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Sample records for air-to-ground voice transcription

  1. ASTP Technical Air-To-Ground Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription of the technical air-to-ground voice communication of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission was presented. The transcript was divided into three columns giving, respectively, the time, speaker, and text. All times are expressed in Greenwich mean time for the appropriate Julian dates. The speaker column indicates the source of transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications. Special symbols were used to report garbling, pauses or self-interruptions, interruptions by other speakers or abrupt terminations, emphasized words, obliterations, and material translated from Russian.

  2. Apollo 8 through 17 technical air-to-ground voice transcriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Magnetic tape recordings of air to ground voice communications which were conducted during Apollo flights are presented. Conversations were recorded on Apollo flights 8 through 17. The tapes are identified as prime goss air-to-ground voice transcriptions for each of the flights.

  3. Air-to-ground Voice Transcriptions and on Board Voice Transcriptions for Skylab 2, Skylab 3 and Skylab 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Microfilm records of the Skylab 2, 3, and 4 voice transcriptions are presented. The data are contained on ten 16 millimeter reels. The transcriptions are identified as air-to-ground communication and onboard communication. The Skylab 2 data are contained on one roll for air-to-ground and one roll for onboard communication. Skylab 3 data consist of two rolls for air-to-ground and two rolls for on board communication. Skylab 4 data consists of three rolls for air-to-ground and two rolls for onboard communication.

  4. Apollo 11 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription (GOSS NET 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is the transcription of the Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transmission (GOSS NET 1) from the Apollo 11 mission. Communicators in the text may be identified according to the following list [in part]: Commander: Neil A. Armstrong; Command Module Pilot: Michael Collins; Lunar Module Pilot: Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.

  5. ASTP Onboard Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription is presented of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project voice communications as recorded on the command module data storage equipment. Data from this recorder are telemetered (dumped) to Space Tracking and Data Network sites for retransmission to the Johnson Space Center. The transcript is divided into three columns -- time, speaker, and text. The Greenwich mean time column consists of three two-digit numbers representing hours, minutes, and seconds (e.g., 22 34 14) for the Julian dates shown at the top of the page on which a new day begins. The speaker column indicates the source of a transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications.

  6. Houston, We Have A Problem: A History of Air-to-Ground Voice Transmissions from the U.S. Manned Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Glen E.

    2002-01-01

    America's manned civil space program unfolded before the public through a vast array of sights and sounds. Beginning with Alan Shepard's first flight into space and continuing through the early Space Shuttle Program, nearly every word spoken between Earth and astronaut was recorded, transcribed and published for the world to see. Engineers installed onboard tape recorders which, as part of their data-saving function, recorded astronaut intercom communications. Some of these recordings were made during critical phases of each flight when the preservation of all data was essential. These tapes along with hundreds of others that gathered on the ground from each mission became the focused attention of legions of typists whose single job was converting voice to paper. Armed with reel-to-reel tape players, electric typewriters and reams of paper, these folks hammered out thousands of pages of transcripts. The results are a permanent written record that reveal a different side to America's manned space program; one in which its astronauts are both professional and profane, calm and excited, confident and unsure, healthy and sick - in a word, "human."

  7. Apollo 12 voice transcript pertaining to the geology of the landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, N.G.; Ulrich, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    This document is an edited record of the conversations between the Apollo 12 astronauts and mission control pertaining to the geology of the landing site. It contains all discussions and observations documenting the lunar landscape, its geologic characteristics, the rocks and soils collected, and the lunar surface photographic record along with supplementary remarks essential to the continuity of events during the mission. This transcript is derived from audio tapes and the NASA Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription and includes time of transcription, and photograph and sample numbers. The report also includes a glossary, landing site amp, and sample table.

  8. Apollo 11 voice transcript pertaining to the geology of the landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, N.G.; Ulrich, G.E.

    1974-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, America's Eagle touched down in southwestern Mare Tranquillitatis beginning man's firsthand exploration of the moon. This document is an edited record of the conversations between astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr., at Tranquility Base, and Bruce McCandless at Mission Control in Houston during the approximately 22 hours spent on the lunar surface. It includes additional commentary during their return to Earth. It is a condensation hopefully of all the verbal data having geological significance. All discussions and observations documenting the lunar landscape, its geologic characteristics, the rocks and soils collected, and the photographic record are retained along with supplementary remarks essential to the continuity of events during the mission. We have deleted the words of mechanical housekeeping and engineering data, attempting not to lose the personal and philosophical aspects of this intensely human experience. The sources of this verbal transcript are the complete audio tapes recorded during the mission and the Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription published by NASA. The voice record is listed chronologically given in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. These are the Ground Elapsed Times (GET) after launch from Kennedy Space Center which was 9:32 a.m. EDT on July 16, 1969. Figure 1 shows the vicinity of the landing site that was described, sampled, and photographed by the Apollo 11 crewmen.

  9. 3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AIR TO GROUND RADAR TYPE GT2122 & GRRR 2324, CIRCA 1978, INTERIOR OF BUILDING 408, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Operations Building & Annex, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  10. Terminal air-to-ground missile guidance by infrared seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Stephane; Mazar, Bruno; Horaud, Radu

    1997-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method for terminal air-to- ground missile guidance based on IR seeker. The aim is to hit a building which has been previously selected in a 3D model of the scene. The proposed algorithm is divided in two steps: acquisition and tracking steps. Acquisition consists in estimating the location of the target in the first image and to reestimate the missile position. The second step is the tracking of the target along the sequence of images by predicting the target location in each image from the previous one. A supervisor module is in charge of verifying the correctness of the tracking, by doing some reacquisitions in background and ensure the coherence between reacquisitions in background and ensure the coherence between reacquisitions and tracking. All computations are real-time compatible.

  11. Embodied Transcription: A Creative Method for Using Voice-Recognition Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Voice-recognition software is designed to be used by one user (voice) at a time, requiring a researcher to speak all of the words of a recorded interview to achieve transcription. Thus, the researcher becomes a conduit through which interview material is inscribed as written word. Embodied Transcription acknowledges performative and interpretative…

  12. Voice recognition software versus a traditional transcription service for physician charting in the ED.

    PubMed

    Zick, R G; Olsen, J

    2001-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare real-time voice recognition software to a traditional transcription service. Two emergency department (ED) physicians dictated 47 charts using a voice dictation software program and a traditional transcription service. Accuracy, word per minute dictation time and turnaround time were calculated from the data. The transcription service used in our study was more accurate than the voice recognition program with an accuracy of 99.7 percent versus 98.5 percent for the voice recognition program. The average number of corrections per chart was 2.5 for the voice recognition program and 1.2 for the traditional transcription service. Turnaround time was much better using the computer voice recognition program with an average turnaround time of 3.65 minutes versus a turnaround time of 39.6 minutes for the traditionally transcribed charts. The charts dictated using the voice recognition program were considerably less costly than the manually transcribed charts. In summary, computer voice recognition is nearly as accurate as traditional transcription, it has a much shorter turnaround time and is less expensive than traditional transcription. We recommend its use as a tool for physician charting in the ED.

  13. Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Air-to-Ground Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Air-to-Ground Case Study Final Brief 17 June 2004 Prepared by SAIC for: Evidence Based Research...JUN 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Network Centric Operations Conceptual Framework Air-to... conceptual framework which drove approach Cognitive Social Interviews to provide insights into cognitive process Assumptions OEF and OIF would

  14. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  15. Criteria for Side-Force Control in Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition and Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, Robert I.; McNeill, Walter E.; Bunnell, John W.

    1982-01-01

    A moving-base simulator experiment conducted at Ames Research Center demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air-to-ground weapons delivery compared with those of a conventional aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well with equivalent time constant of the initial response and with system bandwidth. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital-system transport delays and lateral-acceleration control authorities that encompassed level 1 through level 3 handling qualities, were determined.

  16. Effects of mission rehearsal simulation on air-to-ground target acquisition.

    PubMed

    Krebs, W K; McCarley, J S; Bryant, E V

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally military aviators have prepared for air-to-ground bombing missions with maps and aerial photographs of their targets. Mission rehearsal systems augment these media by allowing pilots to view simulated ingress to their target, as seen from the cockpit perspective. In the present experiment we assessed the benefits of mission rehearsal with a task requiring observers to view recorded approaches to target objects and to detect the target objects as quickly as possible. Results indicated that premission simulations allowed observers to detect target objects at greater stand-off ranges than did study with maps and aerial photographs alone. Actual or potential applications of this research include the deployment of a mission rehearsal system to assist aviators' mission planning.

  17. The Mission Transcript Collection: U.S. Human Spaceflight Missions from Mercury Redstone 3 to Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aboard every U.S. piloted spacecraft, from Mercury through Apollo, NASA installed tape recorders that captured nearly every word spoken by the astronauts during their history-making flights into space. For the first time ever, NASA has digitally scanned all of the transcripts made from both the onboard tapes and those tape recordings made on the ground from the air-to-ground transmissions and placed them on this two CD-ROM set. Gathered in this special collection are 80 transcripts totaling nearly 45,000 pages of text that cover every US human spaceflight from the first human Mercury mission through the last lunar landing flight of Apollo 17. Users of this CD will note that the quantity and type of transcripts made for each mission vary. For example, the Mercury flights each had one transcript whereas the Gemini missions produced several. Starting with the Gemini flights, NASA produced a Public Affairs Office (PAO) commentary version, as well as at least one "technical" air-to-ground transcript version, per mission. Most of the Apollo missions produced four transcripts per flight. These included the onboard voice data recorder transcripts made from the Data Storage Equipment (DSE) on the Command Module (CM), and the Data Storage Electronics Assembly (DSEA) onboard the Lunar Module (LM), in addition to the PAO commentary and air-to-ground technical transcripts. The CD set includes an index listing each transcript file by name. Some of the transcripts include a detailed explanation of their contents and how they were made. Also included in this collection is a listing of all the original air-to-ground audiotapes housed in NASA's archives from which many of these transcripts were made. We hope you find this collection of transcripts interesting and useful.

  18. Evoked potential, cardiac, blink, and respiration measures of pilot workload in air-to-ground missions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G F; Fullenkamp, P; Davis, I

    1994-02-01

    Brain evoked potentials were successfully recorded from F-4 pilots during air-to-ground training missions. They were recorded during two flight segments. During one the pilot was flying, and during the other, the weapon systems officer was flying the aircraft. The P2 component of the brain-evoked potential evidenced reduced amplitude during the pilot-flying segment, while the N1 component was reduced during both flight tasks compared to ground-based tasks. These data indicate that the P2 amplitude is sensitive to the level of pilot workload. These results were further substantiated using simultaneously recorded physiological data and subjective workload measures. For example, cardiac inter-beat intervals decreased during flight segments relative to those recorded when performing a tracking task, and further reduced for the pilot-flying vs. the weapon systems officer-flying segment. Eye blink measures were sensitive to the visual demands of the various tasks. These data show that evoked potentials can be recorded during flight, and that, together with cardiac and eye blink data, they provide a composite picture of operator state.

  19. Weak beacon detection for air-to-ground optical wireless link establishment.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaoqiang; Dang, Anhong; Tang, Junxiong; Guo, Hong

    2010-02-01

    In an air-to-ground free-space optical communication system, strong background interference seriously affects the beacon detection, which makes it difficult to establish the optical link. In this paper, we propose a correlation beacon detection scheme under strong background interference conditions. As opposed to traditional beacon detection schemes, the beacon is modulated by an m-sequence at the transmitting terminal with a digital differential matched filter (DDMF) array introduced at the receiving end to detect the modulated beacon. This scheme is capable of suppressing both strong interference and noise by correlation reception of the received image sequence. In addition, the DDMF array enables each pixel of the image sensor to have its own DDMF of the same structure to process its received image sequence in parallel, thus it makes fast beacon detection possible. Theoretical analysis and an outdoor experiment have been demonstrated and show that the proposed scheme can realize fast and effective beacon detection under strong background interference conditions. Consequently, the required beacon transmission power can also be reduced dramatically.

  20. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  1. Tracking through laser-induced clutter for air-to-ground directed energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen'kii, Mikhail; Brinkley, Timothy; Hughes, Kevin; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2003-09-01

    The agility and speed with which directed energy can be retargeted and delivered to the target makes a laser weapon highly desirable in tactical battlefield environments. A directed energy system can effectively damage and possibly destroy relatively soft targets on the ground. In order to accurately point a high-energy beam at the target, the directed energy system must be able to acquire and track targets of interest in highly cluttered environments, under different weather, smoke, and camouflage conditions and in the presence of turbulence and thermal blooming. To meet these requirements, we proposed a concept of a multi spectral tracker, which integrates three sensors: SAR radar, a passive MWIR optical tracker, and a range-gated laser illuminated tracker. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the integrated optical tracker and arrived to the following conclusions: a) the contrast enhancement by mapping the original pixel distribution to the desired one enhances the target identification capability, b) a reduction of the divergence of the illuminating beam reduces rms pointing error of a laser tracker, c) a clutter removal algorithm based on active contours is capable of capturing targets in highly cluttered environments, d) the daytime rms pointing error caused by anisoplanatism of the track point to the aim point is comparable to the diffraction-limited beam spot size, f) the peak intensity shift from the optical axis caused by thermal blooming at 5 km range for the air-to-ground engagement scenario is on the order of 8 μrad, and it is 10 μrad at 10 km range, and e) the thermal blooming reduces the peak average power in a 2 cm bucket at 5 km range by a factor of 8, and it reduces the peak average power in the bucket at 10 km range by a factor of 22.

  2. Air route selection for improved air-to-ground situation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oispuu, Marc; Sciotti, Massimo; Charlish, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Air-to-Ground Situation Assessment (SA) requires gathering information on the entities evolving on the ground (e.g., people, vehicles), and inferring the relations among them and their final intent. Several airborne sensor data might concur in the compilation of such high-level picture, which is aimed at identifying threats and promptly raising alarms. However, this process is intrinsically prone to errors: as the evidence - provided to the SA algorithm - originates from noisy sensor observations, the final outcome is also affected by uncertainty. High-level inferred variables, such as "Situation" and "Threat Level", can be seen as error-affected, incomplete estimates of the ground truth, hence they are subject to improvement by properly steering the data acquisition process. In this paper we address the problem of optimizing the air route of the sensing platform, in order to reduce the number of false declarations or the delay in threat declaration in the SA stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of detecting a hostile behavior between pairs of ground targets by exploiting track data generated from airborne bearings-only measurements. We model the optimization problem with a sequential Markov Decision Process (MDP): the platform sequentially selects the best maneuver (i.e., its acceleration vector) in order to maximize the total reward over an infinite horizon. We define the potential contribution of an action as a function of the expected environmental conditions (e.g., obscurations of the line-of-sight) and the improvement of the localization accuracy achievable for the tracked objects. We demonstrate that following the optimized trajectory the delay in the declaration of a hostile behavior between two targets is reduced at the same erroneous declaration rate.

  3. Flying-qualities criteria for wings-level-turn maneuvering during an air-to-ground weapon delivery task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Bunnell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A moving base simulator experiment demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air to ground weapon delivery compared with those of a conventionally controlled aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well on the basis of equivalent time constant of the initial response. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital system transport delays and lateral acceleration control authorities that encompassed level 1 through 3 handling qualities, were determined.

  4. Flying-qualities criteria for wings-level-turn maneuvering during an air-to-ground weapon delivery task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Bunnell, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A moving-base simulator experiment conducted at Ames Research Center demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air-to-ground weapons delivery compared with those of a conventional aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well on the basis of equivalent time constant of the initial response. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital-system transport delays and lateral-acceleration control authorities that encompassed Level I through Level III handling qualities, were determined.

  5. A presentation of ATR processing chain validation procedure of IR terminal guidance version of the AASM modular air-to-ground weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, D.; Quinquis, N.; Broda, G.; Galmiche, F.; Oudyi, F.; Coulon, N.; Cordier, D.; Sonier, C.

    2009-05-01

    Developed by Sagem (SAFRAN Group), the AASM is a modular Air-To-Ground "Fire and Forget" weapon designed to be able to neutralise a large range of targets under all conditions. The AASM is composed of guidance and range enhancement kits that give bombs, already in service, new operational capabilities. AASM Guidance kit exists in two different versions. The IMU/GPS guidance version is able to achieve "ten-meter class" accuracy on target in all weather conditions. The IMU/GPS/IR guidance version is able to achieve "meter class" accuracy on target with poor precision geographic designation or in GPS-denied flight context, thanks to a IR sensor and a complex image processing chain. In this night/day IMU/GPS/IR version, the terminal guidance phase adjusts the missile navigation to the true target by matching the image viewed through the infrared sensor with a target model stored in the missile memory. This model will already have been drawn up on the ground using a mission planning system and, for example, a satellite image. This paper will present the main steps of the procedure applied to qualify the complete image processing chain of the AASM IMU/GPS/IR version, including open-loop validation of ATR algorithms on real and synthetic images, and closed-loop validation using AASM simulation reference model.

  6. Learning [Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauberer, Joshua Ian

    2010-01-01

    The [voice] distinction between homorganic stops and fricatives is made by a number of acoustic correlates including voicing, segment duration, and preceding vowel duration. The present work looks at [voice] from a number of multidimensional perspectives. This dissertation's focus is a corpus study of the phonetic realization of [voice] in two…

  7. Every Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the author develops an approach that allows her students, who are part of the marginalized population, to learn the power of their own voices--not just their writing voices, but their oral voices as well. The author calls it "TWIST": Thoughts, Writing folder, Inquiring mind, Supplies, and Teamwork. It is where…

  8. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Voice is the sound made by air passing from your lungs through your larynx, or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, ... to make sound. For most of us, our voices play a big part in who we are, ...

  9. Issues in forensic voice.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area.

  10. Patient perceptions of voice therapy adherence.

    PubMed

    van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P

    2010-07-01

    Patient perspectives of behavioral voice therapy, including perspectives of treatment adherence, have not been formally documented. Because treatment adherence is, to a large extent, determined by patient beliefs, assessment of patient perspectives is integral to the study of adherence. Fifteen patients who had undergone at least two sessions of direct voice therapy for a variety of voice disorders/complaints were interviewed about their perspectives on voice therapy, with a particular focus on adherence. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for content according to qualitative methods. Three common content themes emerged from the transcripts: Voice Therapy is Hard, Make it Happen, and The Match Matters. Findings were compared with reports of patient experiences in other behavioral interventions, such as diet and exercise, and related to existing theoretical models of behavior change and therapeutic process. This study yields information toward the development of scales to measure adherence-related constructs and strategies to improve treatment adherence in voice therapy.

  11. Voice Messaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara D.; Tisdale, Judy Jones; Krapels, Roberta H.

    2001-01-01

    Surveys corporate use of voice message systems by interviewing employees in four different companies. Finds that all four companies viewed their voicemail systems as a supplement to personal contact (not a replacement) and provided training, but had no formal method to assess customer satisfaction with their system. Suggests business communication…

  12. Lost Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiseri-Strater, Elizabeth

    Different writing voices are linked to early adult developmental issues that are gender-related. Research by Donald Graves has shown that gender affects topic choice in girls' and boys' writing as early as age seven. Adult developmental theories provide frames for looking at the growth potential of writers and locating gender-related issues. The…

  13. Joint Air-to-Ground Missile (JAGM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Navy. The JAGM mission is to develop the next generation of aviation launched fire and forget missiles to replace the HELLFIRE laser and Longbow...EMD contract to develop the next generation of aviation launched missiles to replace the HELLFIRE laser and Longbow radar missiles. JAGM December 2015... Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center and Lockheed Martin, successfully conducted the third JAGM flight test at Eglin Air

  14. Rascal Air-to-Ground Guided Missiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-04-30

    14169 MODEL MX-776 PREPARED BY •J’^yy’ APPROVED BY APPROVED BY V.*f ShCRET •.’ # "D t L vy/%>rvig/y CORP SECRET 0 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page...University we attended a symposium concerned with problems of free flight testing of full size and scale model missiles. At Wright Field the subject of...8217 facilities were Inspected as a possible sub- contractor. Their organization Is small, hut they have adequate shop facilities for bulliing model shop

  15. Voice therapy for the professional voice.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sarah L; Sataloff, Robert T

    2007-10-01

    Behavioral evaluation and treatment of dysphonia in the professional voice user are the responsibility of the speech-language pathologist. As a clinician, treating the professional voice user requires expert listening and management skills. Interdisciplinary team relationships are crucial for thorough care of this population. When treating the professional voice user additional information should be included while gathering the history because of differences in vocal demand and expectations when compared with the non-professional voice user. Voice therapy is patient-specific and when treating professional voice users it is necessary to consider previous training and use or rework current skills to enhance the therapy outcomes.

  16. Voices on Voice: Perspectives, Definitions, Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, Kathleen Blake, Ed.

    This collection of essays approaches "voice" as a means of expression that lives in the interactions of writers, readers, and language, and examines the conceptualizations of voice within the oral rhetorical and expressionist traditions, and the notion of voice as both a singular and plural phenomenon. An explanatory introduction by the…

  17. Rewriting Student Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    Two approaches to bringing out student voices in writing are the the "workshop advocates approach" and the "critical pedagogy advocates approach." The first group views voice as "individual expression," while the second group views voice as "participation." Though both strive to respect the student's voice,…

  18. Voice recognition interface for a radiology information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, William H.; Boehme, Johannes M.; Choplin, Robert H.; Santago, Peter, II

    1990-08-01

    We have implemented a voice recognition interface using a Dragon Systems VoiceScribe-1000 Speech Recognition system installed on an AT&T 6310 personal computer. The Dragon Systems DragonKey software allows the user to emulate keyboard functions using the speech recognition system and replaces the presently used bar code system. The software supports user voice training, grammar design and compilation, as well as speech recognition. We have successfully integrated this voice interface in the clinical report generation system for most standard mammography studies. We have found that the voice system provides a simple, user-friendly interface which is more widely accepted in a medical environment because of its similarities to tradition dictation. Although the system requires some initial time for voice training, it avoids potential delays in transcription and proofreading. This paper describes the design and implementation of this voice recognition interface in our department.

  19. Voice and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes are those during childhood and adolescence. The larynx (or voice box) and vocal cord tissues do ... changes in the size and character of the larynx causes characteristic pitch breaks and voice “cracking” during ...

  20. Voice box (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  1. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  2. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  3. Writing with Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    In this Teaching Tips article, the author argues for a dialogic conception of voice, based in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin. He demonstrates a dialogic view of voice in action, using two writing examples about the same topic from his daughter, a fifth-grade student. He then provides five practical tips for teaching a dialogic conception of voice in…

  4. Ambivalences: Voices of Indonesian Academic Discourse Gatekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basthomi, Yazid

    2012-01-01

    This article presents voices of academic discourse gatekeepers in the Indonesian context. It reports on results of an attempt to re-read (re-analyze and re-interpret) the transcripts of interviews with Indonesian journal editors/reviewers in the area of English Language Teaching (ELT). The interviews were made with five editors/reviewers of two…

  5. The Voice-Hearer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For 25 years the international Hearing Voices Movement and the UK Hearing Voices Network have campaigned to improve the lives of people who hear voices. In so doing they have introduced a new term into the mental health lexicon: ‘the voice-hearer.’ Aims This article offers a ‘thick description’ of the figure of ‘the voice-hearer.’ Method A selection of prominent texts (life narratives, research papers, videos and blogs), the majority produced by people active in the Hearing Voices or consumer/survivor/ex-patient movements, were analysed from an interdisciplinary medical humanities perspective. Results ‘The voice-hearer’ (i) asserts voice-hearing as a meaningful experience, (ii) challenges psychiatric authority, and (iii) builds identity through sharing life narrative. While technically accurate, the definition of ‘the voice-hearer’ as simply ‘a person who has experienced voice-hearing or auditory verbal hallucinations’ fails to acknowledge that this is a complex, politically resonant and value-laden identity. Conclusions The figure of ‘the voice-hearer’ comes into being through a specific set of narrative practices as an ‘expert by experience’ who challenges the authority and diagnostic categories of mainstream psychiatry, especially the category of ‘schizophrenia.’ PMID:23691942

  6. Voice handicap in singers.

    PubMed

    Murry, Thomas; Zschommler, Anne; Prokop, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the differences in responses to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) between singers and nonsingers and to evaluate the ranked order differences of the VHI-10 statements for both groups. The VHI-10 was modified to include statements related to the singing voice for comparison to the original VHI-10. Thirty-five nonsingers with documented voice disorders responded to the VHI-10. A second group, consisting of 35 singers with voice complaints, responded to the VHI-10 with three statements added specifically addressing the singing voice. Data from both groups were analyzed in terms of overall subject self-rating of voice handicap and the rank order of statements from least to most important. The difference between the mean VHI-10 for the singers and nonsingers was not statistically significant, thus, supporting the validity of the VHI-10. However, the 10 statements were ranked differently in terms of their importance by both groups. In addition, when three statements related specifically to the singing voice were substituted in the original VHI-10, the singers judged their voice problem to be more severe than when using the original VHI-10. The type of statements used to assess self-perception of voice handicap may be related to the subject population. Singers with voice problems do not rate their voices to be more handicapped than nonsingers unless statements related specifically to singing are included.

  7. Application of Voice Recognition Input to Decision Support Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Support System (GDSS) Talkwriter Human Computer Interface Voice Input Individual Decision Support System (IDSS) Voice Input/Output Man Machine Voice ... Interface Voice Processing Natural Language Voice Input Voice Recognition Natural Language Accessed Voice Recognizer Speech Entry Voice Vocabulary

  8. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  9. Voice integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  10. Borderline Space for Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  11. Voice and endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Hari Kumar, K. V. S.; Garg, Anurag; Ajai Chandra, N. S.; Singh, S. P.; Datta, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders. PMID:27730065

  12. Voice Savers for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookman, Starr

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers are in a class all their own when it comes to voice use. These elite vocal athletes require stamina, strength, and flexibility from their voices day in, day out for hours at a time. Voice rehabilitation clinics and research show that music education ranks high among the professionals most commonly affected by voice problems.…

  13. Biphonation in voice signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herzel, H.; Reuter, R.

    1996-06-01

    Irregularities in voiced speech are often observed as a consequence of vocal fold lesions, paralyses, and other pathological conditions. Many of these instabilities are related to the intrinsic nonlinearities in the vibrations of the vocal folds. In this paper, a specific nonlinear phenomenon is discussed: The appearance of two independent fundamental frequencies termed biphonation. Several narrow-band spectrograms are presented showing biphonation in signals from voice patients, a newborn cry, a singer, and excised larynx experiments. Finally, possible physiological mechanisms of instabilities of the voice source are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. MSAT voice modulation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, Dan

    1990-01-01

    The challenge for Mobile satellite (MSAT) voice services is to provide near toll quality voice to the user, while minimizing the power and bandwidth resources of the satellite. The options for MSAT voice can be put into one of two groups: Analog and Digital. Analog, nominally narrowband single sideband techniques, have a shown robustness to the fading and shadowing environment. Digital techniques, a combination of low rate vocoders and bandwidth efficient modems, show the promise of enhanced fidelity, as well as easier networking to the emerging digital world. The problems and tradeoffs to designers are many, especially in the digital case. Processor speed vs. cost and MET power requirements, channel coding, bandwidth efficiency vs. power efficiency etc. While the list looks daunting, in fact an acceptable solution is well within the technology. The objectives are reviewed that the MSAT voice service must meet, along with the options that are seen for the future.

  15. About Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... cords caused by air passing out through the larynx bringing the cords closer together. Your voice is ... or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. Larynx Throat Get Involved Professional Development Practice Management ENT ...

  16. Robust matching for voice recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  17. Voice - How humans communicate?

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Manjul; Tiwari, Maneesha

    2012-01-01

    Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us—members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners. PMID:22690044

  18. MSAT broadcast voice services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John W.

    1995-01-01

    Later this year the MSAT satellite network will be delivering mobile and remote communications throughout North America. Its services include a family of Broadcast Voice Services, the first of which will be MSAT Dispatch Radio, which will extend the features and functionality of terrestrial Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) to the entire continent. This paper describes the MSAT Broadcast Voice Services in general, and MSAT Dispatch Radio in particular, and provides examples of commercial and government applications.

  19. Lexical frequency and voice assimilation in complex words in Dutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Lahey, Mybeth; Verhees, Femke; Baayen, Harald

    2004-05-01

    Words with higher token frequencies tend to have more reduced acoustic realizations than lower frequency words (e.g., Hay, 2000; Bybee, 2001; Jurafsky et al., 2001). This study documents frequency effects for regressive voice assimilation (obstruents are voiced before voiced plosives) in Dutch morphologically complex words in the subcorpus of read-aloud novels in the corpus of spoken Dutch (Oostdijk et al., 2002). As expected, the initial obstruent of the cluster tends to be absent more often as lexical frequency increases. More importantly, as frequency increases, the duration of vocal-fold vibration in the cluster decreases, and the duration of the bursts in the cluster increases, after partialing out cluster duration. This suggests that there is less voicing for higher-frequency words. In fact, phonetic transcriptions show regressive voice assimilation for only half of the words and progressive voice assimilation for one third. Interestingly, the progressive voice assimilation observed for higher-frequency complex words renders these complex words more similar to monomorphemic words: Dutch monomorphemic words typically contain voiceless obstruent clusters (Zonneveld, 1983). Such high-frequency complex words may therefore be less easily parsed into their constituent morphemes (cf. Hay, 2000), favoring whole word lexical access (Bertram et al., 2000).

  20. [The senile voice].

    PubMed

    Biondi, S; Zappalà, M; Amato, G; Consoli, F

    1992-01-01

    Involutive processes which characterize aging induce substantial morphological and functional alteration in the pneumo-phono-articulatory system and thus bring about numerous effects on vocal quality. Fundamental frequency (Fo) variation, whose values increase in males and decrease in females, are found in voice patterns. Moreover, in literature many authors have described vocal substain intensity and timbre deficit in the elderly. Vocal emission of elderly people can become so peculiar that it may be possible to identify approximately the age and the sex of the speaker by merely hearing the voice. The aim of this work was to identify specific parameters of the senile voice using spectroacoustic digital analysis. The following points were considered in this study: the psychoacoustic perceptive evaluation of vocal samples in subjects of different ages in order to identify the sex and age of the speaker; the spectroacoustic digital analysis of the same vocal samples; the morphofunctional observation of the phono-articulatory apparatus. Our results confirmed the presence of peculiar electroacoustic characteristics in the senile voice (mean pitch value variation in males and in females, vocal substain deficit, decrease in vocal intensity, senile tremolo, cycle-to-cycle alteration of Fo and mean amplitude) due to morphofunctional changes of the pneumo-phono-articulatory system. In all the subjects we observed anatomo-functional changes at the glottic level. The presence of specific vocal patterns and the quality of speech play an important role in the processes of senile voice identification.

  1. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces. PMID:7479721

  2. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed

    Kamm, C

    1995-10-24

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  3. User Interfaces for Voice Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Candace

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  4. Speech Intelligibility of Two Voice Output Communication Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannenberg, Patricia; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The intelligibility of two voice-output communication aids ("Personal Communicator" and "SpeechPAC'") was evaluated by presenting synthesized words and sentences to 20 listeners. Analysis of listener transcriptions revealed significantly higher intelligibility scores for the "Personal Communicator" compared to the…

  5. Catechistic Teaching, National Canons, and the Regimentation of Students' Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroon, Sjaak

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on key incident analysis of classroom transcripts from Bashkortostan, France, North Korea, and Suriname, this article discusses the relationship between an increasingly canonical content of education and the discursive organization of teaching processes at the expense of both teachers' and students' voice. It argues that canonical…

  6. VoiceRelay: voice key operation using visual basic.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Lise; Jennings, David T

    2004-11-01

    Using a voice key is a popular method for recording vocal response times in a variety of language production tasks. This article describes a class module called VoiceRelay that can be easily utilized in Visual Basic programs for voice key operation. This software-based voice key offers the precision of traditional voice keys (although accuracy is system dependent), as well as the flexibility of volume and sensitivity control. However, VoiceRelay is a considerably less expensive alternative for recording vocal response times because it operates with existing PC hardware and does not require the purchase of external response boxes or additional experiment-generation software. A sample project demonstrating implementation of the VoiceRelay class module may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive, www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  7. Voice Controlled Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Michael Condon, a quadraplegic from Pasadena, California, demonstrates the NASA-developed voice-controlled wheelchair and its manipulator, which can pick up packages, open doors, turn a TV knob, and perform a variety of other functions. A possible boon to paralyzed and other severely handicapped persons, the chair-manipulator system responds to 35 one-word voice commands, such as "go," "stop," "up," "down," "right," "left," "forward," "backward." The heart of the system is a voice-command analyzer which utilizes a minicomputer. Commands are taught I to the computer by the patient's repeating them a number of times; thereafter the analyzer recognizes commands only in the patient's particular speech pattern. The computer translates commands into electrical signals which activate appropriate motors and cause the desired motion of chair or manipulator. Based on teleoperator and robot technology for space-related programs, the voice-controlled system was developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the joint sponsorship of NASA and the Veterans Administration. The wheelchair-manipulator has been tested at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California, and is being evaluated at the VA Prosthetics Center in New York City.

  8. Science for Two Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzkopf-Trujillo, Julie; Straits, William

    2015-01-01

    During inquiry investigations with third graders, the authors urge their students not to just make observations but also to record them. Inspired by Joel Fleishman's "A Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices" (1988), the authors developed an activity that increases students' motivation to record accurate and detailed observations. This…

  9. Voices from the Unconscious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The author, a Manhattan-based psychotherapist, contrasts the fascinating but profound differences between the autobiographical narratives of young college students and the free-associative unconscious voices of patients engaged in the process of psychotherapy. The author begins by recounting the immense impact of his own divorce upon his…

  10. Voices for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Teacher, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

  11. Finding a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Schools have struggled for decades to provide expensive augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) resources for autistic students with communication challenges. Clunky voice output devices, often included in students' individualized education plans, cost about $8,000, a difficult expense to cover in hard times. However, mobile technology is…

  12. Air-to-Ground Fratricide Reduction Technology: An Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Jennifer, and my children, Dean and Eden , for their patience and support during this long project. iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: Air-to...Fire.” Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, March 2004, 15. URL: http://infoweb.newsbank.com. Accessed 4 September 2004. Cline, Bobby

  13. Imaging sensor systems for air to ground surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2006-05-01

    Automated aerial surveillance and detection of hostile ground events, and the tracking of the perpetrators have become of critical importance in the prevention and control of insurgent uprisings and the global war on terror. Yet a basic understanding of the limitations of sensor system coverage as a function of aerial platform position and attitude is often unavailable to program managers and system administrators. In an effort to better understand this problem we present some of the design tradeoffs for two applications: 1) a 360° viewing focal-plane array sensor system modeled for low altitude aerostat applications, and 2) a fixed diameter area of constant surveillance modeled for high altitude fixed wing aircraft applications. Ground coverage requirement tradeoffs include the number of sensors, sensor footprint geometry, footprint coverage variability as a function of platform position and attitude, and ground surface modeling. Event location specification includes latitude, longitude, altitude for the pixel centroid and corners, and line-of-sight centroid range.

