Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Berry, Felecia C.; Dismond, Harriett R.; Cate, Kenneth H.
High-speed photogrammetric measurements are being used to assess the impact dynamics of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) for ground landing contingency upon return to earth. Test articles representative of the Orion capsule are dropped at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility onto a sand/clay mixture representative of a dry lakebed from elevations as high as 62 feet (18.9 meters). Two different types of test articles have been evaluated: (1) half-scale metal shell models utilized to establish baseline impact dynamics and soil characterization, and (2) geometric full-scale drop models with shock-absorbing airbags which are being evaluated for their ability to cushion the impact of the Orion CEV with the earth s surface. This paper describes the application of the photogrammetric measurement technique and provides drop model trajectory and impact data that indicate the performance of the photogrammetric measurement system.
Tutt, Ben; Gill, Susannah; Wilson, Aaron; Johnson, Keith
Airborne Systems North America (formally Irvin Aerospace Inc) has developed an Airbag Landing System for the Orion Crew Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. This work is in support of the NASA Langley Research Center Landing System Advanced Development Project. Orion is part of the Constellation Program to send human explorers back to the moon, and then onwards to Mars and other destinations in the Solar System. A component of the Vision for Space Exploration, Orion is being developed to also enable access to space following the retirement of the Space Shuttle in the next decade. This paper documents the development of a conceptual design, fabrication of prototype assemblies, component level testing and two generations of airbag landing system testing. The airbag system has been designed and analyzed using the transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA(RegisteredTradeMark). The landing system consists of six airbag assemblies; each assembly comprising a primary impact venting airbag and a non-venting anti-bottoming airbag. The anti-bottoming airbag provides ground clearance following the initial impact attenuation sequence. Incorporated into each primary impact airbag is an active vent that allows the entrapped gas to exit the control volume. The size of the vent is tailored to control the flow-rate of the exiting gas. An internal shaping structure is utilized to control the shape of the primary or main airbags prior to ground impact; this significantly improves stroke efficiency and performance.
Waye, D.E.; Cole, J.K.; Rivellini, T.P.
The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, scheduled for launch in November 1996, is designed to validate a low cost Entry, Descent, and Landing system and to perform scientific surface operations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories teamed to design, fabricate, test and validate a prototype 0.38 scale model of an airbag impact attenuation system. A computer code was developed to predict the performance of the airbag system. A test program in Sandia`s High Altitude Chamber was performed to validate the code and demonstrate the feasibility of the airbag concept and design. In addition, freefall tests were performed at representative velocities to demonstrate the structural integrity of the airbag system design. The feasibility program demonstrated that the airbag impact attenuation design will protect the lander upon impact with the Martian surface.
Waye, Donald; Cole, J. Kenneth; Rivellini, Tommaso P.
The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, scheduled for launch in December 1996, is designed to validate a low cost Entry, Descent, and Landing system and to perform scientific surface operations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories teamed to design, fabricate, test and validate a prototype 0.38 scale model of an airbag impact attenuation system. A computer code was developed to predict the performance of the airbag system. A test program in Sandia's High Altitude Chamber was performed to validate the code and demonstrate the feasibility of the airbag concept and design. In addition, freefall tests were performed at representative velocities to demonstrate the structural integrity of the airbag system design. The feasibility program demonstrated that the airbag impact attenuation design will protect the lander upon impact with the Martian surface.
Salama, M.; Davis, G.; Kuo, C.P.
The NASA Mars Pathfinder mission is intended to demonstrate key low cost technologies for use in future science missions to Mars. Among these technologies is the landing system. Upon entering in Martian atmosphere at about 7000 m/sec., the spacecraft will deploy a series of breaking devices (parachute and solid rockets) to slow down its speed to less than 20 m/sec. as it impacts with the Martian ground. To cushion science instruments form the landing impact, an airbag system is inflated to surround the lander approximately five seconds before impact. After multiple bounces, the lander/airbags comes to rest, the airbags are deflated and retracted, and the lander opens up its petals to allow a microrover to begin exploration. Of interest here, is the final landing phase. Specifically, this paper will focus on the methodology used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of lander/airbags landing impact, and how this simulation correlates with initial tests.
Heutige Pkw sind zum Schutz der Insassen bei Frontalkollisionen zu etwa 90 % fahrerseitig und zu ca. 70 % auf der Beifahrerseite mit Airbags ausgestattet, während die Seiten-Airbags zum Schutz des Kopfes und des Thorax von Insassen bei Seitenkollisionen nur mit ungefähr 40 bis 50% vertreten sind . Weitere Schutzmaßnahmen wie Fuß- und Fond-Airbags befinden sich im Entwicklungsstadium, ihr Einsatz in der Serie ist umstritten und wird sich, wenn überhaupt, nur in Einzelfällen durchsetzen. In Bild C3-1 sind Airbags dargestellt, die heute serienmäßig in Pkw anzutreffen sind.
Peterson, Leslie D. (Inventor); Zimmermann, Richard E. (Inventor)
An energy absorbing airbag system includes one or more vent valve assemblies for controlling the release of airbag inflation gases to maintain inflation gas pressure within an airbag at a substantially constant pressure during a ride-down of an energy absorbing event. Each vent valve assembly includes a cantilever spring that is flat in an unstressed condition and that has a free end portion. The cantilever spring is secured to an exterior surface of the airbag housing and flexed to cause the second free end portion of the cantilever spring to be pressed, with a preset force, against a vent port or a closure covering the vent port to seal the vent port until inflation gas pressure within the airbag reaches a preselected value determined by the preset force whereupon the free end portion of the cantilever spring is lifted from the vent port by the inflation gases within the airbag to vent the inflation gases from within the airbag. The resilience of the cantilever spring maintains a substantially constant pressure within the airbag during a ride-down portion of an energy absorbing event by causing the cantilever spring to vent gases through the vent port whenever the pressure of the inflation gases reaches the preselected value and by causing the cantilever spring to close the vent port whenever the pressure of the inflation gases falls below the preselected value.
Lee, Timothy J.; McKinney, John; Corliss, James M.
This report will discuss the use of advanced simulation techniques to optimize the performance of the proposed Orion Crew Module airbag landing system design. The Boeing Company and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s Langley Research Center collaborated in the analysis of the proposed airbag landing system for the next generation space shuttle replacement, the Orion spacecraft. Using LS-DYNA to simulate the Crew Module landing impacts, two main objectives were established and achieved: the investigation of potential methods of optimizing the airbag performance in order to reduce rebound on the anti-bottoming bags, lower overall landing loads, and increase overall Crew Module stability; and the determination of the Crew Module stability and load boundaries using the optimized airbag design, based on the potential Crew Module landing pitch angles and ground slopes in both the center of gravity forward and aft configurations. This paper describes the optimization and stability and load boundary studies and presents a summary of the results obtained and key lessons learned from this analysis.
Do, Sydney; de Weck, Olivier
Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential simple, lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62 m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85 m/s, 0° impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the personal airbag system concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0° impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30° indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5 m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.
Rawdon, Blaine K. (Inventor); Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)
An airbag system for elevating the fuselage of an aircraft off a landing surface a sufficient degree to allow for emergency egress of passengers and crew through ventral emergency exit doors. An airbag assembly made up of a plurality of independent airbags is disposed within the aircraft. When activated, the airbag system deploys the airbags external of the aircraft that elevate the fuselage of the aircraft a sufficient degree to allow for utilizing the ventral emergency exit doors on the fuselage to enable evacuating the passengers and crew. An activation mechanism is connected to the inflation.devices associated with each of the airbags. The activation mechanism generates an electrical signal which activates the inflation devices, which in turn fill the airbags with a compressed fluid, thus expanding the airbags and lifting the fuselage. A crew member initiates the activation of the airbag system through one or more switches.
Adams, Douglas S.
This paper presents a summary of the testing and analysis used to quantify the expected airbag landing loads for the Mars Exploration Rovers. The airbag drop test setup, lander instrumentation, and the test data reduction method are discussed in order to provide an understanding of the empirical loads. A set of limiting cases that bound the empirical data are developed for use in finite element modeling of the lander and rover models.
Do, Sydney; deWeck, Olivier
Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the performance feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85m/s, 0 deg. impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the airbag-based crew impact attenuation concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0 deg impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30 deg indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.
2004-01-01This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails. These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.
Davis, Gregory L.
The Mars Pathfinder mission, scheduled for launch in December 1996, will use an airbag system to safely deliver a lander to the Martian surface.The airbag landing system has undergone a comprehensive test program during its evolution from initial design phase to final qualification and acceptance testing. This paper outlines the test approach used in the airbag development program, describes the data acquisition system used to obtain and evaluate airbag performance data, and presents test results.
This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows where the rover's airbag seams left impressions in the martian soil. The drag marks were made after the rover successfully landed at Meridiani Planum and its airbags were retracted. The rover can be seen in the foreground.
This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows where the rover's airbags left impressions in the martian soil. The drag marks were made after the rover successfully landed at Meridiani Planum and its airbags were retracted. The rover can be seen in the foreground.
2004-01-01This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails (upper left). These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.
Pai, N. G.; Tetzlaff, S. A.; Hess, D. P.
All-mechanical sensors for automotive airbag systems offer a compact and low cost yet highly reliable alternative to electrical sensors. In this paper, a non-linear dynamic model is presented that was used to improve the hammer-blow immunity of an all-mechanical ball-in-tube sensor without jeopardizing its endurance performance. Hammer-blows are impacts from within an automobile to the steering wheel or inflator shell that can occur during system installation or from aggressive driving. Sensor endurance is measured by the stability of calibration after being subjected to a sustained vibration environment. Numerical simulations of the model have elucidated the dynamics and mechanisms of operation of such sensors. Experimental hammer-blow tests and endurance tests, as well as simulations of these tests, have been performed. It is found that hammer-blow immunity can be improved without compromising endurance performance when a ball-seat spring is introduced with at least a 2·0 mm allowable deflection. Results which show the effect of varying the spring stiffness, allowable deflection, and pre-load are presented.
2004-01-01This image, taken by the navigation camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, shows the airbags used to protect the rover during landing. One bright, dust-covered bag is slightly puffed up against the lander.
Bearing a striking resemblance to a cluster of paper lanterns, these inflated airbags show a pattern of seams exactly like those left in the martian soil by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during landing at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was taken during airbag testing at NASA's Plum Brook Station, located about 50 miles west of Cleveland in Sandusky, Ohio and operated by NASA's Glenn Research Center.
This image shows that the Mars Pathfinder airbags have been successfully retracted, allowing safe deployment of the rover ramps. The Sojourner rover, still in its deployed position, is at center image, and rocks are visible in the background. Mars Pathfinder landed successfully on the surface of Mars today at 10:07 a.m. PDT.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
This image shows that the Mars Pathfinder airbags have been successfully retracted, allowing safe deployment of the rover ramps. The Sojourner rover is at lower right, and rocks are visible in the background. Mars Pathfinder landed successfully on the surface of Mars today at 10:07 a.m. PDT.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Hickling, Robert; Henning, Peter J.; Newton, Gary, Jr.
