Science.gov

Sample records for air-water pollution control

  1. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  2. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  3. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  5. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  6. Influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Hoff, R.M.

    2000-03-15

    The influence of eutrophication on the biogeochemical cycles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is largely unknown. In this paper, the application of a dynamic air-water-phytoplankton exchange model to Lake Ontario is used as a framework to study the influence of eutrophication on air-water exchange, vertical fluxes, and phytoplankton concentrations of POPs. The results of these simulations demonstrate that air-water exchange controls phytoplankton concentrations in remote aquatic environments with little influence from land-based sources of pollutants and supports levels in even historically contaminated systems. Furthermore, eutrophication or high biomass leads to a disequilibrium between the gas and dissolved phase, enhanced air-water exchange, and vertical sinking fluxes of PCBs. Increasing biomass also depletes the water concentrations leading to lower than equilibrium PCB concentrations in phytoplankton. Implications to future trends in PCB pollution in Lake Ontario are also discussed.

  7. Pollution: A Selected Bibliography of U.S. Government Publications on Air, Water, and Land Pollution 1965-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiraldi, Louis, Comp.; Burk, Janet L., Comp.

    Materials on environmental pollution published by the various offices of the federal government are presented in this select bibliography. Limited in scope to publications on air, water, and land pollution, the document is designed to serve teachers and researchers working in the field of environmental problems who wish reference to public…

  8. Coupling of phytoplankton uptake and air-water exchange of persistent organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Baker, J.E.; Ko, F.C.; Jeremiason, J.D.

    1999-10-15

    A dynamic model that couples air-water exchange and phytoplankton uptake of persistent organic pollutants has been developed and then applied to PCB data from a small experimental lake. A sensitivity analysis of the model, taking into account the influence of physical environmental conditions such as temperature, wind speed, and mixing depth as well as plankton-related parameters such as biomass and growth rate was carried out for a number of PCBs with different physical-chemical properties. The results indicate that air-water exchange dynamics are influenced not only by physical parameters but also by phytoplankton biomass and growth rate. New phytoplankton production results in substantially longer times to reach equilibrium. Phytoplankton uptake-induced depletion of the dissolved phase concentration maintains air and water phases out of equilibrium. Furthermore, PCBs in phytoplankton also take longer times to reach equilibrium with the dissolved water phase when the latter is supported by diffusive air-water exchange. However, both model analysis and model application to the Experimental Lakes Area of northwestern Ontario (Canada) suggest that the gas phase supports the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs, in atmospherically driven aquatic environments.

  9. Air-Water Exchange of Legacy and Emerging Organic Pollutants across the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, R.; Ruge, Z.; Khairy, M.; Muir, D.; Helm, P.

    2014-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are transported to great water bodies via long-range atmospheric transport and released from the surface water as air concentrations continue to diminish. As the largest fresh water bodies in North America, the Great Lakes have both the potential to accumulate and serve as a secondary source of persistent bioaccumulative toxins. OCP and PCB concentrations were sampled at 30+ sites across Lake Superior, Ontario and Erie in the summer of 2011. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were simultaneously deployed in surface water and near surface atmosphere to determine air-water gaseous exchange of OCPs and PCBs. In Lake Superior, surface water and atmospheric concentrations were dominated by α-HCH (average 250 pg/L and 4.2 pg/m3, respectively), followed by HCB (average 17 pg/L and 89 pg/m3, respectively). Air-water exchange varied greatly between sites and individual OCPs, however α-endosulfan was consistently deposited into the surface water (average 19 pg/m2/day). PCBs in the air and water were characterized by penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls with distribution along the coast correlated with proximity to developed areas. Air-water exchange gradients generally yielded net volatilization of PCBs out of Lake Superior. Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin and chlordanes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at Lake Erie than Lake Ontario. A multiple linear regression that incorporated meteorological, landuse and population data was used to explain variability in the atmospheric concentrations. Results indicated that landuse (urban and/or cropland) greatly explained the variability in the data. Freely dissolved concentrations of OCPs (

  10. Cognitive and Affective Orientations of Elementary School Children Toward Air, Water, and Soil Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Mildred Azelle Evans

    The purpose of this study was to obtain information about children's knowledge of and attitudes toward problems of environmental pollution. It sought to determine whether or not fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in selected elementary schools, one in the United States and one in Mexico, differed in their knowledge of and their attitudes…

  11. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  12. Automotive Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, David B.

    Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

  13. Pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, B.H.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1984-09-25

    A pollution control system is disclosed wherein condensable pollutants are removed from a high-temperature gas stream by counterflow contact in a vertical tower with downwardly flowing, relatively cool absorbent oil. The absorbent is at a sufficiently low temperature so as to rapidly condense a portion of the pollutants in order to form a fog of fine droplets of pollutant entrained by the gas stream, which fog is incapable of being absorbed by the absorbent. The remainder of the condensable pollutants is removed by downwardly flowing absorbent oil, and the gas and entrained fog are directed from the tower to gas/droplet separation means, such as an electrostatic precipitator. The fog is thereby separated from the gas and substantially pollutant-free gas is discharged to the atmosphere.

  14. Energy technology characterizations handbook: Environmental pollution and control factors, third edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-03-01

    Energy technologies and pollution control technologies are reviewed. Technology characterizations are given for the following energy sources: nuclear energy, synthetic fuels, coal, petroleum, natural gas, solar energy, geothermal energy, and hydroelectric energy. Air, water, and solid waste pollution control devices and mechanisms are presented for coal-fired power plants and industrial boilers and for synthetic fuel production from coal and oil shale.

  15. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  16. Innovation for Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic Controls Inc.'s refuse-fired steam generating facility led to the development of an air pollution equipment control device. The device is currently marketed by two NASA/Langley Research Center employees. It automatically senses and compensates for the changes in smoke composition when refuse is used as a fuel by adjusting the precipitator's voltage and current to permit maximum collection of electrically charged dust particles. The control adapts to any electrostatic precipitator and should have extensive commercial applications.

  17. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  18. Chemistry for Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Larry

    This booklet presents some methods of quantitative chemical analysis currently used in the field of fresh water pollution control. Only those tests that may be performed with little or no special reagents or pieces of equipment are listed. The booklet addresses the following determinations: (1) acidity; (2) alkalinity; (3) chloride; (4) hardness;…

  19. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  20. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  1. Thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface under controlled parametric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Purna Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Experimental results on the thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface are presented and discussed in this paper. The controlling input parameters investigated were the combined air and water pressures, plate thickness, water flow rate, nozzle height from the target surface and initial temperature of the hot surface. The effects of these input parameters on the important thermal characteristics such as heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient and wetting front movement were measured and examined. Hot flat plate samples of mild steel with dimension 120 mm in length, 120 mm breadth and thickness of 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm respectively were tested. The air assisted water spray was found to be an effective cooling media and method to achieve very high heat transfer rate from the surface. Higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the lesser i.e, 4 mm thick plates. Increase in the nozzle height reduced the heat transfer efficiency of spray cooling. At an inlet water pressure of 4 bar and air pressure of 3 bar, maximum cooling rates 670°C/s and average cooling rate of 305.23°C/s were achieved for a temperature of 850°C of the steel plate.

  2. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  3. Control of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Noyes, O R; Hamdy, M K; Muse, L A

    1976-01-01

    When a 203Ng(NO3)2 solution was kept at 25 degrees C in glass or polypropylene containers, 50 and 80% of original radioactivity was adsorbed to the containers' walls after 1 and 4 days, respectively. However, no loss in radioactivity was observed if the solution was supplemented with HgCl as carrier (100 mug Hg2+/ml) and stored in either container for 13 days. When 203Hg2+ was dissolved in glucose basal salt broth with added carrier, levels of 203Hg2+ in solution (kept in glass) decreased to 80 and 70% of original after 1 and 5 days and decreased even more if stored in polypropylene (60 and 40% of original activity after 1 and 4 days, respectively). In the absence of carrier, decreases of 203Hg2+ activities in media stored in either container were more pronounced due to chemisorption (but) not diffusion. The following factors affecting the removal of mercurials from aqueous solution stored in glass were examined: type and concentration of adsorbent (fiber glass and rubber powder); pH; pretreatment of the rubber; and the form of mercury used. Rubber was equally effective in the adsorption of organic and inorganic mercury. The pH of the aqueous 203Hg2+ solution was not a critical factor in the rate of adsorption of mercury by the rubber. In addition, the effect of soaking the rubber in water for 18 hr did not show any statistical difference when compared with nontreated rubber. It can be concluded that rubber is a very effective adsorbent of mercury and, thus, can be used as a simple method for control of mercury pollution.

  4. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  5. The Economics of Pollution; Part Three: Can Pollution Be Controlled? Teaching About: Can Pollution Be Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolozin, Harold; Reilly, Patricia R.

    In this third of three articles on the economics of pollution control general statements from several sources present a background which questions our ability to devise the necessary tools to fight pollution, even if adequate expenditures of money are provided. In the struggle to control pollution, the economist, it is believed, can provide…

  6. Oil pollution control: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, S.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Oil pollution has been a major environmental concern since the 1920s. The search for a solution has ranged from prevention to partial measures coupled with compensation and remedial action. Although recent measures appear to have 'solved' the problem, this book offers a different assessment of the efforts of governments and the oil and maritime industries. It also provides the first comprehensive story of control policies and practices, using primary and secondary sources, thus providing a unique perspective to current approaches. Numerous factors - personalities, state policies, developments in the oil and shipping industries, public agitation, and scientific studies - are identified in a framework useful for analyzing any environmental problem. The book concludes that oil pollution control sets the model for other marine pollution problems, with potentially alarming results.

  7. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  8. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  9. Pollution Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    BHA Group Inc.'s PrecipTech Power Guard SQ-200 automatic voltage controller, combined with a remote computer, is an automatic management system for smoke-cleaning precipitators. It is the second generation of the SQ 100 developed at Langley Research Center, and was commercialized by two NASA employees. An electrostatic precipitator cleans the smoke by removing particulate matter from smokestack gases before gases are expelled into the atmosphere. Smokestack gas is passed through a precipitator chamber and exposed to an electrostatic field; dust particles in the gas become electrically charged, migrate to collection surfaces and are "captured." Developed under a NASA program seeking a way to dispose refuse, the system monitors sparking, automatically adjusts to changes in operating conditions and does not require a skilled operator.

  10. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  11. EPA RESEARCH IN URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This state-of-the-art on the Environmental Protection Agency' s research in urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control describes the major elements of the Urban Runoff Pollution Control Program. roblem definition, users assistance tools, management alternative...

  12. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  13. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  14. Air Pollution and Control Legislation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P Bhave, Prashant; Kulkarni, Nikhil

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution in urban areas arises from multiple sources, which may vary with location and developmental activities. Anthropogenic activities as rampant industrialization, exploitation and over consumption of natural resources, ever growing population size are major contributors of air pollution. The presented review is an effort to discuss various aspects of air pollution and control legislation in India emphasizing on the history, present scenario, international treaties, gaps and drawbacks. The review also presents legislative controls with judicial response to certain landmark judgments related to air pollution. The down sides related to enforcement mechanism for the effective implementation of environmental laws for air pollution control have been highlighted.

  15. Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  16. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  17. Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Wayne T.

    A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

  18. Career Guide for Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Lionel V.

    1975-01-01

    This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

  19. Persistent pollutants urban rivers sediment survey: implications for pollution control.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C; Clarke, R; D'Arcy, B J; Heal, K V; Wright, P W

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of diffuse urban sources of pollution on watercourses are quantified. A survey of nine urban streams in Scotland for persistent pollutants in stream sediments is described, together with sediments from SUDS ponds. Determinands reported are: PAHs, total hydrocarbons, and toxic metals (As, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd). Results highlight hydrocarbons as a major urban pollutant, and show significant sediment contamination by toxic metals. The metals that occurred in the highest concentrations varied across the nine streams, but Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu most frequently present exceeded sediment quality standards. The pattern of contamination by PAHs suggested that pyrolytic sources were more ubiquitous and present in greater quantities than oil spill sources in these urban catchments. Exceptions were the sites below industrial estates. The findings indicate that four levels of activity will be needed to control urban diffuse sources of pollution: reductions in quantities of toxic pollutants used by manufacturers in the motor and construction industries; housekeeping measures to minimise storage and handling risks for oil and chemicals; public engagement to minimise polluting activities such as dumping oil and chemicals, and private car use; use of SUDS technology, including retro-fits in the worst affected urban areas.

  20. Pollution Analyzing and Monitoring Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    Compiled in this book is basic, technical information useful in a systems approach to pollution control. Descriptions and specifications are given of what is available in ready made, on-the-line commercial equipment for sampling, monitoring, measuring and continuously analyzing the multitudinous types of pollutants found in the air, water, soil,…

  1. Manpower Impact of Federal Pollution Control Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecker, Daniel

    1975-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to develop an analytical technique capable of measuring the impact of Federal expenditures by measuring the employment requirements created by expenditures for pollution control, and secondly to examine the transferability of scientific and technical skills from the aerospace industry to the pollution control…

  2. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. PMID:27331817

  3. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Kang, Sy-Yuan; Liu, Shu-Hui; Mai, Cheng-Wei; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    2016-06-20

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  4. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  5. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  6. Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

    Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

  7. Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

    This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

  8. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  9. Public Information for Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a handbook for water pollution control personnel to guide them towards a successful public relations program. This handbook was written to incorporate the latest methods of teaching basic public information techniques to the non-professional in this area. Contents include: (1) a rationale for a public information program; (2)…

  10. Variance Design and Air Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrar, Terry A.; Brownstein, Alan B.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollution control authorities were forced to relax air quality standards during the winter of 1972 by granting variances. This paper examines the institutional characteristics of these variance policies from an economic incentive standpoint, sets up desirable structural criteria for institutional design and arrives at policy guidelines for…

  11. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  12. Pollution-control equipment (Colombia). Water-pollution-control equipment, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    There are few manufacturers of water pollution control equipment in Colombia. Imports of water pollution equipment decreased 14 percent from US $16.3 million in 1990 to US $14.2 million in 1991. For 1992, they may fall 5 percent to US $13.5 million due to the slow performance of the economy. The close relationship with U.S. suppliers and the possible enforcement of water quality standards could influence favorably the growth of imports within the next three years. For many years, the U.S. has been the major supplier of water pollution control equipment.

  13. Pollution control instrumentation for oil and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, H.; Pitt, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides discusses recent developments in oil pollution control instrumentation. Some of the topics covered are as follows: 1. Technical requirements of the IMCO International Performance and Test Specification A393x concerning oil content meters; and 2. Oil in water detection; and 3. Methods for the disposal of recovered oil and oily sludge; and 4. Oil content monitoring at ballast water treatment facilities and offshore production platforms.

  14. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  15. A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

  16. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  17. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  18. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  19. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  20. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  2. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  3. 30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section 784... § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface operations associated with underground mining activities, the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  5. 30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section 780....15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For all surface mining activities with projected production rates... application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes the following: (1) An air...

  6. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  7. Teaching Applied Chemistry in a Pollution Control Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Nancy J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses rationale behind and content of a course (Industrial Pollution Control Techniques) combining knowledge from fields of industrial chemistry and chemical engineering and utilizing this knowledge in the context of understanding pollution problems and potential methods of pollution control. (Author/SK)

  8. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  9. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  10. Update on college and university programs in air pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Cota, H.M.

    1983-04-01

    A survey of academic programs in air pollution control was made. Results from the 127 schools reporting are tabulated by state. Faculty involved in air pollution instruction are identified. Some conclusions and recommendations are presented. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  11. Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel

    2008-10-18

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including

  12. Pollution-control equipment (Brazil). Industrial air-pollution-control equipment, March 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The market for air pollution control equipment in Brazil is expected to reach US $120 million in 1992, up 15% from 1991. Imports should also increase to US $17 million as local companies take advantage of the market opening policy implemented by the Brazilian government to raise industrial competitiveness.

  13. Propagation of density disturbances in air-water flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassos, G. P.

    1969-01-01

    Study investigated the behavior of density waves propagating vertically in an atmospheric pressure air-water system using a technique based on the correlation between density change and electric resistivity. This information is of interest to industries working with heat transfer systems and fluid power and control systems.

  14. Ground water. [Water pollution monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, G.H.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the occurrences, extent, and sampling of groundwater pollution is presented. Groundwater sampling procedures for various contaminants, and geophysical methods designed to investigate groundwater pollution are reviewed. (KRM)

  15. [Virus adsorption from batch experiments as influenced by air-water interface].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Bing-zi; Zhang, Jia-bao; Zhang, Cong-zhi; Wang, Qiu-ying; Chen, Ji

    2007-12-01

    The presence of air-water interface in batch sorption experiments may result in inaccurate estimation of virus adsorption onto various soils. A batch sorption experiment was conducted to compare the adsorption results of MS2 in different soils under presence/absence of air-water interface. Soils with sterilization/nonterilization treatment were used. Virus recovery efficiency in a blank experiment (no soil) was also evaluated as affected by different amount of air-water interface. The presence of air-water interface altered the results of virus adsorption in different soils with different extent, with Sandy fluvo-aquic soil being the most considerably affected, followed by Red loam soil, and the least being Red clay soil, probably because of different soil properties associated with virus adsorption/inactivation. Soil sterilization resulted in more significant difference of virus adsorption onto the Sandy fluvo-aquic soil between the presence and absence of air-water interface, while a reduced difference was observed in the Red loam soil. The presence of air-water interface significantly decreased virus recovery efficiency, with the values being decreased with increase in the amount of air-water interface. Soil particles likely prohibit viruses from reaching the air-water interface or alter the forces at the solid-water-air interface so that the results from the blank experiment did not truly represent results from control blank, which probably resulted in adsorption difference between presence and absence of the air-water interface.

  16. [Countermeasures for priority control of toxic VOC pollution].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Li-Na; Yang, Chang-Qing; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Han-Kun; Li, Yao

    2011-12-01

    VOC pollution is worsening, not only affects the environment, air quality, but also directly harm human health, and Chinese relevant departments need to improve control measures. U. S. toxic air pollutants (HAPs) control system was studied, and Chinese environment countermeasures were proposed based on pollution features. U. S. recognized sources of hazardous air pollutants in the Clean Air Act (CAA), and reduced their emissions by industrial regulations and regional policies. In urban areas, VOC occupied a great part of toxic air and were controlled as a major project in U. S. Due to relatively weak management and technical base, China should screen some VOC components for priority pollutant control. The feature of Chinese VOC pollution was described as complex components, industry sources widely distributed, strong regional characteristics and processes, and gradual development of regional pollution. It was suggested to carry out investigation assessment activities, enhance cumulative risk assessment and environmental impact assessment management, and strengthen emergency risk prevention.

  17. Controlling Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution: A Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nancy Richardson; And Others

    Citizens can play an important role in helping their states develop pollution control programs and spurring effective efforts to deal with nonpoint-source pollution. This guide takes the reader step-by-step through the process that states must follow to comply with water quality legislation relevant to nonpoint-source pollution. Part I provides…

  18. Steps Towards Controlling the "Export" of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Results of a five year study to measure the movement of sulfur pollutants across Europe found these pollutants move hundreds or thousands of kilometers before being deposited in large quantities in countries far from where they originate. The need for cooperation among countries to control sulfur pollutants is stressed. (Author/MA)

  19. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  20. OH-radical specific addition to the antioxidant glutathione S-atom at the air-water interface - Relevance to the redox balance of the lung epithelial lining fluid and the causality of adverse health effects induced by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colussi, A. J.; Enami, S.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Inhalation of oxidant pollutants upsets the redox balance (RB) of the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) by triggering the formation of reactive OH-radicals therein. RB is deemed to be controlled by the equilibrium between the most abundant ELF protective antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and its putative disulfide GSSG oxidation product. The actual species produced from the oxidation of GSH initiated by ·OH in ELF interfacial layers exposed to air, i.e., under realistic ELF conditions, however, were never identified. Here we report the online electrospray mass spectrometric detection of sulfenate (GSO-), sulfinate (GSO2-) and sulfonate (GSO3-) on the surface of aqueous GSH solutions collided with ·OH(g). We show that these products arise from ·OH specific additions to S-atoms, rather than via H-abstraction from GS-H. The remarkable specificity of ·OH in interfacial water vis-a-vis its lack of selectivity in bulk water implicates an unprecedented steering process during ·OH-GSH encounters at water interfaces. A non-specific systemic immune response to inhaled oxidants should be expected if they were initially converted into a common ·OH intermediate on the ELF (e.g., via fast Fenton chemistry) and oxidative stress signaled by the [GSH]/[GSOH] ratio.