  14. Aircraft Armament for Air-To-Ground Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-11-30

    bomba , Va was set -qual 500 ft./sec.; for guns, V. uas set equal to zero. Actual values of 17-9 as taken fron trajectory Table I are shown for comarison...general- yIly fouind in firing tests corrected for •’y. These values are approximately (6). 9 mile - Bomba 9 midls - Rockets 5 mils - Ouns Release

  15. Auditory adaptation in voice perception.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Casper, Christoph; Hauthal, Nadine; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Kawahara, Hideki; Kloth, Nadine; Robertson, David M C; Simpson, Adrian P; Zäske, Romi

    2008-05-06

    Perceptual aftereffects following adaptation to simple stimulus attributes (e.g., motion, color) have been studied for hundreds of years. A striking recent discovery was that adaptation also elicits contrastive aftereffects in visual perception of complex stimuli and faces [1-6]. Here, we show for the first time that adaptation to nonlinguistic information in voices elicits systematic auditory aftereffects. Prior adaptation to male voices causes a voice to be perceived as more female (and vice versa), and these auditory aftereffects were measurable even minutes after adaptation. By contrast, crossmodal adaptation effects were absent, both when male or female first names and when silently articulating male or female faces were used as adaptors. When sinusoidal tones (with frequencies matched to male and female voice fundamental frequencies) were used as adaptors, no aftereffects on voice perception were observed. This excludes explanations for the voice aftereffect in terms of both pitch adaptation and postperceptual adaptation to gender concepts and suggests that contrastive voice-coding mechanisms may routinely influence voice perception. The role of adaptation in calibrating properties of high-level voice representations indicates that adaptation is not confined to vision but is a ubiquitous mechanism in the perception of nonlinguistic social information from both faces and voices.

  16. You're a What? Voice Actor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  17. A STUDY OF INNER VOICES IN SCHIZOPHERNICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Twelve schizophrenics with inner voices were examined and were compared to 12 - schizophrenics with external voices. The inner voices group was largely heterogenous. The inner voice group had shorter interval between onset of illness and onset of hallucinations, higher intensity of emotions outside the hallucinatory episodes but concerning the voices and longer duration of individual episodes of hallucinations. PMID:21847312

  18. Keyboard With Voice Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Voice synthesizer tells what key is about to be depressed. Verbal feedback useful for blind operators or where dim light prevents sighted operator from seeing keyboard. Also used where operator is busy observing other things while keying data into control system. Used as training aid for touch typing, and to train blind operators to use both standard and braille keyboards. Concept adapted to such equipment as typewriters, computers, calculators, telephones, cash registers, and on/off controls.

  19. Finding voices through writing.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, P

    1994-01-01

    Assisting students to find their writing "voices" is another way to emphasize writing as a professional tool for nursing. The author discusses a teaching strategy that required students to write using a variety of styles. Students wrote fables, poetry, and letters, and used other creative writing styles to illustrate their views and feelings on professional nursing issues. Creation of a class book empowered students to see versatility with writing styles can be a powerful communication tool to use with peers, clients, and society.

  20. Improving Transcription of Qualitative Research Interviews with Speech Recognition Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Terry; Wightman, Colin W.

    The recent development of high-quality voice recognition software greatly facilitates the production of transcriptions for research and allows for objective and full transcription as well as annotated interpretation. Commercial speech recognition programs that are appropriate for generating transcriptions are available from a number of vendors,…

  1. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Is My Voice Changing? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Is My Voice ... deeper than a girl's, though. What Causes My Voice to Change? At puberty, guys' bodies begin producing ...

  2. The Voice Handicap Index with Post-Laryngectomy Male Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Eryl; Carding, Paul; Drinnan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer involves complete removal of the larynx ("laryngectomy") and initial total loss of voice. Post-laryngectomy rehabilitation involves implementation of different means of "voicing" for these patients wherever possible. There is little information about laryngectomees'…

  3. Pedagogic Voice: Student Voice in Teaching and Engagement Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa; McGregor, Glenda; Mills, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the notion of "pedagogic voice" as it relates to the presence of student "voice" in teaching, learning and curriculum matters at an alternative, or second chance, school in Australia. This school draws upon many of the principles of democratic schooling via its utilisation of student voice…

  4. Voices Carry: A Content Analysis of "Voices from the Middle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melissa B.; Blady, Shannon; Kumar, Tracey; Moorman, Honor; Prior, Lori; Willson, Angeli

    2011-01-01

    As educators who have been strongly influenced by this journal, the authors decided to do a content analysis of the "voices" from "Voices from the Middle," from its inception to today. They listened closely to who is talking, what the authors are (and are not) discussing, the educational contexts of these conversations, and how the dialogue has…

  5. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  6. Paralinguistic Qualifiers: Our Many Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1991-01-01

    A case is made for the increased study of paralinguistic voice qualifiers, which include variations in breathing, laryngeal, esophageal, pharyngeal, velopharyngeal, lingual, labial, mandibular, articulatory, articulatory tension, and objectual control. It is proposed that attention to these voice qualities has a variety of practical, literary,…

  7. Voice Quality of Psychological Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lidia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F[subscript 0], jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a…

  8. Voice handicap index in Swedish.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Dotevall, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a Swedish version of the voice handicap index questionnaire (Sw-VHI). A total of 57 adult, dysphonic patients and 15 healthy controls completed the Sw-VHI and rated the degree of vocal fatigue and hoarseness on visual analogue scales. A perceptual voice evaluation was also performed. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in 38 subjects without voice complaints. Sw-VHI distinguished between dysphonic subjects and controls (P<0.001). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) were good. Only moderate or weak correlations were found between Sw-VHI and the subjective and perceptual voice ratings. The data indicate that a difference above 13 points for the total Sw-VHI score and above 6 points for the Sw-VHI subscales is significant for an individual when comparing two different occasions. In conclusion, the Sw-VHI appears to be a robust instrument for assessment of the psycho-social impact of a voice disorder. However, Sw-VHI seems to, at least partly, capture different aspects of voice function to the subjective voice ratings and the perceptual voice evaluation.

  9. Taking Care of Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD 20892-3456 Toll-free voice: (800) 241-1044 Toll-free TTY: (800) 241-1055 Email: nidcdinfo@ ... questions in English or Spanish. Voice: (800) 241-1044 TTY: (800) 241-1055 nidcdinfo@nidcd.nih.gov ...

  10. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  11. Finding a Voice, Finding Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeath, John

    2006-01-01

    The term "pupil voice" has, in recent years, become part of a wider discourse but tends to refer to a limited conception of young people "having a say" within the bounds of school convention. This article is about what Henry Giroux terms "border crossings," in which voice develops through a physical and intellectual…

  12. Voice Verification Upgrade.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    to develop speaker verification techniques for use over degraded commun- ication channels -- specifically telephone lines. A test of BISS type speaker...verification technology was performed on a degraded channel and compensation techniques were then developed . The fifth program [103 (Total Voice SV...UPGAW. *mbit aL DuI~sel Jme T. SImmoon e~d David L. Cox AAWVLP FIR MIEW RMAS Utgl~rIMIW At" DT11C AU9 231f CD, _ ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER Air

  13. Voice quality of psychological origin.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antonio; Nunes, Ana; Coimbra, Rosa Lídia; Lima, Rosa; Moutinho, Lurdes

    2008-01-01

    Variations in voice quality are essentially related to modifications of the glottal source parameters, such as: F0, jitter, and shimmer. Voice quality is affected by prosody, emotional state, and vocal pathologies. Psychogenic vocal pathology is particularly interesting. In the present case study, the speaker naturally presented a ventricular band voice whereas in a controlled production he was able to use a more normal phonation process. A small corpus was recorded which included sustained vowels and short sentences in both registers. A normal speaker was also recorded in similar tasks. Annotation and extraction of parameters were made using Praat's voice report function. Application of the Hoarseness Diagram to sustained productions situates this case in the pseudo-glottic phonation region. Analysis of several different parameters related to F0, jitter, shimmer, and harmonicity revealed that the speaker with psychogenic voice was capable of controlling certain parameters (e.g. F0 maximum) but was unable to correct others such as shimmer.

  14. Crossing Cultures with Multi-Voiced Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Whisenant, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of using multi-voiced journals as a teaching strategy in reading instruction. Multi-voiced journals, an adaptation of dual-voiced journals, encourage responses to reading in varied, cultured voices of characters. It is similar to reading journals in that they prod students to connect to the lives…

  15. Voice stress analysis and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Darren M.; Ratley, Roy J.

    2001-02-01

    Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) systems are marketed as computer-based systems capable of measuring stress in a person's voice as an indicator of deception. They are advertised as being less expensive, easier to use, less invasive in use, and less constrained in their operation then polygraph technology. The National Institute of Justice have asked the Air Force Research Laboratory for assistance in evaluating voice stress analysis technology. Law enforcement officials have also been asking questions about this technology. If VSA technology proves to be effective, its value for military and law enforcement application is tremendous.

  16. Voice verification upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. L.; Sinnamon, J. T.; Cox, D. L.

    1982-06-01

    This contractor has two major objectives. The first was to build, test, and deliver to the government an entry control system using speaker verification (voice authentication) as the mechanism for verifying the user's claimed identity. This system included a physical mantrap, with an integral weight scale to prevent more than one user from gaining access with one verification (tailgating). The speaker verification part of the entry control system contained all the updates and embellishments to the algorithm that was developed earlier for the BISS (Base and Installation Security System) system under contract with the Electronic Systems Division of the USAF. These updates were tested prior to and during the contract on an operational system used at Texas Instruments in Dallas, Texas, for controlling entry to the Corporate Information Center (CIC).

  17. Voice stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Malcolm; Shipp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the validity of eight candidate voice measures (fundamental frequency, amplitude, speech rate, frequency jitter, amplitude shimmer, Psychological Stress Evaluator scores, energy distribution, and the derived measure of the above measures) for determining psychological stress, 17 males age 21 to 35 were subjected to a tracking task on a microcomputer CRT while parameters of vocal production as well as heart rate were measured. Findings confirm those of earlier studies that increases in fundamental frequency, amplitude, and speech rate are found in speakers involved in extreme levels of stress. In addition, it was found that the same changes appear to occur in a regular fashion within a more subtle level of stress that may be characteristic, for example, of routine flying situations. None of the individual speech measures performed as robustly as did heart rate.

  18. Selecting and implementing a voice recognition system.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, S; Cassimus, G C

    1999-01-01

    A single radiology department serves the three separate organizations that comprise Emory Healthcare in Atlanta--three separate hospitals, the Emory Clinic and the Emory University School of Medicine. In 1996, the chairman of Emory Healthcare issued a mandate to the radiology department to decrease its report turnaround time, provide better service and increase customer satisfaction. The area where the greatest effect could be made without involving the transcription area was the "exam complete to dictate" piece of the reporting process. A committee investigating voice recognition systems established an essential criteria for potential vendors--to be able to download patient scheduling and demographic information from the existing RIS to the new system. Second, the system had to be flexible and straightforward for doctors to learn. It must have a word processing package for easy report correction and editing, and a microphone that would rewind and correct dictation before recognition took place. To keep capital costs low for the pilot, the committee opted for server recognition rather than purchase the expensive workstations necessary for real-time recognition. A switch was made later to real-time recognition. PACS and voice recognition have proven to be highly complementary. Most importantly, the new system has had a tremendous impact on turnaround time in the "dictate to final" phase. Once in the 30-hour range, 65 percent of the reports are now turned around in less than 15 minutes, 80 percent in less than 30 minutes, and 90 percent in less than an hour.

  19. Shaping the sound of voice

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The proper development of the vocal cords requires embryos to contain a certain number of progenitor cells, and mutations that lead to an overflow of cells can cause malformations of the voice box. PMID:28318485

  20. Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Iván González; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code. PMID:28272418

  1. Emergence of linguistic laws in human voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, Iván González; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Jordi; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni

    2017-03-01

    Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath. The method has been applied to sixteen different human languages, recovering successfully some well-known laws of human communication at timescales even below the phoneme and finding yet another link between complexity and criticality in a biological system. These methods further pave the way for new comparative studies in animal communication or the analysis of signals of unknown code.

  2. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost.

  3. Voice Simulation in Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Britney B; Lee, Heeyoung; Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve prelicensure nursing students' attitudes toward and self-efficacy related to delivering nursing care to patients with auditory hallucinations. Based on the Hearing Voices That Are Distressing curriculum, 87 participants were instructed to complete 3 tasks while wearing headphones delivering distressing voices. Comparing presimulation and postsimulation results, this study suggests that the simulation significantly improved attitudes toward patients with auditory hallucinations; however, self-efficacy related to caring for these patients remained largely unchanged.

  4. Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kramp, Burkhard; Dommerich, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Cannulas and voice prostheses are mechanical aids for patients who had to undergo tracheotomy or laryngectomy for different reasons. For better understanding of the function of those artificial devices, first the indications and particularities of the previous surgical intervention are described in the context of this review. Despite the established procedure of percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy e.g. in intensive care units, the application of epithelised tracheostomas has its own position, especially when airway obstruction is persistent (e.g. caused by traumata, inflammations, or tumors) and a longer artificial ventilation or special care of the patient are required. In order to keep the airways open after tracheotomy, tracheostomy cannulas of different materials with different functions are available. For each patient the most appropriate type of cannula must be found. Voice prostheses are meanwhile the device of choice for rapid and efficient voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Individual sizes and materials allow adaptation of the voice prostheses to the individual anatomical situation of the patients. The combined application of voice prostheses with HME (Head and Moisture Exchanger) allows a good vocal as well as pulmonary rehabilitation. Precondition for efficient voice prosthesis is the observation of certain surgical principles during laryngectomy. The duration of the prosthesis mainly depends on material properties and biofilms, mostly consisting of funguses and bacteries. The quality of voice with valve prosthesis is clearly superior to esophagus prosthesis or electro-laryngeal voice. Whenever possible, tracheostoma valves for free-hand speech should be applied. Physicians taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost. PMID:22073098

  5. Cognitive intervention for voice hearers.

    PubMed

    England, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy is an emerging treatment being used to attenuate negative thoughts and emotions tied to the formation, expression, and maintenance of verbal auditory hallucinations. This paper describes the theoretical underpinnings for the intervention and a clinical application of a prototype cognitive nursing intervention for treating faulty thinking and beliefs linked with problematic voice hearing experiences. The paper ends with a review of current evidence and implications concerning the efficacy of cognitive intervention approaches with voice hearers.

  6. Mean-based neural coding of voices.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2013-10-01

    The social significance of recognizing the person who talks to us is obvious, but the neural mechanisms that mediate talker identification are unclear. Regions along the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) of the human brain are selective for voices, and they are sensitive to rapid voice changes. Although it has been proposed that voice recognition is supported by prototype-centered voice representations, the involvement of these category-selective cortical regions in the neural coding of such "mean voices" has not previously been demonstrated. Using fMRI in combination with a voice identity learning paradigm, we show that voice-selective regions are involved in the mean-based coding of voice identities. Voice typicality is encoded on a supra-individual level in the right STS along a stimulus-dependent, identity-independent (i.e., voice-acoustic) dimension, and on an intra-individual level in the right IFC along a stimulus-independent, identity-dependent (i.e., voice identity) dimension. Voice recognition therefore entails at least two anatomically separable stages, each characterized by neural mechanisms that reference the central tendencies of voice categories.

  7. Voice change in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Millqvist, Eva; Bende, Mats; Brynnel, Moa; Johansson, Inger; Kappel, Sofi; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2008-07-01

    Voice problems are seldom reported in pollen allergy, although the allergic reaction involves the entire airways. The objective of this study was to investigate voice dysfunction during the pollen season in patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty patients with verified birch pollen allergy and 30 controls were investigated twice, during the pollen season and outside the pollen season. Both times they scored respiratory and voice symptoms, the latter with the validated questionnaire Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and performed standardized voice recordings. These recordings were analyzed in a controlled manner by a professional voice therapist. During the allergy season, patients reported more respiratory and voice symptoms compared with controls. Those with blinded scored voice dysfunction scored their voice quality during springtime as 31 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 20-42 mm), compared with 13 mm (95% CI 6-21 mm for participants without voice dysfunction (P<0.01). Furthermore, the group with experienced voice dysfunction scored significantly higher on the VHI in the functional and physical domains and in the total VHI score. Although voice problems during the pollen season are rarely discussed, in allergic rhinitis the larynx may also be involved. These findings support that some patients experience voice change, an experience which can be objectively confirmed.

  8. The Voice as Computer Interface: A Look at Tomorrow's Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Holley R.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of voice as the communications device for computer-human interaction focuses on voice recognition systems for use within a library environment. Voice technologies are described, including voice response and voice recognition; examples of voice systems in use in libraries are examined; and further possibilities, including use with…

  9. Native voice, self-concept and the moral case for personalized voice technology.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose (1) To explore the role of native voice and effects of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and survey the state of assistive voice technology; (2) to establish the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Methods This narrative review examines published literature on the human significance of voice, the impact of voice loss on self-concept and identity, and the strengths and limitations of current voice technology. Based on the impact of voice loss on self and identity, and voice technology limitations, the moral case for personalized voice technology is developed. Results Given the richness of information conveyed by voice, loss of voice constrains expression of the self, but the full impact is poorly understood. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices facilitate communication but, despite advances in this field, voice output cannot yet express the unique nuances of individual voice. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and equality of opportunity establish the moral responsibility to invest in accessible, cost-effective, personalized voice technology. Conclusions Although further research is needed to elucidate the full effects of voice loss on self-concept, identity and social functioning, current understanding of the profoundly negative impact of voice loss establishes the moral case for developing personalized voice technology. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitation of voice-disordered patients should facilitate self-expression, interpersonal connectedness and social/occupational participation. Proactive questioning about the psychological and social experiences of patients with voice loss is a valuable entry point for rehabilitation planning. Personalized voice technology would enhance sense of self, communicative participation and autonomy and promote shared healthcare decision-making. Further research is needed to identify the best strategies to preserve and strengthen identity and sense of

  10. Children's Voice or Children's Voices? How Educational Research Can Be at the Heart of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Julian

    2015-01-01

    There are problems with considering children and young people in schools as quite separate individuals, and with considering them as members of a single collectivity. The tension is represented in the use of "voice" and "voices" in educational debates. Voices in dialogue, in contrast to "children's voice", are…

  11. Listening to the Voices of Students with Disabilities: Can Such Voices Inform Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Linda J.; Rickards, Field W.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates issues to do with student voice. Much attention is given within the literature to including the voice of students without disabilities in educational debate. Indeed, clear connections have been made between the use of student voice and raising student achievement (Mitra, 2004). Given the validation of such voices, it is…

  12. Verbal Instruction Model (VIM) in voice therapy.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2016-01-01

    The stumbling-block in voice therapy is the patient's generalization of the new voice behavior in everyday life. Traditionally voice therapy is based on demonstration, i.e. during the therapy session the speech therapist uses her own voice and body to demonstrate for the patient how to produce voice in different training tasks. During the last decade a new voice therapy strategy, the Verbal Instruction Model (VIM), has been developed by the author. In VIM the speech therapist uses verbal instructions instead of demonstration when conveying the training tasks to the patient. Our clinical experience has shown that VIM seems to help getting over the stumbling-block of generalization. However, evidence for VIM voice therapy outcome remains to be scientifically studied and confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to describe VIM voice therapy and to discuss therapy strategies in the light of motor learning principles.

  13. [Care of voice among transgender people].

    PubMed

    Sellman, Jaana; Rihkanen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    In some cases transgender people spontaneously find vocal expression that is acceptable. The testosterone medication usually lowers the female voice (F to M) enough. Feminization of the male voice (M to F) needs more often care. Speech and voice therapy is usually the primary treatment. In some cases pitch-elevating surgery is needed. This will raise the pitch or at least eliminate spontaneous male voicing (cough, laughter). If cosmetically unacceptable, a prominent Adam's apple will be removed.

  14. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    PubMed

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  15. I like my voice better: self-enhancement bias in perceptions of voice attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Susan M; Harrison, Marissa A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that the human voice can communicate a wealth of nonsemantic information; preferences for voices can predict health, fertility, and genetic quality of the speaker, and people often use voice attractiveness, in particular, to make these assessments of others. But it is not known what we think of the attractiveness of our own voices as others hear them. In this study eighty men and women rated the attractiveness of an array of voice recordings of different individuals and were not told that their own recorded voices were included in the presentation. Results showed that participants rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than others had rated their voices, and participants also rated their own voices as sounding more attractive than they had rated the voices of others. These findings suggest that people may engage in vocal implicit egotism, a form of self-enhancement.

  16. Making sense of the voices.

    PubMed

    Lakeman, R

    2001-10-01

    Hearing voices is a common occurrence, and an experience of many people in psychiatric/mental health care. Nurses are challenged to provide care, which is empowering and helps people who hear voices. Nursing practice undertaken in partnership with the voice hearer and informed by a working explanatory model of hallucinations offers greater helping potential. This paper uses Slade's (1976. The British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 15, 415-423.) explanatory model as a framework for exploring interventions which may assist people in exerting some control over the experience and which might be used alongside pharmacological interventions. Principles and practical ideas for how nurses might assist people to cope with and make sense of the experience are explored.

  17. Understanding the 'Anorexic Voice' in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Matthew; Waller, Glenn

    2016-07-20

    In common with individuals experiencing a number of disorders, people with anorexia nervosa report experiencing an internal 'voice'. The anorexic voice comments on the individual's eating, weight and shape and instructs the individual to restrict or compensate. However, the core characteristics of the anorexic voice are not known. This study aimed to develop a parsimonious model of the voice characteristics that are related to key features of eating disorder pathology and to determine whether patients with anorexia nervosa fall into groups with different voice experiences. The participants were 49 women with full diagnoses of anorexia nervosa. Each completed validated measures of the power and nature of their voice experience and of their responses to the voice. Different voice characteristics were associated with current body mass index, duration of disorder and eating cognitions. Two subgroups emerged, with 'weaker' and 'stronger' voice experiences. Those with stronger voices were characterized by having more negative eating attitudes, more severe compensatory behaviours, a longer duration of illness and a greater likelihood of having the binge-purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. The findings indicate that the anorexic voice is an important element of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Addressing the anorexic voice might be helpful in enhancing outcomes of treatments for anorexia nervosa, but that conclusion might apply only to patients with more severe eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Voicing Consciousness: The Mind in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce-Kapler, Rebecca; Catlin, Susan; Sumara, Dennis; Kocher, Philomene

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the enduring power of voice as a concept in writing pedagogy. They argue that one can benefit from considering Elbow's assertion that both text and voice be considered as important aspects of written discourse. In particular, voice is a powerful metaphor for the material, social and historical nature of…

  19. Voice Data Entry in NISTARS Warehouses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-28

    2.1 Advantages of Voice Interface Technology .......................................... 2 2.2 NISTARS W ork Station Overview...20 4. Voice Interface Implementation Plan .................................................................... 21 4.1 Integration Options...offers little opportunity for voice interface integration. Normal processing requires no more than a <Task Complete> key entry to the computer. Even

  20. Finding Voice: Learning about Language and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Christensen discusses why teachers need to teach students "voice" in its social and political context, to show the intersection of voice and power, to encourage students to ask, "Whose voices get heard? Whose are marginalized?" As Christensen writes, "Once students begin to understand that Standard English is one language among many, we can help…

  1. Can We Hear the Student Voice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlick, Su

    2008-01-01

    The Student Voice project was launched in January 2007. The aim was to provide a method of encouraging students to become actively involved in decisions about their own learning and empowering them with appropriate ways to do so. Ninety-two pupils were divided up into specific focus groups (a voice). These "voices" include: (1) the…

  2. Voices Not Heard: Voice-Use Profiles of Elementary Music Teachers, the Effects of Voice Amplification on Vocal Load, and Perceptions of Issues Surrounding Voice Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers represent the largest group of occupational voice users and have voice-related problems at a rate of over twice that found in the general population. Among teachers, music teachers are roughly four times more likely than classroom teachers to develop voice-related problems. Although it has been established that music teachers use their…

  3. Using Your Inner Voice to Guide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Doris J.; Walcott, Crystal Y.; Kastberg, Signe E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a tool teachers can use to analyze student work and provides activity suggestions to guide instruction based on their findings. By integrating the voice of the child and the voice of the discipline, teachers can use their inner voice to build a model of the child's understanding. (Contains 8 figures.)

  4. Accuracy and Speed of Response to Different Voice Types in a Cockpit Voice Warning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    synthesis technology have alleviated early concerns about the practicality and reliability of voice warning systems. Speech generation requires that...acknowledged the supposed "differentness" of the female voice as the reason that that voice was used in early voice warning systems. However, they suggested...VOICE WARNING SYSTEM Jay Freedman, Major. USAF William A. Rumbaugh, Captain, USAF LSSR 89-83 S" L U The contents of the document are technically accurate

  5. Effectiveness of voice therapy in reflux-related voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vashani, K; Murugesh, M; Hattiangadi, G; Gore, G; Keer, V; Ramesh, V S; Sandur, V; Bhatia, S J

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with laryngopharyngeal reflux plays a significant role in voice disorders. A significant proportion of patients attending ear, nose, and throat clinics with voice disorders may have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There is no controlled study of the effect of voice therapy on GERD. We assessed the effect of voice therapy in patients with dysphonia and GERD. Thirty-two patients with dysphonia and GERD underwent indirect laryngoscopy and voice analysis. Esophageal and laryngeal symptoms were assessed using the reflux symptom index (RSI). At endoscopy, esophagitis was graded according to Los Angeles classification. Patients were randomized to receive either voice therapy and omeprazole (20 mg bid) (n=16, mean [SD] age 36.1 [9.6] y; 5 men; Gp A) or omeprazole alone (n=16, age 31.8 [11.7] y; 9 men; Gp B). During voice analysis, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and normalized noise energy (NNE) were assessed using the Dr. Speech software (version 4 1998; Tigers DRS, Inc). Hoarseness and breathiness of voice were assessed using a perceptual rating scale of 0-3. Parameters were reassessed after 6 weeks, and analyzed using parametric or nonparametric tests as applicable. In Group A, 9 patients had Grade A, 3 had Grade B, and 1 had Grade C esophagitis; 3 had normal study. In Group B, 8 patients had Grade A, 2 had Grade B esophagitis, and 6 had normal study. Baseline findings: median RSI scores were comparable (Group A 20.0 [range 14-27], Group B 19.0 [15-24]). Median rating was 2.0 for hoarseness and breathiness for both groups. Values in Groups A and B for jitter 0.5 (0.6) versus 0.5 (0.8), shimmer 3.1 (2.5) versus 2.8 (2.0), HNR 23.0 (5.6) versus 23.1 (4.2), and NNE -7.3 (3.2) versus -7.2 (3.4) were similar. Post-therapy values for Groups A and B: RSI scores were 9.0 (5-13; P<0.01 as compared with baseline) and 13.0 (10-17; P<0.01), respectively. Ratings for hoarseness and breathiness were 0.5 (P<0.01) and 1.0 (P<0

  6. Electrophysiological correlates of voice learning and recognition.

    PubMed

    Zäske, Romi; Volberg, Gregor; Kovács, Gyula; Schweinberger, Stefan Robert

    2014-08-13

    Listeners can recognize familiar human voices from variable utterances, suggesting the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations during familiarization. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating learning and recognition of voices from natural speech are currently unknown. Using electrophysiology, we investigated how representations are formed during intentional learning of initially unfamiliar voices that were later recognized among novel voices. To probe the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations, we compared a "same sentence" condition, in which speakers repeated the study utterances at test, and a "different sentence" condition. Although recognition performance was higher for same compared with different sentences, substantial voice learning also occurred for different sentences, with recognition performance increasing across consecutive study-test-cycles. During study, event-related potentials elicited by voices subsequently remembered elicited a larger sustained parietal positivity (∼250-1400 ms) compared with subsequently forgotten voices. This difference due to memory was unaffected by test sentence condition and may thus reflect the acquisition of speech-invariant voice representations. At test, voices correctly classified as "old" elicited a larger late positive component (300-700 ms) at Pz than voices correctly classified as "new." This event-related potential OLD/NEW effect was limited to the same sentence condition and may thus reflect speech-dependent retrieval of voices from episodic memory. Importantly, a speech-independent effect for learned compared with novel voices was found in beta band oscillations (16-17 Hz) between 290 and 370 ms at central and right temporal sites. Our results are a first step toward elucidating the electrophysiological correlates of voice learning and recognition.

  7. Volunteer Voice. 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Four issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma, Washington Community House Training Project, are presented. The project provides English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and support to refugees. Contents of Number 1 (Summer 1992) include an account of one volunteer's initial encounter; a game for teaching adverbs; instructions…

  8. Voicing Concern about Noisy Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Background noise from loud ventilation systems, outdoor activities, and poor acoustics can lead to voice problems for teachers, worsen hearing-impaired students' listening ability, and create unhealthy learning environments. Solutions include providing teachers with a sound-field amplification system and improving classroom acoustics. (MLH)

  9. Voice discrimination in four primates.

    PubMed

    Candiotti, Agnès; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-10-01

    One accepted function of vocalisations is to convey information about the signaller, such as its age-sex class, motivation, or relationship with the recipient. Yet, in natural habitats individuals not only interact with conspecifics but also with members of other species. This is well documented for African forest monkeys, which form semi-permanent mixed-species groups that can persist for decades. Although members of such groups interact with each other on a daily basis, both physically and vocally, it is currently unknown whether they can discriminate familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecific group members. We addressed this question with playbacks on monkey species known to form polyspecific associations in the wild: red-capped mangabeys, Campbell's monkeys and Guereza colobus monkeys. We tested subjects' discrimination abilities of contact calls of familiar and unfamiliar female De Brazza monkeys. When pooling all species, subjects looked more often towards the speaker when hearing contact calls of unfamiliar than familiar callers. When testing De Brazza monkeys with their own calls, we found the same effect with the longest gaze durations after hearing unfamiliar voices. This suggests that primates can discriminate, not only between familiar and unfamiliar voices of conspecifics, but also between familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecifics living within a close proximity.

  10. Voice command weapons launching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.

  11. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  12. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…

  13. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men.

  14. Temporal voice areas exist in autism spectrum disorder but are dysfunctional for voice identity recognition

    PubMed Central

    Borowiak, Kamila; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recognise the identity of others is a key requirement for successful communication. Brain regions that respond selectively to voices exist in humans from early infancy on. Currently, it is unclear whether dysfunction of these voice-sensitive regions can explain voice identity recognition impairments. Here, we used two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate voice processing in a population that has been reported to have no voice-sensitive regions: autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our results refute the earlier report that individuals with ASD have no responses in voice-sensitive regions: Passive listening to vocal, compared to non-vocal, sounds elicited typical responses in voice-sensitive regions in the high-functioning ASD group and controls. In contrast, the ASD group had a dysfunction in voice-sensitive regions during voice identity but not speech recognition in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG)—a region implicated in processing complex spectrotemporal voice features and unfamiliar voices. The right anterior STS/STG correlated with voice identity recognition performance in controls but not in the ASD group. The findings suggest that right STS/STG dysfunction is critical for explaining voice recognition impairments in high-functioning ASD and show that ASD is not characterised by a general lack of voice-sensitive responses. PMID:27369067

  15. Novel modification of voice prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Papaspyrou, George; Schneider, Mathias; Schick, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    The undesired dilatation of the tracheooesophageal shunt after surgical implantation of voice prosthesis is a typical complication of this procedure. Temporary removal of the prosthesis and reinsertion after a short period of time is a first-line therapeutical option aiming shrinkage of the shunt. Failure of this measure generally is an indication of revision surgery. We present first experiences treating leakage problems with novel modified voice prosthesis without surgical intervention in specified cases. 11 patients (1 female, 10 male) aging between 51 and 71 years were presented with shunt leakage between 11/2008 and 11/2012 in the ENT-Department of the University Hospital of Homburg/Saar after a custom built voice prosthesis had been used initially successfully. A "Provox 2"(®) voice prosthesis was modified with two discs made of silicone each on the tracheal and oesophageal side and additionally reinforcing the diameter of the prosthesis by a silicone tube. The modified prosthesis was inserted in a retrograde way under general anesthesia, analogical to the approach used with the "Provox 1"(®)-prosthesis. The period of observation ranged between 12 and 48 months. As a measure of control swallowing of methylene blue was used. In all cases leakage suspended. Durability of the modified prosthesis ranged between 2 and 6 months. Neither the patients' complained about, nor did the physicians notice subjectively an impairment of the voice quality. Modifications of "Provox 2"(®)-prosthesis should be regarded in individual cases and constitute a reasonable alternative to revision surgery. A surgical approach is more intricate and costly, more taxing for the patient and susceptible to failure. We regard the necessity of general anesthesia for the insertion of the modified prosthesis as a disadvantage.

  16. Management of the transgender voice.

    PubMed

    McNeill, E J M

    2006-07-01

    Transsexualism is a condition involving a paradoxical feeling of belonging to the opposite sex. Acquiring a sex-appropriate voice is a crucial part of the patient gaining acceptance in their new gender. Speech and language therapists and otolaryngologists play an important role in influencing communication behaviour in transgender patients by altering the fundamental frequency of speech to one acceptable for the patient's sex. Review of the literature suggests that speech and language therapy is successful at creating an acceptable fundamental frequency in transgender patients, as well as influencing other communication behaviours. Laryngeal surgery, such as cricothyroid approximation, has an important role in raising the fundamental frequency in those who do not achieve acceptable voice via non-surgical means. There is little information on patient satisfaction and quality of life measures. Research is currently underway to explore this aspect further.

  17. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  18. Fetuses respond to father's voice but prefer mother's voice after birth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace Y; Kisilevsky, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Fetal and newborn responding to audio-recordings of their father's versus mother's reading a story were examined. At home, fathers read a different story to the fetus each day for 7 days. Subsequently, in the laboratory, continuous fetal heart rate was recorded during a 9 min protocol, including three, 3 min periods: baseline no-sound, voice (mother or father), postvoice no-sound. Following a 20 min delay, the opposite voice was delivered. Newborn head-turning was observed on 20 s trials: three no-sound, three voice (mother or father), three opposite voice, three no-sound trials with the same segment of each parent's recording. Fetuses showed a heart rate increase to both voices which was sustained over the voice period. Consistent with prior reports, newborns showed a preference for their mother's but not their father's voice. The characteristics of voice stimuli that capture fetal attention and elicit a response are yet to be identified.

  19. Voice Disorders in Mucosal Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vieira, Jéssica Rafael; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Terceiro, Benivaldo Ramos Ferreira; de Sousa Torraca, Tania Salgado; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. Objective To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age) and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. Results 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81%) were male and five (19%) female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years). The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%), followed by dysphonia (38.5%), odynophagia (30.8%) and dysphagia (26.9%). 23 patients (84.6%) presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. Conclusion We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some resonance

  20. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  1. Voice Analysis Using the Bispectrum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    a fourth order model was used to obtain the parametric estimation . The expected and estimated results are shown in Figures 7 and 8. The expected...representations, the parametric and non- parametric estimation techniques gave very similar results. For voiced speech most of the signal energy was in a 44 Clean...sound with a sample size of 80. The non-parametric method was used because the reconstruction method parallels the theory that the non- parametric

  2. Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S; Hains, Sylvia M J; Lee, Kang; Xie, Xing; Huang, Hefeng; Ye, Hai Hui; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Zengping

    2003-05-01

    The ability of human fetuses to recognize their own mother's voice was examined. Sixty term fetuses were assigned to one of two conditions during which they were exposed to a tape recording of their mother or a female stranger reading a passage. Voice stimuli were delivered through a loudspeaker held approximately 10 cm above the maternal abdomen and played at an average of 95 dB SPL. Each condition consisted of three 2-min periods: no stimulus, voice (mother or stranger), and no stimulus. Fetal heart rate increased in response to the mother's voice and decreased in response to the stranger's; both responses were sustained for 4 min. The finding of differential behavior in response to a familiar versus a novel voice provides evidence that experience influences fetal voice processing. It supports an epigenetic model of speech perception, presuming an interaction between genetic expression of neural development and species-specific experience.