Multiple airbag systems in passenger cars can generate overpressure and noise that may be hazardous to human hearing. Overpressure is compression of the air inside a closed compartment caused by deployment of the bags. Noise results from the action of the gas inflating the bags. SAE J247 provides a standard for measuring the combination of overpressure and noise in a passenger compartment. A special microphone has recently been developed that meets this standard, which operates down to a fraction of a hertz. Details of the microphone are given. Little appears to have been published on the overpressure and noise of modern multiple airbag systems, but early results [R. Hickling, ''The noise of the automotive safety air cushion,'' Noise Control Eng., May-June, 110-121 (1976)] provide a basic understanding of the phenomenon. Spectral data shows that peak overpressure occurs at about 2 to 3 Hz. A significant reduction in overpressure and noise can be achieved with an aspirating airbag, originally developed at General Motors, whose outer structure is inflated with gas from the inflator, and whose inner structure draws in air from the passenger compartment through one-way cloth valves. Tests have shown that such bags function well when impacted.
Håland, Y; Pipkorn, B
A side airbag system comprising of 12 liter bag to cover the BioSid chest and the abdomen down to the arm rest level, and 75 mm of padding to cover the pelvic/thigh area was evaluated by a series of sled tests at two different velocities, 10 m/s and 12 m/s. The initial bag (over) pressure was varied from 0 to 80 kPa and the bag ventilation area was varied from zero to 1500 mm2. Compressed air was used to fill the bag. It was found that the ventilation of the bag reduced the maximum chest deflection by 30 percent and the maximum viscous criterion, VC, by 50 percent (comparison was made with the same bag without ventilation). A suitable initial bag (over) pressure was found to be about 50 kPa, when the loading of the abdomen was also taken into consideration. The results indicate that the chest deflection is proportioned to the door average velocity (during the first 20 ms of deflection) to the power of about 2 and that the VC is proportional to the same velocity to the power of about 4. It was also found that a 12 liter ventilated side airbag resulted in 30-40 percent lower chest deflection and about 60 percent lower VC than 50 mm of chest padding (Ethafoam 220).
The circular shapes seen on the martian surface in these images are 'footprints' left by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's airbags during landing as the spacecraft gently rolled to a stop. Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24, 2004, Earth-received time. The circular region of the flower-like feature on the right is about the size of a basketball. Scientists are studying the prints for more clues about the makeup of martian soil. The images were taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity.
2004-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet' (QTVR) [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Magic Carpet Close-upMagic Carpet Close-up HDThis section of the first color image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been further processed to produce a sharper look at a trail left by the one of rover's airbags. The drag mark was made after the rover landed and its airbags were deflated and retracted. Scientists have dubbed the region the 'Magic Carpet' after a crumpled portion of the soil that appears to have been peeled away (lower left side of the drag mark). Rocks were also dragged by the airbags, leaving impressions and 'bow waves' in the soil. The mission team plans to drive the rover over to this site to look for additional clues about the composition of the martian soil. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera.This extreme close-up image (see insets above) highlights the martian feature that scientists have named 'Magic Carpet' because of its resemblance to a crumpled carpet fold. Scientists think the soil here may have detached from its underlying layer, possibly due to interaction with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's airbag after landing. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.
Disturbance of the drift at the Pathfinder landing site reveals a shallow subsurface that is slightly darker but has similar spectral properties. The top set of images, in true color, shows the soils disturbed by the last bounce of the lander on its airbags before coming to rest and the marks created by retraction of the airbags. In the bottom set of images color differences have been enhanced. The mast at center is the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET). The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. A shadow of the ASI/MET appears on a rock at left.Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Tamura, Toshiyo; Yoshimura, Takumi; Sekine, Masaki; Uchida, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Osamu
We have developed a wearable airbag that incorporates a fall-detection system that uses both acceleration and angular velocity signals to trigger inflation of the airbag. The fall-detection algorithm was devised using a thresholding technique with an accelerometer and gyro sensor. Sixteen subjects mimicked falls, and their acceleration waveforms were monitored. Then, we developed a fall-detection algorithm that could detect signals 300 ms before the fall. This signal was used as a trigger to inflate the airbag to a capacity of 2.4 L. Although the proposed system can help to prevent fall-related injuries, further development is needed to miniaturize the inflation system.
This image of the Martian surface was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) before sunset on July 4 (Sol 1), the spacecraft's first day on Mars. The airbags have been partially retracted, and portions the petal holding the undeployed rover Sojourner can be seen at lower left. The rock in the center of the image may be a future target for chemical analysis. The soil in the foreground has been disturbed by the movement of the airbags as they retracted.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.
Baur, Peter; Lange, Wolfgang; Messner, Georg; Rauscher, Stefan; Pieske, Oliver
After the introduction of the Thorax Airbag (TA) and the Head Protection System (HPS) by BMW there has been a significant reduction of injuries in real-world collisions. Comparison of similar collisions (in-depth collision analyses) of vehicles with and without HPS/TA indicates that the effectiveness of the system was credible. Minor injuries (AIS 1) increase while serious injuries (AIS 3+) are reduced. Based on the limited cases available, a proper statistical sampling could not be achieved at this time, however the results are to be understood as indicative of a trend. PMID:11558083
Dimaggio, E. N.; Schroeder, R.; Castle, N.; Golombek, M.
Rock distributions for the final platforms used in airbag drop tests are currently being designed for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) scheduled to launch in 2003. Like Mars Pathfinder (MPF), launched in 1996, MER will use a series of airbags to cushion its landing on the surface of Mars. Previous MER airbag drop tests have shown that sharp, angular (triangular) rocks >20 cm high may be hazardous. To aid in defining the rock distributions for the final airbag tests, images from the Viking Landers 1 and 2 and MPF were used to identify rocks that are >20 cm high, and characterize them as triangular, square or round. Approximately 33% of all rocks analyzed are triangular. Of the rocks analyzed that are ~20-60 cm high, ~14% are triangular. Most of these triangular rocks are small, ~20-30 cm high. Rock distributions of previous airbag platforms were similarly classified and show a greater percentage of triangular and square rocks that are ~20-60 cm high than at the landing sites. The burial of a rock (perched, partially buried or buried) was also considered because perched rocks may pose less of a threat to the airbags than those buried because perched rocks can be dislodged and roll during impact. Approximately 19% of all rocks analyzed, and ~19% of rocks that are ~20-60 cm high, are triangular and partially buried or buried. These data suggest that the platform rock distributions appropriately represented the risks to the airbags associated with triangular rocks. A similar percentage of >20 cm high triangular rocks will be added to the drop test platforms to represent landing site rock distributions.
Ogun, Olufunmilola Abimbola; Ikyaa, Sewuese Yangi; Ogun, Gabriel Olabiyi
A healthy 40-year-old man, restrained in the front passenger seat, suffered visually disabling blunt ocular trauma following spontaneous release of the passenger side air-bag module, during vehicular deceleration, without an automobile crash. Though the driver-side airbag was also released, the driver was unharmed. The passenger suffered bilateral hyphema, bilateral vitreous hemorrhage and suspected posterior scleral rupture in the left eye and also had an eyebrow laceration, from impact with the dashboard panel covering the air-bag module, which was detached by the force of airbag deployment. This is the first reported case from West Africa and the first case in which part of the airbag module detached to cause additional trauma. This report adds to the growing burden of evidence world-wide, for a review of the safety aspects of the automobile airbag. This case clearly illustrates that although airbags reduce mortality, they carry a high risk of ocular morbidity, even with seat belt restraint.
Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Zhang, Jiangyue; Gennarelli, Thomas A
The present study was designed to provide descriptive data on side impact injuries in vehicles equipped with side airbags using the United States National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The database was queried with the constraint that all vehicles must adhere to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards FMVSS 214, injured occupants be in the front outboard seats with no rollovers or ejections, and side impacts airbags be deployed in lateral crashes. Out of the 7812 crashes in the 1997-2004 weighted NASS files, AIS > or = 2 level injuries occurred to 5071 occupants. There were 3828 cases of torso-only airbags, 955 cases of torso-head bag combination, and 288 inflatable tubular structure/curtain systems. Side airbags were not attributed to be the cause of head or chest injury to any occupant at this level of severity. The predominance of torso-only airbags followed by torso-head airbag combination reflected vehicle model years and changing technology. Head and chest injuries were coupled for the vast majority of occupants with injuries to more than one body region. Comparing literature data for side impacts without side airbag deployments, the presence of a side airbag decreased AIS=2 head, chest, and extremity injuries when examining raw data incidence rates. Although this is the first study to adopt strict inclusion-exclusion criteria for side crashes with side airbag deployments, future studies are needed to assess side airbag efficacy using datasets such as matched-pair occupants in side impacts.
D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim
Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma.
Dreher, Peter A.
There are many uses of low pressure airbags, both military and commercial. Many of these applications have been hampered by inadequate and inaccurate modeling tools. This dissertation contains the derivation of a four degree-of-freedom system of differential equations from physical laws of mass and energy conservation, force equilibrium, and the Ideal Gas Law. Kinematic equations were derived to model a cylindrical airbag as a single control volume impacted by a parallelepiped collidant. An efficient numerical procedure was devised to solve the simplified system of equations in a manner amenable to discovering design trends. The largest public airbag experiment, both in scale and scope, was designed and built to collect data on low-pressure airbag responses, otherwise unavailable in the literature. The experimental results were compared to computational simulations to validate the simplified numerical model. Experimental response trends are presented that will aid airbag designers. The two objectives of using a low pressure airbag to demonstrate the feasibility to (1) accelerate a munition to 15 feet per second velocity from a bomb bay, and (2) decelerate humans hitting trucks below the human tolerance level of 50 G's, were both met.
Davis, G. L.; Scharton, T. D.; Tsoi, W. B.
In mid 2003, NASA will launch identical spacecraft to deliver two large rovers to the Martian surface. As with the successful Mars Pathfinder (MPF) mission, the MER spacecraft will use an airbag landing system to safely deliver its payload.
Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at lower left in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This image is part of a 3D 'monster' panorama of the area surrounding the landing site.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
Zaglia, Elisabetta; De Leo, Domenico; Lanzara, Guido; Urbani, Urbano; Dolci, Marco
The installation of airbags in motor vehicles, in association with the use of seat belts, has reduced the incidence of head injuries, as well as significantly decreasing morbidity and mortality in motor vehicle accidents. Nevertheless, the literature on the subject increasingly refers to lesions related to airbag deployment. These are usually minor, but in certain circumstances, severe and fatal injuries can result. This is a case report of serious injury due to airbag deployment, involving a restrained driver who suffered occipital condylar injury when his airbag deployed in a frontal collision. The range of airbag associated injuries is reported and predisposing factors, such as the probable proximity to the airbag housing, is discussed.
DiMaggio, E. N.; Schroeder, R. D.; Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A.; Castle, N.
Using the Viking and Mars Pathfinder landing sites as a guide, this study assessed rock shapes, sizes and burial so they could be compared with rocks on the test platforms. This work allowed comparison of the severity of the rock distributions on the test platforms with the 3 landing sites and helped guide the rocks used on the test platforms during the final airbag qualification tests.
Suh, Chang-Min; Lee, Young-Hoon; Suh, Duck-Young
The driver airbag system is designed as a supplemental restraint system in addition to the seatbelt, and is designed to protect the driver's head and chest against severe injury by a device that is actuated in case of vehicle's fronted impact. Deployment of an airbag module with floating horn assembly is a highly dynamic process. The concept of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly and aluminum emblem is presented as a useful parameter when the airbag deploys and the energy is evaluated as performance factor in airbag module. Floating horn assembly is also one of the major factors for driver airbag module design to perform its horn function and check the package between driver airbag module and steering wheel. This study on the design of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly proved the feasibility as a new safety device. However, the system level study is needed for decrease of passenger injury. This study can be used for the implementation of a prototype of DABM with floating horn device.
Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
Cressy, P. J.; Estes, J. E.