  1. Plasma treatment of air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Amutha Rani, D; Gomez, E; Boccaccini, A R; Hao, L; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from waste incineration have been blended with silica and alumina and the mix melted using DC plasma arc technology. The chemical composition of the fully amorphous homogeneous glass formed has been determined. Waste acceptance criteria compliance leach testing demonstrates that the APC residue derived glass releases only trace levels of heavy metals (Pb (<0.007mg/kg) and Zn (0.02mg/kg)) and Cl(-) (0.2mg/kg). These are significantly below the limit values for disposal to inert landfill. It is concluded that plasma treatment of APC residues can produce an inert glass that may have potential to be used either in bulk civil engineering applications or in the production of higher value glass-ceramic products.

  2. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  3. Toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and biochemical effects of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Citations discuss air, water, soil, and sediment pollution and control. Topics include vehicle emissions and control, pollutant pathways, carcinogens and mutagenic activity, and photoinduced toxicity. Food contamination, environmental monitoring, and soil contamination along highways are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  5. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  6. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    PubMed

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  7. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  8. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  9. Air-water exchange and dry deposition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers at a coastal site in Izmir Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Banu; Odabasi, Mustafa

    2007-02-01

    The air-water exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), an emerging class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), was investigated using paired air-water samples (n = 15) collected in July and December, 2005 from Guzelyali Port in Izmir Bay, Turkey. Total dissolved-phase water concentrations of PBDEs (sigma7PBDEs) were 212 +/- 65 and 87 +/- 57 pg L(-1) (average +/- SD) in summer and winter, respectively. BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in all samples, followed by BDE-99 and -47. Average ambient gas-phase sigma7PBDE concentrations were between 189 +/- 61 (summer) and 76 +/- 65 pg m(-3) (winter). Net air-water exchange fluxes ranged from -0.9 +/- 1.0 (BDE-28) (volatilization) to 11.1 +/- 5.4 (BDE-209) ng m(-2) day(-1) (deposition). The BDE-28 fluxes were mainly volatilization while the other congeners were deposited. Gas- and dissolved-phase concentrations were significantly correlated (P = 0.33-0.55, p < 0.05, except for BDE-209, r = 0.05, p > 0.05) indicating thatthe atmosphere controls the surface water PBDE levels in this coastal environment. Estimated particulate dry deposition fluxes ranged between 2.7 +/- 1.9 (BDE-154) and 116 +/- 84 ng m(-2) day(-1) (BDE-209) indicating that dry deposition is also a significant input to surface waters in the study area.

  10. Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

  11. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  12. URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL - STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewer overflows are major sources of water pollution problems, but even discharges of stormwater alone can seriously affect water quality. Current approaches involve control of overflows, treatment, and combinations of the two. Control may involve maximizing treatment wi...

  13. Stormwater Pollutant Control from Critical Source Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical source areas include: vehicular maintenance facilities, parking lots and bus terminals, junk and lumber yards, industrial storage facilities, loading docks and refueling areas, manufacturing sites, etc. Addressing pollutant runoff from these areas is an important compon...

  14. Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants: Asbestos - The Need For and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 1971 report sets forth in a well-organized fashion the currently available information on asbestos as an air pollutant, with special attention to sources health effects, measurements, and feasibility of control.

  15. Overview of air pollution control for coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Soud, H.N.

    1997-12-31

    Emission standards are a driving force behind the use of air pollution control equipment throughout the world. Clean coal technology is becoming more widely used due to increasingly stringent emission standards. The main air pollutants from pulverized coal-fired power plants are particulate, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. This paper will review the technologies used to control these emissions. Trends in their application throughout the world will be described using information from IEA Coal Research--the Clean Coal Centre databases. The incremental costs of air pollution control will be summarized.

  16. Effective Stack Design in Air Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John H.

    1968-01-01

    Stack design problems fall into two general caterories--(1) those of building re-entry, and (2) those of general area pollution. Extensive research has developed adequate information, available in the literature, to permit effective stack design. A major roadblock to effective design has been the strong belief by architects and engineers that high…

  17. Management and control of pollution in Inner Johore Strait.

    PubMed

    Koh, H L; Lim, P E; Midun, Z

    1991-10-01

    Coastal waters in South Johore, Malaysia are polluted to various degrees. The major pollution sources are domestric wastes from human settlements, agro-based wastes from palm oil mills and rubber processing factories, industrial effluents from industrial estates and discharges from animal farms. These pollution problems have adversely affected resources such as fisheries, recreational potential as well as the general aesthetic quality of the coastal environment particularly the Inner Johore Strait. Hence proper management and control measures are urgently needed to protect and further enhance the water quality to ensure environmentally sustainable development. This study examines various management options to control the pollution in the Inner Johore Strait. The options involve partial opening as well as complete removal of the Causeway to improve the tidal flow for more effective dilution and dispersion of pollutants. Computer simulation models are used to assess the impacts of the proposed options.

  18. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations.... * * * * * (c) * * * (379) * * * (i) * * * (B) San Diego County Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule...

  19. Recruitment and Employment of the Water Pollution Control Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, J. H.; Sherrard, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the basic principles of personnel recruitment and employment for the water pollution control field. Attention is given to determination of staffing requirements, effective planning, labor sources, affirmative action, and staffing policies. (CS)

  20. A Philosophy of Water Pollution Control--Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeffer, George J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of water pollution control in the U.S. is given, leading to an analysis of present policy trends. A "rational environmental program" is called for to provide economic growth and environmental quality. (MDR)

  1. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical objective of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Center is to verify environmental technology performance by obtaining objective quality-assured data, thus providing potential purchasers and permitters wi...

  3. National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Forestry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report helps forest owners protect lakes and streams from polluted runoff that can result from forestry activities. The report will also help states to implement their nonpoint source control programs.

  4. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  5. 78 FR 12243 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... proposed approval of a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...

  6. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District...

  7. Biofiltration: An innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Leson, G. ); Winer, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.

  8. Fuel conservation and pollution control by MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerle, H. K.; Campbell, B.

    1980-06-01

    MHD generators, which directly convert thermal energy in a fluid into electricity, promise a more effective use of fuel for bulk power production than conventional steam plants, bettering efficiency by over 50% and reducing the generating cost by 20%. Using a Rankine steam cycle, overall power plant efficiency can increase from 33% to 50%, while fuel requirements can be reduced by one third and thermal pollution by one half. Since overall fuel consumption would drop, atmospheric pollution would be decreased, and coal consumption could be diverted to areas where oil is presently being used. The MHD generator structure and operation are discussed, and its general system requirements are explained. A table of energy use and an efficiency graph are provided for comparison purposes. Work is currently being done on a 2 MW open cycle MHD generator at the University of Sydney, Australia, and computer studies are in progress to evaluate the Faraday generator performance for the experimental 2 MW facility and larger power generators with segmented sets of electrodes.

  9. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  10. Decentralized and efficient control of transboundary pollution in federal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Decentralized control of transboundary pollution in federal systems can be efficient when population crowding is socially costly. In this paper, an upstream region abates pollution or makes an interregional income transfer to the downstream region with the sole intent of deterring immigration. Because either instrument, abatement expenditure or interregional income transfer, alone implements an efficient population distribution between the regions, interregional income transfers are unnecessary for efficiency. Without explicit income transfers, each region provides the efficient portion of the aggregate level of pollution abatement in the Nash equilibrium. 12 refs.

  11. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  12. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions. PMID:27941665

  13. 76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion...

  14. 75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Planning, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District; letter dated and received August 17, 2009... Sadredin, Executive Director/Air Pollution Control Officer of San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...: EPA's Analysis of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule 4684,...

  15. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  16. Controlling Light Pollution in the Third World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J.

    2001-12-01

    Third world countries and those on the way toward development share the same problems as those facing industrialized countries. The public must be made aware of the unnecessary waste of energy, the exclusion of the beauty of the night sky, the interference with the natural day and night cycles of flora and fauna, and in the neighborhood of astronomical observatories the interference with some of the most exciting research activities of modern science. Authorities, in particular municipalities, have to replace the fixtures of public lighting by shielded fixtures, which do not emit light upwards. This results in substantial savings in money and energy. Third world countries face additional problems. These include; 1. The network of electrical energy in areas which never had that service before. Cerro Tololo in Chile and Llano del Hato in Venezuela are good examples. During the site surveys which led to the establishment of these observatories no lights were seen anywhere nearby. 2. The rapid and uncontrolled growth of the population leads to a rapidly expanding suburban development with its demand of new public lighting. This is enhanced by the fact that most of the young people of the rural population move to the cities. 3. In many cases outdoor light fixtures are imported and hence costly. In addition manufacturers prefer to unload their stock of obsolete fixtures in the third world. 4. Education has to start out at a lower level than is the case in industrialized countries. 5. Often one finds a certain resistance to rules imposed by the developed world which until not too long ago they did not have anyway. 6. Air pollution of the northern hemisphere, produced by industrialized countries, frequently spills over into the tropics, and thus enhances the backscatter from the sky.

  17. METHODOLOGIES FOR QUANTIFYING POLLUTION PREVENTION BENEFITS FROM LANDFILL GAS CONTROL AND UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes developing emission factors for controlled primary pollutants (e.g., nonmethane organic compounds) and secondary air pollutants (e.g., carbon monoxide). The report addresses the following criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, carbon mo...

  18. 76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  19. Integrated Watershed Pollution Control at Wujingang Canal, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Luo, X.

    2012-04-01

    With a drainage area of 400 square kilometers, Wujingang Canal is located at the economically developed Yangtz Delta of eastern China. As a major tributary, the canal contributes a significant amount of pollutant load to the Lake Tai. Over the past many years, water quality of the canal and its tributaries could not meet the lowest Category V of Chinese surface water quality standard, indicating that its water is not suitable for the purposes of irrigation or scenic views. Major pollution sources in the watershed include industries, residential households, agriculture, fishery, and animal feedlot operations. A comprehensive plan with a budget of 2 billion RMB for the Wujingang watershed pollution control was developed in 2008 and has been implemented progressively ever since. Major components of the plan include: (1) advanced treatment of wastewater from industries and municipal sewage plants for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorous; (2) industrial wastewater reuse; (3) contiguous treatment of sewage from rural residential households with cost-effective technologies such as tower ecofilter system; (4) recycling of rural wastes to generate high-value added products using technologies such as multi-phase anaerobic co-digestion; and (5) making full use of the local landscape and configuring physical, chemical, and biological pollutant treatment structures to build the "clean river network" for treatment of mildly polluted agricultural discharge and surface runoff. Through the implementation of the above measures, water quality of the Wujingang Canal and its tributaries is expected to improve to meet Category IV of Chinese surface water quality standard by 2012, and Category III standard by 2020. Keywords watershed pollution control, non-point source pollution, rural sewage, rural waste, Lake Tai

  20. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  1. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation overviews causes of sewer deterioration and heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO-) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of ...

  2. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper overviews causes of combined-sewer deterioration and their heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer and combined-sewer overflow (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removi...

  3. A Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution, Amended Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, San Juan.

    Nine articles, related to the preservation of the natural quality of the air, and to prevention, elimination and control of atmospheric pollution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are contained in this document. These articles were written and enacted by the Environmental Quality Board in accordance with Law No. 9, approved June 18, 1970 -…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  5. Pollution Control Companies U.S.A., 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    This book is intended to serve as a useful guide and directory to the present industries embracing the field of environmental control, with emphasis on the prevention and abatement of pollution in its broadest aspects. The volume is divided into two sections: the first section is an alphabetical listing of approximately 1,500 companies or company…

  6. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, A.S.; Dedyo, J.

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  7. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW POLLUTION MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in protecting urban watersheds lies in effectively controlling the contaminants in both overland runoff and sewerage system overflows during wet-weather events. Abatement of wet-weather flow (WWF) pollution can be implemented at the source by land managemen...

  8. The fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant, originates from the coal that is burned, and leaves through the output streams that include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent fmdings on the fa...

  9. Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P

    2009-01-12

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm the

  10. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  11. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  12. Pollution by metals: Is there a relationship in glycemic control?

    PubMed

    González-Villalva, Adriana; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Rodríguez-Lara, Vianey; García-Pelaez, Isabel; Ustarroz-Cano, Martha; López-Valdez, Nelly; Albarrán-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-09-01

    There are evidences of environmental pollution and health effects. Metals are pollutants implicated in systemic toxicity. One of the least studied effects, but which is currently becoming more important, is the effect of metals on glycemic control. Metals have been implicated as causes of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and are associated to obesity, hyperglycemia and even diabetes. Arsenic, iron, mercury, lead, cadmium and nickel have been studied as a risk factor for hyperglycemia and diabetes. There is another group of metals that causes hypoglycemia such as vanadium, chromium, zinc and magnesium by different mechanisms. Zinc, magnesium and chromium deficiency is associated with increased risk of diabetes. This review summarizes some metals involved in glycemic control and pretends to alert health professionals about considering environmental metals as an important factor that could explain the poor glycemic control in patients. Further studies are needed to understand this poorly assessed problem.

  13. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOEpatents

    Patrick, Brian R [Chicago, IL; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn [Albany, OR; Summers, Cathy Ann [Albany, OR; Oryshchyn, Danylo B [Philomath, OR; Turner, Paul Chandler [Independence, OR

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  14. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  15. Preventive techniques of pollution control, the reliability and safety in core sectors including thermal power plant installations and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, J.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a study of pollution control techniques, thermal power plant reliability and safety, and economics. Included are some illustrative examples dealing with pollution control. Topics include environmental planning, prevention strategy, pesticide use, food pollution, soil pollution, water pollution, thermal power plant emissions, and pollution control equipment.

  16. [Odor pollution from landfill sites and its control: a review].

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Ding, Ying; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Hu, Bei-Gang; Chen, Ying-Xu

    2010-03-01

    Landfill sites are the major sources of offensive odor in urban public facilities. With the progress of urbanization and the residents' demands for a higher living environment quality, the odor emission from landfill sites has become a severe pollution problem, and the odor control at landfill sites has been one of the research hotspots. This paper summarized the main components and their concentrations of the odor from landfill sites, and expatiated on the research progress in the in-situ control of the odor. The further research directions in in-situ control of the odor from landfill sites were prospected.

  17. 21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior view of citric acid air pollution control room (also known as scrubber room) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking southeast. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  18. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations... Identification of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (359) * * * (i) * * * (E) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County...

  19. 75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Reporting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County...

  20. 75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These... construction sites, unpaved roads, and disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas. We are proposing...

  1. Analysis of national water-pollution-control policies. 2. Agricultural sediment control

    SciTech Connect

    Gianessi, L.P.; Peskin, H.M.

    1981-08-01

    A national water network model is used to analyze the likely effects of agricultural sediment-control policies on the quality of the nation's waters. This analysis is believed superior to previous assessments based mainly on erosion estimates without accounting for the characteristics of the receiving water or the contribution of pollutants from nonagricultural activities. Specifically, while the earlier assessments concluded that agriculture-related pollution problems are widespread and ubiquitous, this analysis concludes that it is probably more efficient to focus sediment-related pollution-control policies on about one third of the nation's agricultural regions. 30 references, 5 figures, 11 tables.

  2. Femtosecond-laser-induced shockwaves in water generated at an air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Strycker, B D; Springer, M M; Traverso, A J; Kolomenskii, A A; Kattawar, G W; Sokolov, A V

    2013-10-07

    We report generation of femtosecond-laser-induced shockwaves at an air-water interface by millijoule femtosecond laser pulses. We document and discuss the main processes accompanying this phenomenon, including light emission, development of the ablation plume in the air, formation of an ablation cavity, and, subsequently, a bubble developing in water. We also discuss the possibility of remotely controlling the characteristics of laser-induced sound waves in water through linear acoustic superposition of sound waves that results from millijoule femtosecond laser-pulse interaction with an air-water interface, thus opening up the possibility of remote acoustic applications in oceanic and riverine environments.

  3. Development of foamed emulsion bioreactor for air pollution control.

    PubMed

    Kan, Eunsung; Deshusses, Marc A

    2003-10-20

    A new type of bioreactor for air pollution control has been developed. The new process relies on an organic-phase emulsion and actively growing pollutant-degrading microorganisms, made into a foam with the air being treated. This new reactor is referred to as a foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR). As there is no packing in the reactor, the FEBR is not subject to clogging. Mathematical modeling of the process and proof of concept using a laboratory prototype revealed that the foamed emulsion bioreactor greatly surpasses the performance of existing gas-phase bioreactors. Experimental results showed a toluene elimination capacity as high as 285 g(toluene) m(-3) (reactor) h(-1) with a removal efficiency of 95% at a gas residence time of 15 s and a toluene inlet concentration of 1-1.3 g x m(-3). Oxygen limited the reactor performance at toluene concentration above about 0.7-1.0 g x m(-3); consequently, performance was significantly improved when pure oxygen was added to the contaminated air. The elimination capacity increased from 204 to 408 g x m(-3) h(-1) with >77% toluene removal at toluene inlet concentrations of 2-2.2 g x m(-3). Overall, the results show that the performance of the FEBR far exceeds that of currently used bioreactors for air pollution control.

  4. Assessment of pollution prevention and control technology for plating operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmer, Paul D.; Sonntag, William A.; Cushnie, George C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is sponsoring an on-going project to assess pollution prevention and control technology available to the plating industry and to make this information available to those who can benefit from it. Completed project activities include extensive surveys of the plating industry and vendors of technologies and an indepth literature review. The plating industry survey was performed in cooperation with the National Association of Metal Finishers. The contractor that conducted the surveys and prepared the project products was CAI Engineering. The initial products of the project were made available in April, 1994. These products include an extensive report that presents the results of the surveys and literature review and an electronic database. The project results are useful for all those associated with pollution prevention and control in the plating industry. The results show which treatment, recovery and bath maintenance technologies have been most successful for different plating processes and the costs for purchasing and operating these technologies. The project results also cover trends in chemical substitution, the identification of compliance-problem pollutants, sludge generation rates, off-site sludge recovery and disposal options, and many other pertinent topics.

  5. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  6. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  7. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  8. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  9. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  10. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  11. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  12. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  13. 40 CFR 40.145-2 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.145-2 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... or control of acid or other mine water pollution; and (2) That the State shall provide legal...

  14. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  15. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  16. 40 CFR 40.140-3 - Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 40... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.140-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (a... such safe water and such elimination or control of water pollution for all native villages in the...

  17. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  18. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  19. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  20. 76 FR 40660 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District....0 for the following terms: Air Pollution Control Officer, Board, Environmental Protection Agency.... New Section 6.3 requires the SJVUAPCD Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO) to prepare and present...

  1. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  2. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  3. 75 FR 10690 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule 4104, ``Reduction of Animal Matter,''...

  4. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  5. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  6. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  7. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved]...

  8. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  9. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards....

  10. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  11. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  12. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  13. 26 CFR 1.169-1 - Amortization of pollution control facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amortization of pollution control facilities. 1....169-1 Amortization of pollution control facilities. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In general. Under... amortization of the amortizable basis (as defined in § 1.169-3) of any certified pollution control facility...