  3. Voice-stress measure of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Murray; Schneider, Sid J.

    1988-01-01

    In a planned experiment, male subjects between the age of 18 and 50 will be required to produce speech while performing various tasks. Analysis of the speech produced should reveal which aspects of voice prosody are associated with increased workloads. Preliminary results with two female subjects suggest a possible trend for voice frequency and amplitude to be higher and the variance of the voice frequency to be lower in the high workload condition.

  4. Team Training Applications of Voice Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-31

    Springfield, Virginia 22151 / 00 © Final Report ©LEVEL ^ TEAM TRAINING APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Beverly A. Popeika C. Mazie Knerr... processing technology to train voice communication-based tasks. At the same time, automated speech generation and recognition can enhance adaptive...pronunciation and radio terminology training, and analyzing vocabularies that have high-risk levels for voice processing technology . VDC acts as a peer

  5. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.

  6. Basics of voice dysfunction--etiology and prevention of voice damage.

    PubMed

    Sepić, Tatjana; Pankas, Josipa; Grubesić, Aron; Tićac, Robert; Starcević, Radan

    2011-09-01

    Voice is one of the most important means of communication and as such should be taken care of. The etiology of voice disorders is diverse. Due to the development of the society we live in, way of life, environmental factors, and exposure to pharmacological agents as well as demands we make towards our voice, there is a substantial growth in the number of people with voice disorders. We tasked ourselves to find out if it is possible to enlighten people on the importance of voice, to motivate them to take care of it, to notice the changes in its quality and eventually ask for help. We assessed in which measure do we understand the importance of a healthy voice, and do we know which is the most important factor that adds to its decline. For a long number of years voice therapists and other experts in the voice disorder field have been discussing the optimal voice impostation as well as vocal exercises and methods behind voice recovery. They have all come to the same conclusion that phonation is dependant on the sort of the voice disorder and the patient motivation. We wanted to go one step further and investigate, dependence of voice quality and the damage etiology (organic - functional), which are the predominant causes, what are the factors that account for the damage and how the disorder motivates the patient and therefore influences the rehabilitation success rate.

  7. Voice and Communication Therapy for Transgender/Transsexual Clients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Voice and Communication Therapy for Clients Who Are Transgender [ en Español ] ... are transgender may elect to have voice and communication therapy to help them use their voice in ...

  8. Vocal Dynamic Visual Pattern for voice characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajer, M. E.; Andrade, F. A. S.; Montagnoli, A. N.; Pereira, J. C.; Tsuji, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Voice assessment requires simple and painless exams. Modern technologies provide the necessary resources for voice signal processing. Techniques based on nonlinear dynamics seem to asses the complexity of voice more accurately than other methods. Vocal dynamic visual pattern (VDVP) is based on nonlinear methods and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Here we characterize healthy and Reinke's edema voices by means of perturbation measures and VDVP analysis. VDPD and jitter show different results for both groups, while amplitude perturbation has no difference. We suggest that VDPD analysis improve and complement the evaluation methods available for clinicians.

  9. Singing Voice Analysis, Synthesis, and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    The singing voice is the oldest musical instrument, but its versatility and emotional power are unmatched. Through the combination of music, lyrics, and expression, the voice is able to affect us in ways that no other instrument can. The fact that vocal music is prevalent in almost all cultures is indicative of its innate appeal to the human aesthetic. Singing also permeates most genres of music, attesting to the wide range of sounds the human voice is capable of producing. As listeners we are naturally drawn to the sound of the human voice, and, when present, it immediately becomes the focus of our attention.

  10. Prevalence of voice disorders among future teachers.

    PubMed

    Simberg, S; Laine, A; Sala, E; Rönnemaa, A M

    2000-06-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in order to find out the prevalence of voice disorders among students studying to be teachers. Vocal symptoms were inquired of 226 students. Their voices were assessed perceptually by a speech therapist and those who had abnormal voice quality or reported several vocal symptoms were referred to a clinical examination by a laryngologist. The results showed that 20% of this population reported two or more vocal symptoms during the previous year and that 19% had an organic voice disorder. This reinforces the need for clinical evaluation of students with vocal symptoms and more vocal training in the teacher education programs.

  11. Multidimensional voice analysis of reflux laryngitis patients.

    PubMed

    Pribuisienë, Rûta; Uloza, Virgilijus; Saferis, Viktoras

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze and quantify the voice characteristics of reflux laryngitis (RL) patients and to determine the most important voice tests and voice-quality parameters in the functional diagnostics of RL. The voices of 83 RL patients and 31 persons in the control group were evaluated. Vocal function was assessed using a multidimensional set of video laryngostroboscopic, perceptual, acoustic, aerodynamic and subjective measurements according to the protocol elaborated by the Committee on Phoniatrics of the European Laryngological Society. The mean values of the hoarseness visual analogue scale assessment and voice handicap index were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the group of RL patients as compared to the controls. Objective voice assessment revealed a significant increase in mean values of jitter, shimmer and normalized noise energy (NNE), along with a significant decrease in pitch range, maximum frequency, phonetogram area (S) and maximum phonation time (MPT) in RL patients, both in the male and female subgroups. According to the results of discriminant analysis, the NNE, MPT, S and intensity range were determined as an optimum set for functional diagnostics of RL. The derived function (equation) makes it possible to assign the person to the group of RL patients with an accuracy of 86.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of eight voice parameters were found to be higher than 50%. The results of the present study demonstrate a reduction of phonation capabilities and voice quality in RL patients. Multidimensional voice evaluation makes it possible to detect significant differences in mean values of perceptual, subjective and objective voice quality parameters between RL patients and controls groups. Therefore, multidimensional voice analysis is an important tool in the functional diagnostics of RL.

  12. Perception of voice in the transgender client.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Emma J M; Wilson, Janet A; Clark, Susan; Deakin, Jayne

    2008-11-01

    Fundamental frequency (F(0)) of speech is used to measure the success of voice therapy in male-to-female transgender clients. This study evaluates the relationship between F(0) and patients' happiness with their voice. The study design used was a cross-sectional evaluation of client satisfaction questionnaires and voice recordings from transgender clients. This study was a comparative evaluation of voice recordings by voice professionals and lay observers. Twelve male-to-female transgender participants completed visual analogue scales (VASs), rating happiness with self-perceived femininity of their voice. Fifteen speech and language therapists (SLTs) and 40 naïve observers evaluated the anonymized recordings, using the same rating system. The correlation between mean F(0) and participant happiness was established. Relationships between participant happiness and rater opinions were explored. A significant relationship between F(0) and participant happiness could not be demonstrated (r=0.32, P=0.32). There was a moderately strong positive correlation between self-perception of vocal femininity and perception of femininity by SLTs and naïve observers (r=0.76 and 0.68, P=0.003 and P=0.01, respectively). This study demonstrates that happiness with voice in male-to-female transgender clients is not directly related to F(0). Clients can assess femininity of their voice in the form of perceived pitch. This may not affect happiness scores. Voice satisfaction may not correlate with perceptions of supervising voice professionals. However, professionals can reliably evaluate how the voice will be received by the lay public. Subjective measures of patient satisfaction, including VASs, are reliable and valid tools in evaluating therapeutic success.

  13. The design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Voice bandwidth compression techniques were investigated to anticipate link margin difficulties in the shuttle S-band communication system. It was felt that by reducing the data rate on each voice channel from the baseline 24 (or 32) Kbps to 8 Kbps, additional margin could be obtained. The feasibility of such an alternate voice transmission system was studied. Several factors of prime importance that were addressed are: (1) achieving high quality voice at 8 Kbps; (2) performance in the presence of the anticipated shuttle cabin environmental noise; (3) performance in the presence of the anticipated channel error statistics; and (4) minimal increase in size, weight, and power over the current baseline voice processor.

  14. Multi-institutional Study of Voice Disorders and Voice Therapy Referral: Report from the CHEER Network

    PubMed Central

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess perspectives of patients with voice problems and identify factors associated with the likelihood of referral to voice therapy via the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study of CHEER patients seen for a voice problem (dysphonia). Setting The CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Patient-reported demographic information, nature and severity of voice problems, clinical diagnoses, and proposed treatment plans were collected. The relationship between patient factors and voice therapy referral was investigated. Results Patients (N = 249) were identified over 12 months from 10 sites comprising 30 otolaryngology physicians. The majority were women (68%) and white (82%). Most patients reported a recurrent voice problem (72%) and symptom duration >4 weeks (89%). The most commonly reported voice-related diagnoses were vocal strain, reflux, and benign vocal fold lesions. Sixty-seven percent of enrolled patients reported receiving a recommendation for voice therapy. After adjusting for sociodemographic and other factors, diagnoses including vocal strain/excessive tension and vocal fold paralysis and academic practice type were associated with increased likelihood of reporting a referral for voice therapy. Conclusions The CHEER network successfully enrolled a representative sample of patients with dysphonia. Common diagnoses were vocal strain, reflux, and benign vocal fold lesions; commonly reported treatment recommendations included speech/voice therapy and antireflux medication. Recommendation for speech/voice therapy was associated with academic practice type. PMID:27371624

  15. Muscular tension and body posture in relation to voice handicap and voice quality in teachers with persistent voice complaints.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Oudes, M J; Huinck, W; van Acht, H; Graamans, K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between extrinsic laryngeal muscular hypertonicity and deviant body posture on the one hand and voice handicap and voice quality on the other hand in teachers with persistent voice complaints and a history of voice-related absenteeism. The study group consisted of 25 female teachers. A voice therapist assessed extrinsic laryngeal muscular tension and a physical therapist assessed body posture. The assessed parameters were clustered in categories. The parameters in the different categories represent the same function. Further a tension/posture index was created, which is the summation of the different parameters. The different parameters and the index were related to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI). The scores of the VHI and the individual parameters differ significantly except for the posterior weight bearing and tension of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. There was also a significant difference between the individual parameters and the DSI, except for tension of the cricothyroid muscle and posterior weight bearing. The score of the tension/posture index correlates significantly with both the VHI and the DSI. In a linear regression analysis, the combination of hypertonicity of the sternocleidomastoid, the geniohyoid muscles and posterior weight bearing is the most important predictor for a high voice handicap. The combination of hypertonicity of the geniohyoid muscle, posterior weight bearing, high position of the hyoid bone, hypertonicity of the cricothyroid muscle and anteroposition of the head is the most important predictor for a low DSI score. The results of this study show the higher the score of the index, the higher the score of the voice handicap and the worse the voice quality is. Moreover, the results are indicative for the importance of assessment of muscular tension and body posture in the diagnosis of voice disorders.

  16. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and Swallowing Nearly 1 in 12 (7.7 ... condition known as persistent developmental stuttering. 8 , 9 Language 3.3 percent of U.S. children ages 3- ...

  17. Multiple Voices in Young Adult Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capan, Mary Ann

    A stylistic device that has been used by many authors over the years is to alternate the point of view between two or more characters. Authors of young adult novels choose this technique of multiple narrative voices for a variety of reasons. Multiple voices offer a challenge to many young adult readers because the point of view is much more…

  18. Why Is My Voice Changing? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  19. Cockpit voice recognition program at Princeton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Voice recognition technology (VRT) is applied to aeronautics, particularly on the pilot workload alleviation. The VRT does not have to prove its maturity any longer. The feasibility of voice tuning of radio and DME are demonstrated since there are immediate advantages to the pilot and can be completed in a reasonable time.

  20. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  1. Student Voice and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  2. The Voice of Conscience in Rousseau's Emile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    According to Rousseau, conscience and conscience alone can elevate human beings to a level above that of animals. It is conscience, understood as infallible judge of good and bad, which makes man like God. Conscience itself is, in this context, understood as divine, as an "immortal and celestial voice". Therefore, if the voice of…

  3. Academic Voices and the Challenges of Tutoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Grounded-theory based research involved interviews with 41 distance education nursing students and 22 tutors and 24 tutorial and 69 field observations. A key theme was students' development of academic voice in the support relationship with tutors. This voice helped them manage learning and determine what kinds of help tutors should give.…

  4. A Garden of Voices: One Classroom's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemens, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Describes a multiage first- through third-grade classroom where the development of children's voices and their writing can happen slowly, in its own time. Uses children's poems to show how children discover the craft of writing through listening to other writers (fellow classmates and authors) in the ongoing process of hearing their own voices and…

  5. Work-Related Learning: Hearing Students' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that student voice and the active engagement of students in shaping their own educational experience are integral to the development of effective work-related learning (WRL) programmes. Through accessing the voice of disaffected and marginalised students, insight can be gained into what these students see as being the benefits of…

  6. Voice aftereffects of adaptation to speaker identity.

    PubMed

    Zäske, Romi; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kawahara, Hideki

    2010-09-01

    While adaptation to complex auditory stimuli has traditionally been reported for linguistic properties of speech, the present study demonstrates non-linguistic high-level aftereffects in the perception of voice identity, following adaptation to voices or faces of personally familiar speakers. In Exp. 1, prolonged exposure to speaker A's voice biased the perception of identity-ambiguous voice morphs between speakers A and B towards speaker B (and vice versa). Significantly biased voice identity perception was also observed in Exp. 2 when adaptors were videos of speakers' silently articulating faces, although effects were reduced in magnitude relative to those seen in Exp. 1. By contrast, adaptation to an unrelated speaker C elicited an intermediate proportion of speaker A identifications in both experiments. While crossmodal aftereffects on auditory identification (Exp. 2) dissipated rapidly, unimodal aftereffects (Exp. 1) were still measurable a few minutes after adaptation. These novel findings suggest contrastive coding of voice identity in long-term memory, with at least two perceptual mechanisms of voice identity adaptation: one related to auditory coding of voice characteristics, and another related to multimodal coding of familiar speaker identity.

  7. [Voice function in patients after partial laryngectomy].

    PubMed

    Kosztyła-Hojna, B; Chodynicki, S; Lazarczyk, B; Tupalska, M; Mikiel, W

    1998-01-01

    103 patients with cancer of the larynx treated with partial laryngectomy were presented. Voice quality before and after surgery was compared. Voice was analysed by subjective and objective-spectrographic methods. Partial laryngectomies consisted of: vertical, horizontal and supraglottic subtotal procedures. The least dysphony was found in horizontal laryngectomy, the biggest--in supraglottic subtotal laryngectomy.

  8. Voice pedagogy-what do we need?

    PubMed

    Gill, Brian P; Herbst, Christian T

    2016-12-01

    The final keynote panel of the 10th Pan-European Voice Conference (PEVOC) was concerned with the topic 'Voice pedagogy-what do we need?' In this communication the panel discussion is summarized, and the authors provide a deepening discussion on one of the key questions, addressing the roles and tasks of people working with voice students. In particular, a distinction is made between (1) voice building (derived from the German term 'Stimmbildung'), primarily comprising the functional and physiological aspects of singing; (2) coaching, mostly concerned with performance skills; and (3) singing voice rehabilitation. Both public and private educators are encouraged to apply this distinction to their curricula, in order to arrive at more efficient singing teaching and to reduce the risk of vocal injury to the singers concerned.

  9. Speech, Prosody, and Voice Characteristics of a Mother and Daughter with a 7;13 Translocation Affecting "FOXP2"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Duffy, Joseph R.; Odell, Katharine H.; Williams, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The primary goal of this case study was to describe the speech, prosody, and voice characteristics of a mother and daughter with a breakpoint in a balanced 7;13 chromosomal translocation that disrupted the transcription gene, "FOXP2" (cf. J. B. Tomblin et al., 2005). As with affected members of the widely cited KE family, whose…

  10. Identifying hidden voice and video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin

    2009-04-01

    Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.

  11. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen MG; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos’ responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  12. LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2003-04-01

    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  13. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-02-25

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos' responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species.

  14. Fronting, Voicing, and Stopping: Natural or English-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coberly, Mary Schramm

    Patterns which partly resemble the proposed "fronting,""voicing," and "stopping" tendencies exist to a statistically significant degree in David Olmsted's large sample of child speech. Instead of the "voicing" pattern that has been suggested, however, voiced stops seem to be favored word-initially, but voiced fricatives are favored word-finally.…

  15. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California, home of…

  16. Reported Voice Difficulties in Student Teachers: A Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield, Carol; Richards, Brian

    2007-01-01

    As professional voice users, teachers are particularly at risk of abusing their voices and developing voice disorders during their career. In spite of this, attention paid to voice care in the initial training and further professional development of teachers is unevenly spread and insufficient. This article describes a questionnaire survey of 171…

  17. Comparing Two Methods for Reducing Variability in Voice Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Interrater disagreements in ratings of quality plague the study of voice. This study compared 2 methods for handling this variability. Method: Listeners provided multiple breathiness ratings for 2 sets of pathological voices, one including 20 male and 20 female voices unselected for quality and one including 20 breathy female voices.…

  18. Sonorous Voice and Feminist Teaching: Lessons from Cavarero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    I claim that Adriana Cavarero's concept of sonorous voice is significant in feminist teaching because, as she argues, dominant concepts of voice refer to voice in semantic terms thereby discounting voice in sonorous terms. This process of "devocalization", spanning the history of Western philosophy, devalues the uniqueness embodied in…

  19. The Passive Voice in Computer Manuals: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelis, Louise H.

    1995-01-01

    Finds debate and confusion about the use of passive voice in texts in general, and in computer manuals in particular. Aims to provide clarity by presenting the "alternation principle" for the use of the passive voice in computer manuals, in which active voice is used for user actions and passive voice for automatic computer actions. (PA)

  20. Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides viewpoints on whether the constitutional amendment process needs to be changed or not: (1) "When in Doubt, Do Nothing" (R. B. Bernstein); (2) "Citizens for the Constitution" (Erwin Chemerinsky); (3) "Constitutional Proposals from the States" (John Kincaid); and (4) "I Have a Better Way" (Gregory D.…

  1. VOT and the perception of voicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remez, Robert E.

    2001-05-01

    In explaining the ability to distinguish phonemes, linguists have described the dimension of voicing. Acoustic analyses have identified many correlates of the voicing contrast in initial, medial, and final consonants within syllables, and these in turn have motivated studies of the perceptual resolution of voicing. The framing conceptualization articulated by Lisker and Abramson 40 years ago in physiological, phonetic, and perceptual studies has been widely influential, and research on voicing now adopts their perspective without reservation. Their original survey included languages with two voicing categories (Dutch, Puerto Rican Spanish, Hungarian, Tamil, Cantonese, English), three voicing categories (Eastern Armenian, Thai, Korean), and four voicing categories (Hindi, Marathi). Perceptual studies inspired by this work have also ranged widely, including tests with different languages and with listeners of several species. The profound value of the analyses of Lisker and Abramson is evident in the empirical traction provided by the concept of VOT in research on the every important perceptual question about speech and language in our era. Some of these classic perceptual investigations will be reviewed. [Research supported by NIH (DC00308).

  2. Fast response to human voices in autism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fan; Agus, Trevor R.; Suied, Clara; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Yamada, Takashi; Komine, Yoko; Kato, Nobumasa; Kashino, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are reported to allocate less spontaneous attention to voices. Here, we investigated how vocal sounds are processed in ASD adults, when those sounds are attended. Participants were asked to react as fast as possible to target stimuli (either voices or strings) while ignoring distracting stimuli. Response times (RTs) were measured. Results showed that, similar to neurotypical (NT) adults, ASD adults were faster to recognize voices compared to strings. Surprisingly, ASD adults had even shorter RTs for voices than the NT adults, suggesting a faster voice recognition process. To investigate the acoustic underpinnings of this effect, we created auditory chimeras that retained only the temporal or the spectral features of voices. For the NT group, no RT advantage was found for the chimeras compared to strings: both sets of features had to be present to observe an RT advantage. However, for the ASD group, shorter RTs were observed for both chimeras. These observations indicate that the previously observed attentional deficit to voices in ASD individuals could be due to a failure to combine acoustic features, even though such features may be well represented at a sensory level. PMID:27193919

  3. Spirituality and hearing voices: considering the relation

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Waegeli, Amanda; Watkins, John

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, some people have heard voices that others cannot hear. These have been variously understood as medical, psychological and spiritual phenomena. In this article we consider the specific role of spirituality in voice-hearing in two ways. First, we examine how spirituality may help or hinder people who hear voices. Benefits are suggested to include offering an alternative meaning to the experience which can give more control and comfort, enabling the development of specific coping strategies, increasing social support, and encouraging forgiveness. Potential drawbacks are noted to include increased distress and reduced control resulting from placing frightening or coercive constructions on voices, social isolation, the development of dysfunctional beliefs, and missed/delayed opportunities for successful mental health interventions. After examining problems surrounding classifying voices as either spiritual or psychotic, we move beyond an essentialist position to examine how such a classification is likely to be fluid, and how a given voice may move between these designations. We also highlight tensions between modernist and postmodernist approaches to voice-hearing. PMID:24273597

  4. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia.

  5. VOT and the perception of voicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remez, Robert E.

    2004-05-01

    In explaining the ability to distinguish phonemes, linguists have described the dimension of voicing. Acoustic analyses have identified many correlates of the voicing contrast in initial, medial, and final consonants within syllables, and these in turn have motivated studies of the perceptual resolution of voicing. The framing conceptualization articulated by Lisker and Abramson 40 years ago in physiological, phonetic, and perceptual studies has been widely influential, and research on voicing now adopts their perspective without reservation. Their original survey included languages with two voicing categories (Dutch, Puerto Rican Spanish, Hungarian, Tamil, Cantonese, English), three voicing categories (Eastern Armenian, Thai, Korean), and four voicing categories (Hindi, Marathi). Perceptual studies inspired by this work have also ranged widely, including tests with different languages and with listeners of several species. The profound value of the analyses of Lisker and Abramson is evident in the empirical traction provided by the concept of VOT in research on the every important perceptual question about speech and language in our era. Some of these classic perceptual investigations will be reviewed. [Research supported by NIH (DC00308).

  6. The Role of Listener Experience on Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) Ratings of Postthyroidectomy Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helou, Leah B.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Henry, Leonard R.; Coppit, George L.; Howard, Robin S.; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether experienced and inexperienced listeners rate postthyroidectomy voice samples similarly using the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V). Method: Prospective observational study of voice quality ratings of randomized and blinded voice samples was performed. Twenty-one postthyroidectomy patients'…

  7. Increased productivity in flight with voice commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition technology has matured to the point where it can provide a viable means of increasing productivity by naturalizing the man-machine interface. With ever increasing workloads being placed on astronauts, speech recognition may provide an alternative means of system controlling that would reduce the task burden. Voice commanding, allowing hands-free operation, can be especially effective during operations requiring simultaneous system control. A flight experiment is under development to demonstrate the operational effectiveness of voice control by commanding the Space Shuttle's Closed Circuit Television (CCIV) system. This experiment will help direct future applications of voice entry to space operations.

  8. Space-Based Voice over IP Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Okino, Clayton; Walsh, William; Clare, Loren

    2007-01-01

    In human space exploration missions (e.g. a return to the Moon and for future missions to Mars), there will be a need to provide voice communications services. In this work we focus on the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP) techniques applied to space networks, where long range latencies, simplex links, and significant bit error rates occur. Link layer and network layer overhead issues are examined. Finally, we provide some discussion on issues related to voice conferencing in the space network environment.

  9. [Complex voice assessment--Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    PubMed

    Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present own modification of Jacobson's The Voice Handicap Index, the self-estimation scale of the voice as a one part of the complex voice evaluation. The VHI contains three groups of questions of physical, emotional and functional subscales, which specify complaints during phonation scored in 4 points (0-4). The presented our own modification of the VHI may be useful in everyday clinical practice.

  10. Voice control of complex workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scruggs, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a speaker-dependent connected word recognition system to control an Air Traffic Control (ATC) demonstration workstation is described, also the work that went into developing that speech system. The workstation with speech recognition was demonstrated live at an Air Traffic Controller's Association convention in 1987. The purpose of the demonstration workstation is discussed, with the development of the speech interface highlighted. Included are: a brief description of the speech hardware and software, and overview of the speech driven workstation functions, a description of the speech vocabulary/grammer, and details that the enrollment and training procedures used in preparing the controllers for the demonstrations. Although no quantitative results are available, the potential benefits of using voice as an interface to this type of workstation are discussed and limitations of current speech technology and areas where more work is required are highlighted.

  11. Voice Technology Using Personal Computers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    PROGRA -.. NDC -A85 -AiSG 743 VOICE TECNOLOGY USING PERSONAL COMPUTE3SI(U) alit FORCE 212 INST OF TECH MRIGJ4T-PATTERSON RFB ON G L TALBOT 1987...Inline( $2E/$C6/$06/ Int24Err $Ol/$50/$89/$F8/$2E/$A2/ Int24ErrCode /$58/$BO/$OO/$89/$EC/$5D/$CF); - 150 - i..r - l. .. { Turbo: PUSH BP save...caller’s stack frame MOV BP,SP Set up this procedure’s stack frame PUSH BP ? Inline: MOV BYTE CS:[INT24Err],I Set INT24Err to True PUSH AX MOV AX,DI Get INT

  12. [Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prostheses].

    PubMed

    Kramp, B; Dommerich, S

    2009-05-01

    Tracheostomy cannulas and voice prosthesis are mechanical aids for patients, who for different reasons underwent either tracheostomies or laryngectomies. In this review, indications, surgical procedures, and consequencies of the preceeding surgical intervention are reported for a better understanding of the specific requirements for the artificial aids. In spite of the increasing number of percutaneous dilatation tracheostomies, e. g. in intensive care units, a classical tracheostomy with epithelialized connections between trachea and skin still represents the method of choice for all cases, in which a longer lasting access to the trachea is requested. Special tubes made of different materials, offering different physical qualities are used to keep the tracheostomy open and guarantee an easy access to the lower respiratory tract. For each individual patient the most adequate device must be found out. Voice prostheses allow a fast and effective vocal rehabilitation after laryngectomy. As many models are on the market with differences in terms of material, principle and design of the underlying valve mechanism, size etc., again, in each individual patient the most suitable prosthesis has to be chosen. In combination with special heat and moisture exchangers (HME), such prostheses not only allow a good vocal but also pulmonary rehabilitation. The duration of such prostheses depend on material properties but also on formation of biofilms (mostly consisting of bacteria and fungi) that can destroy the valve mechanism. Whenever possible, and additional valve mechanism covering the opening of the tracheostomy should be used in order to avoid the necessity to close this opening manually during phonation. Each doctor taking care of patients with speech prostheses after laryngectomy should know exactly what to do in case the device fails or gets lost.

  13. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics are not effective. Bacterial infections of the larynx are much rarer and often are associated with ... nerves and muscles within the voice box or larynx. The most common neurological condition that affects the ...

  14. Speech therapy and voice recognition instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J.; Babcock, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of electronic circuit for examining variations in vocal excitation for diagnostic purposes and in speech recognition for determiniog voice patterns and pitch changes are described. Operation of the circuit is discussed and circuit diagram is provided.

  15. Generic voice interface for cockpit application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, David T.; Feitshans, Gregory L.

    A voice technology interface is proposed that would allow both novice and expert users of voice input and output devices to quickly interface them to their applications while maintaining optimum performance. The objective of this generic voice interface (GVI) is to provide a device-independent interface to existing voice systems. The system will be designed so that any application, not just cockpit applications, can be used with the GVI. Once it has been successfully integrated into a few key applications, the same techniques can be transitioned to other areas. The system will initially be targeted for the rapidly reconfigurable crew-station (RRC) program, which will provide a rapid prototyping environment for advanced crew-station design.

  16. Academic voices and the challenges of tutoring.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes grounded theory research conducted amongst postregistration learners completing an undergraduate programme in nursing studies by distance learning at a UK higher education institute. The focus of enquiry was upon student support and learning. Research was conducted between 1996 and 2001 and included 41 interviews with students, 22 interviews with tutors, 24 tutorial observations and 69 field observations conducted within the distance learning centre. A key theme developing within the research was the use of 'academic voices' by students to help manage their support relationship with tutors. Academic voices describe the ways in which students asked for helped and admitted the tutor in varying degrees to their learning. Students adopted a 'voice' that they believed enabled them to manage learning and to determine just what sorts of help the tutor would be permitted to supply. The paper discusses the implications of the use of academic voices' by students for the support work of tutors.

  17. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran R; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-04-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia.

  18. Voice quality variations in English sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Melissa

    2002-05-01

    This study examines the predictability of changes in voice quality at the sentence level in English. Sentence-level effects can only be isolated once the effects of linguistic factors (e.g., glottalization before a glottalized consonant), social or dialectal, and individual factors have been eliminated. In this study, these effects were controlled by obtaining a baseline value for each measurement for each word of the corpus. Voice quality variations were tracked using quantitative measurements derived from the LF model of the glottal source, and also qualitative descriptions of the waveforms. Preliminary results indicate that there are consistent voice quality differences at the sentence level and that pitch contours and sentence accent also produce predictable effects on voice quality.

  19. Voice processing in monkey and human brains.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sophie K

    2008-09-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that the anterior superior temporal sulcus has an important role in the processing of information about human voices, especially the identification of talkers from their voice. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with macaques provides strong evidence that anterior auditory fields, part of the auditory 'what' pathway, preferentially respond to changes in the identity of conspecifics, rather than specific vocalizations from the same individual.

  20. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    verification capability). Approach #2: The individual speaker selects a test phrase (our approach) — In the NRL voice biomet - rics system, the...templates must be issued to all users. Approach #2: Unprocessed speech waveforms (our approach) — If the fingerprint-matching biomet - rics method stores...is that the amount of data to be stored is larger compared to the previous approach. The minimum amount of information we need to perform voice biomet

  1. Detector For FM Voice Or Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1989-01-01

    Frequency-modulation (FM) detector operates with either analog audio (usually voice) signals or digital signals sent by differential minimum-shift keying (DMSK). Performance expected similar to conventional limiter/discriminator FM detectors. Detector operates at baseband, obviating need for band-pass filtering at intermediate frequency. Baseband version made in very-large-scale integrated circuit. New detector useful in mobile communications, where trend is toward integrated voice and data service.

  2. Factors Influencing Likelihood of Voice Therapy Attendance.

    PubMed

    Misono, Stephanie; Marmor, Schelomo; Roy, Nelson; Mau, Ted; Cohen, Seth M

    2017-03-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with the likelihood of attending voice therapy among patients referred for it in the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) practice-based research network infrastructure. Study Design Prospectively enrolled cross-sectional study. Setting CHEER network of community and academic sites. Methods Data were collected on patient-reported demographics, voice-related diagnoses, voice-related handicap (Voice Handicap Index-10), likelihood of attending voice therapy (VT), and opinions on factors influencing likelihood of attending VT. The relationships between patient characteristics/opinions and likelihood of attending VT were investigated. Results A total of 170 patients with various voice-related diagnoses reported receiving a recommendation for VT. Of those, 85% indicated that they were likely to attend it, regardless of voice-related handicap severity. The most common factors influencing likelihood of VT attendance were insurance/copay, relief that it was not cancer, and travel. Those who were not likely to attend VT identified, as important factors, unclear potential improvement, not understanding the purpose of therapy, and concern that it would be too hard. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with greater likelihood of attending VT included shorter travel distance, age (40-59 years), and being seen in an academic practice. Conclusions Most patients reported plans to attend VT as recommended. Patients who intended to attend VT reported different considerations in their decision making from those who did not plan to attend. These findings may inform patient counseling and efforts to increase access to voice care.

  3. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex.

  4. Personality as a predictor of the value of voice.

    PubMed

    Avery, Derek R

    2003-09-01

    The opportunity for workers to provide input, also known as voice, has received extensive study. The contrasting relational and instrumental theories of voice have stimulated research investigating why people value voice. However, researchers have yet to assess individual differences in the actual value that people place on voice. This consideration is particularly important because the effect of voice on perceived procedural fairness varies according to the value of voice. This laboratory study is an examination of the Big Five (extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, neuroticism, and conscientiousness; L. Goldberg, 1992) and core self-evaluations (neuroticism, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control; T. Judge, E. Locke, & C. Durham, 1997) as predictors of the value of voice for 96 undergraduates. Although both the Big Five and core self-evaluations accounted for significant variance in the value of voice, only 2 individual components (extraversion and self-efficacy) significantly predicted the value of voice.

  5. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  6. Student Voice as a Contested Practice: Power and Participation in Two Student Voice Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carol; Taylor, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This article applies theoretical understandings of power relations within student voice work to two empirical examples of school-based student voice projects. The article builds on and refines theoretical understandings of power and participation developed in previous articles written by the authors. The first article argued that at the heart of…

  7. Voices We Want to Hear and Voices We Don't.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.; Nicholls, John G.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses theories about knowledge and schooling and describes democratic classrooms. Students need empowerment to have a voice in curriculum design and governance. Schools that foster student voice must establish conditions for democratic talk in class. Students must be taught to respect others; they cannot be allowed to denigrate…

  8. Voice Over Internet Protocol Testbed Design for Non-Intrusive, Objective Voice Quality Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    recognition software is successfully used to measure the impact of the channel on speech intelligibility. The experiments and analysis conducted provide a...Experimental results are extended by incorporating E-model delay considerations. Commercial voice recognition software is successfully used to measure the...voice recognition technologies suggest future work involving the application of commercial software for collection of call intelligibility data

  9. Quick Screen for Voice and Supplementary Documents for Identifying Pediatric Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Linda; Stemple, Joseph C.; Glaze, Leslie; Kelchner, Lisa N.

    2004-01-01

    Three documents are provided to help the speech-language pathologist (SLP) identify children with voice disorders and educate family members. The first is a quickly administered screening test that covers multiple aspects of voice, respiration, and resonance. It was tested on 3,000 children in kindergarten and first and fifth grades, and on 47…

  10. 'Inner voices': the cerebral representation of emotional voice cues described in literary texts.

    PubMed

    Brück, Carolin; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Gößling-Arnold, Christina; Wertheimer, Jürgen; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    While non-verbal affective voice cues are generally recognized as a crucial behavioral guide in any day-to-day conversation their role as a powerful source of information may extend well beyond close-up personal interactions and include other modes of communication such as written discourse or literature as well. Building on the assumption that similarities between the different 'modes' of voice cues may not only be limited to their functional role but may also include cerebral mechanisms engaged in the decoding process, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at exploring brain responses associated with processing emotional voice signals described in literary texts. Emphasis was placed on evaluating 'voice' sensitive as well as task- and emotion-related modulations of brain activation frequently associated with the decoding of acoustic vocal cues. Obtained findings suggest that several similarities emerge with respect to the perception of acoustic voice signals: results identify the superior temporal, lateral and medial frontal cortex as well as the posterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum to contribute to the decoding process, with similarities to acoustic voice perception reflected in a 'voice'-cue preference of temporal voice areas as well as an emotion-related modulation of the medial frontal cortex and a task-modulated response of the lateral frontal cortex.