During the fall of 1983, the Information Systems Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications assembled a Working Group to develop initial plans for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). Workshops coordinated planning and concept development activities between land-related and computer science disciplines, and examined land research requirements, information science technology requirements, PLDS architecture, and methodologies for system evaluation. The PLDS will be a limited-scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical and management approaches to satisfy land science research needs. PLDS will pave the way for a Land Data System to improve data access, processing, transfer and analysis, fostering an environment in which land science information synthesis can occur on a scale not previously possible owing to limits to data assembly and access and efficiency of processing.
Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.
Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.
LAND COMBAT SYSTEMS It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change. — Charles ... Darwin ABSTRACT: The Land Combat Systems (LCS) industry has significantly changed over the last decade. The days when production lines and factories
Mertz, Harold J; Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius
Minimizing the injury potential of the interactions between deploying airbags and car occupants is the major issue with the design of airbag systems. This concern was identified in 1964 by Carl Clark when he presented the results of human volunteer and dummy testing of the "Airstop" system that was being developed for aircraft. The following is a chronological summary of the actions taken by the car manufacturers, airbag suppliers, SAE and ISO task groups, research institutes and universities, and consumer and government groups to address this issue.
Timmers, Richard B.; Welch, Joseph V.; Hardy, Robin C.
Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). An important element of the air bag system design process is proper modeling of the proposed configuration to determine if the resulting performance meets requirements. Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations. The efforts presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, and is based on previous design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, construct the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.
Duma, S M; Kress, T A; Porta, D J; Martin, P G; Simmons, R J; Alexander, C L
This paper provides the results from an experimental study intended to assess airbag impact to the orbit. Twenty-seven airbags were deployed onto an instrumented Hybrid III headform. Seven different types of airbags were used that included tethered and nontethered, light to heavy nylon weaves, and different coating types. The airbags were deployed via a pneumatic deployment system. Seven individual force transducers, each having a 2.25 cm2 contact area, were placed on the right orbital region to evaluate the force patterns. The midpoint of the two ocular regions of the headform was positioned 12.5 cm above and 15.0 cm away from the center of the airbag, a position determined from previous airbag deployments to yield the highest leading edge velocity. The average maximum force per sensor ranged from 15.4 N to 63.6 N, and peak pressure ranged from 68 kPa to 282 kPa. The upper center of the orbit presented the highest values while the center of the orbit recorded the lowest values, a comparison that was proven to be statistically significant. For this configuration, the maximum force on the ocular region was found to be independent of the presence of a tether or the maximum internal airbag pressure.
Zhang, Junyuan; Jin, Yang; Xie, Lizhe; Chen, Chao
The current design and optimization of the occupant restraint system (ORS) are based on numerous actual tests and mathematic simulations. These two methods are overly time-consuming and complex for the concept design phase of the ORS, though they're quite effective and accurate. Therefore, a fast and directive method of the design and optimization is needed in the concept design phase of the ORS. Since the airbag system is a crucial part of the ORS, in this paper, a theoretical model for the vehicle airbag is established in order to clarify the interaction between occupants and airbags, and further a fast design and optimization method of airbags in the concept design phase is made based on the proposed theoretical model. First, the theoretical expression of the simplified mechanical relationship between the airbag's design parameters and the occupant response is developed based on classical mechanics, then the momentum theorem and the ideal gas state equation are adopted to illustrate the relationship between airbag's design parameters and occupant response. By using MATLAB software, the iterative algorithm method and discrete variables are applied to the solution of the proposed theoretical model with a random input in a certain scope. And validations by MADYMO software prove the validity and accuracy of this theoretical model in two principal design parameters, the inflated gas mass and vent diameter, within a regular range. This research contributes to a deeper comprehension of the relation between occupants and airbags, further a fast design and optimization method for airbags' principal parameters in the concept design phase, and provides the range of the airbag's initial design parameters for the subsequent CAE simulations and actual tests.
Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.
Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.
2004-01-01This image shows the deflated airbags retracted underneath the lander petal at the JPL In-Situ Instrument Laboratory. Retracting the airbags helps clear the path for the rover to roll off the lander and onto the martian surface.
Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The metallic object at lower right is part of the lander's low-gain antenna. This image is part of a 3D 'monsterClick below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right
Kapisiz, Nazmiye Selçuk; Ozpolat, Berkant; Kapisiz, Fahri; Yücel, Ertan
Although airbags reduce the overall risk of injury and death from motor vehicle accidents, the airbag may cause injuries during deployment. We present a case of apparently isolated sternal fracture caused by airbag deployment during a motor vehicle crash and we discuss the ultrasonographic diagnosis. We also examine the mechanism of injury caused by the airbag.
The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.
Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.
We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.
Usumoto, Yosuke; Hikiji, Wakako; Kudo, Keiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki
We report an unusual case of fatal airbag injury. A woman in her forties was driving a light car when it was involved in an accident. When the car was found, the left front wheel had dropped into the gutter, the front bumper was dented and the airbag had deployed. Forensic autopsy revealed that the right subclavian artery and the left vertebral artery were ruptured and 1,570 ml and 360 ml of blood with clots were observed in the left and the right thoracic cavity, respectively. It was considered that the unusual collision produced by deployment of the airbag had caused these ruptures and massive hemorrhaging. Although an airbag is an effective tool for ensuring the safety of a driver and the passengers, it may injure and occasionally kill the occupants if they do not remain in the appropriate and restrained seating position.
Subash, Malavika; Manzouri, Bita; Wilkins, Mark
Chemical injuries of the eye are a rare complication of airbag deployment and result from seepage of the chemical, causing inflation through vents in the airbag. We describe a severe case of bilateral alkali eye injury upon airbag contact in a road traffic accident. Delayed recognition and irrigation of the eyes exacerbated the injury with a resultant poor healing response of the left eye. Consequently, a left amniotic membrane graft was performed to promote corneal epithelial healing. The use of an amniotic membrane graft in the acute period after a chemical keratitis is unusual and reflects the severity of the corneal injuries sustained by this patient. This case illustrates the vision-threatening risk of alkali keratitis secondary to airbag deployment and highlights the importance of early recognition and management.
Fasanella, Edwin L.
A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.
Fasanella, Edwin L.
A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace the Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.
Mohamed, A. A.; Banerjee, A.
The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries. PMID:9926118
Ronnie, Davies; Emecheta, Ikechukwu E; Kevin, Hancock
Vehicle airbags significantly reduce vehicle occupant injuries and fatalities in road accidents. However, a number of injuries are recognised as being directly attributable to airbag deployment. The majority of these are blunt injuries due to the high force of airbag deployment and include ocular injuries, burns, chest trauma and, rarely, fatalities. The authors describe a case of mixed blunt ocular and penetrating facial trauma as a result of airbag deployment. PMID:22707498
Ronnie, Davies; Emecheta, Ikechukwu E; Kevin, Hancock
Vehicle airbags significantly reduce vehicle occupant injuries and fatalities in road accidents. However, a number of injuries are recognised as being directly attributable to airbag deployment. The majority of these are blunt injuries due to the high force of airbag deployment and include ocular injuries, burns, chest trauma and, rarely, fatalities. The authors describe a case of mixed blunt ocular and penetrating facial trauma as a result of airbag deployment.
Road accidents represent the dark side of road traffic, their consequences leading to material damage and often to vehicle occupant fatalities. Passive safety systems offer a high level of protection to vehicle occupants; yet, depending on a number of constructive factors and not only, these systems can not always ensure a high survival rate. The costs of road traffic accidents are to be borne by the whole society, with high amounts of money required. In this paper we analyze how the collision is felt in various points on the vehicle, at a given time and how this may affect the proper functioning of the passive safety systems, especially the airbag system.
Ashar, A; James, H; Higgins, D; Kaidonis, J; Anderson, R W G
Motor vehicle airbag technology is directed at the reduction of injury to drivers and passengers however a number of researchers have reported cases of injuries caused by airbags. Injuries to tooth surfaces, particularly tooth wear following the deployment of motor vehicle airbags, have never been studied. A review of the literature and clinical experience does not suggest tooth enamel abrasion to be a likely outcome following airbag deployment. This in vitro pilot study was conducted to assess the effect on tooth surfaces following the deployment of motor vehicle airbags, and in particular to attempt to reproduce the injuries claimed in a case report published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto- Stomatology in December 2007. A sample of extracted upper anterior teeth (n = 20) were analyzed using unaided visual observation, photographic and microscopic observation pre- and post- airbag deployment. Teeth were mounted on a fabricated head form (similar to those used in crash test dummies) using dental putty. The tests were performed using a modified airbag test rig with airbags deployed in 5 different positions relative to the head, with respect to distance and angulations. The result of the tests showed no changes to the teeth with unaided observation, macro photography or under the microscope. Tooth wear patterns described in the case report were not observed. Although accurate reproduction of an in vivo situation is not possible, this study has given some insight into the effects of motor vehicle airbag deployment, and suggests that significant tooth wear is an unlikely outcome from airbag deployment.
Triplett, T.L.; Bennett, R.M.
Conventional practice in protecting residential structures from subsidence damage concentrates on saving the superstructure. The foundation is sacrificed, even though it represents the structural component with the greatest replacement cost. In this study, airbags were used to lift a 20 ft x 30 ft structure to test their ability to protect both the foundation and superstructure from ground settlement. Two contiguous sides of the test foundation were unreinforced, and the other two contiguous sides incorporated footing and wall reinforcement. The airbags successfully lifted the structure without causing damage, even on the unreinforced sides. This paper gives a procedure for determining airbag spacing, and describes installation and operation techniques of the airbags. The paper then focuses on the performance of the airbags in lifting the structure, and shows that airbags can preserve existing foundations during subsidence movements.
Barnes, Shawn S; Wong, William; Affeldt, John C
While airbags have saved many lives and are clearly beneficial overall, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) powder produced by the inflation reaction can cause significant alkali ocular injury if not irrigated promptly. Here we report a case of severe airbag related ocular alkali injury as a way to bring attention to the need for prompt ocular irrigation following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) with airbag deployment. A 47-year-old man was involved in a MVA with airbag deployment in a rural setting. Attention was paid to several other life-threatening traumatic injuries, however, ocular irrigation was not performed until some 6-7 hours after the MVA. Over the course of 6 months, airbag related alkali injury caused severe limbal ischemia, conjunctivalization of the cornea, corneal epithelial defects, cicatricial scarring, haze, and corneal/limbal vascularization despite amniotic membrane graft. Awareness of the importance of ocular irrigation following airbag deployment must be raised both in the ophthalmology and emergency medicine communities.
Tanner, John A. (Editor)
Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.
The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for scientists seeking sources of information about the Earth's land surfaces. GLIS contains "metadata," that is, descriptive information about data sets. Through GLIS, scientists can evaluate data sets, determine their availability, and place online requests for products. GLIS is more, however, than a mere list of products. It offers online samples of earth science data that may be ordered through the system.
communication equipment, and maintains power train components, starters , alternators , and generators. MCLB Barstow, Barstow, CA is the Marine Corps...protectionism became dominant themes. Other heavy industries, such as locomotive and food machinery companies, also were converted to production of land...implications for national defense. Domestic LCS companies’ market share may decrease as foreign companies with cheaper alternatives become more competitive and
Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)
Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.