  14. A cooperative reduction model for regional air pollution control in China that considers adverse health effects and pollutant reduction costs.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujing; Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Hu, Qingmi; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-12-15

    How to effectively control severe regional air pollution has become a focus of global concern recently. The non-cooperative reduction model (NCRM) is still the main air pollution control pattern in China, but it is both ineffective and costly, because each province must independently fight air pollution. Thus, we proposed a cooperative reduction model (CRM), with the goal of maximizing the reduction in adverse health effects (AHEs) at the lowest cost by encouraging neighboring areas to jointly control air pollution. CRM has two parts: a model of optimal pollutant removal rates using two optimization objectives (maximizing the reduction in AHEs and minimizing pollutant reduction cost) while meeting the regional pollution control targets set by the central government, and a model that allocates the cooperation benefits (i.e., health improvement and cost reduction) among the participants according to their contributions using the Shapley value method. We applied CRM to the case of sulfur dioxide (SO2) reduction in Yangtze River Delta region. Based on data from 2003 to 2013, and using mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as the health endpoints, CRM saves 437 more lives than NCRM, amounting to 12.1% of the reduction under NCRM. CRM also reduced costs by US $65.8×10(6) compared with NCRM, which is 5.2% of the total cost of NCRM. Thus, CRM performs significantly better than NCRM. Each province obtains significant benefits from cooperation, which can motivate them to actively cooperate in the long term. A sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter values on the cooperation benefits. Results shown that the CRM is not sensitive to the changes in each province's pollutant carrying capacity and the minimum pollutant removal capacity, but sensitive to the maximum pollutant reduction capacity. Moreover, higher cooperation benefits will be generated when a province's maximum pollutant reduction capacity increases.

  15. Methylglyoxal at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, S. N.; Gordon, B. P.; McWilliams, L.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that aqueous-phase processing of atmospheric α-dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG) could constitute an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The uptake of MG to aqueous particles is higher than expected due to the fact that its carbonyl moieties can hydrate to form diols, as well as the fact that MG can undergo aldol condensation reactions to form larger oligomers in solution. MG is known to be surface active but an improved description of its surface behaviour is crucial to understanding MG-SOA formation, in addition to understanding its gas-to-particle partitioning and cloud forming potential. Here, we employ a combined experimental and theoretical approach involving vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFS), surface tensiometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory calculations to study MG's surface adsorption, in both the presence and absence of salts. We are particularly interested in determining MG's hydration state at the surface. Our experimental results indicate that MG slowly adsorbs to the air-water interface and strongly perturbs the water structure there. This perturbation is enhanced in the presence of NaCl. Together our experimental and theoretical results suggest that singly-hydrated MG is the dominant form of MG at the surface.

  16. Method oil shale pollutant sorption/NO.sub.x reburning multi-pollutant control

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2008-06-10

    A method of decreasing pollutants produced in a combustion process. The method comprises combusting coal in a combustion chamber to produce at least one pollutant selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing pollutant, sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine, hydroiodic acid, iodine, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine, hydrobromic acid, bromine, phosphoric acid, phosphorous pentaoxide, elemental mercury, and mercuric chloride. Oil shale particles are introduced into the combustion chamber and are combusted to produce sorbent particulates and a reductant. The at least one pollutant is contacted with at least one of the sorbent particulates and the reductant to decrease an amount of the at least one pollutant in the combustion chamber. The reductant may chemically reduce the at least one pollutant to a benign species. The sorbent particulates may adsorb or absorb the at least one pollutant. A combustion chamber that produces decreased pollutants in a combustion process is also disclosed.

  17. Fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constance L. Senior; Susan Thorneloe; Bernine Khan; David Goss

    2009-07-15

    Mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant originates from the coal that is burned and leaves through the output streams, which include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent findings on the fate and environmental stability of mercury in coal combustion residues (CCRs) such as fly ash and solid products from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers when either disposed or reused in agricultural, commercial, or engineering applications. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume I: Organization and Basic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume I, explains in detail the following: sources and classification of pollutants; meteorological influence on air quality; the air pollution control agency; the field enforcement officer; the enforcement process; prosecuting violation; and inspection techniques including…

  19. 77 FR 67322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  20. 76 FR 298 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation......... 12/17/92 08/24/07 On September 17, 2007, the submittal for San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution... require that fixed covers be equipped with a 95% efficient Air Pollution Control (APC) device. c....

  1. 77 FR 2643 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control...) * * * (i) * * * (D) Placer County Air Pollution Control District (1) Rule 233, ``Biomass Boilers,''...

  2. 76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... various air pollution sources. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  3. 78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District..., however, provide for Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO) discretion to allow burning on a No-Burn...

  4. 76 FR 75795 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Reporting...

  5. 78 FR 37130 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference,...

  6. 75 FR 2796 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District portion... topcoats; and that Ventura County Air Pollution Control District's (VCAPCD) rule has more stringent VOC...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  7. 78 FR 53249 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... finalizing approval of revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  8. 75 FR 18061 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final... amend 30 TAC Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. These revisions consist of the... to develop air pollution regulations and control strategies to ensure that air quality meets...

  9. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... (ACC) which combines the control of smog and soot causing pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions... both smog forming pollutants and greenhouse gases, and amendments to its zero emission vehicle...

  10. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  11. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    PubMed

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  12. Pollution-control equipment (Chile). Air-pollution-control equipment, September 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Chile relies upon imports to satisfy its needs for equipment for environmental control. Despite the lack of specific statistics that could provide precise information, environmental specialists evaluate the U.S. position as quite promising in terms of sales prospects. As far as current market share in domestic market it is estimated that U.S. products have 40% of the Chilean market. U.S. imports should grow at least 30%, at the same growth rate of the total market.

  13. Decision support system for the evaluation of urban air pollution control options: application for particulate pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, Nu; Hourdakis, E; Tsilingiridis, G; Ntziachristos, L; Banias, G; Stavrakakis, N; Sidiropoulos, C

    2009-11-15

    Development of strategies to control urban air pollution is a complex and multi-disciplinary process involving a wide range of scientists with different expertise and interests. This paper presents an integrated assessment methodological scheme for the evaluation of air pollution control measures that are put forward in order to reduce sufficiently air pollution levels in urban areas. Forming long-term, efficient air pollution control strategies requires knowledge of the costs associated with their implementation, the emission inventories and emission reductions to be achieved, as well as the concentration variations that represent air quality levels in the area examined. In contrast to the majority of the currently employed assessment approaches, the presented scheme enables the evaluation of any proposed air pollution control option in terms of its combined impact on air quality and social welfare, by correlating economic and health impact assessment issues. The approach presented in this paper brings together air quality modelling and mathematical programming techniques and provides a decision support system for the determination of optimal bundles of air pollution control options according to the particular features and needs of the areas examined. Both cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit approaches are taken into account in order to put the problem on the basis of economic efficiency from a societal perspective. The methodology is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, which is selected on the grounds that the area is considered as one of the most polluted--if not the most polluted--cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles.

  14. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  15. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in suscep...

  16. Fugacity gradients of hydrophobic organics across the air-water interface measured with a novel passive sampler.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Yao, Yao; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Wong, Charles S; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-11-01

    Mass transfer of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) across the air-water interface is an important geochemical process controlling the fate and transport of HOCs at the regional and global scales. However, few studies have characterized concentration or fugacity profiles of HOCs near both sides of the air-water interface, which is the driving force for the inter-compartmental mass transfer of HOCs. Herein, we introduce a novel passive sampling device which is capable of measuring concentration (and therefore fugacity) gradients of HOCs across the air-water interface. Laboratory studies indicated that the escaping fugacity values of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to air were negatively correlated to their volatilization half-lives. Results for field deployment were consistent between the passive sampler and an active method, i.e., a combination of grab sampling and liquid-liquid extraction. In general, the fugacity profiles of detected PAHs were indicative of an accumulation mechanism in the surface microlayer of the study regions (Haizhu Lake and Hailing Bay of Guangdong Province, China), while p,p'-DDD tended to volatilize from water to the atmosphere in Hailing Bay. Furthermore, the fugacity profiles of the target analytes increased towards the air-water interface, reflecting the complexity of environmental behavior of the target analytes near the air-water interface. Overall, the passive sampling device provides a novel means to better characterize the air-water diffusive transfer of HOCs, facilitating the understanding of the global cycling of HOCs.

  17. A multi-factor designation method for mapping particulate-pollution control zones in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Y; Xie, S D

    2011-09-01

    A multi-factor designation method for mapping particulate-pollution control zones was brought out through synthetically considering PM(10) pollution status, PM(10) anthropogenic emissions, fine particle pollution, long-range transport and economic situation. According to this method, China was divided into four different particulate-pollution control regions: PM Suspended Control Region, PM(10) Pollution Control Region, PM(2.5) Pollution Control Region and PM(10) and PM(2.5) Common Control Region, which accounted for 69.55%, 9.66%, 4.67% and 16.13% of China's territory, respectively. The PM(10) and PM(2.5) Common Control Region was mainly distributed in Bohai Region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, eastern of Sichuan province and Chongqing municipality, calling for immediate control of both PM(10) and PM(2.5). Cost-effective control effects can be achieved through concentrating efforts on PM(10) and PM(2.5) Common Control Region to address 60.32% of national PM(10) anthropogenic emissions. Air quality in districts belonging to PM(2.5) Pollution Control Region suggested that Chinese national ambient air quality standard for PM(10) was not strict enough. The result derived from application to China proved that this approach was feasible for mapping pollution control regions for a country with vast territory, complicated pollution characteristics and limited available monitoring data.

  18. Determining Spatial Distribution And Air-Water Exchange Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Stormwater Runoff Catchment Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaraneni, V. K.; Schifman, L. A.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater runoff is a conduit for several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in to surface and ground water bodies. The control of runoff and pollutants is typically addressed by best management practices (BMPs), such as retention/detention ponds or catchment basins in general. The effectiveness of catchment basins in reducing the volume of runoff and removal of some contaminants has been established. However, very little is known about the fate of the contaminants settled within these structures. In coastal regions and places with shallow groundwater tables accumulation of high concentrations of PAHs in the bottom sediments poses a potential threat for groundwater contamination. The concentrations of PAHs accumulated in the sediments of these catchment basins will primarily depend on the sources of runoff origin and the surrounding land use. Due to the physico-chemical characteristics of PAHs, their transport not only can occur in the liquid and solid phase, but it is also possible that gaseous emissions can be produced from BMP systems. For the purpose of this study, five stormwater catchment basins along the I-95 corridor in Rhode Island were selected based on the stormwater runoff origin and covering (industrial, urban, highway, and commercial) land uses. To study the stratification of PAHs sediment cores one foot were collected and analyzed for 31PAHs (16 EPA parent PAH and 15 methylated PAHs). In order to determine whether the catchment basins are a source of atmospheric pollution polyethylene passive samplers were deployed to determine the freely dissolved PAHs in the water column and gas phase PAHs at the air-water interface. This presentation will describe how PAH fluxes move between three environmental compartments (sediments, water column, atmosphere) within the five stormwater catchment basins. Further, it will be investigated whether these BMP structures can act as contaminant sources rather than sinks and whether BMP

  19. [Zoning planning in non-point source pollution control in Hanyang district].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-Hai; Zhao, Jing-Zhu; Luo, Yong-Feng

    2006-01-01

    It is most important for managing urban non-point source (NPS) pollution, actualizing the urban sustainable development as well, that zoning planning of urban NPS pollution control is studied. A case study on principles and methods of zoning planning in urban NPS pollution is carried out. Principles of urban sustainable development, priority of urban NPS pollution sensitivity, similarity of urban NPS control direction and region conjugate are put forward. Besides, it is for the first time that a more quantitive method is presented, in the case of Hanyang district, Wuhan city, which is based on L-THIA model and spatial analysis technique in GIS. Assessment of NPS pollution status quo, as well as analysis of NPS sensitivity, is the kernel component of the quantitive method. Hanyang might be divided into four NPS pollution control zones. It is helpful for decision-making of regional NPS pollution control.

  20. Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities Using Wet Scrubbers for Multi-Pollutant Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates changes that may occur to coal combustion residues (CCRs) in response to changes in air pollution control technology at coal-fired power plants, which will reduce emissions from the flue gas stack by transferring pollutants to fly ash and other air pollution...

  1. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  2. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  3. 76 FR 54993 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of ] revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution... 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations,...

  4. 75 FR 1284 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution... finalizing approval of revisions to the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion of the...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution...

  5. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  6. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  7. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  10. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    PubMed

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  11. Analysis of control methods: mercury and cadmium pollution.

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, A

    1975-01-01

    Physical system conceptual models are developed to illustrate the various interconnecting pathways of metal flow. Economic use of mercury and cadmium, as representative toxic heavy metals, is inventoried, and the losses of each from the pathways of economic use are compared. Distinctions are made between high volume consumers and industries that are responsible for a large percent of total emissions or effluent loads. The pathways of the metals in the environment are traced via the conceptual models. A global mass balance is presented for mercury. The problem of high local concentrations vs. global metal flow is reviewed. Impacts of the metals on human health are categorized by type of effect. Available control strategies and abatement measures are evaluated with respect to the effectiveness of each on the problems of metal pollution, as illustrated by the physical models. PMID:1227855

  12. Pollution-Control Regimes for U.S. Navy Vessels: From Battleship Gray to Environmental Green

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    REGIMES 7.. . . . A. Warships and the Question of Sovereign Immunity Under Marine Pollution -Control Regimes . . 7 B. International Convention for the...Prevention of Pollution From Ships (MARPOL 73/78) and Associated U.S. Law . . . . .. 12 C. Convention of the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of...Manual, Sec. 1-5.1. 2 W. Jackson Davis, GLOBAL ASPECTS OF MARINE POLLUTION POLICY: THE NEED FOR A NEW INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION, Marine Policy, 194 (May

  13. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of regulatory controls on farm pollution using chemical and biological indices of water quality and pollution statistics.

    PubMed

    Foy, R H; Lennox, S D; Smith, R V

    2001-08-01

    Water quality was measured in 42 streams in the Colebrooke and Upper Bann catchments in Northern Ireland over the period 1990-1998. Despite ongoing pollution control measures, biological water quality, as determined by the invertebrate average score per taxon (ASPT) index, did not improve and there was no appreciable decline in recorded farm pollution incidents. However, the lack of decline in pollution incidents could reflect changes in detection policy, as a greater proportion of incidents were recorded from less polluting discharges such as farm-yard runoff. In contrast, there was an improvement during 1997 and 1998 in annual chemical water quality classification based on exceedence values (90th percentiles) for dissolved oxygen, ammonium and BOD concentrations. In 1998, 11.9% of streams were severely polluted compared to 26.2% in 1990, while the proportion classed as of salmonid water quality, increased from 40.5% in 1990 to 59.6% in 1998. Although water quality in 1996 did not improve relative to 1990 values, there was a notable increasing trend from 1990 in the numbers of samples taken during the summer which had good water quality with low ammonium (<0.6mgN l(-1)) and high dissolved oxygen (> 70% sat). The trend for samples with low BOD (<4 mgl(-1)) was more erratic, but an improvement was apparent from 1994. These improvements in chemical water quality suggest that point-source farm pollution declined after 1990. The fact that this was not reflected in stream biology may reflect the limited time scale for biological recovery. An important factor preventing biological recovery may be the high pollution capacity of manures and silage effluent, so that even reduced numbers of farm pollution incidents can severely perturb stream ecosystems. The intractable nature of farm pollution suggests that there is a need to consider an interactive approach to problem resolution involving both farmers and regulators.

  15. Operation and Maintenance of Water Pollution Control Facilities: A WPCF White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, William R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the recommendations of the Water Pollution Control Federation for operation and maintenance consideration during the planning design, construction, and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. (CS)

  16. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of erosion... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  17. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of erosion... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  18. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of erosion... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  19. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  20. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  1. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of erosion... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  2. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  3. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of erosion... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for...

  4. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  5. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of Erosion....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  6. Contemporary and futuristic views of pollution control devices in foundries.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R

    2015-10-01

    Foundry practices are used in contemporary world to produce large volume of components and products. Foundry practices involve the melting of metals and pouring the molten metal into the cavities called molds. On solidification, the metals which assume the shape of molds are removed as castings. Foundries that employ these practices were growing in large number till the middle part of the twentieth century in the world. After the middle part of the twentieth century, the world community begun to realize that, foundries were emitting pollutants which were affecting the health of humans. In order to overcome this situation, several countries in the world promulgated laws stipulating the maximum level of pollutants that can emit by foundries. These laws affected the functioning and growth of foundries. In order to sustain amidst these constraints, foundries begun to install energy efficient melting technologies and pollution control devices (PCDs). In this back ground, this paper reports to assess the contemporary scenario and project the future needs for sustaining the foundries. During the conduct of this literature review, it was discernable that, research papers have reported three categories of researches. In the first category of research papers, the researches reporting the achievement of cleaner production technologies in foundries using PCDs have appeared. In the second category of research papers, the application of cleaner production technology in foundries located in different countries has been examined. In the third category of research papers, the application of efficient melting technologies and PCDs in different clusters of foundries located in different parts of world has been explored. Subsequently implementation technics of Environmental Management System in cleaner production technics in foundries has been described the analysis of the information and knowledge drawn from these three categories of papers has revealed that, researches exploring the

  7. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  12. [Spatial heterogeneity and classified control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Huaihe River Basin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Jian-Gang; Sun, Dong-Qi; Ni, Tian-Hua

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32 t.hm-2; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.

  13. Temporary stabilization of air pollution control residues using carbonation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Carbonation presents a good prospect for stabilizing alkaline waste materials. The risk of metal leaching from carbonated waste was investigated in the present study; in particular, the effect of the carbonation process and leachate pH on the leaching toxicity of the alkaline air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator was evaluated. The pH varying test was conducted to characterize the leaching characteristics of the raw and carbonated residue over a broad range of pH. Partial least square modeling and thermodynamic modeling using Visual MINTEQ were applied to highlight the significant process parameters that controlled metal leaching from the carbonated residue. By lowering the pH to 8-11, the carbonation process reduced markedly the leaching toxicity of the alkaline APC residue; however, the treated APC residue showed similar potential risk of heavy metal release as the raw ash when subjected to an acid shock. The carbonated waste could, thereby, not be disposed of safely. Nonetheless, carbonation could be applied as a temporary stabilization process for heavy metals in APC residues in order to reduce the leaching risk during its transportation and storage before final disposal.

  14. The U.S. and Environmental Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1974-01-01

    Background concerning legislation and development of environmental programs is detailed in the areas of air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, and multimedia toxic substances. Each section contains a discussion of scientific knowledge, health effects, costs, proposed standards, and possible approaches to the problems. (LS)

  15. Bio-inspired evaporation through plasmonic film of nanoparticles at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yanming; Tao, Peng; Shen, Qingchen; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Fangyu; Liu, Quanlong; Song, Chengyi; Zhang, Di; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-08-27

    Plasmonic gold nanoparticles self-assembled at the air-water interface to produce an evaporative surface with local control inspired by skins and plant leaves. Fast and efficient evaporation is realized due to the instant and localized plasmonic heating at the evaporative surface. The bio-inspired evaporation process provides an alternative promising approach for evaporation, and has potential applications in sterilization, distillation, and heat transfer.

  16. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  17. 75 FR 2079 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... facilities. Also, please see our response to CPF comment 3. B. San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...) San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule 4570, ``Confined Animal Facilities... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley...

  18. 78 FR 896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County...

  19. 76 FR 17347 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...) * * * (D) Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (1) Rule 201, ``Exemptions,'' adopted on... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 52 (Sec....

  20. 77 FR 25109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Air pollution control, Environmental protection, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County...

  1. 76 FR 76046 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD or... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (``SJVUAPCD'' or ``District'') Rules 2020 (Exemptions) and... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified...

  2. 78 FR 922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County...

  3. 75 FR 18142 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 114, Control of Air Pollution from...

  4. 75 FR 56942 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District...

  5. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County...

  6. 77 FR 73392 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

  7. 76 FR 45199 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified...

  8. 78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD). Response #4--The comment does not identify and we are not... submittal and review process such as contained in SJVAPCD Rule 4550 and Great Basin Unified Air...

  9. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River...

  10. 76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Air Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District ACTION: Final rule... the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management... 11, 2010. (F) Feather River Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 10.1, ``New Source Review,''...

  11. Grassed swales for stormwater pollution control during rain and snowmelt.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, M

    2003-01-01

    The retention of suspended solids, particles and heavy metals in different grassed swales during rain events and snowmelt is discussed. The experimental results derived from investigations performed in existing grassed swales in the Luleå region, Northern Sweden. During high pollutant loading rates, grassed swales retain significant amounts of pollutants, mainly due to sedimentation of particulate matter. Low to moderate removal efficiencies could be expected for heavy metals, especially metals in solution (i.e. the dissolved phase). When grassed swales receive urban runoff with low pollutant concentrations, they may release rather than retain pollutants. Swales are important snow deposit areas in the city and particle bound pollutants do to a large extent remain in the swale after snowmelt. However, dissolved pollutants (i.e. dissolved heavy metals) are likely to escape the swale with the melt water. Grassed swales may be regarded as facilities that even out the peaks in pollutant loads without being capable of producing consistent high removal rates. This suggests that swales should be considered as primary treatment devices. Possible design parameters for grassed swales are mean hydraulic detention time, surface loading rate or specific swale area.