  11. National Strategic Research Plan for Hearing and Hearing Impairment and Voice and Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph presents an update to the strategic plan of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), focusing on recent accomplishments, program goals, strategies, and priorities in research opportunities in the areas of hearing/hearing impairment and voice/voice disorders. Specifically considered for the…

  12. Paper and Voice MAYSI-2: Format Comparability and Concordance with the Voice DISC-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Maureen A.; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine the comparability of paper and voice formats of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2) as well as each format's concordance with the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) among adjudicated youth. Comparability is assessed among 248 youths admitted to a South Carolina Assessment…

  13. The Acoustic Voice Quality Index: Toward Improved Treatment Outcomes Assessment in Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Roy, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Voice practitioners require an objective index of dysphonia severity as a means to reliably track treatment outcomes. To ensure ecological validity however, such a measure should survey both sustained vowels and continuous speech. In an earlier study, a multivariate acoustic model referred to as the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), consisting…

  14. Sex hormones and the female voice.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, J; Abitbol, P; Abitbol, B

    1999-09-01

    In the following, the authors examine the relationship between hormonal climate and the female voice through discussion of hormonal biochemistry and physiology and informal reporting on a study of 197 women with either premenstrual or menopausal voice syndrome. These facts are placed in a larger historical and cultural context, which is inextricably bound to the understanding of the female voice. The female voice evolves from childhood to menopause, under the varied influences of estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone. These hormones are the dominant factor in determining voice changes throughout life. For example, a woman's voice always develops masculine characteristics after an injection of testosterone. Such a change is irreversible. Conversely, male castrati had feminine voices because they lacked the physiologic changes associated with testosterone. The vocal instrument is comprised of the vibratory body, the respiratory power source and the oropharyngeal resonating chambers. Voice is characterized by its intensity, frequency, and harmonics. The harmonics are hormonally dependent. This is illustrated by the changes that occur during male and female puberty: In the female, the impact of estrogens at puberty, in concert with progesterone, produces the characteristics of the female voice, with a fundamental frequency one third lower than that of a child. In the male, androgens released at puberty are responsible for the male vocal frequency, an octave lower than that of a child. Premenstrual vocal syndrome is characterized by vocal fatigue, decreased range, a loss of power and loss of certain harmonics. The syndrome usually starts some 4-5 days before menstruation in some 33% of women. Vocal professionals are particularly affected. Dynamic vocal exploration by televideoendoscopy shows congestion, microvarices, edema of the posterior third of the vocal folds and a loss of its vibratory amplitude. The authors studied 97 premenstrual women who were prescribed a

  15. Praxis III. Voices in Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galura, Joseph, Ed.; Howard, Jeffrey, Ed.; Waterhouse, Dave, Ed.; Ross, Randy, Ed.

    The 27 chapters of this book provide presentations, conference transcripts, manuals, and reflections by organizers, coordinators, participants, students and staff of service-learning sociology and education courses at the University of Michigan. The chapters are: "What National and Community Service Mean for Higher Education" (Goodwin…

  16. The neural changes in connectivity of the voice network during voice pitch perturbation.

    PubMed

    Flagmeier, Sabina G; Ray, Kimberly L; Parkinson, Amy L; Li, Karl; Vargas, Robert; Price, Larry R; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Charles R; Robin, Donald A

    2014-05-01

    Voice control is critical to communication. To date, studies have used behavioral, electrophysiological and functional data to investigate the neural correlates of voice control using perturbation tasks, but have yet to examine the interactions of these neural regions. The goal of this study was to use structural equation modeling of functional neuroimaging data to examine network properties of voice with and without perturbation. Results showed that the presence of a pitch shift, which was processed as an error in vocalization, altered connections between right STG and left STG. Other regions that revealed differences in connectivity during error detection and correction included bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and the primary and pre motor cortices. Results indicated that STG plays a critical role in voice control, specifically, during error detection and correction. Additionally, pitch perturbation elicits changes in the voice network that suggest the right hemisphere is critical to pitch modulation.

  17. Effect of voice training in the voice rehabilitation of patients with vocal cord polyps after surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIN, LI; SUN, NA; YANG, QIUHUA; ZHANG, YA; SHEN, JI; SHI, LIXIN; FANG, QIN; SUN, GUANGBIN

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of voice training on the vocal rehabilitation of patients with vocal cords polyps following phonomicrosurgery. A total of 60 cases of vocal cord polyps treated by laser phonomicrosurgery were randomly divided into training and control groups with 30 cases in each group. The patients were treated with laser phonomicrosurgery, routine postoperative treatment and nursing. The training group were additionally treated with vocal training, including relaxation training, breathing training, basic pronunciation training, chewing voice training and tone sandhi pronunciation training, and attention was paid to the training steps. Subjective and objective voice evaluations of the two groups were compared three months after the surgery and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Voice training may significantly improve the postoperative voice quality of patients with vocal cord polyps and support rehabilitation. PMID:24669244

  18. Implicit multisensory associations influence voice recognition.

    PubMed

    von Kriegstein, Katharina; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2006-10-01

    Natural objects provide partially redundant information to the brain through different sensory modalities. For example, voices and faces both give information about the speech content, age, and gender of a person. Thanks to this redundancy, multimodal recognition is fast, robust, and automatic. In unimodal perception, however, only part of the information about an object is available. Here, we addressed whether, even under conditions of unimodal sensory input, crossmodal neural circuits that have been shaped by previous associative learning become activated and underpin a performance benefit. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging before, while, and after participants learned to associate either sensory redundant stimuli, i.e. voices and faces, or arbitrary multimodal combinations, i.e. voices and written names, ring tones, and cell phones or brand names of these cell phones. After learning, participants were better at recognizing unimodal auditory voices that had been paired with faces than those paired with written names, and association of voices with faces resulted in an increased functional coupling between voice and face areas. No such effects were observed for ring tones that had been paired with cell phones or names. These findings demonstrate that brief exposure to ecologically valid and sensory redundant stimulus pairs, such as voices and faces, induces specific multisensory associations. Consistent with predictive coding theories, associative representations become thereafter available for unimodal perception and facilitate object recognition. These data suggest that for natural objects effective predictive signals can be generated across sensory systems and proceed by optimization of functional connectivity between specialized cortical sensory modules.

  19. Visual Voices: A Participatory Method for Engaging Adolescents in Research and Knowledge Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Burke, Jessica G.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the expertise and perspectives of adolescents in the process of generating and translating research knowledge into practice is often missed, yet is essential for designing and implementing programs to promote adolescent health. This paper describes the use of the arts-based participatory Visual Voices method in translational research. Visual Voices involves systematic creative writing, drawing and painting activities to yield culturally relevant information which is generated by and examined with adolescents. Qualitative data products include the created art products and transcripts from group discussions of the content developed and presented. Data are analyzed and compared across traditional (e.g., transcripts) and non-traditional (e.g., drawings and paintings) media. Findings are reviewed and interpreted with participants and shared publicly to stimulate community discussions and local policy and practice changes. Visual Voices is a novel method for involving adolescents in translational research though Integrated Knowledge Transfer (IKT), a process for bringing researchers and stakeholders together from the stage of idea generation to implementing evidence-based initiatives. PMID:23399093

  20. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  1. Perception of aperiodicity in pathological voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R.

    2005-04-01

    Although jitter, shimmer, and noise acoustically characterize all voice signals, their perceptual importance in naturally produced pathological voices has not been established psychoacoustically. To determine the role of these attributes in the perception of vocal quality, listeners were asked to adjust levels of jitter, shimmer, and the noise-to-signal ratio in a speech synthesizer, so that synthetic voices matched naturally produced tokens. Results showed that, although listeners agreed well in their judgments of the noise-to-signal ratio, they did not agree with one another in their chosen settings for jitter and shimmer. Noise-dependent differences in listeners' ability to detect changes in amounts of jitter and shimmer implicate both listener insensitivity and inability to isolate jitter and shimmer as separate dimensions in the overall pattern of aperiodicity in a voice as causes of this poor agreement. These results suggest that jitter and shimmer are not useful as independent indices of perceived vocal quality, apart from their acoustic contributions to the overall pattern of spectrally shaped noise in a voice. .

  2. [Speech rehabilitation using Provox voice prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Morshed, Kamal; Gołabek, Wiesław; Szymański, Marcin; Olszański, Witold

    2005-01-01

    The first voice prosthesis was described in 1972 by Mozolewski. Eight years later Blom and Singer constructed the first commercial prosthesis. In 1988 another prosthesis was presented as Provox system prosthesis. The aim of the study was to describe the technique of tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) and to present two years results of the technique performed in 21 patients. Primary TEP with immediate implantation of the Provox 2 prosthesis was applied in 16 (76%) patients. In five patients (24%) secondary TEP was performed. All the patient with primary TEP had cricopharyngeal myotomy. In 7 patients the vocal prosthesis was exchanged. In five because of leakage through the valve and in two patients the vocal prosthesis was extruded. Leakage around the prosthesis occurred in two patients with secondary TEP. The mean device-related lifetime was 216 days and ranged from 30 to 540 days. In non-radiated patients the lifetime of the prosthesis was 255 days and in patients after radiotherapy the lifetime was 150 days. In all the patients the prosthetic voice was more similar to normal voice than in patients with esophageal speech. The implantation of the voice prosthesis is a simple method of restoring of a good quality voice enabling communication.

  3. A voice password system for access security

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, M.; Cohen, L.A.; Welsh, F.X.

    1986-09-01

    A voice password system for access security using speaker verification technology has been designed for use over dial-up telephone lines. The voice password system (VPS) can provide secure access to telephone networks, computers, rooms, and buildings. It also has application in office automation systems, electric funds transfer, and ''smart cards'' (interactive computers embedded in credit-card-sized packages). As increasing attention is focused on access security in the public, private, and government sectors, the voice password system can provide a timely solution to the security dilemma. The VPS uses modes of communication available to almost everyone (the human voice and the telephone). A user calls the VPS, enters his or her identification number (ID) by touch-tone telephone, and then speaks a password. This is usually a phrase or a sentence of about seven syllables. On initial calls, the VPS creates a model of the user's voice, called a reference template, and labels it with the caller's unique user ID. To gain access later, the user calls the system, enters the proper user ID, and speaks the password phrase. The VPS compares the user's stored reference template with the spoken password and produces a distance score.

  4. Gender differences in the temporal voice areas

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Merle-Marie; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Giordano, Bruno L.; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    There is not only evidence for behavioral differences in voice perception between female and male listeners, but also recent suggestions for differences in neural correlates between genders. The fMRI functional voice localizer (comprising a univariate analysis contrasting stimulation with vocal vs. non-vocal sounds) is known to give robust estimates of the temporal voice areas (TVAs). However, there is growing interest in employing multivariate analysis approaches to fMRI data (e.g., multivariate pattern analysis; MVPA). The aim of the current study was to localize voice-related areas in both female and male listeners and to investigate whether brain maps may differ depending on the gender of the listener. After a univariate analysis, a random effects analysis was performed on female (n = 149) and male (n = 123) listeners and contrasts between them were computed. In addition, MVPA with a whole-brain searchlight approach was implemented and classification maps were entered into a second-level permutation based random effects models using statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM; Nichols and Holmes, 2002). Gender differences were found only in the MVPA. Identified regions were located in the middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (bilateral) and the middle superior temporal gyrus (right hemisphere). Our results suggest differences in classifier performance between genders in response to the voice localizer with higher classification accuracy from local BOLD signal patterns in several temporal-lobe regions in female listeners. PMID:25126055

  5. Voice: Reading to Hear and Revising to Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of voice in writing and suggests that the current interest in the writing process encourages students to increase their power of expression without distorting their voice beyond recognition. Includes samples of student writing. (MM)

  6. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  7. Secure voice-based authentication for mobile devices: vaulted voice verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.; Scheirer, Walter J.; Boult, Terrance E.

    2013-05-01

    As the use of biometrics becomes more wide-spread, the privacy concerns that stem from the use of biometrics are becoming more apparent. As the usage of mobile devices grows, so does the desire to implement biometric identification into such devices. A large majority of mobile devices being used are mobile phones. While work is being done to implement different types of biometrics into mobile phones, such as photo based biometrics, voice is a more natural choice. The idea of voice as a biometric identifier has been around a long time. One of the major concerns with using voice as an identifier is the instability of voice. We have developed a protocol that addresses those instabilities and preserves privacy. This paper describes a novel protocol that allows a user to authenticate using voice on a mobile/remote device without compromising their privacy. We first discuss the Vaulted Verification protocol, which has recently been introduced in research literature, and then describe its limitations. We then introduce a novel adaptation and extension of the Vaulted Verification protocol to voice, dubbed Vaulted Voice Verification (V3). Following that we show a performance evaluation and then conclude with a discussion of security and future work.

  8. Using Ambulatory Voice Monitoring to Investigate Common Voice Disorders: Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Zañartu, Matías; Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Guttag, John V.; Espinoza, Víctor M.; Cortés, Juan P.; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Many common voice disorders are chronic or recurring conditions that are likely to result from inefficient and/or abusive patterns of vocal behavior, referred to as vocal hyperfunction. The clinical management of hyperfunctional voice disorders would be greatly enhanced by the ability to monitor and quantify detrimental vocal behaviors during an individual’s activities of daily life. This paper provides an update on ongoing work that uses a miniature accelerometer on the neck surface below the larynx to collect a large set of ambulatory data on patients with hyperfunctional voice disorders (before and after treatment) and matched-control subjects. Three types of analysis approaches are being employed in an effort to identify the best set of measures for differentiating among hyperfunctional and normal patterns of vocal behavior: (1) ambulatory measures of voice use that include vocal dose and voice quality correlates, (2) aerodynamic measures based on glottal airflow estimates extracted from the accelerometer signal using subject-specific vocal system models, and (3) classification based on machine learning and pattern recognition approaches that have been used successfully in analyzing long-term recordings of other physiological signals. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential for ambulatory voice monitoring to improve the diagnosis and treatment of common hyperfunctional voice disorders. PMID:26528472

  9. Prospective Functional Voice Assessment in Patients Undergoing Thyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shaha, Ashok R.; Orlikoff, Robert F.; Nissan, Aviram; Kornak, Mary-Frances; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Boyle, Jay O.; Shah, Jatin P.; Brennan, Murray F.; Kraus, Dennis H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To analyze voice function before and after thyroidectomy for patients with normal preoperative voice using a standardized multidimensional voice assessment protocol. Summary Background Data The natural history of post-thyroidectomy voice disturbances for patients with preserved laryngeal nerve function has not been systematically studied and characterized with the intent of using the data for postoperative voice rehabilitation. Methods During a prospective single-arm study, patients with normal voice underwent functional voice testing using a standardized voice grading scale and a battery of acoustic, aerodynamic, glottographic, and videostroboscopic tests before, 1 week after, and 3 months after thyroidectomy. Differences in observed sample means were evaluated using analysis of covariance or t test; categorical data was analyzed using the Fisher exact or chi-square test. Results Fifty-four patients were enrolled; 50 and 46 were evaluable at 1 week and 3 months, respectively. No patient developed recurrent laryngeal nerve injury; one had superior laryngeal nerve injury. Fifteen (30%) patients reported early subjective voice change and seven (14%) reported late (3-month) subjective voice change. Forty-two (84%) patients had significant objective change in at least one voice parameter. Six (12%) had significant alterations in more than three voice measures, of which four (67%) were symptomatic, whereas 25% with three or fewer objective changes had symptoms. Patients with persistent voice change at 3 months had an increased likelihood of multiple (more than three) early objective changes (43% vs. 7%). Early maximum phonational frequency range and vocal jitter changes from baseline were significantly associated with voice symptoms at 3 months. Conclusions Early vocal symptoms are common following thyroidectomy and persist in 14% of patients. Multiple (more than three) objective voice changes correlate with early and late postoperative symptoms. Alterations

  10. Effects of voice on emotional arousal

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  11. Voice and pronunciation of cochlear implant speakers.

    PubMed

    Horga, Damir; Liker, Marko

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cochlear implants have the ability to exercise auditory control over their own speech production and over the speech of others, which is important for the development of speech control. In the present investigation three groups of 10 subjects were compared. The groups comprised: (1) cochlear implant users, (2) profoundly deaf using traditional hearing aids, and (3) hearing controls. The subjects in three groups were matched in age. While repeating after a model the subjects were recorded and the following linguistic voice variables were analysed: (1) vowel formant space, (2) voice vs. voiceless difference, (3) closure duration and VOT, (4) word accent production, (5) sentence stress production, (6) voice quality, (7) pronunciation quality. Acoustic analysis and perceptual assessment by phoneticians showed that in great majority of variables, subjects with cochlear implants performed better than the profoundly deaf subjects with traditional hearing-aids.

  12. Forensic voice comparison and the paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2009-12-01

    We are in the midst of a paradigm shift in the forensic comparison sciences. The new paradigm can be characterised as quantitative data-based implementation of the likelihood-ratio framework with quantitative evaluation of the reliability of results. The new paradigm was widely adopted for DNA profile comparison in the 1990s, and is gradually spreading to other branches of forensic science, including forensic voice comparison. The present paper first describes the new paradigm, then describes the history of its adoption for forensic voice comparison over approximately the last decade. The paradigm shift is incomplete and those working in the new paradigm still represent a minority within the forensic-voice-comparison community.

  13. Jordanian teachers' perceptions of voice handicap.

    PubMed

    Marie, Basem S; Natour, Yaser S; Haj-Tas, Maisa A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate if Jordanian school teachers perceive their voice as handicapped using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-Arab. The effect of teachers' age, gender, years of teaching, class taught, and education level on VHI was examined. A total of 289 teachers and a control group of 100 participants took part in the study. The teachers' group differed significantly from the control group in the physical, emotional, and functional subscales and the total score of the VHI-Arab. There was no significant difference among teachers in any of the three VHI subscales or total regarding gender, age, years of teaching experience, education level, and classes taught. Jordanian teachers have a strong perception of voice handicap. Thus, preventive and treatment vocal programs are strongly advised.

  14. Adaptive Suppression of Noise in Voice Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David; DeVault, James A.; Birr, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    A subsystem for the adaptive suppression of noise in a voice communication system effects a high level of reduction of noise that enters the system through microphones. The subsystem includes a digital signal processor (DSP) plus circuitry that implements voice-recognition and spectral- manipulation techniques. The development of the adaptive noise-suppression subsystem was prompted by the following considerations: During processing of the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center, voice communications among test team members have been significantly impaired in several instances because some test participants have had to communicate from locations with high ambient noise levels. Ear protection for the personnel involved is commercially available and is used in such situations. However, commercially available noise-canceling microphones do not provide sufficient reduction of noise that enters through microphones and thus becomes transmitted on outbound communication links.

  15. The processing of voice identity in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran R; Corrow, Sherryse L; Pancaroglu, Raika; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental prosopagnosia is a disorder of face recognition that is believed to reflect impairments of visual mechanisms. However, voice recognition has rarely been evaluated in developmental prosopagnosia to clarify if it is modality-specific or part of a multi-modal person recognition syndrome. Objective Our goal was to examine whether voice discrimination and/or recognition are impaired in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia. Design/Methods 73 healthy controls and 12 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia performed a match-to-sample test of voice discrimination and a test of short-term voice familiarity, as well as a questionnaire about face and voice identification in daily life. Results Eleven subjects with developmental prosopagnosia scored within the normal range for voice discrimination and voice recognition. One was impaired on discrimination and borderline for recognition, with equivalent scores for face and voice recognition, despite being unaware of voice processing problems. Conclusions Most subjects with developmental prosopagnosia are not impaired in short-term voice familiarity, providing evidence that developmental prosopagnosia is usually a modality-specific disorder of face recognition. However, there may be heterogeneity, with a minority having additional voice processing deficits. Objective tests of voice recognition should be integrated into the diagnostic evaluation of this disorder to distinguish it from a multi-modal person recognition syndrome. PMID:26321070

  16. The Adolescent Female Changing Voice: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of female voice change from the perspective of female middle and high school choral students. The study was guided by two questions: How do adolescent female choir students experience voice change? What is the essence of the experience of voice change for middle school…

  17. A Sociology of Pedagogic Voice: Power, Inequality and Pupil Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine; Reay, Diane

    2007-01-01

    The concept of student voice is problematic. This paper considers two different traditions which theorise the notion of voice. The first is located within critical sociological studies of youth identity, drawing upon the notion of the often silenced voices of the marginalised, "Othered" or subordinated as a means of exposing oppressive…

  18. Original Knowledge, Gender and the Word's Mythology: Voicing the Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Using mythology as a generative matrix, this article investigates the relationship between knowledge, words, embodiment and gender as they play out in academic writing's voice and, in particular, in doctoral voice. The doctoral thesis is defensive, a performance seeking admittance into discipline scholarship. Yet in finding its scholarly voice,…

  19. Factors Predicting the Use of Passive Voice in Newspaper Headlines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciulla, Linnea Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Information packaging researchers have found that certain factors influence active/passive voice alternations: Animacy, Definiteness and Weight influence argument order and thus choice of voice. Researchers in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and psycholinguistics claim that voice is influenced by social factors, e.g. gender, social standing, or…

  20. Acoustic Analysis Before and After Voice Therapy for Laryngeal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, S S; Gautam, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Voice problems caused by pathologies in vocal folds are well known. Some types of laryngeal pathologies have certain acoustic characteristics. Objective evaluation helps characterize the voice and voice problems providing supporting evidences, severity of disorders. It helps assess the response to the treatment and measures the outcomes. Objective The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the voice therapy and quantify the results objectively by voice parameters. Method Study includes 61 patients who presented with different types of laryngeal pathologies. Acoustic analyses and voice assessment was done with Dr. Speech ver 4 (Tiger DRS Inc.). Acoustic parameters including fundamental frequency, jitters, shimmers, Harmonic to noise ratio (HNR), Normalized noise energy (NNE) were analyzed before and after voice therapy. Result Bilateral vocal nodules were the most common pathologies comprising 44.26%. All acoustic parameters showed a significant difference after the therapy (p<0.05) except for NNE. Dysphonia due to vocal fold polyp showed no improvement even after voice therapy (p>0.05). Conclusion Acoustic analysis provides an objective, recordable data regarding the voice parameters and its pathologies. Though, few pathology require alternative therapy rather than voice therapy, overall it has a good effect on glottic closure. As the voice therapy can improve the different indices of voice, it can be viewed as imperative part of treatment and to monitor progression.

  1. Children's Voice. Volume 15, Number 5, September/October 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Steven S., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice" seeks to encourage public discussion and debate among those who are committed to helping children and families. "Children's Voice" is published bimonthly by the Child Welfare League of America. This issue of "Children's Voice" includes: (1) Defining Family:…

  2. 14 CFR 129.24 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 129.24 Section 129... § 129.24 Cockpit voice recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder that meets...

  3. Review of Research: Voice in the Context of Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperling, Melanie; Appleman, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The concept of voice permeates perspectives on reading and writing and has helped guide both literacy research and teaching. However, what voice is for scholars, researchers, and teachers takes many guises, some in apparent contradiction to others. We offer a theoretical perspective on the concept of voice, situating it within sociocultural…

  4. Multiple Voices in Clinical Discourse and as Clinical Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.; Prior, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Grounded in sociocultural theories of language development and use, this paper explores the concept of dialogic voice. Building on the term "dialogue", dialogic voice points to the fundamentally social nature of language-in-use. From this perspective, language emerges from specific histories and thus carries the multiple voices of…

  5. Learned face-voice pairings facilitate visual search

    PubMed Central

    Zweig, L. Jacob; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Voices provide a rich source of information that is important for identifying individuals and for social interaction. During search for a face in a crowd, voices often accompany visual information and they facilitate localization of the sought individual. However, it is unclear whether this facilitation occurs primarily because the voice cues the location of the face or because it also increases the salience of the associated face. Here we demonstrate that a voice that provides no location information nonetheless facilitates visual search for an associated face. We trained novel face/voice associations and verified learning using a two-alternative forced-choice task in which participants had to correctly match a presented voice to the associated face. Following training, participants searched for a previously learned target face among other faces while hearing one of the following sounds (localized at the center of the display): a congruent-learned voice, an incongruent but familiar voice, an unlearned and unfamiliar voice, or a time-reversed voice. Only the congruent-learned voice speeded visual search for the associated face. This result suggests that voices facilitate visual detection of associated faces, potentially by increasing their visual salience, and that the underlying crossmodal associations can be established through brief training. PMID:25023955

  6. Learned face-voice pairings facilitate visual search.

    PubMed

    Zweig, L Jacob; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Voices provide a rich source of information that is important for identifying individuals and for social interaction. During search for a face in a crowd, voices often accompany visual information, and they facilitate localization of the sought-after individual. However, it is unclear whether this facilitation occurs primarily because the voice cues the location of the face or because it also increases the salience of the associated face. Here we demonstrate that a voice that provides no location information nonetheless facilitates visual search for an associated face. We trained novel face-voice associations and verified learning using a two-alternative forced choice task in which participants had to correctly match a presented voice to the associated face. Following training, participants searched for a previously learned target face among other faces while hearing one of the following sounds (localized at the center of the display): a congruent learned voice, an incongruent but familiar voice, an unlearned and unfamiliar voice, or a time-reversed voice. Only the congruent learned voice speeded visual search for the associated face. This result suggests that voices facilitate the visual detection of associated faces, potentially by increasing their visual salience, and that the underlying crossmodal associations can be established through brief training.

  7. Voices from the Voiceless: Iranian EFL Students' Attitudes toward English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghavamnia, Maedeh; Ketabi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Some recent research has focused on the students' silence and inviting more student voice. This paper investigated the reasons behind Iranian undergraduate students' silence in English classes and stepped further to give voice to those students' attitudes toward English with the belief that inviting and including student voice could improve the…

  8. Vocabulary Discourse: Developing Meaning through "VoiceThread" Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Grace Marie

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated how third-grade students from low-income families talked about target vocabulary words when asked to create a "VoiceThread" publication. "VoiceThread" is a web-based publication tool that allows students to post pictures and attach voice-recordings to each picture. There were three student…

  9. Perceptions of human attractiveness comprising face and voice cues.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Baguley, Thom; Sergeant, Mark; Dunn, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    In human mate choice, sexually dimorphic faces and voices comprise hormone-mediated cues that purportedly develop as an indicator of mate quality or the ability to compete with same-sex rivals. If preferences for faces communicate the same biologically relevant information as do voices, then ratings of these cues should correlate. Sixty participants (30 male and 30 female) rated a series of opposite-sex faces, voices, and faces together with voices for attractiveness in a repeated measures computer-based experiment. The effects of face and voice attractiveness on face-voice compound stimuli were analyzed using a multilevel model. Faces contributed proportionally more than voices to ratings of face-voice compound attractiveness. Faces and voices positively and independently contributed to the attractiveness of male compound stimuli although there was no significant correlation between their rated attractiveness. A positive interaction and correlation between attractiveness was shown for faces and voices in relation to the attractiveness of female compound stimuli. Rather than providing a better estimate of a single characteristic, male faces and voices may instead communicate independent information that, in turn, provides a female with a better assessment of overall mate quality. Conversely, female faces and voices together provide males with a more accurate assessment of a single dimension of mate quality.

  10. Prevalence of Voice Disorders in Teachers and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Thibeault, Susan; Parsa, Rahul A.; Gray, Steven D.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    information is also provided regarding additional factors that might contribute to the development of voice disorders.Over 3 million teachers in the United States use their voice as a primary tool of trade and are thought to be at higher risk for occupation-related voice disorders than the general population. However, estimates regarding the…

  11. Words to Voice: Three Approaches for Student Self-Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diltz, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The concept of student voice has become a powerful metaphor in college-level writing class. In this article, the author enthusiastically invites her students to activate their "voices." But like healthy self-concept or freedom or individuality, voice only comes from within. It cannot be given, imposed, and "taught." Too many students seem hesitant…

  12. Power flow in normal human voice production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The principal mechanisms of energy utilization in voicing are quantified using a simplified model, in order to better define voice efficiency. A control volume analysis of energy utilization in phonation is presented to identify the energy transfer mechanisms in terms of their function. Conversion of subglottal airstream potential energy into useful work done (vocal fold vibration, flow work, sound radiation), and into heat (sound radiation absorbed by the lungs, glottal jet dissipation) are described. An approximate numerical model is used to compute the contributions of each of these mechanisms, as a function of subglottal pressure, for normal phonation. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  13. Efficacy of the Discreteness of Voicing Category (DOVC) Measure for Characterizing Voicing Errors in Children with Cochlear Implants: A Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Graves, Amanda G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation explored the utility of an acoustic measure, called the discreteness of voicing category (DOVC), in identifying voicing errors in stop consonants produced by children with cochlear implants. Another objective was to examine the perceptual relevance of the DOVC measure and 2 commonly used voice onset time (VOT)-based…

  14. Voice, Genre, and Intentionality: An Integrated Methods Study of Voice Criteria in the Evaluation of Secondary Students' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Jill V.

    2010-01-01

    "Voice" is widely considered to be a feature of effective writing. It's no surprise, then, that voice criteria frequently appear on rubrics used to score student essays in large-scale writing assessments. However, composition theorists hold vastly different views regarding voice and how it should be applied in the evaluation of student writing, if…

  15. A flight test design for studying airborne applications of air to ground duplex data link communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1988-09-01

    The Automatic En Route Air Traffic Control (AERA) and the Advanced Automated System (AAS) of the NAS plan, call for utilization of data links for such items as computer generated flight clearances, enroute minimum safe altitude warnings, sector probes, out of conformance check, automated flight services, and flow management of advisories. A major technical challenge remaining is the integration, flight testing, and validation of data link equipment and procedures in the aircraft cockpit. The flight test organizational chart, was designed to have the airplane side of data link experiments implemented in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) experimental Boeing 737 airplane. This design would enable investigations into implementation of data link equipment and pilot interface, operations, and procedures. The illustrated ground system consists of a work station with links to a national weather database and a data link transceiver system. The data link transceiver system could be a Mode-S transponder, ACARS, AVSAT, or another type of radio system such as the military type HF data link. The airborne system was designed so that a data link transceiver, workstation, and touch panel could be interfaced with an input output processor to the aircraft system bus and thus have communications access to other digital airplane systems.

  16. The Effects of Highlighting, Validity, and Feature Type on Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cultura I taget Target type Validity X target X leadin interaction on initial response time (highlighted trials) WRONG HIGHLIGHTING ÖU - M ea...natural - leadin cultural ndurd cultura taget I taget Target type Figure 3.10: Validity X lead-in X Target interaction Confirmation time A

  17. Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Source Book: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-30

    identification of targets. Sun ;tianle refern to the direction of thc un In relation to thu aIr- craft is track. ’lle effect of Hun angle on target rr-cogniLion...whether the observed contrast is groater than the contrast threshold using the equation CHIN " e-Ov where v is the visibility range. The threshold value...constructed by Jacqueline I. Gordon can be used to quickly determine (a) the beam transmittance for a horizontal path of sight from the attenuation

  18. A study of air-to-ground sound propagation using an instrumented meteorological tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, P. K.; Pappa, R. S.; Keefe, L. R.; Sutherland, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an exploratory NASA study, leading to a better understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the propagation of aircraft noise, are reported. The experimental program utilized a known sound source fixed atop an instrumented meteorological tower. The basic experimental scheme consisted of measuring the amplitude of sound radiated toward the ground along a line of microphones fixed to a tower guy wire. Experimental results show the feasibility of this approach in the acquisition of data indicating the variations encountered in the time-averaged and instantaneous amplitudes of propagated sound. The investigation included a consideration of ground reflections, a comparison of measured attenuations with predicted atmospheric absorption losses, and an evaluation of the amplitude fluctuations of recorded sound pressures.

  19. Cursor on Target: Addressing the Challenge of Air-to-Ground Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    G9L BAO Kit CoT CoT CoT GBS Predator CoT FBCB2 CoT ADOCS CoT GCCS CoT ACARS CT-II CoT AFATDS CoT SIRS RAIDER CoT NCCT CoT DLARS...Quest  Many others ISR High Mobility FLIR Litening Pod RAVE video exploitation Constant Hawk UAV Video Scout Raven and Wasp Air RECCE Low

  20. Integration of Weaponized Unmanned Aircraft into the Air-to-Ground System (Maxwell Paper, Number 41)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    of using global positioning system–aided navigation with a semiactive laser seeker for terminal guidance . The weapon uses a four-pound high...most recent variants include a laser designator capable of designating targets for attack or guiding laser -guided mu- nitions. A synthetic aperture...to Iraq along with the Viper Strike munition; soon all versions will carry the weapon. The Viper Strike is a laser -guided, glide munition capable

  1. Two-axis gimbal for air-to-air and air-to-ground laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmor, Amnon G.; Harding, Harvard; Chen, Chien-Chung

    2016-03-01

    For bi-directional links between high-altitude-platforms (HAPs) and ground, and air-to-air communication between such platforms, a hemispherical +30°C field-of-regard and low-drag low-mass two-axis gimbal was designed and prototyped. The gimbal comprises two servo controlled non-orthogonal elevation over azimuth axis, and inner fast steering mirrors for fine field-of-regard adjustment. The design encompasses a 7.5cm diameter aperture refractive telescope in its elevation stage, folded between two flat mirrors with an exit lens leading to a two mirrors miniature Coude-path fixed to the azimuth stage. Multiple gimbal configurations were traded prior to finalizing a selection that met the requirements. The selected design was manifested onboard a carbon fiber and magnesium composite structure, motorized by custom-built servo motors, and commutated by optical encoders. The azimuth stage is electrically connected to the stationary base via slip ring while the elevation stage made of passive optics. Both axes are aligned by custom-built ceramic-on-steel angular contact duplex bearings, and controlled by embedded electronics featuring a rigid-flex PCB architecture. FEA analysis showed that the design is mechanically robust over a temperature range of +60°C to -80°C, and with first mode of natural frequencies above 400Hz. The total mass of the prototyped gimbal is 3.5kg, including the inner optical bench, which contains fast steering mirrors (FSMs) and tracking sensors. Future version of this gimbal, in prototyping stage, shall weigh less than 3.0kg.

  2. The Strategic Level Optimization of Air to Ground Missiles for Turkish Air Force Decision Support System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Results, and Analysis .................................................................................... 41 viii 4.1 Application Assumptions...mathematical model will be built in this chapter. In Chapter 4, the application of the mathematical model and its 6 analysis will be discussed...transfer to LINGO 13.0. These codes will be available at Appendix A. The mathematical formulation for solving this problem will be represented as cost

  3. Simulator Design Features for Air-to-Ground Bombing. I. Performance Experiment I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    NAVTRAEQUIPCEN 81-C-0105-4 degrees to the left (to allow visual contact with the tarjet during the initial part of the task) was compared to use of tle...divided left and right of tarjet center so there was no difference in absolute error. There were also considerable bias differences in the horizontal

  4. Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Attack Strategies in Trained Birds of Prey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0006 Air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attack strategies in trained birds of prey Prof. Graham K. Taylor...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attack strategies in trained birds of prey 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... birds of prey (peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and Harris’ hawks Parabuteo unicinctus) during air‐to‐air and air‐to‐ground attacks, from the

  5. A flight test design for studying airborne applications of air to ground duplex data link communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    The Automatic En Route Air Traffic Control (AERA) and the Advanced Automated System (AAS) of the NAS plan, call for utilization of data links for such items as computer generated flight clearances, enroute minimum safe altitude warnings, sector probes, out of conformance check, automated flight services, and flow management of advisories. A major technical challenge remaining is the integration, flight testing, and validation of data link equipment and procedures in the aircraft cockpit. The flight test organizational chart, was designed to have the airplane side of data link experiments implemented in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) experimental Boeing 737 airplane. This design would enable investigations into implementation of data link equipment and pilot interface, operations, and procedures. The illustrated ground system consists of a work station with links to a national weather database and a data link transceiver system. The data link transceiver system could be a Mode-S transponder, ACARS, AVSAT, or another type of radio system such as the military type HF data link. The airborne system was designed so that a data link transceiver, workstation, and touch panel could be interfaced with an input output processor to the aircraft system bus and thus have communications access to other digital airplane systems.