Duma, Stefan M; Hansen, Gail A; Kennedy, Eric A; Rath, Amber L; McNally, Craig; Kemper, Andrew R; Smith, Eric P; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Stitzel, Joel D; Davis, Martin B; Bass, Cameron R; Brozoski, Frederick T; McEntire, B Joseph; Alem, Nabih M; Crowley, John S
This paper describes a three part analysis to characterize the interaction between the female upper extremity and a helicopter cockpit side airbag system and to develop dynamic hyperextension injury criteria for the female elbow joint. Part I involved a series of 10 experiments with an original Army Black Hawk helicopter side airbag. A 5(th) percentile female Hybrid III instrumented upper extremity was used to demonstrate side airbag upper extremity loading. Two out of the 10 tests resulted in high elbow bending moments of 128 Nm and 144 Nm. Part II included dynamic hyperextension tests on 24 female cadaver elbow joints. The energy source was a drop tower utilizing a three-point bending configuration to apply elbow bending moments matching the previously conducted side airbag tests. Post-test necropsy showed that 16 of the 24 elbow joint tests resulted in injuries. Injury severity ranged from minor cartilage damage to more moderate joint dislocations and severe transverse fractures of the distal humerus. Peak elbow bending moments ranged from 42.4 Nm to 146.3 Nm. Peak bending moment proved to be a significant indicator of any elbow injury (p = 0.02) as well as elbow joint dislocation (p = 0.01). Logistic regression analyses were used to develop single and multiple variate injury risk functions. Using peak moment data for the entire test population, a 50% risk of obtaining any elbow injury was found at 56 Nm while a 50% risk of sustaining an elbow joint dislocation was found at 93 Nm for the female population. These results indicate that the peak elbow bending moments achieved in Part I are associated with a greater than 90% risk for elbow injury. Subsequently, the airbag was re-designed in an effort to mitigate this as well as the other upper extremity injury risks. Part III assessed the redesigned side airbag module to ensure injury risks had been reduced prior to implementing the new system. To facilitate this, 12 redesigned side airbag deployments were conducted
Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.
As NASA moves towards developing technologies needed to implement its new Exploration program, studies conducted for Apollo in the 1960's to understand the rollover stability of capsules landing are being revisited. Although rigid body kinematics analyses of the roll-over behavior of capsules on impact provided critical insight to the Apollo problem, extensive ground test programs were also used. For the new Orion spacecraft being developed to implement today's Exploration program, new air-bag designs have improved sufficiently for NASA to consider their use to mitigate landing loads to ensure crew safety and to enable re-usability of the capsule. Simple kinematics models provide only limited understanding of the behavior of these air bag systems, and more sophisticated tools must be used. In particular, NASA and its contractors are using the LS-Dyna nonlinear simulation code for impact response predictions of the full Orion vehicle with air bags by leveraging the extensive air bag prediction work previously done by the automotive industry. However, even in today's computational environment, these analyses are still high-dimensional, time consuming, and computationally intensive. To alleviate the computational burden, this paper presents an approach that uses deterministic sampling techniques and an adaptive response surface method to not only use existing LS-Dyna solutions but also to interpolate from LS-Dyna solutions to predict the stability boundaries for a capsule on airbags. Results for the stability boundary in terms of impact velocities, capsule attitude, impact plane orientation, and impact surface friction are discussed.
Cabasson, S; Bauvin, I; Firah, N; David, A; Bèze-Beyrie, P; Gréteau, S; Mensire-Marinier, A; Oilleau, L; Mansir, T
We report the case of an 8-month-old baby killed by the deployment of an airbag. He was correctly positioned, in a safety seat designed for his age class, on the passenger side, and rear-facing. The accident occurred at low speed, on the left front of the car, without provoking any harm to the mother who was driving the vehicle, but the impact led to airbag deployment. A CT scan showed an occipital fracture, hemorrhagic parenchymal contusions, subarachnoid hemorrhage and edema, which quickly led to fatal intracranial hypertension. Severe retinal hemorrhages were also noted. Brain death was declared 24h later. Both direct impact and violent projection of the head are involved in the severity of brain lesions. Retinal hemorrhages are similar to what is observed in shaken-baby syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first French publication on this topic in childhood. In France, children are allowed to be positioned on the passenger side seat, but the airbag, if present, is supposed to be deactivated, which is not always possible. In recent cars, depowering the airbag is easy, with on/off switches, but these systems are not uniform between models. Moreover, it is very likely that this possibility is ignored by numerous parents. A widespread communication on this topic should be initiated in France to prevent such events. Banning infants from front passenger seats completely does not seem possible. Nevertheless, greater attention on the part of police departments and better information to drivers appear necessary.
Vitello, W; Kim, M; Johnson, R M; Miller, S
An 18-year-old male was involved in a single car motor vehicle accident in which the driver's side airbag was deployed. He presented to the trauma center with complex injuries to the left hand, lacerations to the scalp, and a full-thickness burn to the ulnar aspect of the right hand that included the hypothenar area and the fifth digit. The patient was admitted to the trauma center and received immediate consultation from the burn service. He underwent debridement and split-thickness skin grafting of 50 cm2 of the right hand on postburn day 3. The graft became necrotic and the patient underwent debridement of the skin and the abductor minimi muscle of the right hand on postburn day 32. Split-thickness skin grafting and release of flexion contracture were successfully completed 18 days later. The police and fire departments reported that the airbag showed signs of thermal destruction. Upon request, Honda motors submitted information from the TRW safety systems and material safety data sheet (Mesa, Ariz, issued 1989) that showed that airbag canisters contain the chemicals sodium azide and cupric oxide. Water may react with sodium azide to form highly toxic and explosive hyfrazoic acid. These chemicals are converted to sodium hydroxide, which can cause significant chemical burns. In addition, these chemicals may ignite when exposed to live electrical wires or temperatures greater than 300 degrees F. We conclude that burns associated with damaged deployed airbags in motor vehicle accidents may be the results of both chemical and thermal injury. The extent of the burn wound may be underestimated, as our case illustrates. Full-thickness burns resulting from airbag deployment may require more aggressive initial debridement and treatment.
Kurt, Mehmet; Laksari, Kaveh; Kuo, Calvin; Grant, Gerald A; Camarillo, David B
Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head. By allowing softer liner medium and larger helmet sizes, this novel approach in helmet design provides the opportunity to achieve much lower acceleration levels during collision and may reduce the risk of brain injury. In this study, we first develop theoretical frameworks to investigate impact dynamics of current EPS helmets and airbag helmets-as a form of expandable helmet design. We compared our theoretical models with anthropomorphic test dummy drop test experiments. Peak accelerations obtained from these experiments with airbag helmets achieve up to an 8-fold reduction in the risk of concussion compared to standard EPS helmets. Furthermore, we construct an optimization framework for airbag helmets to minimize concussion and severe head injury risks at different impact velocities, while avoiding excessive deformation and bottoming-out. An optimized airbag helmet with 0.12 m thickness at 72 ± 8 kPa reduces the head injury criterion (HIC) value to 190 ± 25 at 6.2 m/s head impact velocity compared to a HIC of 1300 with a standard EPS helmet. Based on a correlation with previously reported HIC values in the literature, this airbag helmet design substantially reduces the risks of severe head injury up to 9 m/s.
Kiesling, John D.
The general advantages and potential operating characteristics of the mobile satellite service (MSS) are described, and distinctions are made between radio telephone, which is interconnected to the public switched telephone network, and private mobile radio systems. Mobile satellite service offers voice, data, position location, and paging services, interconnection to the public switched telephone network, and the possibility of private networks. Performance and cost characteristics are given along with summaries of market needs and market demands. The space and ground systems of the MSS are described.
Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan A; Pintar, Frank A
Torso side airbags are typically seat- or door-mounted; i.e., mounted within the seat back or within the door panel lateral to the occupant. Because previous work has shown the propensity of airbags to cause harm in unintended out-of-position occupant orientations, scientific investigation of injury risks continues. Such work involves anthropomorphic test devices and cadaveric specimens which have time and monetary costs associated with their use. These costs necessitate experimental efficiency, achieved by selecting representative airbags from the multitude of options in contemporary automobiles. This study proposes a novel method for characterizing torso side airbag deployment aggressivity for purposes of selection. The test fixture consisted of an array of rigidly positioned three-axis load cells oriented in opposition to a rigid airbag mount at fixed distances of 6 or 8 cm. Six exemplar torso airbag modules were subjected to these two deployment configurations. Force characteristics of maximum resultant force, peak and mean force onset rate, and linear impulse were quantified for comparison. Force characteristics demonstrated ranges between 210% (linear impulse) and 2,500% (mean force onset rate) of minimum value. This test method demonstrated differentiation in the diversity of SAB designs and quantified the airbagenvironment interaction during deployment. These force characteristics may correlate to thoracic injury risk from out-of position torso side airbag deployment.
Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)
A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.
Lu, Yun-Chi; Irani, Fred M.
The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system, available in the public domain, for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. The system was developed to support earth sciences research and development activities. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete on-line and hardcopy documentation, extensive image data file management, reformatting, and conversion utilities, and high level device independent access to image display hardware. The capabilities are summarized of the latest release of the system (version 5). Emphasis is given to the system portability and the isolation of hardware and software dependencies in this release.
Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.
The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.
Oleson, Lyndon R.
The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer system being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for scientists seeking data pertaining to the Earth's land surface that can be used in global change studies. GLIS contains descriptive information on a variety of regional, continental, and global land data sets. The interactive query services of GLIS allow scientists to assess the potential utility of data sets, determine their availability, and place online requests for data products. In addition to the text-based query services, GLIS offers a number of graphical aids to users accessing the system through one of the supported graphical user interfaces, such as the PG-GLIS package developed for IBM-compatible personal computers. These services include interative specification of geographic search areas, geographic coverage plots, and online digital image browse capabilities. Access to GLIS is provided through either wide-area network or dial-up interfaces. A prototype of the system became operational in June 1991, and full operational status is expected by September 1992. In addition to continued data set expansion, 1992 development plans include the enhancement of data query and visualization services and the addition of a graphical user interface for UNIX workstations.
Details of one of Pathfinder's deflated airbags adjacent to a lander petal are prominent in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The blue tiles on top of the petal are solar cells that are used to give power to the lander.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Banglmaier, R.F.; Rouhana, S.W.
Several criteria for assessing noise-induced hearing loss from automotive inflatable devices, such as airbags, were proposed in the past. However, their development was based on epidemiological studies of steady state noise and not impulsive noise. More recently, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) developed and validated a mathematical model of the ear, which may be used to assess noise induced hearing loss from impulsive noise sources. Previous studies have contributed to understanding the effects of impulse noise on occupants, but were performed on first generation frontal airbags and did not provide information on airbag and occupant safety systems in today’s fleet of vehicles. This study presents the results of a parametric investigation of current inflatable devices across a variety of vehicles and considers the size and seating location of the occupant in vehicles of varying volume. In addition, the study considers advanced airbag technologies such as dual stage frontal airbags, side airbags, inflatable curtains, and seat belt pretensioners. PMID:12941213
Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.
A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.
Dimaggio, E. N.; Schroeder, R. D.; Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A.; Castle, N.
To aid in defining the rock distributions for MER airbag tests, images from the Viking Landers 1 and 2 and MPF were used to identify rocks that are >20 cm high and characterize them by their shape and burial.
Eliott, Dean; Hauch, Adam; Kim, Rubin W; Fawzi, Amani
A variety of airbag-associated ocular injuries have been reported in children sitting in the front passenger seat during automobile collisions. These injuries range from corneal abrasions to traumatic hyphema with secondary glaucoma and cataract. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy who experienced retinal dialysis and detachment associated with airbag deployment. The patient recovered 20/20 visual acuity after cryopexy and placement of a radial sponge.
