO2 fluxes and dissolved CO2 distribution in the upper layers of the ocean.

  7. Motion-correlated flow distortion and wave-induced biases in air-sea flux measurements from ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, J.; Yelland, M. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Tupman, D. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Moat, B. I.; Norris, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    Direct measurements of the turbulent air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture and gases are often made using sensors mounted on ships. Ship-based turbulent wind measurements are corrected for platform motion using well established techniques, but biases at scales associated with wave and platform motion are often still apparent in the flux measurements. It has been uncertain whether this signal is due to time-varying distortion of the air flow over the platform or to wind-wave interactions impacting the turbulence. Methods for removing such motion-scale biases from scalar measurements have previously been published but their application to momentum flux measurements remains controversial. Here we show that the measured motion-scale bias has a dependence on the horizontal ship velocity and that a correction for it reduces the dependence of the measured momentum flux on the orientation of the ship to the wind. We conclude that the bias is due to experimental error and that time-varying motion-dependent flow distortion is the likely source.

  8. Motion-correlated flow distortion and wave-induced biases in air-sea flux measurements from ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytherch, J.; Yelland, M. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Tupman, D. J.; Pascal, R. W.; Moat, B. I.; Norris, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Direct measurements of the turbulent air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture and gases. are often made using sensors mounted on ships. Ship-based turbulent wind measurements are corrected for platform motion using well established techniques, but biases at scales associated with wave and platform motion are often still apparent in the flux measurements. It has been uncertain whether this signal is due to time-varying distortion of the air flow over the platform, or to wind-wave interactions impacting the turbulence. Methods for removing such motion-scale biases from scalar measurements have previously been published but their application to momentum flux measurements remains controversial. Here we show that the measured motion-scale bias has a dependence on the horizontal ship velocity, and that a correction for it reduces the dependence of the measured momentum flux on the orientation of the ship to the wind. We conclude that the bias is due to experimental error, and that time-varying motion-dependent flow distortion is the likely source.

  9. A Climate Data Record of Near-Surface Over-Ocean Parameters and Air-Sea Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayson, C. A.; Brown, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this climate data record, we have derived surface and near-surface parameters of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from a combination of satellite observations, with a focus on the use of these variables towards determination of the air-sea turbulent heat fluxes. The dataset is a follow-on to the CDR SeaFlux v 1 dataset, which currently covers the time period of 1988 through 2008, and the variables of sea surface temperature and 10-m temperature, wind speed, and specific humidity at a 3-hourly, 0.25º resolution over the global oceans. These products have been developed for the specific focus of accurate determination of the surface turbulent fluxes. The current dataset is brought forward to short latency (roughly three months) by adding in SSMIS data. This talk will discuss the additional issues associated with including the much-noisier SSMIS data, comparisons of uncertainties from the time period of the SSMIS as compared to the SSMI era, and an analysis of interannual variability over the time period from 1988 through 2015, including the recent ENSO variability.

  10. Air-Sea Methane Flux after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdoo, J.; Sweeney, C.; Kiene, R. P.; McGillis, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    One of the key questions associated with the Deepwater Horizon's (DWH) oil leak involves understanding how much of its methane is still entrained in deep waters. Analysis of air-sea fluxes reveals a slight decrease in average aqueous CH4 from 3.3 nM in June to 3.1 and 2.8 nM in August and September, respectively. The flux estimate showed higher methane flux to the atmosphere after the blowout was capped (3.8 μmol m-2 d-1 in August) compared to 0.024 μmol m-2 d-1 during the leak. Almost all observations were within the range of historical levels. The exception was one large peak to the southwest of the wellhead, but its contribution to atmospheric methane is found to be insignificant compared to the total amount of methane released by the leak. This result supports findings that DWH methane remained entrained in the deep waters and consequently is available for biological degradation and threatens to deplete oxygen, adding further stress to an area that already suffers from anoxic-induced dead zones.

  11. Towards Improved Estimates of Ocean Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentamy, Abderrahim; Hollman, Rainer; Kent, Elisabeth; Haines, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Recommendations and priorities for ocean heat flux research are for instance outlined in recent CLIVAR and WCRP reports, eg. Yu et al (2013). Among these is the need for improving the accuracy, the consistency, and the spatial and temporal resolution of air-sea fluxes over global as well as at region scales. To meet the main air-sea flux requirements, this study is aimed at obtaining and analyzing all the heat flux components (latent, sensible and radiative) at the ocean surface over global oceans using multiple satellite sensor observations in combination with in-situ measurements and numerical model analyses. The fluxes will be generated daily and monthly for the 20-year (1992-2011) period, between 80N and 80S and at 0.25deg resolution. Simultaneous estimates of all surface heat flux terms have not yet been calculated at such large scale and long time period. Such an effort requires a wide range of expertise and data sources that only recently are becoming available. Needed are methods for integrating many data sources to calculate energy fluxes (short-wave, long wave, sensible and latent heat) across the air-sea interface. We have access to all the relevant, recently available satellite data to perform such computations. Yu, L., K. Haines, M. Bourassa, M. Cronin, S. Gulev, S. Josey, S. Kato, A. Kumar, T. Lee, D. Roemmich: Towards achieving global closure of ocean heat and freshwater budgets: Recommendations for advancing research in air-sea fluxes through collaborative activities. INTERNATIONAL CLIVAR PROJECT OFFICE, 2013: International CLIVAR Publication Series No 189. http://www.clivar.org/sites/default/files/ICPO189_WHOI_fluxes_workshop.pdf

  12. Air-sea CO2 flux pattern along the southern Bay of Bengal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, R.; Poornima, D.; Naveen, M.; Thangaradjou, T.; Choudhury, S. B.; Rao, K. H.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-12-01

    Physico-chemical observations made from January 2013 to March 2015 in coastal waters of the southwest Bay of Bengal show pronounced seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters including total alkalinity (TA: 1927.390-4088.642 μmol kg-1), chlorophyll (0.13-19.41 μg l-1) and also calculated dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC: 1574.219-3790.954 μmol kg-1), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2: 155.520-1488.607 μatm) and air-sea CO2 flux (FCO2: -4.808 to 11.255 mmol Cm-2 d-1). Most of the physical parameters are at their maximum during summer due to the increased solar radiation at cloud free conditions, less or no riverine inputs, and lack of vertical mixing of water column which leads to the lowest nutrients concentration, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological production, pCO2 and negative flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Chlorophyll and DO concentrations enhanced due to increased nutrients during premonsoon and monsoon season due to the vertical mixing of water column driven by the strong winds and external inputs at respective seasons. The constant positive loading of nutrients, TA, DIC, chlorophyll, pCO2 and FCO2 against atmospheric temperature (AT), lux, sea surface temperature (SST), pH and salinity observed in principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that physical and biological parameters play vital role in the seasonal distribution of pCO2 along the southwest Bay of Bengal. The annual variability of CO2 flux clearly depicted that the southwest Bay of Bengal switch from sink (2013) to source status in the recent years (2014 and 2015) and it act as significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere with a mean flux of 0.204 ± 1.449 mmol Cm-2 d-1.

  13. Accounting for observation uncertainties in an evaluation metric of low latitude turbulent air-sea fluxes: application to the comparison of a suite of IPSL model versions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servonnat, Jérôme; Găinuşă-Bogdan, Alina; Braconnot, Pascale

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent momentum and heat (sensible heat and latent heat) fluxes at the air-sea interface are key components of the whole energetic of the Earth's climate. The evaluation of these fluxes in the climate models is still difficult because of the large uncertainties associated with the reference products. In this paper we present an objective metric accounting for reference uncertainties to evaluate the annual cycle of the low latitude turbulent fluxes of a suite of IPSL climate models. This metric consists in a Hotelling T 2 test between the simulated and observed field in a reduce space characterized by the dominant modes of variability that are common to both the model and the reference, taking into account the observational uncertainty. The test is thus more severe when uncertainties are small as it is the case for sea surface temperature (SST). The results of the test show that for almost all variables and all model versions the model-reference differences are not zero. It is not possible to distinguish between model versions for sensible heat and meridional wind stress, certainly due to the large observational uncertainties. All model versions share similar biases for the different variables. There is no improvement between the reference versions of the IPSL model used for CMIP3 and CMIP5. The test also reveals that the higher horizontal resolution fails to improve the representation of the turbulent surface fluxes compared to the other versions. The representation of the fluxes is further degraded in a version with improved atmospheric physics with an amplification of some of the biases in the Indian Ocean and in the intertropical convergence zone. The ranking of the model versions for the turbulent fluxes is not correlated with the ranking found for SST. This highlights that despite the fact that SST gradients are important for the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, other factors such as wind speed, and air-sea temperature contrast play an

  14. Air-sea CO 2 fluxes in the Caribbean Sea from 2002-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Olsen, Are; Triñanes, Joaquin

    2007-06-01

    Air-sea fluxes in the Caribbean Sea are presented based on measurements of partial pressure of CO 2 in surface seawater, pCO 2sw, from an automated system onboard the cruise ship Explorer of the Seas for 2002 through 2004. The pCO 2sw values are used to develop algorithms of pCO 2sw based on sea surface temperature (SST) and position. The algorithms are applied to assimilated SST data and remotely sensed winds on a 1° by 1° grid to estimate the fluxes on weekly timescales in the region. The positive relationship between pCO 2sw and SST is lower than the isochemical trend suggesting counteracting effects from biological processes. The relationship varies systematically with location with a stronger dependence further south. Furthermore, the southern area shows significantly lower pCO 2sw in the fall compared to the spring at the same SST, which is attributed to differences in salinity. The annual algorithms for the entire region show a slight trend between 2002 and 2004 suggesting an increase of pCO 2sw over time. This is in accord with the increasing pCO 2sw due the invasion of anthropogenic CO 2. The annual fluxes of CO 2 yield a net invasion of CO 2 to the ocean that ranges from - 0.04 to - 1.2 mol m - 2 year - 1 over the 3 years. There is a seasonal reversal in the direction of the flux with CO 2 entering into the ocean during the winter and an evasion during the summer. Year-to-year differences in flux are primarily caused by temperature anomalies in the late winter and spring period resulting in changes in invasion during these seasons. An analysis of pCO 2sw before and after hurricane Frances (September 4-6, 2004), and wind records during the storm suggest a large local enhancement of the flux but minimal influence on annual fluxes in the region.

  15. Mesoscale modulation of air-sea CO2 flux in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hajoon; Marshall, John; Munro, David R.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Sweeney, Colm; McGillicuddy, D. J.; Hausmann, Ute

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the role of mesoscale eddies in modulating air-sea CO2 flux and associated biogeochemical fields in Drake Passage using in situ observations and an eddy-resolving numerical model. Both observations and model show a negative correlation between temperature and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) anomalies at the sea surface in austral summer, indicating that warm/cold anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies take up more/less CO2. In austral winter, in contrast, relationships are reversed: warm/cold anticyclonic/cyclonic eddies are characterized by a positive/negative pCO2 anomaly and more/less CO2 outgassing. It is argued that DIC-driven effects on pCO2 are greater than temperature effects in austral summer, leading to a negative correlation. In austral winter, however, the reverse is true. An eddy-centric analysis of the model solution reveals that nitrate and iron respond differently to the same vertical mixing: vertical mixing has a greater impact on iron because its normalized vertical gradient at the base of the surface mixed layer is an order of magnitude greater than that of nitrate.

  16. Comparing air-sea turbulent fluxes in reanalyses and climate models - a new framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulev, S.; Tilinina, N.; Belyaev, K.

    2013-12-01

    Reanalyses fluxes and flux-related variables at high temporal resolution are widely used for forcing ocean general circulation models, case studies and estimation of regional energy budgets. We suggest a new approach for comparative assessment of fluxes in reanalyses and models based on application of modified Fisher-Tippett (MFT) distribution to turbulent heat fluxes. Two comparisons were performed - using direct surface turbulent flux output from different products (NCEP, NCEP-DOE, NCEP-CFSR, MERRA, JRA-25, ERA-Interim) and applying a single parameterization (COARE-3) to the reanalysis state variables. These allow for distinguishing between the impact of reanalysis surface parameterizations and variables onto surface turbulent fluxes. Statistical properties of surface turbulent fluxes were intercompared in terms of the MFT distribution parameters (scale and location) and extreme flux estimates derived from the distribution tails. In all reanalyses extreme turbulent heat fluxes amount to 1500-2000 W/m2 (for the 99th percentile) and can exceed 2000 W/m2 for higher percentiles in the western boundary current extension (WBCE) regions. Different reanalyses show significantly different shape of MFT distribution, implying considerable differences in the estimates of extreme fluxes. The highest extreme turbulent latent heat fluxes are diagnosed in NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses with the smallest being in MERRA. These differences may not necessarily reflect the differences in mean values. Analysis shows that differences in statistical properties of the state variables are the major source of differences in the shape of PDF of fluxes and in the estimates of extreme fluxes while the contribution of computational schemes used in different reanalyses is minor. The strongest differences in the characteristics of probability distributions of surface fluxes between different reanalyses are found in the Southern Ocean. Importantly, climate models considerably

  17. Comparisons of Ship-based Observations of Air-Sea Energy Budgets with Gridded Flux Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Blomquist, B.

    2015-12-01

    Air-surface interactions are characterized directly by the fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, trace gases, and particles near the interface. In the last 20 years advances in observation technologies have greatly expanded the database of high-quality direct (covariance) turbulent flux and irradiance observations from research vessels. In this paper, we will summarize observations from the NOAA sea-going flux system from participation in various field programs executed since 1999 and discuss comparisons with several gridded flux products. We will focus on comparisons of turbulent heat fluxes and solar and IR radiative fluxes. The comparisons are done for observing programs in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and SE subtropical Pacific.

  18. Assessing recent air-sea freshwater flux changes using a surface temperature-salinity space framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Zika, Jan D.; Evans, Dafydd Gwyn; Skliris, Nikolaos

    2016-12-01

    A novel assessment of recent changes in air-sea freshwater fluxes has been conducted using a surface temperature-salinity framework applied to four atmospheric reanalyses. Viewed in the T-S space of the ocean surface, the complex pattern of the longitude-latitude space mean global Precipitation minus Evaporation (PME) reduces to three distinct regions. The analysis is conducted for the period 1979-2007 for which there is most evidence for a broadening of the (atmospheric) tropical belt. All four of the reanalyses display an increase in strength of the water cycle. The range of increase is between 2% and 30% over the period analyzed, with an average of 14%. Considering the average across the reanalyses, the water cycle changes are dominated by changes in tropical as opposed to mid-high latitude precipitation. The increases in the water cycle strength, are consistent in sign, but larger than in a 1% greenhouse gas run of the HadGEM3 climate model. In the model a shift of the precipitation/evaporation cells to higher temperatures is more evident, due to the much stronger global warming signal. The observed changes in freshwater fluxes appear to be reflected in changes in the T-S distribution of the Global Ocean. Specifically, across the diverse range of atmospheric reanalyses considered here, there was an acceleration of the hydrological cycle during 1979-2007 which led to a broadening of the ocean's salinity distribution. Finally, although the reanalyses indicate that the warm temperature tropical precipitation dominated water cycle change, ocean observations suggest that ocean processes redistributed the freshening to lower ocean temperatures.

  19. Natural Air-Sea Flux of CO2 in Simulations of the NASA-GISS Climate Model: Sensitivity to the Physical Ocean Model Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanou, A.; Gregg, Watson W.; Romanski, J.; Kelley, M.; Bleck, R.; Healy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G. A.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.

    2013-01-01

    Results from twin control simulations of the preindustrial CO2 gas exchange (natural flux of CO2) between the ocean and the atmosphere are presented here using the NASA-GISS climate model, in which the same atmospheric component (modelE2) is coupled to two different ocean models, the Russell ocean model and HYCOM. Both incarnations of the GISS climate model are also coupled to the same ocean biogeochemistry module (NOBM) which estimates prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2. Model intercomparison is carried out at equilibrium conditions and model differences are contrasted with biases from present day climatologies. Although the models agree on the spatial patterns of the air-sea flux of CO2, they disagree on the strength of the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean sinks mainly because of kinematic (winds) and chemistry (pCO2) differences rather than thermodynamic (SST) ones. Biology/chemistry dissimilarities in the models stem from the different parameterizations of advective and diffusive processes, such as overturning, mixing and horizontal tracer advection and to a lesser degree from parameterizations of biogeochemical processes such as gravitational settling and sinking. The global meridional overturning circulation illustrates much of the different behavior of the biological pump in the two models, together with differences in mixed layer depth which are responsible for different SST, DIC and nutrient distributions in the two models and consequently different atmospheric feedbacks (in the wind, net heat and freshwater fluxes into the ocean).

  20. Annual and seasonal fCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, S. K.; Chierici, M.; Counillon, F.; Omar, A.; Nondal, G.; Johannessen, T.; Olsen, A.

    2013-03-01

    The Barents Sea is the strongest CO2 sink in the Arctic region, yet estimates of the air-sea CO2 flux in this area show a large span reflecting uncertainty as well as significant variability both seasonally and regionally. Here we use a previously unpublished data set of seawater CO2 fugacity (fCO2), and map these data over the western Barents Sea through multivariable linear regressions with SeaWiFS/MODIS remote sensing and TOPAZ model data fields. We find that two algorithms are necessary in order to cover the full seasonal cycle, mainly because not all proxy variables are available for the entire year, and because variability in fCO2 is driven by different mechanisms in summer and winter. A comprehensive skill assessment indicates that there is a good overall correspondence between observations and predictions. The algorithms are also validated using two independent data sets, with good results. The gridded fCO2 fields reveal tight links between water mass distribution and fCO2 in all months, and particularly in winter. The seasonal cycle show peaks in the total air-sea CO2 influx in May and September, caused by respectively biological drawdown of CO2 and low sea ice concentration leaving a large open water area. For 2007 the annual average air-sea CO2 flux is - 48 ± 5 gC m- 2, which is comparable to previous estimates.

  1. Using Empirical Mode Decomposition to Filter Out Non-turbulent Contributions to Air-Sea Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Luís Gustavo N.; Miller, Scott D.; Acevedo, Otávio C.

    2017-04-01

    A methodology based on Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was used to filter out non-turbulent motions from measurements of atmospheric turbulence over the sea, aimed at reducing their contribution to eddy-covariance (EC) estimates of turbulent fluxes. The proposed methodology has two main objectives: (1) to provide more robust estimates of the fluxes of momentum, heat and CO_2; and (2) to reduce the number of flux intervals rejected due to non-stationarity criteria when using traditional EC data processing techniques. The method was applied to measurements from a 28-day cruise (HALOCAST 2010) in the Eastern Pacific region. Empirical mode decomposition was applied to 4-h long time series data and used to determine the cospectral gap time scale, T_{gap}. Intrinsic modes of oscillation with characteristic periods longer than the gap scale due to non-turbulent motions were assumed and filtered out. Turbulent fluxes were then calculated for sub-intervals of length T_{gap} from the filtered 4-h time series. In the HALOCAST data, the gap scale was successfully identified in 89% of the 4-h periods and had a mean of 37 s. The EMD approach resulted in the rejection of 11% of the flux intervals, which was much less than the 68% rejected when using standard filtering methods based on data non-stationarity. For momentum and sensible heat fluxes, the averaged difference in flux magnitude between the traditional and EMD approaches was small (3 and 1%, respectively). For the CO_2 flux, the magnitude of EMD flux estimates was on average 16% less than fluxes estimated from linear detrended 10-min time series. These results provide evidence that the EMD method can be used to reduce the effects of non-turbulent correlations from flux estimates.

  2. Effect of Sampling Depth on Air-Sea CO2 Flux Estimates in River-Stratified Arctic Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. A.; Papakyriakou, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    In summer-time Arctic coastal waters that are strongly influenced by river run-off, extreme stratification severely limits wind mixing, making it difficult to effectively sample the surface 'mixed layer', which can be as shallow as 1 m, from a ship. During two expeditions in southwestern Hudson Bay, off the Nelson, Hayes, and Churchill River estuaries, we confirmed that sampling depth has a strong impact on estimates of 'surface' pCO2 and calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes. We determined pCO2 in samples collected from 5 m, using a typical underway system on the ship's seawater supply; from the 'surface' rosette bottle, which was generally between 1 and 3 m; and using a niskin bottle deployed at 1 m and just below the surface from a small boat away from the ship. Our samples confirmed that the error in pCO2 derived from typical ship-board versus small-boat sampling at a single station could be nearly 90 μatm, leading to errors in the calculated air-sea CO2 flux of more than 0.1 mmol/(m2s). Attempting to extrapolate such fluxes over the 6,000,000 km2 area of the Arctic shelves would generate an error approaching a gigamol CO2/s. Averaging the station data over a cruise still resulted in an error of nearly 50% in the total flux estimate. Our results have implications not only for the design and execution of expedition-based sampling, but also for placement of in-situ sensors. Particularly in polar waters, sensors are usually deployed on moorings, well below the surface, to avoid damage and destruction from drifting ice. However, to obtain accurate information on air-sea fluxes in these areas, it is necessary to deploy sensors on ice-capable buoys that can position the sensors in true 'surface' waters.

  3. Accounting for observational uncertainties in the evaluation of low latitude turbulent air-sea fluxes simulated in a suite of IPSL model versions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servonnat, Jerome; Braconnot, Pascale; Gainusa-Bogdan, Alina

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent momentum and heat (sensible and latent) fluxes at the air-sea interface are key components of the whole energetic of the Earth's climate and their good representation in climate models is of prime importance. In this work, we use the methodology developed by Braconnot & Frankignoul (1993) to perform a Hotelling T2 test on spatio-temporal fields (annual cycles). This statistic provides a quantitative measure accounting for an estimate of the observational uncertainty for the evaluation of low-latitude turbulent air-sea fluxes in a suite of IPSL model versions. The spread within the observational ensemble of turbulent flux data products assembled by Gainusa-Bogdan et al (submitted) is used as an estimate of the observational uncertainty for the different turbulent fluxes. The methodology holds on a selection of a small number of dominating variability patterns (EOFs) that are common to both the model and the observations for the comparison. Consequently it focuses on the large-scale variability patterns and avoids the possibly noisy smaller scales. The results show that different versions of the IPSL couple model share common large scale model biases, but also that there the skill on sea surface temperature is not necessarily directly related to the skill in the representation of the different turbulent fluxes. Despite the large error bars on the observations the test clearly distinguish the different merits of the different model version. The analyses of the common EOF patterns and related time series provide guidance on the major differences with the observations. This work is a first attempt to use such statistic on the evaluation of the spatio-temporal variability of the turbulent fluxes, accounting for an observational uncertainty, and represents an efficient tool for systematic evaluation of simulated air-seafluxes, considering both the fluxes and the related atmospheric variables. References Braconnot, P., and C. Frankignoul (1993), Testing Model

  4. A Newly Distributed Satellite-based Global Air-sea Surface Turbulent Fluxes Data Set -- GSSTF2b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shie, C.; Nelkin, E.; Ardizzone, J.; Savtchenko, A.; Chiu, L. S.; Adler, R. F.; Lin, I.; Gao, S.

    2010-12-01

    GSSTF2 in all the three flux components - latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF), and wind stress (WST). The major meteorological input variables such as wind speed, total & bottom-layer precipitable water (W & WB), and surface air & sea humidity (Qa & Qs) of GSSTF2b and GSSTF2 were also examined and compared for global and regional scales in this study. One of our major findings is that the SSM/I Tb (i.e., Tb19v and Tb22v), which was used to retrieve WB and thus Qa, has an indirect impact on the global tendency/trend found in our LHF products. More features and applications (e.g., the ENSO scenarios and the monsoon systems) of GSSTF2b will be presented, along with a brief demonstration of accessing the dataset on the designated website of GES DISC in the meeting.

  5. Assessing the potential for dimethylsulfide enrichment at the sea surface and its influence on air-sea flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Carolyn F.; Harvey, Mike J.; Smith, Murray J.; Bell, Thomas G.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Marriner, Andrew S.; McGregor, John A.; Law, Cliff S.

    2016-09-01

    The flux of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere is generally inferred using water sampled at or below 2 m depth, thereby excluding any concentration anomalies at the air-sea interface. Two independent techniques were used to assess the potential for near-surface DMS enrichment to influence DMS emissions and also identify the factors influencing enrichment. DMS measurements in productive frontal waters over the Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand, did not identify any significant gradients between 0.01 and 6 m in sub-surface seawater, whereas DMS enrichment in the sea-surface microlayer was variable, with a mean enrichment factor (EF; the concentration ratio between DMS in the sea-surface microlayer and in sub-surface water) of 1.7. Physical and biological factors influenced sea-surface microlayer DMS concentration, with high enrichment (EF > 1.3) only recorded in a dinoflagellate-dominated bloom, and associated with low to medium wind speeds and near-surface temperature gradients. On occasion, high DMS enrichment preceded periods when the air-sea DMS flux, measured by eddy covariance, exceeded the flux calculated using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coupled-Ocean Atmospheric Response Experiment (COARE) parameterized gas transfer velocities and measured sub-surface seawater DMS concentrations. The results of these two independent approaches suggest that air-sea emissions may be influenced by near-surface DMS production under certain conditions, and highlight the need for further study to constrain the magnitude and mechanisms of DMS production in the sea-surface microlayer.

  6. Wintertime CO2 fluxes in an Arctic polynya using eddy covariance: Evidence for enhanced air-sea gas transfer during ice formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Else, B. G. T.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Galley, R. J.; Drennan, W. M.; Miller, L. A.; Thomas, H.

    2011-09-01

    Between Nov. 1 2007 and Jan. 31 2008, we calculated the air-sea flux of CO2, sensible heat, and water vapor in an Arctic polynya system (Amundsen Gulf, Canada) using eddy covariance equipment deployed on the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. During this time period, Amundsen Gulf was a dynamic sea ice environment composed primarily of first year ice with open water coverage varying between 1-14%. In all cases where measurements were influenced by open water we measured CO2 fluxes that were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those expected under similar conditions in the open ocean. Fluxes were typically directed toward the water surface with a mean flux of -4.88 μmol m-2 s-1 and a maximum of -27.95 μmol m-2 s-1. One case of rapid outgassing (mean value +2.10 μmol m-2 s-1) was also observed. The consistent patten of enhanced gas exchange over open water allows us to hypothesize that high water-side turbulence is the main cause of these events. Modification of the physical and chemical properties of the surface seawater by cooling and brine rejection may also play a role. A rough calculation using an estimate of open water coverage suggests that the contribution of these events to the annual regional air-sea CO2 exchange budget may make the winter months as important as the open water months. Although high, the uptake of CO2 fits within mixed layer dissolved inorganic carbon budgets derived for the region by other investigators.

  7. Predicting the Turbulent Air-Sea Surface Fluxes, Including Spray Effects, from Weak to Strong Winds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    from Moon et al. (2007) and Mueller and Veron (2009) are not much different from our main straight-line result (6) for UN10 above 20 m/s...model the air-sea drag as a consequence of just wind-wave coupling. That is, Moon et al. (2007) and Mueller and Veron (2009) modeled the surface stress... Veron evidently realized that they were predicting u* to be a linear function of UN10 in high winds.) In other words, exotic processes like sea

  8. Resolving the abundance and air-sea fluxes of airborne microorganisms in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mayol, Eva; Jiménez, María A; Herndl, Gerhard J; Duarte, Carlos M; Arrieta, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    Airborne transport of microbes may play a central role in microbial dispersal, the maintenance of diversity in aquatic systems and in meteorological processes such as cloud formation. Yet, there is almost no information about the abundance and fate of microbes over the oceans, which cover >70% of the Earth's surface and are the likely source and final destination of a large fraction of airborne microbes. We measured the abundance of microbes in the lower atmosphere over a transect covering 17° of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean and derived estimates of air-sea exchange of microorganisms from meteorological data. The estimated load of microorganisms in the atmospheric boundary layer ranged between 6 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(7) microbes per m(2) of ocean, indicating a very dynamic air-sea exchange with millions of microbes leaving and entering the ocean per m(2) every day. Our results show that about 10% of the microbes detected in the boundary layer were still airborne 4 days later and that they could travel up to 11,000 km before they entered the ocean again. The size of the microbial pool hovering over the North Atlantic indicates that it could play a central role in the maintenance of microbial diversity in the surface ocean and contribute significantly to atmospheric processes.

  9. Dissolved methane concentration profiles and air-sea fluxes from 41°S to 27°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Cheryl A.; Jeffrey, Wade H.

    2002-07-01

    Water column samples from a transect cruise from southern Chile through the Panama Canal to the Gulf of Mexico were used to determine dissolved methane depth profiles and air-sea methane fluxes. In the Gulf of Mexico, surface concentrations were approximately 40% supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere, whereas near the equator and in the Peru upwelling region, 10-20% supersaturation generally occurred. These saturation ratios translate into an average flux of methane from the sea surface to the atmosphere of 0.38 μmol m-2 d-1. In addition, water column profiles of dissolved methane indicate that subsurface maxima in dissolved methane concentrations are a consistent feature of the open ocean, except near the equator. At the equator, the subsurface peak at the base of the mixed layer may be bowed down by the Equatorial Undercurrent. The highest methane concentration (12 nM) was observed in the Peru upwelling region.

  10. Air-sea fluxes and satellite-based estimation of water masses formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabia, Roberto; Klockmann, Marlene; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Recent work linking satellite-based measurements of sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) with traditional physical oceanography has demonstrated the capability of generating routinely satellite-derived surface T-S diagrams [1] and analyze the distribution/dynamics of SSS and its relative surface density with respect to in-situ measurements. Even more recently [2,3], this framework has been extended by exploiting these T-S diagrams as a diagnostic tool to derive water masses formation rates and areas. A water mass describes a water body with physical properties distinct from the surrounding water, formed at the ocean surface under specific conditions which determine its temperature and salinity. The SST and SSS (and thus also density) at the ocean surface are largely determined by fluxes of heat and freshwater. The surface density flux is a function of the latter two and describes the change of the density of seawater at the surface. To obtain observations of water mass formation is of great interest, since they serve as indirect observations of the thermo-haline circulation. The SSS data which has become available through the SMOS [4] and Aquarius [5] satellite missions will provide the possibility of studying also the effect of temporally-varying SSS fields on water mass formation. In the present study, the formation of water masses as a function of SST and SSS is derived from the surface density flux by integrating the latter over a specific area and time period in bins of SST and SSS and then taking the derivative of the total density flux with respect to density. This study presents a test case using SMOS SSS, OSTIA SST, as well as Argo ISAS SST and SSS for comparison, heat fluxes from the NOCS Surface Flux Data Set v2.0, OAFlux evaporation and CMORPH precipitation. The study area, initially referred to the North Atlantic, is extended over two additional ocean basins and the study period covers the 2011-2012 timeframe. Yearly, seasonal

  11. Heat flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

  12. Sea surface carbon dioxide at the Georgia time series site (2006-2007): Air-sea flux and controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Sabine, Christopher; Jones, Stacy; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Jiang, Li-Qing; Reimer, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in surface seawater was continuously recorded every three hours from 18 July 2006 through 31 October 2007 using a moored autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) system deployed on the Gray's Reef buoy off the coast of Georgia, USA. Surface water pCO2 (average 373 ± 52 μatm) showed a clear seasonal pattern, undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in cold months and generally oversaturated in warm months. High temporal resolution observations revealed important events not captured in previous ship-based observations, such as sporadically occurring biological CO2 uptake during April-June 2007. In addition to a qualitative analysis of the primary drivers of pCO2 variability based on property regressions, we quantified contributions of temperature, air-sea exchange, mixing, and biological processes to monthly pCO2 variations using a 1-D mass budget model. Although temperature played a dominant role in the annual cycle of pCO2, river inputs especially in the wet season, biological respiration in peak summer, and biological production during April-June 2007 also substantially influenced seawater pCO2. Furthermore, sea surface pCO2 was higher in September-October 2007 than in September-October 2006, associated with increased river inputs in fall 2007. On an annual basis this site was a moderate atmospheric CO2 sink, and was autotrophic as revealed by monthly mean net community production (NCP) in the mixed layer. If the sporadic short productive events during April-May 2007 were missed by the sampling schedule, one would conclude erroneously that the site is heterotrophic. While previous ship-based pCO2 data collected around this buoy site agreed with the buoy CO2 data on seasonal scales, high resolution buoy observations revealed that the cruise-based surveys undersampled temporal variability in coastal waters, which could greatly bias the estimates of air-sea CO2 fluxes or annual NCP, and even produce contradictory results.

  13. Electron heat flux instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  14. Numerical investigation of the Arctic ice-ocean boundary layer and implications for air-sea gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Arash; Loose, Brice; Nguyen, An T.; Cole, Sylvia T.

    2017-01-01

    In ice-covered regions it is challenging to determine constituent budgets - for heat and momentum, but also for biologically and climatically active gases like carbon dioxide and methane. The harsh environment and relative data scarcity make it difficult to characterize even the physical properties of the ocean surface. Here, we sought to evaluate if numerical model output helps us to better estimate the physical forcing that drives the air-sea gas exchange rate (k) in sea ice zones. We used the budget of radioactive 222Rn in the mixed layer to illustrate the effect that sea ice forcing has on gas budgets and air-sea gas exchange. Appropriate constraint of the 222Rn budget requires estimates of sea ice velocity, concentration, mixed-layer depth, and water velocities, as well as their evolution in time and space along the Lagrangian drift track of a mixed-layer water parcel. We used 36, 9 and 2 km horizontal resolution of regional Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) configuration with fine vertical spacing to evaluate the capability of the model to reproduce these parameters. We then compared the model results to existing field data including satellite, moorings and ice-tethered profilers. We found that mode sea ice coverage agrees with satellite-derived observation 88 to 98 % of the time when averaged over the Beaufort Gyre, and model sea ice speeds have 82 % correlation with observations. The model demonstrated the capacity to capture the broad trends in the mixed layer, although with a significant bias. Model water velocities showed only 29 % correlation with point-wise in situ data. This correlation remained low in all three model resolution simulations and we argued that is largely due to the quality of the input atmospheric forcing. Overall, we found that even the coarse-resolution model can make a modest contribution to gas exchange parameterization, by resolving the time variation of parameters that drive the 222Rn budget

  15. CO2 air-sea fluxes across the Portuguese estuaries Tagus and Sado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. P.; Cabeçadas, G.; Nogueira, M.

    2009-04-01

    Generally, estuaries and proximal shelves under the direct influence of river runoff and large inputs of organic matter are mostly heterotrophic and, therefore, act as a carbon source. In this context the CO2 dynamics in Tagus and Sado estuaries (SW Portugal) was studied under two different climate and hydrological situations. These moderately productive mesotidal coastal-plain lagoon-type estuaries, localised in the center of Portugal and distant 30-40 km apart, present quite different freshwater inflows, surface areas and water residence times. A study performed in 2001 revealed that the magnitude of CO2 fluxes in the two estuarine systems varied seasonally. CO2 emissions during the huge rainfall winter were similar in both estuaries, reaching a mean value of ~50 mmol m-2 d-1, while in spring emissions from Sado were ~6 times higher then Tagus ones, attaining a mean value of 62 mmol m-2 d-1. Nevertheless, in both sampling periods, Sado estuary showed, within the upper estuary (salinity

  16. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  17. A new framework for estimation and comparative assessment of air-sea turbulent fluxes in reanalyses and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulev, Sergey; Tilinina, Natalia; Belyaev, Konstantin

    2013-04-01

    Reanalyses fluxes and flux-related variables at high temporal resolution are widely used forcing ocean general circulation models, for the case studies and estimation of regional energy budgets. In order to evaluate surface fluxes in modern era reanalyses and climate models we suggest a new approach based on two parametric modified Fisher-Tippett (MFT) distribution applied to turbulent heat fluxes. Two comparisons were performed - using direct surface turbulent flux output from different products (NCEP, NCEP-DOE, NCEP-CFSR, MERRA, JRA-25, ERA-Interim) and applying a single parameterization (COARE-3) to the reanalysis state variables. These allow for distinguishing between the impact of reanalysis surface parameterizations and variables onto surface turbulent fluxes. Statistical properties of surface turbulent fluxes were intercompared in terms of the distribution parameters (scale and location) and extreme fluxes derived from distribution tails. In all reanalyses extreme turbulent heat fluxes amount to 1500-2000 W/m2 (for the 99th percentile) and can exceed 2000 W/m2 for higher percentiles in the western boundary current extension (WBCE) regions. Different reanalyses show significantly different shape of MFT distribution, implying considerable differences in the estimates of extreme fluxes. The highest extreme turbulent latent heat fluxes are diagnosed in NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses with the smallest being in MERRA. These differences may not necessarily reflect the differences in mean values. Analysis show that differences in statistical properties of the state variables are the major source of differences in the shape of PDF and estimates of extreme fluxes while the contribution of computational schemes used in different reanalyses is minor. The strongest differences in the characteristics of probability distributions of surface fluxes between different reanalyses is found in the Southern Ocean. Importantly, climate models, being capable of

  18. Reconstruction of super-resolution fields of ocean pCO2 and air-sea fluxes of CO2 from satellite imagery in the Southeastern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, I.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Yahia, H.; Garbe, C.; Paulmier, A.; Dewitte, B.; Illig, S.; Dadou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of Green House Gases GHGs fluxes at the air-sea interface at high resolution is crucial to accurately quantify the role of the ocean in the absorption and emission of GHGs. In this paper we present a novel method to reconstruct maps of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2, pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4 km) using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Ocean Colour (OC) data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). Inference of super-resolution of pCO2, and air-sea CO2 fluxes is performed using novel nonlinear signal processing methodologies that prove efficient in the context of oceanography. The theoretical background comes from the Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism which unlocks the geometrical determination of cascading properties of physical intensive variables. As a consequence, a multiresolution analysis performed on the signal of the so-called singularity exponents allows the correct and near optimal cross-scale inference of GHGs fluxes, as the inference suits the geometric realization of the cascade. We apply such a methodology to the study offshore of the Benguela area. The inferred representation of oceanic partial pressure of CO2 improves and enhances the description provided by CarbonTracker, capturing the small scale variability. We examine different combinations of Ocean Colour and Sea Surface Temperature products in order to increase the number of valid points and the quality of the inferred pCO2 field. The methodology is validated using in-situ measurements by means of statistical errors. We obtain that mean absolute and relative errors in the inferred values of pCO2 with respect to in-situ measurements are smaller than for CarbonTracker.

  19. Modulation of air-sea fluxes by extratropical planetary waves and its impact during the recent surface warming slowdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molteni, Franco; Farneti, Riccardo; Kucharski, Fred; Stockdale, Timothy N.

    2017-02-01

    It is widely accepted that natural decadal variability played a major role in the slowdown in global warming observed in the 21st century, with sea surface cooling in the tropical Pacific recognized as a major contributor. However, the warming pause was most pronounced during boreal winter, with Northern Hemisphere flow anomalies also playing a role. Here we quantify the contribution of extratropical heat exchanges by comparing geopotential and temperature anomalies simulated by ensembles of seasonal forecasts with similar ocean temperature but different heat fluxes north of 40°N, as a result of planetary wave variability. We show that an important part of heat flux anomalies is associated with decadal variations in the phase of a specific planetary wave pattern. In model simulations covering the last three decades, this variability pattern accounts for a decrease of 0.35°C/decade in the post-1998 wintertime temperature trend over northern continents.

  20. Measurements of ocean surface kinematics and heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, Fabrice; Melville, Ken

    2003-11-01

    The top few meters of the oceanic boundary layer play a critical role in the transfers of momentum, gas, mass and heat between the atmosphere and the ocean. These exchanges must necessarily transfer through the surface, and presumably, the rates at which they do are influence by the dynamics of the surface layer. Heat flux in particular is regulated by the thin surface thermal layer which, at most, is only a few millimeter thick. We are specifically interested in the structure of the thermal layer and the influence of the surface turbulence on the flux of heat through the air-sea boundary. Using active and passive infrared imaging, we were able to collect high temporal and spatial resolution images, yielding the Lagrangian surface velocity and temperature fields over small areas of a few square meters. We have applied cross-correlation techniques (typically used for Particle Image Velocimetry) on the passive infrared images and obtained high-resolution surface velocity fields. Using the displacement and the distortion of the actively laid down heat pattern, we also have been able to recover the surface velocity, shear strain, vorticity, and divergence. In addition, the data show that the heat flux appears to be correlated the surface vorticity. With the penetration depth of infrared radiation at these wavelengths being a few microns, these techniques appear to be extremely promising for measuring ocean surface turbulence confined within the thermal boundary layer. We will discuss the results in the context of air sea heat flux and ocean surface turbulence.

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Western English Channel based on two years of FerryBox deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Latimier, M.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Vernet, M.; Bozec, Y.

    2014-12-01

    From January 2011 to January 2013, a FerryBox system was installed on a Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), which crossed the Western English Channel (WEC) between Roscoff (France) and Plymouth (UK) up to 3 times a day. The FerryBox continuously measured sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescence and partial pressure of CO2 (from April 2012) along the ferry track. Sensors were calibrated based on 714 bimonthly surface samplings with precisions of 0.016 for SSS, 3.3 μM for DO, 0.40 μg L- 1 for Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) (based on fluorescence measurements) and 5.2 μatm for pCO2. Over the 2 years of deployment (900 crossings), we reported 9% of data lost due to technical issues and quality checked data was obtained to allow investigation of the dynamics of biogeochemical processes related to air-sea CO2 fluxes in the WEC. Based on this unprecedented high-frequency dataset, the physical structure of the WEC was assessed using SST anomalies and the presence of a thermal front was observed around the latitude 49.5°N, which divided the WEC in two main provinces: the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the all-year well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC). These hydrographical properties strongly influenced the spatial and inter-annual distributions of phytoplankton blooms, which were mainly limited by nutrients and light availability in the nWEC and the sWEC, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes were also highly related to hydrographical properties of the WEC between late April and early September 2012, with the sWEC a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1, whereas the nWEC acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 of 6.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1. The study of short time-scale dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes revealed that an intense and short (less than 10 days) summer bloom in the nWEC contributed to 29% of the CO2 sink during the productive period, highlighting the necessity for high frequency observations in coastal

  2. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MaCarthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  3. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  4. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  5. Optical heat flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-06-25

    A heat flux gauge is described comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  6. Optical heat flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1989-06-07

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figs.

  7. Optical heat flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MaCarthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-09-03

    A heat flux gauge is described comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  8. Response of biological production and air-sea CO2 fluxes to upwelling intensification in the California and Canary Current Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachkar, Zouhair; Gruber, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Upwelling-favorable winds have increased in most Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) in the last decades, and it is likely that they increase further in response to global climate change. Here, we explore the response of biological production and air-sea CO2 fluxes to upwelling intensification in two of the four major EBUS, namely the California Current System (California CS) and Canary Current System (Canary CS). To this end, we use eddy-resolving regional ocean models on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) to which we have coupled a NPZD-type ecosystem model and a biogeochemistry module describing the carbon cycle and subject these model configurations to an idealized increase in the wind stress. We find that a doubling of the wind-stress doubles net primary production (NPP) in the southern California CS and central and northern Canary CS, while it leads to an increase of less than 50% in the central and northern California CS as well as in the southern Canary CS. This differential response is a result of i) different nutrient limitation states with higher sensitivity to upwelling intensification in regions where nutrient limitation is stronger and ii) more efficient nutrient assimilation by biology in the Canary CS relative to the California CS because of a faster nutrient-replete growth rate and longer nearshore water residence times. In the regions where production increases commensurably with upwelling intensification, the enhanced net biological uptake of CO2 compensates the increase in upwelling driven CO2 outgassing, resulting in only a small change in the biological pump efficiency and hence in a small sensitivity of air-sea CO2 fluxes to upwelling intensification. In contrast, in the central California CS as well as in the southern Canary CS around Cape Blanc, the reduced biological efficiency enhances the CO2 outgassing and leads to a substantial sensitivity of the air-sea CO2 fluxes to upwelling intensification.

  9. Computation of Air-Sea Fluxes in Five Atmospheric Rivers over the Northeast Pacific Using Dropsonde Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Blomquist, B.; Gentemann, C. L.; Ralph, F. M.; Spackman, J. R.; Intrieri, J. M.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    29 July 2014 Atmospheric Rivers (AR's) play a dominant role in variability of precipitation on the US W. Coast. A major AR study field effort with three research aircraft and the ship RV Ron Brown are committed to a campaign in January-February 2015. In this paper we report on an "early-start" deployment of the NOAA G-IV aircraft, which was conducted in February 2014 to test new flight modules and to work out key logistical and flight operations methods. In February 2014 the NOAA G-IV research aircraft sampled 10 ARs over the northeast Pacific Ocean. On five of these flights (Feb 08, 11, 13, 18, 21) dropsondes were deployed in a line crossing the AR so as to robustly sample the atmospheric structure. The sonde profiles yield gradients of wind speed, potential temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio in the surface layer over the ocean. Surface fluxes can be estimated from these gradients. If sea surface temperature (SST) is available, fluxes can also be computed using a bulk-flux algorithm. Conventional atmospheric sondes do not measure SST, but we developed a method to estimate SST by extrapolating the gradient to the surface. This was effective for temperature and water vapor profiles. A short iteration yielded reasonable estimates of SST and fluxes of momentum, sensible, and latent heat. The SST values were compared to satellite values. Five different satellite products were used: microwave, AMSR, wsat, TMI, and MODIS. A single satellite estimate was created as the median of these five. Standard deviation (std) of the five satellite estimates at each location is about 0.5 C. A grand comparison of satellite and sonde SST estimates for the five flights was made. For a total of 119 locations, the mean of Sonde-Satellite SST is about -0.02 C (std 0.76 C, correlation coefficient 0.983). For SST deduced from the humidity profile, the mean difference is 0.20 C (std 1.26, correlation 0.953). Surface fluxes were surprisingly small: sensible heat flux was typically

  10. Mapping of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas: Basin-wide distribution and seasonal to interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunaka, Sayaka; Murata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Eiji; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Ishii, Masao; Johannessen, Truls; Kosugi, Naohiro; Lauvset, Siv K.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Nishino, Shigeto; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Olsen, Are; Sasano, Daisuke; Takahashi, Taro; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2016-09-01

    We produced 204 monthly maps of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Arctic north of 60°N, including the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas, from January 1997 to December 2013 by using a self-organizing map technique. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water data were obtained by shipboard underway measurements or calculated from alkalinity and total inorganic carbon of surface water samples. Subsequently, we investigated the basin-wide distribution and seasonal to interannual variability of the CO2 fluxes. The 17-year annual mean CO2 flux shows that all areas of the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas were net CO2 sinks. The estimated annual CO2 uptake by the Arctic Ocean was 180 TgC yr-1. The CO2 influx was strongest in winter in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas (>15 mmol m-2 day-1) and the Barents Sea (>12 mmol m-2 day-1) because of strong winds, and strongest in summer in the Chukchi Sea (∼10 mmol m-2 day-1) because of the sea-ice retreat. In recent years, the CO2 uptake has increased in the Greenland/Norwegian Sea and decreased in the southern Barents Sea, owing to increased and decreased air-sea pCO2 differences, respectively.

  11. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  12. The carbon dioxide system on the Mississippi River-dominated continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico: 1. Distribution and air-sea CO2 flux.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Jen; Cai, Wei-Jun; Wang, Yongchen; Lohrenz, Steven E; Murrell, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    River-dominated continental shelf environments are active sites of air-sea CO2 exchange. We conducted 13 cruises in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region strongly influenced by fresh water and nutrients delivered from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system. The sea surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) was measured, and the air-sea CO2 flux was calculated. Results show that CO2 exchange exhibited a distinct seasonality: the study area was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring and early summer, and it was neutral or a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere during midsummer, fall, and winter. Along the salinity gradient, across the shelf, the sea surface shifted from a source of CO2 in low-salinity zones (0≤S<17) to a strong CO2 sink in the middle-to-high-salinity zones (17≤S<33), and finally was a near-neutral state in the high-salinity areas (33≤S<35) and in the open gulf (S≥35). High pCO2 values were only observed in narrow regions near freshwater sources, and the distribution of undersaturated pCO2 generally reflected the influence of freshwater inputs along the shelf. Systematic analyses of pCO2 variation demonstrated the importance of riverine nitrogen export; that is, riverine nitrogen-enhanced biological removal, along with mixing processes, dominated pCO2 variation along the salinity gradient. In addition, extreme or unusual weather events were observed to alter the alongshore pCO2 distribution and to affect regional air-sea CO2 flux estimates. Overall, the study region acted as a net CO2 sink of 0.96 ± 3.7 mol m(-2) yr(-1) (1.15 ± 4.4 Tg C yr(-1)).