  6. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray; Odonnell, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Voice samples were obtained from 14 male subjects under high and low workload conditions. Acoustical analysis of the voice suggested that high workload conditions can be revealed by their effects on the voice over time. Aircrews in the advanced flight deck will be voicing short, imperative sentences repeatedly. A drop in the energy of the voice, as reflected by reductions in amplitude and frequency over time, and the failure to achieve old amplitude and frequency levels after rest periods, can signal that the workload demands of the situation are straining the speaker. This kind of measurement would be relatively unaffected by individual differences in acoustical measures.

  7. Scientific Bases of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Ronald W.

    1995-10-01

    The scientific bases for human-machine communication by voice are in the fields of psychology, linguistics, acoustics, signal processing, computer science, and integrated circuit technology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the basic scientific and technological issues in human-machine communication by voice and to point out areas of future research opportunity. The discussion is organized around the following major issues in implementing human-machine voice communication systems: (i) hardware/software implementation of the system, (ii) speech synthesis for voice output, (iii) speech recognition and understanding for voice input, and (iv) usability factors related to how humans interact with machines.

  8. Circuit Indicates that Voice-Recording Disks are Nearly Full

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minuskin, Harold; Pastor, John

    2005-01-01

    A remote alarm circuit provides visible and audible signals to indicate that there is little unused space left on magnetic and optical tracks on disks used to record voice signals in a group of three multichannel voice recorders. In the particular application for which the remote alarm circuit was built, the voice recorders are required to operate without interruption, but the technicians responsible for the continuous operation of the voice recorders perform most of their duties on a different floor of the building in which the voice recorders are located.

  9. Tactical Fiber Optic LAN For Voice And Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Halloran, F.; Martinez, J.

    1988-12-01

    An asynchronous high-speed fiber optic local area network is described that simultaneously supports packet data traffic with synchronous T1 voice traffic over a standard asynchronous FDDI token ring channel. A voice interface module (VIM) was developed that parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network. The technique is general, however, and can be applied to any deterministic class of networks, including multi-tier backbones. In addition, the higher layer packet data protocols may operate independently of those for the voice thereby permitting great flexibility in reconfiguring the network. Voice call setup and switching functions are performed external to the network with PABX equipment.

  10. Implementation of a tactical voice/data network over FDDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Halloran, F.; Martinez, J.

    An asynchronous high-speed fiber-optic local-area network is described that simultaneously supports packet data traffic with synchronous TI voice traffic over a standard asynchronous FDDI (fiber distributed data interface) token-ring channel. A voice interface module was developed that parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network. The technique is general, however, and can be applied to any deterministic class of networks, including multitier backbones. In addition, the higher layer packet data protocols may operate independently of those for the voice, thereby permitting great flexibility in reconfiguring the network. Voice call setup and switching functions are performed external to the network with PABX equipment.

  11. Pulse-Modulation Scheme For Voice And Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Pulse-modulation scheme provides for transmission of 1 channel of voice information along with 16 channels of serially multiplexed analog iotelemetric information, all on single radio-frequency carrier signal. Encoder/multiplexer combination effects PMD scheme, in which biotelemetry encoded in time-division multiplex PIM, while voice encoded in PWM. Combination of PIM and PWM encoding called "pulse modulated data" or PMD. Principal advantage of scheme simplicity: comodulation of voice along with biotelemetry involves minimal additional circuitry in transmitter. In receiver, biotelemetric data extracted by ordinary PIM-encoding circuitry, not affected by voice PWM; and simple PWM decoder added to receiver to recover voice.

  12. Web life: Voices of the Manhattan Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-02-01

    Voices of the Manhattan Project was launched in October 2012 with the aim of preserving the memories and experiences of scientists and other workers who participated in the US-led effort to build an atomic bomb during the Second World War.

  13. Every Voice Matters: The Importance of Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royea, Amber J.; Appl, Dolores J.

    2009-01-01

    Over the years parents, professionals, and politicians have come together to advocate on behalf of children's rights. Advocacy can occur individually, collectively, or a combination of both. Although some advocacy efforts are more successful than others, it is the process of the advocacy and voices behind it that matter most. In this guest…

  14. Ventriloquising the Voice: Writing in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulford, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I consider one aspect of how student writing is supported in the university. I focus on the use of the "writing frame", questioning its status as a vehicle for facilitating student voice, and in the process questioning how that notion is itself understood. I illustrate this by using examples from the story of the 1944 Hollywood film…

  15. In Her Own Voice: Convention, Conversion, Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In recent years the theme of voice has emerged more prominently in research and practice in education. In practice in schools it has been found in such developments as circle time, the emphasis on emotional literacy and emotional intelligence, peer-led counselling, buddying, and the revival of school councils, while in further and adult education…

  16. The value of visualizing tone of voice.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Graham; Cook, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Whilst most of us have an innate feeling for tone of voice, it is an elusive quality that even phoneticians struggle to describe with sufficient subtlety. For people who cannot speak themselves this can have particularly profound repercussions. Augmentative communication often involves text-to-speech, a technology that only supports a basic choice of prosody based on punctuation. Given how inherently difficult it is to talk about more nuanced tone of voice, there is a risk that its absence from current devices goes unremarked and unchallenged. Looking ahead optimistically to more expressive communication aids, their design will need to involve more subtle interactions with tone of voice-interactions that the people using them can understand and engage with. Interaction design can play a role in making tone of voice visible, tangible, and accessible. Two projects that have already catalysed interdisciplinary debate in this area, Six Speaking Chairs and Speech Hedge, are introduced together with responses. A broader role for design is advocated, as a means to opening up speech technology research to a wider range of disciplinary perspectives, and also to the contributions and influence of people who use it in their everyday lives.

  17. Homework: Voices from EFL Teachers and Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiryousefi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have mainly focused on homework in courses such as math and physics with little attention to homework in EFL (English as a foreign language) classes. The main purpose of the study reported in this paper was to give a voice to both EFL teachers and learners with regard to English homework. To this end, 8 EFL teachers and 19 EFL…

  18. Classroom Noise and Teachers' Voice Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantala, Leena M.; Hakala, Suvi; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to research the associations between noise (ambient and activity noise) and objective metrics of teachers' voices in real working environments (i.e., classrooms). Method: Thirty-two female and 8 male teachers from 14 elementary schools were randomly selected for the study. Ambient noise was measured during breaks…

  19. Sex Differences in the Older Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Barbaranne J.

    A study investigated differences between older adult male and female voice patterns. In addition, the study examined whether certain differences between male and female speech characteristics were lifelong and not associated with the aging process. Subjects were 10 young (average age 30) and 10 old (average age 75) males and 10 young (average age…

  20. Voice Blogging and L2 Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…

  1. Voices of Disability on the Radio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    Background: While much commentary exists in relation to the portrayal of disabled people in the media, very little research examines the talk itself in any detail. This paper examines the how people with communication disabilities and disabled people are dealt with in the talk of a radio programme about disability. Aims: To show how the voices of…

  2. Silence in the Context of "Child Voice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Recent decades have seen growing enthusiasm internationally for the concept and practice of "child voice". This was encapsulated in, and stimulated, by Article 12 of the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. This article presents the case for incorporating the equally important concept of "child silence" in both research and…

  3. Developing Voice through the Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn-Reinke, Kathryn; Chesner, Geralyn A.

    2006-01-01

    This book shows prospective teachers how to use the language arts to connect diverse students to the world around them and help them develop their own literate voices. It considers the integrated nature of the primary language arts--reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing. The authors encourage preservice and…

  4. Telehealth: voice therapy using telecommunications technology.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Pauline A; Birkmire-Peters, Deborah P; Syms, Mark J; Holtel, Michael R; Burgess, Lawrence P A; Peters, Leslie J

    2003-11-01

    Telehealth offers the potential to meet the needs of underserved populations in remote regions. The purpose of this study was a proof-of-concept to determine whether voice therapy can be delivered effectively remotely. Treatment outcomes were evaluated for a vocal rehabilitation protocol delivered under 2 conditions: with the patient and clinician interacting within the same room (conventional group) and with the patient and clinician in separate rooms, interacting in real time via a hard-wired video camera and monitor (video teleconference group). Seventy-two patients with voice disorders served as participants. Based on evaluation by otolaryngologists, 31 participants were diagnosed with vocal nodules, 29 were diagnosed with edema, 9 were diagnosed with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, and 3 presented with vocal hyperfunction with no laryngeal pathology. Fifty-one participants (71%) completed the vocal rehabilitation protocol. Outcome measures included perceptual judgments of voice quality, acoustic analyses of voice, patient satisfaction ratings, and fiber-optic laryngoscopy. There were no differences in outcome measures between the conventional group and the remote video teleconference group. Participants in both groups showed positive changes on all outcome measures after completing the vocal rehabilitation protocol. Reasons for participants discontinuing therapy prematurely provided support for the telehealth model of service delivery.

  5. Using Student Voices to Guide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott-Johns, Susan E.; Booth, David; Rowsell, Jennifer; Puig, Enrique; Paterson, Jane

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative team of five international teacher educators/researchers examine the importance of student voice for authentic discourse and instructional design in contemporary classrooms. Excerpts from their perspectives on teaching, research, and innovative programs are woven together and include suggested Actions/Reflections for the reader.…

  6. Voices Inside Schools: Getting to Know Derek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Vivian Gussin

    2011-01-01

    In this "Voices Inside Schools" essay, Vivian Gussin Paley brings us into Derek's kindergarten classroom using her characteristic style of listening and recounting from the child's perspective. With delicacy and insight, she reveals the small but significant moments that occur alongside the planned curriculum to illustrate how children author…

  7. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  8. Listen to Us: Teacher Views and Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Kober, Nancy; Frizzell, Matthew; Ferguson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Education policymakers and leaders often say that the opinions and observations of teachers are among the most important information to help explain and understand what is happening in schools. Teachers' voices can inject a sense of classroom and school-level realism into those discussions and add clarity and credibility to issues that are often…

  9. Fiber optic voice/data network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An asynchronous, high-speed, fiber optic local area network originally developed for tactical environments with additional benefits for other environments such as spacecraft, and the like. The network supports ordinary data packet traffic simultaneously with synchronous T1 voice traffic over a common token ring channel; however, the techniques and apparatus of this invention can be applied to any deterministic class of packet data networks, including multitier backbones, that must transport stream data (e.g., video, SAR, sensors) as well as data. A voice interface module parses, buffers, and resynchronizes the voice data to the packet network employing elastic buffers on both the sending and receiving ends. Voice call setup and switching functions are performed external to the network with ordinary PABX equipment. Clock information is passed across network boundaries in a token passing ring by preceeding the token with an idle period of non-transmission which allows the token to be used to re-establish a clock synchronized to the data. Provision is made to monitor and compensate the elastic receiving buffers so as to prevent them from overflowing or going empty.

  10. E-Mentoring in Three Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Lynn; Hilbun, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This research shares the experiences of two colleagues who engaged in an e-mentoring relationship for a period of one academic term. Their candid and reflective comments are interspersed among the voices of the best practices literature. Mentoring is a traditional method of passing knowledge and skills on from an established professional to a…

  11. Voices for Illinois Children, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Illinois Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These newsletters are produced by Voices for Illinois Children, a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. The spring 1996 issue provides membership information and network news, as well as articles addressing the following…

  12. Teaching Listening: Voices from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Nikki, Ed.; Tran, Anh, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Listening is the most important of the four language skills and is used most often in everyday communication. Teachers need innovative ways to address the particular listening problems emerging in their own contexts. "Teaching Listening: Voices From the Field" shares successful practices employed by teachers at different levels of education around…

  13. Voice data mining for laryngeal pathology assessment.

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, Daria; Skalski, Andrzej; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of different methods of speech signal analysis in the detection of voice pathologies. Firstly, an initial vector was created consisting of 28 parameters extracted from time, frequency and cepstral domain describing the human voice signal based on the analysis of sustained vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ all at high, low and normal pitch. Afterwards we used a linear feature extraction technique (principal component analysis), which enabled a reduction in the number of parameters and choose the most effective acoustic features describing the speech signal. We have also performed non-linear data transformation which was calculated using kernel principal components. The results of the presented methods for normal and pathological cases will be revealed and discussed in this paper. The initial and extracted feature vectors were classified using the k-means clustering and the random forest classifier. We found that reasonably good classification accuracies could be achieved by selecting appropriate features. We obtained accuracies of up to 100% for classification of healthy versus pathology voice using random forest classification for female and male recordings. These results may assist in the feature development of automated detection systems for diagnosis of patients with symptoms of pathological voice.

  14. Listeners' Attitudes toward Children with Voice Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Estella P.-M.; Yu, Camille H.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of school teachers toward children with voice problems in a Chinese population. Method: Three groups of listeners participated in this study: primary school teachers, speech-language pathology students, and general university students. The participants were required to make attitude judgments on 12 voice…

  15. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  16. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  17. Student Voice and Engagement: Connecting through Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Claire; Swain, Julie; Rodway-Dyer, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on research conducted across an English higher education partnership to investigate the ways in which student voice was engaged in further education colleges offering university awards through partnership arrangements. Such collaborations are characterised by the marginal presence of higher education students in an environment…

  18. Find Your Voice: Eliminate Classroom Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    The academically underprepared community college student may also be psychosocially underprepared for college, a condition contributing to the development of classroom-specific social phobia and to the high attrition rate at community colleges. The "Find Your Voice Program" uses individual and group cognitive-behavioral techniques to develop…

  19. Integrating Student Voice: Assessment for Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper charts the development of a conceptual model for student involvement in assessment practice. This development seeks, through an exploration of literature in the field, to locate pedagogy that: (1) supports partnerships in assessment that lead to empowered autonomous learners; and (2) provides opportunities for student voice that support…

  20. Hearing Women's Voices in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigwood, Laura

    2012-01-01

    "The voice of women needs to be heard" because "when we truly take their lives seriously it changes our whole understanding of who we are and what we are called to become" (Chilcote 10). The revolutionary impact of feminist theory and practice in all areas of contemporary culture illustrates the world-transforming potential of…

  1. Student Voice and the Perils of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean; Fielding, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this article we suggest that the current popularity of student voice can lead to surface compliance--to a quick response that focuses on "how to do it" rather than a reflective review of "why we might want to do it". We look at the links between student consultation and participation and the legacy of the progressive democratic tradition in our…

  2. Amplifying Youth Voices in the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotenos, Saori; Rohatgi, Deepti

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, an explosion of user-generated content has flooded the Internet. The dramatic drop in the cost of digital video equipment and the increased accessibility of the Internet create a unique opportunity to allow youth to create meaningful content. Today youth around the world can leverage technological tools to give voice to…

  3. Voice Stress Analysis: Use of Telephone Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waln, Ronald F.; Downey, Ronald G.

    The ability to detect lying is an important skill. While the polygraph is the most common mechanical method used for lie detection, other electronic-based methods have also been developed. One such method, the analysis of voice stress patterns, is based on the assumption that lying is a stressful activity which reduces involuntary frequency…

  4. Assessing efficacy of voice treatments: a guideline.

    PubMed

    Dejonckere, P H

    2000-01-01

    The proposal of this guideline or basic protocol is an attempt to reach better agreement and uniformity concerning the methodology for functional assessment of pathological voices. The purpose is to allow relevant comparisons with the literature when presenting/publishing the results of voice treatment, e.g. a phonosurgical technique, or a new/improved instrument or procedure for investigating the pathological voice. Meta-analyses of results of voice treatments are generally limited--and even impossible--due to the major diversity in assessing functional outcomes. A minimal, multidimensional set of basic measurements is proposed, suitable for all "common" dysphonias: it includes 5 different approaches: perception (grade, roughness, breathiness), videostroboscopy (closure, regularity, mucosal wave and symmetry), acoustics (jitter, shimmer, Fo-range and softest intensity), aerodynamics (phonation quotient), and self rating by the patient. The protocol is elaborated on the base of an exhaustive review of the literature, the experience of the Committee members, and of plenary discussions within the European Laryngological Society. Instrumentation is kept to a minimum, but considered essential for professionals performing phonosurgery.

  5. Exploring the feasibility of smart phone microphone for measurement of acoustic voice parameters and voice pathology screening.

    PubMed

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Vegiene, Aurelija; Pribuisiene, Ruta; Saferis, Viktoras; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Verikas, Antanas

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of acoustic voice parameters obtained using smart phone (SP) microphones and investigate the utility of use of SP voice recordings for voice screening. Voice samples of sustained vowel/a/obtained from 118 subjects (34 normal and 84 pathological voices) were recorded simultaneously through two microphones: oral AKG Perception 220 microphone and SP Samsung Galaxy Note3 microphone. Acoustic voice signal data were measured for fundamental frequency, jitter and shimmer, normalized noise energy (NNE), signal to noise ratio and harmonic to noise ratio using Dr. Speech software. Discriminant analysis-based Correct Classification Rate (CCR) and Random Forest Classifier (RFC) based Equal Error Rate (EER) were used to evaluate the feasibility of acoustic voice parameters classifying normal and pathological voice classes. Lithuanian version of Glottal Function Index (LT_GFI) questionnaire was utilized for self-assessment of the severity of voice disorder. The correlations of acoustic voice parameters obtained with two types of microphones were statistically significant and strong (r = 0.73-1.0) for the entire measurements. When classifying into normal/pathological voice classes, the Oral-NNE revealed the CCR of 73.7% and the pair of SP-NNE and SP-shimmer parameters revealed CCR of 79.5%. However, fusion of the results obtained from SP voice recordings and GFI data provided the CCR of 84.60% and RFC revealed the EER of 7.9%, respectively. In conclusion, measurements of acoustic voice parameters using SP microphone were shown to be reliable in clinical settings demonstrating high CCR and low EER when distinguishing normal and pathological voice classes, and validated the suitability of the SP microphone signal for the task of automatic voice analysis and screening.

  6. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    PubMed

    Sulpizio, Simone; Fasoli, Fabio; Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Vespignani, Francesco; Eyssel, Friederike; Bentler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency) and to non-native speakers (language-specificity), has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  7. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers’ Sexual Orientation within and across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Vespignani, Francesco; Eyssel, Friederike; Bentler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency) and to non-native speakers (language-specificity), has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity. PMID:26132820

  8. Estill Voice Training and voice quality control in contemporary commercial singing: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Marco; Fussi, Franco; Crosetti, Erika; Succo, Giovanni

    2016-09-30

    Estill Voice Training (EVT) is a widely known programme for developing vocal skills based on partitioning the process of vocal production in order to reach control of specific structures in the vocal mechanism. The present retrospective small-scale exploratory study aims at reporting preliminary data about the efficacy of EVT - in terms of voice quality control on a specific vocal exercise - in contemporary commercial singers with a Certificate of Figure Proficiency (CFP). Thirty-five contemporary commercial singers (professional or semi-professional pop and rock singers) with no vocal complaints were recruited. The experimental group was composed of twenty singers who studied EVT and had a CFP. The control group was composed of fifteen singers who studied in Italian contemporary popular music institutions but were not familiar with EVT. Voice quality control was assessed through acoustic and perceptual analysis on a specific vocal exercise requiring sound pitch, perturbation and spectral energy distribution control. The acoustic analysis showed some significant differences between the two groups of singers both in sound perturbation control and spectral energy distribution control, suggesting a higher voice quality control ability for the experimental group. The perceptual evaluation confirmed a higher ability for the experimental group to produce recognizable voice qualities in this specific task. The reported preliminary results seem to suggest EVT as an effective educational system for developing voice quality control ability in contemporary commercial singers.

  9. Voice quality after endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: objective measurements emphasizing the Voice Handicap Index

    PubMed Central

    Caminero Cueva, Maria Jesús; Señaris González, Blanca; Llorente Pendás, José Luis; Gorriz Gil, Carmen; López Llames, Aurora; Alonso Pantiga, Ramón; Suárez Nieto, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the functional outcome and self-evaluation of the voice of patients with T1 glottic carcinoma treated with endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy. We performed an objective voice evaluation, as well as a physical, emotional and functional well being assessment of 19 patients treated with laser surgery and 18 patients treated with radiotherapy. Voice quality is affected both by surgery and radiotherapy. Voice parameters only show differences in the maximum phonation time between both treatments. Results in the Voice Handicap Index show that radiotherapy has less effect on patient voice quality perception. There is a reduced impact on the patient’s perception of voice quality after radiotherapy, despite there being no significant differences in vocal quality between radiotherapy and laser cordectomy. PMID:17999074

  10. The Voice Transcription Technique: Use of Voice Recognition Software to Transcribe Digital Interview Data in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Transcribing interview data is a time-consuming task that most qualitative researchers dislike. Transcribing is even more difficult for people with physical limitations because traditional transcribing requires manual dexterity and the ability to sit at a computer for long stretches of time. Researchers have begun to explore using an automated…

  11. The omnipotence of voices. A cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, P; Birchwood, M

    1994-02-01

    We offer provisional support for a new cognitive approach to understanding and treating drug-resistant auditory hallucinations in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Study 1 emphasises the relevance of the cognitive model by detailing the behavioural, cognitive and affective responses to persistent voices in 26 patients, demonstrating that highly disparate relationships with voices-fear, reassurance, engagement and resistance-reflect vital differences in beliefs about the voices. All patients viewed their voices as omnipotent and omniscient. However, beliefs about the voice's identity and meaning led to voices being construed as either 'benevolent' or 'malevolent'. Patients provided cogent reasons (evidence) for these beliefs which were not always linked to voice content; indeed in 31% of cases beliefs were incongruous with content, as would be anticipated by a cognitive model. Without fail, voices believed to be malevolent provoked fear and were resisted and those perceived as benevolent were courted. However, in the case of imperative voices, the primary influence on whether commands were obeyed was the severity of the command. Study 2 illustrates how these core beliefs about voices may become a new target for treatment. We describe the application of an adapted version of cognitive therapy (CT) to the treatment of four patients' drug-resistant voices. Where patients were on medication, this was held constant while beliefs about the voices' omnipotence, identity, and purpose were systematically disputed and tested. Large and stable reductions in conviction in these beliefs were reported, and these were associated with reduced distress, increased adaptive behaviour, and unexpectedly, a fall in voice activity. These changes were corroborated by the responsible psychiatrists. Collectively, the cases attest to the promise of CT as a treatment for auditory hallucinations.

  12. Does insecure attachment mediate the relationship between trauma and voice-hearing in psychosis?

    PubMed

    Pilton, Marie; Bucci, Sandra; McManus, James; Hayward, Mark; Emsley, Richard; Berry, Katherine

    2016-12-30

    This study extends existing research and theoretical developments by exploring the potential mediating role of insecure attachment within the relationship between trauma and voice-hearing. Fifty-five voice hearers with a psychosis-related diagnosis completed comprehensive assessments of childhood trauma, adult attachment, voice-related severity and distress, beliefs about voices and relationships with voices. Anxious attachment was significantly associated with the voice-hearing dimensions examined. More sophisticated analysis showed that anxious attachment mediated the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and voice-related severity and distress, voice-malevolence, voice-omnipotence, voice-resistance and hearer-dependence. Anxious attachment also mediated the relationship between childhood physical neglect and voice-related severity and distress and hearer-dependence. Furthermore, consistent with previous research, the relationship between anxious attachment and voice-related distress was mediated by voice-malevolence, voice-omnipotence and voice-resistance. We propose a model whereby anxious attachment mediates the well-established relationship between trauma and voice-hearing. In turn, negative beliefs about voices may mediate the association between anxious attachment and voice-related distress. Findings presented here highlight the need to assess and formulate the impact of attachment patterns upon the voice-hearing experience in psychosis and the potential to alleviate voice-related distress by fostering secure attachments to therapists or significant others.

  13. Level of Voice Among Female and Male High School Students: Relational Context, Support, and Gender Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Waters, Patricia L.; Whitesell, Nancy R.; Kastelic, Diana

    1998-01-01

    Examined levels of self-reported "voice" (authentic self expression) with various persons among high school students. Found no gender differences nor evidence that voice declines in female adolescents. Perceived support for voice predicted level of voice. Feminine girls reported lower levels of voice than androgynous girls in public relational…

  14. Superior voice timbre processing in musicians.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Jean-Pierre; Belin, Pascal

    2006-09-25

    After several years of exposure to musical instrument practice, musicians acquire a great expertise in processing auditory features like tonal pitch or timbre. Here we compared the performance of musicians and non-musicians in two timbre discrimination tasks: one using instrumental timbres, the other using voices. Both accuracy (d-prime) and reaction time measures were obtained. The results indicate that the musicians performed better than the non-musicians at both tasks. The musicians also took more time to respond at both tasks. One interpretation of this result is that the expertise musicians acquired with instrumental timbres during their training transferred to timbres of voice. The musician participants may also have used different cognitive strategies during the experiment. Higher response times found in musicians can be explained by a longer verbal-auditory memory and the use of a strategy to further process auditory features.

  15. In vitro experimental investigation of voice production

    PubMed Central

    Horáčcek, Jaromír; Brücker, Christoph; Becker, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The process of human phonation involves a complex interaction between the physical domains of structural dynamics, fluid flow, and acoustic sound production and radiation. Given the high degree of nonlinearity of these processes, even small anatomical or physiological disturbances can significantly affect the voice signal. In the worst cases, patients can lose their voice and hence the normal mode of speech communication. To improve medical therapies and surgical techniques it is very important to understand better the physics of the human phonation process. Due to the limited experimental access to the human larynx, alternative strategies, including artificial vocal folds, have been developed. The following review gives an overview of experimental investigations of artificial vocal folds within the last 30 years. The models are sorted into three groups: static models, externally driven models, and self-oscillating models. The focus is on the different models of the human vocal folds and on the ways in which they have been applied. PMID:23181007

  16. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  17. Speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tris Atmaja, Bagus; Nur Farid, Mifta; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-11-01

    Speech enhancement is challenging task in audio signal processing to enhance the quality of targeted speech signal while suppress other noises. In the beginning, the speech enhancement algorithm growth rapidly from spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering, spectral amplitude MMSE estimator to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Smartphone as revolutionary device now is being used in all aspect of life including journalism; personally and professionally. Although many smartphones have two microphones (main and rear) the only main microphone is widely used for voice recording. This is why the NMF algorithm widely used for this purpose of speech enhancement. This paper evaluate speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording by using some algorithms mentioned previously. We also extend the NMF algorithm to Kulback-Leibler NMF with supervised separation. The last algorithm shows improved result compared to others by spectrogram and PESQ score evaluation.

  18. C-BET evaluation of voice biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodnichy, Dmitry O.; Thieme, Michael; Bissessar, David; Chung, Jessica; Dubrofsky, Elan; Lee, Jonathon

    2011-06-01

    C-BET is the Comprehensive Biometrics Evaluation Toolkit developed by CBSA in order to analyze the suitability of biometric systems for fully-automated border/access control applications. Following the multiorder score analysis and the threshold-validated analysis defined within the C-BET framework, the paper presents the results of the C-BET evaluation of a commercial voice biometric product. In addition to error tradeoff and ranking curves traditionally reported elsewhere, the paper presents the results on the newly introduced performance metrics: threshold-validated recognition ranking and non-confident decisions due to multiple threshold-validated scores. The results are obtained on over a million voice audio clip comparisons. Good biometric evaluation practices offered within C-BET framework are presented.

  19. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  20. Voice disorders in children with classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Nancy L

    2011-04-01

    Children with classic galactosemia are at risk for motor speech disorders resulting from disruptions in motor planning and programming (childhood apraxia of speech or CAS) or motor execution (dysarthria). In the present study of 33 children with classic galactosemia, 21% were diagnosed with CAS, 3% with ataxic dysarthria, and 3% with mixed CAS-dysarthria. Voice disorders due to laryngeal insufficiency were common in children with dysarthria and co-occurred with CAS. Most (58%) of the children with classic galactosemia had decreased respiratory-phonatory support for speech, and 33% had disturbed vocal quality that was indicative of cerebellar dysfunction. Three children, two diagnosed with CAS and one not diagnosed with a motor speech disorder, had vocal tremors. Treatment of voice dysfunction in neurogenic speech disorders is discussed.

  1. "Hot potato voice" in peritonsillitis: a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Mahmood F; Worley, George A; Harries, Meredydd L

    2006-12-01

    The "hot potato voice" is widely recognized as a symptom of peritonsillar cellulitis or abscess; yet there have been no studies assessing the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract in peritonsillitis. Analysis was undertaken of formant frequencies in the articulation of the vowels /i:/. /a:/ and /u:/ in six subjects with peritonsillitis and compared with articulation once the peritonsillitis had settled. Significant variation was found in F1 when articulating /i:/ and in F2 when articulating /a:/, which are explainable by dyskinesis of the peritonsillar musculature. These findings were compared with six subjects articulating the same vowels with and without a hot potato in their mouth. Variation was found in both F1 and F2 when articulating /i:/, which can be related to interference of the potato with movement of the anterior tongue. The changes in the vocal tract differ in these two cases and the title "hot potato voice" in peritonsillitis is a misnomer.

  2. Protocol Software for a Packet Voice Terminal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-16

    III satellite. The PVTs with their attached telephone instrument serve as the interface with the voice user. The PVTs prepare speech for transmission...through a packet network by digitizing the speech, preparing speech data packets, and sending speech data messages. The PVT handles the speech coming...TOTALKin. Thes Foori alControle wilno trani speech message s unlTreessin ithas note rcenie s speehdfr ao sufficentpo toefl erAcofitt cdng atei t pfres

  3. Second Language Inner Voice and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigematsu, Brandon Kenji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the phenomena of second language (L2, hereafter) inner voice for three Japanese-American English bilinguals who had long-term exposure to the L2 in naturalistic contexts, that is, by living and/or working or studying in the U.S. American English learners of L2 Japanese were included in the study as well, although only one…

  4. Linear coding of voice onset time.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Fisher, Janet McGraw; Coty, Alexis; Zarella, Melissa; Liederman, Jacqueline; Halgren, Eric

    2007-09-01

    Voice onset time (VOT) provides an important auditory cue for recognizing spoken consonant-vowel syllables. Although changes in the neuromagnetic response to consonant-vowel syllables with different VOT have been examined, such experiments have only manipulated VOT with respect to voicing. We utilized the characteristics of a previously developed asymmetric VOT continuum [Liederman, J., Frye, R. E., McGraw Fisher, J., Greenwood, K., & Alexander, R. A temporally dynamic contextual effect that disrupts voice onset time discrimination of rapidly successive stimuli. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12, 380-386, 2005] to determine if changes in the prominent M100 neuromagnetic response were linearly modulated by VOT. Eight right-handed, English-speaking, normally developing participants performed a VOT discrimination task during a whole-head neuromagnetic recording. The M100 was identified in the gradiometers overlying the right and left temporal cortices and single dipoles were fit to each M100 waveform. A repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc contrast test for linear trend was used to determine whether characteristics of the M100 were linearly modulated by VOT. The morphology of the M100 gradiometer waveform and the peak latency of the dipole waveform were linearly modulated by VOT. This modulation was much greater in the left, as compared to the right, hemisphere. The M100 dipole moved in a linear fashion as VOT increased in both hemispheres, but along different axes in each hemisphere. This study suggests that VOT may linearly modulate characteristics of the M100, predominately in the left hemisphere, and suggests that the VOT of consonant-vowel syllables, instead of, or in addition to, voicing, should be examined in future experiments.

  5. Self, Voices and Embodiment: A Phenomenological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, C; Jones, N; Chase, KA; Grossman, LS; Gin, H; Sharma, RP

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to examine first-person phenomenological descriptions of the relationship between the self and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations (AVHs). Complex AVHs are frequently described as entities with clear interpersonal characteristics. Strikingly, investigations of first-person (subjective) descriptions of the phenomenology of the relationship are virtually absent from the literature. Method Twenty participants with psychosis and actively experiencing AVHs were recruited from the University of Illinois at Chicago. A mixed-methods design involving qualitative and quantitative components was utilized. Following a priority-sequence model of complementarity, quantitative analyses were used to test elements of emergent qualitative themes. Results The qualitative analysis identified three foundational constructs in the relationship between self and voices: ‘understanding of origin,’ ‘distinct interpersonal identities,’ and ‘locus of control.’ Quantitative analyses further supported identified links of these constructs. Subjects experienced their AVHs as having identities distinct from self and actively engaged with their AVHs experienced a greater sense of autonomy and control over AVHs. Discussion Given the clinical importance of AVHs and emerging strategies targeting the relationship between the hearer and voices, our findings highlight the importance of these relational constructs in improvement and innovation of clinical interventions. Our analyses also underscore the value of detailed voice assessments such as those provided by the Maastricht Interview are needed in the evaluation process. Subjects narratives shows that the relational phenomena between hearer and AVH(s) is dynamic, and can be influenced and changed through the hearers’ engagement, conversation, and negotiation with their voices. PMID:27099869

  6. Voice-Recognition System Records Inspection Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochester, Larry L.

    1993-01-01

    Main Injector Voice Activated Record (MIVAR) system acts on vocal commands and processes spoken inspection data into electronic and printed inspection reports. Devised to improve acquisition and recording of data from borescope inspections of interiors of liquid-oxygen-injecting tubes on main engine of Space Shuttle. With modifications, system used in other situations to relieve inspectors of manual recording of data. Enhances flow of work and quality of data acquired by enabling inspector to remain visually focused on workpiece.

  7. Voice Controlled Stereographic Video Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Georgianna D.; Philips, Michael L.

    1989-09-01

    For several years various companies have been developing voice recognition software. Yet, there are few applications of voice control in the robotics field and virtually no examples of voice controlled three dimensional (3-D) systems. In late 1987 ARD developed a highly specialized, voice controlled 3-D vision system for use in remotely controlled, non-tethered robotic applications. The system was designed as an operator's aid and incorporates features thought to be necessary or helpful in remotely maneuvering a vehicle. Foremost is the three dimensionality of the operator's console display. An image that provides normal depth perception cues over a range of depths greatly increases the ease with which an operator can drive a vehicle and investigate its environment. The availability of both vocal and manual control of all system functions allows the operator to guide the system according to his personal preferences. The camera platform can be panned +/-178 degrees and tilted +/-30 degrees for a full range of view of the vehicle's environment. The cameras can be zoomed and focused for close inspection of distant objects, while retaining substantial stereo effect by increasing the separation between the cameras. There is a ranging and measurement function, implemented through a graphical cursor, which allows the operator to mark objects in a scene to determine their relative positions. This feature will be helpful in plotting a driving path. The image seen on the screen is overlaid with icons and digital readouts which provide information about the position of the camera platform, the range to the graphical cursor and the measurement results. The cursor's "range" is actually the distance from the cameras to the object on which the cursor is resting. Other such features are included in the system and described in subsequent sections of this paper.

  8. Effects of irradiation on alaryngeal voice of totally laryngectomized patients

    SciTech Connect

    Izdebski, K.; Fontanesi, J.; Ross, J.C.; Hetzler, D.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of radiation therapy on the ability of totally laryngectomized patients to produce voice and speech were examined using objective non-invasive methods. Moderate to severe losses were noted in patients producing voice with all types of alaryngeal modalities: tracheoesophageal, esophageal, and electrolaryngeal. Voice and speech losses were related to the impaired motility and vibratory capability of the esophageal wall and mucosa, to fibrosis of the submandibular region and to trismus. Tracheoesophageal and esophageal voice was recovered some weeks after completion of irradiation. No voice losses were observed in alaryngeal speakers who did not undergo voice restoration until after irradiation. All irradiated patients also showed various degrees of dysphagia during the treatment.