  12. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution.

    PubMed

    Flores Céspedes, F; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Pérez García, S; Fernández Pérez, M

    2007-10-01

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, T(50), were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. Sorption capacity of the sorbents for chloridazon and metribuzin, ranging from 0.53mgkg(-1) for the metribuzin sorption on bentonite to 2.03x10(5)mgkg(-1) for the sorption of chloridazon on the activated carbon, was the most important factor modulating the herbicide release.

  13. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    SciTech Connect

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  14. Multi-Pollutant Planning and Control Strategies for Air Quality Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes how planning controls for multiple pollutants at the same time can save money and time and achieve significant benefits, and how control strategies can address both climate change and air quality.

  15. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Control District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan...

  16. General Guidance on Innovative and Voluntary Air Pollution Control Strategies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State and Local Transporation Resources is an EPA/OTAQ web page for state and local air quality regulators and transportation planners that offers guidance on how to reduce air pollution from cars, diesel trucks, city and school buses.

  17. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  18. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  19. Setting and Reviewing Standards to Control Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ozone standards are part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), which limit air pollution to protect health and the environment. Standards are periodically reviewed and updated, and air quality across the U.S. is measured against them.

  20. Learn About the Water Pollution Control (Section 106) Grant Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under CWA Section 106, EPA is authorized to provide grants to states, eligible interstate agencies, and eligible tribes to establish and administer programs, including enforcement programs,for the prevention, reduction, and elimination of water pollution.

  1. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  2. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  3. Assessing and controlling the effect of aircraft on the environment: Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Grobman, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The air pollution created by aircraft engines around airports and the global atmospheric problem of supersonic aircraft operating in the stratosphere are discussed. Methods for assessing the air pollution impact are proposed. The use of atmospheric models to determine the air pollution extent is described. Methods for controlling the emissions of aircraft engines are examined. Diagrams of the atmospheric composition resulting from exhaust gas emissions are developed.

  4. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

  5. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body.

  6. Flue gas treatability studies: a tool for techno-economic control of industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Padma S; Rao, B Shrinivas; Manthapurwar, N S; Hasan, M Z

    2003-02-01

    Air pollution problems in developing countries have gained larger fraction in the last decade especially due to non functioning and non implementation of effective air pollution control devices in industries. In industrial wastewater management, adequate treatability studies are conducted to arrive at a techno-economic treatment option. However no such studies were done for reducing air pollution or emission from industries until now in India. Little information was available about such studies in other countries. This article provides information about a novel technique known as flue gas treatability studies and to undertake such studies, a pilot scale system is installed in Air Pollution Control Division of M/s National Environmental Engineering research Institute, NEERI, Nagpur-20, India. This study is a tool for techno-economic selection of air pollution control systems specially for small/medium scale industrial emissions.

  7. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  8. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  12. Processes, Procedures, and Methods to Control Pollution Resulting from Silvicultural Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report presents brief documentation of silvicultural practices, both those now in use and those in stages of research and development. A majority of the text is concerned with the specific aspects of silvicultural activities which relate to nonpoint source pollution control methods. Analyzed are existing and near future pollution control…

  13. 78 FR 6784 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... approve local rules to regulate this emission source under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). DATES:...

  14. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento Metro Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan...

  15. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution... of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California...- line instructions. 2. Email: steckel.andrew@epa.gov . 3. Mail or deliver: Andrew Steckel (Air-4),...

  16. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...: EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified...

  17. 76 FR 75857 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion of the... local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or...

  18. 78 FR 37176 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego Air Pollution... proposing to approve a revision to the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) portion of the... sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act). DATES: Any comments on this proposal must arrive by...

  19. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... Superfund, TRI, EPCRA, RMP and Oil Information Center at (800) 424-9346 or TDD (800) 553-7672...

  20. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  1. Electrical Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Citizen use of our nation's industrial products has led to increased pollution problems and demand for diminishing energy reserves. In an attempt to encourage intelligent cooperation among science, industry, government and all citizens, this unit was developed to introduce secondary science students to the many facets of the electrical production…

  2. PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION: POLLUTANT FORMATION AND CONTROL, 1970-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the support role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory in the major research effort directed by EPA in the l970s to understand pollutant formation during pulverized coal combustion (PCC). Understanding the conversion of fuel nitrogen to nit...

  3. The Economist's Approach to Pollution and Its Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solow, Robert M.

    1971-01-01

    Shows that excess pollution arises because the waste disposal capacity of the environment is provided free of charge. Proposes a tax on materials removed from the environment, with refunds varying with the method of disposal: harmless methods obtaining full refund, most harmful disposal attracting no refund. Tax to be based on social cost of most…

  4. Control of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution by Natural Wetland Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of nonpoint source pollutants, principally sediment and nutrients moving from cultivated fields to surface waters, is a major challenge. Remnants of once-extensive natural wetlands occur across the agricultural landscape, and some workers have suggested that these areas might be managed t...

  5. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  6. Residuals Charges for Pollution Control: A Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, A. Myrick, III; Haveman, Robert H.

    1972-01-01

    Contrasts the effects of a policy of regulation of pollutant discharge by enforcement of a permit system with the likely consequences of a policy of charging for effluents, thus increasing the cost of discharge. The charge for residuals is favored, and it is suggested that trials of the system be conducted, perhaps with a federal tax on emission…

  7. Directory of National Organizations Concerned With Land Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 133 national organizations, agencies, institutes and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  8. Directory of National Organizations Concerned with Land Pollution Control, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed Publishing Co., New York, NY.

    Included in this directory are 204 national organizations, agencies, institutes, and/or private groups concerned with the reduction or prevention of land pollution. Arranged in alphabetical order, each annotation gives the complete name of the organization, its address, telephone number, person to contact, and a short description of the scope of…

  9. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  10. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  11. 40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.10 Section 424.10 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.10 Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution control...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14441 - When must I inspect my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and air pollution control devices? 62.14441 Section 62.14441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices? (a) You must inspect your large, medium, small... inspect the air pollution control devices on your large, medium, small or small rural HMIWI by May...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 60.2706 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days after installation of...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14441 - When must I inspect my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and air pollution control devices? 62.14441 Section 62.14441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices? (a) You must inspect your large, medium, small... inspect the air pollution control devices on your large, medium, small or small rural HMIWI by May...

  16. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  17. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  18. 40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.10 Section 424.10 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.10 Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  20. 40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.10 Section 424.10 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.10 Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution control...

  3. 40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.10 Section 424.10 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.10 Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution control...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 60.2716 By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  6. 40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.10 Section 424.10 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.10 Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control...

  7. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  8. [Identification of the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hua-ping; Sun, Qing-fang; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Lin; Feng, Jin-fei; Bian, Xin-min

    2010-04-01

    The characteristics such as wide area, dispersion and randomness of agricultural and rural pollution make it difficult to seize the key to pollution control in rural areas. On the scale of township, using inventory analysis, accounting for emissions and emission intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Changshu, Jiangsu Province, which exists in a total of 4 classes and 6 kinds of agricultural and rural sources such as farmland cultivation (chemical fertilizer application and crop straw abandoned), animal breeding, aquaculture, rural life (domestic sewage and human waste, solid waste), using cluster analysis, identify the prior regions and the prior pollution sources for agricultural and rural pollution control by the sensitivity evaluation, and make agricultural and rural pollution control and management measures more focused. It shows that: in 2007, COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural and rural pollution sources were 5496.07, 4161.03, and 647.54 t x a(-1), and the emission intensity of COD, TN and TP was 48.84, 36.98, and 5.75 kg x hm(-2). The main pollution source of COD was rural life and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 75%; the main pollution source of TN and TP was agricultural cultivation and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 80%. The sensitivity evaluation identified that the town of Guli and Shajiabang were the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu; farmland cultivation and aquaculture were the prior pollution sources in the two areas.

  9. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... enables registration of nonroad engines and equipment that operate at multiple locations across California, so that the engine and equipment owners can operate throughout California without obtaining permits... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment...

  10. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Scrubbers for Gaseous Pollutants Control Devices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  11. 75 FR 8056 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression... Decision Granting Authorization of California's New Nonroad Compression Ignition Engine Emission Standards... standards and accompanying test procedures for new nonroad compression ignition (CI) engines. EPA is...

  12. 76 FR 38410 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0057, Pollution Prevention and Control, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  13. Verification Testing of Air Pollution Control Technology Quality Management Plan Revision 2.3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center was established in 1995 as part of the EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technologies’ performance.

  14. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... public transit agencies that operate urban buses and other transit vehicles; additionally, the... requirements for California's public transit agencies that operate urban buses and other transit vehicles... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver...

  15. Fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in source and non-source control sustainable drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Roinas, Georgios; Mant, Cath; Williams, John B

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable drainage (SuDs) is an established method for managing runoff from developments, and source control is part of accepted design philosophy. However, there are limited studies into the contribution source control makes to pollutant removal, especially for roads. This study examines organic pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in paired source and non-source control full-scale SuDs systems. Sites were selected to cover local roads, trunk roads and housing developments, with a range of SuDs, including porous asphalt, swales, detention basins and ponds. Soil and water samples were taken bi-monthly over 12 months to assess pollutant loads. Results show first flush patterns in storm events for solids, but not for TPH. The patterns of removal for specific PAHs were also different, reflecting varying physico-chemical properties. The potential of trunk roads for pollution was illustrated by peak runoff for TPH of > 17,000 μg/l. Overall there was no significant difference between pollutant loads from source and non-source control systems, but the dynamic nature of runoff means that longer-term data are required. The outcomes of this project will increase understanding of organic pollutants behaviour in SuDs. This will provide design guidance about the most appropriate systems for treating these pollutants.

  16. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  17. Phosphorus fertilization for rice and control of environmental pollution problems.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, A T M A; Kennedy, I R; Ahmed, M F; Kecskés, M L

    2007-07-01

    Aim of this study to review information on various aspects of P fertilization in rice i.e., P nutrition of rice, P response of rice plant, P availability in rice soils and P adsorption in rice soils for better understanding of P fertilization in rice culture. A substantial portion of the applied P along with the soil P is lost from rice fields to water bodies causing environmental pollution problems through eutrophication. These pollution problems can be minimized by using proper source of P as fertilizer, proper timing and methods of P fertilizer application, soil P management, transport management, use of plant growth promoting microorganisms which helps in efficient use of P by crops and use of green manure crops which improves soil fertility as well as helps in efficient use of P by crops.

  18. Increasingly intolerable boundaries: future control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, J

    2001-09-14

    In recent years, there have been a number of toxic accidents on the sea and on land which have caused pollution down current, down wind and down stream. Four were dramatic and these four have led to substantial changes in the way we deal with risk to the environment. There have also been increasing concerns about a less spectacular but equally concerning problem, acid rain, though attempts to deal with this problem have been less successful. Perhaps the drama was lacking. In all these cases, unfortunately, the less developed countries can ill afford the costs of prevention and this means they are often the home of environmentally unfriendly development. While the current approaches to such problems will continue, it is likely that the countries on the receiving end of such pollution, especially if they have economic and military power, will seek more forceful solutions. One outcome may be a UN-sponsored environmental police force.

  19. Looking at pollution control in a new light: Photochemistry for a cleaner environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This phamphet, from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory, describes a major new development in the field of photochemistry. The NREL/Sandia team has developed a pollution control technique - photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) that uses the energy in light to destroy environmental contaminants. Applicable as both a waste clean-up and a pollution control technique, PCP could help thousands of businesses comply with environmental regulations.

  20. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components.

  1. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  2. Pollutant control-the SRC-I plant

    SciTech Connect

    Firley, J.A.; Wilkins, J.T.; Loran, B.I.

    1982-11-01

    Air pollutant emissions generated by direct coal liquefaction result in negligible air quality degradation during normal operation. Upsets and start-ups produce high ambient SO/sub 2/ levels. Because 1-hr exposures of 1.25 ppm SO/sub 2/ will spot some plants under the most adverse conditions, startup and upset emissions will have a remote probability of causing leaf damage. The area of damage, if it should occur, approximates 100 acres, not far from the plant boundary.

  3. Remote sensing for the control of marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Massin, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1976, as the risk of pollution by hydrocarbons in marine waters increased, fourteen countries led by France and the United States began a joint study on the possibilities offered by remote sensing techniques for the detection, surveillance, and monitoring of oil (and other hazardous substances) spills at sea. This volume presents the findings of this study in an in-depth investigation into the problems that arise from deliberate and accidental spills.

  4. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  5. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution Control Measures for Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Theloke, J.; Denier-van-der-Gon, H.; Kugler, U.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Roos, J.; Torras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution in large cities is still a matter of concern. Especially the concentration of fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5) is largest in large cities leading to severe health impacts. Furthermore the PM10 thresholds of the EU Air Quality Directive are frequently exceeded. Thus the question arises, whether the initiated policies and measures for mitigating air pollution are sufficient to meet the air quality targets and - if not - which efficient further pollution mitigation measures exist. These questions have been addressed in the EU research project MEGAPOLI for the four European megacities respectively agglomerations London, Paris, Rhine-Ruhr area and Po valley. Firstly, a reference scenario of future activities and emissions has been compiled for the megacities for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 for all relevant air pollutants (CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). The reference scenario takes into account as well population changes as technical progress and economic growth. As pollution flowing in from outside the city is about as important as pollution caused by emissions in the city, the analysis covers the whole of Europe and not only the city area. Emissions are then transformed into concentrations using atmospheric models. The higher concentrations in cities were estimated with a newly developed 'urban increment' model. Results show, that in the megacities the limits of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) will be exceeded. Thus additional efforts are necessary to reduce emissions further. Thus, a number of further measures (not implemented in current legislation) were selected and assessed. These included mitigation options for road transport, other mobile sources, large combustion plants, small and medium combustion plants and industry. For each measure and in addition for various bundles of measures a cost-benefit analysis has been carried out. Benefits (avoided health risks and climate change risks) have

  6. Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

    2014-01-09

    Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities.

  7. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  8. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2151 By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution...

  9. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.40 Section 424.40... FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution... with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  10. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 87 and 1068 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 and 1068 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9437-2] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution... engines which in her judgment causes or contributes to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4895 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Compliance Requirements § 60.4895 By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution... following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection. (b) Within 10 operating...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4895 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compliance Requirements § 60.4895 By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution... following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection. (b) Within 10 operating...

  13. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.40 Section 424.40... FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution... with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4895 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compliance Requirements § 60.4895 By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution... following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection. (b) Within 10 operating...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2151 By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution...

  16. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.40 Section 424.40... FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution... with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.40 Section 424.40... FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution... with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  18. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.40 Section 424.40... FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution... with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4895 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compliance Requirements § 60.4895 By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution... following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection. (b) Within 10 operating...

  20. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  1. Formation, features and controlling strategies of severe haze-fog pollutions in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongbo; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-02-01

    With rapid industrialization and urbanization, China is facing a great challenge with regard to severe fog-haze pollutions, which were characterized by high fine particulate concentration level and visibility impairment. The control strategies for atmosphere pollutions in China were not only cutting-edge topics of atmospheric research, but also an urgent issue to be addressed by the Chinese government and the public. Focused on the core scientific issues of the haze and fog pollution, this paper reviews the main studies conducted in China, especially after 2010, including formation mechanisms, evolution features, and factors contributing to the fog-haze pollutions. Present policy and control strategies were synoptically discussed. The major challenges ahead will be stated and recommendations for future research directions are proposed at the end of this Review.

  2. Biocatalytic coatings for air pollution control: a proof of concept study on VOC biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Bernal, Oscar I; Flickinger, Michael C; Muñoz, Raúl; Deshusses, Marc A

    2015-02-01

    Although biofilm-based biotechnologies exhibit a large potential as solutions for off-gas treatment, the high water content of biofilms often causes pollutant mass transfer limitations, which ultimately limit their widespread application. The present study reports on the proof of concept of the applicability of bioactive latex coatings for air pollution control. Toluene vapors served as a model volatile organic compound (VOC). The results showed that Pseudomonas putida F1 cells could be successfully entrapped in nanoporous latex coatings while preserving their toluene degradation activity. Bioactive latex coatings exhibited toluene specific biodegradation rates 10 times higher than agarose-based biofilms, because the thin coatings were less subject to diffusional mass transfer limitations. Drying and pollutant starvation were identified as key factors inducing a gradual deterioration of the biodegradation capacity in these innovative coatings. This study constitutes the first application of bioactive latex coatings for VOC abatement. These coatings could become promising means for air pollution control.

  3. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  4. Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Mckinley, Galen; Zuk, Miriam; Höjer, Morten; Avalos, Montserrat; González, Isabel; Iniestra, Rodolfo; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Miguel A; Osnaya, Patricia; Reynales, Luz M; Valdés, Raydel; Martínez, Julia

    2005-04-01

    Complex sociopolitical, economic, and geographical realities cause the 20 million residents of Mexico City to suffer from some of the worst air pollution conditions in the world. Greenhouse gas emissions from the city are also substantial, and opportunities for joint local-global air pollution control are being sought. Although a plethora of measures to improve local air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions have been proposed for Mexico City, resources are not available for implementation of all proposed controls and thus prioritization must occur. Yet policy makers often do not conduct comprehensive quantitative analyses to inform these decisions. We reanalyze a subset of currently proposed control measures, and derive cost and health benefit estimates that are directly comparable. This study illustrates that improved quantitative analysis can change implementation prioritization for air pollution and greenhouse gas control measures in Mexico City.

  5. Control of Pollutants in the Trans-Boundary Area of Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Katopodes, Nikolaos; Shen, Chunqi; Wang, Hua; Pang, Yong; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area and reducing conflicts between up and downstream regions. Based on monitoring data and statistical analysis, important trans-boundary cross sections identified by the regional government were selected as important areas for consideration in developing management objectives; using a 1-D mathematicmodel and an effective weight evaluation model, the trans-boundary effective control scope (TECS) of the study area was identified as the scope for pollutant control; the acceptable pollution load was then estimated using an established model targeting bi-directional flow. The results suggest that the water environmental capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD), in order to guarantee reaching the target water quality standard in the TECS, is 160,806 t/year, and amounts to 16,098 t/year, 3493 t/year, and 39,768 t/year for ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. Our study method and results have been incorporated into the local government management project, and have been proven to be useful in designing a pollution control strategy and management policy. PMID:27999331

  6. Associations between urban air pollution and pediatric asthma control in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Zora, Jennifer E; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Raysoni, Amit U; Johnson, Brent A; Li, Wen-Whai; Greenwald, Roby; Holguin, Fernando; Stock, Thomas H; Sarnat, Jeremy A

    2013-03-15

    Exposure to traffic-related pollutants poses a serious health threat to residents of major urban centers around the world. In El Paso, Texas, this problem is exacerbated by the region's arid weather, frequent temperature inversions, heavy border traffic, and an aged, poorly maintained vehicle fleet. The impact of exposure to traffic pollution, particularly on children with asthma, is poorly understood. Tracking the environmental health burden related to traffic pollution in El Paso is difficult, especially within school microenvironments, because of the lack of sensitive environmental health indicator data. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) is a survey tool for the measurement of overall asthma control, yet has not previously been considered as an outcome in air pollution health effect research. We conducted a repeated measure panel study to examine weekly associations between ACQ scores and traffic- and non-traffic air pollutants among asthmatic schoolchildren in El Paso. In the main one- and two-pollutant epidemiologic models, we found non-significant, albeit suggestive, positive associations between ACQ scores and respirable particulate matter (PM10), coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), benzene, toluene, and ozone (O3). Notably, associations were stronger and significant for some subgroups, in particular among subjects taking daily inhaled corticosteroids. This pattern may indicate heightened immune system response in more severe asthmatics, those with worse asthma "control" and higher ACQ scores at baseline. If the ACQ is appropriately used in the context of air pollution studies, it could reflect clinically measurable and biologically relevant changes in lung function and asthma symptoms that result from poor air quality and may increase our understanding of how air pollution influences asthma exacerbation.