  13. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  14. High resolution measurements of methane and carbon dioxide in surface waters over a natural seep reveal dynamics of dissolved phase air-sea flux.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengran; Yvon-Lewis, Shari; Garcia-Tigreros, Fenix; Valentine, David L; Mendes, Stephanie D; Kessler, John D

    2014-09-02

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps are sources of methane and carbon dioxide to the ocean, and potentially to the atmosphere, though the magnitude of the fluxes and dynamics of these systems are poorly defined. To better constrain these variables in natural environments, we conducted the first high-resolution measurements of sea surface methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in the massive natural seep field near Coal Oil Point (COP), California. The corresponding high resolution fluxes were calculated, and the total dissolved phase air-sea fluxes over the surveyed plume area (∼363 km(2)) were 6.66 × 10(4) to 6.71 × 10(4) mol day(-1) with respect to CH4 and -6.01 × 10(5) to -5.99 × 10(5) mol day(-1) with respect to CO2. The mean and standard deviation of the dissolved phase air-sea fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from the contour gridding analysis were estimated to be 0.18 ± 0.19 and -1.65 ± 1.23 mmol m(-2) day(-1), respectively. This methane flux is consistent with previous, lower-resolution estimates and was used, in part, to conservatively estimate the total area of the dissolved methane plume at 8400 km(2). The influx of carbon dioxide to the surface water refutes the hypothesis that COP seep methane appreciably influences carbon dioxide dynamics. Seeing that the COP seep field is one of the biggest natural seeps, a logical conclusion could be drawn that microbial oxidation of methane from natural seeps is of insufficient magnitude to change the resulting plume area from a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide to a source.

  15. Heat Flux Sensor Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. W.

    2002-07-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the following objectives: Developing secondary calibration capabilities for MSFC's (Marshall Space Flight Center) Hot Gas Facility (HGF), a Mach 4 Aerothermal Wind Tunnel; Evaluating ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) slug/ thinskin calorimeters against current HGF heat flux sensors; Providing verification of baselined AEDC (Arnold Engineering Development Center) / Medtherm gage calibrations; Addressing future calibration issues involving NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) certified radiant gages.

  16. Heat Flux Sensor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the following objectives: Developing secondary calibration capabilities for MSFC's (Marshall Space Flight Center) Hot Gas Facility (HGF), a Mach 4 Aerothermal Wind Tunnel; Evaluating ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) slug/ thinskin calorimeters against current HGF heat flux sensors; Providing verification of baselined AEDC (Arnold Engineering Development Center) / Medtherm gage calibrations; Addressing future calibration issues involving NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) certified radiant gages.

  17. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North-West European Shelf based on Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Salt, L. A.; Vernet, M.; Taylor, B.; Paxman, K.; Bozec, Y.

    2015-04-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 dataset based on voluntary observing ship (VOS) measurements in the Western English Channel (WEC). We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in north-west European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs) from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), the gas transfer velocity coefficient (K), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD). We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and calculated surface pCO2 with relative uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011-2013 dataset (1) temporally over a decade and (2) spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish Seas (CS and IS), two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT database and obtained relatively robust results with an average precision of 4 ± 22 μatm in the seasonally stratified nWEC and the southern and northern CS (sCS and nCS), but less promising results in the permanently well-mixed sWEC, IS and Cap Lizard (CL) waters. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of -0.4, -0.9 and -0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the nCS, sCS and nWEC, respectively, whereas, permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 mol C m-2 year-1 in the sWEC, CL and IS, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over six provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of -0.95 Tg C year-1 for this

  18. Air-sea transfer of gas phase controlled compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Bell, T. G.; Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Brooks, I. M.; Nightingale, P. D.

    2016-05-01

    Gases in the atmosphere/ocean have solubility that spans several orders of magnitude. Resistance in the molecular sublayer on the waterside limits the air-sea exchange of sparingly soluble gases such as SF6 and CO2. In contrast, both aerodynamic and molecular diffusive resistances on the airside limit the exchange of highly soluble gases (as well as heat). Here we present direct measurements of air-sea methanol and acetone transfer from two open cruises: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The transfer of the highly soluble methanol is essentially completely airside controlled, while the less soluble acetone is subject to both airside and waterside resistances. Both compounds were measured concurrently using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer, with their fluxes quantified by the eddy covariance method. Up to a wind speed of 15 m s-1, observed air-sea transfer velocities of these two gases are largely consistent with the expected near linear wind speed dependence. Measured acetone transfer velocity is ∼30% lower than that of methanol, which is primarily due to the lower solubility of acetone. From this difference we estimate the “zero bubble” waterside transfer velocity, which agrees fairly well with interfacial gas transfer velocities predicted by the COARE model. At wind speeds above 15 m s-1, the transfer velocities of both compounds are lower than expected in the mean. Air-sea transfer of sensible heat (also airside controlled) also appears to be reduced at wind speeds over 20 m s-1. During these conditions, large waves and abundant whitecaps generate large amounts of sea spray, which is predicted to alter heat transfer and could also affect the air-sea exchange of soluble trace gases. We make an order of magnitude estimate for the impacts of sea spray on air-sea methanol transfer.

  19. Impact of surface sensible heating over the Tibetan Plateau on the western Pacific subtropical high: A land-air-sea interaction perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Anmin; Sun, Ruizao; He, Jinhai

    2017-02-01

    The impact of surface sensible heating over the Tibetan Plateau (SHTP) on the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) with and without air-sea interaction was investigated in this study. Data analysis indicated that SHTP acts as a relatively independent factor in modulating the WPSH anomaly compared with ENSO events. Stronger spring SHTP is usually followed by an enhanced and westward extension of the WPSH in summer, and vice versa. Numerical experiments using both an AGCM and a CGCM confirmed that SHTP influences the large-scale circulation anomaly over the Pacific, which features a barotropic anticyclonic response over the northwestern Pacific and a cyclonic response to the south. Owing to different background circulation in spring and summer, such a response facilitates a subdued WPSH in spring but an enhanced WPSH in summer. Moreover, the CGCM results showed that the equatorial low-level westerly at the south edge of the cyclonic anomaly brings about a warm SST anomaly (SSTA) in the equatorial central Pacific via surface warm advection. Subsequently, an atmospheric Rossby wave is stimulated to the northwest of the warm SSTA, which in turn enhances the atmospheric dipole anomalies over the western Pacific. Therefore, the air-sea feedbacks involved tend to reinforce the effect of SHTP on the WPSH anomaly, and the role of SHTP on general circulation needs to be considered in a land-air-sea interaction framework.

  20. Sea Spray Effects on Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    DeCosmo, J., 1991: Air-sea exchange of momentum, heat and water vapor over whitecap sea states. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle...212 pp. DeCosmo, J., K. B. Katsaros, S. D. Smith, R. J. Anderson, W. A. Oost, K. Bumke and H. Chadwick, 1996: Air-sea exchange of water vapor and

  1. Synoptic evaluation of carbon cycling in Beaufort Sea during summer: contrasting river inputs, ecosystem metabolism and air-sea CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Coupel, P.; Else, B.; Nahavandian, S.; Lansard, B.; Raimbault, P.; Papakyriakou, T.; Gratton, Y.; Fortier, L.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2013-10-01

    The accelerated decline in Arctic sea ice combined with an ongoing trend toward a more dynamic atmosphere is modifying carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean. A critical issue is to understand how net community production (NCP; the balance between gross primary production and community respiration) responds to changes and modulates air-sea CO2 fluxes. Using data collected as part of the ArcticNet-Malina 2009 expedition in southeastern Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean), we synthesize information on sea ice, wind, river, water column properties, metabolism of the planktonic food web, organic carbon fluxes and pools, as well as air-sea CO2 exchange, with the aim of identifying indices of ecosystem response to environmental changes. Data were analyzed to develop a non-steady-state carbon budget and an assessment of NCP against air-sea CO2 fluxes. The mean atmospheric forcing was a mild upwelling-favorable wind (~5 km h-1) blowing from the N-E and a decaying ice cover (<80% concentration) was observed beyond the shelf, the latter being fully exposed to the atmosphere. We detected some areas where the surface mixed layer was net autotrophic owing to high rates of primary production (PP), but the ecosystem was overall net heterotrophic. The region acted nonetheless as a sink for atmospheric CO2 with a mean uptake rate of -2.0 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2d-1. We attribute this discrepancy to: (1) elevated PP rates (>600 mg C m-2d-1) over the shelf prior to our survey, (2) freshwater dilution by river runoff and ice melt, and (3) the presence of cold surface waters offshore. Only the Mackenzie River delta and localized shelf areas directly affected by upwelling were identified as substantial sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (>10mmol C m-2d-1). Although generally <100 mg C m-2d-1, daily PP rates cumulated to a total PP of ~437.6 × 103 t C, which was roughly twice higher than the organic carbon delivery by river inputs (~241.2 × 103 t C). Subsurface PP represented 37.4% of total PP for the

  2. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  3. Multi-Satellite Characterization of Interannual Variation in Primary Production and Air-Sea CO2 Flux in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Ross Sea is the most productive sector of the Southern Ocean, the largest of the three iron limited HNLC regions. This productivity supports a rich upper trophic level community, including large numbers of penguins, seals, and whales. It also represents a large sink for atmospheric CO2. Since the advent of ocean color remote sensing using satellites such as CZCS, SeaWiFS, and MODIS, it has become increasingly clear that productivity in the Ross Sea is also characterized by a great deal of interannual variability. Passive microwave data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager show that distributions of sea ice within the Ross Sea vary markedly from year to year, with some years experiencing nearly ice-free springtime conditions while others remain nearly ice covered. This extreme variability in sea ice cover is due to changes in climate state as well as some unusual events specific to the Ross Sea, such as the calving of two enormous icebergs, one in 2000 and the other in 2002. Variation in ice cover during austral spring and summer impacts the growth of the phytoplankton community, whose cumulative rate of annual primary production ranges widely, from <10 Tg C in 2002-03 to almost 40 Tg C in 1999-00. When these satellite data are used in conjunction with a three-dimensional ocean ecosystem model of the Ross Sea, the calculated air-sea fluxes of CO2 are even more variable, varying over 50-fold between 1997 and 2004. Not surprisingly, the lowest atmospheric flux of CO2 into the surface waters of the Ross Sea (0.10 Tg C) is associated with the year having the lowest primary production and highest sea ice cover. The extreme sensitivity of rates of primary production and particularly air-sea CO2 fluxes to changes in sea ice distribution in the Southern Ocean suggest that this region may undergo dramatic changes if global temperatures continue to rise, as they have in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula.

  4. Production and air-sea flux of halomethanes in the western subarctic Pacific in relation to phytoplankton pigment concentrations during the iron fertilization experiment (SEEDS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Toda, Shuji; Suzuki, Koji; Kato, Shungo; Narita, Yasusi; Kurihara, Michiko K.; Akatsuka, Yoko; Oda, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takahiro; Nagao, Ippei; Kudo, Isao; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    Iron could play a key role in controlling phytoplankton biomass and productivity in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions. As a part of the iron fertilization experiment carried out in the western subarctic Pacific from July to August 2004 (Subarctic Pacific iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study II—SEEDS II), we analysed the concentrations of trace gases in the seawater for 12 d following iron fertilization. The mean concentrations of chlorophyll a in the mixed layer (5-30 m depth) increased from 0.94 to 2.81 μg L -1 for 8 d in the iron patch. The mean concentrations of methyl bromide (CH 3Br; 5-30 m depth) increased from 6.4 to 13.4 pmol L -1 for 11 d; the in-patch concentration increased relative to the out-patch concentration. A linear correlation was observed between the concentrations of 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, which is a biomarker of several prymnesiophytes, and CH 3Br in the seawater. After fertilization, the air-sea flux of CH 3Br inside the patch changed from influx to efflux from the ocean. There was no clear evidence for the increase in saturation anomaly of methyl chloride (CH 3Cl) due to iron fertilization. Furthermore, CH 3Cl fluxes did not show a tendency to increase after fertilization of the patch. In contrast to CH 3Br, no change was observed in the concentrations of bromoform (in-patch day 11 and out-patch day 11: 1.7 and 1.7 pmol L -1), dibromomethane (2.1 and 2.2 pmol L -1), and dibromochloromethane (1.0 and 1.2 pmol L -1, respectively). The concentration of isoprene, which is known to have a relationship with chlorophyll a, did not change in this study. The responses of trace gases during SEEDS II differed from the previous findings ( in situ iron enrichment experiment—EisenEx, Southern Ocean iron experiment—SOFeX, and Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study—SERIES). Thus, in order to estimate the concomitant effect of iron fertilization on the climate, it is important to assess the induction of biological

  5. Air-Sea Interactions in CLIMODE: In-Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigorre, S.; Weller, R.

    2006-12-01

    The subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic or Eighteen Degree Water (EDW) is an important component of the oceanic circulation. Its formation and evolution are linked to fundamental aspects of the oceanic climate. A central formation process involves the subduction of surface water through air-sea interactions. Conditions for this are ideal in the Gulf Stream region when warm water interacts with cold air above, sinks and is trapped in the late winter, thereby ventilating the interior. The study program CLIvar MOde Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE), sponsored by NSF, is designed to quantify and understand which processes lead to the formation and dissipation of EDW. A key component to this goal is the knowledge of buoyancy fluxes in the region of EDW formation. The Upper Ocean Processes (UOP) group deployed a 3-m discus buoy anchored in the Gulf Stream (64W, 38N) in November 2005. Oceanographic instruments collect data along the mooring line while meteorological and surface sensors are placed on the buoy and collect data every minute. Since the deployment, hourly averages of the meteorological data were transmitted through the Argos satellite system. These data were plugged in the TOGA-COARE bulk algorithm to estimate air-sea fluxes. These preliminary results are presented, while the full dataset will be analyzed after recovery of the buoy in November 2006. Heat fluxes estimates indicate high heat loss events. In December 2005, regular losses larger than 1000W/m2 occurred. These heat loss events are associated with cold air outbreaks. When the air-sea temperature gradient increases, winds also tend to increase indicating a destabilization of the boundary layer and production of turbulence, enhancing further the heat transfer. As the air-sea temperature gradient decreases in the late winter, heat loss also decreases. The SST signal is seen to modulate the heat fluxes on lower frequencies than air temperature changes. This kind of signal tends therefore to be

  6. Roles of biological and physical processes in driving seasonal air-sea CO2 flux in the Southern Ocean: New insights from CARIOCA pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlivat, L.; Boutin, J.; Antoine, D.

    2015-07-01

    On a mean annual basis, the Southern Ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2. However the seasonality of the air-sea CO2 flux in this region is poorly documented. We investigate processes regulating air-sea CO2 flux in a large area of the Southern Ocean (38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E) that represents nearly one third of the subantarctic zone. A seasonal budget of CO2 partial pressure, pCO2 and of dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC in the mixed layer is assessed by quantifying the impacts of biology, physics and thermodynamical effect on seawater pCO2. A focus is made on the quantification at a monthly scale of the biological consumption as it is the dominant process removing carbon from surface waters. In situ biological carbon production rates are estimated from high frequency estimates of DIC along the trajectories of CARIOCA drifters in the Atlantic and Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during four spring-summer seasons over the 2006-2009 period. Net community production (NCP) integrated over the mixed layer is derived from the daily change of DIC, and mixed layer depth estimated from Argo profiles. Eleven values of NCP are estimated and range from 30 to 130 mmol C m- 2 d- 1. They are used as a constraint for validating satellite net primary production (NPP). A satellite data-based global model is used to compute depth integrated net primary production, NPP, for the same periods along the trajectories of the buoys. Realistic NCP/NPP ratios are obtained under the condition that the SeaWiFS chlorophyll are corrected by a factor of ≈ 2-3, which is an underestimation previously reported for the Southern Ocean. Monthly satellite based NPP are computed over the 38°S-55°S, 60°W-60°E area. pCO2 derived from these NPP combined with an export ratio, and taking into account the impact of physics and thermodynamics is in good agreement with the pCO2 seasonal climatology of Takahashi (2009). On an annual timescale, mean NCP values, 4.4 to 4.9 mol C m- 2 yr- 1 are ≈ 4-5 times

  7. Fundamentals of heat measurement. [heat flux transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashchenko, O. A.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods and devices for obtaining experimental data on heat flux density over wide ranges of temperature and pressure are examined. Laboratory tests and device fabrication details are supplemented by theoretical analyses of heat-conduction and thermoelectric effects, providing design guidelines and information relevant to further research and development. A theory defining the measure of correspondence between transducer signal and the measured heat flux is established for individual (isolated) heat flux transducers subject to space and time-dependent loading. An analysis of the properties of stacked (series-connected) transducers of various types (sandwich-type, plane, and spiral) is used to derive a similarity theory providing general governing relationships. The transducers examined are used in 36 types of derivative devices involving direct heat loss measurements, heat conduction studies, radiation pyrometry, calorimetry in medicine and industry and nuclear reactor dosimetry.

  8. Effect of gas-transfer velocity parameterization choice on air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, Iwona; Piskozub, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The oceanic sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important part of the global carbon budget. Understanding uncertainties in the calculation of this net flux into the ocean is crucial for climate research. One of the sources of the uncertainty within this calculation is the parameterization chosen for the CO2 gas-transfer velocity. We used a recently developed software toolbox, called the FluxEngine (Shutler et al., 2016), to estimate the monthly air-sea CO2 fluxes for the extratropical North Atlantic Ocean, including the European Arctic, and for the global ocean using several published quadratic and cubic wind speed parameterizations of the gas-transfer velocity. The aim of the study is to constrain the uncertainty caused by the choice of parameterization in the North Atlantic Ocean. This region is a large oceanic sink of CO2, and it is also a region characterized by strong winds, especially in winter but with good in situ data coverage. We show that the uncertainty in the parameterization is smaller in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic than in the global ocean. It is as little as 5 % in the North Atlantic and 4 % in the European Arctic, in comparison to 9 % for the global ocean when restricted to parameterizations with quadratic wind dependence. This uncertainty becomes 46, 44, and 65 %, respectively, when all parameterizations are considered. We suggest that this smaller uncertainty (5 and 4 %) is caused by a combination of higher than global average wind speeds in the North Atlantic (> 7 ms-1) and lack of any seasonal changes in the direction of the flux direction within most of the region. We also compare the impact of using two different in situ pCO2 data sets (Takahashi et al. (2009) and Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) v1.5 and v2.0, for the flux calculation. The annual fluxes using the two data sets differ by 8 % in the North Atlantic and 19 % in the European Arctic. The seasonal fluxes in the Arctic computed from the two data sets disagree with each

  9. Radial heat flux transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.

  10. Assessing the Potential to Derive Air-Sea Freshwater Fluxes from Aquarius-Like Observations of Surface Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhen, Li; Adamec, David

    2009-01-01

    A state-of-the-art numerical model is used to investigate the possibility of determining freshwater flux fields from temporal changes io sea-surface salinity (SSS), a goal of the satellite salinity-measuring mission, Aquarius/SAC-D. Because the estimated advective temporal scale is usually longer than the Aquarius/SAC-D revisit time, the possibility of producing freshwater flux estimates from temporal salinity changes is first examined by using a correlation analysis. For the mean seasonal cycle, the patterns of the correlations between the freshwater fluxes and surface salinity temporal tendencies are mainly zonally oriented, and are highest where the local precipitation is also relatively high. Nonseasonal (deviations from the monthly mean) correlations are highest along mid-latitude moon tracks and are relatively small in the tropics. The complex correlation patterns presented here suggest that a global retrieval of the difference between evaporation and precipitation (E-P) from salinity changes requires more complex techniques than a simple consideration of local balance with surface forcing.

  11. Sensitivity of modelled sulfate aerosol and its radiative effect on climate to ocean DMS concentration and air-sea flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesdal, Jan-Erik; Christian, James R.; Monahan, Adam H.; von Salzen, Knut

    2016-09-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a well-known marine trace gas that is emitted from the ocean and subsequently oxidizes to sulfate in the atmosphere. Sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere have direct and indirect effects on the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, as a potential source of sulfate, ocean efflux of DMS needs to be accounted for in climate studies. Seawater concentration of DMS is highly variable in space and time, which in turn leads to high spatial and temporal variability in ocean DMS emissions. Because of sparse sampling (in both space and time), large uncertainties remain regarding ocean DMS concentration. In this study, we use an atmospheric general circulation model with explicit aerosol chemistry (CanAM4.1) and several climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration to assess uncertainties about the climate impact of ocean DMS efflux. Despite substantial variation in the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of simulated DMS fluxes, the global-mean radiative effect of sulfate is approximately linearly proportional to the global-mean surface flux of DMS; the spatial and temporal distribution of ocean DMS efflux has only a minor effect on the global radiation budget. The effect of the spatial structure, however, generates statistically significant changes in the global-mean concentrations of some aerosol species. The effect of seasonality on the net radiative effect is larger than that of spatial distribution and is significant at global scale.

  12. Overview of the CoOP experiments: Physical and chemical measurements parameterizing air-sea heat exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Erik John; Bearer Edson, James; Frew, Nelson M.; Hara, Tetsu; Haussecker, Horst; Jähne, Bernd; McGillis, Wade R.; McKenna, Sean P.; Nelson, Robert K.; Schimpf, Uwe; Uz, Mete

    Experiments performed in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in 1995 and 1997 attempted to measure the short time-scale and small spatial scale variability in the air-sea gas transfer rate. Along with these measurements, physical and chemical parameters known from previous laboratory studies to influence transfer rates were also characterized. These parameters include the atmospheric forcing, the capillary and capillary-gravity wave state, the surface chemical enrichment, and the level of near-surface turbulence. In this contribution we describe the methodologies employed for the measurement campaigns and summarize some general observations resulting from them. Other contributions from the coauthors describe in more detail the specific conclusions derived from the Coastal Ocean Processes (CoOP) field program.

  13. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    DOEpatents

    Harris, William G.

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  14. Synoptic evaluation of carbon cycling in the Beaufort Sea during summer: contrasting river inputs, ecosystem metabolism and air-sea CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Coupel, P.; Else, B.; Nahavandian, S.; Lansard, B.; Raimbault, P.; Papakyriakou, T.; Gratton, Y.; Fortier, L.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2014-05-01

    The accelerated decline in Arctic sea ice and an ongoing trend toward more energetic atmospheric and oceanic forcings are modifying carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean. A critical issue is to understand how net community production (NCP; the balance between gross primary production and community respiration) responds to changes and modulates air-sea CO2 fluxes. Using data collected as part of the ArcticNet-Malina 2009 expedition in the southeastern Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean), we synthesize information on sea ice, wind, river, water column properties, metabolism of the planktonic food web, organic carbon fluxes and pools, as well as air-sea CO2 exchange, with the aim of documenting the ecosystem response to environmental changes. Data were analyzed to develop a non-steady-state carbon budget and an assessment of NCP against air-sea CO2 fluxes. During the field campaign, the mean wind field was a mild upwelling-favorable wind (~ 5 km h-1) from the NE. A decaying ice cover (< 80% concentration) was observed beyond the shelf, the latter being fully exposed to the atmosphere. We detected some areas where the surface mixed layer was net autotrophic owing to high rates of primary production (PP), but the ecosystem was overall net heterotrophic. The region acted nonetheless as a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an uptake rate of -2.0 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2 d-1 (mean ± standard deviation associated with spatial variability). We attribute this discrepancy to (1) elevated PP rates (> 600 mg C m-2 d-1) over the shelf prior to our survey, (2) freshwater dilution by river runoff and ice melt, and (3) the presence of cold surface waters offshore. Only the Mackenzie River delta and localized shelf areas directly affected by upwelling were identified as substantial sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (> 10 mmol C m-2 d-1). Daily PP rates were generally < 100 mg C m-2 d-1 and cumulated to a total PP of ~ 437.6 × 103 t C for the region over a 35-day period. This amount was about twice the

  15. Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    Solar panels were mounted with different designs onto 1:800 scale building models while temperature and radiation were measured. While there have been other studies aimed at finding the optimal angles for solar panels [9], in this study both the angle and the mounting method were tested. The three PV mounting designs that were considered to provide the most insulation to a building's rooftop were flush, offset (control), and angled. The solar panel offset height became a key component for rooftop insulation as well as the performance of the actual solar panel. Experimental results were given to verify the thermal behavior of the heat loads from the different designs of the photovoltaic panel. From the results, the angled PV design needed 16Z more heat extraction than the offset and flush PV design needed 60% more heat extracted than the offset. In addition to the heat transfer analysis, thermal models were performed to incorporate main atmospheric conditions which were based on the effects of PV mounting structure.

  16. Air-Sea CO2 fluxes and NEP changes in a Baja California Coastal Lagoon during the anomalous North Pacific warm condition in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila López, M. D. C.; Martin Hernandez-Ayon, J. M.; Camacho-Ibar, V.; Sandoval Gil, J.; Mejía-Trejo, A.; Félix-Bermudez, A.; Pacheco-Ruiz, I.

    2015-12-01

    The present study examines the temporal variability of seawater carbonate chemistry and air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in a Baja California Mediterranean-climate coastal lagoon. This study was carried out from Nov-2013 to Nov-2014, a period in which anomalous warm conditions were present in the North Pacific Ocean influenced the local oceanography in the adjacent coastal waters off Baja California. These ocean conditions resulted on a negative anomaly of upwelling index, which led to summer-like season (weak upwelling condition) that could be observed in the response of carbon dynamics and metabolic status in San Quintín Bay. Minor changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration during spring months (~100 µmol kg-1) where observed and were associated to biological processes within the lagoon. High DIC (~2200 µmol kg-1), pCO2 (~800 μatm), and minimum pH (~7.8) values were observed in summer, reflecting the predominance of respiration processes apparently mostly linked to the remineralization of sedimentary organic matter supplied from macroalgal blooms. San Quintín Bay acted as a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere during the study period, with maximum value observed in July (~10 mmol C m-2 d-1). Temporal biomass production of macroalgae contributed to about 50% of total FCO2 estimated in spring-summer seasons, that was a potencial internal source of organic matter to fuel respiration processes in San Quintín Bay. Eelgrass metabolism contributes in a lower degree in total FCO2. During the anomalous ocean conditions in 2014, the lagoon switched seasonally between net heterotrophy and net autotrophy during the study period, where photosynthesis and respiration processes in the lagoon were closer to a balance. Whole-system metabolism and FCO2 clearly indicated the strong dependence of San Quintín Bay on upwelling conditions and benthic metabolism activity, which was mainly controlled by dominant primary producer communities.

  17. Impacts of air-sea exchange coefficients on snowfall events over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jung-Yoon; Kwon, Young Cheol

    2016-08-01

    Snowfall over the Korean Peninsula is mainly associated with air mass transformation by the fluxes across the air-sea interface during cold-air outbreaks over the warm Yellow Sea. The heat and momentum exchange coefficients in the surface flux parameterization are key parameters of flux calculations across the air-sea interface. This study investigates the effects of the air-sea exchange coefficients on the simulations of snowfall events over the Korean Peninsula using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two snowfall cases are selected for this study. One is a heavy snowfall event that took place on January 4, 2010, and the other is a light snowfall event that occurred on December 23-24, 2011. Several sensitivity tests are carried out with increased and decreased heat and momentum exchange coefficients. The domain-averaged precipitation is increased (decreased) with increased (decreased) heat exchange coefficient because the increased (decreased) surface heat flux leads to more (less) moist conditions in the low level of the atmosphere. On the other hand, the domain-averaged precipitation is decreased (increased) with increased (decreased) momentum exchange coefficient because the increased (decreased) momentum coefficient causes reduction (increase) of wind speed and heat flux. The variation of precipitation in the heat exchange coefficient experiments is much larger than that in the momentum exchange coefficient experiments because the change of heat flux has a more direct impact on moisture flux and snowfall amount, while the change of momentum flux has a rather indirect impact via wind speed changes. The low-pressure system is intensified and moves toward North when the heat exchange coefficient is increased because warming and moistening of the lower atmosphere contributes to destabilize the air mass, resulting in the change of precipitation pattern over the Korean Peninsula in the heat exchange coefficient experiments.

  18. Nitrous oxide and methane in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters in the Strait of Gibraltar: Air-sea fluxes and inter-basin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Paz, M.; Huertas, I. E.; Flecha, S.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-11-01

    The global ocean plays an important role in the overall budget of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), as both gases are produced within the ocean and released to the atmosphere. However, for large parts of the open and coastal oceans there is little or no spatial data coverage for N2O and CH4. Hence, a better assessment of marine emissions estimates is necessary. As a contribution to remedying the scarcity of data on marine regions, N2O and CH4 concentrations have been determined in the Strait of Gibraltar at the ocean Fixed Time series (GIFT). During six cruises performed between July 2011 and November 2014 samples were collected at the surface and various depths in the water column, and subsequently measured using gas chromatography. From this we were able to quantify the temporal variability of the gas air-sea exchange in the area and examine the vertical distribution of N2O and CH4 in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. Results show that surface Atlantic waters are nearly in equilibrium with the atmosphere whereas deeper Mediterranean waters are oversaturated in N2O, and a gradient that gradually increases with depth was detected in the water column. Temperature was found to be the main factor responsible for the seasonal variability of N2O in the surface layer. Furthermore, although CH4 levels did not reveal any feature clearly associated with the circulation of water masses, vertical distributions showed that higher concentrations are generally observed in the Atlantic layer, and that the deeper Mediterranean waters are considerably undersaturated (by up to 50%). Even though surface waters act as a source of atmospheric N2O during certain periods, on an annual basis the net N2O flux in the Strait of Gibraltar is only 0.35 ± 0.27 μmol m-2 d-1, meaning that these waters are almost in a neutral status with respect to the atmosphere. Seasonally, the region behaves as a slight sink for atmospheric CH4 in winter and as a source in spring and fall. Approximating

  19. Development of Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) instrumentation for air-sea-ice interaction research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Melville, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) instrumentation packages to directly measure air-sea momentum transfer, as well as latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes, topography, and surface wave kinematics. Two UAS (BAE Manta C1s) flying in vertical formation over the ocean will allow the direct measurement of air-sea fluxes within the marine atmospheric boundary layer, and, with onboard high-resolution video and laser altimetry, simultaneous observation of sea surface kinematics and sea-ice topography. The low altitude required for accurate air-sea or air-ice flux measurements is below the typical safety limit of manned research aircraft; however, with advancements in laser altimeters, small-aircraft flight control, and real-time Differential GPS, it now is within the capability of the UAS platform. Fast response turbulence, hygrometer, and temperature probes in the lower UAS permit surface layer flux measurements, and short and long wave radiometers in the upper UAS allow the determination of net radiation, surface temperature, and albedo. Engineering test flights of the two UAS over land were performed in January 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The tests demonstrated the capability of the systems to measure vertical profiles of georeferenced wind, temperature, and moisture content, as well as momentum flux and sensible, latent, and radiative heat fluxes. UAS-derived fluxes from low-altitude (20 -- 30 m) flights are in agreement with fluxes measured by a nearby tower-mounted sonic anemometer-based eddy covariance system. We present a description of the instrumentation, a summary of results from flight tests, and discuss potential applications of these instrumented platforms for air-sea-ice interaction studies.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of an ocean carbon cycle model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

    2011-06-01

    The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. We explore the effect on these outputs of variation in the values of the twenty parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of the UK Met Office HadOCC NPZD model used in GCMs. We use and compare the results from one-at-a-time and all-at-a-time perturbations performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W). Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. The most sensitive parameters are generally found to be those controlling well-established ocean ecosystem parameterisations widely used in many NPZD-type models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosynthesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS) GCMs. Here, HadOCC is coupled to the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting meteorology to undertake a sensitivity analysis of its twenty biological parameters. Analyses are performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W) to assess variability in parameter sensitivities at different locations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. We perform the analysis using one-at-a-time perturbations and using a statistical emulator, and compare results. The most sensitive parameters are generic to many NPZD ocean ecosystem models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosythesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  2. Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in air and surface waters of the Yellow Sea during late spring and late fall 2012: concentration, spatial-temporal distribution and air/sea flux.

    PubMed

    Ci, Zhijia; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow Sea in East Asia receives great Hg input from regional emissions. However, Hg cycling in this marine system is poorly investigated. In late spring and late fall 2012, we determined gaseous elemental Hg (GEM or Hg(0)) in air and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM, mainly Hg(0)) in surface waters to explore the spatial-temporal variations of Hg(0) and further to estimate the air/sea Hg(0) flux in the Yellow Sea. The results showed that the GEM concentrations in the two cruises were similar (spring: 1.86±0.40 ng m(-3); fall: 1.84±0.50 ng m(-3)) and presented similar spatial variation pattern with elevated concentrations along the coast of China and lower concentrations in the open ocean. The DGM concentrations of the two cruises were also similar with 27.0±6.8 pg L(-1) in the spring cruise and 28.2±9.0 pg L(-1) in the fall cruise and showed substantial spatial variation. The air/sea Hg(0) fluxes in the spring cruise and fall cruise were estimated to be 1.06±0.86 ng m(-2) h(-1) and 2.53±2.12 ng m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The combination of this study and our previous summer cruise showed that the summer cruise presented enhanced values of GEM, DGM and air/sea Hg(0) flux. The possible reason for this trend was that high solar radiation in summer promoted Hg(0) formation in seawater, and the high wind speed during the summer cruise significantly increased Hg(0) emission from sea surface to atmosphere and subsequently enhanced the GEM levels.

  3. Mechanisms driving the seasonality of air-sea CO2 flux in the ice-free zone of the Southern Ocean and how these might evolve: A 1D vertical biogeochemical model approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancelot, C.; Pasquer, B.; Metzl, N.; Goosse, H.

    2015-12-01

    The biogeochemical SWAMCO-3 model is used to understand mechanisms governing the seasonality of air-sea CO2 exchanges in the ice-free Southern Ocean. The model explicitly details the dynamics of three Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) of importance for C, N, P, Si, Fe cycling and air-sea CO2 exchange in this area. These are the diatoms, the pico-nanophytoplankton and the coccolithophores whose growth regulation by light, temperature and nutrients has been obtained from phenomenological observations available for these PFTs. The performance of the SWAMCO-3 model coupled to a vertical one-dimensional physical model is assessed at the location of the time-series station KERFIX (around 51°S-68°E). The model was able to reproduce a mean seasonal cycle based on years where a maximum of chemical and biological observations are available. Ocean fCO2 in equilibrium with the atmosphere are simulated both in winter associated with surface layer replenishment in DIC due to deep vertical mixing and in late summer as a consequence of the warming effect on the carbonate system. A clear under-saturation is simulated in summer driven by primary production. Model scenarios cancelling biological activity or only coccolithophores allowed, by comparison with the standard simulation, untangling the respective role of physical and biological processes in driving the sign and magnitude of air-sea CO2 exchanges. First, we show that coccolithophores are repressing the ocean C uptake, but only marginally (5%). Second, the model highlights the role of diatoms on the presence of a CO2 sink in summer. Altogether, this results in a weak annual air-sea CO2 flux (-0.9 mol m-2 y-1 or -0.1 Pg C y-1 for the ice-free zone south of 50°S), whose variability seems more related to the thermodynamical processes. We then speculate how global warming might influence the latter mechanisms and alter air-sea CO2 exchanges in this region.

  4. Latent heat sink in soil heat flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  5. Surface flux and ocean heat transport convergence contributions to seasonal and interannual variations of ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C. D.; Palmer, M. D.; Allan, R. P.; Desbruyeres, D. G.; Hyder, P.; Liu, C.; Smith, D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an observation-based heat budget analysis for seasonal and interannual variations of ocean heat content (H) in the mixed layer (Hmld) and full-depth ocean (Htot). Surface heat flux and ocean heat content estimates are combined using a novel Kalman smoother-based method. Regional contributions from ocean heat transport convergences are inferred as a residual and the dominant drivers of Hmld and Htot are quantified for seasonal and interannual time scales. We find that non-Ekman ocean heat transport processes dominate Hmld variations in the equatorial oceans and regions of strong ocean currents and substantial eddy activity. In these locations, surface temperature anomalies generated by ocean dynamics result in turbulent flux anomalies that drive the overlying atmosphere. In addition, we find large regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans where heat transports combine with local air-sea fluxes to generate mixed layer temperature anomalies. In all locations, except regions of deep convection and water mass transformation, interannual variations in Htot are dominated by the internal rearrangement of heat by ocean dynamics rather than the loss or addition of heat at the surface. Our analysis suggests that, even in extratropical latitudes, initialization of ocean dynamical processes could be an important source of skill for interannual predictability of Hmld and Htot. Furthermore, we expect variations in Htot (and thus thermosteric sea level) to be more predictable than near surface temperature anomalies due to the increased importance of ocean heat transport processes for full-depth heat budgets.

  6. In situ evaluation of air-sea CO2 gas transfer velocity in an inner estuary using eddy covariance - with a special focus on the importance of using reliable CO2-fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, E. T.; Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B.; Sejr, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The air-sea exchange of CO2 or CO2 flux is driven by the difference in the partial pressure of CO2 in the water and the atmosphere (ΔpCO2), the solubility of CO2 (K0) and the gas transfer velocity (k) (Wanninkhof et al., 2009;Weiss, 1974) . ΔpCO2 and K0 are determined with relatively high precision and it is estimated that the biggest uncertainty when modelling the air-sea flux is the parameterization of k. As an example; the estimated global air-sea flux increases by 70 % when using the parameterization by Wanninkhof and McGillis (1999) instead of Wanninkhof (1992) (Rutgersson et al., 2008). In coastal areas the uncertainty is even higher and only few studies have focused on determining transfer velocity for the coastal waters and even fewer on estuaries (Borges et al., 2004;Rutgersson et al., 2008). The transfer velocity (k600) of CO2 in the inner estuary of Roskilde Fjord, Denmark was investigated using eddy covariance CO2 fluxes (ECM) and directly measured ΔpCO2 during May and June 2010. The data was strictly sorted to heighten the certainty of the results and the outcome was; DS1; using only ECM, and DS2; including the inertial dissipation method (IDM). The inner part of Roskilde Fjord showed to be a very biological active CO2 sink and preliminary results showed that the average k600 was more than 10 times higher than transfer velocities from similar studies of other coastal areas. The much higher transfer velocities were estimated to be caused by the greater fetch and shallower water in Roskilde Fjord, which indicated that turbulence in both air and water influence k600. The wind speed parameterization of k600 using DS1 showed some scatter but when including IDM the r2 of DS2 reached 0.93 with an exponential parameterization, where U10 was based on the Businger-Dyer relationships using friction velocity and atmospheric stability. This indicates that some of the uncertainties coupled with CO2 fluxes calculated by the ECM are removed when including the IDM.

  7. Tropical Cyclone Induced Air-Sea Interactions Over Oceanic Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Recent severe tropical cyclones underscore the inherent importance of warm background ocean fronts and their interactions with the atmospheric boundary layer. Central to the question of heat and moisture fluxes, the amount of heat available to the tropical cyclone is predicated by the initial mixed layer depth and strength of the stratification that essentially set the level of entrainment mixing at the base of the mixed layer. In oceanic regimes where the ocean mixed layers are thin, shear-induced mixing tends to cool the upper ocean to form cold wakes which reduces the air-sea fluxes. This is an example of negative feedback. By contrast, in regimes where the ocean mixed layers are deep (usually along the western part of the gyres), warm water advection by the nearly steady currents reduces the levels of turbulent mixing by shear instabilities. As these strong near-inertial shears are arrested, more heat and moisture transfers are available through the enthalpy fluxes (typically 1 to 1.5 kW m-2) into the hurricane boundary layer. When tropical cyclones move into favorable or neutral atmospheric conditions, tropical cyclones have a tendency to rapidly intensify as observed over the Gulf of Mexico during Isidore and Lili in 2002, Katrina, Rita and Wilma in 2005, Dean and Felix in 2007 in the Caribbean Sea, and Earl in 2010 just north of the Caribbean Islands. To predict these tropical cyclone deepening (as well as weakening) cycles, coupled models must have ocean models with realistic ocean conditions and accurate air-sea and vertical mixing parameterizations. Thus, to constrain these models, having complete 3-D ocean profiles juxtaposed with atmospheric profiler measurements prior, during and subsequent to passage is an absolute necessity framed within regional scale satellite derived fields.

  8. Observed subseasonal variability of heat flux and the SST response of the tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj Parampil, Sindu; Bharathraj, G. N.; Harrison, Matthew; Sengupta, Debasis

    2016-10-01

    We develop an experimental daily surface heat flux data set based on satellite observations to study subseasonal variability (periods shorter than 90 days) in the tropical Indian Ocean. We use incoming shortwave and longwave radiation from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, and sea surface temperature (SST) from microwave sensors, to estimate net radiative flux. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are estimated from scatterometer winds and near-surface air temperature and specific humidity from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations calibrated to buoy data. Seasonal biases in net heat flux are generally within 10 W m-2 of estimates from moorings, and the phases and amplitudes of subseasonal variability of heat fluxes are realistic. We find that the contribution of subseasonal changes in air-sea humidity gradients to latent heat flux equals or exceeds the contribution of subseasonal changes in wind speed in all seasons. SST responds coherently to subseasonal oscillations of net heat flux associated with active and suppressed phases of atmospheric convection in the summer hemisphere. Thus, subseasonal SST changes are mainly forced by heat flux in the northeast Indian Ocean in northern summer, and in the 15°S-5°N latitude belt in southern summer. In the winter hemisphere, subseasonal SST changes are not a one-dimensional response to heat flux, implying that they are mainly due to oceanic advection, entrainment, or vertical mixing. The coherent evolution of subseasonal SST variability and surface heat flux suggests active coupling between SST and large-scale, organized tropical convection in the summer season.

  9. Novel thin-film heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Hemanshu; Zeller, Mary; Will, Herbert

    1992-01-01

    A new and simpler design for thin-film heat flux sensors for utilization in high heat flux environments is presented. The design of these sensors consists of a planar differential thermopile made up of a number of thermocouple pairs arranged in a circular array, two different thermal resistance layers deposited on the inside and outside junctions of the thermopile and a high emissivity coating. This design has shown good potential for measuring heat fluxes in severe environments of aerospace propulsion systems.

  10. Dual Active Surface Heat Flux Gage Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  11. Dual active surface heat flux gage probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-02-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  12. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  13. Linking air-sea energy exchanges and European anchovy potential spawning ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammauta, R.; Molteni, D.; Basilone, G.; Guisande, C.; Bonanno, A.; Aronica, S.; Giacalone, G.; Fontana, I.; Zora, M.; Patti, B.; Cuttitta, A.; Buscaino, G.; Sorgente, R.; Mazzola, S.

    2008-10-01

    The physical and chemical processes of the sea greatly affect the reproductive biology of fishes, mainly influencing both the numbers of spawned eggs and the survivorship of early stages up to the recruitment period. In the central Mediterranean, the European anchovy constitutes one of the most important fishery resource. Because of its short living nature and of its recruitment variability, associated to high environmental variability, this small pelagic species undergo high interannual fluctuation in the biomass levels. Despite several efforts were addressed to characterize fishes spawning habitat from the oceanographic point of view, very few studies analyze the air-sea exchanges effects. To characterize the spawning habitat of these resources a specific technique (quotient rule analysis) was applied on air-sea heat fluxes, wind stress, sea surface temperature and turbulence data, collected in three oceanographic surveys during the summer period of 2004, 2005 and 2006. The results showed the existence of preferred values in the examined physical variables, associated to anchovy spawning areas. Namely, for heat fluxes the values were around -40 W/m2, for wind stress 0.04-0.11 N/m2, for SST 23°C, and 300 - 500 m3s-3 for wind mixing. Despite the obtained results are preliminary, this is the first relevant analysis on the air-sea exchanges and their relationship with the fish biology of pelagic species.

  14. North Atlantic Ocean control on surface heat flux on multidecadal timescales.

    PubMed

    Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib; Keenlyside, Noel; Park, Wonsun; Koltermann, Klaus Peter

    2013-07-25

    Nearly 50 years ago Bjerknes suggested that the character of large-scale air-sea interaction over the mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean differs with timescales: the atmosphere was thought to drive directly most short-term--interannual--sea surface temperature (SST) variability, and the ocean to contribute significantly to long-term--multidecadal--SST and potentially atmospheric variability. Although the conjecture for short timescales is well accepted, understanding Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) of SST remains a challenge as a result of limited ocean observations. AMV is nonetheless of major socio-economic importance because it is linked to important climate phenomena such as Atlantic hurricane activity and Sahel rainfall, and it hinders the detection of anthropogenic signals in the North Atlantic sector. Direct evidence of the oceanic influence of AMV can only be provided by surface heat fluxes, the language of ocean-atmosphere communication. Here we provide observational evidence that in the mid-latitude North Atlantic and on timescales longer than 10 years, surface turbulent heat fluxes are indeed driven by the ocean and may force the atmosphere, whereas on shorter timescales the converse is true, thereby confirming the Bjerknes conjecture. This result, although strongest in boreal winter, is found in all seasons. Our findings suggest that the predictability of mid-latitude North Atlantic air-sea interaction could extend beyond the ocean to the climate of surrounding continents.

  15. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  16. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000ÀC showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  17. Measurements of the Air-Sea Interface from an Instrumented Small Buoy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ASIT Air Sea Interaction Tower ASIS Air-sea Interaction Spar...or the Air-sea Interaction Tower (ASIT, Edson et al. 2007). Research buoys are an alternative to the stabilized platforms. One such buoy is the...instrument suite was deployed on the R/V Sproul in both 2009 and 2010. The basic instruments included one or two flux measurement towers , a

  18. A climatology of air-sea interactions at the Mediterranean LION and AZUR buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, Guy; Prieur, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Giordani, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    The LION and AZUR buoys (respectively at 42.1°N 4.7°E and 43.4°N 7.8°E) provide an extended data set since respectively 1999 and 2001 to present for studying air-sea interactions in the northwestern Mediterranean basin. The two buoys are located where high wind events occur (resp. north western and north easterly gale winds), that force and condition deep oceanic winter convection in that region. A short-term climatology (resp. 13 and 11 years) of air-sea interactions has been developed, which includes classical meteo-oceanic parameters, but also waves period and significant wave heights and radiative fluxes. Moreover turbulent surface fluxes have been estimated from various bulk parameterizations, in order to estimate uncertainties on fluxes. An important dispersion of turbulent fluxes is found at high wind speeds according to the parameterization used, larger than taking into account the second order effects of cool skin, warm layer and waves. An important annual cycle affects air temperatures (ATs), SSTs and turbulent fluxes at the two buoys. The annual cycle of ATs and SSTs can be well reconstructed from the first two annual harmonics, while for the turbulent heat fluxes the erratic occurrence of high and low flux events, well correlated with high/dry and low windy periods, strongly affect their annual and interannual cycles. The frequency of high surface heat fluxes and high wind stress is found highest during the autumn and winter months, despite the fact that north-westerly gale winds occur all year long at LION buoy. During calm weather period, ATs and SSTs experience an important diurnal cycle (on average 1 and 0.5°C respectively), that affect latent and sensible heat fluxes. Finally, an estimate of the interannual variability of the turbulent fluxes in Autumn and Winter is discussed, in order to characterize their potential role on deep ocean convection.

  19. Investigating the Effect of Ocean Currents on the Surface Stress and Heat Fluxes over the Gulf of Mexico Using a Two-way Coupled Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.; Bourassa, M. A.; Velissariou, P.

    2015-12-01

    A two-way coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system is used to investigate the effects associated with air-sea interaction through the use of wind-current shear in the bulk formula. This study focuses on changes in the mean and the variability of the wind stress magnitude, the heat fluxes, the near surface temperature and the precipitation on meso-scale. The atmospheric and the ocean components of the coupled modeling system are the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) respectively. The ocean and the atmospheric models exchange data fields using the Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT). The ocean surface currents are passed to the atmospheric model for use in surface layer schemes to allow for the current to change the wind shear. The wind stress and heat fluxes computed by the WRF surface scheme are passed to the ocean model, which allows both models to use the same fluxes at the interface. The inclusion of the wind-current shear results in weaker surface stress over most of the Gulf of Mexico compared to the wind-alone estimate. Changes are also being found in the air-sea heat fluxes. The weekly averaged Latent Heat Flux (LHF) decreases by 1%~2% over most of the Gulf of Mexico by considering the currents effect, but localized LHF increases of ~10% are found in the Loop current. The sensible heat flux changes (> 5%) due to using the wind-current shear are found in the Loop Current as well as over the land. The air-sea heat fluxes associated with surface wind stress feedback onto the upper-ocean thermodynamics. The weekly mean SSTs increase over most of the Gulf of Mexico by using the wind-current shear, and significant increases (>0.2 K) are found next to the Loop Current and ocean eddies. However, the SSTs slightly decrease (~0.05 K) in the Loop Current.