  9. Voice and persuasion in a banking telemarketing context.

    PubMed

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; El Hedhli, Kamel; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire; Boivin, Robert

    2007-04-01

    Voice has been neglected in research on advertising and persuasion. The present study examined the influence of voice and sex on the credibility of the voice source in a banking telemarketing context as well as with regards to the attitude toward the advertisement, and subjects' behavioral intention. An experiment using voices of a man and a woman was conducted. A recorded mock-telemarketing message consisted of an advertisement for an ATM card offered by a Canadian bank. Subjects were undergraduate students (N=399; 71.6% women, 28.4% men; M age=26.5 yr., SD = 7.4). They completed a questionnaire after hearing the message in telemarketing conditions. Analysis indicated a moderate intensity, an unmarked intonation, and a fast speech rate are associated with a more credible source than the other combinations. Sex was not a significant moderator in the relationship between voice characteristics and source credibility. Voice characteristics significantly affected attitudes toward the advertisement and behavioral intention.

  10. Satellite voice broadcast system study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstein, M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of providing Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts by satellite relay, rather than via terrestrial relay stations. Satellite voice broadcast systems are described for three different frequency bands: HF (26 MHz), VHF (68 MHz), and L-band (1.5 GHz). The geographical areas of interest at HF and L-band include all major land masses worldwide with the exception of the U.S., Canada, and Australia. Geostationary satellite configurations are considered for both frequency bands. In addition, a system of subsynchronous, circular satellites with an orbit period of 8 hours is developed for the HF band. VHF broadcasts, which are confined to the Soviet Union, are provied by a system of Molniya satellites. Satellites intended for HF or VHF broadcastinbg are extremely large and heavy. Satellite designs presented here are limited in size and weight to the capability of the STS/Centaur launch vehicle combination. Even so, at HF it would take 47 geostationary satellites or 20 satellites in 8-hour orbits to fully satisfy the voice-channel requirements of the broadcast schedule provided by VOA. On the other hand, three Molniya satellites suffice for the geographically restricted schedule at VHF. At L-band, only four geostationary satellites are needed to meet the requirements of the complete broadcast schedule. Moreover, these satellites are comparable in size and weight to current satellites designed for direct broadcast of video program material.

  11. Hearing voices: A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Bracken, Patrick; Leudar, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The word "phenomenology" has a number of meanings. In this paper we briefly contrast the different meanings of the word in psychiatry and philosophy. We then consider the work of the philosophers Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, as examples of what Hubert Dreyfus calls ontological phenomenology, in contrast to an epistemological approach. We present a brief outline of Merleau-Ponty's theory of embodiment, and contrast this with the dominant, epistemological (or Cartesian) view of experience. Through the example of a woman who experienced bereavement hallucinations, we try to show how this approach can open up a hermeneutic approach to the experience of hearing voices. An understanding of embodiment can help to counter reductionism, whether biological or social, and dualism (body/mind and mind/society). It is only when we consider the totality of human experience that we can understand its meaning. This has two main benefits. First, it legitimates the claims made by those who hear voices that their experiences are intrinsically meaningful. Second, it can provide a framework for those who work with voice hearers and who are interested in understanding these experiences. In this sense, phenomenology can become a valuable clinical tool.

  12. Voice parameters in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moura, Carla Pinto; Cunha, Luís Miguel; Vilarinho, Helena; Cunha, Maria João; Freitas, Diamantino; Palha, Miguel; Pueschel, Siegfried M; Pais-Clemente, M

    2008-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent chromosomal disorder. Commonly, individuals with DS have difficulties with speech and show an unusual quality in the voice. Their phenotypic characteristics include general hypotonia and maxillary hypoplasia with relative macroglossia, and these contribute to particular acoustic alterations. Subjective perceptual and acoustic assessments of the voice (Praat-4.1 software) were performed in 66 children with DS, 36 boys and 30 girls, aged 3 to 8 years. These data were compared with those of an age-matched group of children from the general population. Perceptual evaluations showed significant differences in the group of children with DS. The voice of children with DS presented a lower fundamental frequency (F(0)) with elevated dispersion. The conjunction of frequencies for formants (F(1) and F(2)) revealed a decreased distinction between the vowels, reflecting the loss of articulatory processing. The DS vocalic anatomical functional ratio represents the main distinctive parameter between the two groups studied, and it may be useful in conducting assessments.

  13. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease.

  14. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  15. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  16. Telephone Transmission and Earwitnesses: Performance on Voice Parades Controlled for Voice Similarity.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Kirsty; Nolan, Francis; Hudson, Toby

    2015-01-01

    The effect of telephone transmission on a listener's ability to recognise a speaker in a voice parade is investigated. A hundred listeners (25 per condition) heard 1 of 5 'target' voices, then returned a week later for a voice parade. The 4 conditions were: target exposure and parade both at studio quality; exposure and parade both at telephone quality; studio exposure with telephone parade, and vice versa. Fewer correct identifications followed from telephone exposure and parade (64%) than from studio exposure and parade (76%). Fewer still resulted for studio exposure/telephone parade (60%) and, dramatically, only 32% for telephone exposure/studio parade. Certain speakers were identified more readily than others across all conditions. Confidence ratings reflected this effect of speaker, but not the effect of exposure/parade condition.

  17. Separation of Singing Voice from Music Accompaniment for Monaural Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Directory: pub/tech-report/2005 File in pdf format: TR61.pdf Separation of Singing Voice from Music Accompaniment for Monaural Recordings Yipeng Li...Abstract Separating singing voice from music accompaniment is very useful in many applications, such as lyrics recognition and alignment, singer...identification, and music information retrieval. Although speech separation has been extensively studied for decades, singing voice separation has been little

  18. 33 CFR 157.136 - Two-way voice communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Two-way voice communications. 157....136 Two-way voice communications. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) must have a means that enables two-way voice communications between the...

  19. Voice perceptions and quality of life of transgender people.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Krissinger, Julianne; Owen, Kelly

    2011-09-01

    Despite the plethora of research documenting that the voice and quality of life (QoL) are related, the exact nature of this relationship is vague. Studies have not addressed people who consider their voice to influence their life and identity, but would not be considered to have a voice "disorder" (e.g., transgender individuals). Individuals seeking vocal feminization may or may not have vocal pathology and often have concerns not addressed on the standard psychosocial measures of voice impact. Recent development of a voice-related QoL measure specific to the needs of transgender care (Transgender Self-Evaluation Questionnaire [TSEQ]) affords opportunity to explore relationships between self-perceived QoL and perceptions of femininity and likability associated with transgender voice. Twenty male-to-female transgender individuals living as a female 100% of the time completed the TSEQ and contributed a speech sample describing Norman Rockwell's "The Waiting Room" picture. Twenty-five undergraduate listeners rated voice femininity and voice likability after audio-only presentation of each speech sample. Speakers also self-rated their voices on these parameters. For male-to-female transgender clients, QoL is moderately correlated with how others perceive their voice. QoL ratings correlate more strongly with speaker's self-rated perception of voice compared with others' perceptions, more so for likability than femininity. This study complements previous research reports that subjective measures from clients and listeners may be valuable for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment in terms of how treatment influences voice-related QoL issues for transgender people.

  20. Evaluation of the voice function after the supraglottis subtotal laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Kosztyła-Hojna, B; Rogowski, M; Pepiński, W; Rutkowski, R; Moniuszko, T; Lazarczyk, B

    2001-01-01

    Voice quality was analysed in 39 patients with the larynx carcinoma after the supraglottis subtotal laryngectomy. Voice pattern was analysed with the use of subjective and objective spectrography before and after the surgery. A deteriorated voice quality was found after the surgery. The spectrographic examination revealed decreased frequency levels of the formants F3 and F4 and the presence of a noise component generated in the glottis area.

  1. The voice handicap of student-teachers and risk factors perceived to have a negative influence on the voice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Kooijman, Piet G C; Donders, A Rogier T; Cremers, W R J; de Jong, Felix I C R S

    2007-05-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. The objectives of the study were to assess the psychosocial impact of current voice complaints as perceived by student-teachers with voice complaints in comparison with student-teachers without voice complaints, and to observe the pattern of risk factors in relation to their voice handicap. Subjects in the general population without a voice-demanding profession were selected as a reference group for limited comparison with the total group of student-teachers (future professional voice users). The respondents to the questionnaires were anonymous. Among the student-teachers, 17.2% reported current voice complaints in comparison with 9.7% of the reference group, and the odds ratio was 1.94, which showed the relative risk. Student-teachers had significantly greater total Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores than the reference group (P = 0.034). The VHI subscale scores were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Student-teachers who reported current voice complaints had a significantly higher total VHI and subscale scores than student teachers without voice complaints (P < 0.001). Of the student-teachers without voice complaints, 17.0% had VHI scores greater than the 75th percentile. These persons may be neglecting their voice handicap and probably represent the false-negative cases in the estimation of voice complaints. Logistic regression analysis of each of the given risk factors with the VHI as the independent variable showed that the perceived negative influence of the given risk factors on their voices was significantly greater with increasing VHI scores across the VHI range. A significant correlation was observed between the number of perceived risk factors and increasing VHI scores across the VHI range. An increased awareness of risk factors in relation to their voice handicap would serve to motivate student-teachers to change factors that contributed to their voice problem. Attention to all risk factors, which

  2. Influence of singing activity, age, and sex on voice performance parameters, on subjects' perception and use of their voice in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Michael; Meuret, Sylvia; Thiel, Susanne; Täschner, Roland; Dietz, Andreas; Gelbrich, Götz

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which regular singing activity and voice training in children and adolescents enhance their voice performance parameters and their perception of their own voice and the extent to which their voice control is improved. At the same time, additional effects of age and sex were also taken into account. We investigated 183 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age (mean age: 13.5 years) and assigned them to groups with different levels of voice strain and training with voice specialists. This was done on the basis of a classification of singing activity which we developed ourselves. We measured the voice parameters, and all of the test subjects were asked to appraise their perception and conscious control of their voices based on a questionnaire comprising 21 items. The higher the degree of vocal strain (taking regularity and organization of singing into consideration) and voice training, the more the perception and conscious control of the voice. Furthermore, the more intense the voice training, the wider the voice range becomes; the stronger the vocal strain, the better the capacity for messa di voce. On the other hand, the maximum duration of sustained phonation unexpectedly decreased, which we attribute to methodological reasons. Older children evince more differentiated perception of the sound of their own voices and imitate other voices more frequently. Boys show better values than girls as far as maximum voice intensity, maximum duration of phonation, and capacity for messa di voce are concerned. Boys also control their voices more consciously than girls. The results underscore the positive effects of regular singing and individual voice training on voice performance, sound perception, and conscious control of the voice. These results should encourage parents and pedagogues to provide opportunities for regular (organized) singing and voice training for as many children as possible. Moreover, age

  3. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I.; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon's signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z = −2.232, P = 0.026 and Z = −2.401, P = 0.016, resp.) than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis. PMID:24574934

  4. Influence of orthognathic surgery on voice fundamental frequency.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Tatiane M; Brasolotto, Alcione G; Gonçales, Eduardo S; Filho, Hugo Nary; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2009-01-01

    Considering that orthognathic surgery promotes changes in orofacial structures constituting the resonating system, functional changes secondary to surgery are expected to affect speech, leading to the need for further speech and voice adjustments. Thus, understanding the possible relationships of these structures with voice production is important. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the changes in voice fundamental frequency of a patient submitted to orthognathic surgery and observe if there is a relationship with hyoid bone positioning at the different treatment periods. The results revealed that voice fundamental frequency increased after surgery, returning to values close to the preoperative condition, which corresponded to vertical movement of the hyoid bone.

  5. Measurement of voice onset time in maxillectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon's signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z = -2.232, P = 0.026 and Z = -2.401, P = 0.016, resp.) than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  6. Speech therapist led voice clinic: which patients may be suitable?

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Hersad M; Fergie, Neil; Slade, Suzanne; McGlashan, Julian A

    2005-01-01

    Joint Voice clinics run by an ENT surgeon (Laryngologist) and Voice therapist avoid repetition of clinical assessment, better planning of patient management and early initiation of treatment. Although is perceived as optimal management of voice patients it is perhaps not necessary for all patients as it is time consuming for the clinicians involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it was possible to identify any subgroup of patients that could potentially be seen in a Voice therapist-led new patient clinic by reviewing the outcome of 96 patients referred to a Joint Voice clinic. Forty-four patients were referred for voice therapy out of which 13 (30%) were teachers or lecturers (total number: 16 (81%)). Two others in this subgroup required medical treatment and the other surgery. The most common aetiology in these professional voice users was muscle tension dysphonia (10 patients, 63%). It is concluded that experienced Voice therapists appropriately trained in laryngostroboscopic assessment could potentially receive and manage direct referrals from primary care physicians. They should however work as part of a multi-professional Voice Disorders Team where the patients could be reviewed by an ENT surgeon if necessary. This would significantly improve the patient pathway for these patients, be cost-effective and make the best use of therapist's and ENT surgeon's time.

  7. Design of a digital voice data compression technique for orbiter voice channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Candidate techniques were investigated for digital voice compression to a transmission rate of 8 kbps. Good voice quality, speaker recognition, and robustness in the presence of error bursts were considered. The technique of delayed-decision adaptive predictive coding is described and compared with conventional adaptive predictive coding. Results include a set of experimental simulations recorded on analog tape. The two FM broadcast segments produced show the delayed-decision technique to be virtually undegraded or minimally degraded at .001 and .01 Viterbi decoder bit error rates. Preliminary estimates of the hardware complexity of this technique indicate potential for implementation in space shuttle orbiters.

  8. Interactions between voice clinics and singing teachers: a report on the British Voice Association questionnaire to voice clinics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Davies, J; Anderson, S; Huchison, L; Stewart, G

    2007-01-01

    Singers with vocal problems are among patients who present at multidisciplinary voice clinics led by Ear Nose and Throat consultants and laryngologists or speech and language therapists. However, the development and care of the singing voice are also important responsibilities of singing teachers. We report here on the current extent and nature of interactions between voice clinics and singing teachers, based on data from a recent survey undertaken on behalf of the British Voice Association. A questionnaire was sent to all 103 voice clinics at National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK. Responses were received and analysed from 42 currently active clinics. Eight (19%) clinics reported having a singing teacher as an active member of the team. They were all satisfied with the singing teacher's knowledge and expertise, which had been acquired by several different means. Of 32 clinics without a singing teacher regularly associated with the team, funding and difficulty of finding an appropriate singing voice expert (81% and 50%, respectively) were among the main reasons for their absence. There was an expressed requirement for more interaction between voice clinics and singing teachers, and 86% replied that they would find it useful to have a list of singing teachers in their area. On the matter of gaining expertise and training, 74% of the clinics replying would enable singing teachers to observe clinic sessions for experience and 21% were willing to assist in training them for clinic-associated work.

  9. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  10. Perception of initial obstruent voicing is influenced by gestural organization.

    PubMed

    Best, Catherine T; Hallé, Pierre A

    2010-01-01

    Cross-language differences in phonetic settings for phonological contrasts of stop voicing have posed a challenge for attempts to relate specific phonological features to specific phonetic details. We probe the phonetic-phonological relationship for voicing contrasts more broadly, analyzing in particular their relevance to nonnative speech perception, from two theoretical perspectives: feature geometry and articulatory phonology. Because these perspectives differ in assumptions about temporal/phasing relationships among features/gestures within syllable onsets, we undertook a cross-language investigation on perception of obstruent (stop, fricative) voicing contrasts in three nonnative onsets that use a common set of features/gestures but with differing time-coupling. Listeners of English and French, which differ in their phonetic settings for word-initial stop voicing distinctions, were tested on perception of three onset types, all nonnative to both English and French, that differ in how initial obstruent voicing is coordinated with a lateral feature/gesture and additional obstruent features/gestures. The targets, listed from least complex to most complex onsets, were: a lateral fricative voicing distinction (Zulu /ɬ/-ɮ/), a laterally-released affricate voicing distinction (Tlingit /tɬ/-/dɮ/), and a coronal stop voicing distinction in stop+/l/ clusters (Hebrew /tl/-/dl/). English and French listeners' performance reflected the differences in their native languages' stop voicing distinctions, compatible with prior perceptual studies on singleton consonant onsets. However, both groups' abilities to perceive voicing as a separable parameter also varied systematically with the structure of the target onsets, supporting the notion that the gestural organization of syllable onsets systematically affects perception of initial voicing distinctions.

  11. Perception of initial obstruent voicing is influenced by gestural organization

    PubMed Central

    Best, Catherine T.; Hallé, Pierre A.

    2009-01-01

    Cross-language differences in phonetic settings for phonological contrasts of stop voicing have posed a challenge for attempts to relate specific phonological features to specific phonetic details. We probe the phonetic-phonological relationship for voicing contrasts more broadly, analyzing in particular their relevance to nonnative speech perception, from two theoretical perspectives: feature geometry and articulatory phonology. Because these perspectives differ in assumptions about temporal/phasing relationships among features/gestures within syllable onsets, we undertook a cross-language investigation on perception of obstruent (stop, fricative) voicing contrasts in three nonnative onsets that use a common set of features/gestures but with differing time-coupling. Listeners of English and French, which differ in their phonetic settings for word-initial stop voicing distinctions, were tested on perception of three onset types, all nonnative to both English and French, that differ in how initial obstruent voicing is coordinated with a lateral feature/gesture and additional obstruent features/gestures. The targets, listed from least complex to most complex onsets, were: a lateral fricative voicing distinction (Zulu /ɬ/-ɮ/), a laterally-released affricate voicing distinction (Tlingit /tɬ/-/dɮ/), and a coronal stop voicing distinction in stop+/l/ clusters (Hebrew /tl/-/dl/). English and French listeners' performance reflected the differences in their native languages' stop voicing distinctions, compatible with prior perceptual studies on singleton consonant onsets. However, both groups' abilities to perceive voicing as a separable parameter also varied systematically with the structure of the target onsets, supporting the notion that the gestural organization of syllable onsets systematically affects perception of initial voicing distinctions. PMID:20228878

  12. Trade-offs between voice and silence: a qualitative exploration of oncology staff’s decisions to speak up about safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research suggests that “silence”, i.e., not voicing safety concerns, is common among health care professionals (HCPs). Speaking up about patient safety is vital to avoid errors reaching the patient and thus to prevent harm and also to improve a culture of teamwork and safety. The aim of our study was to explore factors that affect oncology staff’s decision to voice safety concerns or to remain silent and to describe the trade-offs they make. Methods In a qualitative interview study with 32 doctors and nurses from 7 oncology units we investigated motivations and barriers to speaking up towards co-workers and supervisors. An inductive thematic content analysis framework was applied to the transcripts. Based on the individual experiences of participants, we conceptualize the choice to voice concerns and the trade-offs involved. Results Preventing patients from serious harm constitutes a strong motivation to speaking up but competes with anticipated negative outcomes. Decisions whether and how to voice concerns involved complex considerations and trade-offs. Many respondents reflected on whether the level of risk for a patient “justifies” the costs of speaking up. Various barriers for voicing concerns were reported, e.g., damaging relationships. Contextual factors, such as the presence of patients and co-workers in the alarming situation, affect the likelihood of anticipated negative outcomes. Speaking up to well-known co-workers was described as considerably easier whereas “not knowing the actor well” increases risks and potential costs of speaking up. Conclusions While doctors and nurses felt strong obligation to prevent errors reaching individual patients, they were not engaged in voicing concerns beyond this immediacy. Our results offer in-depth insight into fears and conditions conducive of silence and voicing and can be used for educational interventions and leader reinforcement. PMID:25017121

  13. Voices in Transition: Testosterone, Transmasculinity, and the Gendered Voice among Female-to-Male Transgender People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimman, Lal

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is based on a long-term ethnographic and sociophonetic study of 15 transgender people on the female-to-male (or "transmasculine") identity spectrum. The focus of the study is the way these individuals' voices change during the first 1-2 years of masculinizing hormone therapy, which brings about a drop in vocal…

  14. Voice Dysfunction in Dysarthria: Application of the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, R. D.; Vorperian, H. K.; Kent, J. F.; Duffy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper recommends procedures and standards for the acoustic analysis of voice in individuals with dysarthria. In Part 2, acoustic data are reviewed for dysarthria associated with Parkinson disease (PD), cerebellar disease, amytrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, unilateral hemispheric stroke, and essential tremor.…

  15. Voice and Data Network of Convergence and the Application of Voice over IP

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, J.M.

    2000-11-01

    This paper looks at emerging technologies for converging voice and data networks and telephony transport over a data network using Internet Protocols. Considered are the benefits and drivers for this convergence. The paper describes these new technologies, how they are being used, and their application to Sandia.

  16. Finding Voice from a Distance: Learning Voice in Writing through Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Amy M. A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary objectives for many instructors of first-year composition (FYC) is to encourage students to use their own voice/persona, or express themselves with authority in their writing. While there are many pedagogical methods to address this in a face to face environment, there is now need to understand how the course tools and…

  17. Is Student Voice Necessarily Empowering? Problematising Student Voice as a Form of Higher Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Student voice, namely the institutionalisation of students' contributions to the evaluation, and increasingly, the day-to-day running of higher education, has a wide-ranging influence. It shapes the concerns of management and academics; it changes the organisation and content of degree courses and, at times, challenges authority. Through her…

  18. Japanese version of voice handicap index for subjective evaluation of voice disorder.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Aki; Mise, Kazuyo; Nishikubo, Kaori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Shiromoto, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    Recently, the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), developed in the United States, has been highlighted as a means to assess a patient's perceptions of the severity of his or her voice disorder. The VHI is based on a self-administered questionnaire that quantifies the degree of a patient's disability related to his/her voice disorder. The questionnaire was translated into Japanese and applied to Japanese patients with various kinds of disordered voice or dysphonia. The results were analyzed and the usefulness discussed. In this study, 546 patients (281 males and 265 females) were included. Mean VHI scores were 36.2/120 in males and 44.1/120 in females. In the male patients, VHI scores were the highest among teens. However, VHI scores did not vary with age in the female patients. Patients with vocal fold paralysis, functional dysphonia, psychological dysphonia, and spasmodic dysphonia showed relatively high VHI scores, whereas those with laryngeal granuloma and laryngopharyngeal reflux disease showed low scores. In most diseases, functional and physiological scores were higher than emotional scores. In any treated patients, those with vocal nodule, vocal polyp, polypoid vocal fold, and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, VHI scores decreased after therapeutic intervention. These findings suggest that the Japanese VHI is a useful tool for monitoring a patient's psychological status, choosing appropriate treatment, and assessing the therapeutic outcome.

  19. Voice vs. Text-Based Discussion Forums: An Implementation of Wimba Voice Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Philip; Hiscock, Jane

    This paper reports on a two-year exploratory study to determine the viability of voice-based threaded discussions forums as a means of stimulating discussion and understanding of weekly readings as part of a large undergraduate communications course. From March to June 2001, 600 students participating in a large introduction to communication…

  20. Voice Relative Fundamental Frequency via Neck-Skin Acceleration in Individuals with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Yu-An S.; Calabrese, Carolyn R.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Murray, Elizabeth Heller; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.; Noordzij, J. Pieter; Stepp, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of neck-skin acceleration for relative fundamental frequency (RFF) analysis. Method: Forty individuals with voice disorders associated with vocal hyperfunction and 20 age- and sex-matched control participants were recorded with a subglottal neck-surface accelerometer and a microphone while producing speech…

  1. Assimilation of Voices in Psychotherapy: The Case of Jan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honos-Webb, Lara; Surko, Michael; Stiles, William B.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a marker-based method for tracking the assimilation of a previously outcast voice into the self, conceived as a community of voices. Using a qualitative assimilation analysis of a sample case, tracks two major themes, excerpts 43 passages, and rates each passage on the Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES). APES ratings…

  2. Using Voice Boards: Pedagogical Design, Technological Implementation, Evaluation and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaneske, Elisabeth; Oates, Briony

    2010-01-01

    We present a case study to evaluate the use of a Wimba Voice Board to support asynchronous audio discussion. We discuss the learning strategy and pedagogic rationale when a Voice Board was implemented within an MA module for language learners, enabling students to create learning objects and facilitating peer-to-peer learning. Previously students…

  3. Using Voice Boards: Pedagogical Design, Technological Implementation, Evaluation and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaneske, Elisabeth; Oates, Briony

    2011-01-01

    We present a case study to evaluate the use of a Wimba Voice Board to support asynchronous audio discussion. We discuss the learning strategy and pedagogic rationale when a Voice Board was implemented within an MA module for language learners, enabling students to create learning objects and facilitating peer-to-peer learning. Previously students…

  4. Adolescent Male-to-Female Transgender Voice and Communication Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Adrienne; Helenius, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current research to describe and evaluate effectiveness of voice and communication therapy for male-to-female transgender people is limited to adults. This paper provides rationale, procedures, and outcomes from voice and communication therapy for a male-to-female transgender adolescent 15 years of age. Treatment addressed vocal hygiene, breath…

  5. The Teacher's Voice: Vocal Training in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2008-01-01

    The voice is a basic tool in human communication and an important factor in a positive self-understanding and identity, both for the teacher's sense of profession and for the pupils' ability to express themselves orally; two perspectives of great importance in the Norwegian National Curriculum. Voice disorders are common among teachers world-wide…

  6. Onset of Voicing in Stuttered and Fluent Utterances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Gloria J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Electroglottographic (EGG) and acoustic waveforms of the first few glottal pulses of voicing were monitored and voice onset time (VOT) measured during an adaptation task performed by adult stutterers and controls. Fluent utterances of stutterers resembled those of controls. After dysfluencies, however, the EGG signal increased gradually, lending…

  7. Measuring Voice in Poetry Written by Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, David I.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing usage of creative writing in the ESL/EFL classroom based on the argument that this pedagogy develops writer's voice, emotional engagement, and ownership. Within the context of teaching poetry writing to second language learners, the current article develops a scientific approach to ways in which voice can be measured and then…

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of Adolescent Females with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Stephanie R. C.; Kelchner, Lisa N.; Creaghead, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. Method: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered…

  9. Infants' Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There's extensive research on infant's discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant's discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants' perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  10. Girls, Computers, and "Becoming": "The Pink Voice" Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    Through a feminist content analysis of young women's writing and reflections, this study gives evidence of how a school-based new literacy project shared knowledge in a public voice about the irreducible and complex world of "becoming" a girl. This project, called "The Pink Voice," was conducted in a large urban centre on the…

  11. Range Is Everything! Success with the Adolescent Male Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Wayman, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The changing male voice has long been a challenge, not only for students but also for directors who need to find just the right music to help students feel most successful. This article presents the key elements for success in selecting boys' literature: (1) Know the students' voices; (2) Range is everything; (3) Avoid pitches below A for tenors;…

  12. Beyond Literacy and Voice in Youth Media Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soep, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    When analyzing young people's media projects, it is easy to get excited about "youth voice" as a site of free expression and social critique. Tempting as this is, media scholars, as well as young producers and adult mentors, note the varied, often contradictory, voices and interests at play within youth videos, photography exhibitions, and other…

  13. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…

  14. Sociocultural Dimensions of Voice in Non-Native Language Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harklau, Linda A.; Schecter, Sandra R.

    Discussion of one form of pragmatic competence, projecting a sense of stylistic voice into texts, explores how writing in a non-native language affects the ability to express stylistic voice and enter into social dialogue with readers. Using the published reflections of authors writing professionally in a non-native language, the analysis shows…

  15. Psychosocial impact of the teacher's voice throughout the career.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Piet G C; Thomas, G; Graamans, K; de Jong, F I C R S

    2007-05-01

    It is generally accepted that vocal performance decreases with age. This decrease can be expected to be more pronounced in voice loading professions, which may lead to occupational dysphonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the course of voice complaints, experienced handicap, and absenteeism of work due to voice problems throughout the teaching years. Questionnaires were distributed among teachers of primary and secondary education, and 1875 were analyzed. The questionnaire was designed in such a way that personal aspects and questions about periods with symptoms and absence from work were included. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) developed by Jacobson et al was sent along with the questionnaire. Surprisingly, a significant decrease of voice complaints during the career of the teachers was observed. The expectation that the percentage of teachers with a history of voice problems should experience more psychosocial impact, measured with the VHI, along their professional career could not be confirmed by this study. These results indicate that serious attention has to be paid to teachers with voice complaints. The fact that teachers in the beginning of their career complain more than in the end of their career emphasizes the importance of adequate aimed prevention programs for future teachers and for starting teachers with regard to their voice.

  16. Claiming Voice on the Future of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Larry D.

    2016-01-01

    Higher education reform is a prominent topic among state and federal governments. However, the discussions regarding higher education are narrowly focused and not always inclusive of the voices of postsecondary leaders. Higher education officials must find approaches to ensure their voices are appropriately represented in these crucial…

  17. In Progress Internationally: Student Voice Work in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The late Jean Rudduck led the most extensive and sustained programme of Student Voice work in the United Kingdom to date through the Economic and Social Research Council project "Consulting Pupils about Teaching and Learning". She continues to inspire discussion around Student Voice and its transformational possibilities, bequeathing…

  18. On "In a Different Voice": An Interdisciplinary Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Linda K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This group of papers on Carol Gilligan's study of psychological theory, "In a Different Voice," includes: "Some Cautionary Words for Historians" (Linda K. Kerber); "How Different Is the 'Different Voice?'" (Catherine G. Greeno and Eleanor F. Maccoby); "A Methodological Critique" (Zella Luria); "The…

  19. First Voice: The Circle of Courage and Independent Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jennifer S.; Ross, Jean W.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents in foster care must have a voice and play an active role in envisioning and planning for successful adulthood. This principle serves as the philosophy of First Voice, a training package for anyone who works with youth in foster care. The philosophy corresponds with the four parts of the Circle of Courage--Independence, Belonging,…

  20. Brain systems mediating voice identity processing in blind humans.

    PubMed

    Hölig, Cordula; Föcker, Julia; Best, Anna; Röder, Brigitte; Büchel, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Blind people rely more on vocal cues when they recognize a person's identity than sighted people. Indeed, a number of studies have reported better voice recognition skills in blind than in sighted adults. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated changes in the functional organization of neural systems involved in voice identity processing following congenital blindness. A group of congenitally blind individuals and matched sighted control participants were tested in a priming paradigm, in which two voice stimuli (S1, S2) were subsequently presented. The prime (S1) and the target (S2) were either from the same speaker (person-congruent voices) or from two different speakers (person-incongruent voices). Participants had to classify the S2 as either a old or a young person. Person-incongruent voices (S2) compared with person-congruent voices elicited an increased activation in the right anterior fusiform gyrus in congenitally blind individuals but not in matched sighted control participants. In contrast, only matched sighted controls showed a higher activation in response to person-incongruent compared with person-congruent voices (S2) in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. These results provide evidence for crossmodal plastic changes of the person identification system in the brain after visual deprivation.

  1. Listener Perception of Respiratory-Induced Voice Tremor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinella, Kimberly A.; Hixon, Thomas J.; Hoit, Jeannette D.; Story, Brad H.; Jones, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relation of respiratory oscillation to the perception of voice tremor. Method: Forced oscillation of the respiratory system was used to simulate variations in alveolar pressure such as are characteristic of voice tremor of respiratory origin. Five healthy men served as speakers, and 6…

  2. Smartphones Offer New Opportunities in Clinical Voice Research.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, C; Lebacq, J; Cantarella, G; Schoentgen, J; Orlandi, S; Bandini, A; DeJonckere, P H

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone technology provides new opportunities for recording standardized voice samples of patients and sending the files by e-mail to the voice laboratory. This drastically improves the collection of baseline data, as used in research on efficiency of voice treatments. However, the basic requirement is the suitability of smartphones for recording and digitizing pathologic voices (mainly characterized by period perturbations and noise) without significant distortion. In this experiment, two smartphones (a very inexpensive one and a high-level one) were tested and compared with direct microphone recordings in a soundproof room. The voice stimuli consisted in synthesized deviant voice samples (median of fundamental frequency: 120 and 200 Hz) with three levels of jitter and three levels of added noise. All voice samples were analyzed using PRAAT software. The results show high correlations between jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio measured on the recordings via both smartphones, the microphone, and measured directly on the sound files from the synthesizer. Smartphones thus appear adequate for reliable recording and digitizing of pathologic voices.

  3. 14 CFR 29.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... microphone, located in the best position for recording voice communications originating at the first and... those stations; or (2) By installing a continually energized or voice-actuated lip microphone at the first and second pilot stations. The microphone specified in this paragraph must be so located and,...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... microphone, located in the best position for recording voice communications originating at the first and... those stations; or (2) By installing a continually energized or voice-actuated lip microphone at the first and second pilot stations. The microphone specified in this paragraph must be so located and,...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... microphone, located in the best position for recording voice communications originating at the first and... those stations; or (2) By installing a continually energized or voice-actuated lip microphone at the first and second pilot stations. The microphone specified in this paragraph must be so located and,...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... microphone, located in the best position for recording voice communications originating at the first and... those stations; or (2) By installing a continually energized or voice-actuated lip microphone at the first and second pilot stations. The microphone specified in this paragraph must be so located and,...

  7. Guidelines for Selecting Microphones for Human Voice Production Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Jan G.; Granqvist, Svante

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This tutorial addresses fundamental characteristics of microphones (frequency response, frequency range, dynamic range, and directionality), which are important for accurate measurements of voice and speech. Method: Technical and voice literature was reviewed and analyzed. The following recommendations on desirable microphone…

  8. 14 CFR 29.1457 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... microphone, located in the best position for recording voice communications originating at the first and... those stations; or (2) By installing a continually energized or voice-actuated lip microphone at the first and second pilot stations. The microphone specified in this paragraph must be so located and,...

  9. Feigned Depression and Feigned Sleepiness: A Voice Acoustical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Nicole; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Harel, Brian T.; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    We sought to profile the voice acoustical correlates of simulated, or feigned depression by neurologically and psychiatrically healthy control subjects. We also sought to identify the voice acoustical correlates of feigned sleepiness for these same subjects. Twenty-two participants were asked to speak freely about a cartoon, to count from 1 to 10,…

  10. Restorative Justice Scripts in Ursula K. Le Guin's "Voices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oziewicz, Marek C.

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines restorative justice scripting in "Voices", the second volume of Ursula K. Le Guin's "Annals of the Western Shore." Narrated by a rape-child, "Voices" is the story of an occupied city-state and of how the conquered and the conquerors negotiate a formula for peaceful coexistence. They are able to do…

  11. Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Dysarthria following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Tsai; Kent, Ray D.; Kent, Jane Finley; Duffy, Joseph R.; Thomas, Jack E.

    2009-01-01

    Although perceptual studies indicate the likelihood of voice disorders in persons with stroke, there have been few objective instrumental studies of voice dysfunction in dysarthria following stroke. This study reports automatic analysis of sustained vowel phonation for 61 speakers with stroke. The results show: (1) men with stroke and healthy…

  12. Voicing Status of Word Final Plosives in Friedreich's Ataxia Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, B. E.; Hewlett, N.

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified final plosive voicing contrast as the highest single error source in dysarthria associated with Friedreich's Ataxia in a group of Irish English-speaking participants. This study aimed to determine the acoustic features underlying misperceptions of voicing status and implications for clinical management.…

  13. Evidence-Based Clinical Voice Assessment: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie; Eadie, Tanya; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Mehta, Daryush; Paul, Diane; Hillman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. Method: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language…

  14. Spectral Analysis of the Voice in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertini, G.; Bonassi, S.; Dall'Armi, V.; Giachetti, I.; Giaquinto, S.; Mignano, M.