  7. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  8. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  9. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  10. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENANCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  11. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  12. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 1: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  13. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 3: PROGRAMMER'S MAINTENACE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  14. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  15. 78 FR 721 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units... has adopted amendments to California's ``Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Diesel-Fueled... total of two copies. Hand Delivery: EPA Docket Center, Public Reading Room, EPA West Building, Room...

  16. Key issues in controlling air pollutants in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) sampling for both coarse and fine fractions was conducted in a semi-residential site (AECD) in Dhaka from February 2005 to December 2006. The samples were analyzed for mass, black carbon (BC), and elemental compositions. The resulting data set were analyzed for sources by Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA-PMF). From previous studies, it is found that, the air quality became worse in the dry winter period compared to the rainy season because of higher particulate matter concentration in the ambient air. Therefore, seasonal source contributions were determined from seasonally segregated data using EPA-PMF modeling so that further policy interventions can be undertaken to improve air quality. From the source apportionment results, it is observed that vehicular emissions and emission from brick kiln are the major contributors to air pollution in Dhaka especially in the dry seasons, while contribution from emissions from metal smelters increases during rainy seasons. The Government of Bangladesh is considering different interventions to reduce the emissions from those sources by adopting conversion of diesel/petrol vehicles to CNG, increasing traffic speed in the city and by introducing green technologies for brick production. However, in order to reduce the transboundary effect it is necessary to take action regionally.

  17. Outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Dakik, Habib; Elias, Elias; Abou Abbas, Linda; Levêque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly considered as a serious threat for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between outdoor pollutants and cardiovascular diseases among adults in Lebanon and to examine the possible moderator effect of cigarette smoking status on this association. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between October 2011 and October 2012. Cases were hospitalized patients diagnosed with CVD by a cardiologist while the control group subjects were free of any cardiac diseases. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, self-rated global health, pollution exposure, and other risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. The results of the logistic regression revealed that living near busy highway (OR 5.04, 95% CI (4.44-12.85), P < 0.001) and close to local diesel generator (OR 4.76, 95% CI (2.07-10.91), P < 0.001) was significantly associated with CVD. The association between the CVD and exposure to outside pollutants differed by cigarette smoking status. A clear difference was noted between nonsmokers and current smokers OR 4.6, 95% CI (1.10-19.25) and OR 10.11, 95% CI (7.33-20.23), respectively. Forthcoming studies are needed to clarify the potential link between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon. Public health interventions must be implemented to reduce air pollution and to improve air quality.

  18. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China.

  19. A review of existing models and methods to estimate employment effects of pollution control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about existing models and methods used to estimate coal mining employment impacts of pollution control policies. The EPA is currently assessing the consequences of various alternative policies to reduce air pollution. One important potential consequence of these policies is that coal mining employment may decline or shift from low-sulfur to high-sulfur coal producing regions. The EPA requires models that can estimate the magnitude and cost of these employment changes at the local level. This paper contains descriptions and evaluations of three models and methods currently used to estimate the size and cost of coal mining employment changes. The first model reviewed is the Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM), a well established, general purpose model that has been used by the EPA and other groups to simulate air pollution control policies. The second model reviewed is the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), which was developed for the EPA specifically to analyze the impacts of air pollution control policies. Finally, the methodology used by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to estimate the costs of alternative air pollution control policies for the Consolidated Coal Company is discussed. These descriptions and evaluations are based on information obtained from published reports and from draft documentation of the models provided by the EPA. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Evaporative assembly of MEH-PPV rings using mixed solvents at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kung-Po; Biswal, Sibani L

    2014-04-22

    Controlling the morphology of conjugated polymers has recently attracted considerable attention because of their applications in photovoltaic (PV) devices and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, we describe the self-assembly of a common conjugated polymer, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), into ringlike structures via solvent evaporation on an air/water interface. The films are monitored using Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and transferred onto a solid substrate by either the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) or the Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) method and further characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The morphology of the MEH-PPV thin film at the air/water interface can be controlled by the spreading solvent. By mixing solvents of varying spreading coefficients and evaporation rates, such as chloroform and chlorobenzene, MEH-PPV can be assembled into micrometer-sized ring structures. The optical properties of these MEH-PPV ring structures are also characterized. Lastly, MEH-PPV can be used as a soft template to organize microscale structures of nanoparticles.

  1. Polydopamine Films from the Forgotten Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Florian; Payamyar, Payam; Schneider, Anne; Winterhalter, Mathias; Bour, Jérôme; Addiego, Frédéric; Krafft, Marie-Pierre; Hemmerle, Joseph; Ball, Vincent

    2014-10-02

    The formation of polydopamine under mild oxidation conditions from dopamine solutions with mechanical agitation leads to the formation of films that can functionalize all kinds of materials. In the absence of stirring of the solution, we report the formation of polydopamine films at the air/water interface (PDA A/W) and suggest that it arises from an homogeneous nucleation process. These films grow two times faster than in solution and can be deposited on hydrophilic or hydrophobic substrates by the Langmuir-Schaeffer technique. Thanks to this new method, porous and hydrophobic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes can be completely covered with a 35 nm thick PDA A/W film after only 3h of reaction. Finally the oxidation of a monomer followed by a polymerization in water is not exclusive to polydopamine since we also transferred polyaniline functional films from the air/water interface to solid substrates. These findings suggest that self-assembly from a solution containing hydrophilic monomers undergoing a chemical transformation (here oxidation and oligomerization) could be a general method to produce films at the liquid/air interface.

  2. Pulsed power corona discharges for air pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Smulders, E.H.W.M.; Heesch, B.E.J.M. van; Paasen, S.S.V.B. van

    1998-10-01

    Successful introduction of pulsed corona for industrial purposes very much depends on the reliability of high-voltage and pulsed power technology and on the efficiency of energy transfer. In addition, it is of the utmost importance that adequate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is achieved between the high-voltage pulse source and the surrounding equipment. Pulsed corona is generated in a pilot unit that produces narrow 50 MW pulses at 1000 pps (net average corona power 1.5 kW). The pilot unit can run continuously for use in industrial applications such as cleaning of gases (100 m{sup 3}/h) containing NO or volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) or fluids (e.g., waste water). Simultaneous removal of NO and ethylene to obtain clean CO{sub 2} from the exhaust of a combustion engine was tested at an industrial site. Various chemical processes, such as removal of toluene or styrene from an airflow are tested in the laboratory. The authors developed a model to analyze the conversion of these pollutants. To examine the discharges in the reactor they use current, voltage, and E-field sensors as well as a fast charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Detailed energy input measurements are compared with CCD movies to investigate the efficiency of different streamer phases. EMC techniques incorporated in the pilot unit are based on the successful concept of constructing a low transfer impedance between common mode currents induced by pulsed power and differential mode voltages in signal lines and external main lines.

  3. Evaluation of pilot-scale pollution control devices for hazardous-waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Olexsey, R.A.

    1985-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of emission tests carried out on three pilot-scale air pollution-control devices. The units were connected to a slip stream from the ENSCO, Inc. hazardous-waste incinerator at El Dorado, Arkansas. The three units were a Hydro Sonic System wet scrubber; an ETS dry scrubber; and a Vulcan Engineering Company high temperature baghouse. The units were evaluated for their capability in removing particulate matter and HCl. Full discussion of the testing program and results is in an EPA report, Evaluation of Air Pollution Control Devices for Hazardous Waste Combustion, now undergoing final review in the Agency.

  4. Oyster reef restoration in controlling coastal pollution around India: A viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi

    2017-02-15

    Coastal waters receive large amounts of nutrients and pollutants from different point and nonpoint sources through bays and estuaries. Excess supply of nutrients in coastal waters may have detrimental effects, leading to hypoxia and anoxia from eutrophication. Reduction in concentrations of excess nutrients/pollutants in bays/estuarine system is must for healthy coastal ecosystem functioning. Conservations of bays, estuaries and coastal zones are must for sustainable development in any maritime country. Excellent ability of oyster in removing and controlling the concentrations of nutrients, pollutants, suspended particulate matters from bays and estuarine waters stimulated me to provide a viewpoint on oyster reef restoration in controlling nutrient/heavy metals fluxes and marine coastal pollution around India. Oyster reefs restoration may decrease nutrient and heavy metals fluxes in coastal waters and reduce the intensity of oxygen depletion in the coastal Arabian Sea (seasonal) and Bay of Bengal. However, extensive research is recommended to understand the impact of oyster reef restoration in controlling coastal pollution which is essential for sustainable development around India.

  5. Two alternative modes for diffuse pollution control in Wuhan City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Feng; Shan, Bao-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing; Hu, Cheng-Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Pollution in urban zoos arises from diffuse and small point sources. However, its control has received little attention in past decades. Online and offline modes of ecological engineering technology were designed to control pollution from small point and diffuse sources in Wuhan City Zoo, China. Their characteristics and performances were investigated in sixteen runoff events from 2003 to 2005. The results showed that the two modes both improved runoff water quality and had high retention rates for water and pollutants. In the outflows, the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 88%, 59%, 46% and 71% for the online mode, and those were 77%, 42%, 50% and 66% for the offline mode. The annual retention rates of pollutant loads for the online mode were 94.9%-98.5% in the three study years; those for the offline mode were 70.5%-86.4%. Based on calculation, the online mode was able to store the runoff of 66.7 mm rainfall completely, and the offline mode could store that of 31.3 mm rainfall. In addition, the online mode can provide an effective way for rainwater utilization and good habitats for aquatic wildlives, and has an excellent aesthetics value for recreationsal pastimes. The offline mode can save land resources and may be an effective and economical measure for diffuse pollution control in urban areas.

  6. Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS).

    PubMed

    Napier, F; Jefferies, C; Heal, K V; Fogg, P; Arcy, B J D; Clarke, R

    2009-01-01

    SUDS are being increasingly employed to control highway runoff and have the potential to protect groundwater and surface water quality by minimising the risks of both point and diffuse sources of pollution. While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. This paper reports on investigations carried out as part of a co-ordinated programme of controlled studies and field measurements at soft-engineered SUDS undertaken in the UK, observing the accumulation and behaviour of traffic-related heavy metals, oil and PAHs. The field data presented were collected from two extended detention basins serving the M74 motorway in the south-west of Scotland. Additional data were supplied from an experimental lysimeter soil core leaching study. Results show that basin design influences pollutant accumulation and behaviour in the basins. Management and/or control strategies are discussed for reducing the impact of traffic-related pollutants on the aqueous environment.

  7. Pollution prevention and control procedure case study: an application for petroleum refineries.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Encarnación; Martínez, Jose-Luis

    2005-06-01

    There is global environmental concern about the pollution from industries and other organizations that should not only be controlled but also prevented. Many alternatives are available to those in charge of environmental protection, but they should be able to draw on a systematic procedure to help implement prevention and control measures. At present, there are three immediate tasks: defining the objective of any environmental study, identifying the potential pollution sources, and selecting alternatives to these sources. However, it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives by using as large a number of criteria as possible and making them cumulative so as to enable the classification and selection of the best available techniques for each pollution source. The petroleum refining industry plays an important role in the developed economies and also has a potential for pollution generation that must be controlled. The best solution for all (i.e., petroleum companies, the public, and the environment) is pollution prevention, because this option will protect all of them and will also reduce costs in terms of lower raw materials consumption as well as reducing potential fines. The procedure we have presented in this article has been applied successfully.

  8. Now or Never. The Fight Against Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halacy , D. S., Jr.

    Documented in this book are the staggering problems of pollution, the facts and figures about pesticides, waste disposal, air, water, noise, and atomic pollution. In asking the question, "Is there a solution?", Mr. Halacy examines what (if anything) is being done to attack the problems, as well as the many promising technological innovations to…

  9. Fiscal interactions and the costs of controlling pollution from electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, I.W.H.

    2005-01-01

    I quantify the costs of controlling SO{sub 2}, carbon, and NOx emissions from power generation, accounting for interactions between environmental policies and the broader fiscal system. I distinguish a dirty technology (coal) that satisfies baseload demand and a clean technology (gas) that is used at peak period, and I distinguish sectors with and without regulated prices. Estimated emissions control costs are substantially lower than in previous models of fiscal interactions that assume a single, constant-returns technology and competitive pricing. The results are reasonably robust to alternative scenarios, such as full price deregulation, and market power in the deregulated sector.

  10. Overview on the Air Pollution Issues of the City Clusters in China and its Control Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.

    2007-12-01

    Mega-cities in China, such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Shanghai are located in three large city clusters, Bo-Hai Bay surrounding area, Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Yangtze River Delta. Like the rest of the coastal regions in China, these mega-cities have been experiencing fast economic developments and consequently serious environmental pollution. Air pollution in those areas is characterized by concurrent occurrence of high concentrations of multiple primary pollutants and secondary pollutants, which lead to the development of "air pollution complex" (perhaps typically Chinese) problem. Several campaigns of field experiments covering the regions such as PRD and Beijing City with surrounding areas have been conducted critically to understand the chemical and physical processes leading to the formation of regional scale air pollution since 2004. Some policy-relevant suggestions for air quality attainment have been made after these campaigns, specially the attainment of air quality during 2008 Beijing Olympic game, which has been attracted as an important concern worldwide. A scientific field campaign was conducted during August of 2007 for testing the control strategies suggested for air quality attainment in 2008-Olympic. An overview of the results of PRD and Beijing Campaigns will be presented.

  11. SEWER AND TANK FLUSHING FOR CORROSION AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the causes of sewer deterioration and control methods that can prevent or arrest this deterioration. articular, the paper addresses the use of inline- and combined sewer overflow (CSO) storage tank-flushing systems for removing sediments and mi...

  12. SEWER AND TANK FLUSHING FOR SEDIMENT, CORROSION AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of causes of sewer deterioration together with a discussion of control methods that can prevent or arrest this deterioration. In particular, the paper covers inline- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of se...

  13. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  14. Effect of Particulate Contaminants on the Development of Biofilms at Air/Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhuan; Christopher, Gordon

    2016-03-22

    The development of biofilms at air/water or oil/water interfaces has important ramifications on several applications, but it has received less attention than biofilm formation on solid surfaces. A key difference between the growth of biofilms on solid surfaces versus liquid interfaces is the range of complicated boundary conditions the liquid interface can create that may affect bacteria, as they adsorb onto and grow on the interface. This situation is exacerbated by the existence of complex interfaces in which interfacially adsorbed components can even more greatly affect interfacial boundary conditions. In this work, we present evidence as to how particle-laden interfaces impact biofilm growth at an air/water interface. We find that particles can enhance the rate of growth and final strength of biofilms at liquid interfaces by providing sites of increased adhesive strength for bacteria. The increased adhesion stems from creating localized areas of hydrophobicity that protrude in the water phase and provide sites where bacteria preferentially adhere. This mechanism is found to be primarily controlled by particle composition, with particle size providing a secondary effect. This increased adhesion through interfacial conditions creates biofilms with properties similar to those observed when adhesion is increased through biological means. Because of the generally understood ubiquity of increased bacteria attachment to hydrophobic surfaces, this result has general applicability to pellicle formation for many pellicle-forming bacteria.

  15. Co-control of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Osnaya, Patricia; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Julia; Fernández, Adrián

    2004-07-01

    This study addresses the synergies of mitigation measures to control urban air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in developing integrated "co-control" strategies for Mexico City. First, existing studies of emissions reduction measures--PROAIRE (the air quality plan for Mexico City) and separate GHG studies--are used to construct a harmonized database of options. Second, linear programming (LP) is developed and applied as a decision-support tool to analyze least-cost strategies for meeting co-control targets for multiple pollutants. We estimate that implementing PROAIRE measures as planned will reduce 3.1% of the 2010 metropolitan CO2 emissions, in addition to substantial local air pollutant reductions. Applying the LP, PROAIRE emissions reductions can be met at a 20% lower cost, using only the PROAIRE measures, by adjusting investments toward the more cost-effective measures; lower net costs are possible by including cost-saving GHG mitigation measures, but with increased investment. When CO2 emission reduction targets are added to PROAIRE targets, the most cost-effective solutions use PROAIRE measures for the majority of local pollutant reductions, and GHG measures for additional CO2 control. Because of synergies, the integrated planning of urban-global co-control can be beneficial, but we estimate that for Mexico City these benefits are often small.

  16. Environmental problems in the People`s Republic of China: Current magnitude and possible control options

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadtti, N.; Biang, C.A.; Poch, L.A.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-09-01

    The People`s Republic of China has been undergoing rapid economic development over the past several decades. This development has taken place with little or no attention being paid to its environmental consequences. This situation has resulted in severe contamination of the air, water, and soil resources of China, with attendant damage to human and natural populations. This report determines the major causes of air, water, and soil pollution in China and assesses their extent and magnitude. It then examines the impacts of the pollutants on various components of the human and natural environment. It identifies possible regulatory and ameliorative options available to China to deal with these pollution problems and provides information on specific strategies and the costs associated with their implementation. The objective is to shed light on China`s pollution control and remediation requirements in the near future.

  17. Noise Pollution Control System in the Hospital Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa Gallo, LM; Olivera, JM

    2016-04-01

    Problems related to environmental noise are not a new subject, but they became a major issue to solve because of the increasing, in complexity and intensity, of human activities due technological advances. Numerous international studies had dealt with the exposure of critical patients to noisy environment such as the Neonatal Intensive Care Units; their results show that there are difficulties in the organization in the developing brain, it can damage the delicate auditory structures and can cause biorhythm disorders, specially in preterm infants. The objective of this paper is to present the development and implementation of a control system that includes technical-management-training aspects to regulate the levels of specific noise sources in the neonatal hospitalization environment. For this purpose, there were applied different tools like: observations, surveys, procedures, an electronic control device and a training program for a Neonatal Service Unit. As a result, all noise sources were identified -some of them are eliminable-; all the service stable staff categories participated voluntarily; environmental noise measurements yielded values between 62.5 and 64.6 dBA and maximum were between 86.1 and 89.7 dBA; it was designed and installed a noise control device and the staff is being trained in noise reduction best practices.

  18. Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Costs and water quality effects of controlling point and nonpoint pollution sources are compared for the DuPage River basin in northern Illinois. Costs are estimated for effluent standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants and for the alternative, controlling runoff from nonpoint sources such as streets, agricultural lands, and forests. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine water quality effects of various treatment plant standards and nonpoint-source controls. Costs and water quality data are combined, and the point-source and nonpoint-source plans are compared on a cost-effectiveness basis. Nonpoint-source controls are found to be more cost-effective than stricter control of pollutants from point sources.

  19. Sampling technologies and air pollution control devices for gaseous and particulate arsenic: a review.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Lieve

    2005-09-01

    Direct measurement of arsenic release requires a good sampling and analysis procedure in order to capture and detect the total amount of metals emitted. The literature is extensively reviewed in order to evaluate the efficiency of full field-scale and laboratory scale techniques for capturing particulate and gaseous emissions of arsenic from the thermo-chemical treatment of different sources of arsenic. Furthermore, trace arsenic concentrations in ambient air, national standard sampling methods and arsenic analysis methods are considered. Besides sampling techniques, the use of sorbents is also reviewed with respect to both approaches (1) to prevent the metals from exiting with the flue gas and (2) to react or combine with the metals in order to be collected in air pollution control systems. The most important conclusion is that submicron arsenic fumes are difficult to control in conventional air pollution control devices. Complete capture of the arsenic species requires a combination of particle control and vapour control devices.

  20. [open quote]Appropriate[close quote] technologies for marine pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, A.J. )

    1993-10-01

    In developing an appropriate technology, or deciding if an existing one is appropriate, producers and users of marine pollution control technology must first agree on the definition of pollution. To many marine ecologists, pollution is not just an excess of material, but rather a damaging excess. Removing all visible oil off a shoreline, while commendable and aesthetically comforting, may result in injury to the surviving resources we were trying to protect; however, to those who question the ability of science to protect them or their resources, then the word pollution may indeed mean any excess. Technology producers and technology users need to understand whether they are solving a real problem or, simply preventing an excess input. Each of these levels has its own societal and economic costs and is accompanied by its own set of collateral impacts that must be accommodated elsewhere on land, sea or air. Shoreline cleaning, bioremediation, waste water treatment and environmental monitoring and assessment are examined in terms of their appropriateness for marine pollution control and recommendations are given.