  20. Fabrication of Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    Prototype thin film heat flux sensors have been constructed and tested. The sensors can be applied to propulsion system materials and components. The sensors can provide steady state and fast transient heat flux information. Fabrication of the sensor does not require any matching of the mounting surface. Heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference across the upper and lower surfaces of an insulation material. The sensor consists of an array of thermocouples on the upper and lower surfaces of a thin insulating layer. The thermocouples for the sensor are connected in a thermopile arrangement. A 100 thermocouple pair heat flux sensor has been fabricated on silicon wafers. The sensor produced an output voltage of 200-400 microvolts when exposed to a hot air heat gun. A 20 element thermocouple pair heat flux sensor has been fabricated on aluminum oxide sheet. Thermocouples are Pt-Pt/Rh with silicon dioxide as the insulating material. This sensor produced an output of 28 microvolts when exposed to the radiation of a furnace operating at 1000 C. Work is also underway to put this type of heat flux sensor on metal surfaces.

  1. Nanoscale heat flux between nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Biehs, S-A; Ben-Abdallah, P; Rosa, F S S; Joulain, K; Greffet, J-J

    2011-09-12

    By combining stochastic electrodynamics and the Maxwell-Garnett description for effective media we study the radiative heat transfer between two nanoporous materials. We show that the heat flux can be significantly enhanced by air inclusions, which we explain by: (a) the presence of additional surface waves that give rise to supplementary channels for heat transfer throughout the gap, (b) an increase in the contribution given by the ordinary surface waves at resonance, (c) and the appearance of frustrated modes over a broad spectral range. We generalize the known expression for the nanoscale heat flux for anisotropic metamaterials.

  2. Modeling Studies of the Effects of Winds and Heat Flux on the Tropical Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seager, R.

    1999-01-01

    Over a decade ago, funding from this NASA grant supported the development of the Cane-Zebiak ENSO prediction model which remains in use to this day. It also supported our work developing schemes for modeling the air-sea heat flux in ocean models used for studying climate variability. We introduced a succession of simple boundary layer models that allow the fluxes to be computed internally in the model and avoid the need to specify the atmospheric thermodynamic state. These models have now reached a level of generality that allows modeling of the global, rather than just tropical, ocean, including sea ice cover. The most recent versions of these boundary layer models have been widely distributed around the world and are in use by many ocean modeling groups.

  3. Conformally flat solution with heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.; Dutta Choudhury, S. B.; Bhui, B. K.

    1989-07-15

    It is shown that the spherically symmetric solution previously given by Maiti is not the most general conformally flat solution for a shear-free and rotation-free fluid with heat flux. We have presented a more general solution for such a distribution and have considered the conditions of fit at the boundary of a simple spherically symmetric model with heat flux across the boundary with the exterior Vaidya metric.

  4. Air-Sea Interactions over Lakes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Alejandro; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2016-10-01

    The exchange of methane between the atmosphere and surface liquid reservoirs dominates the short time-scale methanological cycle. In this study, previous two-dimensional simulations of the exchange of methane vapor, sensible heat and momentum between the atmosphere and lakes are updated with the inclusion of radiative forcing, three dimensions, and realistic coastlines. Titan's air-sea exchange in two dimensions indicated that the exchange process was self-limiting. Evaporation from lakes produced a shallow but extremely stable marine layer that suppressed turbulent exchange. Furthermore, the circulation associated with the higher buoyancy of methane-rich atmosphere over the lake was offset by the oppositely directed thermal sea breeze circulation, which muted the mean wind. Two major weaknesses of this previous work were the lack of radiative forcing and the imposition of two dimensionality, which limited the full range of dynamical solutions. Based on early theoretical studies, it was thought that magnitude of turbulent energy flux exchanges would be much larger than radiative fluxes, thereby justifying the neglect of radiation, but the two-dimensional simulations indicated that this was not a valid assumption. The dynamical limitations of two-dimensional simulations are well known. Vorticity stretching (i.e., circulation intensification through vertical motion) is not possible and it is also not possible to produce dynamically balanced gradient wind-type circulations. As well, the irregular shape of a realistic coastline cannot be expressed in two dimensions, and these realistic structures will generally induce complex convergence and divergence circulations in the atmosphere. The impact of radiative forcing and the addition of the third dimension on the air-sea exchange are presented.

  5. Critical heat flux test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Welsh, Robert E.; Doman, Marvin J.; Wilson, Edward C.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

  6. Air-sea fluxes of dimethyl sulfide and carbon dioxide measured by the gradient technique in the subtropical and equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Iwata, T.; Sakuma, H.; Tsunogai, U.; Nakagawa, F.; Ishii, M.; Kosugi, N.; Tsuda, A.; Uematsu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fluxes of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), acetone and CO2 from the ocean to the atmosphere were measured in the subtropical South Pacific Ocean and the equatorial Pacific Ocean in January-February 2012. Vertical profiles of these gases were obtained above the ocean surface by measurements at 7 heights from 1 to 1400 cm with a profiling buoy aboard R/V Hakuho-Maru during KH-11-10 and KH-12-1 (EqPOS) cruises. The concentrations of DMS, acetone and CO2 in gas samples were simultaneously monitored by a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR), respectively. In addition, DMS and acetone concentrations in the surface seawater and air were continuously measured with PTR-MS during the cruises. Average of seawater DMS concentrations in the subtropical ocean (2.1±0.5 nM) was slightly lower than that in the equatorial ocean (3.2±1.0 nM). The DMS fluxes significantly varied in the range of 3.6-13.1 and 0.1-18.9 μmol m-2 d-1 in the subtropical and equatorial ocean, respectively. The magnitude of DMS fluxes in both observations was dependent of that of wind speed. The gas transfer velocities of DMS were calculated from the fluxes and the seawater DMS concentrations. The magnitude of the gas transfer velocity mainly depended on that of wind speed. We will discuss the gas transfer velocity including results obtained from the CO2 and acetone observations.

  7. Design and construction of Information Systems of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Air-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiankun; Fang, Lei; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Jianyu

    2013-10-01

    Climate change has become one of the hotspots of global attention in recent progress of globalization and industrialization. The mainstream opinion presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) regards that the global warming was caused mainly by greenhouse gases generated by human activities, such as anthropogenic CO2, which also resulting in the high-frequent happening of abnormal climate events. Satellite remote sensing is an efficient and economic method for CO2 flux observation. In this paper, we describe an Information System of Ocean Satellite Monitoring for Ari-sea CO2 Flux (IssCO2) which developed by the Second Institute of Oceanography, China. The IssCO2can achieve the whole procedure automatically from the satellite remote data receiving to products distribution, including the data acquirement and satellite image process, products generation, etc. The IssCO2 can process various types of in situ data, satellite data and model data, and validate the final satellite-derived CO2 flux products by in situ data; it can provide a real-time browsing and download of remote sensing products on the web based on the Geo-information System (GIS) technologies. The IssCO2 can meet the concurrent queries of different levels of users, and the query results can be visual displayed and analyzed on the client.

  8. Unstable Air-Sea Interaction in the Extratropical North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of coupled modes in the extratropical North Atlantic has fascinated the climate community since 1960's. A significant aspect of such modes is an unstable air-sea interaction, also called positive feedback, where disturbances between the atmosphere and ocean grow unbound. If a delayed response exists before the negative feedback takes effect, an oscillatory behaviour will develop. Here we explore the relationship between heat flux (positive upward) and sea surface temperature (SST). Positive feedback is characterized by a cross-correlation between the two where correlation maintains a negative sign whether SST or heat flux leads. We use model results and observations to argue that in the North Atlantic there exist regions with positive feedback. The two main locations coincide with the well-known north-south SST dipole where anomalies of opposite sign occupy areas east of Florida and north-east of Newfoundland. We show that oceanic dynamics, wave propagation and advection, give rise to oceanic anomalies in these regions. Subsequently these anomalies are amplified by atmosphere- ocean interaction: thus a positive feedback.

  9. Correction to the ERA-40 surface flux products consistent with the Mediterranean heat and water budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettenuzzo, D.; Large, W. G.; Pinardi, N.

    2009-04-01

    A new air-sea physics parametrization is developed along with a correction of the ECMWF Era-40 reanalysis in order to close the heat and fresh water budgets for the Mediterranean basin during the period that ranges from 1958 to 2001. The empirical bulk formulas for the evaluation of the radiative part of the total heat flux has been replaced by the use of the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis radiative fields. The latter and the basic forcing fields used to compute the surface fluxes on a standard OGCM have been corrected by comparison with different reliable data sets and in-situ data. The correction method is based on the preliminary evaluation of the best estimate of heat and fresh water budgets for the period 1985-2001 using the benchmark fields in order to validate them, and the computation of bias reduction terms applicable to the ECMWF fields for those 17 years. The obtained space-dependent factors are subsequently extended to the entire ERA-40 reanalysis time window. This method provides a surface total heat flux QT of -7 W/m2 and a deficit E-P of -0.64 m/yr. Interannual and climatological values of QT and FT are presented and related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index.

  10. Assessing Air-Sea Interaction in the Evolving NASA GEOS Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayson, Carol Anne; Roberts, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how the climate responds to variations in forcing, one necessary component is to understand the full distribution of variability of exchanges of heat and moisture between the atmosphere and ocean. Surface heat and moisture fluxes are critical to the generation and decay of many coupled air-sea phenomena. These mechanisms operate across a number of scales and contain contributions from interactions between the anomalous (i.e. non-mean), often extreme-valued, flux components. Satellite-derived estimates of the surface turbulent and radiative heat fluxes provide an opportunity to assess results from modeling systems. Evaluation of only time mean and variability statistics, however only provides limited traceability to processes controlling what are often regime-dependent errors. This work will present an approach to evaluate the representation of the turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface in the current and evolving Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) model. A temperature and moisture vertical profile-based clustering technique is used to identify robust weather regimes, and subsequently intercompare the turbulent fluxes and near-surface parameters within these regimes in both satellite estimates and GEOS-driven data sets. Both model reanalysis (MERRA) and seasonal-to-interannual coupled GEOS model simulations will be evaluated. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the distribution of the fluxes including extremes, and the representation of near-surface forcing variables directly related to their estimation. Results from these analyses will help identify the existence and source of regime-dependent biases in the GEOS model ocean surface turbulent fluxes. The use of the temperature and moisture profiles for weather-state clustering will be highlighted for its potential broad application to 3-D output typical of model simulations.

  11. Heat-Flux Gage thermophosphor system

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    1991-08-01

    This document describes the installation, hardware requirements, and application of the Heat-Flux Gage (Version 1.0) software package developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Applied Technology Division. The developed software is a single component of a thermographic phosphor-based temperature and heat-flux measurement system. The heat-flux transducer was developed by EG G Energy Measurements Systems and consists of a 1- by 1-in. polymethylpentene sheet coated on the front and back with a repeating thermographic phosphor pattern. The phosphor chosen for this application is gadolinium oxysulphide doped with terbium. This compound has a sensitive temperature response from 10 to 65.6{degree}C (50--150{degree}F) for the 415- and 490-nm spectral emission lines. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Heat flux sensors for infrared thermography in convective heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-11-07

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described.

  13. Heat Flux Sensors for Infrared Thermography in Convective Heat Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; de Luca, Luigi; Cardone, Gennaro; Astarita, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most dependable heat flux sensors, which can be used with InfraRed (IR) thermography to measure convective heat transfer coefficient distributions, and some of their applications performed by the authors' research group at the University of Naples Federico II. After recalling the basic principles that make IR thermography work, the various heat flux sensors to be used with it are presented and discussed, describing their capability to investigate complex thermo-fluid-dynamic flows. Several applications to streams, which range from natural convection to hypersonic flows, are also described. PMID:25386758

  14. Structures for handling high heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R. D.

    1990-12-01

    The divertor is reconized as one of the main performance limiting components for ITER. This paper reviews the critical issues for structures that are designed to withstand heat fluxes > 5 MW/m 2. High velocity, sub-cooled water with twisted tape inserts for enhanced heat transfer provides a critical heat flux limit of 40-60 MW/m 2. Uncertainties in physics and engineering heat flux peaking factors require that the design heat flux not exceed 10 MW/m 2 to maintain an adequate burnout safety margin. Armor tiles and heat sink materials must have a well matched thermal expansion coefficient to minimize stresses. The divertor lifetime from sputtering erosion is highly uncertain. The number of disruptions specified for ITER must be reduced to achieve a credible design. In-situ plasma spray repair with thick metallic coatings may reduce the problems of erosion. Runaway electrons in ITER have the potential to melt actively cooled components in a single event. A water leak is a serious accident because of steam reactions with hot carbon, beryllium, or tungsten that can mobilize large amounts of tritium and radioactive elements. If the plasma does not shutdown immediately, the divertor can melt in 1-10 s after a loss of coolant accident. Very high reliability of carbon tile braze joints will be required to achieve adequate safety and performance goals. Most of these critical issues will be addressed in the near future by operation of the Tore Supra pump limiters and the JET pumped divertor. An accurate understanding of the power flow out of edge of a DT burning plasma is essential to successful design of high heat flux components.

  15. Phytoplankton carbon fixation gene (RuBisCO) transcripts and air-sea CO2 flux in the Mississippi River plume

    SciTech Connect

    John, David E.; Wang, Zhaohui A.; Liu, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Corredor, Jorge E.; López, José M.; Cabrera, Alvaro; Bronk, Deborah A.; Tabita, F. Robert; Paul, John H.

    2007-08-30

    River plumes deliver large quantities of nutrients to oligotrophic oceans, often resulting in significant CO2 drawdown. To determine the relationship between expression of the major gene in carbon fixation (large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, RuBisCO) and CO2 dynamics, we evaluated rbcL mRNA abundance using novel quantitative PCR assays, phytoplankton cell analyses, photophysiological parameters, and pCO2 in and around the Mississippi River plume (MRP) in the Gulf of Mexico. Lower salinity (30–32) stations were dominated by rbcL mRNA concentrations from heterokonts, such as diatoms and pelagophytes, which were at least an order of magnitude greater than haptophytes, alpha-Synechococcus or high-light Prochlorococcus. However, rbcL transcript abundances were similar among these groups at oligotrophic stations (salinity 34–36). Diatom cell counts and heterokont rbcL RNA showed a strong negative correlation to seawater pCO2. While Prochlorococcus cells did not exhibit a large difference between low and high pCO2 water, Prochlorococcus rbcL RNA concentrations had a strong positive correlation to pCO2, suggesting a very low level of RuBisCO RNA transcription among Prochlorococcus in the plume waters, possibly due to their relatively poor carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). These results provide molecular evidence that diatom/pelagophyte productivity is largely responsible for the large CO2 drawdown occurring in the MRP, based on the co-occurrence of elevated RuBisCO gene transcript concentrations from this group and reduced seawater pCO2 levels. This may partly be due to efficient CCMs that enable heterokont eukaryotes such as diatoms to continue fixing CO2 in the face of strong CO2 drawdown. Finally, our work represents the first attempt to relate in situ microbial gene expression to contemporaneous CO2 flux

  16. Heat flux concentration through polymeric thermal lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapadia, R. S.; Bandaru, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    A significant contributor to energy inefficiency is the generation as well as the uneven dissipation of heat. Practical methods to adeptly channel heat flux (Q) would then have widespread applications to improved energy utilization and thermal energy management. It would be beneficial to engineer lens-like composite materials (graded in terms of length or thermal conductivity) with augmented attributes for heat control. Here, we propose and demonstrate polymeric composite based Q focusing lenses, architected through geometrical considerations. We indicate a five-fold enhancement of the Q, at the level of ˜2500 W/m2, enabled through such thermal lenses.

  17. Fabrication of thin film heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film heat-flux sensors have been constructed in the form of arrays of thermocouples on upper and lower surfaces of an insulating layer, so that flux values are proportional to the temperature difference across the upper and lower surface of the insulation material. The sensor thermocouples are connected in thermopile arrangement, and the structure is patterned with photolithographic techniques. Both chromel-alumel and Pt-Pt/Rh thermocouples have been devised; the later produced 28 microvolts when exposed to the radiation of a 1000 C furnace.

  18. Synoptic Estimates of Air Sea Fluxes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    98 X COMPONENT Y COMPONENT LLC’ LjJ 0 L) (3z--z _3, !Cr Z C Lrr, LLJ LAJ 0 ’ 1 u 6 00 11’ 0 HvERRGING PERIOD IN DAYS AVERRO -INC...n~2 Llii: u Ajc, I L,. t ’," J V C) I aI * CD LL-i u-i C)C3 0 1 1 0 10 0 100 0 1 1 0 10 0 100 0 AVERAGING PERIOD IN D’VTS AVERRO INf, PERIOD IN Dq-S

  19. Expanding Taylor bubble under constant heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voirand, Antoine; Benselama, Adel M.; Ayel, Vincent; Bertin, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Modelization of non-isothermal bubbles expanding in a capillary, as a contribution to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs), is the scope of this paper. The liquid film problem is simplified and solved, while the thermal problem takes into account a constant heat flux density applied at the capillary tube wall, exchanging with the liquid film surrounding the bubble and also with the capillary tube outside medium. The liquid slug dynamics is solved using the Lucas-Washburn equation. Mass and energy balance on the vapor phase allow governing equations of bubble expansion to be written. The liquid and vapor phases are coupled only through the saturation temperature associated with the vapor pressure, assumed to be uniform throughout the bubble. Results show an over-heating of the vapor phase, although the particular thermal boundary condition used here always ensures an evaporative mass flux at the liquid-vapor interface. Global heat exchange is also investigated, showing a strong decreasing of the PHP performance to convey heat by phase change means for large meniscus velocities.

  20. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-05-15

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  1. The photospheric Poynting flux and coronal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    Some models of coronal heating suppose that convective motions at the photosphere shuffle the footpoints of coronal magnetic fields and thereby inject sufficient magnetic energy upward to account for observed coronal and chromospheric energy losses in active regions. Using high-resolution observations of plage magnetic fields made with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the Hinode satellite, we investigate this idea by estimating the upward transport of magnetic energy-the vertical Poynting flux, Sz-across the photosphere in a plage region. To do so, we combine the following: (i) estimates of photospheric horizontal velocities, vh, determined by local correlation tracking applied to a sequence of line-of-sight magnetic field maps from the Narrowband Filter Imager, with (ii) a vector magnetic field measurement from the SpectroPolarimeter. Plage fields are ideal observational targets for estimating energy injection by convection, because they are (i) strong enough to be measured with relatively small uncertainties, (ii) not so strong that convection is heavily suppressed (as within umbrae), and (iii) unipolar, so Sz in plage is not influenced by mixed-polarity processes (e.g., flux emergence) unrelated to heating in stable, active-region fields. In this plage region, we found that the average Sz varied in space, but was positive (upward) and sufficient to explain coronal heating, with values near (5 ± 1) × 107 erg cm-2 s-1. We find the energy input per unit magnetic flux to be on the order of 105 erg s-1 Mx-1. A comparison of intensity in a Ca II image co-registered with one plage magnetogram shows stronger spatial correlations with both total field strength and unsigned vertical field, |Bz|, than either Sz or horizontal flux density, Bh. The observed Ca II brightness enhancement, however, probably contains a strong contribution from a near-photosphere hot-wall effect, which is unrelated to heating in the solar atmosphere.

  2. Heat flux in a granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. J.; Ruiz-Montero, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    A peculiarity of the hydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations for a granular gas is the modification of the Fourier law, with the presence of an additional contribution to the heat flux that is proportional to the density gradient. Consequently, the constitutive relation involves, in the case of a one-component granular gas, two transport coefficients: the usual (thermal) heat conductivity and a diffusive heat conductivity. A very simple physical interpretation of this effect, in terms of the mean free path and the mean free time is provided. It leads to the modified Fourier law with an expression for the diffusive Fourier coefficient that differs in a factor of the order of unity from the expression obtained by means of the inelastic Boltzmann equation. Also, some aspects of the Chapman-Enskog computation of the new transport coefficients as well as of the comparison between simulation results and theory are discussed.

  3. Wintertime air-sea interaction processes across the Gulf Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, John M.; Osgood, Kenric E.

    1989-08-01

    Aircraft, buoy and satellite measurements have been used to study the wintertime air-sea interaction processes across the Gulf Stream during January 25-30, 1986. The turbulent flux regime in the marine atmospheric boundary layer exhibited considerable spatial and temporal variability during this 6-day period, which was related to both the evolution of the synoptic scale atmospheric conditions and the sea surface temperature (SST) field. During the pre-storm conditions prior to January 25, the spatial structure of the SST field played an important role in generating a shallow atmospheric frontal zone along the Gulf Stream front by causing differential heating of the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the stream versus over the cooler shelf waters. As this front moved shoreward on January 25, the warm, moist, maritime air flowing northwestward behind the front induced moderate ocean-to-atmosphere heat fluxes (˜300 W m-2 total heat flux measured over the core of the Gulf Stream). The subsequent outbreak of eastward flowing cold, dry, continental air over the ocean on January 27 and 28 generated high total heat fluxes (˜1060 W m-2 over the core of the Stream), as did a second, somewhat weaker outbreak which followed on January 30 (˜680 W2 over the core of the Stream). During each of these outbreaks, with air flowing from land out over the continental shelf, Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea waters, the SST field again affected the spatial structure of the flux fields. The near-surface fluxes of both sensible and latent heat were found to be relatively low over the cool continental shelf waters, while higher fluxes were seen over the Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea. Similar spatial structure was seen in the near-surface momentum flux values, but relative changes were typically smaller from one location to another on a particular day. The most noticeable responses of the Gulf Stream to these surface fluxes were the deepening of its mixed layer and a loss of upper layer

  4. Impacts of Air-Sea Interaction on Tropical Cyclone Track and Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Bin; Braun, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of hurricane-ocean coupling on intensity and track of tropical cyclones (TCs) is investigated through idealized numerical experiments using a coupled hurricane-ocean model. The focus is placed on how air-sea interaction affects TC tracks and intensity. It is found that the symmetric sea surface temperature (SST) cooling is primarily responsible for the TC weakening in the coupled experiments because the induced asymmetric circulation associated with the asymmetric SST anomalies is weak and shallow. The track difference between the coupled and fixed SST experiments is generally small because of the competing processes. One is associated with the modified TC asymmetries. The asymmetric SST anomalies - weaken the surface fluxes in the rear and enhance the fluxes in the front. As a result, the enhanced diabatic heating is located on the southern side for a westward-moving TC, tending to shift the TC southward. The symmetric SST anomalies weakens the TC intensity and thus the dymmetrization process, leading to more prominent TC asymmetries. The other is associated with the weakening of the beta drift resulting from the weakening of the TC outer strength. In the coupled experiment, the weakening of the beta drift leads to a more northward shift. By adjusting the vortex outer strength of the initial vortices, the beta drift can vary while the effect of air-sea interaction changes little. Two types of track differences simulated in the previous numerical studies are obtained.

  5. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools.

    PubMed

    Gentine, Pierre; Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung-Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-28

    The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud-resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection.

  6. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung‐Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud‐resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection. PMID:27134320

  7. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from R/P FLIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friehe, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Soon after its inception, R/P FLIP was used to study the interaction of the atmosphere and ocean due to its unique stability and low flow distortion. A number of campaigns have been conducted to measure the surface fluxes of heat, water vapor and horizontal momentum of the wind with instrumentation as used over land, supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation. The size of FLIP allows for simultaneous ocean wave and mixed-layer measurements as well. Air-sea interaction was a prime component of BOMEX in 1968, where FLIP transited the Panama Canal. The methods used were similar to the over-land "Kansas" experiment of AFCRL in 1968. BOMEX was followed by many experiments in the north Pacific off San Diego, northern California, and Hawaii. Diverse results from FLIP include identification of the mechanism that causes erroneous fluctuating temperature measurements in the salt-aerosol-laden marine atmosphere, the role of humidity on optical refractive index fluctuations, and identification of Miles' critical layer in the air flow over waves.

  8. Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2005-01-01

    The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

  9. Convective heat flux in a laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, P. K. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis is performed to estimate the convective heating to the wall in a laser-heated thruster on the basis of a solution of the laminar boundary-layer equations with variable transport properties. A local similiarity approximation is used, and it is assumed that the gas phase is in equilibrium. For the thruster described by Wu (1976), the temperature and pressure distributions along the nozzle are obtained from the core calculation. The similarity solutions and heat flux are obtained from the freestream conditions of the boundary layer, in order to determine if it is necessary to couple the boundary losses directly to the core calculation. In addition, the effects of mass injection on the convective heat transfer across the boundary layer with large density-viscosity product gradient are examined.

  10. Critical heat flux of subcooled flow boiling with water for high heat flux application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki

    1993-11-01

    Subcooled flow boiling in water is thought to be advantageous in removing high heat load of more than 10 MW/m2. Characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, are very important for the design of cooling systems. In this paper, studies on subcooled flow boiling CHF, which have been conducted by the authors, are reported. Experiments were conducted using direct current heating of stainless steel tube. For uniform heating conditions, CHF increment in small diameter tubes (1 - 3 mm inside diameter) and the CHF characteristics in tubes with internal twisted tapes were investigated, and also the existing CHF correlations for ordinary tubes (more than 3 mm inside diameter) were evaluated. For peripherally non-uniform heating conditions using the tube, whose wall thickness was partly reduced, the CHF for swirl flow was higher than the CHF under uniform heating conditions with an increase of the non-uniformity factor.

  11. The influence of waves and turbulence on the heat flux at the surface of natural water bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, Fabrice; Melville, W. Kendall

    2005-11-01

    The top few meters of the ocean play a key role in the in the surface fluxes of momentum, gas, heat and mass. The magnitude of these fluxes is strongly influenced by the dynamics of both air and water boundary layers. We present results of several field experiments on the kinematics of small-scale surface turbulence and surface waves, their influence on the surface skin layer, and the resulting transfers of heat across the diffusive layer at the surface of the ocean. A variety of optical and electro-mechanical instruments are used to measure the evolution of the surface velocity and temperature fields. These include visible and infrared imaging of the surface, thermal surface velocimetry, and fast-response thermometry. We show that at low wind speed, it is the small-scale turbulence at the surface of the ocean, rather than breaking waves that most influence and disrupt the surface skin layer. We find that at the low wind speed surface turbulence correlates with the surface heat flux. In addition, we find that and that the surface wave field modulates a component of the total air-sea heat flux.

  12. Heat flux measurements on ceramics with thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond; Anderson, Robert C.; Liebert, Curt H.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic using an arc lamp Heat Flux Calibration Facility. Silicon nitride and mullite ceramics were used; two thicknesses of each material was tested, with ceramic temperatures to 1500 C. Heat flux ranged from 0.05-2.5 MW/m2(sup 2). One method for heat flux determination used an approximation technique to calculate instantaneous values of heat flux vs time; the other method used an extrapolation technique to determine the steady state heat flux from a record of transient data. Neither method measures heat flux in real time but the techniques may easily be adapted for quasi-real time measurement. In cases where a significant portion of the transient heat flux data is available, the calculated transient heat flux is seen to approach the extrapolated steady state heat flux value as expected.

  13. Aircraft measured atmospheric momentum, heat and radiation fluxes over Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jörg; Kottmeier, Christoph; Wamser, Christian; Augstein, Ernst

    The vertical turbulent momentum, sensible and latent heat fluxes and the surface radiation balance are derived from measurements of low level flights (<50 m height) with a highly instrumented aircraft over Fram Strait in September/October 1991. High resolution information on the sea ice cover is obtained with a digital line scan camera. It is found that the drag coefficient for neutral static stability at 10 m height can be composed of a skin drag (cdns = 1.1 . 10-3), which coincides with the open water value, and a form drag which linearly increases with the mean ice area perpendicular to the surface wind vector per unit surface area. The ratio of the generally small sensible and latent heat fluxes (both ≤ 20 Wm-2) is close to unity for near neutral atmospheric stratification and no dependence of these fluxes on sea ice concentration can be detected, at least for the encountered ice concentrations larger than 50%. Measurements at about 40 m height are not sufficient to study cases with stable stratification since the flight level seems to be fully decoupled from the surface processes. In this autumn measurements 50% to 90% of the net energy flux at the surface is made up by the radiation balance. Therefore, radiative fluxes form important components in polar air-sea exchange processes. The long wave downward radiation can be parameterised using the ɛσT4 law with the near surface air temperature and the empirically determined values for the emissivity ɛ = 0.71 and ɛ = 0.90 for clear and cloudy skies, respectively. The standard deviations of our measurements from this parameterisation are 4.6 Wm-2 for clear and 8.6 Wm-2 for cloudy skies. These values fall into the range ofthe instrumental uncertainty.

  14. Plug-type heat flux gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H. (Inventor); Koch, John, Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A plug-type heat flux gauge formed in a material specimen and having a thermoplug integrally formed in the material specimen, and a method for making the same are disclosed. The thermoplug is surrounded by a concentric annulus, through which thermocouple wires are routed. The end of each thermocouple wire is welded to the thermoplug, with each thermocouple wire welded at a different location along the length of the thermoplug. The thermoplug and concentric annulus may be formed in the material specimen by electrical discharge machining and trepanning procedures.

  15. Critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David Douglas

    The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon was investigated for water flow in tubes with particular emphasis on the development of methods for predicting CHF in the subcooled flow boiling regime. The Purdue University Boiling and Two-Phase Flow Laboratory (PU-BTPFL) CHF database for water flow in a uniformly heated tube was compiled from the world literature dating back to 1949 and represents the largest CHF database ever assembled with 32,544 data points from over 100 sources. The superiority of this database was proven via a detailed examination of previous databases. The PU-BTPFL CHF database is an invaluable tool for the development of CHF correlations and mechanistic models that are superior to existing ones developed with smaller, less comprehensive CHF databases. In response to the many inaccurate and inordinately complex correlations, two nondimensional, subcooled CHF correlations were formulated, containing only five adjustable constants and whose unique functional forms were determined without using a statistical analysis but rather using the parametric trends observed in less than 10% of the subcooled CHF data. The correlation based on inlet conditions (diameter, heated length, mass velocity, pressure, inlet quality) was by far the most accurate of all known subcooled CHF correlations, having mean absolute and root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 10.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The outlet (local) conditions correlation was the most accurate correlation based on local CHF conditions (diameter, mass velocity, pressure, outlet quality) and may be used with a nonuniform axial heat flux. Both correlations proved more accurate than a recent CHF look-up table commonly employed in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic computer codes. An interfacial lift-off, subcooled CHF model was developed from a consideration of the instability of the vapor-liquid interface and the fraction of heat required for liquid-vapor conversion as opposed to that for bulk liquid heating. Severe

  16. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology: (1) Heat flux is one of a number of parameters, together with pressure, temperature, flow, etc. of interest to engine designers and fluid dynamists, (2) The measurement of heat flux is of interest in directly determining the cooling requirements of hot section blades and vanes, and (3)In addition, if the surface and gas temperatures are known, the measurement of heat flux provides a value for the convective heat transfer coefficient that can be compared with the value provided by CFD codes.

  17. Tidal and atmospheric forcing of the upper ocean in the Gulf of California. 2: Surface heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paden, Cynthia A.; Winant, Clinton D.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    heat. Deep mixing in the island region produces a persistent pool of cold water which is mixed horizontally by the large-scale circulation, lowering surface temperatures over most of the northern gulf. These cold SSTs decrease evaporation by reducing the saturation vapor pressure of the overlying air. As a result, heat loss is substantially reduced, even when humidities are low. By removing heat from the surface, tidal mixing alters the time scale of air-sea interaction and reduces or possibly even inhibits the formation of deep water masses via convection.

  18. Trends and Variations of Ocean Surface Latent Heat Flux: Results from GSSTF2c Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Si; Chiu, Long S.; Shie, Chung-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Trends and variations of Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF) version 2c (GSSTF2c) latent heat flux (LHF) are examined. This version of LHF takes account of the correction in Earth incidence angle. The trend of global mean LHF for GSSTF2c is much reduced relative to GSSTF version 2b Set 1 and Set 2 for the same period 1988-2008. Temporal increase of GSSTF2c LHF in the two decades is 11.0%, in which 3.1%, 5.8%, and 2.1% are attributed to the increase in wind, the increase in sea surface saturated air humidity, and the decrease in near-surface air humidity, respectively. The first empirical orthogonal function of LHF is a conventional El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) mode. However, the trends in LHF are independent of conventional ENSO phenomena. After removing ENSO signal, the pattern of LHF trends is primarily determined by the pattern of air-sea humidity difference trends.

  19. Exploring ISEE-3 magnetic cloud polarities with electron heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Crooker, N. U.; Gosling, J. T.

    1999-06-01

    We have used solar wind electron heat fluxes to determine the magnetic polarities of the interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) during the ISEE-3 observations in 1978-1982. That period included 14 magnetic clouds (MCs) identified by Zhang and Burlaga. The MCs have been modeled as single magnetic flux ropes, and it is generally assumed that they are magnetically closed structures with each end of the flux rope connected to the Sun. The flux rope model is valid only if the magnetic polarity of each MC does not change during the passage of ISEE-3 through the MC. We test this model with the heat flux data, using the dominant heat flux in bidirectional electron heat fluxes to determine the MC polarities. The polarity changes within at least 2, and possibly 6, of the 14 MCs, meaning that those MCs can not fit the model of a single flux rope.

  20. Critical heat flux predictions in rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, S.P.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    The prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in rod bundles has been studied with both subchannel and bundle-average methods. The correlations of Biasi, Bowring, CISE-4, and Barnett were considered. The General Electric 9-rod bundle CHF data were used in the comparisons. Calculations were performed by the two-fluid subchannel code THERMIT-2. The results indicate that the subchannel method yields more conservative CHF predictions than the bundleaverage method. This is attributed to the two-phase turbulent mixing phenomenon in the bundle, which can be modeled only on a subchannel basis. The results also indicate that the CISE-4 correlation had the smallest error in prediction of transition boiling for both subchannel and bundle-average methods.

  1. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1990-11-01

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  2. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  3. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1990-01-01

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  4. Re-examining the roles of surface heat flux and latent heat release in a "hurricane-like" polar low over the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstad, Erik W.; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Zahn, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Polar lows are intense mesoscale cyclones that occur at high latitudes in both hemispheres during winter. Their sometimes evidently convective nature, fueled by strong surface fluxes and with cloud-free centers, have led to some polar lows being referred to as "arctic hurricanes." Idealized studies have shown that intensification by hurricane development mechanisms is theoretically possible in polar winter atmospheres, but the lack of observations and realistic simulations of actual polar lows have made it difficult to ascertain if this occurs in reality. Here the roles of surface heat fluxes and latent heat release in the development of a Barents Sea polar low, which in its cloud structures showed some similarities to hurricanes, are studied with an ensemble of sensitivity experiments, where latent heating and/or surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat were switched off before the polar low peaked in intensity. To ensure that the polar lows in the sensitivity runs did not track too far away from the actual environmental conditions, a technique known as spectral nudging was applied. This was shown to be crucial for enabling comparisons between the different model runs. The results presented here show that (1) no intensification occurred during the mature, postbaroclinic stage of the simulated polar low; (2) surface heat fluxes, i.e., air-sea interaction, were crucial processes both in order to attain the polar low's peak intensity during the baroclinic stage and to maintain its strength in the mature stage; and (3) latent heat release played a less important role than surface fluxes in both stages.

  5. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  6. Wood gasification at fire level heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlemiller, T.J.; Kashiwagi, T.; Werner, K.

    1987-08-01

    This study was motivated by a need to understand the source of pollutant species emitted by wood burning stoves; the results are relevant also to fire research. The study examines the products generated when wood is heated in controlled conditions, without flaming, in atmospheres of varying oxygen concentration (0-21% O/sub 2/ in N/sub 2/). Small wood samples (typically 4 x 4 cm exposed face, 2-4 cm thick; mainly white pine and red oak, but also two tests with yellow pine) were subjected to uniform radiative heat fluxes (2-7.8 W/cm/sup 2/) on one face. Sample weight was followed in some tests and sample temperature (5 thermocouples in depth) in others since the two measurements could not be made together. In all tests, all evolved products were either monitored (H/sub 2/O, CO, CO/sub 2/, total hydrocarbons not condensible at -40C) or trapped and analyzed (condensible organic species).

  7. Transfer Processes at the Air--Sea Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guymer, T. H.; Businger, J. A.; Katsaros, K. B.; Shaw, W. J.; Taylor, P. K.; Large, W. G.; Payne, R. E.

    1983-02-01

    Near-surface data from ships, buoys, aircraft and a microwave remote-sensing satellite have been used to estimate the fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapour at the sea surface over a 200 km × 200 km area during the Joint Air--Sea Interaction Experiment of 1978. In particular, daily means of the surface heat balance and the wind stress are presented. Generally, the sensible heat flux was found to be less than 25% of the latent heat flux. Over periods of a day the total upward heat flux was about a third of the net radiation, implying that a significant proportion of the available energy went into heating the ocean. The Ekman pumping accounted for most of the divergence in the atmospheric boundary layer but only 10% at most of that in the upper ocean. Some case studies of the horizontal variation of the fluxes in relation to larger scales are also discussed and it is suggested that the fluxes are modulated by mesoscale patterns in sea-surface temperature. Surface turbulent fluxes and SST have been examined on scales from several kilometres to 200 km and for days to weeks by using a combination of ships, buoys, aircraft and microwave remote sensing. The net radiative flux had been obtained at the corners of the 200 km meteorological triangle either by direct measurements of the shortwave and longwave components or by parametrization techniques. This has enabled the surface heat budget to be examined on a daily basis. About 70% of the net flux (typically 100 W m-2 in phase 1 and 70 W m-2 in phase 2) is available for heating the ocean and, of the remainder, over 75% goes into the atmosphere as latent heat. In these near-neutral conditions the mean surface wind speed across the triangle was 77% of the geostrophic wind speed and the cross-isobar flow angle was 11 degrees (down-gradient). Significant variations in the thermodynamic fluxes across the area were found, associated partly with the SST distribution and also with the fact that the coldest and driest air was

  8. Extremely high heat fluxes beneath impinging liquid jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lienhard, J. H., V.

    1993-05-01

    Measurements of jet-impingement heat fluxes up to 400 MW/sq m were obtained using a specially designed experimental arrangement where a thin metal plate was heated from one side with a plasma arc and cooled from the other side with an unsubmerged impinging water jet produced by a 34 MPa piston pump supplying a large cylindrical plenum. The results of this study, where heating was confined to the stagnation region, show no evidence of a critical heat flux, even up to the maximum power applied. The large fluxes were limited only by wall failure and the power of the heating source, and not by liquid-side thermal resistance.

  9. Variability of sensible heat flux over the Bay of Bengal and its connection to Indian Ocean Dipole events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyriac, Ajitha; Ghoshal, Tarumay; Shaileshbhai, Patel Ramkrushnbhai; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-03-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BOB) is known to possess complex thermodynamics which show distinct seasonal patterns. Surface heat fluxes in the BOB are very much dependant on upper ocean heat exchanges and wind. Sensible heat flux (SHF) is also one among those fluxes that depends on air-sea temperature difference and wind. However, this study further proves that a strong relationship exists between barrier layer thickness (BLT) and SHF variability that has not been focussed on in earlier literatures. This study also investigates the seasonal as well as inter-annual variability of SHF and its relationship with BLT and sea surface temperature (SST) patterns in more detail with statistical analyses. It is found that both SST and BLT are responsible for the evolution of SHF signal in the BOB although their effects are spatially distributed. During the post monsoon period, freshwater induced enhanced BLT is more related to SHF than the summer time when effect of SST is found to be dominant. During Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years, the correlation between SHF and BLT in the eastern BOB is more pronounced compared to SHF and SST. The western BOB however is dominated by SST variations for the respective IOD phase which also contribute to SHF signals there. Northernmost BOB shows high standard deviation due to river discharge effects.

  10. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  11. High heat flux transport by microbubble emission boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi

    2007-10-01

    In highly subcooled flow boiling, coalescing bubbles on the heating surface collapse to many microbubbles in the beginning of transition boiling and the heat flux increases higher than the ordinary critical heat flux. This phenomenon is called Microbubble Emission Boiling, MEB. It is generated in subcooled flow boiling and the maximum heat flux reaches about 1 kW/cm2(10 MW/m2) at liquid subcooling of 40 K and liquid velocity of 0.5 m/s for a small heating surface of 10 mm×10 mm which is placed at the bottom surface of horizontal rectangular channel. The high pressure in the channel is observed at collapse of the coalescing bubbles and it is closely related the size of coalescing bubbles. Periodic pressure waves are observed in MEB and the heat flux increases linearly in proportion to the pressure frequency. The frequency is considered the frequency of liquid-solid exchange on the heating surface. For the large sized heating surface of 50 mm length×20 mm width, the maximum heat flux obtained is 500 W/cm2 (5 MW/m2) at liquid subcooling of 40 K and liquid velocity of 0.5 m/s. This is considerably higher heat flux than the conventional cooling limit in power electronics. It is difficult to remove the high heat flux by MEB for a longer heating surface than 50 mm by single channel type. A model of advanced cooling device is introduced for power electronics by subcooled flow boiling with impinging jets. Themaxumum cooling heat flux is 500 W/cm2 (5 MW/m2). Microbubble emission boiling is useful for a high heat flux transport technology in future power electronics used in a fuel-cell power plant and a space facility.

  12. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensor of Improved Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gus; Wrbanek, John; Blaha, Charles

    2002-01-01

    A new design for a thin film heat flux sensor is presented. It is easier to fabricate than previous designs, for a given heat flux has an order of magnitude larger signal, and is more easily scalable than previous designs. Transient and steady state data are also presented.

  13. Heat flux splitter for near-field thermal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, P.; Belarouci, A.; Frechette, L.; Biehs, S.-A.

    2015-08-03

    We demonstrate the possibility to efficiently split the near-field heat flux exchanged between graphene nano-disks by tuning their doping. This result paves the way for the development of an active control of propagation directions for heat fluxes exchanged in the near field throughout integrated nanostructured networks.

  14. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOEpatents

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  15. Development of heat flux sensors for turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, Marcia A.; Strange, Richard R.

    1985-10-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop heat flux sensors suitable for installation in hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft turbine engines and to experimentally verify the operation of these heat flux sensors in a cylinder in a cross flow experiment. Embedded thermocouple and Gardon gauge sensors were developed and fabricated into both blades and vanes. These were then calibrated using a quartz lamp bank heat source and finally subjected to thermal cycle and thermal soak testing. These sensors were also fabricated into cylindrical test pieces and tested in a burner exhaust to verify heat flux measurements produced by these sensors. The results of the cylinder in cross flow tests are given.

  16. Introduction of J-OFURO version 2 surface heat flux data set and its analysis over the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, H.; Jubota, M.; Iwasaki, S.; Hihara, T.; Kawatsura, A.

    2007-05-01

    Japanese Ocean Flux Data Sets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (J-OFURO) includes global ocean surface heat flux data derived from satellite data and are used in many studies related to air-sea interaction. Recently new surface heat flux data was constructed in J-OFURO as the version 2. In the version 2 many points are improved compared with the version 1. Since we used wind speed and specific humidity data derived from one DMSP/SSMI sensor in the version 1, we obtained two data at most one day. Therefore, there may be large sampling errors for the daily-mean value. In order to escape this problem, multi-satellite data (DMSP/SSMI F08- 15, Aqua/AMSR-E, TRMM/TMI, ERS/AMI and QuikScat/SeaWinds) are used in the version 2. As a result we could improve accuracy and temporal resolution from 3-days mean value in version 1 to daily-mean value in version 2. Also we used an Optimum Interpolation method to estimate specific humidity data instead of a simple mean method. We basically need sea surface temperature (SST), specific humidity and wind speed data for estimation of latent heat flux. In version 1 we used NCEP data (Reynolds and Smith, 1994) as SST data. However, the temporal resolution of the data is based on weekly and considerably low. Recently there are many kinds of global SST data because we can obtain SST data using a microwave radiometer sensor such as TRMM/MI and Aqua/AMSR-E. Therefore, we compared many SST products and determined to use Merged satellite and in situ data Global Daily (MGD) SST provided by Japan Meteorological Agency. A bulk algorithm used for estimation of turbulent heat flux is changed from Kondo (1975) to COASRE 3.0(Fairall et al., 2003). Shortwave and longwave radiation data are based on the ISCCP product and some modifications are carried out for longwave radiation. Finally surface latent and sensible flux data and shortwave and longwave radiation data are extended to1989- 2004. In this presentation we will introduce surface heat flux

  17. Dimensional Analysis of Thermoelectric Modules Under Constant Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryosuke O.; Fujisaka, Takeyuki; Ito, Keita O.; Meng, Xiangning; Sui, Hong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generation is examined in the case of radiative heating. A constant heat flux is assumed in addition to consideration of the Seebeck effect, Peltier effect, and Joule heating with temperature-dependent material properties. Numerical evaluations are conducted using a combination of the finite-volume method and an original simultaneous solver for the heat transfer, thermoelectric, and electric transportation phenomena. Comparison with experimental results shows that the new solver could work well in the numerical calculations. The calculations predict that the Seebeck effect becomes larger for longer thermoelectric elements because of the larger temperature difference. The heat transfer to the cold surface is critical to determine the junction temperatures under a constant heat flux from the hot surface. The negative contribution from Peltier cooling and heating can be minimized when the current is smaller for longer elements. Therefore, a thicker TE module can generate more electric power even under a constant heat flux.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Air/Sea Interaction: Measurements and Initial Data Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C.; Huang, C. H.; Roberts, P. T.; Bariteau, L.; Fairall, C. W.; Gibson, W.; Ray, A.

    2011-12-01

    Corporate, government, and university researchers collaborated to develop an atmospheric boundary layer environmental observations program on an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The primary goals of this project were to provide data to (1) improve our understanding of boundary layer processes and air-sea interaction over the Gulf of Mexico; (2) improve regional-scale meteorological and air quality modeling; and (3) provide a framework for advanced offshore measurements to support future needs such as emergency response, exploration and lease decisions, wind energy research and development, and meteorological and air quality forecasting. In October 2010, meteorological and oceanographic sensors were deployed for an extended period (approximately 12 months) on a Chevron service platform (ST 52B, 90.5W, 29N) to collect boundary layer and sea surface data sufficient to support these objectives. This project has significant importance given the large industrial presence in the Gulf, sizeable regional population nearby, and the recognized need for precise and timely pollutant forecasts. Observations from this project include surface meteorology; sodar marine boundary layer winds; microwave radiometer profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and liquid water; ceilometer cloud base heights; water temperature and current profiles; sea surface temperature; wave height statistics; downwelling solar and infrared radiation; and air-sea turbulent momentum and heat fluxes. This project resulted in the collection of an unprecedented set of boundary layer measurements over the Gulf of Mexico that capture the range of meteorological and oceanographic interactions and processes that occur over an entire year. This presentation will provide insight into the logistical and scientific issues associated with the deployment and operations of unique measurements in offshore areas and provide results from an initial data analysis of boundary layer processes over the Gulf of

  19. Towards More Realistic Simulation of Air-Sea Interaction over Lakes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot; Soto, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The exchange of methane between the atmosphere and surface liquid reservoirs dominates the short time-scale methanological cycle. In this study, previous two-dimensional simulations of the exchange of methane vapor, sensible heat and momentum between the atmosphere and lakes are updated with the inclusion of radiative forcing and extended to three dimensions, including the introduction of realistic coastlines. Previous studies of Titan's air-sea exchange in two dimensions suggested that the exchange process was self-limiting. Evaporation from lakes produced a shallow but extremely stable marine layer that suppressed turbulent exchange. Furthermore, the circulation associated with the higher buoyancy of methane-rich atmosphere over the lake was offset by the oppositely directed thermal sea breeze circulation, which muted the mean wind. Two major weaknesses of this previous work were the lack of radiative forcing and the imposition of two dimensionality that limited the full range of dynamical solutions. Based on early theoretical studies, it was thought that magnitude of turbulent energy flux exchanges would be much larger than radiative fluxes, thereby justifying the neglect of radiation, but the two-dimensional simulations indicated that this was not a valid assumption. The dynamical limitations of two-dimensional simulations are well known. Vorticity stretching (i.e., circulation intensification through vertical motion) is not possible and it is also not possible to produce dynamically balanced gradient wind-type circulations. As well, the irregular shape of a realistic coastline cannot be expressed in two dimensions, and these realistic structures will generally induce complex convergence and divergence circulations in the atmosphere. The impact of radiative forcing and the addition of the third dimension on the air-sea exchange are presented.