    2010-01-01

    The voice quality of individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) is generally described as husky, monotonous and raucous. On the other hand, the voice of DS children is characterized by breathiness, roughness, and nasality and is typically low pitched. However, research on phonation and intonation in these participants is limited. The present study was…

  15. Speech Motor Development during Acquisition of the Voicing Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.; Saxman, John H.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    Lip and jaw movements were studied longitudinally in 19-month-old children as they acquired the voicing contrast for /p/ and /b/. A movement tracking system obtained lip and jaw kinematics as participants produced the target utterances /papa/ and /baba/. Laryngeal adjustments were also tracked through acoustically recorded voice onset time (VOT)…

  16. Convergence of voices: assimilation in linguistic therapy of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gabalda, Isabel Caro

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the convergence of voices in psychotherapy in the context of the assimilation model. Convergence is the link between patients' voices within the community of voices. The main aim of the paper was to explore (a) how convergence (and divergence) is shown during sessions and the usefulness of convergence for the process of assimilation; (b) if a well-structured patient is able to track the sociohistorical antecedents of his/her main voices; and (c) if, at the end of the therapy, the self becomes richer and with more resources.For this aim to be realized, a case study of a patient, María, treated with linguistic therapy of evaluation for 14 sessions, was analysed by using the Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES). Three main problematic experiences or non-dominant voices were identified with the APES: inability to do things, dizziness and tiredness. María's main dominant voices were to cure, solve and overcome problems, to be always doing things and to cope.Results showed a convergence but no divergence of voices as early as session 3. Results also showed how continuity-benevolence assumptions were broken and that, at the end of therapy, the patient's self became richer due to assimilation through the dialogue between non-dominant and dominant voices.Discussion emphasized these results, which are especially representative of a well-integrated patient who showed a healthy multiplicity.

  17. 46 CFR 58.25-15 - Voice communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voice communications. 58.25-15 Section 58.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-15 Voice communications. Each vessel must be provided with...

  18. Voice Assessment of Student Work: Recent Studies and Emerging Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhouse, Barry; Carroll, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Although relatively little attention has been given to the voice assessment of student work, at least when compared with more traditional forms of text-based review, the attention it has received strongly points to a promising form of review that has been hampered by the limits of an emerging technology. A fresh review of voice assessment in light…

  19. Towards a Sociocultural Understanding of Children's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybin, Janet

    2013-01-01

    While "voice" is frequently invoked in discussions of pupils' agency and empowerment, less attention has been paid to the dialogic dynamics of children's voices and the sociocultural features shaping their emergence. Drawing on linguistic ethnographic research involving recent recordings of 10- and 11-year-old children's…

  20. Student Voice: An Emerging Discourse in Irish Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Domnall

    2015-01-01

    In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland's ratification of the…

  1. What Is Voice? What Is Speech? What Is Language?

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD 20892-3456 Toll-free voice: (800) 241-1044 Toll-free TTY: (800) 241-1055 Email: nidcdinfo@ ... questions in English or Spanish. Voice: (800) 241-1044 TTY: (800) 241-1055 nidcdinfo@nidcd.nih.gov ...

  2. Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandre, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    "Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Normal and Voice-Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This investigation compared 19 adolescents' perceptions of the nonspeech personality characteristics of voice-disordered and normal-speaking children. Listeners, who rated recorded speech samples, showed a significant tendency to judge the normal speakers more positively than the voice-disordered speakers. Results suggest developmental trends in…

  4. Exit and Voice: Organizational Loyalty and Dispute Resolution Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares workplace dispute resolution strategies (exit, voice and toleration) in matched pairs of conventional and worker-owned cooperative organizations operating in three industries--coal mining, taxicab driving and organic food distribution. Building on Hirschman's classic exit, voice and loyalty thesis, this research demonstrates…

  5. Function and Voice: Healing the Breach in Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    1994-01-01

    There should not be a split between literacy of function (ability to deal with institutional procedures) and literacy of voice (expression of knowledge and experience). Acquiring functional literacy often involves voicing experience as well as questioning institutional power. Teachers and students should collaborate in bridging the gap. (SK)

  6. Women's voices: lost or mislaid, stolen or strayed?

    PubMed

    Baker, Janet

    2010-04-01

    It is estimated that disorders of voice affect 3-4% of people from all strata of Australian society and while some voice disorders may be caused by organic conditions, most patients are troubled by non-organic or functional voice disorders (FVD). As professionals dealing with these problems, we wonder about the role of strong negative emotions arising from stressful life experiences preceding onset, or dispositional factors that may influence ways in which an individual responds to such incidents. We wonder too, how these complex processes may be inter-related, and if this may account for one person misusing or damaging the voice, while another loses the voice altogether. Evidence for the possible relationship between negative emotions arising out of stressful events and onset of FVD in women is briefly presented. The findings suggest that women with FVD may have difficulty in the processing of negative emotions, and when considered in a wider socio-cultural perspective, it is proposed that some have temporarily lost their voices, while others have been rendered powerless and had their voices stifled. These findings serve as the foundation for a broader discussion about the possible implications for the speech pathology profession which might be at risk of losing its voice.

  7. Perceptual Adaptation of Voice Gender Discrimination with Spectrally Shifted Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether perceptual adaptation improves voice gender discrimination of spectrally shifted vowels and, if so, which acoustic cues contribute to the improvement. Method: Voice gender discrimination was measured for 10 normal-hearing subjects, during 5 days of adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels, produced by processing the…

  8. Sound-producing voice prostheses: 150 years of research.

    PubMed

    Verkerke, G J; Thomson, S L

    2014-07-11

    Advanced laryngeal cancer sometimes necessitates the removal of the complete larynx. This procedure involves suturing the trachea to an opening in the neck, the most disturbing consequence of which is the loss of voice. Since 1859, several devices have been developed for voice restoration, based mainly on a vibrating reed element. However, the resulting sound is very monotonous and thus unpleasant. Presently the most successful way of voice restoration is the placement of a one-way shunt valve in the tracheo-esophageal wall, thus preventing aspiration and allowing air to flow from the lungs to the esophagus, where soft tissues start to vibrate for substitute voicing. However, the quality of this voice is often poor. New artificial vocal folds to be placed within the shunt valve have been developed, and a membrane-principle concept appears very promising, owing to the self-cleaning construction and the high voice quality. Future developments will include electronic voice sources. Hopefully these developments will result in a high-quality voice, after 150 years of research.

  9. Identifying a Comparison for Matching Rough Voice Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sona; Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Perceptual estimates of voice quality obtained using rating scales are subject to contextual biases that influence how individuals assign numbers to estimate the magnitude of vocal quality. Because rating scales are commonly used in clinical settings, assessments of voice quality are also subject to the limitations of these scales.…

  10. Listening to More Voices: Why Being Heard Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisha-Primo, Iris; Sandler, Simone; Goldfrad, Keren

    2015-01-01

    This article examines various voices in a triangulated needs analysis project aimed at reevaluating the curriculum of a graduate level EAP program. Previous work (Elisha-Primo, et al., 2010) presented students' voices; this article focuses on department chairpersons and graduate advisors, and graduate EFL instructors with respect to the perceived…

  11. A Phenomenological Study: Perceptions of Student Voice on Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marberry, Tammie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore rural high school graduates', teachers', and administrators' perceptions of student voice on academic success. This study was designed to examine the following three questions: What were the common beliefs regarding opportunities for input, or student voice, on the educational…

  12. Secure digital voice communications in the Defense Data Network (DDN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, M.; Gan, D.; Oesterreicher, C.

    1985-03-01

    This final report has investigated and validated one of the fourteen key features of the future, all-digital World-wide Digital Systems Architecture (WWDSA), namely the enhanced 2.4 Kbps secure voice survivability through the use of packetized voice and the use of packetized voice and the interconnection between the voice survivability through the use of packetized voice and the interconnection between the voice (DSN) phase implementation plan in the report, Secure Voice, as provided by the STU-IIs, can be implemented in the DDN in the late 1980s time-frame with no technical and minimum schedule risk. VIUs are proposed to interconnect, the family of secure voice terminals, called STU-IIs, to the DDN. VIUs contain modan, signalling and supervision (S/S), and processor modules and are supported by the implementation model of the protocol architecture that (with the TAC as processor module) was proposed in the report. An optimum system-level architecture employing the VIUs and the proposed in the implementation plan based on an extensive evaluation.

  13. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  14. Voice Recognition Software Accuracy with Second Language Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the potential of the use of voice-recognition technology with second-language speakers of English. Involves the analysis of the output produced by a small group of very competent second-language subjects reading a text into the voice recognition software Dragon Systems "Dragon NaturallySpeaking." (Author/VWL)

  15. Conclusion: The Intersection of Student Voice and Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    This concluding chapter examines how this book on student voice intersects with previous research about policy, especially policy implementation and sustainability. Mapping onto the themes of this volume, Discovering, Developing, and Demonstrating the power of student voice, I focus on three issues--legitimizing the role of young people in the…

  16. Human brain mechanisms for the early analysis of voices.

    PubMed

    Warren, J D; Scott, S K; Price, C J; Griffiths, T D

    2006-07-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated human brain mechanisms that are involved in the analysis of voices as sound sources and in the pre-semantic analysis of voice information. The source of the voice was altered by changing the speaker, and the salience of the voice was altered by changing the amount of spectrotemporal detail. We identified a mechanism for detecting a change in the source of the voice in the posterior superior temporal lobe and anatomically distinct mechanisms for the detailed analysis of voice information in a bilateral network extending from the posterior to the anterior superior temporal lobe surrounding the superior temporal sulcus. The findings are consistent with a processing hierarchy in which general source attributes are analyzed in the posterior superior temporal lobe, abstraction of voice identity features occurs in posterior superior temporal sulcus, and further analysis of voice information occurs in anterior superior temporal sulcus and higher order cortices in the middle and anterior temporal lobe.

  17. The "VoiceForum" Platform for Spoken Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fynn, Fohn; Wigham, Chiara R.

    2011-01-01

    Showcased in the courseware exhibition, "VoiceForum" is a web-based software platform for asynchronous learner interaction in threaded discussions using voice and text. A dedicated space is provided for the tutor who can give feedback on a posted message and dialogue with the participants at a separate level from the main interactional…

  18. Small Voices, Big Impact: Preparing Students for Learning and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Jennifer L.; McGarry, Lorraine S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two teachers from a public school in the United States describe their beliefs about the importance of using student voice as a foundation for increasing student efficacy, recognizing student individuality, and addressing curriculum standards. Sharing examples from their classrooms, the authors illustrate how student voice can help…

  19. The Human Voice in Speech and Singing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblom, Björn; Sundberg, Johan

    This chapter speech describes various aspects of the human voice as a means of communication in speech and singing. From the point of view of function, vocal sounds can be regarded as the end result of a three stage process: (1) the compression of air in the respiratory system, which produces an exhalatory airstream, (2) the vibrating vocal folds' transformation of this air stream to an intermittent or pulsating air stream, which is a complex tone, referred to as the voice source, and (3) the filtering of this complex tone in the vocal tract resonator. The main function of the respiratory system is to generate an overpressure of air under the glottis, or a subglottal pressure. Section 16.1 describes different aspects of the respiratory system of significance to speech and singing, including lung volume ranges, subglottal pressures, and how this pressure is affected by the ever-varying recoil forces. The complex tone generated when the air stream from the lungs passes the vibrating vocal folds can be varied in at least three dimensions: fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectrum. Section 16.2 describes how these properties of the voice source are affected by the subglottal pressure, the length and stiffness of the vocal folds and how firmly the vocal folds are adducted. Section 16.3 gives an account of the vocal tract filter, how its form determines the frequencies of its resonances, and Sect. 16.4 gives an account for how these resonance frequencies or formants shape the vocal sounds by imposing spectrum peaks separated by spectrum valleys, and how the frequencies of these peaks determine vowel and voice qualities. The remaining sections of the chapter describe various aspects of the acoustic signals used for vocal communication in speech and singing. The syllable structure is discussed in Sect. 16.5, the closely related aspects of rhythmicity and timing in speech and singing is described in Sect. 16.6, and pitch and rhythm

  20. The Human Voice in Speech and Singing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblom, Björn; Sundberg, Johan

    This chapter describes various aspects of the human voice as a means of communication in speech and singing. From the point of view of function, vocal sounds can be regarded as the end result of a three stage process: (1) the compression of air in the respiratory system, which produces an exhalatory airstream, (2) the vibrating vocal folds' transformation of this air stream to an intermittent or pulsating air stream, which is a complex tone, referred to as the voice source, and (3) the filtering of this complex tone in the vocal tract resonator. The main function of the respiratory system is to generate an overpressure of air under the glottis, or a subglottal pressure. Section 16.1 describes different aspects of the respiratory system of significance to speech and singing, including lung volume ranges, subglottal pressures, and how this pressure is affected by the ever-varying recoil forces. The complex tone generated when the air stream from the lungs passes the vibrating vocal folds can be varied in at least three dimensions: fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectrum. Section 16.2 describes how these properties of the voice source are affected by the subglottal pressure, the length and stiffness of the vocal folds and how firmly the vocal folds are adducted. Section 16.3 gives an account of the vocal tract filter, how its form determines the frequencies of its resonances, and Sect. 16.4 gives an account for how these resonance frequencies or formants shape the vocal sounds by imposing spectrum peaks separated by spectrum valleys, and how the frequencies of these peaks determine vowel and voice qualities. The remaining sections of the chapter describe various aspects of the acoustic signals used for vocal communication in speech and singing. The syllable structure is discussed in Sect. 16.5, the closely related aspects of rhythmicity and timing in speech and singing is described in Sect. 16.6, and pitch and rhythm aspects in Sect. 16.7. The impressive control

  1. Carrying Synchronous Voice Data On Asynchronous Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Buffers restore synchronism for internal use and permit asynchronism in external transmission. Proposed asynchronous local-area digital communication network (LAN) carries synchronous voice, data, or video signals, or non-real-time asynchronous data signals. Network uses double buffering scheme that reestablishes phase and frequency references at each node in network. Concept demonstrated in token-ring network operating at 80 Mb/s, pending development of equipment operating at planned data rate of 200 Mb/s. Technique generic and used with any LAN as long as protocol offers deterministic (or bonded) access delays and sufficient capacity.

  2. Groningen prosthesis for voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Annyas, A A; Nijdam, H F; Escajadillo, J R; Mahieu, H F; Leever, H

    1984-02-01

    Singer and Blom's endoscopic technique, using a single valved silicone prosthesis, constituted a dramatic advance in speech rehabilitation following total laryngectomy. Since 1980, we have developed a silicone biflanged prosthesis that overcomes some of the inconveniences of previous prostheses. Insertion via the mouth and the oesophagus, or as a primary procedure during total laryngectomy is easily done with the use of specially developed instruments. The success rate in 36 patients in which the voice button was inserted at the time of total laryngectomy was 86.2%.

  3. Exposure to maternal voice in preterm infants: a review.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Charlene

    2010-02-01

    The mother's voice, along with other developmentally appropriate sensory events (ie, touch, light, smells), stimulates maturation of the sensory systems and helps shape normal fetal development. While vast changes in the neonatal intensive care unit have occurred over the last 2 decades, little research has addressed the loss of exposure to maternal voice for the preterm infant. To address this gap, we compared studies that directly investigated effects of exposure to maternal voice on preterm infants. Studies reviewed were conducted between 1972 and 2007. All presented recordings of maternal voice at sound levels above current recommendations, and few of the findings reached statistical significance. Some potentially positive developmental effects were indicated. Future study of the effects of exposure to maternal voice on preterm infants using recommended sound levels is needed.

  4. Familiarity influences judgments of sex: the case of voice recognition.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Mike; Bonner, Lesley

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which subjects made judgments about the sex or the familiarity of a voice. In experiment 1, subjects were fans of the BBC-radio soap opera, The Archers, and familiar voice clips were taken from this programme. Subjects showed a large reduction in response times when making sex judgments to familiar voices, despite the fact that sex judgments are generally much faster than familiarity judgments. In experiment 2, the same familiar clips were played to subjects unfamiliar with the soap opera, and no difference was observed in times to make sex judgments to Archers or non-Archers voices. We conclude that, unlike the case of face recognition, sex and identity processing of voices are not independent. The findings constrain models of person recognition across multiple modalities.

  5. Mares Prefer the Voices of Highly Fertile Stallions

    PubMed Central

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kévin; Trabalon, Marie; Cuir, Frédérique; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that stallion whinnies, known to encode caller size, also encoded information about caller arousal and fertility, and the reactions of mares in relation to type of voice. Voice acoustic features are correlated with arousal and reproduction success, the lower-pitched the stallion’s voice, the slower his heart beat and the higher his fertility. Females from three study groups preferred playbacks of low-pitched voices. Hence, females are attracted by frequencies encoding for large male size, calmness and high fertility. More work is needed to explore the relative importance of morpho-physiological features. Assortative mating may be involved as large females preferred voices of larger stallions. Our study contributes to basic and applied ongoing research on mammal reproduction, and questions the mechanisms used by females to detect males’ fertility. PMID:25714814

  6. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  7. Voice estimation in patients after reconstructive subtotal laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment of laryngeal cancers, may include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination. Total laryngectomy (TL) has been the standard surgical treatment. Partial laryngectomy procedures were performed, their advantage over TL is preservation of laryngeal functions. Methods The investigation was carried out on a group of 20 patients (3 female and 17 male), who underwent surgery according the techniques mentioned above. The methods of investigation were based on perceptual voice estimation (GRBAS), videolaryngostroboscopy, acoustic voice analysis, aerodynamic measure maximum phonation time, voice self-assessment (VHI). Results and Conclusions The perceptual voice estimation revealed a good phonation result in only 3 cases after using surgery with the Calearo method as well as the best results of MPT. The VHI reflected severe voice handicap in 2 patients (26 to 40 points). No statistically significant differences were observed between the values of the acoustic parameters in MDVP analysis after following operation -CHEP, Calearo, Sedlacek. PMID:22029703

  8. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  9. Transcriptional enhancers: Transcription, function and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Philippa; Yosefzon, Yahav; Rudnizky, Sergei; Pnueli, Lilach

    2016-01-01

    Active transcriptional enhancers are often transcribed to eRNAs, whose changing levels mirror those of the target gene mRNA. We discuss some of the reported functions of these eRNAs and their likely diversity to allow utilization of distinct cis regulatory regions to enhance transcription in diverse developmental and cellular contexts.

  10. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    PubMed

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech.

  11. National Strategic Research Plan, 1994-1995: Language and Language Impairments, Balance and Balance Disorders, Voice and Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This report is the result of three expert panels (on language and language impairments, balance and balance disorders, and voice and voice disorders) which met in 1994 and 1995 and reported research accomplishments, federal program goals, and research opportunities to the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Board. For…

  12. Effects of Voice Therapy on Relative Fundamental Frequency during Voicing Offset and Onset in Patients with Vocal Hyperfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Cara E.; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Heaton, James T.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relative fundamental frequency (RFF) surrounding a voiceless consonant in patients with hyperfunctionally related voice disorders would normalize after a successful course of voice therapy. Method: Pre- and posttherapy measurements of RFF were compared in 16 subjects undergoing voice…

  13. Effects of an Extended Version of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment on Voice and Speech in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielman, Jennifer; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Mahler, Leslie; Halpern, Angela; Gavin, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined vocal SPL, voice handicap, and speech characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD) following an extended version of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT), to help determine whether current treatment dosages can be altered without compromising clinical outcomes. Method: Twelve participants with idiopathic PD…

  14. Classroom Conditions to Secure Enjoyment and Achievement: The Pupils' Voice. Listening to the Voice of "Every Child Matters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that pupil voice and the active engagement of pupils in shaping their own educational experience are integral to the success of the "Enjoy and Achieve" strand of the "Every child matters: Change for children" programme. Through accessing the voice of Key Stage 2 pupils, insight was gained into what pupils…

  15. Does a pneumotach accurately characterize voice function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Gage; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A study is presented which addresses how a pneumotach might adversely affect clinical measurements of voice function. A pneumotach is a device, typically a mask, worn over the mouth, in order to measure time-varying glottal volume flow. By measuring the time-varying difference in pressure across a known aerodynamic resistance element in the mask, the glottal volume flow waveform is estimated. Because it adds aerodynamic resistance to the vocal system, there is some concern that using a pneumotach may not accurately portray the behavior of the voice. To test this hypothesis, experiments were performed in a simplified airway model with the principal dimensions of an adult human upper airway. A compliant constriction, fabricated from silicone rubber, modeled the vocal folds. Variations of transglottal pressure, time-averaged volume flow, model vocal fold vibration amplitude, and radiated sound with subglottal pressure were performed, with and without the pneumotach in place, and differences noted. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  16. The singing voice and country music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leborgne, Wendy D.

    2003-04-01

    Preliminary acoustic measures on the Broadway Belt voice suggest uniqueness in this type of vocal production. This study objectively compared the acoustic production of the Broadway Belt voice in four elite and four average belters. Three casting directors evaluated the vocal quality of 20 musical theater majors proficient in the singing style referred to as belting. Each belter sang two specified vocalizes as well as six short excerpts from the belting repertoire. The raters judged the belters on a set of seven perceptual parameters (loudness, vibrato, ring, timbre, focus, nasality, and registration breaks) and reported an overall score. Initially, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated and reported for perceived loudness, vibrato, ring, timbre, focus, and nasality for the elite and average groups. Then, significant acoustic results related to vocal intensity, amplitude and magnitude of vibrato, increased spectral energy in the expected Singer's Formant area, and trends in F1-F2 characteristics were assessed. Overall patterns of these results suggest the elite belters maintained a greater magnitude of vocal vibrato, a brighter vocal quality on some vowels, and different harmonic--formant relationships than average belters. Specific relevant data related to these acoustical events will be the focus of this presentation.

  17. The Geneva Faces and Voices (GEFAV) database.

    PubMed

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Delplanque, Sylvain; Mehu-Blantar, Ines; Cabral, Katharin Mylena Da Paz; Felicio, Marisa Domingos; Sander, David

    2015-12-01

    Although many facial and vocal databases are available for research, very few of them have controlled the range of attractiveness of the stimuli that they offer. To fill this gap, we created the GEneva Faces and Voices (GEFAV) database, providing standardized faces (static and dynamic neutral, smiling) and voices (speaking sentences, vowels) of young European adults. A total of 61 women and 50 men 18-35 years old agreed to be part of the GEFAV stimuli, and two rating studies involving 285 participants provided evaluations of the facial and vocal samples. The final set of stimuli was satisfactory in terms of attractiveness range (wide and rather symmetrical distribution over the attractiveness continuum) and the reliability of the ratings (high consistency between the two rating studies, high interrater agreement in the final rating study). Moreover, the database showed an adequate validity, since a series of findings described by earlier research on human attractiveness were confirmed-namely, that facial and vocal attractiveness are predicted by femininity and health in women, and by masculinity, dominance, and trustworthiness in men. In future studies, the GEFAV stimuli may be used intact or transformed, individually or in multimodal combinations, to investigate a wide range of mechanisms, such as the behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological processes involved in social cognition.

  18. Looking outside the (voice)box.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette; Rothblum, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Laura S. Brown, PhD, is a clinical and forensic psychologist in independent practice in Seattle, Washington. The bulk of her scholarly work has been in the fields of feminist therapy theory, trauma treatment, lesbian and gay issues, assessment and diagnosis, ethics and standards of care in psychotherapy, and cultural competence. She has authored or edited ten professional books, including the award-winning Subversive Dialogues: Theory in Feminist Therapy, as well as more than 140 other professional publications. She has also recently published her first book for general audiences, Your turn for care: Surviving the aging and death of the adults who harmed you. Laura has been featured in five psychotherapy training videos produced by the American Psychological Association. She was President of American Psychological Association Divisions 35 (Society for the Psychology of Women), 44 (Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Issues), and 56 (Trauma Psychology). Laura was also President of the Washington State Psychological Association. She is the founder and Director of the Fremont Community Therapy Project, a low-fee psychotherapy training clinic in Seattle. In the fall of 2000, she was the on-site psychologist for the reality show Survivor: The Australian Outback. In 1987, Laura lost her voice and was diagnosed with spasmodic dysphonia. In 1988, she found her voice again.

  19. Reducing Interference in ATC Voice Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battle, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Three methods have been proposed to be developed to enable reduction of the types of interference that often occur among voice-communication radio signals involved in air-traffic control (ATC). For historical reasons and for compatibility with some navigation systems, control towers and aircraft use amplitude modulation (AM) for voice communication. In the presence of two simultaneous AM transmissions in the same frequency channel, what is heard through a receiver includes not only the audio portions of both transmissions but also an audio heterodyne signal at the difference between the carrier frequencies of the transmissions (as a practical matter, the carrier frequencies almost always differ somewhat). The situation is further complicated by multiple heterodyne signals in the presence of more than two simultaneous transmissions. Even if one of the transmissions does not include AM because of a transmitter malfunction or because a transmitter was inadvertently turned on or left on, the heterodyne signal makes it difficult to understand the audio of the other transmission. The proposed methods would utilize digital signal processing to counteract this type of interference.

  20. Segmentation of singing voice within music signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setubal, Phabio J.; Filho, Sidnei N.; Seara, Rui

    2004-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to accomplish the automatic segmentation of singing voice within music signals, based on the difference between the dynamic harmonic content of singing voice and that of musical instrument signals. The obtained results are compared with those of another approach proposed in the literature, considering the same music database. For both techniques, an accuracy rate around 80% is obtained, even using a more rigorous performance measure for our approach only. As an advantage, the new procedure presents lower computational complexity. In addition, we discuss other results obtained by extending the tests over the whole database (upholding the same performance level) and by discriminating the error types (boundaries shifted in time, insertion and deletion of singing segments). The analysis of these errors suggests some alternative ways of reducing them, as for example, to adopt a confidence level based on a minimum harmonic content for the input signals. In this way, considering only signals with confidence level equal to one, the obtained performance is improved to almost 87%.

  1. Automatic source speaker selection for voice conversion.

    PubMed

    Turk, Oytun; Arslan, Levent M

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of source speaker selection for a weighted codebook mapping based voice conversion algorithm. First, the dependency on source speakers is evaluated in a subjective listening test using 180 different source-target pairs from a database of 20 speakers. Subjective scores for similarity to target speaker's voice and quality are obtained. Statistical analysis of scores confirms the dependence of performance on source speakers for both male-to-male and female-to-female transformations. A source speaker selection algorithm is devised given a target speaker and a set of source speaker candidates. For this purpose, an artificial neural network (ANN) is trained that learns the regression between a set of acoustical distance measures and the subjective scores. The estimated scores are used in source speaker ranking. The average cross-correlation coefficient between rankings obtained from median subjective scores and rankings estimated by the algorithm is 0.84 for similarity and 0.78 for quality in male-to-male transformations. The results for female-to-female transformations were less reliable with a cross-correlation value of 0.58 for both similarity and quality.

  2. Redeeming the lost voice of the ancestors.

    PubMed

    Troudart, Michal

    2012-09-01

    The Holocaust of the Jews in World War II involved not only the murder of 6 million Jews but also the traumatic destruction and wipe-out of whole communities, with their rich culture and tradition which had existed for centuries. In places where no one survived, it was almost impossible to reconstruct the collective memory of those communities. The voice of the ancestors was lost. As a daughter of Holocaust survivors, I have always felt the strong presence of the loss, not only of the murdered family members but also of the ancient colourful world of Eastern European Jews. I have always felt compelled to link back to that lost world. In the past three years, my journey to the pre-war past has become more intense. This article describes the double role of my journey: it is both an attempt to reconstruct, redeem and preserve the memory of the lost ancestors, and a personal journey to the echoes of my ancestors' voices within my soul.

  3. Transcription in archaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Ouzounis, C. A.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Using the sequences of all the known transcription-associated proteins from Bacteria and Eucarya (a total of 4,147), we have identified their homologous counterparts in the four complete archaeal genomes. Through extensive sequence comparisons, we establish the presence of 280 predicted transcription factors or transcription-associated proteins in the four archaeal genomes, of which 168 have homologs only in Bacteria, 51 have homologs only in Eucarya, and the remaining 61 have homologs in both phylogenetic domains. Although bacterial and eukaryotic transcription have very few factors in common, each exclusively shares a significantly greater number with the Archaea, especially the Bacteria. This last fact contrasts with the obvious close relationship between the archaeal and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms per se, and in particular, basic transcription initiation. We interpret these results to mean that the archaeal transcription system has retained more ancestral characteristics than have the transcription mechanisms in either of the other two domains.

  4. The applicability of the dysphonia severity index and the voice handicap index in evaluating effects of voice therapy and phonosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hakkesteegt, Marieke M; Brocaar, Michael P; Wieringa, Marjan H

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to investigate the applicability of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in evaluating effects of intervention between groups of patients and for intrasubject differences and whether DSI and VHI are complementing measurements. Analyses of measurement data before and after intervention of 171 patients with voice disorders. The voice quality was measured objectively with the DSI. The perceived voice handicap was measured with the VHI. Three groups of patients were used: patients who had voice therapy, phonosurgery, or no intervention. DSI and VHI improved significantly after intervention in the voice therapy and the surgery group (median difference DSI 1.19 and 3.03, VHI -8 and -26, respectively). The intrasubject results were analyzed based on the test-retest variability of DSI and VHI. Significant better DSI and VHI scores after intervention were found in, respectively, 22% and 38% of the patients with voice therapy, and 56% and 78% of the patients with surgery. In the no intervention group, this was 11% and 12%. In 37% of the patients, the differences before and after intervention in DSI and VHI were in discordance. The DSI and VHI are able to show significant differences after intervention for voice disorders between groups of patients. The DSI and VHI can be used to determine a significant intrasubject result of intervention. The DSI and VHI measure each different aspects of the voice and are complementing measurements. The DSI is therefore applicable in clinical practice for objective evaluation of voice quality and the VHI for subjective evaluation of the perceived handicap by the patient self.

  5. 76 FR 35506 - Voice One Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Voice One Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 15, 2011. It appears to the Securities and... Voice One Corp. because of questions regarding the accuracy of assertions by Voice One Corp., and by... protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of Voice One Corp. Therefore, it...

  6. Acoustic-Perceptual Correlates of Voice Quality in Elderly Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary M.; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Common perceptual characteristics of the elderly voice include hoarseness, breathiness, instability, and a change in the pitch of the voice. Although research is available concerning changes in the elderly voice, little research has been completed to examine the relationship between the perception of voice quality and acoustic measures. The…

  7. Effect of testosterone therapy on the female voice

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, R.; York, A.; Dimitrakakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This prospective study was designed to investigate the effect of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implants, on the female voice. Methods Ten women who had opted for testosterone therapy were recruited for voice analysis. Voices were recorded prior to treatment and at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months while on testosterone therapy. Acoustic samples were collected with subjects reading a sentence, reading a paragraph, and participating in a conversation. Significant changes in the voice over time were investigated using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with the fundamental frequency (F 0) as a response variable. Demographic variables associated with characteristics of the voice were assessed. Results There were no significant differences in average F 0 related to smoking history, menopausal status, weight, or body mass index. There was no difference in average fundamental speaking frequency (sentence, paragraph, conversation) between the pre-treatment group and any post-treatment group at 3 and 12 months. There was an increase in sentence speech F 0 at 6 months. Two of three patients with lower than expected F 0 at baseline improved on testosterone therapy. Conclusion Therapeutic levels of testosterone, delivered by subcutaneous implant, had no adverse affect on the female voice including lowering or deepening of the voice. PMID:26857354

  8. Influence of complaints and singing style in singers voice handicap.

    PubMed

    Moreti, Felipe; Ávila, Maria Emília Barros de; Rocha, Clara; Borrego, Maria Cristina de Menezes; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify whether the difference of singing styles and the presence of vocal complaints influence the perception of voice handicap of singers. One hundred eighteen singing voice handicap self-assessment protocols were selected: 17 popular singers with vocal complaints, 42 popular singers without complaints, 17 classic singers with complaints, and 42 classic singers without complaints. The groups were similar regarding age, gender and voice types. Both protocols used--Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) and Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI)--have specific questions to their respective singing styles, and consist of 30 items equally divided into three subscales: disability (functional domain), handicap (emotional domain) and impairment (organic domain), answered according to the frequency of occurrence. Each subscale has a maximum of 40 points, and the total score is 120 points. The higher the score, the higher the singing voice handicap perceived. For statistical analysis, we used the ANOVA test, with 5% of significance. Classical and popular singers referred higher impairment, followed by disability and handicap. However, the degree of this perception varied according to the singing style and the presence of vocal complaints. The classical singers with vocal complaints showed higher voice handicap than popular singers with vocal complaints, while the classic singers without complaints reported lower handicap than popular singers without complaints. This evidences that classical singers have higher perception of their own voice, and that vocal disturbances in this group may cause greater voice handicap when compared to popular singers.

  9. Color and texture associations in voice-induced synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Anja; Simmons, David; Simner, Julia; Smith, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Voice-induced synesthesia, a form of synesthesia in which synesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people's voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synesthetic color and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of “voice quality” (e.g., nasal, whisper, falsetto). Experiences of three different groups—self-reported voice synesthetes, phoneticians, and controls—were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synesthetes used more color and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colors, the matching of “whispery” voices with smoke-like textures, and the matching of “harsh” and “creaky” voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synesthetic inducers. PMID:24032023

  10. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Subtypes of Voice-Hearing.

    PubMed

    Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services.

  11. Adaptations in humans for assessing physical strength from the voice

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Aaron; Bryant, Gregory A.; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Krauss, Andre; Gurven, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that humans, like many other animals, have a specialization for assessing fighting ability from visual cues. Because it is probable that the voice contains cues of strength and formidability that are not available visually, we predicted that selection has also equipped humans with the ability to estimate physical strength from the voice. We found that subjects accurately assessed upper-body strength in voices taken from eight samples across four distinct populations and language groups: the Tsimane of Bolivia, Andean herder-horticulturalists and United States and Romanian college students. Regardless of whether raters were told to assess height, weight, strength or fighting ability, they produced similar ratings that tracked upper-body strength independent of height and weight. Male voices were more accurately assessed than female voices, which is consistent with ethnographic data showing a greater tendency among males to engage in violent aggression. Raters extracted information about strength from the voice that was not supplied from visual cues, and were accurate with both familiar and unfamiliar languages. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that both men and women can accurately assess men's physical strength from the voice, and suggest that estimates of strength are used to assess fighting ability. PMID:20554544

  12. Color and texture associations in voice-induced synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Moos, Anja; Simmons, David; Simner, Julia; Smith, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Voice-induced synesthesia, a form of synesthesia in which synesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people's voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synesthetic color and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of "voice quality" (e.g., nasal, whisper, falsetto). Experiences of three different groups-self-reported voice synesthetes, phoneticians, and controls-were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synesthetes used more color and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colors, the matching of "whispery" voices with smoke-like textures, and the matching of "harsh" and "creaky" voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synesthetic inducers.

  13. Voice analysis after cancer treatment with organ preservation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study objects to measure, subjectively and objectively, the voice and life quality of patients with oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, after organ-preservation treatment. Methods 25 cases diagnosed and treated at a high complexity oncology center in southeastern Brazil. All had oral cavity, pharyngeal or laryngeal cancer, with a therapeutic proposal of radiotherapy alone or simultaneous radiochemotherapy. Acoustic voice analysis and the Voice Handicap Index protocol were used to measure voice quality. The data were analyzed through the χ2, Student's t and Kruskal Wallis tests. Significance level was 5%. Results After treatment, 40% complained of hoarseness, 56% complained of throat clearing, and no patient reported aphonia. On the voice quality auditory scale, 36% had moderate dysphonia. Acoustic voice analysis ranged from 184 to 221 Hz in females, and from 92 to 241 Hz in males. As for quality of life, most patients had mild physical, functional and emotional handicaps. Conclusions Chemio-radiation organ preservation protocols in the patients studied may leave the organ but with reduced function which brings communication sequelae. In such cases, voice assessment and quality of life protocols, as well as speech therapy rehabilitation, are important tools to preserve function, measure and treat alterations, and reintegrate patients into the community. PMID:21504618

  14. Multidimensional analyses of voicing offsets and onsets in female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Laura L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lucero, Jorge C.