A simple replacement for the Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS) was designed and built at NRL for use as a research tool in the experimental...transport, and simple to maintain. Experimental evaluation of two proposed landing systems, the Laterally Compounded Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System
Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang
Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.
van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H
Land-use change is both a cause and consequence of many biophysical and socioeconomic changes. The CLUMondo model provides an innovative approach for global land-use change modeling to support integrated assessments. Demands for goods and services are, in the model, supplied by a variety of land systems that are characterized by their land cover mosaic, the agricultural management intensity, and livestock. Land system changes are simulated by the model, driven by regional demand for goods and influenced by local factors that either constrain or promote land system conversion. A characteristic of the new model is the endogenous simulation of intensification of agricultural management versus expansion of arable land, and urban versus rural settlements expansion based on land availability in the neighborhood of the location. Model results for the OECD Environmental Outlook scenario show that allocation of increased agricultural production by either management intensification or area expansion varies both among and within world regions, providing useful insight into the land sparing versus land sharing debate. The land system approach allows the inclusion of different types of demand for goods and services from the land system as a driving factor of land system change. Simulation results are compared to observed changes over the 1970-2000 period and projections of other global and regional land change models.
Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin
Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158
Waring, Thomas P; Hegde, Poornima; Foley, Raymond J
Sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease (SLGLD) is a condition associated with the formation of noncaseating, nonnecrotizing granulomas. The final by-product of airbag deployment is alkaline silicates or glass. Silicates trapped and sequestered in the lung parenchyma are a potential mediator for immune system activation and development of sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease.
Loftis, Kathryn L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D
The objective of this study was to investigate side airbag (SAB) deployment in near side crashes and compare injuries and contact points between occupants with and without SAB deployment. Using NASS 2000-2008 and selecting for near side cases, with PDOF ± 20 degrees from 90 or 270, for non-pregnant adult belted occupants, there were 20,253 (weighted) SAB deployments. NASS showed that SABs have been increasing within the fleet, comprising 2% of airbags in 2000 and increasing to 33% of airbags in 2008. To investigate deployed SABs, we developed a three-step methology to pair CIREN cases to study the effects of deployment on occupant outcome. The first step involved extracting near side impacts from CIREN with adult, non-pregnant occupants seated in row 1 (drivers or right front passengers). In the second step, each case was quantitatively compared to FMVSS 214 barrier test standards using a 6 point similarity scoring system. Cases scoring at least 3 points were then qualitatively analyzed and 33 pairs of cases of the same vehicle make/model but opposite SAB status were chosen. Occupants with deployed SAB had reduced occurrences and severity of head and face, neck and cervical spine, and thoracic injuries and fewer injurious contacts to side components including the door, a-pillar, and window sill. SAB deployment was statistically significant for reducing occupant MAIS and ISS and thorax airbags were statistically significant for reducing thoracic and neck/cervical spine injury severity. The average ISS with SAB deployment was 21, while the average ISS of those without was 33. This study establishes methods for performing comparisons between CIREN cases based on regulatory conditions and shows injury reduction in key body regions with SAB deployment.
Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert
The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.
Kiesling, J. D.
A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.
Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A
The relationship between thoracic injury risk and parameters of door velocity and occupant distance was delineated in blunt lateral impact with side airbag deployment. A sled impact model was exercised with the validated MADYMO fiftieth percentile facet occupant model and a generalized finite element torso side airbag. Impact velocity was incremented from 4.0 to 9.0m/s; occupant-airbag distance (at time of airbag activation) was incremented from 2.0 to 24.0 cm; simulations without airbag were also examined. Using compression, deflection rate, and the Viscous Criterion, airbag performance was characterized with respect to occupant injury risk at three points of interest: occupant distance of most protection, distance of greatest injury risk, and the newly defined critical distance. The occupant distance which demonstrated the most airbag protection, i.e., lowest injury risk, increased with increasing impact velocity. Greatest injury risk resulted when the occupant was nearest the airbag regardless of impact velocity. The critical distance was defined as the farthest distance at which airbag deployment exacerbated injury risk. This critical distance only varied considering chest compression, between 3 and 10 cm from the airbag, but did not vary when the Viscous Criterion was evaluated. At impact velocities less than or equal to 6m/s, the most protective occupant location was within 2 cm of the critical distance at which the airbag became harmful. Therefore, injury mitigation with torso airbag may be more difficult to achieve at lower ΔV.
Matsushita, Hiroshi; Harada, Atsuko; Sato, Takashi; Kurabayashi, Takumi
The effects of airbag deployment in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) on the fetus are poorly understood. A 22-year-old woman at 24 weeks of gestation collided with a telephone pole while driving. She was restrained and an airbag deployed. Although she had no major injuries, she experienced decreased fetal movements. Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring revealed loss of variability without any evidence of abruptio placentae, and 4 days later, the variability spontaneously recovered. Two weeks after the MVA, ultrasonography showed unilateral ventricular dilatation suggestive of fetal brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed subdural hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic lesions, interpreted as indirect (hypoxic-ischemic) and direct (hemorrhagic) intracranial injuries. After MVA with airbag deployment, FHR monitoring can show a transient loss of variability, which may precede the appearance of fetal brain injury.
Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato
The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.
Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.
Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.
AALC(AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT LANDING CRAFT), AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT LANDING CRAFT, DEBARKING, GAMUT MODEL, GENERAL PURPOSE SIMULATION SYSTEM, GPSS(GENERAL PURPOSE SIMULATION SYSTEM), IBM 360 COMPUTERS, LANDING CRAFT MIXES.
Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.; Cressy, P. J.; Devirian, M.
The full realization of the potential of satellite remote sensing would require the utilization of information systems which are currently not available. However, technological advances make it now possible to design a data system for meeting the land scientists' most critical information needs. A working group has been assembled to examine the need for a Pilot Data System (PLDS). The pilot program is to establish a limited-scale, distributed information system to explore approaches to satisfy the needs of the land science research community. Aspects and objectives considered by the working group are discussed, taking into account science scenarios, required functions, the characteristics of a land data system, and questions of pilot land data system development.
A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.
Davis, Thomas J.; Clary, George R.; Chisholm, John P.; Macdonald, Stanley L.
Prototype beacon landing system (BLS) allows helicopters to make precise landings in all weather. BLS easily added to existing helicopter avionic equipment and readily deployed at remote sites. Small and light, system employs X-band radar and digital processing. Variety of beams pulsed sequentially by ground station after initial interrogation by weather radar of approaching helicopter. Airborne microprocessor processes pulses to determine glide slope, course deviation, and range.
Turner, B.L.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Verbug, Peter H.; Murray, Alan T.
Land systems (mosaics of land use and cover) are human environment systems, the changes in which drive and respond to local to global environmental changes, climate to macro-economy (Foley et al., 2005). Changes in land systems have been the principal proximate cause in the loss of habitats and biota globally, long contributed to atmospheric greenhouse gases, and hypothesized to have triggered climate changes in the early Holocene (Ruddiman, 2003). Land use, foremost agriculture, is the largest source of biologically active nitrogen to the atmosphere, critical to sources and sinks of carbon, and a major component in the hydrologic cycle (e.g., Bouwman et al., 2011). Changes in land systems also affect regional climate (Feddema et al., 2005; Pielke, 2005), ecosystem functions, and the array of ecosystem services they provide. Land systems, therefore, are a central feature of how humankind manages its relationship with nature-intended or not, or whether this relationship proceeds sustainably or not.
Kamerling, Susan Nudelman
Countless numbers of young lives are lost each year due to motor vehicle crashes. One of the most effective means of reducing the number of children killed and injured as occupants in motor vehicles is through the use of child passenger restraints. Seat belts and child safety seats save lives and reduce the severity of injuries sustained by occupants in motor vehicle crashes. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and influence families on the proper way to safely transport all motor vehicle passengers. Therefore, nurses working with infants, children, and families have a moral and professional obligation to understand the basics of child passenger safety. At the very least, nurses should be able to direct families appropriately for specifics related to child passenger restraints. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of child passenger safety through a historical, theoretical, and clinical approach. Proper child restraint use is reviewed based on current recommendations for age and size. The potential hazards of child restraint misuse, with an in-depth discussion on airbags, is presented. The discussion on airbags serves to dispel any misconceptions that may be held about airbags. The article includes two case studies that illustrate the injury potential of relatively common misuse patterns. The clinical implications for maternal-child nurses include the recognition that child passenger deaths are primarily due to child restraint nonuse and misuse and the realization of nursing's role in the promotion of proper child passenger restraint.
Global Position System ( GPS ). This TOP incorporates procedures that require automated data collection instrumentation and a reference system that... Global Position System ( GPS ) 44 Survey Control Point (SCP) 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...including those aided by the Global Positioning System ( GPS ). The MAPSH comprises the Dynamic Reference Unit Hybrid (DRUH), a Precision Lightweight
Leland, T. J.; Mcgehee, J. R.; Dreher, R. C.
Solutions to various landing problems were obtained through unconventional systems. The first, of these is the air cushion landing system, where efforts were concentrated on development of adequate braking and steering systems and an improved understanding of scaling laws and behavior. The second was concentrated on use of a wire brush skid as a drag producing device, which was shown to have good friction coefficients and reasonable wear rates at ground bearing pressures up to 689 kPa and forward speeds up to 80 km/hr. The third showed great promise in an active control landing gear where significant load reductions were possible during landing impact and subsequent rollout.
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....
Steltzner, Adam; Desai, Prasun; Lee, Wayne; Bruno, Robin
The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) project, the next United States mission to the surface of Mars, uses aerodynamic decelerators in during its entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase. These two identical missions (MER-A and MER-B), which deliver NASA s largest mobile science suite to date to the surface of Mars, employ hypersonic entry with an ablative energy dissipating aeroshell, a supersonic/subsonic disk-gap-band parachute and an airbag landing system within EDL. This paper gives an overview of the MER EDL system and speaks to some of the challenges faced by the various aerodynamic decelerators.
Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S. V.; Mocko, D. M.; Tian, Y.
Advancements in both land surface models (LSM) and land surface data assimilation, especially over the last decade, have substantially advanced the ability of land data assimilation systems (LDAS) to estimate evapotranspiration (ET). This article provides a historical perspective on international LSM intercomparison efforts and the development of LDAS systems, both of which have improved LSM ET skill. In addition, an assessment of ET estimates for current LDAS systems is provided along with current research that demonstrates improvement in LSM ET estimates due to assimilating satellite-based soil moisture products. Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System, we assimilate both NASA and Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) soil moisture products into the Noah LSM Version 3.2 with the North American LDAS phase 2 (NLDAS-2) forcing to mimic the NLDAS-2 configuration. Through comparisons with two global reference ET products, one based on interpolated flux tower data and one from a new satellite ET algorithm, over the NLDAS2 domain, we demonstrate improvement in ET estimates only when assimilating the LPRM soil moisture product.
Golombek, M. P.
Prior to the landing of Mars Pathfinder, the size-frequency distribution of rocks from the two Viking landing sites and Earth analog surfaces was used to derive a size-frequency model, for nomimal rock distributions on Mars. This work, coupled with extensive testing of the Pathfinder airbag landing system, allowed an estimate of what total rock abundances derived from thermal differencing techniques could be considered safe for landing. Predictions based on this model proved largely correct at predicting the size-frequency distribution of rocks at the Mars Pathfinder site and the fraction of potentially hazardous rocks. In this abstract, extreme rock distributions observed in Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images are compared with those observed at the three landing sites and model distributions as an additional constraint on potentially hazardous surfaces on Mars.