  20. Supercritical convection, critical heat flux, and coking characteristics of propane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Gross, R. S.; Boyd, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of propane at subcritical and supercritical pressure were experimentally evaluated using electrically heated Monel K-500 tubes. A design correlation for supercritical heat transfer coefficient was established using the approach previously applied to supercritical oxygen. Flow oscillations were observed and the onset of these oscillations at supercritical pressures was correlated with wall-to-bulk temperature ratio and velocity. The critical heat flux measured at subcritical pressure was correlated with the product of velocity and subcooling. Long duration tests at fixed heat flux conditions were conducted to evaluate coking on the coolant side tube wall and coking rates comparable to RP-1 were observed.

  1. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange across contrasting biogeochemical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ryan; Schneider-Zapp, Klaus; Upstill-Goddard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    months likely from primary production and spatially there is less suppression of air-sea gas exchange with increasing distance from the shoreline, which is likely due to riverine inputs. REFERENCES Bock, E. J., Hara, T., Frew, N. M., and McGillis, W. R., 1999. Relationship between air-sea gas transfer and short wind waves. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 104, 25821-25831. Brockmann, U. H., Huhnerfuss, H., Kattner, G., Broecker, H. C., and Hentzschel, G., 1982. Artificial surface-films in the sea area near sylt. Limnology and Oceanography 27, 1050-1058. Goldman, J. C., Dennett, M. R., and Frew, N. M., 1988. Surfactant effects on air sea gas-exchange under turbulent conditions. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers 35, 1953-1970. McKenna, S. P. and McGillis, W. R., 2004. The role of free-surface turbulence and surfactants in air-water gas transfer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47, 539-553. Salter, M. E., R. C. Upstill-Goddard, P. D. Nightingale, S. D. Archer, B. Blomquist, D. T. Ho, B. Huebert, P. Schlosser, and M. Yang (2011), Impact of an artificial surfactant release on air-sea gas fluxes during Deep Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment II, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C11016, doi:10.1029/2011JC00702 Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S. C., Wanninkhof, R., Sweeney, C., Feely, R. A., Chipman, D. W., Hales, B., Friederich, G., Chavez, F., Sabine, C., Watson, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Schuster, U., Metzl, N., Yoshikawa-Inoue, H., Ishii, M., Midorikawa, T., Nojiri, Y., Körtzinger, A., Steinhoff, T., Hoppema, M., Olafsson, J., Arnarson, T. S., Tilbrook, B., Johannessen, T., Olsen, A., Bellerby, R., Wong, C. S., Delille, B., Bates, N. R., and de Baar, H. J. W., 2009. Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO 2, and net sea-air CO 2 flux over the global oceans. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56, 554-577.

  2. Seasonal-to-interannual fluctuations in surface temperature over the Pacific: effects of monthly winds and heat fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Miller, Arthur J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Graham, Nicholas E.; Ritchie, Jack N.; Oberhuber, Josef M.

    1995-01-01

    The 19-year simulation of the Pacific basin by the monthly marine data-forced OPYC model displays good skill in reproducing SST variability. These results represent the first hindcast of which we are aware that uses both observed total heat-flux and wind-stress anomalies as forcing for such a long time interval. There is close agreement between the model SSTs and those observed in many regions of the Pacific, including the tropics and the northern extratropics. Besides performing credibly on the monthly time scale, the model captures the essence of low-frequency variability over the North Pacific, including aspects of a marked basin-wide change that occurred in 1976-1977. In the model's detailed heat budget, the anomalous air-sea heat fluxes, entrainment, and to a lesser extent horizontal advection, force thermal-anomaly changes in the mixed layer. Each of these components was apparently involved in the 1976-1977 decadal SST shift.

  3. A framework for critical heat flux prediction in high heat flux, high subcooling components

    SciTech Connect

    Hechanova, A.E.; Kazimi, M.S.; Meyer, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The critical heat flux (CHF) limits relevant to the design of plasma facing components in tokamak fusion reactors are considered. Highly subcooled water in unobstructed pipe flow are investigated using experiments and computational models. The experiments employ water flowing through a 9.5 mm bore in a 19 mm x 19 mm copper monoblock. Single-sized heating of the block is achieved by passing an electric current through a 51 mm long plasma sprayed thin layer (0.4 mm) of tungsten overlaying a thin film (0.1 mm) of plasma sprayed ceramic on an outer wall. In the analysis, the heat transfer coefficient on the coolant-side wall relies on extrapolation of existing nucleate boiling correlations but is validated using outer wall temperature measurements and a heat conduction model. The experimental results are combined with a CHF data base from several sources to enhance the generality of the proposed CHF correlation. The CHF data base parameter ranges are as follows: Peclet numbers between 7 {times}10{sup 4} to 3.2 {times} 10{sup 6}, coolant channel diameter between 5 and 25 mm, pressure between 1 and 7 MPa, and equilibrium quality between {minus}0.49 and {minus}0.07. The proposed correlation bounds the CHF data base as a lower limit and, thus, is an appropriate conservative limit for design applications.

  4. Optimization-based design of a heat flux concentrator

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Ignacio; Fachinotti, Víctor D.; Ciarbonetti, Ángel A.

    2017-01-01

    To gain control over the diffusive heat flux in a given domain, one needs to engineer a thermal metamaterial with a specific distribution of the generally anisotropic thermal conductivity throughout the domain. Until now, the appropriate conductivity distribution was usually determined using transformation thermodynamics. By this way, only a few particular cases of heat flux control in simple domains having simple boundary conditions were studied. Thermal metamaterials based on optimization algorithm provides superior properties compared to those using the previous methods. As a more general approach, we propose to define the heat control problem as an optimization problem where we minimize the error in guiding the heat flux in a given way, taking as design variables the parameters that define the variable microstructure of the metamaterial. In the present study we numerically demonstrate the ability to manipulate heat flux by designing a device to concentrate the thermal energy to its center without disturbing the temperature profile outside it. PMID:28084451

  5. Optimization-based design of a heat flux concentrator.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Ignacio; Fachinotti, Víctor D; Ciarbonetti, Ángel A

    2017-01-13

    To gain control over the diffusive heat flux in a given domain, one needs to engineer a thermal metamaterial with a specific distribution of the generally anisotropic thermal conductivity throughout the domain. Until now, the appropriate conductivity distribution was usually determined using transformation thermodynamics. By this way, only a few particular cases of heat flux control in simple domains having simple boundary conditions were studied. Thermal metamaterials based on optimization algorithm provides superior properties compared to those using the previous methods. As a more general approach, we propose to define the heat control problem as an optimization problem where we minimize the error in guiding the heat flux in a given way, taking as design variables the parameters that define the variable microstructure of the metamaterial. In the present study we numerically demonstrate the ability to manipulate heat flux by designing a device to concentrate the thermal energy to its center without disturbing the temperature profile outside it.

  6. Optimization-based design of a heat flux concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Ignacio; Fachinotti, Víctor D.; Ciarbonetti, Ángel A.

    2017-01-01

    To gain control over the diffusive heat flux in a given domain, one needs to engineer a thermal metamaterial with a specific distribution of the generally anisotropic thermal conductivity throughout the domain. Until now, the appropriate conductivity distribution was usually determined using transformation thermodynamics. By this way, only a few particular cases of heat flux control in simple domains having simple boundary conditions were studied. Thermal metamaterials based on optimization algorithm provides superior properties compared to those using the previous methods. As a more general approach, we propose to define the heat control problem as an optimization problem where we minimize the error in guiding the heat flux in a given way, taking as design variables the parameters that define the variable microstructure of the metamaterial. In the present study we numerically demonstrate the ability to manipulate heat flux by designing a device to concentrate the thermal energy to its center without disturbing the temperature profile outside it.

  7. Soil heat flux determined from diel water content and temperature variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil heat flux for a measurement interval is commonly determined using heat flux plates buried at some depth below the surface. The heat flux values are adjusted to represent the soil surface heat flux by determining the heat stored in the layer between the plate and surface. Heat storage is calcula...

  8. Wintertime boundary-layer structure and air sea interaction over the Japan/East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelif, Djamal; Friehe, Carl A.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Wang, Qing; Rados, Konstantinos

    2005-06-01

    The wintertime meteorology over the Japan/East Sea (JES) is characterized by episodic strong northwesterly winds known as "cold-air outbreaks" resulting from the incursion of dry and cold air masses from the Eurasian continent. These were found by previous studies (mostly based on indirect methods) to greatly enhance the air-sea interaction and, in particular an area about 150 km in diameter off Vladivostok was identified as the Flux Center. Aircraft in situ measurements of turbulent fluxes and mean meteorological variables were made during the winter 2000. The existence and location of the Flux Center were confirmed although the turbulent sensible and latent-heat fluxes were not as high as previously found due to the air temperature being several degrees warmer. However, the stress was found to be significantly larger as a result of higher wind speeds. The internal boundary layer was found to grow linearly with the square root of offshore fetch, with a growth rate of 2.49m for an intense cold-air outbreak and 2.06m for a moderate one. A persistent initial decrease in the inversion height was observed at 41.86∘N,132.6∘E and may be attributable to the fanning out of the jet flow out of the Vladivostok gap as it expands onto the open ocean. The radiometric skin sea-surface temperature in the Flux Center exhibited large variability in the 0-4 °C range and was positively correlated with the total turbulent (latent+sensible) heat loss. Meteorological variables and surface fluxes results from Naval Research Laboratory Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model compared reasonably, while the predictions of the internal boundary layer height were markedly lower than the observations.

  9. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  10. Thin-Film Resistance Heat-Flux Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Thin-film heat-flux sensors of a proposed type would offer advantages over currently available thin-film heat flux sensors. Like a currently available thin-film heat-flux sensor, a sensor according to the proposal would be based on measurement of voltages related to the temperatures of thin metal films on the hotter and colder faces of a layer of an electrically insulating and moderately thermally conductive material. The heat flux through such a device is proportional to the difference between the temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the layer. The advantages of the proposed sensors over the commercial ones would arise from the manner in which the temperature-related voltages would be generated and measured.

  11. Wind-Speed—Surface-Heat-Flux Feedback in Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Junshi; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Strong winds associated with dust devils can induce locally large heat fluxes from the surface, and resulting enhanced buoyancy may further intensify the dust devils. This positive wind—surface-heat-flux feedback is studied using a large-eddy simulation of a convective boundary layer. A comparison of the results with and without the feedback process for the same environment demonstrates the significance of the feedback process for simulated dust devils.

  12. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  13. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  14. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Heldens, Wieke; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Albitar, Ahmad; Gabey, Andrew; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-04-01

    While Earth Observation (EO) has made significant advances in the study of urban areas, there are several unanswered science and policy questions to which it could contribute. To this aim the recently launched Horizon 2020 project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of EO to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component in the urban energy budget. The anthropogenic heat flux is the heat flux resulting from vehicular emissions, space heating and cooling of buildings, industrial processing and the metabolic heat release by people. Optical, thermal and SAR data from existing satellite sensors are used to improve the accuracy of the radiation balance spatial distribution calculation, using also in-situ reflectance measurements of urban materials are for calibration. EO-based methods are developed for estimating turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes, as well as urban heat storage flux and anthropogenic heat flux spatial patterns at city scale and local scale by employing an energy budget closure approach. Independent methods and models are engaged to evaluate the derived products and statistical analyses provide uncertainty measures as well. Ultimate goal of the URBANFLUXES is to develop a highly automated method for estimating urban energy budget components to use with Copernicus Sentinel data, enabling its integration into applications and operational services. Thus, URBANFLUXES prepares the ground for further innovative exploitation of European space data in scientific activities (i.e. Earth system modelling and climate change studies in cities) and future and emerging applications (i.e. sustainable urban planning) by exploiting the improved data quality, coverage and revisit times of the Copernicus data. The URBANFLUXES products will therefore have the potential to support both sustainable planning strategies to improve the quality of life in cities, as well as Earth system models to

  15. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Milanesio, D.; Colas, L.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  16. Heat flux measurement in a high enthalpy plasma flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhle, Stefan; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Gardarein, Jean-Laurent; Jullien, Pierre; van Ootegem, Bruno

    2008-11-01

    It is a widely used approach to measure heat flux in harsh environments like high enthalpy plasma flows, fusion plasma and rocket motor combustion chambers based on solving the inverse heat conduction problem in a semi-infinite environment. This approach strongly depends on model parameters and geometrical aspects of the sensor design. In this work the surface heat flux is determined by solving the inverse heat conduction problem using an identified system as a direct model. The identification of the system is performed using calibration measurements with modern laser technique and advanced data handling. The results of the identified thermo-physical system show that a non-integer model appears most adapted to this particular problem. It is concluded that the new method improves the heat flux sensor significantly and furthermore extend its application to very short measurement times.

  17. Explosive Boiling at Very Low Heat Fluxes: A Microgravity Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Lin, C. S.; Knoll, R. H.; Bentz, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents experimental observations of explosive boiling from a large (relative to bubble sizes) flat heating surface at very low heat fluxes in microgravity. The explosive boiling is characterized as either a rapid growth of vapor mass over the entire heating surface due to the flashing of superheated liquid or a violent boiling spread following the appearance of single bubbles on the heating surface. Pool boiling data with saturated Freon 113 was obtained in the microgravity environment of the space shuttle. The unique features of the experimental results are the sustainability of high liquid superheat for long periods and the occurrence of explosive boiling at low heat fluxes (0.2 to 1.2 kW/sq m). For a heat flux of 1.0 kW/sq m a wall superheat of 17.9 degrees C was attained in ten minutes of heating. This was followed by an explosive boiling accompanied with a pressure spike and a violent bulk liquid motion. However, at this heat flux the vapor blanketing the heating surface could not be sustained. Stable nucleate boiling continued following the explosive boiling.

  18. Characterization of ion fluxes and heat fluxes for PMI relevant conditions on Proto-MPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, Clyde; Shaw, Guinevere; Biewer, Theodore; Rapp, Juergen

    2016-10-01

    Plasma characterization, in particular, particle flux and electron and ion temperature distributions nearest to an exposed target, are critical to quantifying Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI). In the Proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX), the ion fluxes and heat fluxes are derived from double Langmuir Probes (DLP) and Thomson Scattering in front of the target assuming Bohm conditions at the sheath entrance. Power fluxes derived from ne and Te measurements are compared to heat fluxes measured with IR thermography. The comparison will allow conclusions on the sheath heat transmission coefficient to be made experimentally. Different experimental conditions (low and high density plasmas (0.5 - 6 x 1019 m-3) with different magnetic configuration are compared. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  19. Applicability of uniform heat flux Nusselt number correlations to thermosyphon heat exchangers for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, S.; Davidson, J.

    1999-05-01

    Nusselt numbers are measured in three counterflow tube-in-shell heat exchangers with flow rates and temperatures representative of thermosyphon operation in solar water heating systems. Mixed convection heat transfer correlations for these tube-in-shell heat exchangers were previously developed in Dahl and Davidson (1998) from data obtained in carefully controlled experiments with uniform heat flux at the tube walls. The data presented in this paper confirm that the uniform heat flux correlations apply under more realistic conditions. Water flows in the shell and 50 percent ethylene glycol circulates in the tubes. Actual Nusselt numbers are within 15 percent of the values predicted for a constant heat flux boundary condition. The data reconfirm the importance of mixed convection in determining heat transfer rates. Under most operating conditions, natural convection heat transfer accounts for more than half of the total heat transfer rate.

  20. Applicability of uniform heat flux Nusselt number correlations to thermosyphon heat exchangers for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, S.; Davidson, J.

    1999-07-01

    Nusselt numbers are measured in three counterflow tube-in-shell heat exchangers with flow rates and temperatures representative of thermosyphon operation in solar water heating systems. Mixed convection heat transfer correlations for these tube-in-shell heat exchangers were previously developed in Dahl and Davidson (1998) from data obtained in carefully controlled experiments with uniform heat flux at the tube walls. The data presented in this paper confirm that the uniform heat flux correlations apply under more realistic conditions. Water flows in the shell and 50% ethylene glycol is circulated in the tubes. Actual Nusselt numbers are within 15% of the values predicted for a constant heat flux boundary condition. The data reconfirm the importance of mixed convection in determining heat transfer rates. Under most operating conditions, natural convection heat transfer accounts for more than half of the total heat transfer rate.

  1. Surface Energy Heat Fluxes Using Remotely Sensed Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.; Vukovich, Fred M.; Pontikes, Elizabeth G.

    1997-01-01

    Realistic estimates of surface energy heat fluxes are needed for the study of water and energy interactions between the land and atmosphere. The primary objective of this work is to study the estimation of surface heat energy fluxes using remote sensing derived parameters under different spatial and temporal conditions. Surface energy fluxes and remote sensing derived data from two sources were analyzed. First, we used surface heat flux, remote sensing, and ancillary data from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), mapped at a 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid. Second, we used NOAA AVHRR (1 km), weather station, and ancillary data to derive estimates of surface latent and sensible heat energy fluxes over a 100 sq kilometers area for three test sites: 1) First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) grassland site, Konza Prairie, Kansas; 2) Howland, Maine Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Site; and 3) Walnut Gulch, scrubland site, surrounding Tombstone, Arizona. Satellite derived estimates of land surface temperature, surface albedo, and spectral vegetation index are used in selected models to provide estimates of surface heat fluxes. Analysis of results from the 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for North America indicated there were similar, overall correlations between sensible and latent heat energy fluxes versus remotely sensed vegetation index and ground temperature during dry and wet year conditions. However, there were significant differences in correlations between years when stratified by land cover class. Analysis of 100 km x 100 km data (1 km resolution) indicated partitioning the areas in to primary versus secondary cover, with the secondary cover comprising less than 5% of the area, significantly improved surface heat energy flux estimates.

  2. Corrections for heat flux measurements taken on launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinarts, Thomas R.; Matson, Monique L.; Walls, Laurie K.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of aerothermally induced convective heat transfer and plume induced radiative heat transfer loads is essential to the design of thermal protection systems for launch vehicles. Aerothermal and radiative models are typically calibrated via the data from cylindrical, in-flight, flush-mounted surface heat flux gauges that are exposed to the external thermal and velocity boundary layers as well as thermal radiation. Typically, Schmidt-Boelter gauges, taking advantage of the 1-Dimensional Fourier's law, measure the incident heat flux. This instrumentation, when surrounded by low-conductivity insulation, has an exposed surface temperature significantly lower than the insulation. As a result of this substantial disturbance to the thermal boundary layer, the heat flux incident on the gauge tends to be considerably higher (potentially by factors of 2 or more) than it would have been on the insulation had the calorimeter not been there. In addition, the gauge can receive energy radially from the hotter insulation, contributing to the increase of the indicated heat flux. This paper will present an overview of an effort to model the heat flux gauge under typical flight conditions that includes an installation surrounded by high temperature insulation. The goal is to correct the measurements to reflect the local heat flux on the insulation had the instrument not been present. The three major components of this effort include: 1) a 3-Dimensional computational thermal math model including the internal conduction heat transfer details of a Schmidt-Boelter gauge. 2) a CFD analysis to determine the effects on measurement of the rapidly changing thermal boundary layer over the near step changes in wall temperature, and 3) testing performed on flat plates exposed to an aerothermal environment in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Improved Hot Gas Facility (IHGF). A summary of the analytical efforts will be presented, as well as early testing results and preliminary model

  3. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  4. Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

  5. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of heat flux sensors for gas turbine blades and vanes and the demonstration of heat transfer measurement methods are reported. The performance of the heat flux sensors was evaluated in a cylinder in cross flow experiment and compared with two other heat flux measurement methods, the slug calorimeter and a dynamic method based on fluctuating gas and surface temperature. Two cylinders, each instrumented with an embedded thermocouple sensor, a Gardon gauge, and a slug calorimeter, were fabricated. Each sensor type was calibrated using a quartz lamp bank facility. The instrumented cylinders were then tested in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig at conditions up to gas stream temperatures of 1700K and velocities to Mach 0.74. The test data are compared to other measurements and analytical prediction.

  6. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1984-08-01

    Heat flux sensors available for installation in the hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines were developed. Two heat flux sensors were designed, fabricated, calibrated, and tested. Measurement techniques are compared in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig test. Sensors, embedded thermocouple and the Gordon gauge, were fabricated that met the geometric and fabricability requirements and could withstand the hot section environmental conditions. Calibration data indicate that these sensors yielded repeatable results and have the potential to meet the accuracy goal of measuring local heat flux to within 5%. Thermal cycle tests and thermal soak tests indicated that the sensors are capable of surviving extended periods of exposure to the environment conditions in the turbine. Problems in calibration of the sensors caused by severe non-one dimensional heat flow were encountered. Modifications to the calibration techniques are needed to minimize this problem and proof testing of the sensors in an engine is needed to verify the designs.

  7. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Heat flux sensors available for installation in the hot section airfoils of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines were developed. Two heat flux sensors were designed, fabricated, calibrated, and tested. Measurement techniques are compared in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig test. Sensors, embedded thermocouple and the Gordon gauge, were fabricated that met the geometric and fabricability requirements and could withstand the hot section environmental conditions. Calibration data indicate that these sensors yielded repeatable results and have the potential to meet the accuracy goal of measuring local heat flux to within 5%. Thermal cycle tests and thermal soak tests indicated that the sensors are capable of surviving extended periods of exposure to the environment conditions in the turbine. Problems in calibration of the sensors caused by severe non-one dimensional heat flow were encountered. Modifications to the calibration techniques are needed to minimize this problem and proof testing of the sensors in an engine is needed to verify the designs.

  8. Corrections of Heat Flux Measurements on Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinarts, Thomas R.; Matson, Monique L.; Walls, Laurie K.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of aerothermally induced convective heat transfer is important in the design of thermal protection systems for launch vehicles. Aerothermal models are typically calibrated via the data from circular, in-flight, flush-mounted surface heat flux gauges exposed to the thermal and velocity boundary layers of the external flow. Typically, copper or aluminum Schmidt- Boelter gauges, which take advantage of the one-dimensional Fourier's law of heat conduction, are used to measure the incident heat flux. This instrumentation, when surrounded by low-conductivity insulation, has a wall temperature significantly lower than the insulation. As a result of this substantial disturbance to the thermal boundary layer, the heat flux incident on the gauge tends to be considerably higher than it would have been on the insulation had the calorimeter not been there. In addition, radial conductive heat transfer from the hotter insulation can cause the calorimeter to indicate heat fluxes higher than actual. An overview of an effort to develop and calibrate gauge correction techniques for both of these effects will be presented.

  9. Effect of air-sea coupling on the frequency distribution of intense tropical cyclones over the northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Tomomichi; Mizuta, Ryo; Adachi, Yukimasa; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ose, Tomoaki

    2015-12-01

    Effect of air-sea coupling on the frequency distribution of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) over the northwestern Pacific (NWP) region is investigated using an atmosphere and ocean coupled general circulation model (AOGCM). Monthly varying flux adjustment enables AOGCM to simulate both subseasonal air-sea interaction and realistic seasonal to interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability. The maximum of intense TC distribution around 20-30°N in the AGCM shifts equatorward in the AOGCM due to the air-sea coupling. Hence, AOGCM reduces northward intense TC distribution bias seen in AGCM. Over the NWP, AOGCM-simulated SST variability is large around 20-30°N where the warm mixed layer becomes shallower rapidly. Active entrainment from subsurface water over this region causes stronger SST cooling, and hence, TC intensity decreases. These results suggest that air-sea coupling characterized by subsurface oceanic condition causes more realistic distribution of intense TCs over the NWP.

  10. Critical Heat Flux of Butanol Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Shotaro; Shoji, Masahiro

    It is known that the addition of small amount of alcohol such as butanol to water enhances the CHF. Such aqueous solution is actively applied to heat transfer devices such as heat pipes and microchannel cooling systems, however, the fundamental characters of boiling have not been fully understood. In the present research, the experiment of boiling heat transfer is performed on a heated wire by employing butanol aqueous solution as a typical test solution and by changing concentration 1-butanol and subcooling in a wide range. Bubbling aspects were observed using high-speed video camera. It is found from the experiment that CHF is 2 to 3 times higher than that of pure water and generating bubbles are tiny even at the saturated condition. The dependence of CHF on subcooling is found to be curious showing that CHF decreases first, takes a minimum, and then increases with increasing subcooling. These results suggest that the butanol aqueous solution is a promising liquid for the application of boiling to a small-scaled cooling device.

  11. Computed and observed turbulent heat fluxes during an extreme Bora event in the Adriatic using atmosphere-ocean coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ličer, Matjaž; Smerkol, Peter; Fettich, Anja; Ravdas, Michalis; Papapostolou, Alexandros; Mantziafou, Anneta; Strajnar, Benedikt; Cedilnik, Jure; Jeromel, Maja; Jerman, Jure; Petan, Sašo; Benetazzo, Alvise; Carniel, Sandro; Malačič, Vlado; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the performances of (a) a two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling system and (b) one-way coupled ocean model (forced by the atmosphere model), as compared to the available in situ measurements during and after a strong Adriatic Bora wind event in February 2012, which led to extreme air-sea interactions. The simulations span the period between January and March 2012. The models used were ALADIN (4.4 km resolution) on the atmosphere side and Adriatic setup of POM (1°/30 × 1°/30 angular resolution) on the ocean side. The atmosphere-ocean coupling was implemented using the OASIS3-MCT model coupling toolkit. Two-way coupling ocean feedback to the atmosphere is limited to sea surface temperature. We have compared modeled atmosphere-ocean fluxes (computed using modified Louis scheme) and sea temperatures from both setups to platform and CTD measurements of fluxes (computed using COARE scheme) and temperatures from three observational platforms (Vida, Paloma, Acqua Alta) in the Northern Adriatic. We show that turbulent fluxes from both setups differ up to 20% during the Bora but not significantly before and after the event. The impact of the coupling on the ocean is significant while the impact on the atmosphere is less pronounced. When compared to observations, two way coupling ocean temperatures exhibit a four times lower RMSE than those from one-way coupled system. Two-way coupling improves sensible heat fluxes at all stations but does not improve latent heat loss.

  12. High heat flux experiments of saddle type divertor module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Araki, Masanori; Satoh, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Dairaku, Masayuki

    1994-09-01

    JAERI has been extensively developing plasma facing components for next tokomak devices. The authors have developed a saddle type divertor module which consists of saddle-shaped armor tiles brazed on metal heat sink. This paper presents the experimental and analytical results of thermal cycling experiments of the saddle type divertor module. The divertor module has unidirectional CFC armor tiles brazed on OFHC copper heat sink. A twisted tape was inserted in the cooling tube to enhance the heat transfer. In the experiments, thermal response of the divertor module was monitored by an infrared camera and thermocouples. The maximum incident heat flux was 24.5 MW/m 2 for a duration of 30 s. No degradation of thermal response was observed during the experiment. As a result, the saddle type divertor module successfully endured at an incident heat flux of over 20 MW/m 2 under steady state conditions for 1000 cycles.

  13. Drivers of uncertainty in simulated ocean circulation and heat uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus B.; Zanna, Laure

    2017-02-01

    The impact of uncertainties in air-sea fluxes and ocean model parameters on the ocean circulation and ocean heat uptake (OHU) is assessed in a novel modeling framework. We use an ocean-only model forced with the simulated sea surface fields of the CMIP5 climate models. The simulations are performed using control and 1% CO2 warming scenarios. The ocean-only ensemble adequately reproduces the mean Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the zonally integrated OHU. The ensemble spread in AMOC strength, its weakening, and Atlantic OHU due to different air-sea fluxes is twice as large as the uncertainty range related to vertical and mesocale eddy diffusivities. The sensitivity of OHU to uncertainties in air-sea fluxes and model parameters differs vastly across basins, with the Southern Ocean exhibiting strong sensitivity to air-sea fluxes and model parameters. This study clearly demonstrates that model biases in air-sea fluxes are one of the key sources of uncertainty in climate simulations.

  14. Mass, heat and freshwater fluxes in the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1986-01-01

    Six hydrographic sections were used to examine the circulation and property fluxes in the South Indian Ocean from 10 to 32 deg S. The calculations were made by applying an inverse method to the data. In the interior of the South Indian Ocean, the geostrophic flow is generally northward. At 18 deg S, the northward interior mass flux is balanced by the southward Ekman mass flux at the surface, whereas at 32 deg S the northward interior mass flux is balanced by the southward mass flux of the Agulhas Current. There is a weak, southward mass flux of 6 x 10 to the 9th kg/s in the Mozambique Channel. The rate of water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean is dependent on the choice of the initial reference level used in the inverse calculation. The choice of 1500 m, the depth of the deep oxygen minimum, has led to a flux of water from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean at a rate of 6.6 x 10 to the 9th kg/s. Heat flux calculations indicate that the Indian Ocean is exporting heat to the rest of the world's oceans at a rate of -0.69 x 10 to the 15th W at 18 deg S and -0.25 x 10 to the 15th W at 32 deg S (negative values being southward).

  15. Snowflake Impact on the Air-Sea Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, David

    2016-11-01

    The air-sea interface is the site of globally important exchanges of mass, momentum, and heat between the sea and atmosphere. These climate-driving exchanges occur through small-scale processes such as bubble entrainment and bursting, raindrop impact, and wind-wave creation. The physics of snowflakes falling on the sea surface has not been previously considered. High speed imaging of natural snowflakes of characteristic size up to 6.5 mm falling at a mean speed of 1 m/s into an aquarium of chilled seawater reveals a complex multiphase flow. Snowflakes impacting and crossing the air-seawater interface appear to entrain a thin air film which forms micro-bubbles as the snowflake melts. Large, morphologically complex snowflakes may entrain hundreds of micro-bubbles which are up to 0.15 mm in diameter. Large snowflakes melt milliseconds after entry and subsequently form a downward-moving vortex ring of freshwater, evident from the motion of the bubbles it contains, which may penetrate up to 16 mm below the surface. Buoyant freshwater and bubbles then rise, with larger bubbles escaping from the downward flow more quickly than the smaller bubbles. The dissolution and popping of these bubbles represent previously unrecognized sources of air-sea gas transfer and marine aerosol droplet creation, respectively.

  16. Air-sea interaction at the Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf: In situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, L. P.; Souza, R. B.; Farias, P. C.; Acevedo, O.; Miller, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The influence of the cross-shelf oceanographic front occurring between the Brazil Current (BC) and the Brazilian Coastal Current (BCC) on the local Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) is investigated here. This front is typical of wintertime in the Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf (SBCS) and this is the first time that its effects are investigated over the above MABL. Here we analyze variability, vertical structure, and stability of MABL as well as heat fluxes at air-sea interface, across five oceanographic transects in the SBCS made during a winter 2012 cruise. Local thermal gradients associated with mixing between distinct water masses, play an essential role on MABL modulation and stability. Although weaker when compared with other frontal regions, the cross-shelf thermal gradients reproduce exactly what is expected for open ocean regions: Stronger (weaker) winds, lower (higher) sea level pressure, and a more unstable (stable) MABL are found over the warm (cold) side of the oceanographic front between the BC (warm) and coastal (cold) waters. Our findings strongly support the coexistence of both known MABL modulation mechanisms: the static and hydrostatic MABL stability. This is the first time that these modulation mechanisms are documented for this region. Turbulent fluxes were found to be markedly dependent on the cross-shelf SST gradients resulting in differences of up to 100 W.m-2 especially in the southernmost region where the gradients were more intense.

  17. The measurement of heat flux from initiators in solid propellant rocket igniters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subba Rao, S. V.; Ramesh, N.; Pillai, B. C.

    The use of ribbon thermocouples to measure the heat flux from the initiator jet of a solid propellant rocket igniter and received by the booster charge is reported. Heat flux histories are given. All the heat flux curves showed a sharp peak within a short operation of 1 ms. Peak heat flux values extended up to 16,000 W/sq cm.

  18. Long-term evolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into a subsurface urban heat island.

    PubMed

    Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp; Schaffitel, Axel; Bayer, Peter

    2013-09-03

    Anthropogenic alterations in urban areas influence the thermal environment causing elevated atmospheric and subsurface temperatures. The subsurface urban heat island effect is observed in several cities. Often shallow urban aquifers exist with thermal anomalies that spread laterally and vertically, resulting in the long-term accumulation of heat. In this study, we develop an analytical heat flux model to investigate possible drivers such as increased ground surface temperatures (GSTs) at artificial surfaces and heat losses from basements of buildings, sewage systems, subsurface district heating networks, and reinjection of thermal wastewater. By modeling the anthropogenic heat flux into the subsurface of the city of Karlsruhe, Germany, in 1977 and 2011, we evaluate long-term trends in the heat flux processes. It revealed that elevated GST and heat loss from basements are dominant factors in the heat anomalies. The average total urban heat flux into the shallow aquifer in Karlsruhe was found to be ∼759 ± 89 mW/m(2) in 1977 and 828 ± 143 mW/m(2) in 2011, which represents an annual energy gain of around 1.0 × 10(15) J. However, the amount of thermal energy originating from the individual heat flux processes has changed significantly over the past three decades.

  19. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  20. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.

    1993-01-01

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  1. Thermal Infrared Signatures and Heat Fluxes of Sea Foam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    supposition that enhanced evaporative -cooling is responsible for this phenomenon. A control volume technique was successfully used to estimate the...warmer bulk water and foam below. A parametric bulk flux method for the heat flux due to foam and analysis of the remote sensing signature are key...quantities (e.g. wind speed, air and water temperature, humidity) and determine the effect on remotely sensed thermal features. APPROACH To address

  2. Effect of the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sea surface microlayer on their coastal air-sea exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guitart, C.; García-Flor, N.; Miquel, J. C.; Fowler, S. W.; Albaigés, J.

    2010-01-01

    Several measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal marine compartments (viz. atmosphere, sea surface microlayer, subsurface seawater, sinking particles and sediments), made nearly simultaneously at two stations in the north-eastern Mediterranean, were used to estimate the transport fluxes of individual and total PAHs through the air-seawater-sediment system. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes were estimated using both subsurface water (SSW) and sea surface microlayer (SML) concentrations. The air-SML fluxes ranged from 411 to 12,292 ng m - 2 d - 1 (absorption) and from - 506 to -13,746 ng m - 2 d - 1 (volatilisation) for total PAHs (Σ15). Air-seawater column transport of particle-associated PAHs was estimated from the analysis of particulate atmospheric and sediment interceptor trap materials. Air-sea particle deposition fluxes of total PAHs ranged from 13 to 114 ng m - 2 d - 1 and seawater particle settling fluxes (upper 5 m water column) ranged from 184 to 323 ng m - 2 d - 1 . The results of this study indicate that both the magnitude and the direction of the calculated air-sea diffusive fluxes change when PAH concentrations in the SML are considered. As a result, PAHs accumulation in the SML could produce the so-called "flux capping effect". However, the high variability in the coastal air-sea PAHs flux estimations, mainly due to the parameters uncertainty, requires further experimental approaches, including improvement of parameterisations.

  3. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  4. Estimating interfacial thermal conductivity in metamaterials through heat flux mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Canbazoglu, Fatih M.; Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2015-04-06

    The variability of the thickness as well as the thermal conductivity of interfaces in composites may significantly influence thermal transport characteristics and the notion of a metamaterial as an effective medium. The consequent modulations of the heat flux passage are analytically and experimentally examined through a non-contact methodology using radiative imaging, on a model anisotropic thermal metamaterial. It was indicated that a lower Al layer/silver interfacial epoxy ratio of ∼25 compared to that of a Al layer/alumina interfacial epoxy (of ∼39) contributes to a smaller deviation of the heat flux bending angle.

  5. Tropical Intraseasonal Air-Sea Exchanges during the 1997 Pacific Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K.-M.; Chou, S.-H.; Wang, Zihou

    1999-01-01

    The Madden Julian Oscillations (MJO) and associated westerly wind (WW) events account for much of the tropical intraseasonal variability (TISV). The TISV has been suggested as an important stochastic forcing that may be one of the underlying causes for the observed irregularities of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recent observational studies and theories of interannual to interdecadal-scale variability suggest that ENSO may arise from different mechanisms depending on the basic states. The Pacific warming event of 1997, being associated with a period of strong MJO and WW events, serves as a natural experiment for studying the possible role of TISV in triggering an ENSO event. We have performed a combined statistical and composite analysis of surface WW events based on the assimilated surface wind and sea level pressure for the period of 1980-1993, the SSM/I wind for the period of 1988-1997, and OLR. Results indicates that extratropical forcing contribute significantly to the evolution of MJO and establishment of WW events over the Pacific warm pool. Following the major WW events, there appeared an eastward extension of equatorial warm SST anomalies from the western Pacific warm pool. Such tropical-extratropical interaction is particularly clear in the winter of 96-97 that leads to the recent warming event in 1997/98. From the above discussion, our current study on this subject is based on the hypothesis that 1) there is an enhanced air-sea interaction associated with TISV and the northerly surges from the extratropics in the initial phase of the 97/98 warming event, and 2) the relevant mechanisms are functions of the basic state of the coupled system (in terms of SST distribution and atmospheric mean circulation) that varies at the interannual and interdecadal time scale. We are analyzing the space-time structure of the northerly surges, their association with air-sea fluxes and upper ocean responses during the period of September 1996 to June 1997. The

  6. Heat flux instrumentation for Hyflite thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Using Thermal Protection Tile core samples supplied by NASA, the surface characteristics of the FRCI, TUFI, and RCG coatings were evaluated. Based on these results, appropriate methods of surface preparation were determined and tested for the required sputtering processes. Sample sensors were fabricated on the RCG coating and adhesion was acceptable. Based on these encouraging results, complete Heat Flux Microsensors were fabricated on the RCG coating. The issue of lead attachment was addressed with the annnealing and welding methods developed at NASA Lewis. Parallel gap welding appears to be the best method of lead attachment with prior heat treatment of the sputtered pads. Sample Heat Flux Microsensors were submitted for testing in the NASA Ames arc jet facility. Details of the project are contained in two attached reports. One additional item of interest is contained in the attached AIAA paper, which gives details of the transient response of a Heat Flux Microsensors in a shock tube facility at Virginia Tech. The response of the heat flux sensor was measured to be faster than 10 micro-s.

  7. Miniature high temperature plug-type heat flux gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to describe continuing efforts to develop methods for measuring surface heat flux, gauge active surface temperature, and heat transfer coefficient quantities. The methodology involves inventing a procedure for fabricating improved plug-type heat flux gauges and also for formulating inverse heat conduction models and calculation procedures. These models and procedures are required for making indirect measurements of these quantities from direct temperature measurements at gauge interior locations. Measurements of these quantities were made in a turbine blade thermal cycling tester (TBT) located at MSFC. The TBT partially simulates the turbopump turbine environment in the Space Shuttle Main Engine. After the TBT test, experiments were performed in an arc lamp to analyze gauge quality.

  8. Thermotronics: Towards Nanocircuits to Manage Radiative Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2017-02-01

    The control of electric currents in solids is at the origin of the modern electronics revolution that has driven our daily life since the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, to date, there is no thermal analogue for a control of heat flux. Here, we summarise the very last developments carried out in this direction to control heat exchanges by radiation both in near and far-field in complex architecture networks.

  9. Convectively Driven Heat Flux Heterogeneity in Europa's Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, Bryan; Schubert, G.; Palguta, J.

    2006-09-01

    Features on the surface of Europa may reflect non-uniform heating in an underlying ocean due to variations in heat flux at the mantle surface. Pore water convection can generate a spatially heterogeneous heat flux in a fractured, permeable mantle, as illustrated in 2-D computer simulations of the thermal evolution of Europa. The model uses three layers - core, silicate mantle, and H2O (liquid and frozen). Processes active in the model include radiogenic heating, tidal dissipative heating (TDH), thermal diffusion, latent heat of melting and pore water convection. Starting from a cold Europa, radiogenic heating and TDH produce a temperature profile ranging from a peak near 1150 oC in the deep interior to 15 oC at the mantle surface, overlain by an 80 km deep ocean layer at 3 oC, capped by an ice shell approximately 20 km thick. This structure provides initial conditions for our pore water convection simulation. Mantle permeability is based on Earth values. An initial, very strong flow gives way to a weaker quasi-steady pattern of convection in the mantle's porosity. Plumes rise from the mantle at a roughly 10o spacing, through the ocean layer up to the base of the ice. These are typically 50 - 100 km wide at the base of the ice. Plume heat flux is 10-12 W/m2 during the initial transient, but later drops to about 0.5 - 1.5 W/m2. Heating at the base of the ice shell is spatially heterogeneous, but only strong enough to produce significant melt-through during the initial transient. However, strong spatial heterogeneity of basal heating of the ice shell could significantly influence convection in the ice phase. This work was supported by a grant from the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Los Alamos National Laboratory and by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program.

  10. Contagious Coronal Heating from Recurring Emergence of Magnetic Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For each of six old bipolar active regions, we present and interpret Yohkoh/SXT and SOHO/MDI observations of the development, over several days, of enhanced coronal heating in and around the old bipole in response to new magnetic flux emerge= within the old bipole. The observations show: 1. In each active region, new flux emerges in the equatorward side of the old bipole, around a lone remaining leading sunspot and/or on the equatorward end of the neutral line of the old bipole. 2. The emerging field is marked by intense internal coronal heating, and enhanced coronal heating occurs in extended loops stemming from the emergence site. 3. In five of the six cases, a "rooster tail" of coronal loops in the poleward extent of the old bipole also brightens in response to the flux emergence. 4. There are episodes of enhanced coronal heating in surrounding magnetic fields that are contiguous with the old bipole but are not directly connected to the emerging field. From these observations, we suggest that the accommodation of localized newly emerged flux within an old active region entails far reaching adjustments in the 3D magnetic field throughout the active region and in surrounding fields in which the active region is embedded, and that these adjustments produce the extensive enhanced coronal heating. We also note that the reason for the recurrence of flux emergence in old active regions may be that active region flux tends to emerge in giant-cell convection downflows. If so, the poleward "rooster tail" is a coronal flag of a long-lasting downflow in the convection zone. This work was funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program.

  11. Dependence of divertor heat flux widths on heating power, flux expansion, and plasma current in the NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, Rajesh; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Ahn, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the dependence of the lower divertor surface heat flux profiles, measured from infrared thermography and mapped magnetically to the mid-plane on loss power into the scrape-off layer (P{sub LOSS}), plasma current (I{sub p}), and magnetic flux expansion (f{sub exp}), as well as initial results with lithium wall conditioning in NSTX. Here we extend previous studies [R. Maingi et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 363-365 (2007) 196-200] to higher triangularity similar to 0.7 and higher I{sub p} {le} 1.2 MA. First we note that the mid-plane heat flux width mapped to the mid-plane, {lambda}{sub q}{sup mid} is largely independent of P{sub LOSS} for P{sub LOSS} {ge} 4 MW. {lambda}{sub q}{sup mid} is also found to be relatively independent of f{sub exp}; peak heat flux is strongly reduced as f{sub exp} is increased, as expected. Finally, {lambda}{sub q}{sup mid} is shown to strongly contract with increasing I{sub p} such that {lambda}{sub q}{sup mid} {alpha} I{sub p}{sup -1.6} with a peak divertor heat flux of q{sub div,peak} similar to 15 MW/m{sup 2} when I{sub p} = 1.2 MA and P{sub LOSS} similar to 6 MW. These relationships are then used to predict the divertor heat flux for the planned NSTX-Upgrade, with heating power between 10 and 15 MW, B{sub t} = 1.01 and I{sub p}= 2.0 MA for 5 s.

  12. Thin film heat flux sensors for accurate transient and unidirectional heat transfer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azerou, B.; Garnier, B.; Lahmar, J.

    2012-11-01

    Heat flux measurement is needed in many heat transfer studies. For the best unbiased heat flux sensors (HFS), the heat flux is obtained using temperature measurements at different locations and also an inverse heat conduction method (function specification...) in order to calculate the heat flux. Systematic errors can come from the uncertainty in the wire thermocouples locations and from errors in the knowledge of distances between two consecutive wire thermocouples. The main idea in this work is to use thin film thermoresistances deposited on a flexible thin polymer substrate instead of wire thermocouples welded on metallic sample. The interest of using thin film thermoresistances instead of wire thermocouples is a lower disturbance due to the smaller thickness of the thin film sensors (typically less than 1μm) and a much better knowledge of the distances between the different thin film thermoresistances which are precisely defined in the mask used for the metallic thin film pattern fabrication. In this paper, we present the fabrication of the new heat flux sensor with thin film thermoresistances, the study of the effect of the self heating (due to Joule effect in thermoresistances) and the performances of this new HFS with the comparison with classical HFS using wire thermocouples. For this study, a symmetric experimental setup is used with metallic samples equipped with an etched foil heater and both classical and new HFS. For several heating conditions, it appears that a better accuracy is always obtained with the new HFS using thin film thermoresistances.

  13. Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research.

    PubMed

    Niedermann, R; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2014-08-01

    Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies.

  14. Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, R.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2014-08-01

    Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies.

  15. Extreme air-sea interaction over the North Atlantic subpolar gyre during the winter of 2013-2014 and its sub-surface legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Jacobs, Zoe L.; Marsh, Robert; Sinha, Bablu; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Exceptionally low North American temperatures and record-breaking precipitation over the British Isles during winter 2013-2014 were interconnected by anomalous ocean evaporation over the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region (SPG). This evaporation (or oceanic latent heat release) was accompanied by strong sensible heat loss to the atmosphere. The enhanced heat loss over the SPG was caused by a combination of surface westerly winds from the North American continent and northerly winds from the Nordic Seas region that were colder, drier and stronger than normal. A distinctive feature of the air-sea exchange was that the enhanced heat loss spanned the entire width of the SPG, with evaporation anomalies intensifying in the east while sensible heat flux anomalies were slightly stronger upstream in the west. The immediate impact of the strong air-sea fluxes on the ocean-atmosphere system included a reduction in ocean heat content of the SPG and a shift in basin-scale pathways of ocean heat and atmospheric freshwater transport. Atmospheric reanalysis data and the EN4 ocean data set indicate that a longer-term legacy of the winter has been the enhanced formation of a particularly dense mode of Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW)—one of the precursors of North Atlantic Deep Water and thus an important component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Using particle trajectory analysis, the likely dispersal of newly-formed SPMW is evaluated, providing evidence for the re-emergence of anomalously cold SPMW in early winter 2014/2015.

  16. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  17. Corrections for Heat Flux Measurements Taken on Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinarts, Thomas R.; Ford, Danielle M.

    2004-02-01

    Knowledge of aerothermally induced convective heat transfer and plume induced radiative heat transfer loads is essential to the design of thermal protection systems (TPS) for launch vehicles. Aerothermal and radiative models are typically calibrated via the data from cylindrical, in-flight, flush-mounted surface heat flux gauges that are exposed to the external thermal and velocity boundary layers as well as thermal radiation. Typically, Schmidt-Boelter gauges, taking advantage of the 1-Dimensional Fourier's law, measure the incident heat flux. This instrumentation, when surrounded by low-conductivity insulation, has an exposed surface temperature significantly lower than the insulation. As a result of this substantial disturbance to the thermal boundary layer, the heat flux incident on the gauge tends to be considerably higher (potentially by factors of 2 or more) than it would have been on the insulation had the calorimeter not been there. In addition, the gauge can receive energy radially from the hotter insulation, contributing to the increase of the indicated heat flux. This paper will present an overview of an effort to model the heat flux gauge under typical flight conditions that includes an installation surrounded by high temperature insulation. The goal is to correct the measurements to reflect the local heat flux on the insulation had the instrument not been present. The three major components of this effort include: 1) a three-dimensional computational thermal math model including the internal conduction heat transfer details of a Schmidt-Boelter gauge, 2) a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to determine the effects on measurement of the rapidly changing thermal boundary layer over the near step changes in wall temperature, and 3) testing performed on flat plates exposed to an aerothermal environment in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Improved Hot Gas Facility (IHGF). A brief summary of calibration issues

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of the surface temperature and heat flux for saturated pool nucleate boiling at lower heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, C.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1993-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of local surface temperature and heat flux for saturated pool nucleate boiling are investigated parametrically using a numerical model. The numerical model consisted of solving the three-dimensional transient heat conduction equation within the heater subjected to nucleate boiling over its upper surface. The surface topography model to distribute the cavities over the boiling surface used a Monte Carlo scheme. All cavities were assumed to be conical in shape. The cavity radii are obtained using an exponential probability density function with a known mean value. Local surface temperatures showed significant spatial and temporal variations, depending upon the surface topography and the heater material and thickness. However, the surface-averaged temperature showed practically no temporal variation. The temporal variations in local temperatures caused the surface-averaged heat flux to vary significantly. The temporal variations in the surface-averaged heat flux were similar for smooth and rough and thick and thin copper and nickel plates. Results indicated that the use of a classical energy balance equation to evaluate the surface heat flux must consider the spatial variation of the temperature. Results also showed that any thermocouple embedded beneath the surface of the heater does not follow the temporal variations at the surface.