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates cross-speaker differences in the factors that predict voicing thresholds during abduction-adduction gestures in six normal women. Measures of baseline airflow, pulse amplitude, subglottal pressure, and fundamental frequency were made at voicing offset and onset during intervocalic /h/, produced in varying vowel environments and at different loudness levels, and subjected to relational analyses to determine which factors were most strongly related to the timing of voicing cessation or initiation. The data indicate that (a) all speakers showed differences between voicing offsets and onsets, but the degree of this effect varied across speakers; (b) loudness and vowel environment have speaker-specific effects on the likelihood of devoicing during /h/; and (c) baseline flow measures significantly predicted times of voicing offset and onset in all participants, but other variables contributing to voice timing differed across speakers. Overall, the results suggest that individual speakers have unique methods of achieving phonatory goals during running speech. These data contribute to the literature on individual differences in laryngeal function, and serve as a means of evaluating how well laryngeal models can reproduce the range of voicing behavior used by speakers during running speech tasks.

  15. Eye Movements Reveal Fast, Voice-Specific Priming

    PubMed Central

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.; Hout, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    In spoken word perception, voice specificity effects are well-documented: When people hear repeated words in some task, performance is generally better when repeated items are presented in their originally heard voices, relative to changed voices. A key theoretical question about voice specificity effects concerns their time-course: Some studies suggest that episodic traces exert their influence late in lexical processing (the time-course hypothesis; McLennan & Luce, 2005), whereas others suggest that episodic traces influence immediate, online processing. We report two eye-tracking studies investigating the time-course of voice-specific priming within and across cognitive tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed modified lexical decision or semantic classification to words spoken by four speakers. The tasks required participants to click a red “×” or a blue “+” located randomly within separate visual half-fields, necessitating trial-by-trial visual search with consistent half-field response mapping. After a break, participants completed a second block with new and repeated items, half spoken in changed voices. Voice effects were robust very early, appearing in saccade initiation times. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern while changing tasks across blocks, ruling out a response priming account. In the General Discussion, we address the time-course hypothesis, focusing on the challenge it presents for empirical disconfirmation, and highlighting the broad importance of indexical effects, beyond studies of priming. PMID:26726911

  16. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Subtypes of Voice-Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Smailes, David; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Dodgson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for voice-hearing (i.e., auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) has, at best, small to moderate effects. One possible reason for this limited efficacy is that current CBT approaches tend to conceptualize voice-hearing as a homogenous experience in terms of the cognitive processes involved in AVH. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of voice-hearing suggests that many different cognitive processes may be involved in the etiology of AVH. These heterogeneous voice-hearing experiences do, however, appear to cluster into a set of subtypes, opening up the possibility of tailoring treatment to the subtype of AVH that a voice-hearer reports. In this paper, we (a) outline our rationale for tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing, (b) describe CBT for three putative subtypes of AVH (inner speech-based AVH, memory-based AVH, and hypervigilance AVH), and (c) discuss potential limitations and problems with such an approach. We conclude by arguing that tailoring CBT to subtypes of voice-hearing could prove to be a valuable therapeutic development, which may be especially effective when used in early intervention in psychosis services. PMID:26733919

  17. All voices matter in experience design: A commitment to action in engaging patient and family voice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jason A

    2016-09-01

    This article intends to frame the broader concept of experience design and the engagement of patient and family voice, reinforcing how truly aligned healthcare professionals are not only on the value of this work but also in understanding the benefits of it. When addressing the idea of design, it is important to look at the broadest possible construct and consider the engagement of patient and family voices in healthcare operational efforts, not as passive advisors but as active participants in data gathering, providing input, and with actual decision-making. The article offers engagement is not just part of process, facility, or experience design but must be part of the decisions made in how organizations in healthcare today are built, led, and sustained, fundamentally reinforcing our opportunity in healthcare is to focus on overall experience with purpose and intention. This commitment is what will lead to the outcomes all ultimately hope to achieve.

  18. Relating objective measurements to expert evaluation of voice quality in Western classical singing: critical perceptual parameters.

    PubMed

    Ekholm, E; Papagiannis, G C; Chagnon, F P

    1998-06-01

    Communication between voice pedagogues and voice scientists is often impeded by reliance on colorful and sometimes seemingly contradictory descriptions of vocal production and voice quality. A recent study identified perceptual criteria which are generally used by voice experts for the assessment of voice quality in classical singing. In the present study, performances by singers of various voice types and levels of accomplishment were rated by panels of expert voice teachers according to four perceptual criteria: "resonance/ring," "color/warmth," "clarity/focus," and "appropriate vibrato." Subjective ratings were related to objective measurements taken from acoustic analysis of the voice signal. Possible acoustic correlates of critical perceptual parameters influencing judgments of voice quality were thus identified. Results could help bridge the terminology gap between vocal artists and scientists, and help to promote understanding of the way in which acoustic stimuli influence perception of voice quality.

  19. Analysis of Voice Quality Problems of Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    were built to provide service for voice applications which require low delay, low delay variance (jitter) and a constant bandwidth and they have been...of controls to TCP which will be explained further in paragraph 2. These low level characteristics of IP make it a fairly robust protocol for...bit-rate codecs introduce much less processing delay than low -bit-rate codecs as a result of their simple algorithms which do not require much

  20. A TDM link with channel coding and digital voice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. W.; Tu, K.; Harton, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    The features of a TDM (time-division multiplexed) link model are described. A PCM telemetry sequence was coded for error correction and multiplexed with a digitized voice channel. An all-digital implementation of a variable-slope delta modulation algorithm was used to digitize the voice channel. The results of extensive testing are reported. The measured coding gain and the system performance over a Gaussian channel are compared with theoretical predictions and computer simulations. Word intelligibility scores are reported as a measure of voice channel performance.

  1. Voice Outcomes of Transoral Laser Microsurgery of the Larynx.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Dana M; Laoufi, Samia; Brasnu, Daniel F

    2015-08-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) is the mainstay in the treatment of early (TisT1T2) glottic cancer. Current knowledge concerning voice quality and voice-related quality of life in patients treated using TLM is based on small cohort studies using various instruments to evaluate these functional results. The bulk of the literature indicates that subjective and objective measurements of voice quality can return to normal or almost normal values after TLM, generally after 6 to 12 months and particularly after cordectomy types I, II, and III.

  2. A Voice Coding Technique for Improved Hane Survivability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-28

    set cf words that demonstrate the phonemic features of speech (see Table 3-1): voicing, nasality, sustention , sibilation, graveness, and compactness...Table 3-1. DRT word pairs. Stimulus Words used in the DRT VOICING NASALrrY SUSTENTION VW*ed-UmoicPd Naual-Oral Susfained ..-Interru~pted veal-feet...7 - I0 FEMALE WEAKER o - o 60 60 0 064.0 kbps -6.56 kbPe 4.0kbps 50 o- 50.,40 kbpo voicing nasality sustention sibilatlon graveness compactness 2.40

  3. Description of AMSC's North American Private Voice Network (PVN) service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigler, C. E.; Magliato, N. H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides both a technical description of the American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) Point-to-Multipoint Voice service and initial service offering descriptions. AMSC has selected the term Private Voice Network (PVN) for this service. The PVN service has been designed to take advantage of AMSC's continent-wide coverage. Thus PVN provides a service not currently found in the mobile communications marketplace, seamless 2-way point-multipoint voice communications across North America. This paper describes the PVN system within terms of physical components and configurations overall PVN system capabilities and initial PVN product offerings.

  4. Voice control of the space shuttle video system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Dotson, R. S.; Brown, J. W.; Lewis, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A pilot voice control system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to test and evaluate the feasibility of controlling the shuttle TV cameras and monitors by voice commands utilizes a commercially available discrete word speech recognizer which can be trained to the individual utterances of each operator. Successful ground tests were conducted using a simulated full-scale space shuttle manipulator. The test configuration involved the berthing, maneuvering and deploying a simulated science payload in the shuttle bay. The handling task typically required 15 to 20 minutes and 60 to 80 commands to 4 TV cameras and 2 TV monitors. The best test runs show 96 to 100 percent voice recognition accuracy.

  5. Intelligibility and Space-based Voice with Relaxed Delay Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam; Okino, Clayton; Cheng, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The inherent aspects and flaws surrounding space based communication is technically described and the math surrounding encoding and decoding LT Codes is examined. Utilizing LT codes as a means of reducing packet erasures due to corrupted packets on an RF link can result in higher voice quality. PESQ-MOS measure was used to analyze voice degradation over space links tested for LT codec size and number of 10ms per packet.Extensions utilizing LT codes to improve the packet erasure performance and combining the use of ASR could provide for a solid means of identifying the benefit in terms of intelligibility of voice communications in space-based networks

  6. Voice control of a dual-arm telerobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberlein, Robert Arthur

    This investigation explores voice control of a dual-arm telerobot. A literature review of voice control, voice technology and work measurements is conducted. This review includes a discussion of important voice technology topics, a survey of commercial voice equipment, and a study of industrial and vocational work measurement techniques. A voice control system is created for two Kraft GRIPS Master-Slave telerobotic manipulators. This system is based upon the concept of distributed computer control using inexpensive PC-AT computers that exchange information according to special communication and command protocols. The voice control system consists of four separate sub-systems; a Camera Sub-system that controls a motorized camera mount, a Teach Pendant Sub-system that emulates two standard Termiflex teach pendants, a Switch Sub-system that controls the Kraft Master switches, and a Voice Sub-system that accepts the operator's vocal commands and broadcasts digitally-recorded messages. The Voice Sub-system utilizes a Votan VPC-2100 recognition board and a TI-Speech synthesis board. The vocal commands are organized into a hierarchical structure based upon the fire-and-forget control scheme. A visual display of the vocal command status is also detailed. In order to measure the effect of the voice control system upon the work performance of the telerobot, a formal experimental plan is described using twenty-four untrained operators divided into a voice group and a control group. Each group performs an experimental taskset using modified peg-in-hole vocational rehabilitation assessment test equipment. The experimental taskset consists of eight separate subtasks that exercise each of the four voice control sub-systems. The times to complete the subtasks are recorded to score each group's work performance. A split-plot ANOVA of the performance scores reveals significant group improvements in both the mean performance and the performance variance for those tasks which involve

  7. Multidimensional assessment of strongly irregular voices such as in substitution voicing and spasmodic dysphonia: a compilation of own research.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Mieke; Martens, Jean-Pierre; Dejonckere, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    This article is a compilation of own research performed during the European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) action 2103: 'Advance Voice Function Assessment', an initiative of voice and speech processing teams consisting of physicists, engineers, and clinicians. This manuscript concerns analyzing largely irregular voicing types, namely substitution voicing (SV) and adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD). A specific perceptual rating scale (IINFVo) was developed, and the Auditory Model Based Pitch Extractor (AMPEX), a piece of software that automatically analyses running speech and generates pitch values in background noise, was applied. The IINFVo perceptual rating scale has been shown to be useful in evaluating SV. The analysis of strongly irregular voices stimulated a modification of the European Laryngological Society's assessment protocol which was originally designed for the common types of (less severe) dysphonia. Acoustic analysis with AMPEX demonstrates that the most informative features are, for SV, the voicing-related acoustic features and, for AdSD, the perturbation measures. Poor correlations between self-assessment and acoustic and perceptual dimensions in the assessment of highly irregular voices argue for a multidimensional approach.

  8. Voice Register in Mon: Acoustics and Electroglottography

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Arthur S.; Tiede, Mark K.; Luangthongkum, Theraphan

    2016-01-01

    Mon is spoken in villages in Thailand and Myanmar. The dialect of Ban Nakhonchum, Thailand has two voice registers, modal and breathy; these phonation types, along with other phonetic properties, distinguish minimal pairs. Four native speakers of this dialect recorded repetitions of 14 randomized words (seven minimal pairs) for acoustic analysis. We used a subset of these pairs in a listening test to verify the perceptual robustness of the register distinction. Acoustic analysis found significant differences in noise component, spectral slope, and fundamental frequency. In a subsequent session four speakers were also recorded using electroglottography (EGG), which showed systematic differences in the contact quotient (CQ). The salience of these properties in maintaining the register distinction is discussed in the context of possible tonogenesis for this language. PMID:26636544

  9. Voice Quality Modelling for Expressive Speech Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Socoró, Joan Claudi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the perceptual experiments that were carried out in order to validate the methodology of transforming expressive speech styles using voice quality (VoQ) parameters modelling, along with the well-known prosody (F0, duration, and energy), from a neutral style into a number of expressive ones. The main goal was to validate the usefulness of VoQ in the enhancement of expressive synthetic speech in terms of speech quality and style identification. A harmonic plus noise model (HNM) was used to modify VoQ and prosodic parameters that were extracted from an expressive speech corpus. Perception test results indicated the improvement of obtained expressive speech styles using VoQ modelling along with prosodic characteristics. PMID:24587738

  10. [Voice disturbances in young children with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Viaz'menov, E O; Radtsig, E Iu; Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Vodolazov, S Iu; Poliudov, S A; Myzin, A V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study voice disturbances in young children with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Diagnostic algorithm included direct transnasal examination of the larynx using an Olympus fibroscope (Japan), fibrogastroduodenoscopy, 24-hour potentiometry, biopsy of oesophageal mucosa, and acoustic analysis of the voice. A total of 26 children at the age from 8 months to 3 years with voice disturbances were examined, including 12 children below one year, 5 between 1 and 2 years, and 9 between 2 and 3 years. The main signs of laryngoesophageal reflux were dysphonia, oedema, hyperemia, and altered light reflex of mucous membrane of arytenoid cartilages, interarytenoid space, and vocal cords. It is concluded that voice disturbances are the most common symptoms of laryngoesophageal reflux in young children which necessitates the earliest possible endoscopic study of the larynx in all cases of dysphonia.

  11. Exploring expressivity and emotion with artificial voice and speech technologies.

    PubMed

    Pauletto, Sandra; Balentine, Bruce; Pidcock, Chris; Jones, Kevin; Bottaci, Leonardo; Aretoulaki, Maria; Wells, Jez; Mundy, Darren P; Balentine, James

    2013-10-01

    Emotion in audio-voice signals, as synthesized by text-to-speech (TTS) technologies, was investigated to formulate a theory of expression for user interface design. Emotional parameters were specified with markup tags, and the resulting audio was further modulated with post-processing techniques. Software was then developed to link a selected TTS synthesizer with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) engine, producing a chatbot that could speak and listen. Using these two artificial voice subsystems, investigators explored both artistic and psychological implications of artificial speech emotion. Goals of the investigation were interdisciplinary, with interest in musical composition, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), commercial voice announcement applications, human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The work-in-progress points towards an emerging interdisciplinary ontology for artificial voices. As one study output, HCI tools are proposed for future collaboration.

  12. 33 CFR 157.136 - Two-way voice communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.136 Two-way voice communications. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), §...

  13. 33 CFR 157.136 - Two-way voice communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.136 Two-way voice communications. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), §...

  14. 33 CFR 157.136 - Two-way voice communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.136 Two-way voice communications. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), §...

  15. 33 CFR 157.136 - Two-way voice communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.136 Two-way voice communications. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), §...

  16. [Thoracoscopic surgery using voice controlled robot for spontaneous pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Tanaba, Y; Kimura, K; Yamauchi, H; Sato, S

    1998-07-01

    We investigated the feasibility and applicability of using voice controlled robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax. Eleven patients with spontaneous pneumothorax were involved in this study. Five patients were treated by voice controlled robot-assisted thoracoscopic procedure and 6 by historical human-assisted thoracoscopic procedure. All procedures were successfully completed without complications. The number of times the thoracoscope required cleaning per 60-minute interval for cases involving voice controlled robot-assisted surgery were 1.4 compared to 8 per 60-minute interval for comparable cases when the robot was not used. Operative times, the amount of analgesics, the duration of indwelling chest tube, the number of recurrences after operation during thoracoscopic procedures were not statistically different. We found that use of voice-controlled robot as surgical assistant during thoracoscopic surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax is feasible.

  17. Vocal parameters of aerobic instructors with and without voice problems.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Virginia; Long, Joanne; Youngblood, Heather Conner; Williford, Henry; Olson, Michelle Scharff

    2002-03-01

    Aerobic instructors frequently experience vocal fatigue and are at risk for the development of vocal fold pathology. Six female aerobic instructors, three with self-reported voice problems and three without, served as subjects. Measures of vocal function (perturbation and EGG) were obtained before and after a 30-minute exercise session. Results showed that the group with self-reported voice problems had greater amounts of jitter, lower harmonic-to-noise ratios, and less periodicity in sustained vowels overall, but no significant differences in measures of perturbation and EGG were found before and immediately after instruction. Measures of vocal parameters showed that subjects with self-reported voice problems projected with relatively greater vocal intensity and phonated for a greater percentage of time across beginning, middle, and ending periods of aerobic instruction than subjects with no reported voice problems.

  18. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  19. Speak Up! But don't strain your voice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Hearing Disorders Speak Up! But don't strain your voice Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... volume," she explains. Although her throat nodules didn't change, Jones reports not having had a sore ...

  20. Low cost voice compression for mobile digital radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique for low cost rubust voice compression at 4800 bits per second was studied. The approach was based on using a cascade of digital biquad adaptive filters with simplified multipulse excitation followed by simple bit sequence compression.

  1. Voice-on-Target: A New Approach to Tactical Networking and Unmanned Systems Control via the Voice Interface to the SA Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Voice Interface to the SA Environment Track 2: Network and Networking Eugene Bourakov Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation...2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Voice-on-Target: A New Approach to Tactical Networking and Unmanned Systems Control via the Voice Interface to the SA...Another example of successful voice interface implementation in robotic system control is a precise parafoil landing. The experiment was addressing

  2. “Rebuilding our community”: Hearing silenced voices on Aboriginal youth suicide

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Melissa L.; Hautala, Dane; Hurley, Jenna

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings forth the voices of adult Aboriginal First Nations community members who gathered in focus groups to discuss the problem of youth suicide on their reserves. Our approach emphasizes multilevel (e.g., individual, family, and broader ecological systems) factors viewed by participants as relevant to youth suicide. Wheaton’s conceptualization of stressors (1994; 1999) and Evans-Campbell’s (2008) multilevel classification of the impacts of historical trauma are used as theoretical and analytic guides. Thematic analysis of qualitative data transcripts revealed a highly complex intersection of stressors, traumas, and social problems seen by community members as underlying mechanisms influencing heightened levels of Aboriginal youth suicidality. Our multilevel coding approach revealed that suicidal behaviors were described by community members largely as a problem with deep historical and contemporary structural roots as opposed to being viewed as individualized pathology. PMID:24097414

  3. Laryngeal Compensation for Voice Production After CO2 Laser Cordectomy

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Zakaria; Hosny, Sameh Mohammad; Quriba, Amal Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser cordectomy is considered one of the modalities of choice for treatment of early glottic carcinoma. In addition to its comparable oncological results with radiotherapy and open surgical procedures, it preserves of laryngeal functions including voice production. The aim of this study was to detect how the larynx compensates for voice production after different types of CO2 laser cordectomy for early glottic carcinoma together with assessment of the vocal outcome in each compensation mechanism. Methods One hundred twelve patients treated with CO2 laser cordectomy were classified according to their main postoperative phonatory site. Perceptual analysis of voice samples using GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) scale was done for 88 patients after exclusion of the voice samples of all female patients to make the study population homogenous and the samples of 18 male patients due to bad quality (4 patients) or unavailability (14 patients) of their voice samples and the results were compared with those obtained from control group that included 25 age-matched euphonic male subjects. Results Five types of laryngeal compensation were defined including: vocal fold to vocal fold, vocal fold to vocal neofold, vocal fold to vestibular fold, vestibular fold, to vestibular fold, and arytenoids hyper adduction. Characters changes of voice produced by each compensation type were found to be statistically significant except for breathiness, asthenia and strain changes in vocal fold to vocal fold compensation type. Conclusion The larynx can compensate for voice production after CO2 laser cordectomy by five different compensation mechanisms with none of them producing voice quality comparable with that of controls. PMID:26622962

  4. An emergency command recognizer for voiced system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterlind, P.; Johnston, Waymon L.

    1987-10-01

    An algorithm for accepting speaker-independent voiced input, aimed especially at accommodating emergency acoustic commands, is described. The algorithm is directed toward correctly identifying commands from speaker-independent acoustic input using machine recognition of common, standarized phonemic input, using these recognized sounds to reconstruct entire words and phrases. Speaker-dependent phonemes are not used during the command reconstruction process, so that speaker idiosyncracies are accommodated. Machine recognition extends to voice pitch and emotional tension characteristics.

  5. Dogs recall their owner's face upon hearing the owner's voice.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Ikuma; Kuwahata, Hiroko; Fujita, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether dogs have a cross-modal representation of human individuals. We presented domestic dogs with a photo of either the owner's or a stranger's face on the LCD monitor after playing back a voice of one of those persons. A voice and a face matched in half of the trials (Congruent condition) and mismatched in the other half (Incongruent condition). If our subjects activate visual images of the voice, their expectation would be contradicted in Incongruent condition. It would result in the subjects' longer looking times in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. Our subject dogs looked longer at the visual stimulus in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. This suggests that dogs actively generate their internal representation of the owner's face when they hear the owner calling them. This is the first demonstration that nonhuman animals do not merely associate auditory and visual stimuli but also actively generate a visual image from auditory information. Furthermore, our subject also looked at the visual stimulus longer in Incongruent condition in which the owner's face followed an unfamiliar person's voice than in Congruent condition in which the owner's face followed the owner's voice. Generating a particular visual image in response to an unfamiliar voice should be difficult, and any expected images from the voice ought to be more obscure or less well defined than that of the owners. However, our subjects looked longer at the owner's face in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. This may indicate that dogs may have predicted that it should not be the owner when they heard the unfamiliar person's voice.

  6. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  7. Transcription Regulation in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Alexandra M.; Walker, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    The known diversity of metabolic strategies and physiological adaptations of archaeal species to extreme environments is extraordinary. Accurate and responsive mechanisms to ensure that gene expression patterns match the needs of the cell necessitate regulatory strategies that control the activities and output of the archaeal transcription apparatus. Archaea are reliant on a single RNA polymerase for all transcription, and many of the known regulatory mechanisms employed for archaeal transcription mimic strategies also employed for eukaryotic and bacterial species. Novel mechanisms of transcription regulation have become apparent by increasingly sophisticated in vivo and in vitro investigations of archaeal species. This review emphasizes recent progress in understanding archaeal transcription regulatory mechanisms and highlights insights gained from studies of the influence of archaeal chromatin on transcription. PMID:27137495

  8. Effects of coda voicing and aspiration on Hindi vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampp, Claire; Reklis, Heidi

    2001-05-01

    This study reexamines the well-attested coda voicing effect on vowel duration [Chen, Phonetica 22, 125-159 (1970)], in conjunction with the relationship between vowel duration and aspiration of codas. The first step was to replicate the results of Maddieson and Gandour [UCLA Working Papers Phonetics 31, 46-52 (1976)] with a larger, language-specific data set. Four nonsense syllables ending in [open-o] followed by [k, kh, g, gh] were read aloud in ten different carrier sentences by four native speakers of Hindi. Results confirm that longer vowels precede voiced word-final consonants and aspirated word-final consonants. Thus, among the syllables, vowel duration would be longest when preceding the voiced aspirate [gh]. Coda voicing, and thus, vowel duration, have been shown to correlate negatively to vowel F1 in English and Arabic [Wolf, J. Phonetics 6, 299-309 (1978); de Jong and Zawaydeh ibid, 30, 53-75 (2002)]. It is not known whether vowel F1 depends directly on coda voicing, or is determined indirectly via duration. Since voicing and aspiration both increase duration, F1 measurements of this data set (which will be presented) may answer that question.

  9. Internet-Based System for Voice Communication With the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James; Myers, Gerry; Clem, David; Speir, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) is a voice-communication system that comprises mainly computer hardware and software. The IVoDS was developed to supplement and eventually replace the Enhanced Voice Distribution System (EVoDS), which, heretofore, has constituted the terrestrial subsystem of a system for voice communications among crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), workers at the Payloads Operations Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, principal investigators at diverse locations who are responsible for specific payloads, and others. The IVoDS utilizes a communication infrastructure of NASA and NASArelated intranets in addition to, as its name suggests, the Internet. Whereas the EVoDS utilizes traditional circuitswitched telephony, the IVoDS is a packet-data system that utilizes a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP). Relative to the EVoDS, the IVoDS offers advantages of greater flexibility and lower cost for expansion and reconfiguration. The IVoDS is an extended version of a commercial Internet-based voice conferencing system that enables each user to participate in only one conference at a time. In the IVoDS, a user can receive audio from as many as eight conferences simultaneously while sending audio to one of them. The IVoDS also incorporates administrative controls, beyond those of the commercial system, that provide greater security and control of the capabilities and authorizations for talking and listening afforded to each user.

  10. Effects of coda voicing and aspiration on Hindi vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampp, Claire; Reklis, Heidi

    2004-05-01

    This study reexamines the well-attested coda voicing effect on vowel duration [Chen, Phonetica 22, 125-159 (1970)], in conjunction with the relationship between vowel duration and aspiration of codas. The first step was to replicate the results of Maddieson and Gandour [UCLA Working Papers Phonetics 31, 46-52 (1976)] with a larger, language-specific data set. Four nonsense syllables ending in [open-o] followed by [k, kh, g, gh] were read aloud in ten different carrier sentences by four native speakers of Hindi. Results confirm that longer vowels precede voiced word-final consonants and aspirated word-final consonants. Thus, among the syllables, vowel duration would be longest when preceding the voiced aspirate [gh]. Coda voicing, and thus, vowel duration, have been shown to correlate negatively to vowel F1 in English and Arabic [Wolf, J. Phonetics 6, 299-309 (1978); de Jong and Zawaydeh ibid, 30, 53-75 (2002)]. It is not known whether vowel F1 depends directly on coda voicing, or is determined indirectly via duration. Since voicing and aspiration both increase duration, F1 measurements of this data set (which will be presented) may answer that question.

  11. Speaking in Character: Voice Communication in Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Greg; Gibbs, Martin R.

    This chapter summarizes 5 years of research on the implications of introducing voice communication systems to virtual worlds. Voice introduces both benefits and problems for players of fast-paced team games, from better coordination of groups and greater social presence of fellow players on the positive side, to negative features such as channel congestion, transmission of noise, and an unwillingness by some to use voice with strangers online. Similarly, in non-game worlds like Second Life, issues related to identity and impression management play important roles, as voice may build greater trust that is especially important for business users, yet it erodes the anonymity and ability to conceal social attributes like gender that are important for other users. A very different mixture of problems and opportunities exists when users conduct several simultaneous conversations in multiple text and voice channels. Technical difficulties still exist with current systems, including the challenge of debugging and harmonizing all the participants' voice setups. Different groups use virtual worlds for very different purposes, so a single modality may not suit all.

  12. Role of timbre and fundamental frequency in voice gender adaptation.

    PubMed

    Skuk, Verena G; Dammann, Lea M; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-08-01

    Prior adaptation to male (or female) voices causes androgynous voices to be perceived as more female (or male). Using a selective adaptation paradigm the authors investigate the relative impact of the vocal fold vibration rate (F0) and timbre (operationally in this paper as characteristics that differentiate two voices of the same F0 and loudness) on this basic voice gender aftereffect. TANDEM-STRAIGHT was used to morph between 10 pairs of male and female speakers uttering 2 different vowel-consonant-vowel sequences (20 continua). Adaptor stimuli had one parameter (either F0 or timbre) set at a clearly male or female level, while the other parameter was set at an androgynous level, as determined by an independent set of listeners. Compared to a control adaptation condition (in which both F0 and timbre were clearly male or female), aftereffects were clearly reduced in both F0 and timbre adaptation conditions. Critically, larger aftereffects were found after timbre adaptation (comprising androgynous F0) compared to F0 adaptation (comprising an androgynous timbre). Together these results suggest that timbre plays a larger role than F0 in voice gender adaptation. Finally, the authors found some evidence that individual differences among listeners reflect in part pre-experimental contact to male and female voices.

  13. Phonetic and phonological contrasts in the acquisition of voicing: voice onset time production in Hindi and English.

    PubMed

    Davis, K

    1995-06-01

    The present study examines adult and child word-initial voice onset time productions in English and Hindi (10 adults and 20 children in each language) to determine the age of acquisition of the phonemic voice contrast. Cross-linguistic differences in patterns of acquisition were found, but these need not be traced to the different phonological systems per se. An examination of the data indicates that the best predictor of age of voice contrast acquisition across languages is one which rests on the actual acoustic differences between members of phonologically contrastive pairs. In general it was found that the larger the post-release voice onset time differences between pair members in the adult model, the earlier the contrast is reliably produced by child language learners.

  14. Apollo 12 Voice Transcript Pertaining to the Geology of the Landing Site, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, N. G.; Ulrich, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    An edited record of the conversions between the Apollo 12 astronauts and mission control pertaining to the geology of the landing site, is presented. All discussions and observations documenting the lunar landscape, its geologic characteristics, the rocks and soils collected and the lunar surface photographic record are included along with supplementary remarks essential to the continuity of events during the mission.

  15. Effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on objective and subjective voice evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Speakers adjust their vocal effort when communicating in different room acoustic and noise conditions and when instructed to speak at different volumes. The present paper reports on the effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on vocal effort, evaluated as sound pressure level, and self-reported vocal fatigue, comfort, and control. Speakers increased their level in the presence of babble and when instructed to talk in a loud style, and lowered it when acoustic feedback was increased and when talking in a soft style. Self-reported responses indicated a preference for the normal style without babble noise. PMID:26723357

  16. A Columbine study: giving voice, hearing meaning.

    PubMed

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    On a quiet spring morning, the 20th of April 1999, Columbine High School emerged from relative anonymity as a typical suburban high school and became internationally recognized as a symbol of school violence and tragic loss. As a parent whose child was in the school at the time of the attack, I struggled to make sense of the tragedy. I decided to conduct research into the experience as a way to learn lessons that might help others exposed to community-wide trauma in the future. Through modified oral history interviews of other Columbine parents in combination with other qualitative research strategies, I collected and studied stories of the events of that day and the years following. An unexpected by-product emerged from the study, for it seemed that I was not only learning about crisis response and trauma care but also offering a means for parents to gain comfort in reflecting on their own experience. This paper describes the distinct approach that I employed to create a gateway to understanding this experience. It does not explicate the findings of the Columbine study but instead explores the potential for positive outcomes for those who, by giving voice to their stories, can connect to a deeper appreciation for their own experience.

  17. Signals voice biofeedback for speech fluency disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jose Francisco; Fernandez-Ramos, Raquel; Romero-Sanchez, Jorge; Rios, Francisco

    2003-04-01

    The knowledge about mechanisms of voice production as well as the parameters obtaining, allow us to present solutions for coding, transmission and establishment of properties to distinguish between the responsible physiological mechanisms. In this work, we are interested in the evaluation of syllabic Sequences in Continuous Speech. We keep in mind this evaluation is very interesting and useful for Foniatrics and Logopaedia applications focus on the measurement and control of Speech Fluency. Moreover, we are interested in studying and evaluating sequential programming and muscular coordination. In this way, the main objective of our work is focus on the study of production mechanisms, model, evaluation methods and introduction of a reliable algorithm to catalogue and classify the phenomena of rythm and speech fluency. In this paper, we present an algorithm for syllabic analysis based on Short Time Energy concept. Firstly, the algorithm extracts the temporary syllabic intervals of speech and silence, and then compared with normality intervals. Secondly, it proceeds to feedback in real time to the patient luminous and acoustic signals indicating the degree of mismatching with the normality model. This methodology is useful to improve fluency disorder. We present an ASIC microelectronic solution for the syllabic analyser and a portable prototype to be used in a clinic level as much as individualized tool for the patient.

  18. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  19. Start/End Delays of Voiced and Unvoiced Speech Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Herrnstein, A

    1999-09-24

    Recent experiments using low power EM-radar like sensors (e.g, GEMs) have demonstrated a new method for measuring vocal fold activity and the onset times of voiced speech, as vocal fold contact begins to take place. Similarly the end time of a voiced speech segment can be measured. Secondly it appears that in most normal uses of American English speech, unvoiced-speech segments directly precede or directly follow voiced-speech segments. For many applications, it is useful to know typical duration times of these unvoiced speech segments. A corpus, assembled earlier of spoken ''Timit'' words, phrases, and sentences and recorded using simultaneously measured acoustic and EM-sensor glottal signals, from 16 male speakers, was used for this study. By inspecting the onset (or end) of unvoiced speech, using the acoustic signal, and the onset (or end) of voiced speech using the EM sensor signal, the average duration times for unvoiced segments preceding onset of vocalization were found to be 300ms, and for following segments, 500ms. An unvoiced speech period is then defined in time, first by using the onset of the EM-sensed glottal signal, as the onset-time marker for the voiced speech segment and end marker for the unvoiced segment. Then, by subtracting 300ms from the onset time mark of voicing, the unvoiced speech segment start time is found. Similarly, the times for a following unvoiced speech segment can be found. While data of this nature have proven to be useful for work in our laboratory, a great deal of additional work remains to validate such data for use with general populations of users. These procedures have been useful for applying optimal processing algorithms over time segments of unvoiced, voiced, and non-speech acoustic signals. For example, these data appear to be of use in speaker validation, in vocoding, and in denoising algorithms.

  20. Stress and distress in non-organic voice disorder.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Eberhard; Kollbrunner, Juerg

    2005-07-09

    Non-organic voice disorders are characterised by an impaired voice sound, and/or reduced vocal capacity, and/or laryngeal sensory disturbances, all in the absence of causal organic laryngeal pathology. Psychogenic causes, a "psychological disequilibrium", and an increased tension of the laryngeal muscles are presumed to be one end of the spectrum of possible factors leading to the development of the disorder. In making a diagnosis, perceptive and acoustic methods for voice analysis are used in addition to the ENT-examination and the laryngostroboscopy. An assessment of the degree to which the patient feels him/herself subjectively affected by the voice disorder also plays an important role. If the history reveals any indication of psychosocial stress or conflict, the patient is offered psychological consultations. These conflicts seem less often to be deep rooted psychopathological problems but rather daily anxieties, failures, injuries, annoyances, disappointments regarding the sufferer him/herself and others, the non-fulfillment of desires, feelings of inadequacy and of lack of self-confidence. The patients may find it difficult to speak about conflicts and feelings, and they follow social conventions to an excessive extent. In frustrating situations patients tend to react aggressively towards themselves rather than towards others and are too quick in seeking a solution to any problem that may arise. The role of the voice as a "barometer of emotion", where a disorder may be regarded as a sign of emotional stress, has to be taken into consideration before starting a therapy: If the non-organic voice disorder is obviously due to vocal misuse and muscle tension, a more symptom-orientated voice therapy may be favoured. If psychosocial stress seems to play a greater role, additional counseling may be necessary. Only by using this approach can the patient be offered a therapy which goes into the causes and thereby addresses the whole person.