An overview of existing and planned land mobile satellite communications systems and services is given. Operational and planned global systems such as Inmarsat, Iridium, and Globalstar, are highlighted, and the main technical details are listed. European and U.S. concepts are discussed. Applications for land mobile satellite communications are addressed, such as fleet management and global personal communications. The main technological challenges which are important for the future development of mobile communications, such as efficient use of spectrum, use of higher frequency bands, processing satellites with multiple beams, and suitable satellite orbits, are identified.
Lokos, William A.; Miller, Eric J.; Hudson, Larry D.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Neufeld, David C.; Haraguchi, Ronnie
This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain-gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three airbags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead-weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 lb. Twenty-six load cases were applied with the aircraft resting on its landing gear, and 16 load cases were performed with the aircraft supported by the nose gear and three airbags around the center of gravity. Maximum wing tip deflection reached 17 inches. An assortment of 2, 3, 4, and 5 strain-gage load equations were derived and evaluated against independent check cases. The better load equations had root mean square errors less than 1 percent. Test techniques and lessons learned are discussed.
White, R.K. ); Jantrania, A.
Municipal Sludge Land Application expert System (MuSLAXS)is as expert system developed for site assessment and design analysis of municipal sludge application on agricultural land. The system has knowledge on the technical and regulatory aspects of sludge land application and understanding of soil-plant systems for South Carolina. It can be effectively used outside South Carolina with modifications to incorporate specific regulations on land treatment and soil and crop database. A database supports this expert system and provides appropriate default values for sludge and soil characteristics, and fertilizer recommendations for crops commonly grown in South Carolina. Information on the sludge characteristics is gathered from the user, if it is available, or it is retrieved from the sludge database. Based on the recommendations by the EPA and the expert, a list of 22 constituents, for which the sludge should be analyzed is developed. This list includes: total solids, volatile solids, total nitrogen (TNK), ammonia-nitrogen, organic-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, PCBs, calcium, magnesium, chromium, boron, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and molybdenum.
West, R. B.
A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.
Ma, Jianting; Shao, Huajiang; Lu, Xingren; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Guanger
Background: Balloon bionic midwifery has been applied in clinical obstetrics in China for 10 years, although played a certain role in controlling and improving the quality of obstetrics and caesarean section rate, but some questions have not been resolved. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of airbag midwifery. Materials and Methods: Primiparas (2410 cases) with various medical conditions were randomly divided into airbag and control groups undergoing the same obstetrical treatments, but airbag midwifery as a birthing option was chosen twice when the cervix was dilated to 2-4 cm during labor. Results: The duration of the first and second stages, as well as the total delivery process, of the airbag group was shorter than that for the controls. The natural delivery rate of the airbag group was higher than that of the control group. The forcep delivery rate, cesarean section rate, amount of vaginal bleeding within 2 h after delivery, rate of postpartum hemorrhage, fetal distress, and pitocin use in the airbag group were all lower than those in the control group. No significant difference in the rate of maternal and fetal complications was observed in the two groups. The bionic airbag midwifery approach did not contribute to the incidence rate of urine retention, leukocyte count, neutrophil proportion, and level of creactive protein and IL-6 24 h after delivery. Conclusion: Airbag midwifery skill is a simple, effective, and safe procedure. PMID:25246932
Slater, P. N.
Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.
Kent, John D. B.
The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.
... remain open to such forms of disposition as may by law be made of National Forest System land and to... public land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease, license, or permit, or... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for...
Mahjoory, R. A.
Worldwide arid soils such as Latterites from African Savannas to the Xeralfs and Xererts of the Mediterranean Basin Ortents and Orthids of Asian Deserts are uniquely different in their strategic roles for utilizing the land in places where a delicate balance between annual climatic cycles and general trends toward desertification predominate Arid lands cover 1 3 of global land surface and contain irreplaceable natural resources with potential productivity of meeting the demands of more than two billion people and serving as sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 to combat global warming The soil system in these arid areas are being degraded underutilized and kept in a stage of obliviousness due to inadequate public literacy and most importantly in-sufficient scientific evaluations based on pedology and soil taxonomy standards Implementation of food security projects and sustainable development programs on randomly selected sites and assessment of land degradation worldwide by powerful computers and satellite imagery techniques without field work and identification of Representative Soil Units are data producing and grant attracting but counter productive We live in a world in which there is an order out there and things are precisely measured and categorized for efficient utilization Why not the soils mainly in arid areas How we could generalize the world of soils under our feet by concept of soils are the same Expansion of educational programs quantification of multiple ecosystems within the arid regions through detailed and correlated
Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.
The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.
... general land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease, license, or permit, or... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud Campground; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public...
Khouzam, Rami N; Al-Mawed, Saleem; Farah, Victor; Mizeracki, Adam
Airbags have been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle accidents when used in conjunction with seat belts. Airbag deployment alone however, has recently been implicated as a cause of significant thoracic injuries to unrestrained drivers. Resulting injuries include major cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. Airbags provide safety to occupants of cars and reduce mortality by 25%-30%. When not used in accordance with international standards, however, they can cause serious injury. We searched online databases from 1970 to January 2013 and included 17 retrospective studies, 12 systematic review articles, 18 case reports, 5 prospective studies, 1 lab study, 3 cohort studies, and 1 meta-analysis. Outcomes included clinical/functional response, left ventricular remodelling, hospitalizations, and mortality. Physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for injury when evaluating drivers who were not wearing seat belts when airbags deployed, regardless of the speed of the collision, because increased risk of thoracic injury with airbags has been described in the literature. Our review indicates that even new technology, specifically the side air bag, has been associated with a risk of thoracic injury. Considering that regulations are a driving force for airbag technology, further research and scrutiny by medical teams is needed to consider the effects of airbag technology advancements on morbidity and mortality rates of car accidents, to help in guiding further improvement, and to help lawmakers in implementing rules that protect the safety of occupants.
Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030981. Contact email@example.com
Gordon, Douglas; Hollaren, Douglas; Huewe, Laurie
The Land Analysis System (LAS) display modules were developed to allow a user to interactively display, manipulate, and store image and image related data. To help accomplish this task, these modules utilize the Transportable Applications Executive and the Display Management System software to interact with the user and the display device. The basic characteristics of a display are outlined and some of the major modifications and additions made to the display management software are discussed. Finally, all available LAS display modules are listed along with a short description of each.
Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.
An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.
Henderson, F. B., III
The principal industrial users of land observation satellite systems are the geological industries; oil/gas, mining, and engineering/environmental companies. The primary system used is LANDSAT/MSS. Currently, use is also being made of the limited amounts of SKYLAB photography, SEASAT and SIR-A radar, and the new LANDSAT/TM data available. Although considered experimental, LANDSAT data is now used operationally by several hundred exploration and engineering companies worldwide as a vastly improved geological mapping tool to help direct more expensive geophysical and drilling phases, leading to more efficient decision-making and results. Future needs include global LANDSAT/TM; higher spatial resolution; stereo and radar; improved data handling, processing distribution and archiving systems, and integrated geographical information systems (GIS). For a promising future, governments must provide overall continuity (government and/or private sector) of such systems, insure continued government R and D, and commit to operating internationally under the civil Open Skies policy.
The system design objective is to provide a satellite link through a gateway station, connecting mobile users in areas not served by a terrestrial cellular system to the switched telephone network (STN). The proposed frequency allocation comprises a pair of 10-MHz bands in the 806-890 MHz range specified by the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC) for land-mobile satellite service (LMSS). The satellite design is constrained by projected STS capability with an upper stage of the wide-body Centaur or Integral Propulsion System (IPS) type. For the latter (a TRW design), the payload is limited to approximately 10,400 lb. The design is to be based on 1990's technology, with initial operating capability scheduled for 1995. The satellite should be designed for a 7-year life. Mobile-unit compatibility with cellular system specifications is desirable, if consistent with other system requirements.
A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.
A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM .... ......... J-1 APPENDIX K: FRESNEL LENS OPTICAL LANDING SYSTEM .. ......... K-I APPENDIX L: PILOT ACLS RATINGS...surface elements of the ACLS consist of the AN/SPN-42A Landing Control Central with the AN/SPN-41 Instrument Landing System and Fresnel Lens Optical...radar antennas. c. The Fresnel lens calibration pole and three hand held radios be provided. d. Instrumentation seivicing and recording playback
Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)
The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.
Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)
The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.
A new direction for the national laboratories is to assist US business with research and development, primarily through cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs). Technology transfer to the private sector has been very successful as over 200 CRADAs are in place at Sandia. Because of these cooperative efforts, technology has evolved into some new areas not commonly associated with the former mission of the national laboratories. An example of this is the analysis of fabric structures. Explicit analyses and expertise in constructing parachutes led to the development of a next generation automobile airbag; which led to the construction, testing, and analysis of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mars Environmental Survey Lander; and finally led to the development of CAD based custom garment designs using 3D scanned images of the human body. The structural analysis of these fabric structures is described as well as a more traditional example Sandia with the test/analysis correlation of the impact of a weapon container.
This view from the lander was imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A deflated airbag is at the bottom of the image. At the extreme right, the Atmospheric Structure Instrument and Meteorology package (ASI/MET)mast, with its three windsocks, is visible.are at the bottom right of the image.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.
Taylor, Richard L.
This article describes a joint effort of the FAA, NASA and the Helicopter Industry to establish a data base for (Microwave Landing Systems) MLS approaches, and to aid the FAA in developing the MLS Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) criteria for rotary-wing IFR operations. The latter is of particular importance for it appears to signal sincere official interest in filling in the blanks in Chapter 11 of TERPS -- that portion set aside for helicopter IFR operations and recognition of the unique capabilities of the helicopter in the instrument environment. One of the program objectives is to find out what a sample of pilots can do with the MLS in a minimum machine.
Quirk, Bruce K.; Olseson, Lyndon R.
The Land Analysis System (LAS) is a fully integrated digital analysis system designed to support remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems research. LAS is being developed through a cooperative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center and the U. S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. LAS has over 275 analysis modules capable to performing input and output, radiometric correction, geometric registration, signal processing, logical operations, data transformation, classification, spatial analysis, nominal filtering, conversion between raster and vector data types, and display manipulation of image and ancillary data. LAS is currently implant using the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). While TAE was designed primarily to be transportable, it still provides the necessary components for a standard user interface, terminal handling, input and output services, display management, and intersystem communications. With TAE the analyst uses the same interface to the processing modules regardless of the host computer or operating system. LAS was originally implemented at EROS on a Digital Equipment Corporation computer system under the Virtual Memorial System operating system with DeAnza displays and is presently being converted to run on a Gould Power Node and Sun workstation under the Berkeley System Distribution UNIX operating system.
Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen
The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.
Golden, C. T.; Lackey, J. A.; Spear, E. E.
Configurations for a Land Mobile Satellite System Spacecraft are discussed. It is a preliminary concept of a quad aperture reflector spacecraft capable of relaying radio messages to land mobile units throughout the United States.
Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included.