  1. Powder wettability at a static air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Dupas, Julien; Forny, Laurent; Ramaioli, Marco

    2015-06-15

    The reconstitution of a beverage from a dehydrated powder involves several physical mechanisms that determine the practical difficulty to obtain a homogeneous drink in a convenient way and within an acceptable time for the preparation of a beverage. When pouring powder onto static water, the first hurdle to overcome is the air-water interface. We propose a model to predict the percentage of powder crossing the interface in 45 s, namely the duration relevant for this application. We highlight theoretically the determinant role of the contact angle and of the particle size distribution. We validate experimentally the model for single spheres and use it to predict the wettability performance of commercial food powders for different contact angles and particles sizes. A good agreement is obtained when comparing the predictions and the wettability of the tested powders.

  2. Reacting chemistry at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Morgan, Thomas; Huwel, Lutz; Graham, William

    2016-09-01

    Plasma interaction with gas-liquid interfaces is becoming increasingly important in biological applications, chemical analysis and medicine. It introduces electrons, new ionic species and reactive species and contributes to chemical and electrical self-organization at the interface. To provide insight into the associated physics and chemistry at work in the evolution of the plasma in the air-water interface (AWI), a time-dependent one-dimensional modelling has been developed. The numerical simulation is used to solve the kinetic equations and help identify the important reaction mechanisms and describe the phenomena associated with hundreds of reacting pathways in gas-phase and liquid-phase AWI chemistry. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16K04998.

  3. 76 FR 7194 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Registration Program (PERP). PERP is a voluntary program that allows for the registration of nonroad engines and equipment units that operate at multiple locations, so that the engine/equipment owners can... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

  4. Manpower and Training Needs in Water Pollution Control. Senate Document No. 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    To determine trained manpower needs and training resources in the clean water field, data were gathered from interviews with state and federal agencies as well as the Water Pollution Control Federation, from prior manpower reports, and from Bureau of Census employment data. After analysis of present manpower resources and future requirements,…

  5. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... APS using an internal combustion engine be certified to meet either California off-road or Federal... authorization?; \\15\\ (2) If not, does CARB's requirement that an APS using an internal combustion engine be... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck...

  6. EPA'S STUDY OF THE GENERATION AND CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF ORIMULSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA study of the grneration and control of air pollutants from the combustion of Orimulsion, a high-sulfur liquid petroleum fuel composed of approximately 70% Venezuelan bitumen, 30% water, and trace amounts of surfactant. (NOTE: It is being used as the pri...

  7. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  8. Chlorofluorocarbons: Pollution control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) pollution control methods. References discuss the technologies used to destroy CFCs as well as conservation techniques to reduce the emission of ozone-depleting chemicals. The phase-out of CFCs, and environmentally safe alternatives are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCIENCE OF INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: LINKING POLLUTANT CONTROL PRACTICES WITH WATER QUALITY M. Morrison (NRMRL), C. Nietch (NRMRL), 1. Schubauer-Berigan (NRMRL), M. Hantush (NRMRL), D. Lai (NRMRL), B. Daniel (NERL), M. Griffith (NCEA) Science Questions LTG 3. MYP Sc...

  10. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  11. 75 FR 39365 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...EPA is finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD or the District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). This action was proposed in the Federal Register on February 23, 2010 and concerns local rules that regulate coarse......

  12. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...: The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has adopted a tractor-trailer greenhouse gas emission regulation applicable to new and in-use 53-foot and longer box-type trailers and...

  13. DAILY VARIATION OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION AND POOR CARDIAC AUTONOMIC CONTROL IN THE ELDERLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter air pollution (PM) has been related to cardiovascular disease mortality in a number of recent studies. The pathophysiologic mechanisms for this association are under study. Low heart rate variability, a marker of poor cardiac autonomic control, is associated wi...

  14. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  15. 75 FR 69002 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... different pollutants. Comment #4: There should be an established maximum inch of manure stockpile in feedlot... control requirements in section B regarding manure moisture and disposal such as, for example, described... cattle feedlots contain conditions to ensure that required Rule 420 mitigation measures are...

  16. BUILDING AN ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING MODEL, MAPCORE - A TRAINING EXERCISE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIEGEL, GILBERT B.; SULLIVAN, DONALD M.

    NEW AIR POLLUTION CONTROL PROGRAMS HAVE RESULTED FROM THE "CLEAN AIR ACT" PASSED BY CONGRESS IN DECEMBER 1963. THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DEVELOPED A TRAINING MODEL, CALLED "MAPCORE," WHICH PROVIDES A SEMISTRUCTURED ENVIRONMENT, IS PRACTICAL AND REALISTIC IN APPROACH, PROVIDES OPPORTUNITY FOR HIGH CREATIVITY,…

  17. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo... regulations for mobile cargo handling equipment at ports and intermodal rail yards (Mobile Cargo ] Handling Equipment). CARB's Mobile Cargo Handling Equipment requirements are designed to use best available...

  18. METRO-APEX Volume 7.1: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of APEX--Air…

  19. Industry/Government Teleconference on Pollution Control. Proceedings National Telecast and Local Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY.

    Proceedings of the closed-circuit Teleconference on Pollution Control conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers on May 26, 1971 are supplied in this compendium. Edited transcripts are provided for the national programs and local panel sessions. Seeking to bring business and government together for cooperative problem solving, the…

  20. Best demonstrated available technology (bdat) for pollution control and waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the most current equipment and processes for pollution control and waste treatment that attempt to meet the guidelines set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Technology for pollution control and waste treatment used by the EPA to develop current effluent standards, and pollution control methods used by industry to meet those standards are considered. Standards for gaseous, liquid, and solid pollution are discussed. BDAT (Best Demonstrated Available Technology) is an acronym for best currently available technology as defined by the EPA. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control1

    PubMed Central

    Geller, E. Scott; Farris, John C.; Post, David S.

    1973-01-01

    A field application of behavior modification studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in returnable rather than nonreturnable containers. Six different 2-hr experimental conditions during which bottle purchases were recorded were (1) No Prompt (i.e., control), (2) one student gave incoming customers a handbill urging the purchase of soft drinks in returnable bottles, (3) distribution of the handbill by one student and public charting of each customer's bottle purchases by another student, (4) handbill distribution and charting by a five-member group, (5) handbills distributed and purchases charted by three females. The variant prompting techniques were equally effective, and in general increased the percentage of returnable-bottle customers by an average of 25%. PMID:16795418

  2. Corrosion Effects of Calcium Chloride Injection for Mercury Control on the Pollution Control Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vijay Sethi; M.P. Sharma

    2009-02-28

    In response to the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) of 2005, Black Hills Power (BHP) initiated testing of a calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) injection method in their Wygen 1 (Gillette, WY) coal-fired power plant to help lower mercury emissions. In 2006, Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) was contracted to test their CaCl{sub 2} technology in-situ by adding a CaCl{sub 2} solution onto the raw, pre-pulverized coal during normal operation of Wygen 1. Follow-up tests were conducted by BHP in 2007. Data were collected from these two time periods and analyzed by a collaborative investigation team from Western Research Institute (WRI) and the University of Wyoming (UW) to see if there were any effects on the current air pollution control systems. During a CaCl{sub 2} injection period in 2007, corrosion was monitored in the flue and recycle ash system by placing corrosion coupons in strategic locations to test if corrosion was enhanced by the CaCl{sub 2} injection. While the CaCl{sub 2} produced a reduction in stack mercury levels, there was some evidence of beneficial impacts on the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas during CaCl{sub 2} injection. Data on NOx remained inconclusive. It was also discovered that corrosion was enhanced significantly in the Spray Drier Absorber (SDA) vessel and corresponding outlet ductwork during CaCl{sub 2} injections. Further studies are being carried out in the field and lab to better understand the corrosive effects of CaCl{sub 2} to help formulate operation controls to manage the increased corrosion rates.

  3. ISSUES IN SIMULATING ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE AND AQUEOUS MONOMETHYLMERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on two areas relevant to assessing the global fate and bioavailability of mercury: elemental mercury air/water exchange and aqueous environmental monomethylmercury speciation.

  4. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  5. [L-THIA-based management design for controlling urban non-point source pollution].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Hai; Yang, Liu; Ke-Ming, Ma

    2007-11-01

    L-THIA Model was used to simulate the amounts of NPS pollutants in 2 catchments of Sanjiao watershed (Sj1, Sj2) in Hanyang district, and the total simulated amount of NPS loads in Sj1 and Sj2 were 1.82 x 10(4) kg, 1.38 x 10(5) kg, respectively. Based on the theory of resource-sink" and interaction of pattern with process, a series of BMPs, including green roof, grassland, porous pavement, infiltration trench, vegetative filter strip and wet pond, were optimized, and effects of BMPs were simulated along the surface runoff pathway. The results show that total pollutants outputs entering Sj1 and Sj2 account for 14.65% and 6.57%, respectively. Combining L-THIA model and BMPs in series is a proper measure for non-point source pollution control and urban development planning at watershed or region scale.

  6. Environmental impact propagated by cross-system subsidy: chronic stream pollution controls riparian spider populations.

    PubMed

    Paetzold, Achim; Smith, Marian; Warren, Philip H; Maltby, Lorraine

    2011-09-01

    Resource subsidies between habitats are common and create the potential for the propagation of environmental impacts across system boundaries. However, recent understanding of the potential for subsidy-mediated cross-system impact propagations is limited and primarily based on passive flows of nutrients and detritus or short-term effects. Here, we assess the effects of sustained alterations in aquatic insect emergence (active subsidy pathway), due to chronic stream pollution, for riparian spiders. The sustained reduction in aquatic insect densities at the polluted reaches resulted in a marked decline in web spider population density and a shift in spider community composition. Our results provide the first evidence that stream pollution can control populations and community structure of terrestrial predators via sustained alterations in aquatic subsidies, emphasizing the role of subtle trophic linkages in the transmission of environmental impacts across ecosystem boundaries.

  7. [Performance of Grass Swales for Controlling Pollution of Roadway Runoff in Field Experiments].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun-jie; Shen, Qing-ran; Li, Tian

    2015-06-01

    Two different styles of grass swales were built in new Binhu region of Hefei city to monitor the flux and quality of the influent and effluent water under actual precipitation conditions, in order to evaluate the performance of water quality purification and pollution load control for roadway runoff. The results showed that both of the grass swales could effectively remove the pollutants such as TSS, COD, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn in roadway runoff; the median EMC removal efficiencies of TSS and COD were 67.1%, 46.7% respectively,for facility I, and the median EMC removal efficiencies of TSS and COD were 78.6%, 58.6% respectively, for facility II; the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn in the effluent of facility II could meet the requirements of the surface water quality class V; release of nitrogen and phosphorus occurred in both facilities I and I[ in several rainfall events, mainly in heavy storms; the removal efficiencies of TP in the two grass swales were improved with the increase of influent concentration; the mean removal efficiencies of TP in facilities I and II were 14.7% and 45.4%, respectively; the load control performance of facility II for pollutants such as TSS, COD, TP, TN, NH4+ -N and NO3- -N was better than that of facility I; in the district with poor soil permeability and low ground slope, application of dry swale could achieve better performance in water quality control and pollution load reduction of roadway runoff.

  8. Control of the pollution of antibiotic resistance genes in soils by quorum sensing inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lai, Bai-Min; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Shentu, Jia-Li; Li, Na

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether pollution from antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) could be affected by bacterial quorum sensing, the oxytetracycline (OTC)-containing manure was fertilized to establish the ARG-polluted soil environment. Under long-term OTC stress, substantial ARGs in the range from 10(-4) to 10(-3) RG/16S rRNA (resistance genes/16S rRNA) were detected in the antibiotics control (AC) group, in which OTC-containing manure was fertilized. Meanwhile, 10(-6) RG/16S rRNA was detected in biological control (BC) group, in which non-OTC-containing manure was fertilized. Subsequently, two typical quorum sensing inhibitors, 4-nitropyridine N-oxide (4-NPO) and 3,4-dibromo-2H-furan-5-one (DBF), were used to treat the ARG-polluted soils. These two groups called 4-NPO treatments (NT) and DBF treatments (FT), respectively. There were no significant differences in bacterial growth and OTC degradation in NT and FT groups, compared to AC group. However, acyl-homoserine lactones such as C4-HSL, C6-HSL, and C8-HSL decreased significantly in both NT and FT groups, compared to AC group. Meanwhile, the abundance of most ARGs decreased dramatically. In FT group, the concentrations of tet(L) and tet(Q) were below the detection limits. It was demonstrated that quorum sensing inhibition could be an effective way to prevent and control the pollution of ARGs in soil.

  9. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei

    2013-05-15

    Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward.

  10. Air pollution control through biotrickling filters: a review considering operational aspects and expected performance.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Marco; Ragazzi, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    The biological removal of pollutants, especially through biotrickling filters (BTFs), has recently become attractive for the low investment and operational costs and the low secondary pollution. This paper is intended to investigate the state of the art on BTF applications. After an overview on the biodegradation process and the typical parameters involved, this paper presents the analysis of a group of 16 literature studies chosen as the references for this sector. The reference studies differ from one another by the pollutants treated (volatile organic compounds [VOC], hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides and trimethylamine), the geometry and size of the BTFs, and the procedures of the tests. The reference studies are analyzed and discussed in terms of the operational conditions and the results obtained, especially with respect to the removal efficiencies (REs) and the elimination capacities (ECs) of the pollutants considered. Empty bed residence time (EBRT), pollutant loading rate, temperature, pH, oxygen availability, trickling liquid flow rate, inoculum selection and biomass control strategies revealed to be the most important operational factors influencing the removal performance of a BTF.

  11. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.22 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

  12. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.22 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

  13. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal...

  14. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal...

  15. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal...

  16. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal...

  17. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Notice is hereby... requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 40 CFR part 403 and 33 U.S.C....

  18. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal...

  19. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  20. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1065, and 1066 RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From... (``EPA'') is announcing an extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  1. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''),...

  2. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection of... Petroleum Cargos § 442.32 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...

  3. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection of... Petroleum Cargos § 442.32 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...

  4. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection of... and Petroleum Cargos § 442.12 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32,...

  5. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection of... and Petroleum Cargos § 442.12 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32,...

  6. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  7. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as...

  8. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as...

  9. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  10. Efficient control of air pollution through plants, a cost-effective alternative: studies on Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, C S; Bamniya, B R; Kapoor, K

    2013-09-01

    Plants can be used as both passive biomonitors and biomitigators in urban and industrial environments to indicate the environmental quality and to ameliorate pollution level in a locality. Many studies reveal that plants are negatively affected by the ambient levels of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of air pollution on comparative basis with reference to changes in photosynthetic pigments, plant height, leaves, as well as, biochemical parameters of plants of different sites around Udaipur city receiving varying levels of pollution load. The investigated tree species Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Family: Fabaceae) exhibited a reduction in various physiological and biochemical growth parameters that correspond with air pollution levels at different sites. The tree species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, leaf area, and chlorophyll and total carbohydrate and total protein concentration in the leaves. Our studies suggest that D. sissoo Roxb. can successfully be grown in an area for monitoring air pollution, where it is mild and droughts are common. It will prove as an ideal tree species to control pollution effectively beside acting as a shade tree and being a source of food for birds and animals. By plantation of D. sissoo Roxb., mitigative measure at the polluted sites to control generation of particulate matter and the air quality required can be ensured. Our results also confirm that industrial and vehicular air pollution level in Udaipur city is shifting beyond limits.

  11. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  12. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  13. Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew S; Nilsson, Elna J K; Svensson, Erik A; Langer, Sarka

    2014-01-01

    In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution, generating particles that are removed by a filter; ozone is removed using a MnO2 honeycomb catalyst. This combination of in situ processes removes a wide range of pollutants with a comparatively low specific energy input. Two proof-of-concept devices were built to test and optimize the process. The laboratory prototype was built of standard ventilation duct and could treat up to 850 m(3)/h. A portable continuous-flow prototype built in an aluminum flight case was able to treat 46 m(3)/h. Removal efficiencies of >95% were observed for propane, cyclohexane, benzene, isoprene, aerosol particle mass, and ozone for concentrations in the range of 0.4-6 ppm and exposure times up to 0.5 min. The laboratory prototype generated a OH(•) concentration derived from propane reaction of (2.5 ± 0.3) × 10(10) cm(-3) at a specific energy input of 3 kJ/m(3), and the portable device generated (4.6 ± 0.4) × 10(9) cm(-3) at 10 kJ/m(3). Based on these results, in situ gas-phase advanced oxidation is a viable control strategy for most volatile organic compounds, specifically those with a OH(•) reaction rate higher than ca. 5 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s. Gas-phase advanced oxidation is able to remove compounds that react with OH and to control ozone and total particulate mass. Secondary pollution including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles might be generated, depending on the composition of the primary pollution.

  14. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non

  15. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of a lipid Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Mangeney, C; Dupres, V; Roche, Y; Felidj, N; Levi, G; Aubard, J; Bernard, S

    Surface enhanced Raman spectra were recorded from a phospholipid monolayer directly at the air-water interface. We used an organized monolayer of negatively charged tetramyristoyl cardiolipins as a template for the electrochemical generation of silver deposits. This two-dimensional electrodeposition of silver under potentiostatic control was the substrate for enhancement of Raman spectra. We report the optimized conditions for the Raman enhancement, the microscopic observations of the deposits, and their characterization by atomic force microscopy. Laser excitation at 514.5 nm leads to intense and reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra recorded in situ from one monolayer of cardiolipin, using 0.5 mol % of 10N nonyl acridine orange or 5 mol % of acridine in the film, and demonstrates the possibility of estimating the pH at the metal/phospholipidic film interface.

  16. The supply and demand for pollution control: Evidence from wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McConnell, V.D.; Schwarz, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determination of pollution control from wastewater treatment plants as an economic decision facing local or regional regulators. Pollution control is measured by plant design effluent concentration levels and is fully endogenous in a supply- and-demand model of treatment choice. On the supply side, plant costs are a function of the design treatment level of the plant, and on the demand side, treatment level is a function of both the costs of control and the regional or regulatory preferences for control. We find evidence that the economic model of effluent choice by local regulators has a good deal of explanatory power. We find evidence that wastewater treatment plant removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD) is sensitive to many local factors including the size of the treatment plant, the flow rate of the receiving water, the population density of the surrounding area, regional growth, state sensitivity to environmental issues, state income, and the extent to which the damages from pollution fall on other states. We find strong evidence that regulators are sensitive to capital costs in determining the design level of BOD effluent reduction at a plant. Thus, proposed reductions in federal subsidies for wastewater treatment plant construction are likely to have significant adverse effects on water quality. ?? 1992.

  17. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. The Importance of Moving Air-Water Interfaces for Colloid Transport in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the vadose zone, or in unsaturated porous media in general, transport of colloids is usually less pronounced than in groundwater. An important retention mechanism for colloids in unsaturated porous media is attachment to air-water interfaces. However, air-water interfaces can also lead to colloid mobilization and enhanced transport if air-water interfaces are moving, such as during infiltration, imbibition, and drainage. Colloid attachment to air-water interfaces is caused by surface tension forces, and these forces usually exceed other interactions forces; therefore, surface tension forces play a dominant role for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media. In this presentation, experimental and theoretical evidence of surface tension forces acting on colloids will be presented, and the role of moving air-water interfaces will be discussed.