  19. Value of Bulk Heat Flux Parameterizations for Ocean SST Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Value of bulk heat flux parameterizations for ocean SST prediction Alan J. Wallcraft a,⁎, A. Birol Kara a, Harley E. Hurlburt a, Eric P. Chassignet b...G., Doney, S.C., McWilliams , J.C., 1997. Sensitivity to surface forcing and boundary layer mixing in a global ocean model: annual-mean climatology. J

  20. Light-intensity modulator withstands high heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maples, H. G.; Strass, H. K.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanism modulates and controls the intensity of luminous radiation in light beams associated with high-intensity heat flux. This modulator incorporates two fluid-cooled, externally grooved, contracting metal cylinders which when rotated about their longitudinal axes present a circular aperture of varying size depending on the degree of rotation.

  1. Soil heat flux measurements in an open forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meulen, M. W. J.; Klaassen, W.

    1996-05-01

    The soil surface heat flux in an open oak forest was determined at four locations to account for the heterogeneity of the forest. Soil temperatures and soil water content were measured at several depths and an integration method with three layers was used. The thickness of the bottom layer was determined with a spectral method. The soil surface heat flux was compared with the net radiation above the canopy for four typical days in 1995. These data were fitted linearly. The slope of this parameterisation was 0.092, with a leaf area index of 2.5 (fully-leafed canopy). This result was compared with four other studies. To produce an exponential fit of the slope against the leaf area index the Beer-Bouguer law for radiation extinction in canopies and a soil surface heat flux proportional to the net radiation at the forest floor was used. An extinction coefficient of 0.36 was found. This result is recommended for future studies, if soil surface heat flux is requested and net radiation data above the canopy as well as leaf area index are available.

  2. Reconnection Between Twisted Flux Tubes - Implications for Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knizhnik, K. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Wyper, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the heating of the Sun's corona has been a long-standing unanswered problem in solar physics. Beginning with the work of Parker (1972), many authors have argued that the corona is continuously heated through numerous small-scale reconnection events known as nanoflares. In these nanoflare models, stressing of magnetic flux tubes by photospheric motions causes the field to become misaligned, producing current sheets in the corona. These current sheets then reconnect, converting the free energy stored in the magnetic field into heat. In this work, we use the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS) to perform 3D MHD simulations that dynamically resolve regions of strong current to study the reconnection between twisted flux tubes in a plane-parallel Parker configuration. We investigate the energetics of the process, and show that the flux tubes accumulate stress gradually before undergoing impulsive reconnection. We study the motion of the individual field lines during reconnection, and demonstrate that the connectivity of the configuration becomes extremely complex, with multiple current sheets being formed, which could lead to enhanced heating. In addition, we show that there is considerable interaction between the twisted flux tubes and the surrounding untwisted field, which contributes further to the formation of current sheets. The implications for observations will be discussed. This work was funded by a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship, and by the NASA TR&T Program.

  3. Forced Convection Boiling and Critical Heat Flux of Ethanol in Electrically Heated Tube Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Linne, Diane L.; Rousar, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Electrically heated tube tests were conducted to characterize the critical heat flux (transition from nucleate to film boiling) of subcritical ethanol flowing at conditions relevant to the design of a regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chamber. The coolant was SDA-3C alcohol (95% ethyl alcohol, 5% isopropyl alcohol by weight), and tests were conducted over the following ranges of conditions: pressure from 144 to 703 psia, flow velocities from 9.7 to 77 ft/s, coolant subcooling from 33 to 362 F, and critical heat fluxes up to 8.7 BTU/in(exp 2)/sec. For the data taken near 200 psia, critical heat flux was correlated as a function of the product of velocity and fluid subcooling to within +/- 20%. For data taken at higher pressures, an additional pressure term is needed to correlate the critical heat flux. It was also shown that at the higher test pressures and/or flow rates, exceeding the critical heat flux did not result in wall burnout. This result may significantly increase the engine heat flux design envelope for higher pressure conditions.

  4. Pool boiling of distilled water over tube bundle with variable heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Abhilas; Mohanty, Rajiva Lochan; Das, Mihir Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The experimental investigation of saturated pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water over plain tube bundle, under uniform and varying heat flux condition along the height are presented in this article. Experiments are carried out under various heat flux configurations applied to rows of tube bundles and pitch distance to diameter ratios of 1.25, 1.6 and 1.95. The wall superheats and pool boiling heat transfer coefficients over individual rows are determined. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for variable heat flux and uniform heat flux conditions are compared. The results indicate that the bundle effect is found to exist for uniform as well as variable heat flux under all operating conditions in the present investigation. The variable heat flux resulted in range of wall superheat being highest for decreasing heat flux from bottom to top and lowest for increasing heat flux from bottom to top.

  5. Maximum allowable heat flux for a submerged horizontal tube bundle

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.

    1995-08-14

    For application to industrial heating of large pools by immersed heat exchangers, the socalled maximum allowable (or {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes}) heat flux is studied for unconfined tube bundles aligned horizontally in a pool without forced flow. In general, we are considering boiling after the pool reaches its saturation temperature rather than sub-cooled pool boiling which should occur during early stages of transient operation. A combination of literature review and simple approximate analysis has been used. To date our main conclusion is that estimates of q inch chf are highly uncertain for this configuration.

  6. Experiments of Transient Condensation Heat Transfer on the Heat Flux Senor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuwen; Liu, Qiusheng; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xue

    2015-09-01

    The influence of transient heat transfer in different condensation condition was investigated experimentally in the present paper. Getting condensation heat and mass transfer regularity and characteristics in space can provide theoretical basis for thermodynamic device such as heat pipes, loop heat pipes and capillary pumped loops as well as other fluid management engineering designing. In order to study the condensation process in space, an experimental study has been carried out on the ground for space experiment. The results show that transit heat transfer coefficient of film condensation is related to the condensation film width, the flow condition near the two phase interface and the pressure of the vapor and non-condensable gas in chamber. On the ground, the condensation heat flux on vertical surface is higher than it on horizontal surface. The transit heat flux of film condensation is affected by the temperature of superheated vapor, the temperature of condensation surface and non-condensable gas pressure. Condensation heat flux with vapor forced convection is many times more than it with natural convection. All of heat flux for both vapor forced convection and natural convection condensation in limited chamber declines dramatically over time. The present experiment is preliminary work for our future space experiments of the condensation and heat transfer process onboard the Chinese Spacecraft "TZ-1" to be launched in 2016.

  7. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  8. Performance of thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Berndt, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings were exposed to the high temperature and high heat flux produced by a 30 kW plasma torch. Analysis of the specimen heating rates indicates that the temperature drop across the thickness of the 0.038 cm ceramic layer was about 1100 C after 0.5 sec in the flame. An as-sprayed ZrO2-8%Y2O3 specimens survived 3000 of the 0.5 sec cycles with failing. Surface spalling was observed when 2.5 sec cycles were employed but this was attributed to uneven heating caused by surface roughness. This surface spalling was prevented by smoothing the surface with silicon carbide paper or by laser glazing. A coated specimen with no surface modification but which was heat treated in argon also did not surface spall. Heat treatment in air led to spalling in as early as 2 cycle from heating stresses. Failures at edges were investigated and shown to be a minor source of concern. Ceramic coatings formed from ZrO2-12%Y2O3 or ZrO2-20%Y2O3 were shown to be unsuited for use under the high heat flux conditions of this study.

  9. Azimuthal Stress and Heat Flux In Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlen, Ebru

    2016-07-01

    Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows (RIAFs) have low radiative efficiencies and/or low accretion rates. The accreting gas may retain most of its binding energy in the form of heat. This lost energy for hot RIAFs is one of the problems heavily worked on in the literature. RIAF observations on the accretion to super massive black holes (e.g., Sagittarius A* in the center of our Galaxy) have shown that the observational data are not consistent with either advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) or Bondi models. For this reason, it is very important to theoretically comprehend the physical properties of RIAFs derived from observations with a new disk/flow model. One of the most probable candidates for definition of mass accretion and the source of excess heat energy in RIAFs is the gyroviscous modified magnetorotational instability (GvMRI). Dispersion relation is derived by using MHD equations containing heat flux term based on viscosity in the energy equation. Numerical solutions of the disk equations are done and the growth rates of the instability are calculated. This additional heat flux plays an important role in dissipation of energy. The rates of the angular momentum and heat flux which are obtained from numerical calculations of the turbulence brought about by the GVMRI are also discussed.

  10. Heat Flux in the Strong-Wind Nocturnal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, L.

    2016-11-01

    Sonic anemometer measurements are analyzed from two primary field programs and 12 supplementary sites to examine the behaviour of the turbulent heat flux near the surface with high wind speeds in the nocturnal boundary layer. On average, large downward heat flux is found for high wind speeds for most of the sites where some stratification is maintained in spite of relatively intense vertical mixing. The stratification for high wind speeds is found to be dependent on wind direction, suggesting the importance of warm-air advection, even for locally homogenous sites. Warm-air advection is also inferred from a large imbalance of the heat budget of the air for strong winds. Shortcomings of our study are noted.

  11. Global Intercomparison of 12 Land Surface Heat Flux Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, C.; Prigent, C.; Mueller, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; McCabe, M. F.; Wood, E. F.; Rossow, W. B.; Balsamo, G.; Betts, A. K.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Fisher, J. B.; Jung, M.; Kanamitsu, M.; Reichle, R. H.; Reichstein, M.; Rodell, M.; Sheffield, J.; Tu, K.; Wang, K.

    2011-01-01

    A global intercomparison of 12 monthly mean land surface heat flux products for the period 1993-1995 is presented. The intercomparison includes some of the first emerging global satellite-based products (developed at Paris Observatory, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, University of California Berkeley, University of Maryland, and Princeton University) and examples of fluxes produced by reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, NCEP-DOE) and off-line land surface models (GSWP-2, GLDAS CLM/ Mosaic/Noah). An intercomparison of the global latent heat flux (Q(sub le)) annual means shows a spread of approx 20 W/sq m (all-product global average of approx 45 W/sq m). A similar spread is observed for the sensible (Q(sub h)) and net radiative (R(sub n)) fluxes. In general, the products correlate well with each other, helped by the large seasonal variability and common forcing data for some of the products. Expected spatial distributions related to the major climatic regimes and geographical features are reproduced by all products. Nevertheless, large Q(sub le)and Q(sub h) absolute differences are also observed. The fluxes were spatially averaged for 10 vegetation classes. The larger Q(sub le) differences were observed for the rain forest but, when normalized by mean fluxes, the differences were comparable to other classes. In general, the correlations between Q(sub le) and R(sub n) were higher for the satellite-based products compared with the reanalyses and off-line models. The fluxes were also averaged for 10 selected basins. The seasonality was generally well captured by all products, but large differences in the flux partitioning were observed for some products and basins.

  12. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and burnout in condition of nonuniform megawatt heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Komendantov, A.S.; Kuzma-Kichta, Y.A.; Vasil'eva, L.T.; Ovodkov, A.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper burnout is investigated in tubes under nonuniform heating on the perimeter. Data on heat transfer and critical heat flux (q{sub chf}) in the case of water were obtained for ranges of mass velocity {rho}w = 200--3000 kg/m{sup 2} s, pressure p = 1--1 MPa, and inlet water temperature T = 25--98{degrees}C. The test section was a horizontal copper tube of 21 mm outer diameter, 8 mm inner diameter with a technically smooth surface and heat transfer-intensifying twisted tape and porous sintered coating. The test section was heated by bombardment with electrons. It is established that a redistribution of heat fluxes and an increase of wall temperature fluctuations occur at burnout. The range of regime parameters to prevent burnout of a heat transfer surface is determined.

  13. Constraints on hydrothermal heat flux through the oceanic lithosphere from global heat flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Carol A.; Stein, Seth

    1994-01-01

    A significant discrepancy exists between the heat flow measured at the seafloor and the higher values predicted by thermal models of the cooling lithosphere. This discrepancy is generally interpreted as indicating that the upper oceanic crust is cooled significantly by hydrothermal circulation. The magnitude of this heat flow discrepancy is the primary datum used to estimate the volume of hydrothermal flow, and the variation in the discrepancy with lithospheric age is the primary constraint on how the hydrothermal flux is divided between near-ridge and off-ridge environments. The resulting estimates are important for investigation of both the thermal structure of the lithosphere and the chemistry of the oceans. We reevaluate the magnitude and age variation of the discrepancy using a global heat flow data set substantially larger than in earlier studies, and the GDHI (Global Depth and Heat Flow) model that better predicts the heat flow. We estimate that of the predicted global oceanic heat flux of 32 x 10(exp 12) W, 34% (11 x 10(exp 12) W) occurs by hydrothermal flow. Approximately 30% of the hydrothermal heat flux occurs in crust younger than 1 Ma, so the majority of this flux is off-ridge. These hydrothermal heat flux estimates are upper bounds, because heat flow measurements require sediment at the site and so are made preferentially at topographic lows, where heat flow may be depressed. Because the water temperature for the near-ridge flow exceeds that for the off-ridge flow, the near-ridge water flow will be even a smaller fraction of the total water flow. As a result, in estimating fluxes from geochemical data, use of the high water temperatures appropriate for the ridge axis may significantly overestimate the heat flux for an assumed water flux or underestimate the water flux for an assumed heat flux. Our data also permit improved estimates of the 'sealing' age, defined as the age where the observed heat flow approximately equals that predicted, suggesting

  14. Entropy flux and anomalous axial heat transport at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, A.; Cimmelli, V. A.; Jou, D.

    2013-02-01

    The form and the role of the entropy flux in the thermodynamic analysis of the transport equations are essentially open questions in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In particular, nonlocal heat-transport equations at nanoscale may exhibit some peculiar behaviors which seem to violate well-known statements of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we examine one of these behaviors in axial heat transport from the perspective of a generalized entropy flux, i.e., J(s)=q/T+k, and show that such a generalization allows it to be consistent with the second law. In contrast with previous formal analyses, this paper provides an explicit form for the nonclassical part of the entropy flux, that is, k=ℓ2/(λT2)∇qT·q and links it to a concrete physical phenomenon which is accessible to current experimental possibilities for systems with sufficiently long mean-free path ℓ, whereas for short enough ℓ the classical results are recovered. The derivation of the nonclassical part of the entropy flux is obtained within the frame of extended irreversible thermodynamics from two different perspectives, namely, a 13-field theory with higher-order fluxes and a 4-field theory with higher-order gradients.

  15. Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under nonadvective conditions. ?? 1990.

  16. Scaling Relationships for ELM Diverter Heat Flux on DIII D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E. A.; Makowski, M. A.; Leonard, A. W.

    2015-11-01

    Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) are periodic plasma instabilities that occur during H-mode operation in tokamaks. Left unmitigated, these instabilities result in concentrated particle and heat fluxes at the divertor and stand to cause serious damage to the plasma facing components of tokamaks. The purpose of this research is to find scaling relationships that predict divertor heat flux due to ELMs based on plasma parameters at the time of instability. This will be accomplished by correlating characteristic ELM parameters with corresponding plasma measurements and analyzing the data for trends. One early assessment is the effect of the heat transmission coefficient ? on the in/out asymmetry of the calculated ELM heat fluxes. Using IR camera data, further assessments in this study will continue to emphasize in/out asymmetry in ELMs, as this has important implications for ITER operation. Work supported in part by the US DOE, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FC02-04ER54698, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  17. A 2-D imaging heat-flux gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. ); Beshears, D.L.; Sartory, W.K.; Tobin, K.W.; Williams, R.K. ); Turley, W.D. . Santa Barbara Operations)

    1991-07-01

    This report describes a new leadless two-dimensional imaging optical heat-flux gauge. The gauge is made by depositing arrays of thermorgraphic-phosphor (TP) spots onto the faces of a polymethylpentene is insulator. In the first section of the report, we describe several gauge configurations and their prototype realizations. A satisfactory configuration is an array of right triangles on each face that overlay to form squares when the gauge is viewed normal to the surface. The next section of the report treats the thermal conductivity of TPs. We set up an experiment using a comparative longitudinal heat-flow apparatus to measure the previously unknown thermal conductivity of these materials. The thermal conductivity of one TP, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, is 0.0137 W/cm{center dot}K over the temperature range from about 300 to 360 K. The theories underlying the time response of TP gauges and the imaging characteristics are discussed in the next section. Then we discuss several laboratory experiments to (1) demonstrate that the TP heat-flux gauge can be used in imaging applications; (2) obtain a quantum yield that enumerates what typical optical output signal amplitudes can be obtained from TP heat-flux gauges; and (3) determine whether LANL-designed intensified video cameras have sufficient sensitivity to acquire images from the heat-flux gauges. We obtained positive results from all the measurements. Throughout the text, we note limitations, areas where improvements are needed, and where further research is necessary. 12 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Air-Sea and Lateral Exchange Processes in East Indian Coastal Current off Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    of which have a bearing on local air-sea fluxes. The project seeks to collect hydrographic data sets in the international waters (R/V Roger Revelle...and in Sri Lankan coastal waters (R/V Samuddrika). The measurements include thermohaline stratification, currents and the kinetic energy...conducted CTD and ADCP measurements in the southern BoB onboard R/V Roger Revelle and in Sri Lanka coastal waters using R/V Samuddrika. The data analysis

  19. Temporal variability of air-sea CO2 exchange in a low-emission estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Stæhr, Peter Anton; Sørensen, Lise Lotte

    2016-07-01

    There is the need for further study of whether global estimates of air-sea CO2 exchange in estuarine systems capture the relevant temporal variability and, as such, the temporal variability of bulk parameterized and directly measured CO2 fluxes was investigated in the Danish estuary, Roskilde Fjord. The air-sea CO2 fluxes showed large temporal variability across seasons and between days and that more than 30% of the net CO2 emission in 2013 was a result of two large fall and winter storms. The diurnal variability of ΔpCO2 was up to 400 during summer changing the estuary from a source to a sink of CO2 within the day. Across seasons the system was suggested to change from a sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring to near neutral during summer and later to a source of atmospheric CO2 during fall. Results indicated that Roskilde Fjord was an annual low-emission estuary, with an estimated bulk parameterized release of 3.9 ± 8.7 mol CO2 m-2 y-1 during 2012-2013. It was suggested that the production-respiration balance leading to the low annual emission in Roskilde Fjord, was caused by the shallow depth, long residence time and high water quality in the estuary. In the data analysis the eddy covariance CO2 flux samples were filtered according to the H2Osbnd CO2 cross-sensitivity assessment suggested by Landwehr et al. (2014). This filtering reduced episodes of contradicting directions between measured and bulk parameterized air-sea CO2 exchanges and changed the net air-sea CO2 exchange from an uptake to a release. The CO2 gas transfer velocity was calculated from directly measured CO2 fluxes and ΔpCO2 and agreed to previous observations and parameterizations.

  20. Diamond Microchannel Heat Sink Designs For High Heat Flux Thermal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Michael V.; DeBenedictis, Matthew M.; James, David B.; LeBlanc, Stephen P.; Paradis, Leo R.

    2002-08-01

    Directed energy weapons, wide band gap semiconductor based radars, and other powerful systems present significant thermal control challenges to component designers. heat Flux levels approaching 2000 W/cm(2) are encountered at the base of laser diodes, and levels as high as 500 WI /cm(2) are expected in laser slabs and power amplifier tube collectors. These impressive heat flux levels frequently combine with strict operating temperature requirements to further compound the thermal control problem. Many investigators have suggested the use of diamond heat spreaders to reduce flux levels at or near to its source, and some have suggested that diamond microchannel heat sinks ultimately may play a significant role in the solution of these problems. Design engineers at Raytheon Company have investigated the application of all-diamond microchannel heat sinks to representative high heat flux problems and have found the approach promising. Diamond microchannel fabrication feasibility has been demonstrated; integration into packaging systems and the accompanying material compatibility issues have been addressed; and thermal and hydrodynamic performance predictions have been made for selected, possible applications. An example of a practical, all diamond microchannel heat sink has been fabricated, and another is in process and will be performance tested. The heat sink assembly is made entirely of optical quality, CVD diamond and is of sufficient strength to withstand the thermal and pressure-induced mechanical loads associated with manufacture and use in tactical weapons environment. The work presented describes the development program's accomplishments to date, and highlights many of the areas for future study.

  1. Round-Robin Test of Heat Flux Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turzo-Andras, E.; Blokland, H.; Hammerschmidt, U.; Rudtsch, S.; Stacey, C.; Krös, C.; Magyarlaki, T.; Nemeth, S.

    2011-12-01

    The first intercomparison on the density of heat flow-rate measurements has been organized by MKEH (Hungarian Trade Licensing Office, Metrology Division) within the framework of EUROMET (Project No. 426). This round-robin test gives evidence about the measurement capabilities of the local realizations of a density of a heat flow-rate scale up to 100 W · m-2. Two types of heat flux plate sensors differing in their size were circulated among partner laboratories. Each one of the six partners calibrated the sensors using its own calibration system, a guarded hot plate or a heat flow meter apparatus. This article compares all the results of the round-robin test and gives the mutual differences among the partners. The participants could benefit from the measurement results by improving, in case of need, their calibration methods and procedures and by reducing their uncertainties. The impact of this comparison will go directly to the users in industry.

  2. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regis, J. L.; Slinn, D. N.

    2004-12-01

    Deep-water wave breaking is crucial in the transfer of heat, gases, and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. Observations of these events have provided qualitative support to this end, and yet accurate quantification of momentum transfer for strong winds and nonlinear waves has remained a challenge. In recent years, advances have been made in the development of numerous algorithms to capture and describe air-sea interaction. Most, however, are idealized and only capable of modeling fluid flow within the two-dimensional approximation. Thus, many important characteristics of the flow composition and breaking process are ignored, oversimplified, or remain unknown. We employ a three-dimensional, time-dependent, finite difference, volume of fluid model, including both the flow of air and water, entitled TRUCHAS, to address the issue of deep-water breaking waves. Our model utilizes the multidimensional piecewise linear interface calculation method to assess the volume fraction of each fluid material in every mesh cell. The model solves conservation equations for mass and momentum for multiple fluids within the domain and tracks the interfaces between them. A great many details of the flow development are available for analysis from the model output. These include wind and water velocities, pressure gradients in both the air and sea around a breaking wave, the development and evolution of wind-generated waves, and the corresponding transfer of momentum from the atmosphere to the ocean. Our results are correlated with laboratory experiments conducted at the University of Miami's Air-Sea Interaction Salt-water Tank that possesses both wind and wave generating capabilities. Preliminary model results show good qualitative agreement to laboratory data.

  3. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q2, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.

  4. A microscale thermophoretic turbine driven by external diffusive heat flux.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingcheng; Liu, Rui; Ripoll, Marisol; Chen, Ke

    2014-11-21

    We propose a theoretical prototype of a micro-scale turbine externally driven by diffusive heat flux without the need for macroscopic particle flux, which is in sharp contrast to conventional turbines. The prototypes are described analytically and validated by computer simulations. Our results indicate that a micro-scale turbine composed of anisotropic blades can rotate unidirectionally in an external temperature gradient due to the anisotropic thermophoresis effect. The rotational direction and speed depend on the temperature gradient, the geometry and the thermophoretic properties of the turbine. The proposed thermophoretic turbines can be experimentally realized and implemented on micro-devices such as computer-chips to recover waste heat or to facilitate cooling.

  5. Geodesic acoustic mode in anisotropic plasma with heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2015-10-15

    Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in an anisotropic tokamak plasma is investigated in fluid approximation. The collisionless anisotropic plasma is described within the 16-momentum magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid closure model, which takes into account not only the pressure anisotropy but also the anisotropic heat flux. It is shown that the GAM frequency agrees better with the kinetic result than the standard Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) MHD model. When zeroing the anisotropy, the 16-momentum result is identical with the kinetic one to the order of 1/q{sup 2}, while the CGL result agrees with the kinetic result only on the leading order. The discrepancies between the results of the CGL fluid model and the kinetic theory are well removed by considering the heat flux effect in the fluid approximation.

  6. Method of fission heat flux determination from experimental data

    DOEpatents

    Paxton, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  7. Heat flux instrumentation for HYFLITE thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Tasks performed in this project were defined in a September 9, 1994 meeting of representatives of Vatell, NASA Lewis and Virginia Tech. The overall objective agreed upon in the meeting was 'to demonstrate the viability of thin film techniques for heat flux and temperature sensing in HYSTEP thermal protection systems'. We decided to attempt a combination of NASA's and Vatell's best heat flux sensor technology in a sensor which would be tested in the Vortek facility at Lewis early in 1995. The NASA concept for thermocouple measurement of surface temperature was adopted, and Vatell methods for fabrication of sensors on small diameter substrates of aluminum nitride were used to produce a sensor. This sensor was then encapsulated in a NARloy-Z housing. Various improvements to the Vatell substrate design were explored without success. The basic NASA and Vatell sensor layouts were analyzed by finite element modeling, in an attempt to better understand the effects of material properties, dimensions and thermal differential element location on sensor symmetry, bandwidth and sensitivity. This analysis showed that, as long as the thermal resistivity of the thermal differential element material is much larger (10X) than that of the substrate material, the simplest arrangement of layer is best. During calibration of the sensor produced in this project, undesirable side-effects of combining the heat flux and temperature sensor return leads were observed. The sensor did not cleanly separate the heat flux and temperature signals, as sensors with four leads have consistently done before. Task 7 and 8 discussed in the meeting will be performed with a continuation of funding in 1995. The following is a discussion of each of the tasks performed as outlined in the statement of work dated september 26, 1994. Task 1A was added to cover further investigation into the NASA sensor concept.

  8. Heat flux induced dryout and rewet in thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroes, Gustave; Fricker, Darren; Issacci, Farrokh; Catton, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Heat flux induced dryout of thin liquid films on an inclined copper plate was studied. Rewet of the dried out area is also considered. The four fluids used to form the thin films exhibited very different dryout and rewet characteristics. The contact angle and hysteresis effects were found to be important, but they must be considered in context with other parameters. No single variable was found to independently determine the pattern of dryout and rewet.

  9. Solid propellant combustion response to oscillatory radiant heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Weil, M. T.; Cohen, N. S.

    1989-01-01

    A progress report is given on a research project to use the microwave Doppler velocimeter technique to measure the combustion response to an oscillating thermal radiation source (CO2 laser). The test technique and supporting analyses are described, and the results are presented for an initial test series on the nonmetallized, composite propellant, Naval Weapons Center formulation A-13. It is concluded that in-depth transmission of radiant heat flux is not a factor at the CO2 laser wave length.

  10. Heat flux instrumentation for HYFLITE thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-12-01

    Tasks performed in this project were defined in a September 9, 1994 meeting of representatives of Vatell, NASA Lewis and Virginia Tech. The overall objective agreed upon in the meeting was 'to demonstrate the viability of thin film techniques for heat flux and temperature sensing in HYSTEP thermal protection systems'. We decided to attempt a combination of NASA's and Vatell's best heat flux sensor technology in a sensor which would be tested in the Vortek facility at Lewis early in 1995. The NASA concept for thermocouple measurement of surface temperature was adopted, and Vatell methods for fabrication of sensors on small diameter substrates of aluminum nitride were used to produce a sensor. This sensor was then encapsulated in a NARloy-Z housing. Various improvements to the Vatell substrate design were explored without success. The basic NASA and Vatell sensor layouts were analyzed by finite element modeling, in an attempt to better understand the effects of material properties, dimensions and thermal differential element location on sensor symmetry, bandwidth and sensitivity. This analysis showed that, as long as the thermal resistivity of the thermal differential element material is much larger (10X) than that of the substrate material, the simplest arrangement of layer is best. During calibration of the sensor produced in this project, undesirable side-effects of combining the heat flux and temperature sensor return leads were observed. The sensor did not cleanly separate the heat flux and temperature signals, as sensors with four leads have consistently done before. Task 7 and 8 discussed in the meeting will be performed with a continuation of funding in 1995. The following is a discussion of each of the tasks performed as outlined in the statement of work dated september 26, 1994. Task 1A was added to cover further investigation into the NASA sensor concept.

  11. Development of advanced high-temperature heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Various configurations of high temperature, heat flux sensors were studied to determine their suitability for use in experimental combustor liners of advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was determined that embedded thermocouple sensors, laminated sensors, and Gardon gauge sensors, were the most viable candidates. Sensors of all three types were fabricated, calibrated, and endurance tested. All three types of sensors met the fabricability survivability, and accuracy requirements established for their application.

  12. Vapor Shielding of Solid Targets Exposed to High Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenov, A. A.; Eksaeva, A. A.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Marenkov, E. D.

    The thickness of Tungsten monoblocks composing the future ITER divertor is supposed to be 8 mm only. Therefore, severe erosion caused by high heat fluxes during transients, such as Type I ELMs and disruptions, is a limiting factor to PFCs lifespan. Under the influence of extreme heat fluxes expected during ITER transients serious surface modification of the Tungsten monoblocks is anticipated. Moreover, melting of a thin surface layer is likely to happen. Melt motion contributes seriously to the material erosion. The other sources of erosion are melt splashing, in the form of droplet ejection, and evaporation. These mechanics lead to a cold dense secondary plasma region formation near the irradiated surface. Intense re-radiation of the incoming plasma flow energy in the secondary plasma layer results in a significant reduction of the heat flux reaching the target surface. Accounting for this vapor shielding effect is essential to estimate the surface erosion under influence of intense plasma flow properly. In this paper a simple model capable of reproducing one of the key features of vapor shielding, namely the saturation of the energy absorbed by the target, is proposed. This model allows for an approximate analytical solution that indicates parameters the saturation energy depends on. The model is validated against the experimental data obtained at MK-200 pulse plasma accelerator.

  13. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

  14. Observational & modeling analysis of surface heat and moisture fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.

    1995-09-01

    An observational and modeling study was conducted to help assess how well current GCMs are predicting surface fluxes under the highly variable cloudiness and flow conditions characteristic of the real atmosphere. The observational data base for the study was obtained from a network of surface flux stations operated during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The study included examination of a surface-driven secondary circulation in the boundary layer resulting from a persistent cross-site gradient in soil moisture, to demonstrate the sensitivity of boundary layer dynamics to heterogeneous surface fluxes, The performance of a biosphere model in reproducing the measured surface fluxes was evaluated with and without the use of satellite retrieval of three key canopy variables with RMS uncertainties commensurate with those of the measurements themselves. Four sensible heat flux closure schemes currently being used in GCMs were then evaluated against the FIFE observations. Results indicate that the methods by which closure models are calibrated lead to exceedingly large errors when the schemes are applied to variable boundary layer conditions. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Reynolds stress and heat flux in spherical shell convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käpylä, P. J.; Mantere, M. J.; Guerrero, G.; Brandenburg, A.; Chatterjee, P.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Turbulent fluxes of angular momentum and enthalpy or heat due to rotationally affected convection play a key role in determining differential rotation of stars. Their dependence on latitude and depth has been determined in the past from convection simulations in Cartesian or spherical simulations. Here we perform a systematic comparison between the two geometries as a function of the rotation rate. Aims: Here we want to extend the earlier studies by using spherical wedges to obtain turbulent angular momentum and heat transport as functions of the rotation rate from stratified convection. We compare results from spherical and Cartesian models in the same parameter regime in order to study whether restricted geometry introduces artefacts into the results. In particular, we want to clarify whether the sharp equatorial profile of the horizontal Reynolds stress found in earlier Cartesian models is also reproduced in spherical geometry. Methods: We employ direct numerical simulations of turbulent convection in spherical and Cartesian geometries. In order to alleviate the computational cost in the spherical runs, and to reach as high spatial resolution as possible, we model only parts of the latitude and longitude. The rotational influence, measured by the Coriolis number or inverse Rossby number, is varied from zero to roughly seven, which is the regime that is likely to be realised in the solar convection zone. Cartesian simulations are performed in overlapping parameter regimes. Results: For slow rotation we find that the radial and latitudinal turbulent angular momentum fluxes are directed inward and equatorward, respectively. In the rapid rotation regime the radial flux changes sign in accordance with earlier numerical results, but in contradiction with theory. The latitudinal flux remains mostly equatorward and develops a maximum close to the equator. In Cartesian simulations this peak can be explained by the strong "banana cells". Their effect in the

  16. An oceanic heat transport pathway to the Amundsen Sea Embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Angelica R.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Gille, Sarah T.

    2016-05-01

    The Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) on the West Antarctic coastline has been identified as a region of accelerated glacial melting. A Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) is analyzed over the 2005-2010 time period in the Amundsen Sea region. The SOSE oceanic heat budget reveals that the contribution of parameterized small-scale mixing to the heat content of the ASE waters is small compared to advection and local air-sea heat flux, both of which contribute significantly to the heat content of the ASE waters. Above the permanent pycnocline, the local air-sea flux dominates the heat budget and is controlled by seasonal changes in sea ice coverage. Overall, between 2005 and 2010, the model shows a net heating in the surface above the pycnocline within the ASE. Sea water below the permanent pycnocline is isolated from the influence of air-sea heat fluxes, and thus, the divergence of heat advection is the major contributor to increased oceanic heat content of these waters. Oceanic transport of mass and heat into the ASE is dominated by the cross-shelf input and is primarily geostrophic below the permanent pycnocline. Diagnosis of the time-mean SOSE vorticity budget along the continental shelf slope indicates that the cross-shelf transport is sustained by vorticity input from the localized wind-stress curl over the shelf break.

  17. Water and heat fluxes in desert soils: 2. Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Milly, P. C. D.

    1994-03-01

    Transient one-dimensional fluxes of soil water (liquid and vapor) and heat in response to 1 year of atmospheric forcing were simulated numerically for a site in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas. The model was initialized and evaluated using the monitoring data presented in a companion paper (Scanlon, this issue). Soil hydraulic and thermal properties were estimated a priori from a combination of laboratory measurements, models, and other published information. In the first simulation, the main drying curves were used to describe soil water retention, and hysteresis was ignored. Remarkable consistency was found between computed and measured water potentials and temperatures. Attenuation and phase shift of the seasonal cycle of water potentials below the shallow subsurface active zone (0.0- to 0.3-m depth) were similar to those of temperatures, suggesting that water potential fluctuations were driven primarily by temperature changes. Water fluxes in the upper 0.3 m of soil were dominated by downward and upward liquid fluxes that resulted from infiltration of rain and subsequent evaporation from the surface. Upward flux was vapor dominated only in the top several millimeters of the soil during periods of evaporation. Below a depth of 0.3 m, water fluxes varied slowly and were dominated by downward thermal vapor flux that decreased with depth, causing a net accumulation of water. In a second simulation, nonhysteretic water retention was instead described by the estimated main wetting curves; the resulting differences in fluxes were attributed to lower initial water contents (given fixed initial water potential) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities that were lower than they were in the first simulation. Below a depth of 0.3 m, the thermal vapor fluxes dominated and were similar to those in the first simulation. Two other simulations were performed, differing from the first only in the prescription of different (wetter) initial water potentials. These three simulations

  18. Connections Between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-sea Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke David; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Hurwitz, Margaret H.; Molod, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circulation is demonstrated in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated parameterization of roughness at the air-sea interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4ms to 20ms), leads to a decrease in model biases in Southern Hemispheric ozone, polar cap temperature, stationary wave heat flux, and springtime vortex breakup. A dynamical mechanism is proposed whereby increased surface roughness leads to improved stationary waves. Increased surface roughness leads to anomalous eddy momentum flux convergence primarily in the Indian Ocean sector (where eddies are strongest climatologically) in September and October. The localization of the eddy momentum flux convergence anomaly in the Indian Ocean sector leads to a zonally asymmetric reduction in zonal wind and, by geostrophy, to a wavenumber-1 stationary wave pattern. This tropospheric stationary wave pattern leads to enhanced upwards wave activity entering the stratosphere. The net effect is an improved Southern Hemisphere vortex: the vortex breaks up earlier in spring (i.e., the spring late-breakup bias is partially ameliorated) yet is no weaker in mid-winter. More than half of the stratospheric biases appear to be related to the surface wind speed biases. As many other chemistry climate models use a similar scheme for their surface layer momentum exchange and have similar biases in the stratosphere, we expect that results from GEOSCCM may be relevant for other climate models.

  19. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  20. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-09-08

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima.

  1. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-09-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima.

  2. Heat Transfer in the Turbulent Incompressible Boundary Layer. 3; Arbitrary Wall Temperature and Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, W. C.; Kays, W. M.; Kline, S. J.

    1958-01-01

    Superposition techniques are used to calculate the rate of heat transfer from a flat plate to a turbulent incompressible boundary layer for several cases of variable surface temperature. The predictions of a number of these calculations are compared with experimental heat- transfer rates, and good agreement is obtained. A simple computing procedure for determining the heat-transfer rates from surfaces with arbitrary wall-temperature distributions is presented and illustrated by two examples. The inverse problem of determining the temperature distribution from an arbitrarily prescribed heat flux is also treated, both experimentally and analytically.

  3. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  4. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C. ); Barnes, F.J. ); Coulter, R.L. ); Crawford, T.L. . Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.)

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  5. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-04-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations within the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moveover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discuses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  6. Boundary layer structure over areas of heterogeneous heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    In general circulation models (GCMs), some properties of a grid element are necessarily considered homogeneous. That is, for each grid volume there is associated a particular combination of boundary layer depth, vertical profiles of wind and temperature, surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, etc. In reality, all of these quantities may exhibit significant spatial variations the grid area, and the larger the area the greater the likely variations. In balancing the benefits of higher resolution against increased computational time and expense, it is useful to consider what the consequences of such subgrid-scale variability may be. Moreover, in interpreting the results of a simulation, one must be able to define an appropriate average value over a grid. There are two aspects of this latter problem: (1) in observations, how does one take a set of discrete or volume-averaged measurements and relate these to properties of the entire domain, and (2) in computations, how can subgrid-scale features be accounted for in the model parameterizations? To address these and related issues, two field campaigns were carried out near Boardman, Oregon, in June 1991 and 1992. These campaigns were designed to measure the surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over adjacent areas with strongly contrasting surface types and to measure the response of the boundary layer to those fluxes. This paper discusses some initial findings from those campaigns.

  7. New technique of the local heat flux measurement in combustion chambers of steam boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Sobota, Tomasz; Dzierwa, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    A new method for measurement of local heat flux to water-walls of steam boilers was developed. A flux meter tube was made from an eccentric tube of short length to which two longitudinal fins were attached. These two fins prevent the boiler setting from heating by a thermal radiation from the combustion chamber. The fins are not welded to the adjacent water-wall tubes, so that the temperature distribution in the heat flux meter is not influenced by neighbouring water-wall tubes. The thickness of the heat flux tube wall is larger on the fireside to obtain a greater distance between the thermocouples located inside the wall which increases the accuracy of heat flux determination. Based on the temperature measurements at selected points inside the heat flux meter, the heat flux absorbed by the water-wall, heat transfer coefficient on the inner tube surface and temperature of the water-steam mixture was determined.

  8. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, R. A.; Özsoy, E.; Schrum, C.; Sur, H. I.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December-January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February-July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August-November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. The model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  9. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, R. A.; Özsoy, E.; Schrum, C.; Sur, H. İ.

    2009-09-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December-January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February-July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August-November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. Model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  10. Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique

  11. Surface Fluxes and Wind-Wave Interactions in Weak Wind Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    science /abl/cblast LONG-TERM GOALS We will investigate air-sea transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture under weak wind conditions. We will...over the ASIT tower and the wind direction was good for the tower sonic performance (6 days in total). As we found last year that although the momentum...flux derived from the aircraft is flight- direction dependent, which was recently found to be a common problem for all aircraft flux measurements

  12. Effects of the Sea Ice Floe Size Distribution on Polar Ocean Properties and Air-Sea Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, C.; Tziperman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent scientific studies have demonstrated that sub-mesoscale ocean eddies, motions characterized by Rossby and Richardson numbers around 1, are important in determining the vertical density structure of the ocean, particularly in the mixed layer. Instabilities excited at the sub-mesoscale have timescales of days and length scales of less than 10 kilometers, and enhance ocean restratification by slumping lateral density gradients. In the polar oceans, a unique mechanism exists that may generate motions on these scales. Individual floes of sea ice may create lateral gradients in the ocean surface heat flux and wind stress curl, acting as an insulator and physical barrier between the ocean and the atmospheric processes that destabilize it. The "floe size distribution" describes the fraction of the ocean surface area covered by sea ice floes, as a function of the sea ice floe size, and determines the length scales over which gradients in atmospheric forcing are transmitted to the ocean. It may therefore play a significant role in exciting or inhibiting sub-mesoscale eddies, and consequently in restratification and air-sea exchange. Current GCMs simulate ice cover using grid-scale ice fraction alone, and lack information about the floe size distribution and of ice length scales that may be important in setting the larger-scale statistics of these motions. An important factor in determining the properties of the upper polar oceans might therefore be missing from modern GCMs. We consider this possibility by examining sub-mesoscale resolving ocean GCM experiments coupled to an energy-balanced atmosphere and idealized model of floes of sea ice. Varying the floe size distribution with a fixed sea ice fraction, we find that the length scales of individual floes and the floe size distribution itself play an important role in setting the steady-state ocean stratification, temperature, and air-sea exchange.

  13. Experimental Performance of a Micromachined Heat Flux Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, S.; DeAnna, R. G.; Mehregany, M.

    1998-01-01

    Steady-state and frequency response calibration of a microfabricated heat-flux sensor have been completed. This sensor is batch fabricated using standard, micromachining techniques, allowing both miniaturization and the ability to create arrays of sensors and their corresponding interconnects. Both high-frequency and spatial response is desired, so the sensors are both thin and of small cross-sectional area. Thin-film, temperature-sensitive resistors are used as the active gauge elements. Two sensor configurations are investigated: (1) a Wheatstone-bridge using four resistors; and (2) a simple, two-resistor design. In each design, one resistor (or pair) is covered by a thin layer (5000 A) thermal barrier; the other resistor (or pair) is covered by a thick (5 microns) thermal barrier. The active area of a single resistor is 360 microns by 360 microns; the total gauge area is 1.5 mm square. The resistors are made of 2000 A-thick metal; and the entire gauge is fabricated on a 25 microns-thick flexible, polyimide substrate. Heat flux through the surface changes the temperature of the resistors and produces a corresponding change in resistance. Sensors were calibrated using two radiation heat sources: (1) a furnace for steady-state, and (2) a light and chopper for frequency response.

  14. Microconvection in vertical channel at given heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekezhanova, V. B.; Shefer, I. A.

    2016-10-01

    A problem on stability of the viscous heat-conducting liquid flow in the vertical channel at given heat flux on the permeable solid walls is studied. The two-dimensional flow is described by an exact invariant solution of the microconvection equations. The investigation of the exact solution allows one to find out the extent of influence of the thermal load, gravity and the system geometry on the flow structure. Stability of the solution is investigated in the framework of the linear theory. The spectrum of the spatial characteristic perturbations is analyzed in the space of problem parameters. Typical forms of the hydrodynamic and thermal disturbances are presented and dependence of characteristics of the arising structures on the thermal load and gravity is established. Convective cells, hydrothermal rolls and polygonal structures can appear in the channel. By weak gravity the hydrothermal rolls are not formed. Changing heat flux and disturbance wave length lead to deformation of the cells and complication of the spatial form of the structures.

  15. Critical heat flux and dynamics of boiling in nanofluids at stepwise heat release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, M. I.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper results of an experimental study on critical heat flux and dynamics of boiling crisis onset in nanofluids at stepwise heat generation are presented. Freon R21 with three types of nanoparticles - SiO2, Cu and Al2O3 was used as test fluid. Critical heat fluxes and temperatures of boiling initiation were obtained. It was shown that the addition of nanoparticles increased CHF at stepwise heat generation by up to 21%. Under conditions of the experiment transition to film boiling occurred via evaporation fronts. Data on propagation velocity and structure of evaporation fronts were obtained; the spectral analysis of fluctuations of the evaporation front interface was carried out. The characteristic frequencies and amplitudes of interface fluctuations were determined depending on the velocity of evaporation front propagation. It was shown that the addition of nano-sized particles significantly affects development of interface instability and increases the front velocity.

  16. Modeling of a heat sink and high heat flux vapor chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadnjal, Aleksander

    An increasing demand for a higher heat flux removal capability within a smaller volume for high power electronics led us to focus on a novel cold plate design. A high heat flux evaporator and micro channel heat sink are the main components of a cold plate which is capable of removing couple of 100 W/cm2. In order to describe performance of such porous media device a proper modeling has to be addressed. A universal approach based on the volume average theory (VAT) to transport phenomena in porous media is shown. An approach on how to treat the closure for momentum and energy equations is addressed and a proper definition for friction factors and heat transfer coefficients are discussed. A numerical scheme using a solution to Navier-Stokes equations over a representative elementary volume (REV) and the use of VAT is developed to show how to compute friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The calculation show good agreement with the experimental data. For the heat transfer coefficient closure, a proper average for both fluid and solid is investigated. Different types of heating are also investigated in order to determine how it influences the heat transfer coefficient. A higher heat fluxes in small area condensers led us to the micro channels in contrast to the classical heat fin design. A micro channel can have various shapes to enhance heat transfer, but the shape that will lead to a higher heat flux removal with a moderate pumping power needs to be determined. The standard micro-channel terminology is usually used for channels with a simple cross section, e.g. square, round, triangle, etc., but here the micro channel cross section is going to be expanded to describe more complicated and interconnected micro scale channel cross sections. The micro channel geometries explored are pin fins (in-line and staggered) and sintered porous micro channels. The problem solved here is a conjugate problem involving two heat transfer mechanisms; (1) porous media

  17. On the relation between coronal heating, flux tube divergence, and the solar wind proton flux and flow speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandbaek, Onulf; Leer, Egil; Hansteen, Viggo H.

    1994-01-01

    A one-fluid solar wind model is used to investigate some relations between coronal heating, the flux tube divergence near the Sun, and the solar wind proton flux and flow speed. The effects of energy addition to the supersonic region of the flow are also studied. We allow for a mechanical energy flux that heats the corona, and an Alfven wave energy flux that adds energy, mainly to the supersonic flow, both as momentum and as heat. We find that the mechanical energy flux determines the solar wind mass flux, and in order to keep an almost constant proton flux at the orbit of Earth with changing flow geometry, that the mechanical energy flux must vary linearly with the magnetic field in the inner corona. This thermally driven wind generally has a low asymptotic flow speed. When Alfven waves are added to the thermally driven flow, the asymptotic flow speed is increased and is determined by the ratio of the Alfven wave and the mechanical energy fluxes at the coronal base. Flow speeds characteristic of recurrent high-speed solar wind streams can be obtained only when the Alfven wave energy flux, deposited in the supersonic flow, is larger than the mechanical energy flux heating the corona.

  18. Investigation of saturated critical heat flux in a single, uniformly heated microchannel

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtan, Leszek; Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R.

    2006-08-15

    A series of tests have been performed to determine the saturated critical heat flux (CHF) in 0.5 and 0.8mm internal diameter microchannel tubes as a function of refrigerant mass velocity, heated length, saturation temperature and inlet liquid subcooling. The tested refrigerants were R-134a and R-245fa and the heated length of microchannel was varied between 20 and 70mm. The results show a strong dependence of CHF on mass velocity, heated length and microchannel diameter but no influence of liquid subcooling (2-15{sup o}C) was observed. The experimental results have been compared to the well-known CHF single-channel correlation of Y. Katto and H. Ohno [An improved version of the generalized correlation of critical heat flux for the forced convective boiling in uniformly heated vertical tubes, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 27 (9) (1984) 1641-1648] and the multichannel correlation of W. Qu and I. Mudawar [Measurement and correlation of critical heat flux in two-phase microchannel heat sinks, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2004) 2045-2059]. The comparison shows that the correlation of Katto-Ohno predicts microchannel data with a mean absolute error of 32.8% with only 41.2% of the data falling within a +/-15% error band. The correlation of Qu and Mudawar shows the same trends as the CHF data but significantly overpredicts them. Based on the present experimental data, a new microscale version of the Katto-Ohno correlation for the prediction of CHF during saturated boiling in microchannels has been proposed. (author)

  19. Copper alloys for high heat flux structure applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1994-09-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of copper alloys are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high heat flux structural applications in fusion reactors. High heat flux structural materials must possess a combination of high thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. The three most promising copper alloys at the present time are oxide dispersion-strengthened copper (Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and two precipitation-hardened copper alloys (Cu-Cr-Zr and Cu-Ni-Be). These three alloys are capable of room temperature yield strengths >400 MPa and thermal conductivities up to 350 W/m-K. All of these alloys require extensive cold working to achieve their optimum strength. Precipitation-hardened copper alloys such Cu-Cr-Zr are susceptible to softening due to precipitate overaging and recrystallization during brazing, whereas the dislocation structure in Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} remains stabilized during typical high temperature brazing cycles. All three alloys exhibit good resistance to irradiation-induced softening and void swelling at temperatures below 300{degrees}C. The precipitation-strengthened allows typically soften during neutron irradiation at temperatures above about 300{degrees}C and therefore should only be considered for applications operating at temperatures <300{degrees}C. Dispersion-strengthened copper may be used up to temperatures in excess of 500{degrees}C. Based on the available data, dispersion-strengthened copper (Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is considered to be the best candidate for high heat flux structural applications.