Natural landscape is always subject to dynamic change, leaving characteristic patterns at various time scales. Noticeable patterns, ranging from meandering to fractal characteristics of river networks, have been investigated with physical modeling, mathematical modeling, and other manners. One revolutionary idea to foster holistic understanding of landscape evolution is the optimality concept. There have been several optimality hypotheses proposed for different types of landforms. However, none of them seems fully verified (Paik, 2012). It has been argued that lack of feedbacks between different processes into account is critical limitation of present optimality hypotheses (Paik and Kumar, 2010). In this regards, this study presents how optimality context to be formulated for a clear case where strong feedbacks are exchanged during co-evolution, i.e. land-atmosphere system. While most landscape evolution models, either physical, numerical, or optimality-based, assume simple spatio-temporal variability in climate forcing (e.g., rainfall), climatic field evolves together with landscape in reality. For example, orographic precipitation is enhanced as tectonic uplift continues. Accordingly, landscape and atmosphere are closely linked and we should look at them as a single system, rather than separated individuals. In this presentation, limitation of existing optimality hypotheses will be demonstrated with examples of coupled evolution of land-atmosphere system. Fundamental implications for general optimality concept for evolutionary direction of the coupled system will be discussed. Keywords: Optimal channel network; Landscape evolution; Orographic rainfall References Paik, K. and P. Kumar (2010) Optimality approaches to describe characteristic fluvial patterns on landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Vol.365, No.1545, pp.1387-1395, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0303. Paik, K. (2012) Search for the optimality signature of river
Kaloshin, G A; Matvienko, G G; Shishkin, S A; Anisimov, V I; Butuzov, V V; Zhukov, V V; Stolyarov, G V; Pasyuk, V P
We present calculations of the efficiency of the laser landing system (LLS), based on determining the minimum required fluxes of scattered radiation from fixed extended landmarks (FELs), which are LLS indicators in the case of visual FEL detection under real operation conditions. It is shown that, when the meteorological visibility range Sm=800 m, for reliable detection of laser beams from the glissade slope group at ranges L∼1.0-1.6 km under nighttime conditions, the minimum required powers are Pmin=0.5 W for λ=0.52 and 0.64 μm, given deviations from the glissade path by the angle ϕ=0°-5°. The green and red rays are visible at distances L=1-1.2 km under twilight conditions. Our calculations corroborated the possibility of creating a new-generation laser-based LLS capable of ensuring aircraft landing under the conditions of International Civil Aviation Organization category 1 (decision height of 60 m at the minimum visibility equal 800 m).
Devadiga, S.; Mauoka, E.; Roman, M. O.; Wolfe, R. E.; Kalb, V.; Davidson, C. C.; Ye, G.
The objective of the NASA's Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Land Science Investigator-led Processing System (Land SIPS), housed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is to produce high quality land products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to extend the Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) developed from NASA's heritage Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the EOS Terra and Aqua satellites. In this paper we will present the functional description and capabilities of the S-NPP Land SIPS, including system development phases and production schedules, timeline for processing, and delivery of land science products based on coordination with the S-NPP Land science team members. The Land SIPS processing stream is expected to be operational by December 2016, generating land products either using the NASA science team delivered algorithms, or the "best-of" science algorithms currently in operation at NASA's Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE). In addition to generating the standard land science products through processing of the NASA's VIIRS Level 0 data record, the Land SIPS processing system is also used to produce a suite of near-real time products for NASA's application community. Land SIPS will also deliver the standard products, ancillary data sets, software and supporting documentation (ATBDs) to the assigned Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) for archival and distribution. Quality assessment and validation will be an integral part of the Land SIPS processing system; the former being performed at Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) facility, while the latter under the auspices of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration & Validation (WGCV) Land Product Validation (LPV) Subgroup; adopting the best-practices and tools used to assess the quality of heritage EOS-MODIS products generated at the MODIS Adaptive Processing
... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD06 National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives AGENCY: Forest...) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent... land management plans for units of the NFS. Public comment is invited and will be considered...
Shi, Lijian; Wang, Yongsheng; Wu, Dewei; Zhao, Xiubin
This paper puts forward a new type of landing system based on decimeter wave, in-depth analysis on the forming of navigation information under this system, indicates the characteristics of the landing system, and defines the main technologies; provides the approach to realize the landing system with the application of decimeter wave instruments, puts forward the methods and the simulation of the generation of navigation signal and the establishment of antenna array radiation pattern, providing the theoretical gist for the development of decimeter wave instruments landing system.
... Forest System land from location and entry under the United States mining laws for a period of 20 years... National Forest System land is hereby withdrawn from location and entry under the United States mining laws... applicability of those public land laws governing the use of National Forest System land under lease,...
The Land Information System (LIS) is a hydrologic modeling framework that integrates various community land surface models, ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable assessment and prediction of hydrologic conditions at various spatia...
Lee, Sang Joon; Jang, Young Gil; Kim, Seok; Kim, Chang Soo
Among many equipment for passenger safety, the air bag system is the most fundamental and effective device for an automobile. The inflator housing is a main part of the curtain-type air bag system, which supplies high-pressure gases in pumping up the air bag-curtain which is increasingly being adapted in deluxe cars for protecting passengers from the danger of side clash. However, flow information on the inflator housing is very limited. In this study, we measure the instantaneous velocity fields of a high-speed compressible flow issuing from the exit nozzle of an inflator housing using a dynamic PIV system. From the velocity field data measured at a high frame-rate, we evaluate the variation of the mass flow rate with time. The dynamic PIV system consists of a high-repetition Nd:YLF laser, a high-speed CMOS camera, and a delay generator. The flow images are taken at 4000 fps with synchronization of the trigger signal for inflator ignition. From the instantaneous velocity field data of flow ejecting from the airbag inflator housing at the initial stage, we can see a flow pattern of broken shock wave front and its downward propagation. The flow ejecting from the inflator housing is found to have very high velocity fluctuations, with the maximum velocity at about 700 m/s. The time duration of the high-speed flow is very short, and there is no perceptible flow after 100 ms.
Berliner, J; Athey, J; Baayoun, E; Byrnes, K; Elhagediab, A; Hultman, R; Jensen, J; Kim, A; Kostyniuk, G; Mertz, H; Prest, J; Rouhana, S; Scherer, R; Xu, L
A comparison of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old crash test dummies is presented in this paper. The performance of the dummies were compared in sixty biofidelity tests, seventy-seven static out-of-position airbag tests and sixty-three calibration tests. Various time histories and other data pertaining to accelerations, deflections, forces and moments are compared. In addition, the ease of positioning, handling, and the durability of the dummies in various out-of-position test configurations was assessed. Both the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were calibrated to their respective specifications. The Hybrid III 3-year-old met its calibration requirements, while the Q3 did not always meet its own calibration requirements. The calibration specifications of the Q3 dummy need to be re-examined and possibly refined. The biofidelity of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were evaluated in both frontal and lateral test modes. Each dummy was evaluated against its own and the other's specified requirements, when possible. In the frontal test mode, the Hybrid III 3-year-old acceptably met all of its requirements. The Q3 dummy did not meet all of its own frontal biofidelity requirements. Based on these results, the Hybrid III 3-year-old is more biofidelic for primarily frontal loading conditions. With respect to the lateral biofidelity specifications, neither the Hybrid III 3-year-old nor the Q3 dummy met the requirements for the thorax and pelvis tests performed. Both dummies met the head drop requirements. Neither dummy is recommended for lateral loading conditions. For lateral testing where only the head is impacted, the Hybrid III 3-year-old could be used. In general, the responses of both dummies were repeatable in both the frontal and lateral biofidelity tests performed. The Hybrid III 3-year-old and the Q3 dummies were evaluated in static out-of-position airbag tests with three different side airbag systems (two seat-mounted and one door-mounted system), and
Tsugai, Masahiro; Hirata, Yoshiaki; Tanimoto, Koji; Usami, Teruo; Araki, Toru; Otani, Hiroshi
A bulk micromachined capacitive accelerometer for airbag applications based on (110) silicon anisotropic KOH etching is presented. The sensor is a two-chip accelerometer that consists of a glass-silicon-glass stacked sense element and an interface ASIC containing an impedance converter for capacitance detection, an EPROM and DACs for digital trimming, and a self-test feature for diagnosis. A simple switched-capacitor readout circuit with DC offset error cancellation scheme is proposed as the impedance converter. The dependence of narrow gap etching, surface roughness, and uniformity of the groove depth on the KOH concentration are also investigated for the fabrication of the device, and it is shown that the etch rate of the plane intrinsically controls the depth of the narrow gap with a KOH concentration of over 30 wt. percent, and smooth surface and uniformity of groove depth are obtained at 40 wt. percent KOH. The nonlinearity of the output is about 1.5 percent FS. The temperature coefficient of sensitivity and the off-axis sensitivity are 150 ppm/degree C and 2 percent respectively. The dimensions of the sensor are 10.3 X 10.3 X 3 mm.
DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita
NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission
Munroe, D. K.
Scholars are now studying land systems in a global context using such concepts as "telecoupling." Research to date has recognized that local land systems may be undermined by globalization, and local people displaced. The land change community emphasizes the ways in which local people make decisions about natural resources given the opportunities and constraints that globalization presents. This talk will present a summary of current land systems science research in agribusiness, global trade and financial institutions, highlighting key ways in which sustainability measures can capture the effects of these actors and activities.
Houser, Paul R.
Assimilation of remotely sensed land surface observations into regional to global scale numerical models have the potential to significantly advance our ability, to assess, understand, and predict surface water, energy, and carbon cycles. This session seeks to assess the state-of-the-art in data assimilation methods for integrating land surface remote sensing and modeling, with a focus on practical applications and techniques. Assimilated land surface variables of interest include (but are not limited to, soil moisture, surface temperature, snowpack, streamflow, vegetation dynamics, and carbon storage. Contributions describing the development of practical land surface data assimilation methods, multivariate land surface data assimilation strategies, evaluation of the required accuracy and resolution of remote sensing observations, the effects of scale, process complexity, and uncertainty on data assimilation, and the optimal treatment of model and observation errors are encouraged.
Landini, A. J.
The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.
Zhang, Zhe; Sun, Hong-bin; Luo, Ji-huai; Wei, Shu-guang; Li, Sheng-bin
In the criminal cases of driving under the influence (DUI), DNA evidence can be collected from the deployed airbag of the motor vehicle and submitted to the crime lab for touch DNA analysis. The evidence can be acquired when the skin cells are observed on the surface of the airbag in a traffic accident. However, the low quantity or quality of the evidence collected from a crime scene prevents further identification analysis in many cases. In the current study, we reported a case of identifying touch DNA extraction from the shed skin cells from the deployed airbag of a motor vehicle. We managed to collect DNA evidence from the shed skin cells in an airbag using a proper approach of collection and extraction. The 5.87 ng of extracted DNA was sufficient for genotyping and forensic identification, which helped to identify the driver of the car in collision with a pier in the street. In DUI cases and other traffic accidents, therefore, the amount of touch DNA extracted from the deployed airbag can be sufficient for DNA marker genotyping and further analysis.
... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the..., Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order withdraws 183.46 acres of National Forest System... one of the few remaining stands of old- growth western red cedar trees in the Settler's Grove...
Weber, W. J., III
The large size of the UHF antenna on the satellite provides two advantages with respect to the Land Mobile Satellite System design. It provides tremendous gain for both transmitting and receiving at the satellite and enables very simple, low power equipment in the mobile vehicle. The UHF antenna for this study was selected to have an aperture of 55 meters. This implies a beamwidth of roughly 0.45 degree and requires 87 beams to cover the continental United States.
Avissar, R.; Werth, D.
Teleconnections in the land-atmosphere system are investigated with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies global climate model. Deforestation of the Amazon is used as an example to illustrate their extent and magnitude. An ensemble of six control simulations is compared to a group of six deforested simulations. The deforestation effect in the Amazon is strong, with reductions in precipitation, evapotranspiration, and cloudiness. A noticeable impact in several other regions of the world is also detected, several of which show a reduction in rainy season precipitation that exhibits a high signal-to-noise ratio (determined by the t-statistic). To determine the significance of the deforestation signal, several ``false" ensembles, combining control and deforested members randomly, are created for comparison to the actual ``true" ensemble. This type of analysis is useful for verifying the significance of a purported effect. The globally-averaged precipitation deficits for the true ensemble are generally high compared to the false ensembles. Furthermore, changes in the Amazon due to the deforestation correlate significantly with remote changes in several areas. This suggests that the Amazon deforestation is producing a detectable signal throughout the Earth, and this finding underscores the importance of human activity in that region.