  19. Air-water gas exchange of toxaphene in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Bidleman, Terry F

    2003-06-01

    Parallel air and water samples were collected in Lake Superior during August 1996 and May 1997, to determine the levels and air-water exchange direction of toxaphene. Concentration of toxaphene in water did not vary across Lake Superior or between seasons (averaging 918 +/- 218 pg/L) but atmospheric levels were lower in May (12 +/- 4.6 pg/m3) than in August (28 +/- 10 pg/m3). Two recalcitrant congeners, Parlar 26 and 50, also were determined. These congeners were enriched in the air samples, compared to a standard of technical toxaphene, but not in the water. Water-air fugacity ratios varied from 1.4 to 2.6 in August and 1.3 to 4.7 in May, implying volatilization of toxaphene from the lake. Estimated net fluxes ranged from 5.4 to 13 and 1.8 to 6.4 nm/m2d, respectively. The temperature dependence of toxaphene partial pressure (P) in air was log P/Pa = -3.291/T(a) + 1.67, where T(a) is air temperature. By using this relationship, the atmospheric levels of toxaphene, fugacity ratios, and net fluxes were estimated for the entire year. Fugacity ratios were highest in the winter and lowest in the summer; thus toxaphene was predicted to undergo net volatilization from the lake during all months. A net removal of approximately 220 kg/year by gas exchange was estimated.

  20. Proton Transfers at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Himanshu

    Proton transfer reactions at the interface of water with hydrophobic media, such as air or lipids, are ubiquitous on our planet. These reactions orchestrate a host of vital phenomena in the environment including, for example, acidification of clouds, enzymatic catalysis, chemistries of aerosol and atmospheric gases, and bioenergetic transduction. Despite their importance, however, quantitative details underlying these interactions have remained unclear. Deeper insight into these interfacial reactions is also required in addressing challenges in green chemistry, improved water quality, self-assembly of materials, the next generation of micro-nanofluidics, adhesives, coatings, catalysts, and electrodes. This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigation of proton transfer reactions at the air-water interface as a function of hydration gradients, electrochemical potential, and electrostatics. Since emerging insights hold at the lipid-water interface as well, this work is also expected to aid understanding of complex biological phenomena associated with proton migration across membranes. Based on our current understanding, it is known that the physicochemical properties of the gas-phase water are drastically different from those of bulk water. For example, the gas-phase hydronium ion, H3O +(g), can protonate most (non-alkane) organic species, whereas H 3O+(aq) can neutralize only relatively strong bases. Thus, to be able to understand and engineer water-hydrophobe interfaces, it is imperative to investigate this fluctuating region of molecular thickness wherein the 'function' of chemical species transitions from one phase to another via steep gradients in hydration, dielectric constant, and density. Aqueous interfaces are difficult to approach by current experimental techniques because designing experiments to specifically sample interfacial layers (< 1 nm thick) is an arduous task. While recent advances in surface-specific spectroscopies have provided

  1. Gas and liquid measurements in air-water bubbly flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Doup, B.; Sun, X.

    2012-07-01

    Local measurements of gas- and liquid-phase flow parameters are conducted in an air-water two-phase flow loop. The test section is a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a height of 3.2 m. The measurements are performed at z/D = 10. The gas-phase measurements are performed using a four-sensor conductivity probe. The data taken from this probe are processed using a signal processing program to yield radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, and interfacial area concentration. The velocity measurements of the liquid-phase are performed using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The raw PIV images are acquired using fluorescent particles and an optical filtration device. Image processing is used to remove noise in the raw PIV images. The statistical cross correlation is introduced to determine the axial velocity field and turbulence intensity of the liquid-phase. Measurements are currently being performed at z/D = 32 to provide a more complete data set. These data can be used for computational fluid dynamic model development and validation. (authors)

  2. Nonlinear Acoustics at the Air-Water Free Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pree, Seth; Naranjo, Brian; Putterman, Seth

    2016-11-01

    According to linear acoustics, airborne sound incident on a water surface transmits only a tenth of a percent of its energy. This difficulty of transmitting energy across the water surface limits the feasibility of standoff ultrasound imaging. We propose to overcome this long standing problem by developing new methods of coupling into the medium at standoff. In particular, we believe that the acoustic nonlinearity of both the air and the medium may yield a range of effects in the vicinity of the surface permitting an efficient transmission of ultrasound from the air into the medium. The recent commercial availability of parametric speakers that deliver modulated 100kHz ultrasound at 135dB to nonlinearly generate music at 95dB provides an interesting platform with which to revisit the transmission of sound across acoustic impedance mismatches. We show results of experimental studies of the behavior of the air-water free surface when subjected to large amplitude acoustic pressures from the air. This work was supported by the ARO STIR program.

  3. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  4. Air-water interface equilibrium partitioning coefficients of aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Chu, Fu-Sui; Liou, Jia-Jiunn

    The single equilibration technique was used to determine the equilibrium partitioning coefficients ( pc) of an air-water interface for target aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene. The tested liquid concentrations ( CL) of VOC ranged from 0.5 to 20 mg/l, and the temperatures ( Tw) of the solutions were 300, 305, 310 and 315 K, respectively. The pc values were calculated using the gaseous concentrations ( Cg*) of aromatic hydrocarbons in equilibrium with the aqueous phase and the formula pc=( Cg*/ CL). The heats of VOC of liquid and gaseous phase transfer (Δ Htr) in pure water, and the highly linear regression relationship (with squared correlation coefficients, R2, from 0.900 to 0.999) between ( ln C g*) and (1/ Tw) are also evaluated. Experimental results indicated that the pc values of the target VOC components increase with Tw but, in contrast, are not significantly affected by CL in pure water. However, pc of more soluble compounds, like iso-propanol and methyl ethyl ketone, have been evaluated to be significant with CL in the earlier investigation. Finally, the co-solute effect on pc is also evaluated in this work, as determining pc of the aromatic hydrocarbons by using aqueous ethanol (in a volume ration of 1-15%) as solutes.

  5. Pollution control of industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, S; Abdel-Shafy, M

    2002-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from soap and oil industries represents a heavy pollution source on their receiving water body. This paper studies a case of pollution control at Tanta Soap and Oil Company, Banha Factory, Egypt. The factory production includes soap, edible oil, and animal fodder. About 4,347 m3/day of industrial wastewater effluent was discharged via gravity sewers to the public sewerage system. Most of the effluent was cooling water because the cooling process in the factory was open circle. In spite of the huge quantity of cooling water being disposed of, disposal of wastewater was violating pertinent legislation. Three procedures were used for controlling the pollution at the Banha Factory. Firstly, all open circuit cooling systems were converted to closed circuit thus reducing the quantity of the discharged wastewater down to 767 m3/day. Secondly, the heavily polluted oil and grease (O&G) wastewater from the refinery unit is treated via two gravity oil separator (GOS) units, dissolved air floatation (DAF), and biological units in order to reduce the high levels of O&G, BOD, COD, and SS to the allowable limits. Thirdly, the heavily polluted waste effluent from the 'red water' saponification unit is treated separately by acidification to convert the emulsified fatty acid to free form in order to be separated through an oil separation unit. The effluent is then passed to liming stage to neutralize excess acidity and precipitate some of the dissolved matters. The mixture is finally clarified and the pH is adjusted to the allowable limits. The effluent wastewater from the three processes is collected and mixed in a final equalization tank for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system. The characteristics of the effluent water are very good with respect to the allowable Egyptian limits for discharging effluent to the public sewerage system.

  6. Palaeosol control on groundwater flow and pollutant distribution: the example of arsenic.

    PubMed

    McArthur, John M; Nath, Bibhash; Banerjee, Dhiraj M; Purohit, R; Grassineau, N

    2011-02-15

    The consumption of groundwater polluted by arsenic (As) has a severe and adverse effect on human health, particularly where, as happens in parts of SE Asia, groundwater is supplied largely from fluvial/deltaic aquifers. The lateral distribution of the As-pollution in such aquifers is heterogeneous. The cause of the heterogeneity is obscure. The location and severity of the As-pollution is therefore difficult to predict, despite the importance of such predictions to the protection of consumer health, aquifer remediation, and aquifer development. To explain the heterogeneity, we mapped As-pollution in groundwater using 659 wells across 102 km(2) of West Bengal, and logged 43 boreholes, to reveal that the distribution of As-pollution is governed by subsurface sedimentology. Across 47 km(2) of contiguous palaeo-interfluve, we found that the shallow aquifer (<70 mbgl) is unpolluted by As (<10 μg/L) because it is capped by an impermeable palaeosol of red clay (the last glacial maximum palaeosol, or LGMP, of ref 1 ) at depths between 16 and 24 mbgl. The LGMP protects the aquifer from vertical recharge that might carry As-rich water or dissolved organic matter that might drive reduction of sedimentary iron oxides and so release As to groundwater. In 55 km(2) of flanking palaeo-channels, the palaeosol is absent, so invasion of the aquifer by As and dissolved organic matter can occur, so palaeo-channel groundwater is mostly polluted by As (>50 μg/L). The role of palaeosols and, in particular, the LGMP, has been overlooked as a control on groundwater flow and pollutant movement in deltaic and coastal aquifers worldwide. Models of pollutant infiltration in such environments must include the appreciation that, where the LGMP (or other palaeosols) are present, recharge moves downward in palaeo-channel regions that are separated by palaeo-interfluvial regions where vertical recharge to underlying aquifers cannot occur and where horizontal flow occurs above the LGMP and any

  7. Co-control of local air pollutants and CO2 in the Chinese iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianqiang; Zeng, An; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Ji; Xing, Youkai; Liu, Shengqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes an integrated multipollutant cocontrol strategy framework in the context of the Chinese iron and steel industry. The unit cost of pollutant reduction (UCPR) was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of each emission reduction measure. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves for SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and CO2 were drawn based on the UCPR and the abatement potential. Air pollutant equivalence (APeq) captures the nature of the damage value-weights of various air pollutants and acts as uniformization multiple air pollutants index. Single pollutant abatement routes designed in accordance with the corresponding reduction targets revealed that the cocontrol strategy has promising potential. Moreover, with the same reduction cost limitations as the single pollutant abatement routes, the multipollutant cocontrol routes are able to obtain more desirable pollution reduction and health benefits. Co-control strategy generally shows cost-effective advantage over single-pollutant abatement strategy. The results are robust to changing parameters according to sensitivity analysis. Co-control strategy would be an important step to achieve energy/carbon intensity targets and pollution control targets in China. Though cocontrol strategy has got some traction in policy debates, there are barriers to integrate it into policy making in the near future in China.

  8. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi Shahrabi, Narges; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Mobaraki, Hossein; Mafimoradi, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The centralization of human activities is associated with different pollutants which enter into environment easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable. Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for Tehran metropolis, many plans and regulations have been developed. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study was to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods A Qualitative content analysis in addition to a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professional were used to identify 1) key sources of Tehran’s air pollution, 2) recognize challenges towards effective performance of pertinent plans and 3), offer effective solutions. Results Related challenges to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories including lack of integrated and organized stewardship and PEST challenges. Conclusion For controlling the air pollution of Tehran effectively, various controlling alternatives were identified as systematization of plan preparation process, standardization and utilization of new technologies & experts, infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination mechanisms, improving citizens’ participatory capacity and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Controlling air pollution in Tehran needs a serious attention of policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:26171340

  9. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  10. Apparatus for high flux photocatalytic pollution control using a rotating fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali; Muradov, Nazim Z.; Martin, Eric

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus based on optimizing photoprocess energetics by decoupling of the process energy efficiency from the DRE for target contaminants. The technique is applicable to both low- and high-flux photoreactor design and scale-up. An apparatus for high-flux photocatalytic pollution control is based on the implementation of multifunctional metal oxide aerogels and other media in conjunction with a novel rotating fluidized particle bed reactor.

  11. Stormwater management criteria for on-site pollution control: a comparative assessment of international practices.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria.

  12. Stormwater Management Criteria for On-Site Pollution Control: A Comparative Assessment of International Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria.

  13. Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the fuel cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying fuel to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. The displacement of oil and coal resulting from the Bergen County Utilities Authority application was determined. A demonstration program based on the selected configuration was prepared to describe the scope of work, organization, schedules, and costs from preliminary design through actual tests and operation. The potential market for nationwide application of the concept was projected, along with the equivalent oil displacement resulting from estimated commercial application.

  14. Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Mult-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P; Locke, James E

    2008-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-megawatt (MW) Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/induct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. Testing was conducted through ports located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor to evaluate the performance of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system, as well as through ports located at the air heater outlet and baghouse outlet or stack to determine pollutant removal efficiencies across the Turbosorp{reg_sign} scrubber and baghouse. Data from the unit's stack continuous emission monitor (CEM) were also used for determining attainment of the performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiency.

  15. Uncertainty analysis of primary water pollutant control in China's pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zong-guo; Di, Jing-han; Zhang, Xue-ying

    2016-03-15

    The total emission control target of water pollutants (e.g., COD and NH4-N) for a certain industrial sector can be predicted and analysed using the popular technology-based bottom-up modelling. However, this methodology has obvious uncertainty regarding the attainment of mitigation targets. The primary uncertainty comes from macro-production, pollutant reduction roadmap, and technical parameters. This research takes the paper and pulp industry in China as an example, and builds 5 mitigation scenarios via different combinations of raw material structure, scale structure, procedure mitigation technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology. Using the methodology of uncertainty analysis via Monte Carlo, random sampling was conducted over a hundred thousand times. According to key parameters, sensitive parameters that impact total emission control targets such as industrial output, technique structure, cleaner production technology, and end-of-pipe treatment technology are discussed in this article. It appears that scenario uncertainty has a larger influence on COD emission than NH4-N, hence it is recommended that a looser total emission control target for COD is necessary to increase its feasibility and availability while maintaining the status quo of NH4-N. Consequently, from uncertainty analysis, this research recognizes the sensitive products, techniques, and technologies affecting industrial water pollution.

  16. Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. The fuel cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the fuel cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying fuel to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. This volume of the report contains the appendices: (A) abbreviations and definitions, glossary; (B) 4.5 MWe utility demonstrator power plant study information; (C) rejected heat utilization; (D) availability; (E) conceptual design specifications; (F) details of the economic analysis; (G) detailed description of the selected configuration; and (H) fuel cell power plant penetration analysis. (WHK)

  17. Political crisis and the politics of water pollution control in the 1970s

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoukalas, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This research investigates the sociopolitical context and formation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1977 in light of the theory of the relative autonomy of the state. Data on state legitimacy and political crisis are derived from previous studies on public trust in government and business and the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Surveys series. Data on class influence and class political power are derived from the testimony of witnesses at the US Senate hearings. Major findings note that the Act of 1972 was proposed and passed during a period of severe crisis in the public's trust in government and business. The federal government responded to that crisis, in part, through the enactment of a water pollution control policy that featured public participation and strict national water quality standards. The formation of the 1972 act is found to be independent of direct class influences. The Amendments of 1977 extended industrial compliance deadlines for meeting the national water quality standards and weakened the implementation of provisions that encouraged public participation.

  18. 78 FR 77104 - Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Intent To Find That Oregon Has Failed To Submit an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Intent To Find That Oregon Has Failed To Submit an Approvable Coastal Nonpoint Pollution... the two agencies to find that Oregon has failed to submit an approvable Coastal Nonpoint...

  19. First Order Estimates of Energy Requirements for Pollution Control. Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James L.; And Others

    This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report presents estimates of the energy demand attributable to environmental control of pollution from stationary point sources. This class of pollution source includes powerplants, factories, refineries, municipal waste water treatment plants, etc., but excludes mobile sources such as trucks, and…

  20. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in Massachusetts by discharging pollutants in storm water associated with construction activity without a permit, failing to timely ]...

  1. Automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems: application to the Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Sarrate, R; Morales-Hernandez, M; Gonzalez-Sanchis, M; Garcia-Navarro, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems is addressed using a benchmark test case based in the Ebro River. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza in Spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding and high pollutant levels in living areas, some lands outside the city are prepared to be flooded. Going one step further, this paper is focused on the pollutant level control at a certain point downstream of the river under flooding episodes, and several control strategies for that purpose are presented and tested.

  2. Factors controlling the oral bioaccessibility of anthropogenic Pb in polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Walraven, N; Bakker, M; van Os, B J H; Klaver, G Th; Middelburg, J J; Davies, G R

    2015-02-15

    In human risk assessment, ingestion of soil is considered a major route of toxic Pb exposure. A large body of research has focussed on the measurement of the 'total' Pb contents in sediment, soil and dust as a measure for the exposure to lead. We report that Pb bioaccessibility (i.e. the maximum bioavailability), determined with an in vitro test, does not necessarily depend on the total Pb content. In contrast, the Pb bioaccessibility is initially controlled by the chemical form and particle size of the Pb source, which in turn determine its solubility. Furthermore, when anthropogenic Pb resides within the soil, it may form new, more stable, minerals and/or binds to organic matter, clay, reactive iron or other reactive phases, changing its bioaccessibility. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 28 soils, polluted with various Pb sources (including residues of Pb bullets and pellets, car battery Pb, city waste and diffuse Pb), was determined with an in vitro-test and varied from 0.5% to 79.0% of total Pb. The highest Pb bioaccessibility (60.7% to 79.0%) was measured in soils polluted with residues of Pb bullets and pellets (shooting range), while the lowest Pb bioaccessibility (0.5%-8.3%) was measured in soils polluted with city waste (including remnants of Pb glazed potsherds and rooftiles, Pb based paint flakes, and Pb sheets). Bioaccessibility of Pb was correlated with pH, organic matter and reactive Fe. These results indicate that soil characteristics play an important role in the oral bioaccessibility of lead in polluted soils. Instead of basing human risk assessment solely on total Pb contents we propose to incorporate in vitro bioaccessibility tests, taking factors such as soil pH, organic matter content and reactive iron content into account. This approach will result in a better insight into the actual risks of Pb polluted soils to children.

  3. "APEC blue"--The effects and implications of joint pollution prevention and control program.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Hu, Qingmi

    2016-05-15

    To ensure good air quality in Beijing during Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, Beijing and its neighboring five provinces and the associated cities were combined under the Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program, which implemented rigorous cooperative emission reduction measures. The program was a unique and large-scale artificial experiment that showed that such measures can achieve excellent results, and it led to the popular "APEC blue" catchphrase (i.e., Beijing's skies became blue as pollution levels decreased). This artificial experiment provided the means to effectively conduct JPCAP strategies in the future. Accordingly, our research focused on the characteristics of the six primary pollutants in Beijing. We found that the JPCAP measures directly reduced concentrations of all pollutants except O3. Through correlation analysis, we found that the band distribution of the cities with strong correlations in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations was affected by wind conditions. Therefore, JPCAP measures should account for specific seasonal and climatic conditions. Based on cluster analysis using the results from the correlation analysis, we divided 13 cities within a 300-km radius of Beijing into different groups according to the similarity of their PM2.5 and PM10 correlation coefficients. For JPCAP measures relevant to PM2.5 and PM10, we found differences in the degrees of collaboration among cities. Therefore, depending upon the pollutant type, the JPCAP strategy should account for the cities involved, the scope of the core area, and the optimal cities to involve in the collaborative efforts based on cost-effectiveness and collaborative difficulty among the involved cities.

  4. Air-water oxygen exchange in a large whitewater river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Robert O.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water gas exchange governs fluxes of gas into and out of aquatic ecosystems. Knowing this flux is necessary to calculate gas budgets (i.e., O2) to estimate whole-ecosystem metabolism and basin-scale carbon budgets. Empirical data on rates of gas exchange for streams, estuaries, and oceans are readily available. However, there are few data from large rivers and no data from whitewater rapids. We measured gas transfer velocity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as decline in O2 saturation deficit, 7 times in a 28-km segment spanning 7 rapids. The O2 saturation deficit exists because of hypolimnetic discharge from Glen Canyon Dam, located 25 km upriver from Lees Ferry. Gas transfer velocity (k600) increased with slope of the immediate reach. k600 was -1 in flat reaches, while k600 for the steepest rapid ranged 3600-7700 cm h-1, an extremely high value of k600. Using the rate of gas exchange per unit length of water surface elevation (Kdrop, m-1), segment-integrated k600 varied between 74 and 101 cm h-1. Using Kdrop we scaled k600 to the remainder of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. At the scale corresponding to the segment length where 80% of the O2 exchanged with the atmosphere (mean length = 26.1 km), k600 varied 4.5-fold between 56 and 272 cm h-1 with a mean of 113 cm h-1. Gas transfer velocity for the Colorado River was higher than those from other aquatic ecosystems because of large rapids. Our approach of scaling k600 based on Kdrop allows comparing gas transfer velocity across rivers with spatially heterogeneous morphology.