  20. Investigation of Instabilities and Heat Transfer Phenomena in Supercritical Fuels at High Heat Flux and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Meyer, Michael L.; Braun, Donald C.; Keller, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    A series of heated tube experiments was performed to investigate fluid instabilities that occur during heating of supercritical fluids. In these tests, JP-7 flowed vertically through small diameter tubes at supercritical pressures. Test section heated length, diameter, mass flow rate, inlet temperature, and heat flux were varied in an effort to determine the range of conditions that trigger the instabilities. Heat flux was varied up to 4 BTU/sq in./s, and test section wall temperatures reached as high as 1950 F. A statistical model was generated to explain the trends and effects of the control variables. The model included no direct linear effect of heat flux on the occurrence of the instabilities. All terms involving inlet temperature were negative, and all terms involving mass flow rate were positive. Multiple tests at conditions that produced instabilities provided inconsistent results. These inconsistencies limit the use of the model as a predictive tool. Physical variables that had been previously postulated to control the onset of the instabilities, such as film temperature, velocity, buoyancy, and wall-to-bulk temperature ratio, were evaluated here. Film temperatures at or near critical occurred during both stable and unstable tests. All tests at the highest velocity were stable, but there was no functional relationship found between the instabilities and velocity, or a combination of velocity and temperature ratio. Finally, all of the unstable tests had significant buoyancy at the inlet of the test section, but many stable tests also had significant buoyancy forces.

  1. Heat flux through a geothermally heated fluidized bed at the bottom of a lake.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Xavier; Roget, Elena; Planella, Jesus

    2009-07-01

    Heat fluxes and the underground inflow through a natural fluidized bed within the main sub-basin of Lake Banyoles are studied and parameterized. In the upper part of this fluidized bed, at a depth of about 30 m, the vertical gradients of particle concentration and temperature are very sharply located within an interface a few centimeters thick. Within this interface (lutocline), the depths where the temperature and the concentration gradients are maximum match exactly. On the other hand, the lutocline determines a flat, horizontal surface dividing the water column into a hot, turbid medium at the bottom and clear, colder, bulk water above. Through this interface the flow regime also varies from being laminar just below it, to turbulent due to convective processes developing above it. More precisely, in studied main sub-basin a buoyant plume develops above the lutocline, as a result of the heat flux, and affects the lake's water quality due to particles dragged along by it. In this paper it is proposed to determine the temperature at the depth of maximum gradient within the interface by means of measured temperature profiles, and consider the stationary heat transport equation in the laminar region below it, in order to obtain the water velocity and the heat flux. Heat flux parameterization is given based on a large number of thermal high-resolution profiles, covering six campaigns in different years and seasons. Furthermore, and in consideration of the fact that high-resolution thermal profiles are not always available, some alternative parameterizations for the heat flux are presented based only on the temperature of the fluidized bed and that of the lower hypolimnion.

  2. Method of producing a plug-type heat flux gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H. (Inventor); Koch, John, Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method of making a plug-type heat flux gauge in a material specimen in which a thermoplug is integrally formed in the specimen is disclosed. The thermoplug and concentric annulus are formed in the material specimen by electrical discharge machining and trepanning procedures. The thermoplug is surrounded by a concentric annulus through which thermocouple wires are routed. The end of each thermocouple wire is welded to the thermoplug, with each thermocouple wire welded at a different location along the length of the thermoplug.

  3. USE OF PELTIER COOLERS AS SOIL HEAT FLUX TRANSDUCERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, H.L.; Campbell, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Peltier coolers were modified and calibrated to serve as soil heat flux transducers. The modification was to fill their interiors with epoxy. The average calibration constant on 21 units was 13. 6 plus or minus 0. 8 kW m** minus **2 V** minus **1 at 20 degree C. This sensitivity is about eight times that of the two thermopile transducers with which comparisons were made. The thermal conductivity of the Peltier cooler transducers was 0. 4 W m** minus **1 degree C** minus **1, which is comparable to that of dry soil.

  4. Value of Bulk Heat Flux Parameterizations for Ocean SST Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Section 3 gives details of the OGCM used in this study. Section 4 presents SST results from an OGCM in relation to the bulk heat flux parameteriza- tion...HYCOM uses a penetrating solar radiation scheme (Kara ct al., 2005a) that accounts for spatial and temporal water turbidity (Kara et al.. 2005b,c...including air mixing ratio (i/.t), near-surface air temperature (’/],) (all of which arc 10 m above the sea surface), mixing ratio for sea water

  5. Applicability of copper alloys for DEMO high heat flux components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, Steven J.

    2016-02-01

    The current state of knowledge of the mechanical and thermal properties of high-strength, high conductivity Cu alloys relevant for fusion energy high heat flux applications is reviewed, including effects of thermomechanical and joining processes and neutron irradiation on precipitation- or dispersion-strengthened CuCrZr, Cu-Al2O3, CuNiBe, CuNiSiCr and CuCrNb (GRCop-84). The prospects for designing improved versions of wrought copper alloys and for utilizing advanced fabrication processes such as additive manufacturing based on electron beam and laser consolidation methods are discussed. The importance of developing improved structural materials design criteria is also noted.

  6. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

    PubMed

    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna.

  7. Dependence of Convective Heat Flux Calculations on Roughness Lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schieldge, John P.

    1995-01-01

    The zero plane displacement height (d) and aerodynamic roughness length (z0) can be determined separately for momentum, heat, and humidity by using a procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method for solving non-linear equations. This procedure is used to analyze profile data previously collected by Lo (1977) in a forested area in Canada and by Morgan et al (1971) on a field at the University of California at Davis (UCD) in the United States. The UCD data base is used to show the effects of allowing for different roughness lengths (zom,z0h,z0q) in calculating sensible and latent heat flux densities from bulk transfer coefficients.

  8. Using Gravity Inversion to Estimate Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; (Sasha) Golynsky, A. V.; Rogozhina, Irina

    2014-05-01

    New modelling studies for Greenland have recently underlined the importance of GHF for long-term ice sheet behaviour (Petrunin et al. 2013). Revised determinations of top basement heat-flow for Antarctica and adjacent rifted continental margins using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (Chappell & Kusznir 2008), using BedMap2 data have provided improved estimates of geothermal heat flux (GHF) in Antarctica where it is very poorly known. Continental lithosphere thinning and post-breakup residual thicknesses of continental crust determined from gravity inversion have been used to predict the preservation of continental crustal radiogenic heat productivity and the transient lithosphere heat-flow contribution within thermally equilibrating rifted continental and oceanic lithosphere. The sensitivity of present-day Antarctic top basement heat-flow to initial continental radiogenic heat productivity, continental rift and margin breakup age has been examined. Recognition of the East Antarctic Rift System (EARS), a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km (Ferraccioli et al. 2011) and is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system, highlights that crustal variability in interior Antarctica is much greater than previously assumed. GHF is also important to understand proposed ice accretion at the base of the EAIS in the GSM and its links to sub-ice hydrology (Bell et al. 2011). References Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N., Jordan, T., Rose, K., Studinger, M. & Wolovick, M. 2011. Widespread persistent thickening of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet by freezing from the base. Science, 331 (6024), 1592-1595. Chappell, A.R. & Kusznir, N.J. 2008. Three-dimensional gravity inversion for Moho depth at rifted continental margins

  9. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    , just as aircraft carriers "project force". Now we can measure winds, waves, temperatures, currents, radiative transfer, images and air-sea fluxes from aircraft over the ocean.I will review some of the history of airborne oceanography and present examples of how it can extend our knowledge and understanding of air-sea interaction.

  10. The Surface Heat Flux as a Function of Ground Cover for Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, Fred M.; Wayland, Robert; Toll, David

    1997-01-01

    Surface heat fluxes were examined as a function of surface properties and meteorological conditions in a 100 km x 100 km grid square at 1-km spatial resolution centered at the location of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE), the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics site in central Maine, and a semiarid rangeland site around Walnut Gulch, Arizona. This investigation treats the surface heat flux variability within a GCM grid box to provide insight into methods for treating that variability in climate models. The heat fluxes were calculated using NOAA AVHRR and available meteorological data. The average heat fluxes that were estimated using the various area ground-cover representations were compared with the ensemble average heat fluxes for the entire area, which were assumed to be the best representation of the heat fluxes for the areas. Average beat fluxes were estimated for the entire 100 km x 100 km area based on a single ground-cover representation, and the mean error for the area sensible heat flux was about 10% and for the area latent heat flux, 21%. The estimation error was reduced, and in some cases significantly reduced, when the area heat fluxes were estimated by partitioning the area according to significant ground cover. The most significant effect of the partitioning was on the latent heat flux estimates.

  11. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  12. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  13. Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves, and air-sea feedback in the middle latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankignoul, C.

    1985-01-01

    Current analytical models for large-scale air-sea interactions in the middle latitudes are reviewed in terms of known sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The scales and strength of different atmospheric forcing mechanisms are discussed, along with the damping and feedback processes controlling the evolution of the SST. Difficulties with effective SST modeling are described in terms of the techniques and results of case studies, numerical simulations of mixed-layer variability and statistical modeling. The relationship between SST and diabatic heating anomalies is considered and a linear model is developed for the response of the stationary atmosphere to the air-sea feedback. The results obtained with linear wave models are compared with the linear model results. Finally, sample data are presented from experiments with general circulation models into which specific SST anomaly data for the middle latitudes were introduced.

  14. Critical heat flux in a multi-minichannel heat sink. Effect of the heated length-on-diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A. W.; Viscito, L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper exhibits saturated CHF experimental values obtained with R134a and R1234yf, working at saturation temperatures from 25 °C up to 65 °C (i.e. reduced pressures from 0.16, 0.20 and up to 0.46, 0.54, respectively). The mass flux was let to vary from 150 up to 350 kg/m2 s. All tests were performed with an aluminum multi-minichannel heat sink, made up of seven rectangular ducts, each of them 2 mm wide, 1 mm high and 35 mm long. Two heated lengths of 25 and 35 mm were structured, in order to study two different Lh/Deq ratios. The results show that critical heat flux is enhanced with increasing the mass flux and decreasing the saturation temperature. A greater Lh/Deq ratio leads instead to lower CHF values.

  15. Joint Air Sea Interaction (JASIN) experiment, Northwest coast of Scotland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Businger, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The joint air sea interaction (JASIN) experiment took place off the Northwest coast of Scotland. Sea surface and boundary layer parameters were measured. The JASIN data was used as ground truth for various sensors on the SEASAT satellite.

  16. Flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a flat plate with uniform heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, W. A.; Khan, Z. H.; Haq, R. U.

    2015-04-01

    The present work is dedicated to analyze the flow and heat transport of ferrofluids along a flat plate subjected to uniform heat flux and slip velocity. A magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the plate. Moreover, three different kinds of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, Mn-ZnFe2O4 are incorporated within the base fluid. We have considered two different kinds of base fluids (kerosene and water) having poor thermal conductivity as compared to solid magnetic nanoparticles. Self-similar solutions are obtained and are compared with the available data for special cases. A simulation is performed for each ferrofluid mixture by considering the dominant effects of slip and uniform heat flux. It is found that the present results are in an excellent agreement with the existing literature. The variation of skin friction and heat transfer is also performed at the surface of the plate and then the better heat transfer and of each mixture is analyzed. Kerosene-based magnetite Fe3O4 provides the higher heat transfer rate at the wall as compared to the kerosene-based cobalt ferrite and Mn-Zn ferrite. It is also concluded that the primary effect of the magnetic field is to accelerate the dimensionless velocity and to reduce the dimensionless surface temperature as compared to the hydrodynamic case, thereby increasing the skin friction and the heat transfer rate of ferrofluids.

  17. Diamond thin film temperature and heat-flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Yang, G. S.; Masood, A.; Fredricks, R.

    1995-01-01

    Diamond film temperature and heat-flux sensors are developed using a technology compatible with silicon integrated circuit processing. The technology involves diamond nucleation, patterning, doping, and metallization. Multi-sensor test chips were designed and fabricated to study the thermistor behavior. The minimum feature size (device width) for 1st and 2nd generation chips are 160 and 5 micron, respectively. The p-type diamond thermistors on the 1st generation test chip show temperature and response time ranges of 80-1270 K and 0.29-25 microseconds, respectively. An array of diamond thermistors, acting as heat flux sensors, was successfully fabricated on an oxidized Si rod with a diameter of 1 cm. Some problems were encountered in the patterning of the Pt/Ti ohmic contacts on the rod, due mainly to the surface roughness of the diamond film. The use of thermistors with a minimum width of 5 micron (to improve the spatial resolution of measurement) resulted in lithographic problems related to surface roughness of diamond films. We improved the mean surface roughness from 124 nm to 30 nm by using an ultra high nucleation density of 10(exp 11)/sq cm. To deposit thermistors with such small dimensions on a curved surface, a new 3-D diamond patterning technique is currently under development. This involves writing a diamond seed pattern directly on the curved surface by a computer-controlled nozzle.

  18. Nonlinear aspects of high heat flux nucleate boiling heat transfer. Part 2, Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sadasivan, P.; Unal, C.; Nelson, R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes the results of a study aimed at understanding nonlinear aspects of the macrolayer-controlled heat transfer process associated with high heat flux nucleate boiling and the critical heat flux. Simulations of realistic heater surfaces have been carried out by detailed microscopic modeling of the surfaces. Individual nucleation sites are allowed to activate or deactivate depending on the thermal conditions that prevail at the site. The results indicate that significant spatial and temporal temperature variations can occur on the surface, and that thermal interactions among sites can result in some sites operating extremely intermittently. Surface-averaged temperatures show highly nonlinear behavior. This suggests the possibility of the system exhibiting chaotic behavior under appropriate experimental conditions. It is proposed that such nonlinear behavior is one of the reasons why mechanistic predictive capabilities for the boiling process have remained elusive.

  19. High-resolution simulations of heavy precipitation events: role of the Adriatic SST and air-sea interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davolio, Silvio; Stocchi, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Strong Bora and Sirocco winds over the Adriatic Sea favour intense air-sea interactions and are often associated with heavy rainfall that affects the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. A convection-permitting model (MOLOCH) has been implemented at high resolution (2 km) in order to analyse several precipitation events over northern Italy, occurred during different seasons of the year and presenting different rainfall characteristics (stratiform, convective, orographic), and to possibly identify the relevant physical mechanisms involved. With the aim of assessing the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and surface fluxes on the intensity and location of the rainfall, sensitivity experiments have been performed taking into account the possible variability of SST analysis for model initialization. The model has been validated and specific diagnostic tools have been developed and applied to evaluate the vertically integrated moisture fluxes feeding the precipitating system or to compute a water balance in the atmosphere over the sea. The results show that the Adriatic Sea plays a role in determining the boundary layer characteristics through exchange of heat and moisture thus modifying the low-level flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography. This in turn impacts on the rainfall. Although the results vary among the analysed events, the precise definition of the SST and its evolution can be relevant for accurate precipitation forecasting.

  20. In Situ Monitoring of Soil Thermal Properties and Heat Flux during Freezing and Thawing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When soil freezes or thaws, latent heat fluxes occur and conventional methods for monitoring soil heat flux are inaccurate, often wildly so. This prevents the forcing of surface energy balance closure that is used in Bowen ratio flux measurements and the assessment of closure that is used as a check...

  1. Estimating Antarctic Geothermal Heat Flux using Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V.; Sasha Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal heat flux (GHF) in Antarctica is very poorly known. We have determined (Vaughan et al. 2012) top basement heat-flow for Antarctica and adjacent rifted continental margins using gravity inversion mapping of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Continental lithosphere thinning and post-breakup residual thicknesses of continental crust determined from gravity inversion have been used to predict the preservation of continental crustal radiogenic heat productivity and the transient lithosphere heat-flow contribution within thermally equilibrating rifted continental and oceanic lithosphere. The sensitivity of present-day Antarctic top basement heat-flow to initial continental radiogenic heat productivity, continental rift and margin breakup age has been examined. Knowing GHF distribution for East Antarctica and the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) region in particular is critical because: 1) The GSM likely acted as key nucleation point for the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS); 2) the region may contain the oldest ice of the EAIS - a prime target for future ice core drilling; 3) GHF is important to understand proposed ice accretion at the base of the EAIS in the GSM and its links to sub-ice hydrology (Bell et al. 2011). An integrated multi-dataset-based GHF model for East Antarctica is planned that will resolve the wide range of estimates previously published using single datasets. The new map and existing GHF distribution estimates available for Antarctica will be evaluated using direct ice temperature measurements obtained from deep ice cores, estimates of GHF derived from subglacial lakes, and a thermodynamic ice-sheet model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet driven by past climate reconstructions and each of analysed heat flow maps, as has recently been done for the Greenland region (Rogozhina et al. 2012). References Bell, R.E., Ferraccioli, F., Creyts, T.T., Braaten, D., Corr, H., Das, I., Damaske, D., Frearson, N

  2. Critical heat flux estimation for annular channel geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagh, Richard T.

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is an important safety parameter for the design of nuclear reactors. The most commonly used predictive tool for determination of CHF is a look-up table developed using tube data with an average hydraulic test diameter of 8 mm. There exist in the world today nuclear reactors whose geometry is annular, not tubular, and whose hydraulic diameter is significantly smaller than 8 mm. In addition, any sub-channel thermal hydraulic model of fuel assemblies is annular and not tubular. Comparisons were made between this predictive tool and annular correlations developed from test data. These comparisons showed the look-up table over-predicts the CHF values for annular channels, thus questioning its ability to perform correct safety evaluations. Since no better tool exists to predict CHF for annular geometry, an effort was undertaken to produce one. A database of open literature annular CHF values was created as a basis for this new tool. By compiling information from eighteen sources and requiring that the data be inner wall, unilaterally, uniformly heated with no spacers or heat transfer enhancement devices, a database of 1630 experimental values was produced. After a review of the data in the database, a new look-up table was created. A look-up table provides localized control of the prediction to overcome sparseness of data. Using Shepard's Method as the extrapolation technique, a regular mesh look-up table was produced using four main variables: pressure, quality, mass flux, and hydraulic diameter. The root mean square error of this look-up table was found to be 0.8267. However, by fixing the hydraulic diameter locations to the database values, the root mean square error was further reduced to 0.2816. This look-up table can now predict CHF values for annular channels over a wide range of fluid conditions.

  3. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m(2) with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  4. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m2 with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  5. Development of advanced high-temperature heat flux sensors. Phase 2: Verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    A two-phase program is conducted to develop heat flux sensors capable of making heat flux measurements throughout the hot section of gas turbine engines. In Phase 1, three types of heat flux sensors are selected; embedded thermocouple, laminated, and Gardon gauge sensors. A demonstration of the ability of these sensors to operate in an actual engine environment is reported. A segmented liner of each of two combustors being used in the Broad Specification Fuels Combustor program is instrumented with the three types of heat flux sensors then tested in a high pressure combustor rig. Radiometer probes are also used to measure the radiant heat loads to more fully characterize the combustor environment. Test results show the heat flux sensors to be in good agreement with radiometer probes and the predicted data trends. In general, heat flux sensors have strong potential for use in combustor development programs.

  6. Organization of ice flow by localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittard, M. L.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.; Roberts, J. L.; Watson, C. S.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux on ice sheet dynamics is largely unknown. Simulations of ice dynamics are produced using poorly resolved and low-resolution estimates of geothermal heat flux. Observations of crustal heat production within the continental crust underneath the Lambert-Amery glacial system in East Antarctica indicate that high heat flux regions of at least 120 mW m-2 exist. Here we investigate the influence of simulated but plausible, localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux on ice dynamics using a numerical ice sheet model of the Lambert-Amery glacial system. We find that high heat flux regions have a significant effect across areas of slow-moving ice with the influence extending both upstream and downstream of the geothermal anomaly, while fast-moving ice is relatively unaffected. Our results suggest that localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux may play an important role in the organization of ice sheet flow.

  7. Air-sea coupling in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. M.; Powell, B.; Mattheus, D.

    2014-12-01

    A coupled numerical model is used to investigate the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the lee of the Hawaiian archipelago. The wind curl generated by the island blocking of the trade winds is known to give rise to ocean eddies; however, the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and velocity fronts associated with these eddies on the atmosphere is less understood. The main coupling mechanisms are: (i) changes in the near-surface stability and surface stress, (ii) vertical transfer of momentum from higher atmospheric levels to the ocean surface due to an increase of the turbulence in the boundary layer, (iii) secondary circulations associated with perturbations in the surface atmospheric pressure over the SST fronts, and (iv) the impact of the oceanic eddy currents on the net momentum transferred between the atmosphere and the ocean. To assess the relative contribution from each process, a coupled simulation between the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models is conducted for the main Hawaiian Islands. The impact of the coupling, the perturbation of the mean wind pattern, and the different spatial scales involved in the air-sea exchanges of momentum and heat are explored.

  8. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-03-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  9. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  10. Latent Heat and Sensible Heat Fluxes Simulation in Maize Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, B.

    2015-12-01

    Latent Heat (LE) and Sensible Heat (H) flux are two major components of the energy balance at the earth's surface which play important roles in the water cycle and global warming. There are various methods for their estimation or measurement. Eddy covariance is a direct and accurate technique for their measurement. Some limitations lead to prevention of the extensive use of the eddy covariance technique. Therefore, simulation approaches can be utilized for their estimation. ANNs are the information processing systems, which can inspect the empirical data and investigate the relations (hidden rules) among them, and then make the network structure. In this study, multi-layer perceptron neural network trained by the steepest descent Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm was tested to simulate LE and H flux above two maize sites (rain-fed & irrigated) near Mead, Nebraska. Network training and testing was fulfilled using hourly data of including year, local time of day (DTime), leaf area index (LAI), soil water content (SWC) in 10 and 25 cm depths, soil temperature (Ts) in 10 cm depth, air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), wind speed (WS), irrigation and precipitation (P), net radiation (Rn), and the fraction of incoming Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy (fPAR), which were selected from days of year (DOY) 169 to 222 for 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009. The results showed high correlation between actual and estimated data; the R² values for LE flux in irrigated and rain-fed sites were 0.9576, and 0.9642; and for H flux 0.8001, and 0.8478, respectively. Furthermore, the RMSE values ranged from 0.0580 to 0.0721 W/m² for LE flux and from 0.0824 to 0.0863 W/m² for H flux. In addition, the sensitivity of the fluxes with respect to each input was analyzed over the growth stages. Thus, the most powerful effects among the inputs for LE flux were identified net radiation, leaf area index, vapor pressure deficit, wind speed, and for H

  11. The seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage in the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, D.R.; Niiler, P.P.; Moisan, J.; Lagerloef, G.; Bonjean, F.; Legler, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage (DHS) over the Pacific Ocean from 20??S to 60??N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) reanalysis products from 1993 to 1999. These products are DHS from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). With these products, we compute residual heat budget components by differencing long-term monthly means from the long-term annual mean. This allows the seasonal cycle of the DHS tendency to be modeled. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals, shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, and residual Ekman heat advection dominates residual geostrophic heat advection, with residual dissipation significant only in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies (averaged over 10??latitude-by-20??longitude boxes) is <20 W m-2 in the interior ocean and <100 W m-2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals that the residual DHS tendency is driven everywhere by some mix of residual latent heat flux, shortwave heat flux, and Ekman heat advection. Suppressing bias errors in residual air-sea turbulent heat fluxes and Ekman heat advection through minimization of the RMS differences reduces the latter to <10 W m-2 over the interior ocean and <25 W m -2 in the Kuroshio-Oyashio current extension. This reveals air-sea temperature and specific humidity differences from in situ surface marine weather observations to be a principal source of bias error, overestimated over most of ocean but underestimated near the Intertropical Convergence Zone

  12. A Comparison of Latent Heat Fluxes over Global Oceans for Four Flux Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Nelkin, Eric; Ardizzone, Joe; Atlas, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    To improve our understanding of global energy and water cycle variability, and to improve model simulations of climate variations, it is vital to have accurate latent heat fluxes (LHF) over global oceans. Monthly LHF, 10-m wind speed (U10m), 10-m specific humidity (Q10h), and sea-air humidity difference (Qs-Q10m) of GSSTF2 (version 2 Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes) over global Oceans during 1992-93 are compared with those of HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data), NCEP (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis). The mean differences, standard deviations of differences, and temporal correlation of these monthly variables over global Oceans during 1992-93 between GSSTF2 and each of the three datasets are analyzed. The large-scale patterns of the 2yr-mean fields for these variables are similar among these four datasets, but significant quantitative differences are found. The temporal correlation is higher in the northern extratropics than in the south for all variables, with the contrast being especially large for da Silva as a result of more missing ship data in the south. The da Silva has extremely low temporal correlation and large differences with GSSTF2 for all variables in the southern extratropics, indicating that da Silva hardly produces a realistic variability in these variables. The NCEP has extremely low temporal correlation (0.27) and large spatial variations of differences with GSSTF2 for Qs-Q10m in the tropics, which causes the low correlation for LHF. Over the tropics, the HOAPS LHF is significantly smaller than GSSTF2 by approx. 31% (37 W/sq m), whereas the other two datasets are comparable to GSSTF2. This is because the HOAPS has systematically smaller LHF than GSSTF2 in space, while the other two datasets have very large spatial variations of large positive and negative LHF differences with GSSTF2 to cancel and to produce smaller regional-mean differences. Our analyses suggest that the GSSTF2 latent heat flux

  13. The surface latent heat flux anomalies related to major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Feng; Shen, Xuhui; Kang, Chunli; Xiong, Pan; Hong, Shunying

    2011-12-01

    SLHF (Surface Latent Heat Flux) is an atmospheric parameter, which can describe the heat released by phase changes and dependent on meteorological parameters such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed etc. There is a sharp difference between the ocean surface and the land surface. Recently, many studies related to the SLHF anomalies prior to earthquakes have been developed. It has been shown that the energy exchange enhanced between coastal surface and atmosphere prior to earthquakes can increase the rate of the water-heat exchange, which will lead to an obviously increases in SLHF. In this paper, two earthquakes in 2010 (Haiti earthquake and southwest of Sumatra in Indonesia earthquake) have been analyzed using SLHF data by STD (standard deviation) threshold method. It is shows that the SLHF anomaly may occur in interpolate earthquakes or intraplate earthquakes and coastal earthquakes or island earthquakes. And the SLHF anomalies usually appear 5-6 days prior to an earthquake, then disappear quickly after the event. The process of anomaly evolution to a certain extent reflects a dynamic energy change process about earthquake preparation, that is, weak-strong-weak-disappeared.

  14. Radial heat flux limits in potassium heat pipes: An experimental and analytical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K.A.; Sena, J.T.; Keddy, E.S.; Merrigan, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    A radial flux limit of 147 W/cm{sup 2} at the wetted inner tube wall has been demonstrated with a Nb-1%Zr/K heat pipe, a flux 5 times greater than the previously accepted safe design level of 25-30 W/cm{sup 2}. The wick structure was an annular gap type fabricated from 100 {times} 100 mesh Nb-1%Zr screen. Rigorous fabrication and cleaning procedures are believed to be critical to good wetting, resulting in significantly reduced active nucleation site size and a higher boiling limit. The procedure used to clean this heat pipe included acid wash, Freon-TF degrease, ethanol wash, high-vacuum firing, and operation as a lithium heat pipe. A heat pipe boiling limit model, based on the active nucleation site radius, is described. An active nucleation site radius of 6 {times} 10{sup -6} m (2.4 {times} 10{sup -4} in) correlates the radial flux boiling limit measured in these tests. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Air-sea interaction measurements in the west Mediterranean Sea during the Tyrrhenian Eddy Multi-Platform Observations Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schiano, M.E.; Santoleri, R.; Bignami, F.; Leonardi, R.M. ); Marullo, S. ); Boehm, E. )

    1993-02-15

    Measurements of radiative fluxes were carried out in the Tyrrhenian Sea in fall and winter as part of the Tyrrhenian Eddy Multi-Platform Observations Experiment (TEMPO). These measurements have supplied the first experimental radiation data set over this basin. Seasonal variation of the different components of the budget are investigated. Since data collection was carried out in an area in which a quasi-permanent eddy is present, the behavior of the radiation parameters across the frontal zone is analyzed. The most interesting result of the air-sea interaction in proximity of a marine front consists in the covariation of sea surface temperature and downwelling long-wave radiation. Contemporaneous satellite data show a clear correlation between sea surface structure and horizontal distribution of columnar atmospheric water content. Therefore this inhomogeneity clearly is one of the main factors responsible for the variation of the downwelling radiation across the front. A comparison between experimental data and results of some of the most widely used bulk formulae is carried out for both short- and long-wave radiation. The mean differnece between measured and empirical solar radiation values is less than 3%, while in the case of the net long-wave radiation budge, poor agreement is found. Indeed, a 30 W/m[sup 2] bias results from the comparison. This discrepancy is consistent with the imbalance between previous bulk calculations of total heat budget at the surface and corresponding hydrographical observations of heat exchange at Gibraltar. 30 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Previously, from analysis of SOHO/EIT coronal images in combination with Kitt Peak magnetograms (Falconer et al 1998, ApJ, 501, 386-396), we found that the quiet corona is the sum of two components: the e-scale corona and the coronal network. The large-scale corona consists of all coronal-temperature (T approx. 10(exp 6) K) structures larger than supergranules (>approx.30,000 km). The coronal network (1) consists of all coronal-temperature structures smaller than supergranules, (2) is rooted in and loosely traces the photospheric magnetic network, (3) has its brightest features seated on polarity dividing fines (neutral lines) in the network magnetic flux, and (4) produces only about 5% of the total coronal emission in quiet regions. The heating of the coronal network is apparently magnetic in origin. Here, from analysis of EIT coronal images of quiet regions in combination with magnetograms of the same quiet regions from SOHO/MDI and from Kitt Peak, we examine the other 95% of the quiet corona and its relation to the underlying magnetic network. We find: (1) Dividing the large-scale corona into its bright and dim halves divides the area into bright "continents" and dark "oceans" having spans of 2-4 supergranules. (2) These patterns are also present in the photospheric magnetograms: the network is stronger under the bright half and weaker under the dim half. (3) The radiation from the large-scale corona increases roughly as the cube root of the magnetic flux content of the underlying magnetic network. In contrast, Fisher et A (1998, ApJ, 508, 985-998) found that the coronal radiation from an active region increases roughly linearly with the magnetic flux content of the active region. We assume, as is widely held, that nearly all of the large-scale corona is magnetically rooted in the network. Our results, together with the result of Fisher et al (1999), suggest that either the coronal heating in quiet regions has a large non-magnetic component, or, if the heating

  17. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.

    2001-05-01

    Previously, from analysis of SOHO/EIT coronal images in combination with Kitt Peak magnetograms (Falconer et al 1998, ApJ, 501, 386-396), we found that the quiet corona is the sum of two components: the large-scale corona and the coronal network. The large-scale corona consists of all coronal-temperature ( million-degree) structures larger than the width of a chromospheric network lane (> 10,000 km). The coronal network (1) consists of all coronal-temperature structures of the scale of the network lanes and smaller (< 10,000 km), (2) is rooted in and loosely traces the photospheric magnetic network, (3) has its brightest features seated on polarity dividing lines (neutral lines) in the network magnetic flux, and (4) produces only about 5% of the total coronal emission in quiet regions. The heating of the coronal network is apparently magnetic in origin. Here, from analysis of EIT coronal images of quiet regions in combination with magnetograms of the same quiet regions from SOHO/MDI and from Kitt Peak, we examine the other 95% of the quiet corona and its relation to the underlying magnetic network. We find: (1) Dividing the large-scale corona into its bright and dim halves divides the area into bright "continents" and dark "oceans" having spans of 2-4 supergranules. (2) These patterns are also present in the photospheric magnetograms: the network is stronger under the bright half and weaker under the dim half. (3) The radiation from the large-scale corona increases roughly as the cube root of the magnetic flux content of the underlying magnetic network. In contrast, Fisher et al (1998, ApJ, 508, 985-998) found that the coronal radiation from an active region increases roughly linearly with the magnetic flux content of the active region. We assume, as is widely held, that nearly all of the large-scale corona is magnetically rooted in the network. Our results, together with the result of Fisher et al (1998), suggest that either the coronal heating in quiet regions

  18. Heat flux from magmatic hydrothermal systems related to availability of fluid recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J.V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C.F.; Bloomberg, S.; Hernandez, P.A.; Mazot, A.; Viveiros, F.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Magmatic hydrothermal systems are of increasing interest as a renewable energy source. Surface heat flux indicates system resource potential, and can be inferred from soil CO2 flux measurements and fumarole gas chemistry. Here we compile and reanalyze results from previous CO2 flux surveys worldwide to compare heat flux from a variety of magma-hydrothermal areas. We infer that availability of water to recharge magmatic hydrothermal systems is correlated with heat flux. Recharge availability is in turn governed by permeability, structure, lithology, rainfall, topography, and perhaps unsurprisingly, proximity to a large supply of water such as the ocean. The relationship between recharge and heat flux interpreted by this study is consistent with recent numerical modeling that relates hydrothermal system heat output to rainfall catchment area. This result highlights the importance of recharge as a consideration when evaluating hydrothermal systems for electricity generation, and the utility of CO2 flux as a resource evaluation tool.

  19. A laser-induced heat flux technique for convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. R.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Hingst, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to the heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the local surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients were generally higher than the theoretical predictions for flat plate laminar boundary layers. However, the results indicate that this nonintrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to measure surface convective heat transfer coefficients in high-speed flowfields.

  20. A laser-induced heat flux technique for convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. R.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Hingst, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to the heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the local surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients were generally higher than the theoretical predictions for flat plate laminar boundary layers. However, the results indicate that this nonintrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to measure surface convective heat transfer coefficients in high speed flow fields.

  1. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  2. Wedge Heat-Flux Indicators for Flash Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2003-01-01

    Wedge indicators have been proposed for measuring thermal radiation that impinges on specimens illuminated by flash lamps for thermographic inspection. Heat fluxes measured by use of these indicators would be used, along with known thermal, radiative, and geometric properties of the specimens, to estimate peak flash temperatures on the specimen surfaces. These indicators would be inexpensive alternatives to high-speed infrared pyrometers, which would otherwise be needed for measuring peak flash surface temperatures. The wedge is made from any suitable homogenous material such as plastic. The choice of material is governed by the equation given. One side of the wedge is covered by a temperature sensitive compound that decomposes irreversibly when its temperature exceeds a rated temperature (T-rated). The uncoated side would be positioned alongside or in place of the specimen and exposed to the flash, then the wedge thickness at the boundary between the white and blackened portions measured.

  3. Heat flux sensor research and development: The cool film calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abtahi, A.; Dean, P.

    1990-01-01

    The goal was to meet the measurement requirement of the NASP program for a gauge capable of measuring heat flux into a 'typical' structure in a 'typical' hypersonic flight environment. A device is conceptually described that has fast response times and is small enough to fit in leading edge or cowl lip structures. The device relies heavily on thin film technology. The main conclusion is the description of the limitations of thin film technology both in the art of fabrication and in the assumption that thin films have the same material properties as the original bulk material. Three gauges were designed and fabricated. Thin film deposition processes were evaluated. The effect of different thin film materials on the performance and fabrication of the gauge was studied. The gauges were tested in an arcjet facility. Survivability and accuracy were determined under various hostile environment conditions.

  4. Heat Flux for a Relativistic Dilute Bidimensional Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Perciante, A. L.; Méndez, A. R.; Escobar-Aguilar, E.

    2017-04-01

    Relativistic kinetic theory predicts substantial modifications to the dissipation mechanisms of a dilute gas. For the heat flux, these include (in the absence of external forces) a correction to the thermal conductivity and the appearance of a new, purely relativistic, term proportional to the density gradient. In this work we obtain such constitutive equation for the particular case of a bidimensional gas. The calculation is based on the Chapman-Enskog solution to the relativistic Boltzmann equation and yields analytical expressions for the corresponding transport coefficients, which are evaluated for the particular case of hard disks. These results will be useful for numerical simulations and may be applied to bidimensional non-dense materials.

  5. Heat Flux for a Relativistic Dilute Bidimensional Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Perciante, A. L.; Méndez, A. R.; Escobar-Aguilar, E.

    2017-02-01

    Relativistic kinetic theory predicts substantial modifications to the dissipation mechanisms of a dilute gas. For the heat flux, these include (in the absence of external forces) a correction to the thermal conductivity and the appearance of a new, purely relativistic, term proportional to the density gradient. In this work we obtain such constitutive equation for the particular case of a bidimensional gas. The calculation is based on the Chapman-Enskog solution to the relativistic Boltzmann equation and yields analytical expressions for the corresponding transport coefficients, which are evaluated for the particular case of hard disks. These results will be useful for numerical simulations and may be applied to bidimensional non-dense materials.

  6. Approaching the limits of two-phase boiling heat transfer: High heat flux and low superheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palko, J. W.; Zhang, C.; Wilbur, J. D.; Dusseault, T. J.; Asheghi, M.; Goodson, K. E.; Santiago, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate capillary fed porous copper structures capable of dissipating over 1200 W cm-2 in boiling with water as the working fluid. Demonstrated superheats for this structure are dramatically lower than those previously reported at these high heat fluxes and are extremely insensitive to heat input. We show superheats of less than 10 K at maximum dissipation and varying less than 5 K over input heat flux ranges of 1000 W cm-2. Fabrication of the porous copper layers using electrodeposition around a sacrificial template allows fine control of both microstructure and bulk geometry, producing structures less than 40 μm thick with active region lateral dimensions of 2 mm × 0.3 mm. The active region is volumetrically Joule heated by passing an electric current through the porous copper bulk material. We analyze the heat transfer performance of the structures and suggest a strong influence of pore size on superheat. We compare performance of the current structure to existing wick structures.

  7. SPECTRAL data-based estimation of soil heat flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, R.K.; Irmak, A.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Verma, S.B.; Suyker, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous existing spectral-based soil heat flux (G) models have shown wide variation in performance for maize and soybean cropping systems in Nebraska, indicating the need for localized calibration and model development. The objectives of this article are to develop a semi-empirical model to estimate G from a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and net radiation (Rn) for maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) fields in the Great Plains, and present the suitability of the developed model to estimate G under similar and different soil and management conditions. Soil heat fluxes measured in both irrigated and rainfed fields in eastern and south-central Nebraska were used for model development and validation. An exponential model that uses NDVI and Rn was found to be the best to estimate G based on r2 values. The effect of geographic location, crop, and water management practices were used to develop semi-empirical models under four case studies. Each case study has the same exponential model structure but a different set of coefficients and exponents to represent the crop, soil, and management practices. Results showed that the semi-empirical models can be used effectively for G estimation for nearby fields with similar soil properties for independent years, regardless of differences in crop type, crop rotation, and irrigation practices, provided that the crop residue from the previous year is more than 4000 kg ha-1. The coefficients calibrated from particular fields can be used at nearby fields in order to capture temporal variation in G. However, there is a need for further investigation of the models to account for the interaction effects of crop rotation and irrigation. Validation at an independent site having different soil and crop management practices showed the limitation of the semi-empirical model in estimating G under different soil and environment conditions.

  8. Local momentum and heat fluxes in transient transport processes and inhomogeneous systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youping; Diaz, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    This work examines existing formalisms for the derivation of microscopic momentum and heat fluxes. Both analytical and simulation results are provided to show that the widely used flux formulas are not applicable to transient transport processes or highly inhomogeneous systems, e.g., materials with atomically sharp interfaces. A method is formulated for formally deriving microscopic momentum and heat fluxes through the integral representation of conservation laws. The resulting flux formulas are mathematically rigorous, fully consistent with the physical concepts of momentum and heat fluxes, and applicable to nonequilibrium transient processes in atomically inhomogeneous systems with general many-body forces.

  9. Local momentum and heat fluxes in transient transport processes and inhomogeneous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youping; Diaz, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    This work examines existing formalisms for the derivation of microscopic momentum and heat fluxes. Both analytical and simulation results are provided to show that the widely used flux formulas are not applicable to transient transport processes or highly inhomogeneous systems, e.g., materials with atomically sharp interfaces. A method is formulated for formally deriving microscopic momentum and heat fluxes through the integral representation of conservation laws. The resulting flux formulas are mathematically rigorous, fully consistent with the physical concepts of momentum and heat fluxes, and applicable to nonequilibrium transient processes in atomically inhomogeneous systems with general many-body forces.

  10. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  11. Tests of a robust eddy correlation system for sensible heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, J. H.; Gay, L. W.

    1992-03-01

    Sensible heat flux estimates from a simple, one-propeller eddy correlation system (OPEC) were compared with those from a sonic anemometer eddy correlation system (SEC). In accordance with similarity theory, the performance of the OPEC system improved with increasing height of the sensor above the surface. Flux totals from the two systems at sites with adequate fetch were in excellent agreement after frequency response corrections were applied. The propeller system appears suitable for long periods of unattended measurement. The sensible heat flux measurements can be combined with net radiation and soil heat flux measurements to estimate latent heat as a residual in the surface energy balance.

  12. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  13. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  14. Critical Heat Flux In Inclined Rectangular Narrow Long Channel

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; S. W. Noh; Y. H. Kim; K. Y. Suh; F.B.Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2005-05-01

    In the TMI-2 accident, the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel had been overheated and then rather rapidly cooled down, as was later identified in a vessel investigation project. This accounted for the possibility of gap cooling feasibility. For this reason, several investigations were performed to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) from the standpoint of invessel retention. The experiments are conducted to investigate the general boiling phenomena, and the triggering mechanism for the CHF in a narrow gap using a 5 x 105 mm2 crevice type heater assembly and de-mineralized water. The test parameters include the gap size of 5 mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward facing position (180o) to the vertical position (90o). The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape from the narrow gap. The CHF is less than that in a shorter channel, compared with the previous experiments having a heated length of 35 mmin the copper test section.

  15. Critical Heat Flux in a Thin Annular Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtour, Ahmed; Anderson, Elgin

    2002-11-01

    The improved accuracy in predicting critical heat flux (CHF) for specific reactor core geometry would allow for increased power output. The objectives of this project were to incorporate a scale model test to determine the feasibility of generating high power density in an annular fuel arrangement in a reactor. The desired power density was 100W/cm2. This would be accomplished by using resistive heating on the outer cylinder of an annular flow channel between concentric cylinders. The inner cylinder consists of a hemispherical shape in the upstream direction to condition the flow. The second objective was to study the behavior of two-phase flow through a simulated reactor core. The CHF would be measured and compared with existing correlations. Finally, the concept of a future full scale testing would be investigated. The results of this project are not only applicable to nuclear reactors, but can be used to increase the efficiency of other applications such as fuel cells, combustion engines, turbines and polymer processes.

  16. Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Williams, Richard G.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic framework for quantitatively mapping the regional drivers of air-sea CO2 fluxes at a global scale is developed. The framework evaluates the interplay between (1) surface heat and freshwater fluxes that influence the potential saturated carbon concentration, which depends on changes in sea surface temperature, salinity and alkalinity, (2) a residual, disequilibrium flux influenced by upwelling and entrainment of remineralized carbon- and nutrient-rich waters from the ocean interior, as well as rapid subduction of surface waters, (3) carbon uptake and export by biological activity as both soft tissue and carbonate, and (4) the effect on surface carbon concentrations due to freshwater precipitation or evaporation. In a steady state simulation of a coarse-resolution ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model, the sum of the individually determined components is close to the known total flux of the simulation. The leading order balance, identified in different dynamical regimes, is between the CO2 fluxes driven by surface heat fluxes and a combination of biologically driven carbon uptake and disequilibrium-driven carbon outgassing. The framework is still able to reconstruct simulated fluxes when evaluated using monthly averaged data and takes a form that can be applied consistently in models of different complexity and observations of the ocean. In this way, the framework may reveal differences in the balance of drivers acting across an ensemble of climate model simulations or be applied to an analysis and interpretation of the observed, real-world air-sea flux of CO2.

  17. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienhard V, John H.; Khounsary, Ali M.

    1993-11-01

    This paper considers the potential of jet/diamond systems for removing localized high heat fluxes. Diamond substrates are compared to other candidate materials. Limits on usable thermal resistances and heat transfer rates are estimated.

  18. Correlations of Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    J. Yang; F. B. Cheung; J. L. Rempe; K. Y. Suh; S. B. Kim

    2005-07-01

    Four types of steady-state boiling experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of two distinctly different heat transfer enhancement methods for external reactor vessel cooling under severe accident conditions. One method involved the use of a thin vessel coating and the other involved the use of an enhanced insulation structure. By comparing the results obtained in the four types of experiments, the separate and integral effect of vessel coating and insulation structure were determined. Correlation equations were obtained for the nucleate boiling heat transfer and the critical heat flux. It was found that both enhancement methods were quite effective. Depending on the angular location, the local critical heat flux could be enhanced by 1.4 to 2.5 times using vessel coating alone whereas it could be enhanced by 1.8 to 3.0 times using an enhanced insulation structure alone. When both vessel coating and insulation structure were used simultaneously, the integral effect on the enhancement was found much less than the product of the two separate effects, indicating possible competing mechanisms (i.e., interference) between the two enhancement methods.

  19. A Multiyear Dataset of SSM/I-Derived Global Ocean Surface Turbulent Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Shie, Chung-Lin; Atlas, Robert M.; Ardizzone, Joe; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, latent heat, and sensible heat over global oceans are essential to weather, climate and ocean problems. Evaporation is a key component of the hydrological cycle and the surface heat budget, while the wind stress is the major forcing for driving the oceanic circulation. The global air-sea fluxes of momentum, latent and sensible heat, radiation, and freshwater (precipitation-evaporation) are the forcing for driving oceanic circulation and, hence, are essential for understanding the general circulation of global oceans. The global air-sea fluxes are required for driving ocean models and validating coupled ocean-atmosphere global models. We have produced a 7.5-year (July 1987-December 1994) dataset of daily surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans from the Special Sensor microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. Daily turbulent fluxes were derived from daily data of SSM/I surface winds and specific humidity, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) sea surface temperatures, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) air-sea temperature differences, using a stability-dependent bulk scheme. The retrieved instantaneous surface air humidity (with a 25-km resolution) validated well with that of the collocated radiosonde observations over the global oceans. Furthermore, the retrieved daily wind stresses and latent heat fluxes were found to agree well with that of the in situ measurements (IMET buoy, RV Moana Wave, and RV Wecoma) in the western Pacific warm pool during the TOGA COARE intensive observing period (November 1992-February 1993). The global distributions of 1988-94 seasonal-mean turbulent fluxes will be presented. In addition, the global distributions of 1990-93 annual-means turbulent fluxes and input variables will be compared with those of UWM/COADS covering the same period. The latter is based on the COADS (comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set) and is recognized to be one of the best

  20. Magnetogasdynamic shock waves in a nonideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. K.; Nath, B.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a self-similar solution of the problem of propagation of a magnetogasdynamic shock wave in a nonideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux in the presence of a spatially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field strength. The initial density of the medium is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law, and the radiation is considered to be of a diffusion type for an optically thick gray gas model. The thermal conductivity and absorption coefficients are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The shock is assumed to be driven by a piston moving with a variable velocity. Similarity solutions are obtained, and the effects of variation of the gas nonidealness parameter and Alfven-Mach number on the flow field behind the shock are investigated.

  1. Heat Flux From the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. J.; McDuff, R. E.; Stahr, F. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Jakuba, M.