  5. Acid rain and emissions trading. Implementing a market approach to pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Raufer, R.K.; Feldman, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    A key policy proposal in the current debate over the control of acid rain and other pollutants is permitting companies to buy, sell, or lease emissions rights or ''credits.'' This book is a study of the theoretical and practical difficulties involved in the creation of a national emissions trading program, a survey of the positions of the utilities and public regulatory commissions toward such a program, and estimates of the potential environmental and economic impact of emissions trading. The authors demonstrate the advantages of controlling acid rain through a market approach rather than through a regulatory approach.

  6. 40 CFR 60.4875 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.4875 Section 60.4875... Initial Compliance Requirements § 60.4875 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air pollution control...

  7. 40 CFR 60.5195 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.5195 Section 60.5195... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air... approved state plan, Federal plan, or delegation, as applicable. For air pollution control...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4875 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.4875 Section 60.4875... Initial Compliance Requirements § 60.4875 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air pollution control...

  9. 40 CFR 60.5195 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.5195 Section 60.5195... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air... approved state plan, Federal plan, or delegation, as applicable. For air pollution control...

  10. 40 CFR 60.5195 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.5195 Section 60.5195... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air... approved state plan, Federal plan, or delegation, as applicable. For air pollution control...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4875 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.4875 Section 60.4875... Initial Compliance Requirements § 60.4875 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air pollution control...

  12. 40 CFR 60.5195 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.5195 Section 60.5195... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air... approved state plan, Federal plan, or delegation, as applicable. For air pollution control...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4875 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.4875 Section 60.4875... Initial Compliance Requirements § 60.4875 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air pollution control...

  14. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vehlow, J

    2015-03-01

    All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made.

  15. Report: State of Washington Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund Financial Statements with Independent Auditor's Report, June 30, 2003

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-1-00067, May 26, 2004. The financial statements referred to in the first paragraph present fairly the financial position of the Washington Department of Ecology Water Pollution Control State Revolving Fund as of June 30, 2003.

  16. Cationic Gemini surfactant at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Qibin, Chen; Xiaodong, Liang; Shaolei, Wang; Shouhong, Xu; Honglai, Liu; Ying, Hu

    2007-10-15

    The surface properties and structures of a cationic Gemini surfactant with a rigid spacer, p-xylyl-bis(dimethyloctadecylammonium bromide) ([C(18)H(37)(CH(3))(2)N(+)CH(2)C(6)H(4)CH(2)N(+)(CH(3))(2)C(18)H(37)],2Br(-), abbreviated as 18-Ar-18,2Br(-1)), at the air/water interface were investigated. It is found that the surface pressure-molecular area isotherms observed at different temperatures do not exhibit a plateau region but display an unusual "kink" before collapse. The range of the corresponding minimum compressibility and maximum compressibility modulus indicates that the monolayer is in the liquid-expanded state. The monolayers were transferred onto mica and quartz plates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The structures of monolayers at various surface pressures were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. AFM measurements show that at lower surface pressures, unlike the structures of complex or hybrid films formed by Gemini amphiphiles with DNA, dye, or inorganic materials or the Langmuir film formed by the nonionic Gemini surfactant, in this case network-like labyrinthine interconnected ridges are formed. The formation of the structures can be interpreted in terms of the spinodal decomposition mechanism. With the increase of the surface pressure up to 35 mN/m, surface micelles dispersed in the network-like ridges gradually appear which might be caused by both the spinodal decomposition and dewetting. The UV-vis adsorption shows that over the whole range of surface pressures, the molecules form a J-aggregate in LB films, which implies that the spacers construct a pi-pi aromatic stacking. This pi-pi interaction between spacers and the van der Waals interaction between hydrophobic chains lead to the formation of both networks and micelles. The labyrinthine interconnected ridges are formed first because of the rapid evaporation of solvent during the spreading processes; with increasing surface pressure, some of the

  17. Redefining the importance of nitrate during haze pollution to help optimize an emission control strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Junke; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Lili; Tian, Shili; Tang, Guiqian; Gao, Wenkang; Ji, Dongsheng; Song, Tao; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    Nitrate salts represent a major component of fine mode aerosols, which play an important role in air pollution worldwide. Based on on-line and off-line aerosol measurements in urban Beijing for both clean and haze conditions, we demonstrate that the absolute and relative concentrations of nitrate increased with visibility degradation (relative humidity), whereas the variations of organics tracked the patterns of mixing-layer height and temperature. We propose that the increase in the relative contribution of nitrate to PM1 observed during the early stages of haze pollution was due to new particle formation, whereas the nitrate formed in PM1-2.5 during the latter stages was due to heterogeneous formation and hygroscopic growth. The increasing trend of nitrate (and also sulfate and ammonium) but decreasing trends of organics during haze development, together with the increase of the NO2/SO2 molar ratio with increasing proximity to downtown Beijing and with visibility degradation, provide further evidence that controlling NOx emissions should be a priority for improving air quality in mega cities. Additional large-scale investigation is required to adequately characterize the regional features of NOx-induced haze pollution in China. Such studies may provide insight into the formation of critical nuclei or the subsequent growth of freshly nucleated particles and advance our understanding of the role of nitrate in new particle formation.

  18. Optimal nonpoint source pollution control strategies for a reservoir watershed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Daw; Yang, Wan-Fa

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a model for optimal nonpoint source pollution control for the Fei-Tsui Reservoir watershed in Northern Taiwan. Several structural best management practices (BMPs) are selected to treat stormwater runoff. The complete model consists of two interacting components: an optimization model based on discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) and a zero-dimensional reservoir water quality model. A predefined procedure is used to locate suitable sites for construction of various selected BMPs in the watershed. In the optimization model, the objective function is to find the best combination of BMP type and placement, which minimizes the total construction and operation, maintenance, and repair (OMR) costs of the BMPs. The constraints are the water quality standards for total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the reservoir. A zero-dimensional reservoir water quality model of the Vollenweider type is embedded in the optimization framework to simulate pollutant concentrations in Fei-Tsui Reservoir. The resulting optimal cost and benefit of water quality improvement are depicted by the model-derived trade-off curves. The modeling framework developed in the present study could be used as an efficient tool for planning a watershed-wide implementation of BMPs for mitigating stormwater pollution impact on the receiving water bodies.

  19. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services.

  20. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Vehlow, J.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes in brief terms the development of gas cleaning in waste incineration. • The main technologies for pollutant removal are described including their basic mechanisms. • Their respective efficiencies and their application are discussed. • A cautious outlook regarding future developments is made. - Abstract: All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made.

  1. Integrated pollution prevention and control for heavy ceramic industry in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Barros, M C; Bello, P; Roca, E; Casares, J J

    2007-03-22

    The heavy ceramic industry (building materials and refractory products manufacture) is an important source of pollutants to the environment. For this reason these industrial sub-sectors are included in prevention and control pollution policies, specifically those of the European Union. The IPPC Directive pays particular attention to the mineral industries, not least to the ceramic industry (epigraph 3.5, Annex I). In this paper, a methodology which is being applied to support IPPC installations and the competent administrative authority in Galicia (NW Spain) is presented. For that, the Galician heavy ceramic industry is analysed, as also are the ways to study the Best Available Techniques (BAT) with a view to establishing the emission limit values (ELV) for each specific case. Hence, a technological state of the art has been carried out for both sub-sectors, from the point of view of implementation of the IPPC in Galicia. Following this, the processes are described briefly and an analysis of the consumption and emission levels of the main pollutants is made. An inventory that includes the best environmental practices and the preventive and abatement candidate techniques as BAT was elaborated for both considered sub-sectors. An information data sheet for each candidate BAT is presented as a method to help both the industries and the competent authority to identify a candidate technique of the inventory as BAT. Three illustrative examples of the application of this procedure are presented for different emissions to environmental media for Galician installations.

  2. [Method for environmental management in paper industry based on pollution control technology simulation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the reduction potential of industrial water pollutant emissions and to study the application of technology simulation in pollutant control and environment management, an Industrial Reduction Potential Analysis and Environment Management (IRPAEM) model was developed based on coupling of "material-process-technology-product". The model integrated bottom-up modeling and scenario analysis method, and was applied to China's paper industry. Results showed that under CM scenario, the reduction potentials of waster water, COD and ammonia nitrogen would reach 7 x 10(8) t, 39 x 10(4) t and 0.3 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2015, 13.8 x 10(8) t, 56 x 10(4) t and 0.5 x 10(4) t, respectively in 2020. Strengthening the end-treatment would still be the key method to reduce emissions during 2010-2020, while the reduction effect of structure adjustment would be more obvious during 2015-2020. Pollution production could basically reach the domestic or international advanced level of clean production in 2015 and 2020; the index of wastewater and ammonia nitrogen would basically meet the emission standards in 2015 and 2020 while COD would not.

  3. [Evolution of air pollution and impact on control programs in 3 megacities in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Lacasaña-Navarro, M; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Romieu, I

    1999-01-01

    The present work discusses the problems of atmospheric pollution of three Megacities of Latin America (Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago). The environmental pollution control programs implemented by the Government are revised and the evolution of pollution levels during the period of 1988-1995 at Santiago de Chile and Sao Paulo, but until 1997 at Mexico City, in order to evaluate the impact of these programs. During this period, a decreasing trend is observed in the three cities in the levels of PTS, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3, although most of these contaminants still exceed the air quality standards. It must be emphasized that the largest impact has been on the levels of SO2. We recommend the development of sustainable transport policies; in this context, various strategies were proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in the European Conference of Ministers of Transport. Additionally, public participation is important when decisions are taken on transport policies.

  4. Politics of corporate social control: the federal response to industrial water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    In the annals of criminology and the sociology of law, the phenomenon of corporate illegalities has been seriously neglected. Moreover, the relatively few social scientific studies of illegal corporate behavior have often approached the subject from limited theoretical perspectives. These studies have generally overlooked a critical element in criminological understanding; the role of law and its administration in generating violation rates that may be said to be characteristic of the prevailing social structure. This dissertation develops an integrated theoretical approach to a type of corporate illegality, environmental pollution. In this approach, law is seen as integral to the understanding of crime, and both are situated within the broad socio-economic structure of the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. This research first reviews and analyzes the history of the federal government's efforts to control industrial water pollution, seeking to identify the social structural limits on regulatory activity. Statistical analyses of data on the federal processing of industrial pollution violations are then presented, with a view toward analyzing the correlates of both business behavior and the federal response. The analyses test a proposed model of industrial regulation, and provide important support for the perspective linking law and crime.

  5. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  6. Will joint regional air pollution control be more cost-effective? An empirical study of China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2015-02-01

    By following an empirical approach, this study proves that joint regional air pollution control (JRAPC) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will save the expense on air pollution control compared with a locally-based pollution control strategy. The evidences below were found. (A) Local pollutant concentration in some of the cities is significantly affected by emissions from their surrounding areas. (B) There is heterogeneity in the marginal pollutant concentration reduction cost among various districts as a result of the cities' varying contribution of unit emission reduction to the pollutant concentration reduction, and their diverse unit cost of emission reduction brought about by their different industry composition. The results imply that the cost-efficiency of air pollution control will be improved in China if the conventional locally based regime of air pollution control can shift to a regionally based one.

  7. Public avenues to private spaces: Democratic politics and the control of automobile pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Automobile pollution policy is an institutional concern because it represents the political problem of addressing one of the ill-effects of mass driving within urban regions. In the United States, where automobility is most pervasive, the social and cultural institutions that make driving an ineluctable feature of everyday life tend to be taken for granted. On the one hand, an idealogy of individualism appears to forestall critical discussion on these aspects within civil society; on the other, reliance on technological solutions and a prevailing culture of interest-group politics help contract the space for normative reasoning within policy discourse. Ironically, though, the more people drive, the more [open quotes]auto[close quotes]-inflicted the problems of air pollution, and the more likely it is that the contradictions of these non-participatory and technocratic forms could generate crises of policy. The predicament of automobile pollution policy then comprises a paralysis in the state's continued capacity to response to what it perceives to be a double-gesture made by its citizens; they demand clean air but are unwilling to take responsibility for achieving it, especially if it involves setting limits on automobile usage. Using both theoretical arguments and empirical and historical evidence from California, this dissertation argues that official readings of automobile pollution control are constricted because they rely on an individualist metaphor which only generates elaborate techniques of risk management in response, thus moving away from a shared public effort towards normative discourse. Yet, it its also critical of approaches that would shift the blame to individual motorists and their vehicles by implying that the problem arises from the employment of a few [open quotes]gross emitters[close quotes] that need to be selectively targeted.

  8. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE PARTNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although evasion of elemental mercury from aquatic systems can significantly deplete net mercury accumulation resulting from atmospheric deposition, the current ability to model elemental mercury air/water exchange is limited by uncertainties in our understanding of all gaseous a...

  9. SRF (State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund): initial guidance for state revolving funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The document represents the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to implementation of Title VI of the Clean Water Act (CWA), until interim final regulations on selected provisions in the guidance are issued. The release of the document marks a significant step in the transition of the responsibility for financing, constructing, and managing municipal wastewater-treatment facilities from the Federal government to States and localities. It will assist EPA Regions in their review of proposed State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund (SRF) programs and provide States with initial guidance on applying for Capitalization Grants.

  10. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, L.C.; Cannon, F.S.; Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Darvin, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    The research will be accomplished on lab scale, pilot scale, and production air pollution control systems (APCS). The production system, to be installed at Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow, CA, will treat the exhaust from three paint booths which will be modified to recirculate a large percentage of their exhaust. These recirculation systems are, themselves, a critical element in the overall R and D effort. The goal of the program is to conduct an R and D effort which will improve and demonstrate a combination of technologies intended to make VOC treatment both effective and affordable. The US Marine Corps, the other services and industry will each benefit.

  11. Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

  12. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  13. Air-water exchange of PAHs and OPAHs at a superfund mega-site.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Lane G; Blair Paulik, L; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-03-31

    Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before. Here, passive sampling devices (PSDs) were used to measure 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) in air and water. From these concentrations the magnitude and direction of contaminant flux between these two compartments was calculated. The magnitude of PAH flux was greater at sites near or within the Superfund Mega-site than outside of the Superfund Mega-site. The largest net individual PAH deposition at a single site was naphthalene at a rate of -14,200 (±5780) (ng/m(2))/day. The estimated one-year total flux of phenanthrene was -7.9×10(5) (ng/m(2))/year. Human health risk associated with inhalation of vapor phase PAHs and dermal exposure to PAHs in water were assessed by calculating benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations. Excess lifetime cancer risk estimates show potential increased risk associated with exposure to PAHs at sites within and in close proximity to the Superfund Mega-site. Specifically, estimated excess lifetime cancer risk associated with dermal exposure and inhalation of PAHs was above 1 in 1 million within the Superfund Mega-site. The predominant depositional flux profile observed in this study suggests that the river water in this Superfund site is largely a sink for airborne PAHs, rather than a source.

  14. Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control.

  15. Capillary forces between sediment particles and an air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Lapin, Sergey; Flury, Markus

    2012-04-17

    In the vadose zone, air-water interfaces play an important role in particle fate and transport, as particles can attach to the air-water interfaces by action of capillary forces. This attachment can either retard or enhance the movement of particles, depending on whether the air-water interfaces are stationary or mobile. Here we use three standard PTFE particles (sphere, circular cylinder, and tent) and seven natural mineral particles (basalt, granite, hematite, magnetite, mica, milky quartz, and clear quartz) to quantify the capillary forces between an air-water interface and the different particles. Capillary forces were determined experimentally using tensiometry, and theoretically assuming volume-equivalent spherical, ellipsoidal, and circular cylinder shapes. We experimentally distinguished between the maximum capillary force and the snap-off force when the air-water interface detaches from the particle. Theoretical and experimental values of capillary forces were of similar order of magnitude. The sphere gave the smallest theoretical capillary force, and the circular cylinder had the largest force due to pinning of the air-water interface. Pinning was less pronounced for natural particles when compared to the circular cylinder. Ellipsoids gave the best agreement with measured forces, suggesting that this shape can provide a reasonable estimation of capillary forces for many natural particles.

  16. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-07-30

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  17. Evaluation of mercury speciation and removal through air pollution control devices of a 190 MW boiler.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengli; Cao, Yan; Dong, Zhongbing; Cheng, Chinmin; Li, Hanxu; Pan, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are installed at coal-fired power plants for air pollutant regulation. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have the co-benefits of air pollutant and mercury removal. Configuration and operational conditions of APCDs and mercury speciation affect mercury removal efficiently at coal-fired utilities. The Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to determine mercury speciation simultaneously at five sampling locations through SCR-ESP-FGD at a 190 MW unit. Chlorine in coal had been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas; and low-chlorine coal was purported to produce less oxidized mercury (Hg2+) and more elemental mercury (Hg0) at the SCR inlet compared to higher chlorine coal. SCR could oxidize elemental mercury into oxidized mercury when SCR was in service, and oxidation efficiency reached 71.0%. Therefore, oxidized mercury removal efficiency was enhanced through a wet FGD system. In the non-ozone season, about 89.5%-96.8% of oxidized mercury was controlled, but only 54.9%-68.8% of the total mercury was captured through wet FGD. Oxidized mercury removal efficiency was 95.9%-98.0%, and there was a big difference in the total mercury removal efficiencies from 78.0% to 90.2% in the ozone season. Mercury mass balance was evaluated to validate reliability of OHM testing data, and the ratio of mercury input in the coal to mercury output at the stack was from 0.84 to 1.08.

  18. Spatially-Distributed Cost–Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program–FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ‘‘best approach” depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program

  19. Calibration of Dissolved Noble Gas Mass Spectrometric Measurements by an Air-Water Equilibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, Darren; Matsumoto, Takuya; Jaklitsch, Manfred; Han, Liang-Feng; Klaus, Philipp; Wassenaar, Leonard; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    Precise measurements by mass spectrometry of dissolved noble gases (He, Ar, Ne, Kr, Xe) in water samples require careful calibration against laboratory standards with known concentrations. Currently, air pipettes are used for day-to-day calibrations, making estimation of overall analytical uncertainties for dissolved noble gas measurements in water difficult. Air equilibrated water (AEW) is often used as a matrix-equivalent laboratory standard for dissolved gases in groundwater, because of the well-known and constant fractions of noble gases in the atmosphere. AEW standards, however, are only useful if the temperature and pressure of the gas-water equilibrium can be controlled and measured precisely (i.e., to better than 0.5%); contamination and partial sample degassing must also be prevented during sampling. Here we present the details of a new custom air-water equilibration system which consists of an insulated 600 liter tank filled with deionized water, held isothermally at a precise target temperature (<0.05 °C) through the use of a heat exchanger. The temperature and total dissolved gas of the water in the tank are monitored continually, as are atmospheric pressure and air temperature in the laboratory. Different noble gas concentration standards can be reliably produced by accurately controlling the water temperature of the equilibration system. Equilibration characteristics and reproducibility of this system for production of copper tubes containing known amounts of noble gases will be presented.

  20. Proton transport by bacteriorhodopsin in planar membranes assembled from air-water interface films

    PubMed Central

    Korenbrot, J. I.; Hwang, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin, in known amounts and controlled orientation, is incorporated into planar membrane films. These films are formed by the sequential transfer of two air-water interface films onto a thin, hydrophilic, electrically conductive support cast from nitrocellulose. The films are easily accessible to electrical measurements and to control of the ionic milieu on either side of the membrane. The area of the assembled membrane films can be varied between 2.3 x 10(-2) cm2 and 0.7 cm2. Illumination of these films produces photocurrents, photovoltages, and changes in the pH of the surrounding medium. The peak amplitude of the photocurrent increases linearly with light intensity for dim lights, and it approaches a saturating value for brighter lights. In the linear range, the stoichiometry of transport is 0.65 +/- 0.06 protons/absorbed photon. The rate of transport is linearly proportional to light at all intensities tested. The amplitude and kinetics of the photovoltage measured are accurately predicted by the photocurrent generated and the passive electrical features of the film. Parallel measurements of pH and photocurrent reveal that the light-induced changes in pH are fully accounted for by the rate and amount of charge transport across the membrane. Preceding the transport of protons, a transient photovoltage is detected that exhibits no detectable latency, reaches peak in about 80 microseconds, and probably arises from light-induced intramolecular charge displacements. PMID:10822498