    2005-12-01

    The very essence of a hydrothermal system is transfer of heat by a convecting fluid, yet the flux of heat remains a poorly known quantity. Past studies of heat flux consisted primarily of point measurements of temperature and fluid flow at individual vent sites and inventories of the neutrally buoyant plume above the field. In 2000 the Flow Mow project used the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) to determine heat flux from Main Endeavour Field (MEF) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge by intersecting the stems of rising buoyant plumes. ABE carries instruments to measure conductivity, temperature and depth, and a MAVS current meter to determine the vertical velocity of the fluid, after correcting for vehicle motion. Complementary work on horizontal fluxes suggests that the vertical flux measured by ABE includes both the primary high buoyancy focused "smoker" sources and also entrained diffuse flow. In 2004, ABE was again used to determine heat flux not only from MEF, but also from the other four fields in the Endeavour Segment RIDGE 2000 Integrated Study Site. In this four year interval the flux of heat from MEF has declined by approximately a factor of two. The High Rise vent field has the greatest heat flux, followed by MEF, then Mothra, Salty Dawg and Sasquatch (of order 500, 300, 100, 50 MW respectively; heat flux at Sasquatch was below detection).

  2. Correlation of critical heat flux data for uniform tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    A data base of more than 10,000 critical heat flux (CHF) data points has been compiled and analyzed. Two regimes of CHF are observed which will be referred to as the high CHF regime and the low CHF regime. In the high CHF regime, for pressures less than 110 bar, CHF (q{sub c}) is a determined by local conditions and is adequately represented by q{sub c} = (1.2/D{sup 1/2}) exp[-{gamma}(GX{sub t}){sup 1/2}] where the parameter {gamma} is an increasing function of pressure only, X{sub t} the true mass fraction of steam, and all units are metric but the heat flux is in MWm{sup -2}. A simple kinetic model has been developed to estimate X{sub t} as a function of G, X, X{sub i}, and X{sub O}, where X{sub i} is the inlet quality and X{sub O} represents the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization (OSV) which is estimated from the Saha-Zuber (S-Z) correlation. The model is based on a rate equation for vaporization suggested by, and consistent with, the S-Z correlation and contains no adjustable parameters. When X{sub i}X{sub O}, X{sub t} depends on X{sub i}, a nonlocal variable, and, in this case, CHF, although determined by local conditions, obeys a nonlocal correlation. This model appears to be satisfactory for pressures less than 110 bar, where the S-Z correlation is known to be reliable. Above 110 bar the method of calculating X{sub O}, and consequently X{sub t}, appears to fail, so this approach can not be applied to high pressure CHF data. Above 35 bar, the bulk of the available data lies in the high CHF regime while, at pressures less than 35 bar, almost all of the available data lie in the low CHF regime and appear to be nonlocal.

  3. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-01-04

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter.

  4. Validation of HOAPS and ERA Interim latent heat fluxes against parameterizations applied to RV Polarstern data for 1995-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumke, Karl; Kinzel, Julian

    2014-05-01

    averages identify biases in air specific humidity exceeding 1 g/kg within the subtropical northern hemisphere. To the contrary, misrepresentations of wind speeds among HOAPS exhibit less priority. Southern hemispheric extratropics represent an exception, in as much as positive LHF biases are associated with a concurrent overestimation of HOAPS wind speeds. Away from coastal waters, where especially wind speed is fraught with uncertainty, it is presumed that HOAPS surface air temperature estimates largely contribute to this deficiency, as relative humidities and air-sea temperature differences are prescribed to be 80% and 1K, respectively, which may represent an area-wide tropical bias source. Comparing ERA-Interim reanalysis data with OCEANET it was found that ERA-Interim wind speeds are generally too low, while specific humidities tend to be too low in the tropics. This results in an underestimation of latent heat fluxes at high latitudes and an overestimation at low latitudes. Reference Bumke, K., M. Schlundt, J. Kalisch, A. Macke, and H. Kleta, 2013: Measured and Parameterized Energy Fluxes for Atlantic Transects of R/V Polarstern. J. Phys. Oceanogr. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0152.1, in press.

  5. The Role of the Velocity Gradient in Laminar Convective Heat Transfer through a Tube with a Uniform Wall Heat Flux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Xia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy…

  6. Identifying the Role of Extratropical Air-Sea Interactions in North Pacific Climate Variability with a Hierarchy of CESM Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Okumura, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale patterns of extratropical sea surface temperature (SST) variability are primarily driven by intrinsic modes of atmospheric circulation variability through changes in surface heat fluxes and ocean currents. While these changes in extratropical SSTs in turn affect the atmospheric circulation, it remains unclear to what extent the oceanic feedback modifies the overall climate variability. The present study focuses on North Pacific variability and revisits this long-standing problem by analyzing multi-century-millennium control simulations of an atmospheric model (CAM4) coupled to the ocean with varying degrees: a 300-yr run of standalone CAM4, 500-year run of CAM4 coupled to a slab ocean (CAM4SOM), and 1300-yr run of fully coupled model (CCSM4). The leading mode of North Pacific atmospheric variability is very similar among three models and resembles the observed Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern, in support of the stochastic climate model. In CAM4SOM, the associated surface heat flux anomalies induce SST changes during boreal winter, which tend to persist into the following winter through positive cloud feedback. These SST changes leave weak, but distinct imprints on the atmosphere. The atmospheric response is highly seasonally dependent and projects onto the original PNA pattern in the upper troposphere during boreal winter while a direct baroclinic response becomes prevalent in the other seasons. The thermodynamic air-sea interactions only marginally increase the persistency of PNA variability in CAM4SOM compared to the standalone CAM4 simulation. In CCSM4, a similar influence of extratropical SSTs is suggested but difficult to isolate due to the dominant impact of El Nino-Southern Oscillation and associated atmospheric teleconnections. Nevertheless, dynamically-induced SST variability in the oceanic frontal region appears to add more persistency to atmospheric variability because of its low-frequency nature.

  7. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  9. Generalization of data on critical heat fluxes for flow swirled using a tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, A. F.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Komendantov, A. S.

    2010-03-01

    The available data on critical heat fluxes for boiling of subcooled and saturated liquid in tubes with twisted tape inserts are considered. Experimental data obtained by different researchers are generalized, and an equation for calculating critical heat fluxes for both smooth tubes and tubes with flow swirling by means of a tape is proposed.

  10. Peak Heat Fluxe Reduction Using Aerospikes Installed On Multimodule Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, A.; Yurchenko, I.; Karakotin, I.; Vaganov, A.; Drozdov, S.; Skuratov, A.

    2011-05-01

    Based on the experimental data in the supersonic wind tunnels the flow patterns, which cause peak pressure and peak heat fluxes on the heavy space rocket surfaces, were researched. Physical interpretations for each flow pattern are presented. Peak areas dimensions were specified. Influence of aerospike attached to on lateral rocket module to the heat fluxes was investigated

  11. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Subpart A of... - Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., Subpt. A, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Standard Radiant Heat Energy Flux Profile...

  14. Simulation of the Indian Summer Monsoon Using Comprehensive Atmosphere-land Interactions, in the Absence of Two-way Air-sea Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Shin, D. W.; Cocke, Steven; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Community Land Model version 2 (CLM2) as a comprehensive land surface model and a simple land surface model (SLM) were coupled to an atmospheric climate model to investigate the role of land surface processes in the development and the persistence of the South Asian summer monsoon. Two-way air-sea interactions were not considered in order to identify the reproducibility of the monsoon evolution by the comprehensive land model, which includes more realistic vertical soil moisture structures, vegetation and 2-way atmosphere-land interactions at hourly intervals. In the monsoon development phase (May and June). comprehensive land-surface treatment improves the representation of atmospheric circulations and the resulting convergence/divergence through the improvements in differential heating patterns and surface energy fluxes. Coupling with CLM2 also improves the timing and spatial distribution of rainfall maxima, reducing the seasonal rainfall overestimation by approx.60 % (1.8 mm/d for SLM, 0.7 mm/dI for CLM2). As for the interannual variation of the simulated rainfall, correlation coefficients of the Indian seasonal rainfall with observation increased from 0.21 (SLM) to 0.45 (CLM2). However, in the mature monsoon phase (July to September), coupling with the CLM2 does not exhibit a clear improvement. In contrast to the development phase, latent heat flux is underestimated and sensible heat flux and surface temperature over India are markedly overestimated. In addition, the moisture fluxes do not correlate well with lower-level atmospheric convergence, yielding correlation coefficients and root mean square errors worse than those produced by coupling with the SLM. A more realistic representation of the surface temperature and energy fluxes is needed to achieve an improved simulation for the mature monsoon period.

  15. Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.

  16. Pressure and heat flux effects on the heat transfer characteristics of liquid methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Chance P.

    The heat transfer effects on liquid methane are investigated with the use of a carbo-thermal rig at the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) located at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). The cSETR carbo-thermal rig design approach is presented along with the design of a methane condensing mobile unit (MCMU) to supply the laboratory and rig with liquid methane. The proposed research will generate useful insight in to heat transfer coefficient behavior, non-dimensional correlations, different flow conditions, varied inlet conditions, and varied heat flux for a subscale test article applicable to a regenerative cooled rocket engine cooling channel. The data found will also improve the knowledge base for liquid methane and non-toxic propulsion. Planned test parameters are from 1.03 to 2.07 MPa (150 to 300 psi) supply tank pressure, and 3.9 to 19 MW/m2 (2.39 to 11.6 Btu/in2-s). Presented are transient and steady state heat transfer response results depicting transient and steady state heat transfer effects tested at turbulent Reynolds numbers (15000 to 360000).

  17. Time and Space Resolved Heat Transfer Measurements Under Nucleate Bubbles with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2003-01-01

    Investigations into single bubble pool boiling phenomena are often complicated by the difficulties in obtaining time and space resolved information in the bubble region. This usually occurs because the heaters and diagnostics used to measure heat transfer data are often on the order of, or larger than, the bubble characteristic length or region of influence. This has contributed to the development of many different and sometimes contradictory models of pool boiling phenomena and dominant heat transfer mechanisms. Recent investigations by Yaddanapyddi and Kim and Demiray and Kim have obtained time and space resolved heat transfer information at the bubble/heater interface under constant temperature conditions using a novel micro-heater array (10x10 array, each heater 100 microns on a side) that is semi-transparent and doubles as a measurement sensor. By using active feedback to maintain a state of constant temperature at the heater surface, they showed that the area of influence of bubbles generated in FC-72 was much smaller than predicted by standard models and that micro-conduction/micro-convection due to re-wetting dominated heat transfer effects. This study seeks to expand on the previous work by making time and space resolved measurements under bubbles nucleating on a micro-heater array operated under constant heat flux conditions. In the planned investigation, wall temperature measurements made under a single bubble nucleation site will be synchronized with high-speed video to allow analysis of the bubble energy removal from the wall.

  18. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

  19. Heat flux in a penetrative convection experiment in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corre, Yoann; Alboussière, Thierry; Labrosse, Stéphane; Odier, Philippe; Joubaud, Sylvain

    2015-11-01

    In geophysical systems, stably stratified fluids adjacent to convective regions often experience thermal plume penetration from the latter. This penetrative convection occurs in stellar interiors between radiative and convective regions and possibly in liquid envelopes of planets, such as the Earth's core. We are interested in quantifying this process experimentally as it could play a crucial role in their dynamics. A volume of water initially at ambiant temperature is cooled from below at 0 degrees Celsius. Due to the maximum density of water near 4 degrees, a convective region develops and grows below a purely conductive region. A laser sheet crosses the experimental cell, lightening both neutrally buoyant particles and a thermosensitive fluorescent dye, which allows to monitor the velocity and temperature fields respectively (PIV-LIF technique), giving access to the local convective and conductive heat flux. The apparatus is placed on a rotating table to inspect the effect of the Coriolis force on the interfacial region. We find that increasing the rotation rate deepens the penetration of vortices into the conductive region, thus changing the structure of the interfacial layer and possibly eroding the stable region.

  20. Sensible and latent heat flux estimates in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Charles R.; Weidner, George A.

    1993-01-01

    The assumption has been made that the net annual contribution of water by the processes of deposition and sublimation to the Antarctic Ice Sheet is zero. The U.S. Antarctic Program started installing reliable automatic weather stations on the Antarctic Continent in 1980. The initial units were equipped to measure wind speed, wind direction, air pressure, and air temperature. During the 1983-1984 field season in Antarctica, three units were installed that measured a vertical air temperature difference between the nominal heights of 0.5 m and 3.0 m and relative humidity at a nominal height of 3 m. The measurements of the vertical air temperature difference and the relative humidity are the minimum required to estimate the sensible and latent heat fluxes to the air, while not exceeding the available energy requirements for the weather stations. The estimates of the net annual sublimation and deposition on the Ross Ice Shelf amount to 20 to 80 percent of the annual accumulation. We conclude that the assumption that annual sublimation and deposition are zero is not valid under Antarctic conditions.

  1. Dispersion of Heat Flux Sensors Manufactured in Silicon Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ziouche, Katir; Lejeune, Pascale; Bougrioua, Zahia; Leclercq, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the dispersion performances related to the manufacturing process of heat flux sensors realized in CMOS (Complementary metal oxide semi-conductor) compatible 3-in technology. In particular, we have studied the performance dispersion of our sensors and linked these to the physical characteristics of dispersion of the materials used. This information is mandatory to ensure low-cost manufacturing and especially to reduce production rejects during the fabrication process. The results obtained show that the measured sensitivity of the sensors is in the range 3.15 to 6.56 μV/(W/m2), associated with measured resistances ranging from 485 to 675 kΩ. The dispersions correspond to a Gaussian-type distribution with more than 90% determined around average sensitivity Se¯ = 4.5 µV/(W/m2) and electrical resistance R¯ = 573.5 kΩ within the interval between the average and, more or less, twice the relative standard deviation. PMID:27294929

  2. The validation of ocean surface heat fluxes in AMIP

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    Recent intercomparisons of Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMS) constrained with sea-surface temperatures have shown that while there are substantial differences among various models (with each other and available observations), overall the differences between them have been decreasing. The primary goal of AMIP is to enable a systematic intercomparison and validation of state-of-the- art AGCMs by supporting in-depth diagnosis of and interpretation of the model results. Official AMIP simulations are 10 years long, using monthly mean Sea-Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice conditions which are representative of the 1979--1988 decade. Some model properties are also dictated by the design of AMIP such as the solar constant, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, and the approximate horizontal resolution. In this paper, some of the preliminary results of AMIP Subproject No. 5 will be summarized. The focus will be on the intercomparison and validation of ocean surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations available thus far.

  3. Evidence for ion heat flux in the light ion polar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, A. P.; Moore, T. E.; Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Cold flowing hydrogen and helium ions have been observed using the retarding ion mass spectrometer on board the Dynamics Explorer 1 spacecraft in the dayside magnetosphere at subauroral latitudes. The ions show a marked flux asymmetry with respect to the relative wind direction. The observed data are fitted by a model of drifting Maxwellian distributions perturbed by a first order-Spritzer-Haerm heat flux distribution function. It is shown that both ion species are supersonic just equatorward of the auroral zone at L = 14, and the shape of asymmetry and direction of the asymmetry are consistent with the presence of an upward heat flux. At L = 6, both species evolve smoothly into warmer subsonic upward flows with downward heat fluxes. In the case of subsonic flows the downward heat flux implies a significant heat source at higher altitudes. Spin curves of the spectrometer count rate versus the spin phase angle are provided.

  4. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined.

  5. Inverse estimation of near-field temperature and surface heat flux via single point temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen-Wu; Shu, Yong-Hua; Xie, Ji-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Zheng; Fan, Jing

    2017-02-01

    A concept was developed to inversely estimate the near-field temperature as well as the surface heat flux for the transient heat conduction problem with boundary condition of the unknown heat flux. The mathematical formula was derived for the inverse estimation of the near-field temperature and surface heat flux via a single point temperature measurement. The experiments were carried out in a vacuum chamber and the theoretically predicted temperatures were justified in specific positions. The inverse estimation principle was validated and the estimation deviation was evaluated for the present configuration.

  6. Temperature and heat flux measurement techniques for aeroengine fire test: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Saadon, S.

    2016-10-01

    This review is made of studies whereby some types of fire test measuring instrument were compared based on their mode of operation, sensing ability, temperature resistance and their calibration mode used for aero-engine applications. The study discusses issues affecting temperature and heat flux measurement, methods of measurement, calibration and uncertainties that occur in the fire test. It is found that the temperature and heat flux measurements of the flame from the standard burner need to be corrected and taken into account for radiation heat loss. Methods for temperature and heat flux measurements, as well as uncertainties analysis, were also discussed.

  7. Thin film heat flux sensor for Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Herbert

    1991-05-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine environment stresses engine components to their design limits and beyond. The extremely high temperatures and rapid temperature cycling can easily cause parts to fail if they are not properly designed. Thin film heat flux sensors can provide heat loading information with almost no disturbance of gas flows or of the blade. These sensors can provide steady state and transient heat flux information. A thin film heat flux sensor is described which makes it easier to measure small temperature differences across very thin insulating layers.

  8. Experimental Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux in a High Temperature Black Body Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.

    1998-01-01

    During hypersonic flight, high temperatures and high heat fluxes are generated. The Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL) at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is equipped to calibrate high heat fluxes up to 1100 kW/sq m. There are numerous uncertainties associated with these heat flux calibrations, as the process is transient, there are expected to be interactions between transient conduction, natural and forced convection, radiation, and possibly an insignificant degree of oxidation of the graphite cavity. Better understanding, of these mechanisms during the calibration process, will provide more reliable heat transfer data during either ground testing or flight testing of hypersonic vehicles.

  9. Air-Sea-Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    hygrometer by mounting its source and detector tubes inside the housing of the obsolete AIR Lyman-alpha hygrometer . This fast responding sensor is...top is shown in Fig. 3. The path of the krypton hygrometer was set for optimum performance on the higher humidity range for the estimation of...path of the krypton hygrometer was set for optimum performance in the higher humidity range for the estimation of surface fluxes this is why its

  10. Evaporation on/in Capillary Structures of High Heat Flux Two-Phase Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faghri, Amir; Khrustalev, Dmitry

    1996-01-01

    Two-phase devices (heat pipes, capillary pumped loops, loop heat pipes, and evaporators) have become recognized as key elements in thermal control systems of space platforms. Capillary and porous structures are necessary and widely used in these devices, especially in high heat flux and zero-g applications, to provide fluid transport and enhanced heat transfer during vaporization and condensation. However, some unexpected critical phenomena, such as dryout in long heat pipe evaporators and high thermal resistance of loop heat pipe evaporators with high heat fluxes, are possible and have been encountered in the use of two-phase devices in the low gravity environment. Therefore, a detailed fundamental investigation is proposed to better understand the fluid behavior in capillary-porous structures during vaporization at high heat fluxes. The present paper addresses some theoretical aspects of this investigation.

  11. Anomalous Heat Budgets in the Interior Pacific Ocean on Seasonal- to -Timescales and Gyre Spacescales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren; Cayan, Daniel R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies uncertainties in closing the seasonal cycle of diabatic heat storage over the Pacific Ocean from 20 degrees S to 60 degrees N through the synthesis of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) products over 7 years from 1993-1999. We utilize WOCE reanalysis products from the following sources: diabatic heat storage (DHS) from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO); near-surface geostrophic and Ekman currents from the Earth and Space Research (ESR); and air-sea heat fluxes from Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and European Center for Mid-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). We interpolate these products onto a common grid, allowing the seasonal cycle of DHS to be modeled for comparison with that observed. Everywhere latent heat flux residuals dominate sensible heat flux residuals and shortwave heat flux residuals dominate longwave heat flux residuals, both comparable in magnitude to the residual horizontal heat advection. We find the root-mean-square (RMS) of the differences between observed and model residual DHS tendencies to be less than 15 W per square meters everywhere except in the Kuroshio extension. Comparable COADS and NCEP products perform better than ECMWF products in the extra-tropics, while the NCEP product performs best in the tropics. Radiative and turbulent air-sea heat flux residuals computed from ship-born measurements perform better than those computed from satellite cloud and wind measurements. Since the RMS differences derive largely from biases in measured wind speed and cloud fraction, least-squares minimization is used to correct the residual Ekman heat advection and air-sea heat flux. Minimization reduces RMS differences less than 5 W per square meters except in the Kuroshio extension, suggesting how winds, clouds, and exchange coefficients in the NCEP, ECMWF, and ESR products can be improved.

  12. A New Facility for Measurements of Three-Dimensional, Local Subcooled Flow Boiling Heat Flux and Related Critical Heat Flux for PFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Ronald D. Sr.; Cofie, Penrose; Li Qingyuan; Ekhlassi, Ali A

    2002-01-15

    In the development of plasma-facing components for fusion reactors and high-heat-flux heat sinks (or components) for electronic applications, the components are usually subjected to a peripherally nonuniform heat flux. Even if the applied heat flux is uniform in the axial direction (which is unlikely), both intuition and recent investigations have clearly shown that both the local heat flux and the eventual critical heat flux (CHF) in this three-dimensional (3-D) case will differ significantly from similar quantities found in the voluminous body of data for uniformly heated flow channels. Although this latter case has been used in the past as an estimate for the former case, more study has become necessary to examine the 3-D temperature and heat flux distributions and related CHF. Work thus far has shown that the nonuniform peripheral heat flux condition enhances CHF in some cases.To avoid the excess costs associated with using electron or ion beams to produce the nonuniform heat flux, a new facility was developed that will allow 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements and two-dimensional, local subcooled flow boiling heat flux and related CHF measurements.The configurations under study for this work consist of (a) a nonuniformly heated cylinder-like test section with a circular coolant channel bored through the center and (b) a monoblock that is a square cross-section parallelepiped with a circular drilled flow channel along the channel centerline. The theoretical or ideal cylinder-like test section would be a circular cylinder with half (-90 to 90 deg) of its outside boundary subjected to a uniform heat flux and the remaining half insulated. For the monoblock, a uniform heat flux is applied to one of the outside surfaces, and the remaining surfaces are insulated. The outside diameter of the cylinder-like test section is 30.0 mm, and its length is 200.0 mm. The monoblock square is 30.0 mm long. The inside diameter of the flow channel for both types of test

  13. Seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance off the west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Biastoch, Arne; BöNing, Claus; Caputi, Nick; Meyers, Gary

    2008-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current, a warm, poleward flowing eastern boundary current, dominates the surface circulation off the west coast of Australia and has profound influence on regional marine ecosystem and fisheries recruitment. In this study, the seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance in the Leeuwin Current region are analyzed by using an eddy-resolving numerical model simulation, as a first step to quantify the climate impacts on regional ocean thermodynamics and marine ecosystem. The volume transport and heat advection of the Leeuwin Current are stronger during the austral winter on the seasonal cycle and are stronger during a La Nina event on the interannual scale. On both seasonal and interannual timescales, the mixed layer heat budget off the west coast of Australia is predominantly balanced between the variations of the Leeuwin Current heat advection and heat flux across the air-sea interface. On the interannual timescale, the variation of the Leeuwin Current heat advection tends to lead that of the air-sea (latent) heat flux by two months, which is likely a reflection of advection timescales of the Leeuwin Current and its eddy field. The interannual variation of the average February-April sea surface temperature off the west coast of Australia, which is crucial for the larval settlement of western rock lobster, is mostly influenced by the Leeuwin Current heat advection as well as the ocean memory from the previous austral winter, with the air-sea heat exchange playing a buffering role.

  14. Heat-flux scaling for weakly forced turbulent convection in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kusuma G.; Narasimha, R.

    Observational data in the atmosphere indicate that conventionally defined drag and heat transfer coefficients increase rapidly as wind speed falls. It is shown here that, at sufficiently low wind speeds, the observed heat flux is nearly independent of wind speed but the drag increases linearly with it. These findings are not consistent with the free-convection limit of the Businger relations for Monin Obukhov theory, and lend support to the ideas of Ingersoll (1966) and Grachev (1990), till now checked only against laboratory experiments. We propose here that it is useful to define, within the regime of mixed convection, a sub-regime of ‘weakly forced convection’ in which, to a first approximation, the heat flux is determined by temperature differentials as in free convection and the momentum flux by a perturbation, linear in wind, on free convection. It is further proposed that this regime is governed by velocity scales determined by the heat flux (rather than by the friction velocity as in classical turbulent boundary layer theory). Three candidates for the heat-flux velocity scale are considered; novel definitions of the drag and heat exchange coefficients, based on the preferred scale, are found to show very weak dependence on wind speed up to values of about 5 10 m s^{-1}; but there is some evidence that the usefulness of heat-flux scaling may extend beyond the velocity limits where pure free-convection scaling for heat flux is valid.

  15. Progress in the measurement of SSME turbine heat flux with plug-type sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1991-01-01

    Data reduction was completed for tests of plug-type heat flux sensors (gauges) in a turbine blade thermal cycling tester (TBT) that is located at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, and a typical gauge is illustrated. This is the first time that heat flux has been measured in a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turbopump Turbine environment. The development of the concept for the gauge was performed in a heat flux measurement facility at Lewis. In this facility, transient and steady state absorbed surface heat flux information was obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gauge. A schematic of the TBT is presented, and plots of the absorbed surface heat flux measured on the three blades tested in the TBT are presented. High quality heat flux values were measured on all three blades. The experiments demonstrated that reliable and durable gauges can be repeatedly fabricated into the airfoils. The experiment heat flux data are being used for verification of SSME analytical stress, boundary layer, and heat transfer design models. Other experimental results and future plans are also presented.

  16. Steady-State and Frequency Response of a Thin-Film Heat Flux Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Bhatt, Hemanshu D.; Cho, Chistopher S.

    1997-01-01

    A new and simpler design of thin-film heat flux gauge has been developed for use In high-heat-flux environments. Heat flux gauges of the same design were fabricated on three different substrates and tested. The heat flux gauge comprises a thermopile and a thermocouple junction, which measures the surface temperature. The thermopile has 40 pairs of S-type thermocouples and is covered by two thermal resistance layers. Calibration and testing of these gauges were first carried out in an arc-lamp calibration facility. Sensitivity of the gauge was discussed in terms of the relative conductivity and surface temperature. The heat flux calculated from the gauge output was In good agreement with the precalibrated standard sensor. The steady-state and the transient response characteristics of the heat flux gauge were also investigated using a carbon dioxide pulse laser as a heat source. The dynamic frequency response was evaluated in terms of the nondimensional amplitude ratio with respect to the frequency spectrum of a chopped laser bcam. The frequency response of the gauge was determined to be about 3 kHz. The temperature profiles in the thin-film heat flux gauge were obtained numerically in steady-state conditions using FLUENT and compared with the experimental results.

  17. Air-sea interactions in sea surface temperature frontal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Representation of air-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of air-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface temperatures (SST) on air-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the air-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.

  18. Operationalizing Air-Sea Battle in the Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    systems. 35. Chris Anderson, " Agricultural Drones ,• MIT ’Technology Review 117, no. 3 (May/June 2014): 58. 36. Van Thl et al., AirSea Battle: A Point...communications are re- established. These systems are vulnerable to antiair weapons; how- ever, 11relatively cheap drones with advanced sensors and

  19. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lienhard, J.H. V; Khounsary, A.M.

    1993-09-01

    The combination of impinging jets and diamond substrates may provide an effective solution to a class of extremely high heat flux problems in which very localized heat loads must be removed. Some potential applications include the cooling of high-heat-load components in synchrotron x-ray, fusion, and semiconductor laser systems. Impinging liquid jets are a very effective vehicle for removing high heat fluxes. The liquid supply arrangement is relatively simple, and low thermal resistances can be routinely achieved. A jet`s cooling ability is a strong function of the size of the cooled area relative to the jet diameter. For relatively large area targets, the critical heat fluxes can approach 20 W/mm{sup 2}. In this situation, burnout usually originates at the outer edge of the cooled region as increasing heat flux inhibits the liquid supply. Limitations from liquid supply are minimized when heating is restricted to the jet stagnation zone. The high stagnation pressure and high velocity gradients appear to suppress critical flux phenomena, and fluxes of up to 400 W/mm{sup 2} have been reached without evidence of burnout. Instead, the restrictions on heat flux are closely related to properties of the cooled target. Target properties become an issue owing to the large temperatures and large temperature gradients that accompany heat fluxes over 100 W/mm{sup 2}. These conditions necessitate a target with both high thermal conductivity to prevent excessive temperatures and good mechanical properties to prevent mechanical failures. Recent developments in synthetic diamond technology present a possible solution to some of the solid-side constraints on heat flux. Polycrystalline diamond foils can now be produced by chemical vapor deposition in reasonable quantity and at reasonable cost. Synthetic single crystal diamonds as large as 1 cm{sup 2} are also available.

  20. Heat Fluxes and Evaporation Measurements by Multi-Function Heat Pulse Probe: a Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Ciocca, F.; Hopmans, J. W.; Kamai, T.; Lunati, I.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    Multi Functional Heat Pulse Probes (MFHPP) are multi-needles probes developed in the last years able to measure temperature, thermal properties such as thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity, from which soil moisture is directly retrieved, and electric conductivity (through a Wenner array). They allow the simultaneous measurement of coupled heat, water and solute transport in porous media, then. The use of only one instrument to estimate different quantities in the same volume and almost at the same time significantly reduces the need to interpolate different measurement types in space and time, increasing the ability to study the interdependencies characterizing the coupled transports, especially of water and heat, and water and solute. A three steps laboratory experiment is realized at EPFL to investigate the effectiveness and reliability of the MFHPP responses in a loamy soil from Conthey, Switzerland. In the first step specific calibration curves of volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivity as function of known volumetric water content are obtained placing the MFHPP in small samplers filled with the soil homogeneously packed at different saturation degrees. The results are compared with literature values. In the second stage the ability of the MFHPP to measure heat fluxes is tested within a homemade thermally insulated calibration box and results are matched with those by two self-calibrating Heatflux plates (from Huxseflux), placed in the same box. In the last step the MFHPP are used to estimate the cumulative subsurface evaporation inside a small column (30 centimeters height per 8 centimeters inner diameter), placed on a scale, filled with the same loamy soil (homogeneously packed and then saturated) and equipped with a vertical array of four MFHPP inserted close to the surface. The subsurface evaporation is calculated from the difference between the net sensible heat and the net heat storage in the volume scanned by the probes, and the

  1. Evaluation of the swell effect on the air-sea gas transfer in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea gas transfer processes are one of the most important factors regarding global climate and long-term global climate changes. Despite its importance, there is still a huge uncertainty on how to better parametrize these processes in order to include them on the global climate models. This uncertainty exposes the need to increase our knowledge on gas transfer controlling mechanisms. In the coastal regions, breaking waves become a key factor to take into account when estimating gas fluxes, however, there is still a lack of information and the influence of the ocean surface waves on the air-sea interaction and gas flux behavior must be validated. In this study, as part of the "Sea Surface Roughness as Air-Sea Interaction Control" project, we evaluate the effect of the ocean surface waves on the gas exchange in the coastal zone. Direct estimates of the flux of CO2 (FCO2) and water vapor (FH2O) through eddy covariance, were carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 in a coastal station located at the Northwest of Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México. For the same period, ocean surface waves are recorded using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) with a sampling rate of 2 Hz and located at 10 m depth about 350 m away from the tower. We found the study area to be a weak sink of CO2 under moderate wind and wave conditions with a mean flux of -1.32 μmol/m2s. The correlation between the wind speed and FCO2 was found to be weak, suggesting that other physical processes besides wind may be important factors for the gas exchange modulation at coastal waters. The results of the quantile regression analysis computed between FCO2 and (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness and (4) water temperature, show that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with FCO2; Nevertheless, the behavior of their relation varies along the probability distribution of FCO2, with the linear regression

  2. Modelling of heat flux received by a bubble pump of absorption-diffusion refrigeration cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhmidene, Ali; Chaouachi, Béchir; Gabsi, Slimane; Bourouis, Mahmoud

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the heat flux received by a bubble pump, which was simulated to a vertical tube 1 m long and with a variable diameter, was optimized. A numerical study was carried out in order to solve balance equations concerning the water-ammonia mixture in the up flow. The two-fluid model was used to derive the equations. A numerical study was carried out on a heat flux between 1 and 70 kW m-2 and the liquid velocity was determined. The optimum flux was determined for a tube diameter equal to 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm and a mass flow rate ranging from 10 to 90 kg m-2 s-1. The optimum heat flux was correlated as a function of the tube diameter and mass flow rate, while the minimum heat flux required for pumping was correlated as a function of the tube diameter.

  3. Biofilm-like properties of the sea surface and predicted effects on air-sea CO2 exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, Oliver; Stolle, Christian; Van Thuoc, Chu; The Thu, Pham; Mari, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Because the sea surface controls various interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, it has a profound function for marine biogeochemistry and climate regulation. The sea surface is the gateway for the exchange of climate-relevant gases, heat and particles. Thus, in order to determine how the ocean and the atmosphere interact and respond to environmental changes on a global scale, the characterization and understanding of the sea surface are essential. The uppermost part of the water column is defined as the sea-surface microlayer and experiences strong spatial and temporal dynamics, mainly due to meteorological forcing. Wave-damped areas at the sea surface are caused by the accumulation of surface-active organic material and are defined as slicks. Natural slicks are observed frequently but their biogeochemical properties are poorly understood. In the present study, we found up to 40 times more transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), the foundation of any biofilm, in slicks compared to the underlying bulk water at multiple stations in the North Pacific, South China Sea, and Baltic Sea. We found a significant lower enrichment of TEP (up to 6) in non-slick sea surfaces compared to its underlying bulk water. Moreover, slicks were characterized by a large microbial biomass, another shared feature with conventional biofilms on solid surfaces. Compared to non-slick samples (avg. pairwise similarity of 70%), the community composition of bacteria in slicks was increasingly (avg. pairwise similarity of 45%) different from bulk water communities, indicating that the TEP-matrix creates specific environments for its inhabitants. We, therefore, conclude that slicks can feature biofilm-like properties with the excessive accumulation of particles and microbes. We also assessed the potential distribution and frequency of slick-formation in coastal and oceanic regions, and their effect on air-sea CO2 exchange based on literature data. We estimate that slicks can reduce CO2

  4. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature.

    PubMed

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  5. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

  6. Estimation of surface heat flux and temperature distributions in a multilayer tissue based on the hyperbolic model of heat conduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chen, Wen-Lih; Chang, Win-Jin; Yang, Yu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an inverse algorithm based on the conjugate gradient method and the discrepancy principle is applied to solve the inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem in estimating the unknown time-dependent surface heat flux in a skin tissue, which is stratified into epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers, from the temperature measurements taken within the medium. Subsequently, the temperature distributions in the tissue can be calculated as well. The concept of finite heat propagation velocity is applied to the modeling of the bioheat transfer problem. The inverse solutions will be justified based on the numerical experiments in which two different heat flux distributions are to be determined. The temperature data obtained from the direct problem are used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of measurement errors on the precision of the estimated results is also investigated. Results show that an excellent estimation on the time-dependent surface heat flux can be obtained for the test cases considered in this study.

  7. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: results of the first phase of the URBANFLUXES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-10-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. This will lead to the development of tools and strategies to mitigate these effects, improving thermal comfort and energy efficiency. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The project exploits Sentinels observations, which provide improved data quality, coverage and revisit times and increase the value of EO data for scientific work and future emerging applications. These observations can reveal novel scientific insights for the detection and monitoring of the spatial distribution of the urban energy budget fluxes in cities, thereby generating new EO opportunities. URBANFLUXES thus exploits the European capacity for space-borne observations to enable the development of operational services in the field of urban environmental monitoring and energy efficiency in cities.

  8. On-board Direct Eddy Flux Measurements of Heat, Water Vapor and Co2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Takahashi, S.; Kono, T.; Yamashita, E.; Ishida, H.

    Direct eddy fluxes of heat(sensible and latent), water vapor and CO2 were measuted with on-board eddy flux system over the Pacific. Present authors are continueing direct eddy flux measurement on R/V MIRAI(JAMSTEC) cruising the Pacific. I addition to these routine heat flux evaluation, direct CO2 flux measurements were applied with LI- 7500 (Licor) and Kaijo sonic anemometer. The eddy flux system including CO2 sensor worked very well even in the moving ship. Small amplitude of turbulent fluctuations of CO2 were measured and it is found that CO2 was transported downward to sea surface during a month(Nov-Dec 2001) around 2N,138E. CO2 concentrations in the air and sea water were also measured and they also confirmed the CO2 sink. The automated real-time eddy flux system including ship motion correction has started and this can be applied to other cruising ships.

  9. GEM-CEDAR Challenge: Poynting Flux at DMSP and Modeled Joule Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Emery, Barbara; Weimer, Daniel R.; Cosgrove, Russell; Wiltberger, Michael; Raeder, Joachim; Li, Wenhui; Toth, Gabor; Welling, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Poynting flux into the ionosphere measures the electromagnetic energy coming from the magnetosphere. This energy flux can vary greatly between quiet times and geomagnetic active times. As part of the Geospace Environment Modeling-coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions modeling challenge, physics-based models of the 3-D ionosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics solvers of magnetosphere models that specify Joule heat and empirical models specifying Poynting flux were run for six geomagnetic storm events of varying intensity. We compared model results with Poynting flux values along the DMSP-15 satellite track computed from ion drift meter and magnetic field observations. Although being a different quantity, Joule heat can in practice be correlated to incoming Poynting flux because the energy is dissipated primarily in high latitudes where Poynting flux is being deposited. Within the physics-based model group, we find mixed results with some models overestimating Joule heat and some models agreeing better with observed Poynting flux rates as integrated over auroral passes. In contrast, empirical models tend to underestimate integrated Poynting flux values. Modeled Joule heat or Poynting flux patterns often resemble the observed Poynting flux patterns on a large scale, but amplitudes can differ by a factor of 2 or larger due to the highly localized nature of observed Poynting flux deposition that is not captured by the models. In addition, the positioning of modeled patterns appear to be randomly shifted against the observed Poynting flux energy input. This study is the first to compare Poynting flux and Joule heat in a large variety of models of the ionosphere.

  10. Modeling of Air-Sea Interaction and Ocean Processes for the Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and space-time variability in the Northwestern Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea on time scales from days up to several seasonal cycles . OBJECTIVES...determine the mechanisms causing vertical mixing in the Arabian Sea: wind mixing, role of air- sea interaction and surface heat and fresh water ...equatorial region and the East African Coastal current, a source of low-salinity water for the Arabian Sea. APPROACH The fast-flowing Somali

  11. E × B shear pattern formation by radial propagation of heat flux waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kosuga, Y.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Gürcan, Ö. D.

    2014-05-15

    A novel theory to describe the formation of E×B flow patterns by radially propagating heat flux waves is presented. A model for heat avalanche dynamics is extended to include a finite delay time between the instantaneous heat flux and the mean flux, based on an analogy between heat avalanche dynamics and traffic flow dynamics. The response time introduced here is an analogue of the drivers' response time in traffic dynamics. The microscopic foundation for the time delay is the time for mixing of the phase space density. The inclusion of the finite response time changes the model equation for avalanche dynamics from Burgers equation to a nonlinear telegraph equation. Based on the telegraph equation, the formation of heat flux jams is predicted. The growth rate and typical interval of jams are calculated. The connection of the jam interval to the typical step size of the E×B staircase is discussed.

  12. Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

  13. A study of oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents seas using the gridded Navy Fleet Numerical Oceanography Central surface analysis and the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) IIc cloudiness data bases. Monthly and annual means of net and turbulent heat fluxes are computed for the FGGE year 1979. The FGGE IIb data base consisting of individual observations provides particularly good data coverage in this region for a comparison with the gridded Navy winds and air temperatures. The standard errors of estimate between the Navy and FGGE IIb winds and air temperatures are 3.6 m/s and 2.5 C, respectively. The computations for the latent and sensible heat fluxes are based on bulk formulas with the same constant heat exchange coefficient of 0.0015. The results show extremely strong wintertime heat fluxes in the northern Greenland Sea and especially in the Barents Sea in contrast to previous studies.

  14. New technique for the fabrication of miniature thin film heat flux gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Matthew; Chana, Kam; Povey, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    This paper details the improvements made to the design and fabrication of thin-film heat flux gauges at Oxford. These improvements have been driven by the desire to improve measurement accuracy and resolution in short duration wind-tunnel experiments. A thin-film heat flux gauge (TFHFG) measures heat flux by recording the temperature history of thin film resistive temperature sensors sputtered onto an insulating substrate. The heat flux can then be calculated using Fourier’s law of heat conduction. A new fabrication process utilising technology from the manufacture of flexible printed circuit boards is outlined, which enables the production of significantly smaller and more robust gauges than those previously used.

  15. Parametric representation of heat and moisture fluxes in cloud-topped mixed layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penc, Richard S.; Albrecht, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    The Betts (1973, 1978) parametrization of heat and moisture fluxes is tested using measurements made in thin, broken, and solid stratocumulus clouds by the NCAR Electra off the California coast in June 1976. The turbulence data are used to determine updraft-downdraft properties, heat and moisture fluxes, spectra, and cospectra. From the convective properties, vertical mass flux profiles are obtained and examined for consistency. A convective scaling which is appropriate for cloud-topped mixed layers is discussed. The results demonstrate the usefulness of a mass flux formulation in modeling applications for cloud conditions varying between solid and broken.

  16. Methodology for estimation of time-dependent surface heat flux due to cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Tunnell, James W; Torres, Jorge H; Anvari, Bahman

    2002-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective technique to protect the epidermis during cutaneous laser therapies. Spraying a cryogen onto the skin surface creates a time-varying heat flux, effectively cooling the skin during and following the cryogen spurt. In previous studies mathematical models were developed to predict the human skin temperature profiles during the cryogen spraying time. However, no studies have accounted for the additional cooling due to residual cryogen left on the skin surface following the spurt termination. We formulate and solve an inverse heat conduction (IHC) problem to predict the time-varying surface heat flux both during and following a cryogen spurt. The IHC formulation uses measured temperature profiles from within a medium to estimate the surface heat flux. We implement a one-dimensional sequential function specification method (SFSM) to estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperatures measured within an in vitro model in response to a cryogen spurt. Solution accuracy and experimental errors are examined using simulated temperature data. Heat flux following spurt termination appears substantial; however, it is less than that during the spraying time. The estimated time-varying heat flux can subsequently be used in forward heat conduction models to estimate temperature profiles in skin during and following a cryogen spurt and predict appropriate timing for onset of the laser pulse.

  17. Investigating Characteristics of Air-Sea Interactions in the Wave and Surface Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-02

    momentum, heat , and moisture fluxes. To ensure the data quality from the Pelican aircraft, we did tower-aircraft turbulence comparisons based on...and sensible and latent heat fluxes as functions of the wave age and atmospheric stability using the LongEZ aircraft data collected during the...Influences of swell on sensible and latent heat fluxes We found that both heat and moisture fluxes are weak over swell-dominant-sea since the wind is

  18. Extended hydrodynamic theory of the peak and minimum pool boiling heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linehard, J. H.; Dhir, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrodynamic theory of the extreme pool boiling heat fluxes is expanded to embrace a variety of problems that have not previously been analyzed. These problems include the prediction of the peak heat flux on a variety of finite heaters, the influence of viscosity on the Taylor and Helmoltz instability mechanisms with application to film boiling and to the peak heat flux in viscous liquids, the formalization of the analogy between high-current-density electrolysis and boiling, and the description of boiling in the low-gravity limit. The predictions are verified with a large number of new data.

  19. Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling.

    PubMed

    Karapetian, Emil; Aguilar, Guillermo; Kimel, Sol; Lavernia, Enrique J; Nelson, J Stuart

    2003-01-07

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to protect the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery. To date, the relative influence of the fundamental spray parameters on surface cooling remains incompletely understood. This study explores the effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity on the surface heat flux during CSC. It is shown that the effect of mass flow rate on the surface heat flux is much more important compared to that of droplet velocity. However, for fully atomized sprays with small flow rates, droplet velocity can make a substantial difference in the surface heat flux.

  20. Institute for High Heat Flux Removal (IHHFR). Phases I, II, and III

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Ronald D.

    2014-08-31

    The IHHFR focused on interdisciplinary applications as it relates to high heat flux engineering issues and problems which arise due to engineering systems being miniaturized, optimized, or requiring increased high heat flux performance. The work in the IHHFR focused on water as a coolant and includes: (1) the development, design, and construction of the high heat flux flow loop and facility; (2) test section development, design, and fabrication; and, (3) single-side heat flux experiments to produce 2-D boiling curves and 3-D conjugate heat transfer measurements for single-side heated test sections. This work provides data for comparisons with previously developed and new single-side heated correlations and approaches that address the single-side heated effect on heat transfer. In addition, this work includes the addition of single-side heated circular TS and a monoblock test section with a helical wire insert. Finally, the present work includes: (1) data base expansion for the monoblock with a helical wire insert (only for the latter geometry), (2) prediction and verification using finite element, (3) monoblock model and methodology development analyses, and (4) an alternate model development for a hypervapotron and related conjugate heat transfer controlling parameters.

  1. Effects of Heat Flux, Oxygen Concentration and Glass Fiber Volume Fraction on Pyrolysate Mass Flux from Composite Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, D. B.; Lautenberger, C. W.; Yuan, Z.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental work on the effects of heat flux, oxygen concentration and glass fiber volume fraction on pyrolysate mass flux from samples of polypropylene/glass fiber composite (PP/G) is underway. The research is conducted as part of a larger project to develop a test methodology for flammability of materials, particularly composites, in the microgravity and variable oxygen concentration environment of spacecraft and space structures. Samples of PP/G sized at 30x30x10 mm are flush mounted in a flow tunnel, which provides a flow of oxidizer over the surface of the samples at a fixed value of 1 m/s and oxygen concentrations varying between 18 and 30%. Each sample is exposed to a constant external radiant heat flux at a given value, which varies between tests from 10 to 24 kW/m2. Continuous sample mass loss and surface temperature measurements are recorded for each test. Some tests are conducted with an igniter and some are not. In the former case, the research goal is to quantify the critical mass flux at ignition for the various environmental and material conditions described above. The later case generates a wider range of mass flux rates than those seen prior to ignition, providing an opportunity to examine the protective effects of blowing on oxidative pyrolysis and heating of the surface. Graphs of surface temperature and sample mass loss vs. time for samples of 30% PPG at oxygen concentrations of 18 and 21% are presented in the figures below. These figures give a clear indication of the lower pyrolysis rate and extended time to ignition that accompany a lower oxygen concentration. Analysis of the mass flux rate at the time of ignition gives good repeatability but requires further work to provide a clear indication of mass flux trends accompanying changes in environmental and material properties.

  2. Effects of Heat Flux, Oxygen Concentration and Glass Fiber Volume Fraction on Pyrolysate Mass Flux from Composite Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, D. B.; Lautenberger, C. W.; Yuan, Z.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental work on the effects of heat flux, oxygen concentration and glass fiber volume fraction on pyrolysate mass flux from samples of polypropylene/glass fiber composite (PP/G) is underway. The research is conducted as part of a larger project to develop a test methodology for flammability of materials, particularly composites, in the microgravity and variable oxygen concentration environment of spacecraft and space structures. Samples of PP/G sized at 30 x 30 x 10 mm are flush mounted in a flow tunnel, which provides a flow of oxidizer over the surface of the samples at a fixed value of 1 m/s and oxygen concentrations varying between 18 and 30%. Each sample is exposed to a constant external radiant heat flux at a given value, which varies between tests from 10 to 24 kW/sq m. Continuous sample mass loss and surface temperature measurements are recorded for each test. Some tests are conducted with an igniter and some are not. In the former case, the research goal is to quantify the critical mass flux at ignition for the various environmental and material conditions described above. The later case generates a wider range of mass flux rates than those seen prior to ignition, providing an opportunity to examine the protective effects of blowing on oxidative pyrolysis and heating of the surface. Graphs of surface temperature and sample mass loss vs. time for samples of 30% PPG at oxygen concentrations of 18 and 21% are presented in the figures below. These figures give a clear indication of the lower pyrolysis rate and extended time to ignition that accompany a lower oxygen concentration. Analysis of the mass flux rate at the time of ignition gives good repeatability but requires further work to provide a clear indication of mass flux trends accompanying changes in environmental and material properties.

  3. Combining Heat and Mass Flux Methods for Estimating Real-Time Evaporation from a Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, T. J.; Schladow, G.; Hook, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the heat and mass fluxes associated with evaporation from lakes and reservoirs is achallenge for hydrologists and water managers. This is in large part due to a lack of comprehensivemeasurement data for most systems, which is itself related to the inherent difficulties associated withmeasuring turbulent quantities. An alternative to direct measurement is to develop better models for theevaporative flux, based on the mean terms (as opposed to the turbulent terms) that drive evaporation.Algorithms for the evaporative heat and mass flux must reflect changes in heat storage in the system aswell as the other components of a mass balance (inflow, outflow, and precipitation). The energy budget basedapproach requires records of all the other energy fluxes across the air-water interface to separateout the latent heat component. Other approaches utilize the similarity between atmospheric velocity,temperature and humidity profiles. This study seeks to combine these approaches to build and calibrateheat flux models that can be used to accurately recreate a long-term record of mass storage changefrom a sub-set of meteorological data, lake surface temperature data, and hydrologic observations. Highfrequency lake level data are used to check that the mass balance is in fact achieved. Good agreement isshown between the heat flux methods and the mass balance results through comparison with a three-yearrecord of lake level. The results demonstrate that a combination of mass and heat flux approaches canbe used to generate accurate values of evaporation on daily or even sub-daily time-scales.

  4. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for high heat flux thrust chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Christopher M.

    -section components has become critical, but at the same time the service conditions have put our best alloy systems to their limits. As a result, implementation of cooling holes and thermal barrier coatings are new advances in hot-section technologies now looked at for modifications to reach higher temperature applications. Current thermal barrier coatings used in today's turbine applications is known as 8%yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and there are no coatings for current thrust chambers. Current research is looking at the applicability of 8%yttria-stabilized hafnia (YSH) for turbine applications and the implementation of 8%YSZ onto thrust chambers. This study intends to determine if the use of thermal barrier coatings are applicable for high heat flux thrust chambers using industrial YSZ will be advantageous for improvements in efficiency, thrust and longer service life by allowing the thrust chambers to be used more than once.

  5. Critical heat flux in pool boiling on a vertical heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monde, M.; Inoue, T.; Mitsutake, Y.

    Critical heat flux during pool boiling on a vertical heater of wire or plate has been measured employing water and R113. The experiment was made for a wire of 0.5 to 2 mm in diameter and for a plate of 5, 7 and 30 mm in width and from 20 to 300 mm in height. The pressure was 1 and 2 bar for water and 1, 2, 3 and 4 bar for R113. The experiment shows that for the case of both wire and plate of 5, 7 mm, a large coalesced bubble entirely surrounds the vertical heater and rises surrounding it, while for the case of w = 30 mm, a large bubble cannot surround and rises along its surface. The characteristic of CHF can be divided into two regimes depending on the flow condition when CHF takes place. Correlations are proposed for the CHF of the wire and the plate of w = 5, and 7 mm, yielding good accuracy. The CHF for the plate of w = 30 mm has a similar tendency to that in one side headed surface and can be predicted reasonably by existing correlation for one side heated surface. Zusammenfassung Der kritische Wärmefluß beim Behältersieden an einem vertikalen Heizkörper (Draht oder Platte) wurde mit den Versuchsmedien Wasser und R113 gemessen. Die Experimente bezogen sich auf Drähte von 0,5 bis 2 mm Durchmesser und Platten von 5, 7 und 30 mm Breite und 20 bis 300 mm Höhe. Die Drücke betrugen 1 und 2 bar bei Wasser und 1, 2, 3 und 4 bar bei R113. In den Experimenten zeigte sich bei Drähten und Platten mit 5 und 7 mm Breite eine große zusammengewachsene Blase, die, den Heizkörper vollständig umschließend, an diesem aufstieg. Bei der 30 mm breiten Platte vermochte die große Blase den Heizkörper nicht mehr zu umschließen sie stieg an dessen Oberfläche auf. Die Charakteristik des kritischen Wärmeflusses läßt sich in zwei Bereiche unterteilen, und zwar in Abhängigkeit von den Strömungsbedingungen, unter welchen er auftrat. Vorgeschlagene Berechnungsgleichungen für den kritischen Wärmefluß liefern bezüglich der Drähte und der Platten mit 5 und 7 mm Breite

  6. An Experimental Study of a Radially Arranged Thin Film Heat Flux Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Christoper S. K.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Bhatt, Hemanshu D.

    1997-01-01

    A new thin-film heat-flux gauge was designed and fabricated on three different substrate materials. Forty pairs of Pt-Pt/10% Rh thermocouple junctions were deposited in a circular pattern on the same plane of the substrate. Over the thermocouples, 5 and 10 micron thick thermal resistance layers were deposited to create a temperature gradient across those layers. Calibration and testing of these gauges were carried out in an arc-lamp calibration facility. The heat flux calculated from the gauge output is in good agreement with the value obtained from the pre-calibrated standard sensor. A CO2 laser was also used to test the steady-state and dynamic responses of the heat-flux gauge. During the steady-state test, the time constant for the heating period was 30 s. The frequency response of the heat-flux gauge was measured in the frequency domain using a CO2 laser and a chopper. The responses from an infrared detector and the heat-flux gauge were measured simultaneously and compared. It was found that the thin-film heat-flux gauge has a dynamic frequency response of 3 kHz.

  7. Air-sea interactions during strong winter extratropical storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Jill; He, Ruoying; Warner, John C.; Bane, John

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution, regional coupled atmosphere–ocean model is used to investigate strong air–sea interactions during a rapidly developing extratropical cyclone (ETC) off the east coast of the USA. In this two-way coupled system, surface momentum and heat fluxes derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting model and sea surface temperature (SST) from the Regional Ocean Modeling System are exchanged via the Model Coupling Toolkit. Comparisons are made between the modeled and observed wind velocity, sea level pressure, 10 m air temperature, and sea surface temperature time series, as well as a comparison between the model and one glider transect. Vertical profiles of modeled air temperature and winds in the marine atmospheric boundary layer and temperature variations in the upper ocean during a 3-day storm period are examined at various cross-shelf transects along the eastern seaboard. It is found that the air–sea interactions near the Gulf Stream are important for generating and sustaining the ETC. In particular, locally enhanced winds over a warm sea (relative to the land temperature) induce large surface heat fluxes which cool the upper ocean by up to 2 °C, mainly during the cold air outbreak period after the storm passage. Detailed heat budget analyses show the ocean-to-atmosphere heat flux dominates the upper ocean heat content variations. Results clearly show that dynamic air–sea interactions affecting momentum and buoyancy flux exchanges in ETCs need to be resolved accurately in a coupled atmosphere–ocean modeling framework.

  8. A novel heat flux study of a geothermally active lake - Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, Maurice A.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Walker, Sharon L.; Fornari, Daniel J.

    2016-03-01

    A new technique for measuring conductive heat flux in a lake was adapted from the marine environment to allow for multiple measurements to be made in areas where bottom sediment cover is sparse, or even absent. This thermal blanket technique, pioneered in the deep ocean for use in volcanic mid-ocean rift environments, was recently used in the geothermally active Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand. Heat flow from the lake floor propagates into the 0.5 m diameter blanket and establishes a thermal gradient across the known blanket thickness and thereby provides an estimate of the conductive heat flux of the underlying terrain. This approach allows conductive heat flux to be measured over a spatially dense set of stations in a relatively short period of time. We used 10 blankets and deployed them for 1 day each to complete 110 stations over an 11-day program in the 6 × 3 km lake. Results show that Lake Rotomahana has a total conductive heat flux of about 47 MW averaging 6 W/m2 over the geothermally active lake. The western half of the lake has two main areas of high heat flux; 1) a high heat flux area averaging 21.3 W/m2 along the western shoreline, which is likely the location of the pre-existing geothermal system that fed the famous Pink Terraces, mostly destroyed during the 1886 eruption 2) a region southwest of Patiti Island with a heat flux averaging 13.1 W/m2 that appears to be related to the explosive rift that formed the lake in the 1886 Tarawera eruption. A small rise in bottom water temperature over the survey period of 0.01 °C/day suggests the total thermal output of the lake is ~ 112-132 MW and when compared to the conductive heat output suggests that 18-42% of the total thermal energy is by conductive heat transfer.

  9. Joint seismic-geodynamic-mineral physical constraints on heat flux across the CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamics and thermal evolution of the Earth's interior is strongly dependent on the relative contributions from internal heating in the mantle (due to radioactivity and secular cooling) and from bottom heating across the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The dynamical style of the thermal convective flow, in particular the relative importance of active, thermally buoyant upwellings and mantle cooling due to descending lithospheric plates is also strongly dependent on the amplitude of heat flux across the CMB. We are able to provide new constraints on the convectively maintained heat flux across the CMB thanks to recent progress in mapping the lateral variations in mantle temperature by jointly inverting global seismic and geodynamic data sets, in which mineral physical constraints on mantle thermal heterogeneity are also imposed (Simmons et al. 2009). We present here new models of the present-day global mantle convective flow predicted on the basis of the thermal and non-thermal (compositional) density perturbations derived from the new tomography model and using the inferences of depth-dependent, horizontally averaged mantle viscosity derived from joint inversions of glacial isostatic adjustment and mantle convection data (Forte and Mitrovica 2004). We employ this tomography- geodynamics based mantle convection model to explore the convective transport of mass (buoyancy flux) and heat (advected heat flux) across the lower and upper mantle. We show that the predictions of advected heat flux at the top of the seismic D" layer provide direct constraints on the heat flux across the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Our current best estimates of the present-day CMB heat flux are in excess of 10 TW. We present a sensitivity analysis showing the degree of robustness of this inference, depending on the inferred variation of mantle viscosity in the lower mantle. We also present new predictions of the present-day distribution of secular heating and cooling at different depths in

  10. RF-sheath heat flux estimates on Tore Supra and JET ICRF antennae. Extrapolation to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Colas, L.; Portafaix, C.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, Ph.

    2009-11-26

    RF-sheath induced heat loads are identified from infrared thermography measurements on Tore Supra ITER-like prototype and JET A2 antennae, and are quantified by fitting thermal calculations. Using a simple scaling law assessed experimentally, the estimated heat fluxes are then extrapolated to the ITER ICRF launcher delivering 20 MW RF power for several plasma scenarios. Parallel heat fluxes up to 6.7 MW/m{sup 2} are expected very locally on ITER antenna front face. The role of edge density on operation is stressed as a trade-off between easy RF coupling and reasonable heat loads. Sources of uncertainty on the results are identified.

  11. Sensitivity of a climatologically-driven sea ice model to the ocean heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Good, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ocean heat flux sensitivity was studied on a numerical model of sea ice covering the Weddell Sea region of the southern ocean. The model is driven by mean monthly climatological atmospheric variables. For each model run, the ocean heat flux is uniform in both space and time. Ocean heat fluxes below 20 W m to the minus 2 power do not provide sufficient energy to allow the ice to melt to its summertime thicknesses and concentrations by the end of the 14 month simulation, whereas ocean heat fluxes of 30 W m to the minus 2 power and above result in too much ice melt, producing the almost total disappearance of ice in the Weddell Sea by the end of the 14 months. These results are dependent on the atmospheric forcing fields.

  12. The Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Solid Samples by Heat Flux Differantial Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kök, M.; Aydoǧdu, Y.

    2007-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of polyvinylchloride (PVC), polysytrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) were measured by heat flux DSC. Our results are in good agreement with the results observed by different methods.

  13. On The Solenoidal Heat Flux in Quasi-Ballistic Thermal Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramu, Ashok; Bowers, John

    The Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is recast directly in terms of the heat-flux by means of iteration followed by truncation at the second order in the spherical harmonic expansion of the distribution function. This procedure displays the heat-flux in an explicitly coordinate-invariant form, and leads to a natural decomposition into two components, namely the solenoidal component in addition to the usual irrotational component. The solenoidal heat-flux is explicitly shown to arise in a right-circular cylinder when the transport is in the quasi-ballistic regime. These findings are important in the context of phonon resonators that utilize the strong quasi-ballistic thermal transport reported recently in silicon membranes at room temperature. Effects due to circulating heat fluxes are noted in the effective thermal conductivity of silicon discs. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation, USA under Project Number CMMI-1363207.

  14. High temperature thermocouple and heat flux gauge using a unique thin film-hardware hot juncture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Holanda, R.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Andracchio, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    A special thin film-hardware material thermocouple (TC) and heat flux gauge concept for a reasonably high temperature and high flux flat plate heat transfer experiment was fabricated and tested to gauge temperatures of 911 K. This concept was developed for minimal disturbance of boundary layer temperature and flow over the plates and minimal disturbance of heat flux through the plates. Comparison of special heat flux gauge Stanton number output at steady-state conditions with benchmark literature data was good and agreement was within a calculated uncertainty of the measurement system. Also, good agreement of special TC and standard TC outputs was obtained and the results are encouraging. Oxidation of thin film thermoelements was a primary failure mode after about 5 of operation.

  15. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Starks, Patrick; Hays, Cynthia; Norman, John M.; Waltershea, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The primary objectives of the 1985 study were to test the feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations and to evaluate the use of the data collected by the automated weather stations for modeling the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation over wheat. The model Cupid was used to calculate these fluxes which were compared with fluxes of these entities measured using micrometeorological techniques. The primary objectives of the 1986 study were to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams at a few locations within the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) site and to compare modeled and measured latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the prairie vegetation.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Transient Insertion of Heat Flux Gages in a Cylindrical Black Body Cavity at 1100 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, A. N.; Horn, T.

    2006-01-01

    Initial transient thermal models have been developed to simulate a heat flux gage calibration process capable of generating high heat flux levels of interest to reciprocating and gas turbine engine industries as well as the aerospace industry. These transient models are based on existing, experimentally validated, steady state models of the cylindrical blackbody calibration system. The steady state models were modified to include insertion of a heat flux gage into the hot zone of the calibration system and time varying electrical current passing through the resistance heated blackbody. Heat fluxes computed using the initial transient models were compared to experimental measurements. The calculated and measured transient heat fluxes were within 5% indicating that the major physical phenomena in the transient calibration had been captured by the models. The predicted and measured transient heat fluxes were also compared at two different gage insertion depths. These results indicated that there is an optimum insertion position which maximizes heat flux and minimizes cavity disturbance.

  17. On the heat flux vector for flowing granular materials--part II: derivation and special cases

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2006-09-10

    Heat transfer plays a major role in the processing of many particulate materials. The heat flux vector is commonly modelled by the Fourier's law of heat conduction and for complex materials such as non-linear fluids, porous media, or granular materials, the coefficient of thermal conductivity is generalized by assuming that it would depend on a host of material and kinematical parameters such as temperature, shear rate, porosity or concentration, etc. In Part I, we will give a brief review of the basic equations of thermodynamics and heat transfer to indicate the importance of the modelling of the heat flux vector. We will also discuss the concept of effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in granular and porous media. In Part II, we propose and subsequently derive a properly frame-invariant constitutive relationship for the heat flux vector for a (single phase) flowing granular medium. Standard methods in continuum mechanics such as representation theorems and homogenization techniques are used. It is shown that the heat flux vector in addition to being proportional to the temperature gradient (the Fourier's law), could also depend on the gradient of density (or volume fraction), and D (the symmetric part of the velocity gradient) in an appropriate manner. The emphasis in this paper is on the idea that for complex non-linear materials it is the heat flux vector which should be studied; obtaining or proposing generalized form of the thermal conductivity is not always appropriate or sufficient.

  18. Annual sea ice. An air-sea gas exchange moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T.A.; Kelley, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Arctic annual sea ice, particularly when it is relatively warm (> -15/sup 0/C) permits significant gas exchange between the sea and air throughout the entire year. Sea ice, particularly annual sea ice, differs from freshwater ice with respect to its permeability to gases. The presence of brine allows for significant air-sea-ice exchange of CO/sub 2/ throughout the winter, which may significantly affect the global carbon dioxide balance. Other trace gases are also noted to be enriched in sea ice, but less is known about their importance to air-sea-interactions at this time. Both physical and biological factors cause and modify evolution of gases from the surface of sea ice. Quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the nature and physical behavior of sea ice with respect to brine and gases are discussed.

  19. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Wu, Qiao

    2015-04-30

    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.

  20. Heatflow in Young Oceanic Crust. Is Earth's Heat Flux 44 TW or 31 TW?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnold, W. D.

    2008-05-01

    We address the question of heat flow in young oceanic crust using a 2-D finite difference heat flow model of sea floor spreading. The model parameters include thermal conductivity variation with temperature, a fixed T-z profile at the ridge that follows the mantle liquidus, constant spreading rate, and constant heat flow into the base of the lithosphere. The output of the model is a 2-D temperature-depth grid that provides a comparison with various analytical models of oceanic heat flow. We tested the reliability of the computations using different half-spreading rates and different node spacings and verified that the models yield equivalent results at equivalent times and depths. To address the question of global heat flux with respect to heat flow at oceanic spreading centers, we summed heat flux on the oceanic ridge system assuming a length of 65000 km and a half-spreading rate of 2.5 cm/y. Our results show that the GDH1, HSC, and PSM models overestimate heat flow close to the ridge, but the differences are less than 5 percent beyond 2 ma. Our model converges with GDH1 at a young age of 4.32 my and actually shows slightly lower heat flow than HSC and PSM models for ages greater than 5 ma. Total heat flux for GDH1 between 80ky and 2.32 my is 6.24 TW and our model yields 5.56 TW. Assuming agreement with heat flux over the rest of the globe, our model is only 0.68 TW different from 44TW. However, our result for heat flux in a 2 km wide section over the global ridge crest is 0.161 TW while the analytical models predict infinite heat flow.

  1. A numerical coupled model for studying air-sea-wave interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Le Ngoc

    1995-10-01

    A numerical coupled model of air-sea-wave interaction is developed to study the influence of ocean wind waves on dynamical, turbulent structures of the air-sea system and their impact on coupled modeling. The model equations for both atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers include equations for: (1) momentum, (2) a k-ɛ turbulence scheme, and (3) stratification in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. The model equations are written in the same form for both the atmosphere and ocean. In this model, wind waves are considered as another source of turbulent energy in the upper layer of the ocean besides turbulent energy from shear production. The dissipation ɛ at the ocean surface is written as a linear combination of terms representing dissipation from mean flow and breaking waves. The ɛ from breaking waves is estimated by using similarity theory and observed data. It is written in terms of wave parameters such as wave phase speed, height, and length, which are then expressed in terms of friction velocity. Numerical experiments are designed for various geostrophic winds, wave heights, and wave ages, to study the influence of waves on the air-sea system. The numerical simulations show that the vertical profiles of ɛ in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers (AOBL) are similar. The magnitudes of ɛ in the oceanic surface zone are much larger than those in the atmospheric surface zone and in the interior of the oceanic boundary layer (OBL). The model predicts ɛ distributions with a surface zone of large dissipation which was not expected from similarity scaling based on observed wind stress and surface buoyancy. The simulations also show that waves have a strong influence on eddy viscosity coefficients (EVC) and momentum fluxes, and have a dominated effect on the component of fluxes in the direction of the wind. The depth of large changes in flux magnitudes and EVC in the ocean can reach to 10-20 m. The simulations of surface drift currents confirm that

  2. Air-sea interactions and oceanic processes in the development of different Atlantic Niño patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Rey, Marta; Polo, Irene; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Lazar, Alban

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Niño is the leading mode of inter-annual variability of the tropical Atlantic basin at inter-annual time scales. A recent study has put forward that two different Atlantic Niño patterns co-exist in the tropical Atlantic basin during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The leading mode, Basin-Wide (BW) Atlantic Niño is characterized by an anomalous warming extended along the whole tropical basin. The second mode, the Dipolar (D) Atlantic Niño presents positive Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the central-eastern equatorial band, surrounded by negative ones in the North and South tropical Atlantic. The BW Atlantic Niño is associated with a weakening of both Azores and Sta Helena High, which reduces the tropical trades during previous autumn-winter. On the other hand, the D-Atlantic Niño is related to a strengthening of the Azores and a weakening of Helena High given rise to a meridional Sea Level Pressure (SLP) gradient that originates an intensification of the subtropical trades and anomalous westerlies along the equatorial band. This different wind forcing suggests that different oceanic processes could act in the development of the BW and D Atlantic Niño patterns. For this reason, an inter-annual simulation with the ocean NEMO model has been performed and the heat budget analysis has been analysed for each Atlantic Niño mode. The results suggest that the two Atlantic Nino configurations have different timing. The heat budget analysis reveals that BW Atlantic Nino SST pattern is due to anomalous air-sea heat fluxes in the south tropical and western equatorial Atlantic during the autumn-winter, while vertical processes are responsible of the warming in the central and eastern part of the basin during late-winter and spring. For the D-Atlantic Nino, the subtropical cooling is attributed to turbulent heat fluxes, the equatorial SST signal is mainly forced by vertical entrainment. The role of the oceanic waves in the

  3. The turbulent heat flux in low Mach number flows with large density variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orourke, Peter J.; Collins, Lance R.

    1988-01-01

    A transport equation has been derived which is the difference between the volume- and mass-averaged velocities and is simply related to the turbulent heat flux phi sup h. Using this equation and an assumption analogous to the drift flux approximation of two-phase flow modeling, an algebraic closure relation for phi sup h that exibits fluxes due to directed transport proportional to -del anti p and due to gradient transport proportional to -del tau has been obtained.

  4. Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, CO2 caused by a large wind farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX) provides a platform to investigate the effect of wind turbines and large wind farms on surface fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture and carbon dioxide (CO2). In 2010 and 2011, eddy covariance flux stations were installed between two lines of turbines at the south...

  5. Experimental investigation and mechanism of critical heat flux enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer with nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamatchi, R.; Venkatachalapathy, S.; Nithya, C.

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite using modified Hummer and chemical reduction methods. Various characterizations techniques are carried out to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. Different concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 g/l of rGO/water nanofluids are prepared by dispersing the flakes in DI water. The colloidal stability of 0.3 g/l concentration is measured after 5 days using Zetasizer and found to be stable. The rGO/water nanofluids are then used to study the effect on the enhancement of critical heat flux (CHF) in pool boiling heat transfer. Results indicate an enhancement in CHF ranging from 145 to 245 % for the tested concentrations. The mechanisms of CHF enhancement are analyzed based on surface wettability, surface roughness, and porous layer thickness. The macrolayer dryout model sufficiently supports the mechanism of CHF enhancement of thin wire with rGO deposits, which is not reported yet.

  6. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Andrew T.; Mankoff, Kenneth D.; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Tyler, Scott W.; Foley, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m2, significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m2. The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region. PMID:26601210

  7. High geothermal heat flux measured below the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew T; Mankoff, Kenneth D; Tulaczyk, Slawek M; Tyler, Scott W; Foley, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The geothermal heat flux is a critical thermal boundary condition that influences the melting, flow, and mass balance of ice sheets, but measurements of this parameter are difficult to make in ice-covered regions. We report the first direct measurement of geothermal heat flux into the base of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), below Subglacial Lake Whillans, determined from the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity of sediment under the lake. The heat flux at this site is 285 ± 80 mW/m(2), significantly higher than the continental and regional averages estimated for this site using regional geophysical and glaciological models. Independent temperature measurements in the ice indicate an upward heat flux through the WAIS of 105 ± 13 mW/m(2). The difference between these heat flux values could contribute to basal melting and/or be advected from Subglacial Lake Whillans by flowing water. The high geothermal heat flux may help to explain why ice streams and subglacial lakes are so abundant and dynamic in this region.

  8. A new method for simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in car underhood applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, M.; Garnier, B.; Harambat, F.; Peerhossaini, H.

    2010-02-01

    A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, © Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented.

  9. [Dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Yang, Fu-Lin

    2010-03-01

    This paper studied the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of sensible and latent heat fluxes over a temperate desert steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, based on the 2008 observation data from eddy covariance tower. The diurnal patterns of sensible and latent heat fluxes over the ecosystem were both single kurtosis, with the maximum value being 319.01 W x m(-2) (on May 30th, 2008) and 425.37 W x m(-2) (on Jun 2nd, 2008), respectively, and occurred at about 12:00-13:30 (local time), which was similar to the diurnal pattern of net radiation but lagged about one hour of the maximum net radiation. The maximum diurnal variations of monthly mean sensible and latent heat fluxes occurred in May and June, and their minimum diurnal variations occurred in January and November, respectively. There was a closer relationship between soil moisture content and precipitation. Surface soil moisture content was most sensitive to precipitation, while the moisture content in deeper soil layers had a lagged response to precipitation. The seasonal dynamics of sensible and latent heat fluxes was similar to that of net radiation, and affected by precipitation. Sensible heat flux was obviously affected by net radiation, but latent heat flux was more sensitive to precipitation and mainly controlled by soil moisture content.

  10. Thermal evaluation of uranium silicide miniplates irradiated at high heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL)-1 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to assess corrosion performance of proposed booster fuel at heat flux levels ~30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density (4.8 g U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 to 593 W/cm2. No adverse impacts to the miniplates were observed at these high heat flux levels. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective ATR south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant–hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average hydroxide thickness on each miniplate measured during post-irradiation examination. The purpose of this study was to obtain a best estimate of the as-run experiment temperatures to aid in establishing acceptable heat flux levels and designing fuel qualification experiments for this fuel type.

  11. Broadening of divertor heat flux profile with increasing number of ELM filaments in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gan, K. F.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, owing to cyclical high peak heat fluxes on divertor plasma facing surfaces. One ameliorating factor has been that the heat flux characteristic profile width has been observed to broaden with the size of the ELM, as compared with the inter-ELM heat flux profile. In contrast, the heat flux profile has been observed to narrow during ELMs under certain conditions in NSTX. Here we show that the ELM heat flux profile width increases with the number of filamentary striations observed, i.e. profile narrowing is observed with zero or very few striations. Because NSTX often lies on the long wavelength current-driven mode side of ideal MHD instabilities, few filamentary structures can be expected under many conditions. ITER is also projected to lie on the current driven low-n stability boundary, and therefore detailed projections of the unstable modes expected in ITER and the heat flux driven in ensuing filamentary structures is needed.

  12. Broadening of divertor heat flux profile with increasing number of ELM filaments in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J. -W.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gan, K. F.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.

    2014-11-13

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, owing to cyclical high peak heat fluxes on divertor plasma facing surfaces. One ameliorating factor has been that the heat flux characteristic profile width has been observed to broaden with the size of the ELM, as compared with the inter-ELM heat flux profile. In contrast, the heat flux profile has been observed to narrow during ELMs under certain conditions in NSTX. Here we show that the ELM heat flux profile width increases with the number of filamentary striations observed, i.e., profile narrowing is observed with zero or very few striations. Because NSTX often lies on the long wavelength current-driven mode side of ideal MHD instabilities, few filamentary structures can be expected under many conditions. Lastly, ITER is also projected to lie on the current driven low-n stability boundary, and therefore detailed projections of the unstable modes expected in ITER and the heat flux driven in ensuing filamentary structures is needed.

  13. Broadening of divertor heat flux profile with increasing number of ELM filaments in NSTX

    DOE PAGES

    Ahn, J. -W.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; ...

    2014-11-13

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) represent a challenge to future fusion devices, owing to cyclical high peak heat fluxes on divertor plasma facing surfaces. One ameliorating factor has been that the heat flux characteristic profile width has been observed to broaden with the size of the ELM, as compared with the inter-ELM heat flux profile. In contrast, the heat flux profile has been observed to narrow during ELMs under certain conditions in NSTX. Here we show that the ELM heat flux profile width increases with the number of filamentary striations observed, i.e., profile narrowing is observed with zero or very fewmore » striations. Because NSTX often lies on the long wavelength current-driven mode side of ideal MHD instabilities, few filamentary structures can be expected under many conditions. Lastly, ITER is also projected to lie on the current driven low-n stability boundary, and therefore detailed projections of the unstable modes expected in ITER and the heat flux driven in ensuing filamentary structures is needed.« less

  14. The Impact of Trends in the Large Scale Atmospheric Circulation on Mediterranean Surface Turbulent Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanski, J.; Hameed, S.

    2015-12-01

    Interannual variations of latent heat fluxes (LHF) and sensible heat fluxes (SHF) over the Mediterranean for the boreal winter season (DJF) show positive trends during 1958-2011. Using a combination of reanalysis and satellite-based products, the variability and trends in the heat fluxes are compared with variations in three atmospheric teleconnection patterns: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the pressure and position of the Azores High (AH) and the East Atlantic-West Russia teleconnection pattern (EAWR). Comparison of correlations between the heat fluxes and teleconnections, along with analysis of composites of surface temperature, humidity and wind fields for different teleconnection states demonstrates that variations of the AH are found to explain the heat flux changes more successfully than the NAO and the EAWR. Trends in sea level pressure and longitude of the Azores High during DJF show a strengthening, and an eastward shift. DJF Azores High pressure and longitude are shown to co-vary such that variability of the Azores High occurs along an axis defined by lower pressure and westward location at one extreme, and higher pressure and eastward location at the other extreme. The shift of the Azores High from predominance of the low/west state to the high/east state induces trends in Mediterranean Sea surface winds, temperature and moisture. These, combined with sea surface warming trends, produce trends in wintertime Mediterranean Sea sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  15. Apparatus development for measuring heat flux in a direct coal-liquefaction preheater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornosky, R. M.; Perlmutter, M.; Fuchs, W.; Ruether, J. A.

    1982-04-01

    A device is evaluated for determining heat flux in a direct coal liquefaction preheater. The heat fluxmeter determines heat flux from measurements of temperature difference across the preheater tube wall at a given plane perpendicular to the tube axis. Six fluxmeters were installed in a 5.08 m length of nominal 1 1/2 inch diameter, schedule XX pipe enclosed in stacked electric furnaces. Heat flux to a heat transfer fluid flowing through the pipe was measured and compared to values predicted by the fluxmeters. Fair agreement was observed, and the method can be used as an empirical calibration procedure for fluxmeters. A number of apparatus improvements were identified that will be incorporated in the planned experimental program.

  16. A Comparative Study for Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids with Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Mustafa, Meraj

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in flows of viscoelastic fluids. Flow is generated by a linear stretching sheet. Influence of thermal relaxation time in the considered heat flux is seen. Mathematical formulation is presented for the boundary layer approach. Suitable transformations lead to a nonlinear differential system. Convergent series solutions of velocity and temperature are achieved. Impacts of various influential parameters on the velocity and temperature are sketched and discussed. Numerical computations are also performed for the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. Our findings reveal that the temperature profile has an inverse relationship with the thermal relaxation parameter and the Prandtl number. Further the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower for Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model in comparison to the classical Fourier’s law of heat conduction. PMID:27176779

  17. Air-Sea Exchange and Budget of Sulfur and Oxygen-Containing Volatile Organic Compounds in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, H.; Omori, Y.; Inomata, S.; Iwata, T.; Kameyama, S.

    2015-12-01

    By combining proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gradient flux (GF) technique, in situ measurement of air-sea fluxes of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was developed and deployed. Starting in 2008, we made in situ observations of air-sea fluxes at 15 locations as well as underway observations of marine air/surface seawater bulk concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, during eight research cruises by R/V Hakuho-Maru. The fluxes of biogenic trace gases, DMS and isoprene, were always positive, with the magnitudes being in accordance with previously reported. In contrast, the fluxes of oxygenated VOCs including acetone and acetaldehyde varied from negative to positive, suggesting that the tropical and subtropical Pacific are a source, while the North Pacific is a sink. A basin-scale budget of VOCs were determined for 4 biogeochemical provinces in the Pacific Ocean, and the role of oceans for VOCs were discussed with respect to physical and biogeochemical processes.

  18. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have

  19. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    PubMed Central

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change. PMID:27435531

  20. Regionalization of surface heat fluxes and evapotranspiration over heterogeneous landscape of the Third Pole region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention among the international academic community. It is centered on the Tibetan Plateau, stretching from the Pamir Plateau and Hindu-Kush on the west to the Hengduan Mountains on the east, and from the Kunlun and Qilian Mts on the north to the Himalayas on the south. Covering over 5,000,000 km2 in total and with an average elevation surpassing 4000 m. The exchange of energy and evapotranspiration (ET) between land surface and atmosphere over the Third Pole region play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. The parameterization methods based on satellite data and Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) observations have been proposed and tested for deriving regional distribution of surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and ET over heterogeneous landscape. As cases study, the methods were applied to the whole Tibetan Plateau area and Nepal area. To validate the proposed methods, the ground-measured surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux in the Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) TPEP are compared to the derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables, land surface heat fluxes and ET over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. These parameters show a wide range due to the strong contrast of surface features. And the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good agreement with ground measurements, and all the absolute percent difference is less than 10% in the validation sites. It is therefore concluded that the proposed methods are successful for the retrieval of land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous

  1. Ionospheric Joule heating and Poynting flux in quasi-static approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanhamäKi, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Amm, O.; Fujii, R.

    2012-08-01

    Energy flow is an important aspect of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Electromagnetic energy is transported as Poynting flux from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere, where it is dissipated as Joule heating. Recently Richmond derived an "Equipotential Boundary Poynting Flux (EBPF) theorem", that the Poynting flux within a flux tube whose boundary is an equipotential curve is dissipated inside the ionospheric foot point of the flux tube. In this article we study Richmond's EBPF theorem more closely by considering the curl-free and divergence-free parts as well as the Hall and Pedersen parts of the ionospheric current system separately. Our main findings are that i) divergence-free currents are on average dissipationless, ii) the curl-free Pedersen current is responsible for the whole ionospheric Joule heating and iii) pointwise match between vertical Poynting flux and ionospheric Joule heating is broken by gradients of Hall and Pedersen conductances. Results i) and ii) hold when integrated over the whole ionosphere or any area bounded by an equipotential curve. The present study is limited to quasi-static phenomena. The more general topic of electrodynamic Joule heating and Poynting flux, including inductive effects, will be addressed in a future study.

  2. Estimation of surface heat flux for ablation and charring of thermal protection material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei-qi; He, Kai-feng; Zhou, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Ablation of the thermal protection material of the reentry hypersonic flight vehicle is a complex physical and chemical process. To estimate the surface heat flux from internal temperature measurement is much more complex than the conventional inverse heat conduction problem case. In the paper, by utilizing a two-layer pyrogeneration-plane ablation model to model the ablation and charring of the material, modifying the finite control volume method to suit for the numerical simulation of the heat conduction equation with variable-geometry, the CGM along with the associated adjoint problem is developed to estimate the surface heat flux. This estimation method is verified with a numerical example at first, the results show that the estimation method is feasible and robust. The larger is the measurement noise, the greater is the deviation of the estimated result from the exact value, and the measurement noise of ablated surface position has a significant and more direct influence on the estimated result of surface heat flux. Furthermore, the estimation method is used to analyze the experimental data of ablation of blunt Carbon-phenolic material Narmco4028 in an arc-heater. It is shown that the estimated surface heat flux agrees with the heating power value of the arc-heater, and the estimation method is basically effective and potential to treat the engineering heat conduction problem with ablation.

  3. Quasi-exospheric heat flux of solar-wind electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Schultz, M.

    1975-01-01

    Density, bulk-velocity, and heat-flow moments are calculated for truncated Maxwellian distributions representing the cool and hot populations of solar-wind electrons, as realized at the base of a hypothetical exosphere. The electrostatic potential is thus calculated by requiring charge quasi-neutrality and the absence of electrical current. Plasma-kinetic coupling of the cool-electron and proton bulk velocities leads to an increase in the electrostatic potential and a decrease in the heat-flow moment.

  4. Reconstructions of ground surface heat flux variations in the urals from geothermal and meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demezhko, D. Yu.; Gornostaeva, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ground surface heat flux variations over the last 30000, 1000, and 150 years in the Urals were first estimated on the basis of geothermal reconstructions of ground surface temperature histories and meteorological data. The heat flux histories obtained and the factors affecting climate—mean annual insolation, global solar radiation, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and volcanic activity—were simultaneously analyzed. On the scale of glacial-interglacial cycles, variations in the flux of heat almost completely coincided with those in insolation in the Northern Hemisphere, and variations in the content of CO2 occurred 2000-3000 years later synchronously with the response of temperature. In the last 1000 years, heat flux variations have been determined mainly by the parameters of solar radiation; however, the influence of other factors, such as atmospheric CO2 content and volcanic activity, has also been noticeable. In the last 150 years, variations in the flux of heat have occurred in antiphase with those in the flux of solar radiation, and an increase in the atmospheric content of CO2 has mainly contributed to the observed warming.

  5. Design of an actively cooled plate calorimeter for the investigation of pool fire heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J. A.; Keltner, N. R.; Nicolette, V. F.; Wix, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    For final qualification of shipping containers for transport of hazardous materials, thermal testing in accordance with regulations such as 10CFR71 must be completed. Such tests typically consist of 30 minute exposures with the container fully engulfed in flames from a large, open pool of JP4 jet engine fuel. Despite careful engineering analyses of the container, testing often reveals design problems that must be solved by modification and expensive retesting of the container. One source of this problem is the wide variation in surface heat flux to the container that occurs in pool fires. Average heat fluxes of 50 to 60 kW/m{sup 2} are typical and close the values implied by the radiation model in 10CFR71, but peak fluxes up to 150 kW/m{sup 2} are routinely observed in fires. Heat fluxes in pool fires have been shown to be a function of surface temperature of the container, height above the pool, surface orientation, wind, and other variables. If local variations in the surface heat flux to the container could be better predicted, design analyses would become more accurate, and fewer problems will be uncovered during testing. The objective of the calorimeter design described in this paper is to measure accurately pool fire heat fluxes under controlled conditions, and to provide data for calibration of improved analytical models of local flame-surface interactions.

  6. Prediction of critical heat flux in water-cooled plasma facing components using computational fluid dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, James H.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Several commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes now have the capability to analyze Eulerian two-phase flow using the Rohsenow nucleate boiling model. Analysis of boiling due to one-sided heating in plasma facing components (pfcs) is now receiving attention during the design of water-cooled first wall panels for ITER that may encounter heat fluxes as high as 5 MW/m2. Empirical thermalhydraulic design correlations developed for long fission reactor channels are not reliable when applied to pfcs because fully developed flow conditions seldom exist. Star-CCM+ is one of the commercial CFD codes that can model two-phase flows. Like others, it implements the RPI model for nucleate boiling, but it also seamlessly transitions to a volume-of-fluid model for film boiling. By benchmarking the results of our 3d models against recent experiments on critical heat flux for both smooth rectangular channels and hypervapotrons, we determined the six unique input parameters that accurately characterize the boiling physics for ITER flow conditions under a wide range of absorbed heat flux. We can now exploit this capability to predict the onset of critical heat flux in these components. In addition, the results clearly illustrate the production and transport of vapor and its effect on heat transfer in pfcs from nucleate boiling through transition to film boiling. This article describes the boiling physics implemented in CCM+ and compares the computational results to the benchmark experiments carried out independently in the United States and Russia. Temperature distributions agreed to within 10 C for a wide range of heat fluxes from 3 MW/m2 to 10 MW/m2 and flow velocities from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in these devices. Although the analysis is incapable of capturing the stochastic nature of critical heat flux (i.e., time and location may depend on a local materials defect or turbulence phenomenon), it is highly reliable in determining the heat flux where boiling instabilities begin

  7. Viscous hydrodynamic instability theory of the peak and minimum pool boiling heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhir, V. K.

    1972-01-01

    Liquid viscosity was included in the Bellman-Pennington theory of the Taylor wave in a liquid vapor interface. Predictions of the most susceptible wavelength, and of the wave frequency, were made as a function of a liquid viscosity parameter and the Bond number. The stability of a gas jet in a viscous liquid was studied and the result is used to predict the peak heat flux on large horizontal heaters. Experimental measurements of the dominant Taylor wave and its growth rate were made during the film boiling of cyclohexanol on cylindrical heaters. The results bear out the predictions quite well. The thickness of the vapor blanket surrounding a cylindrical heater was measured and a correlation suggested. The effect of large fluxes of vapor volume on the dominant wavelength was also noted. Theoretical results of the peak heat flux are compared with the experimental data, and the effect of finite geometry of flat plate heaters on the peak heat flux is also discussed.

  8. Revisiting the Bulk Relation for Heat Flux in the Free Convection Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Yuji; Ito, Junshi

    2016-01-01

    We modify the velocity applied to the bulk relation for surface heat flux using turbulent kinetic energy, such that the effect of horizontal flow induced by unresolved free convection is incorporated. Numerical experiments with a large-eddy simulation (LES) and a single-column model (SCM) are examined for an ideal convective boundary layer. The surface fluxes obtained from both models are compared to investigate the effect of the velocity correction. It is confirmed that the surface heat flux calculated with the velocity correction is relatively consistent between the LES and SCM, even for a free convection case. Furthermore, the proposed method provides an evaluation of the surface heat flux that is insensitive to the model resolution, unlike the conventional method.

  9. Reconciling estimates of the ratio of heat and salt fluxes at the ice-ocean interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keitzl, T.; Mellado, J. P.; Notz, D.

    2016-12-01

    The heat exchange between floating ice and the underlying ocean is determined by the interplay of diffusive fluxes directly at the ice-ocean interface and turbulent fluxes away from it. In this study, we examine this interplay through direct numerical simulations of free convection. Our results show that an estimation of the interface flux ratio based on direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes can be difficult because the flux ratio varies with depth. As an alternative, we present a consistent evaluation of the flux ratio based on the total heat and salt fluxes across the boundary layer. This approach allows us to reconcile previous estimates of the ice-ocean interface conditions. We find that the ratio of heat and salt fluxes directly at the interface is 83-100 rather than 33 as determined by previous turbulence measurements in the outer layer. This can cause errors in the estimated ice-ablation rate from field measurements of up to 40% if they are based on the three-equation formulation.

  10. Reflectance-Based Estimation of Soil Heat Fluxes in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowda, P. H.; Colaizzi, P. D.; O'Shaughnessy, S.; Ha, W.; Howell, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Soil heat flux (G) is one of the terms required for estimating evapotranspiration rates using an energy balance. Numerous reflectance-based models are available in the literature for estimating G fluxes. However, these models have shown wide variation in their performance. Therefore, operational ET remote sensing programs may require locally developed/calibrated models for accurately estimating G. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate reflectance-based empirical G models for the semi-arid Texas High Plains. Soil heat flux was measured at 0.15 hz interval and averaged every 15 minutes at five different locations within a 4.7 ha lysimeter field with Pullman clay loam soil during the 2010 summer growing season. The field was planted to soybean and managed under dryland conditions. In each location, G was measured at 8 cm depth with two Campbell Scientific HFT3 soil heat flux plates. Soil temperature was measured at 2 and 6 cm above the soil heat flux plates. Soil moisture was measured in the 2-8 cm layer using Acclima SDI-12 sensors. Hourly G fluxes at the surface were calculated by adding the measured G fluxes at 8 cm to the energy stored above the heat flux plates. A multispectral radiometer (MSR, CROPSCAN, Inc.) and hand-held thermometer (EVEREST Interscience Inc.) measured surface reflectance in red and near infrared bandwidths and surface temperature (ST), respectively, daily at 11:30 AM CST to be consistent with the Landsat 5 overpass time. Fraction crop cover (FC) was measured by digital photographs taken twice a week. A set of G models was developed for estimating hourly fluxes based on measured reflectance, net radiation, ST, NDVI, and FC,. Resulting models were compared for performance with existing models available in the literature. In this presentation, we will discuss our G models for the Texas High Plains and the statistical results.

  11. Remote Heat Flux Using a Self Calibration Multiwavelength Pyrometer and a Transparent Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    A self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer was used to conduct remote heat flux measurements using a transparent sapphire disk by determining the sapphire disk's front and back surface temperatures. Front surface temperature (Tfs) was obtained from detection of surface emitted radiation at long wavelengths (k = 6 gm). Back surface temperature (Tbs) was obtained from short wavelength (1 to 5 gm) radiation transmitted through the sapphire disk. The thermal conductivity of the sapphire disk and the heat transfer coefficients h, and h2 of its surfaces are determined experimentally. An analysis of the heat flux measurement is presented.

  12. Uncertainties in global ocean surface heat flux climatologies derived from ship observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, P.J.; Weare, B.C.

    1995-08-01

    A methodology to define uncertainties associated with ocean surface heat flux calculations has been developed and applied to a revised version of the Oberhuber global climatology, which utilizes a summary of the COADS surface observations. Systematic and random uncertainties in the net oceanic heat flux and each of its four components at individual grid points and for zonal averages have been estimated for each calendar month and the annual mean. The most important uncertainties of the 2{degree} x 2{degree} grid cell values of each of the heat fluxes are described. Annual mean net shortwave flux random uncertainties associated with errors in estimating cloud cover in the tropics yield total uncertainties which are greater than 25 W m{sup {minus}2}. In the northern latitudes, where the large number of observations substantially reduce the influence of these random errors, the systematic uncertainties in the utilized parameterization are largely responsible for total uncertainties in the shortwave fluxes which usually remain greater than 10 W m{sup {minus}2}. Systematic uncertainties dominate in the zonal means because spatial averaging has led to a further reduction of the random errors. The situation for the annual mean latent heat flux is somewhat different in that even for grid point values the contributions of the systematic uncertainties tend to be larger than those of the random uncertainties at most all latitudes. Latent heat flux uncertainties are greater than 20 W m{sup {minus}2} nearly everywhere south of 40{degree}N, and in excess of 30 W m{sup {minus}2} over broad areas of the subtropics, even those with large numbers of observations. Resulting zonal mean latent heat flux uncertainties are largest ({approximately}30 W m{sup {minus}2}) in the middle latitudes and subtropics and smallest ({approximately}10--25 W m{sup {minus}2}) near the equator and over the northernmost regions.

  13. Revisit of the Global Surface Energy Balance Using the MEP Model of Surface Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Wang, J.; Park, T. W.; Ming, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The recently proposed model of surface heat fluxes, based on the theory of maximum entropy production (MEP), was used to estimate the global evapotranspiration (ET) and heat fluxes. Compared to bulk transfer models, the MEP model has several remote-sensing-friendly features including fewer input variables, automatic closure of surface energy budget, being independent of bulk gradients of temperature and water vapor, not using wind speed and surface roughness as model parameters, and being less sensitive to uncertainties of input variables and model parameters. The MEP model is formulated for the entire range of soil moisture from dryness to saturation over the land surfaces and has even more advantages over water-snow-ice surfaces compared to traditional methods due to its independence of surface humidity data. The MEP model provides the first global maps of water heat fluxes at ocean surfaces as well as conductive heat fluxes at snow/ice covered polar regions. Ten years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) earth surface radiation fluxes, surface temperature data products supplemented (when needed) by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) surface specific humidity data are used to test the MEP model by comparing the MEP based global annual ET and heat fluxes with existing products. The MEP based fluxes over land surfaces agree closely with previous studies. Over the oceans, the MEP modeled ET tends to be lower than previous estimates while those of sensible heat fluxes are in close agreement with previous studies. A counterpart, "off-line" analysis is also carried out using the NOAA GFDL climate model output from a control experiment and a "warming" experiment. Substantial differences in the warming-related changes of ET and Bowen ratio are found over regions such as North Africa and the southwestern U.S. The implications of these differences for understanding trends and variability in regional energy and

  14. Impacts of Soil-aquifer Heat and Water Fluxes on Simulated Global Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krakauer, N.Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Climate models have traditionally only represented heat and water fluxes within relatively shallow soil layers, but there is increasing interest in the possible role of heat and water exchanges with the deeper subsurface. Here, we integrate an idealized 50m deep aquifer into the land surface module of the GISS ModelE general circulation model to test the influence of aquifer-soil moisture and heat exchanges on climate variables. We evaluate the impact on the modeled climate of aquifer-soil heat and water fluxes separately, as well as in combination. The addition of the aquifer to ModelE has limited impact on annual-mean climate, with little change in global mean land temperature, precipitation, or evaporation. The seasonal amplitude of deep soil temperature is strongly damped by the soil-aquifer heat flux. This not only improves the model representation of permafrost area but propagates to the surface, resulting in an increase in the seasonal amplitude of surface air temperature of >1K in the Arctic. The soil-aquifer water and heat fluxes both slightly decrease interannual variability in soil moisture and in landsurface temperature, and decrease the soil moisture memory of the land surface on seasonal to annual timescales. The results of this experiment suggest that deepening the modeled land surface, compared to modeling only a shallower soil column with a no-flux bottom boundary condition, has limited impact on mean climate but does affect seasonality and interannual persistence.

  15. Sensible heat flux of oil palm plantation: Comparing Aerodynamic and Penman-Monteith Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amri Komarudin, Nurul; June, Tania; Meijide, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Oil Palm (Elaeis guinensis Jacq) has a unique morphological characteristics, in particular it has a uniform canopy. As the plant become older, its canopy coverage will completely cover the surface and influence characteristics of its microclimate. Sensible heat flux estimation of oil palm plantation could be used to identify the contribution of oil palm in reducing or increasing heat to its surrounding environment. Determination of heat flux from oil palm plantation was conducted using two methods, Aerodynamic and Penman-Monteith. The result shows that the two methods have similar diurnal pattern. The sensible heat flux peaks in the afternoon, both for two and twelve years