NASA's Land Information System (LIS; lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed over the past decade with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS features a high performance and flexible design, and operates on an ensemble of land surface models for extension over user-specified regional or global domains. The extensible interfaces of LIS allow the incorporation of new domains, land surface models (LSMs), land surface parameters, meteorological inputs, data assimilation and optimization algorithms. In addition, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation and uncertainty estimation, and has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. A visiting fellowship is currently underway to implement JULES into LIS and to undertake some fundamental science on the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. An overview of the LIS system, features, and sample results will be presented in an effort to engage the community in the potential advantages of LIS-JULES for a range of applications. Ongoing efforts to develop a framework for diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling will also be presented using the suite of LSM and PBL schemes available in LIS and WRF along with observations from the U. S .. Southern Great Plains. This methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which will serve as a testbed for future experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.
Potula, S R; Solanki, K N; Oglesby, D L; Tschopp, M A; Bhatia, M A
The objective of this research is to elucidate the effect of side curtain airbag deployment on occupant injuries and safety when the occupant is either in-position or out-of-position (OOP). We used side impact vehicle collision simulations with a 1996 Dodge Neon model, which was further modified to include a side curtain airbag, a seatbelt, and a 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy. The airbag used in the study was inflated using both the uniform pressure (UP) and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods. In-position and OOP simulations were performed to assess and establish guidelines for airbag aggressivity thresholds and occupant position versus risk of injury. Three different OOP scenarios (OOP1, OOP2, OOP3) were initially setup following the work of Lund (2003), then modified such that the dummy's head was closer to the airbag, increasing the chance of injury caused by the airbag. The resultant head acceleration as a function of time for in-position and OOP simulations shows that both UP and SPH methods produce similar peak accelerations in cases where the airbag is fully inflated prior to impact. In all cases, the head peak accelerations and the head injury criteria for simulations with an airbag were significantly lower when compared with the no airbag case, which would typically indicate that the use of an airbag results in improved occupant protection during side impact. However, in the case of OOP2 and OOP3, the neck flexion forces actually increase significantly when compared with the no airbag case. This finding indicates that the HIC and neck flexion forces criterion are in conflict and that there may be a tradeoff in terms of occupant injury/safety with a side curtain airbag that is strongly correlated to the occupant position. Consequently, this study shows that safety devices result in a significant effect on occupant injury/safety when the occupant is in OOP conditions. Moreover, in some cases, simulation results show that the side curtain airbag
Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.
The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.
Fuhrman, Linda; Brand, Timothy; Fill, Tom; Norris, Lee; Paschall, Steve
The top-level architecture to accomplish NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is to use Lunar missions and systems not just as an end in themselves, but also as testbeds for the more ambitious goals of Human Mars Exploration (HME). This approach means that Lunar missions and systems are most likely going to be targeted for (Lunar) polar missions, and also for long-duration (months) surface stays. This overacting theme creates basic top-level requirements for any next-generation lander system: 1) Long duration stays: a) Multiple landers in close proximity; b) Pinpoint landings for "surface rendezvous"; c) Autonomous landing of pre-positioned assets; and d) Autonomous Hazard Detection and Avoidance. 2) Polar and deep-crater landings (dark); 3) Common/extensible systems for Moon and Mars, crew and cargo. These requirements pose challenging technology and capability needs. Compare and contrast: 4) Apollo: a) 1 km landing accuracy; b) Lunar near-side (well imaged and direct-to-Earth com. possible); c) Lunar equatorial (landing trajectories offer best navigation support from Earth); d) Limited lighting conditions; e) Significant ground-in-the-loop operations; 5) Lunar Access: a) 10-100m landing precision; b) "Anywhere" access includes polar (potentially poor nav. support from Earth) and far side (poor gravity and imaging; no direct-to-Earth com); c) "Anytime" access includes any lighting condition (including dark); d) Full autonomous landing capability; e) Extensible design for tele-operation or operator-in-the-loop; and f) Minimal ground support to reduce operations costs. The Lunar Access program objectives, therefore, are to: a) Develop a baseline Lunar Precision Landing System (PLS) design to enable pinpoint "anywhere, anytime" landings; b) landing precision 10m-100m; c) Any LAT, LON; and d) Any lighting condition; This paper will characterize basic features of the next generation Lunar landing system, including trajectory types, sensor suite options and a reference
Combatting land degradation, promoting restoration and adapting to climate change all require an understanding of land potential. A global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) is being developed that will address many of these limitations using an open source approach designed to allow anyone w...
Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.
This study characterized thoracoabdominal response to posterolateral loading from a seat-mounted side airbag. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subjects were exposed to ten airbag deployments. Subjects were positioned such that the deploying airbag first contacted the posterolateral thorax between T6 and L1 while stationary (n = 3 × 2 aspects) or while subjected to left lateral sled impact at ΔV = 6.7 m/s (n = 4). Chestband contours were analyzed to quantify deformation direction in the thoracic x–y plane (zero degrees indicating anterior and 180° indicating posterior), magnitude, rate, and viscous response. Skeletal injuries were consistent with posterolateral contact; visceral injuries consisted of renal (n = 1) or splenic (n = 3) lacerations. Deformation direction was transient during sled impact, progressing from 122 ± 5° at deformation onset to 90° following maximum deflection. Angles from stationary subjects progressed from 141 ± 9° to 120°. Peak normalized deflections, peak rates, and VCmax ranges were 0.075 – 0.171, 3.7 – 12.7 m/s, and 0.3 – 0.6 m/s with stationary airbag, respectively; ranges were 0.167 – 0.297, 7.4 – 18.3 m/s, and 0.7 – 3.0 m/s with airbag sled impact, respectively. Peak deflections were measured at angles between 99° – 135° and 98° – 125° for stationary and dynamic conditions, respectively. Because of deflection angle transience and localized injury response, both posterolateral and lateral injury metrics may be required for this boundary condition. Contrasted with flat rigid or anterolateral loading, biomechanical response to side airbag interaction may be augmented by peak normalized deflection or VCmax at 130°. PMID:21512911
Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N
This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management.
...,776 acres of public and National Forest System lands from location and entry under the 1872 Mining Law... alter the applicability of the public land laws other than the 1872 Mining Law (30 U.S.C. 22 et seq.). 3... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National...
Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estimat...
Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estima...
The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.
Restraints, Airbags or other protection systems) to mitigate injury to the occupant during the onset of the event. Injuries may occur as soon as 2.5 ms...cost-effective sensor to accurately and consistently deploy airbags and other pyrotechnic restraint systems based on accelerometers and other...Circuitry are critically important in order to activate the initiators of air bags and pyrotechnic restraint system such as airbags at the very first
Peters-Lidard, Christa D.
The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite-and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected as a co-winner of NASA?s 2005 Software of the Year award.LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has e volved from two earlier efforts -- North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations.In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling
Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Reichle, Rolf H.
The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov; Kumar et al., 2006; Peters- Lidard et al.,2007) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected ase co-winner of NASA's 2005 Software of the Year award. LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has evolved from two earlier efforts North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS; Rodell al. 2004) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations. In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by
Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho
The aims of this study are to report a blowout fracture of the orbital floor and medial wall caused by being struck by a steering wheel knob of an automobile and to discuss the use of airbags and seatbelts as a preventive measure for orbital injuries. A 58-year-old man was struck in the left eye by a steering wheel. His car hit a telephone pole, and he had a frontal collision injury. In this frontal impact, his left eye was hit by a Brodie knob attached to the steering wheel. At the time of injury, the speed of the car was about 65 km/h. He was not wearing a seatbelt, and the airbag had not deployed. Swelling and ecchymosis were observed at the left periorbital area, and he had diplopia on a left-side gaze. A CT revealed fractures in the medial and inferior wall of the left orbit. Entrapped soft tissues were reduced, and the medial wall and floor were reconstructed with a resorbable sheet. His diplopia disappeared 12 days after surgery. To prevent the injury from the steering wheel knob, an airbag should be installed in any vehicle, which has a steering wheel knob. Legislation mandating the use of airbags as well as seatbelts in vehicles with attached steering wheel knobs should be made.
Marklund, P.-O.; Nilsson, L.
This paper explores simulation techniques for airbag inflation problems using a coupled fluid structure approach. It is to be seen as an initial study on the phenomena occurring in an airbag during a so called out of position occupant impact. The problem studied in this paper is an airbag which is set to impact a head form. The head form is positioned at a very short distance from the airbag. A multi material arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian technique in the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA is used for the fluid and it is coupled to the structure using a penalty based fluid structure contact algorithm. The results for the head form acceleration and velocity show a good agreement to experimentally obtained values. At the early stages of the inflation process a high pressure zone is found to develop between the gas inlet and the head form. Consequently the pressure difference between the inlet and the high pressure zone is too low for an a priori assumption of sonic flow at the inlet, which is a common requirement in the control volume models used in the industry today.
A discussion is given of the behavior of the shock-absorbing system, consisting of elastic struts and tires, under landing, take-off, and taxying conditions, and a general formula derived for obtaining the minimum stroke required to satisfy the conditions imposed on the landing gear. Finally, the operation of some typical shock-absorbing systems are examined and the necessity brought out for taking into account, in dynamic landing-gear tests, the effect of the wing lift at the instant of contact with the ground.
Depending on the different sink speeds, angles of attack and masses; aircraft landing gears could face a wide range of impact conditions which may possibly cause structural damage or failure. Thus, in hard landing scenarios, the landing gear must absorb sufficient energy in order to minimize dynamic stress on the aircraft airframe. Semi-active control systems are the recent potential solutions to overcome these limitations. Among semi-active control strategies, those based on smart fluids such as magneto-rheological (MR) fluids have received recent attraction as their rheological properties can be continuously controlled using magnetic or electric field and they are not sensitive to the contaminants and the temperature variation and also require lower powers. This thesis focuses on modeling of a MR damper for landing gear system and analysis of semi-active controller to attenuate dynamic load and landing impact. First, passive landing gear of a Navy aircraft is modeled and the forces associated with the shock strut are formulated. The passive shock strut is then integrated with a MR valve to design MR shock strut. Here, MR shock strut is integrated with the landing gear system modeled as the 2DOF system and governing equations of motion are derived in order to simulate the dynamics of the system under different impact conditions. Subsequently the inverse model of the MR shock strut relating MR yield stress to the MR shock strut force and strut velocity is formulated. Using the developed governing equations and inverse model, a PID controller is formulated to reduce the acceleration of the system. Controlled performance of the simulated MR landing gear system is demonstrated and compared with that of passive system.
Prasad, Priya; Schneider, Lawrence W; Hardy, Warren N
The objectives of this study were to examine the response, repeatability, and injury predictive ability of the Hybrid III small-female dummy to static out-of-position (OOP) deployments using a depowered driver-side airbag. Five dummy tests were conducted in two OOP configurations by two different laboratories. The OOP configurations were nose-on-rim (NOR) and chest-on-bag (COB). Four cadaver tests were conducted using unembalmed small-female cadavers and the same airbags used in the dummy tests under similar OOP conditions. One cadaver test was designed to increase airbag loading of the face and neck (a forehead-on-rim, or FOR test). Comparison between the dummy tests of Lab 1 and of Lab 2 indicated the test conditions and results were repeatable. In the cadaver tests no skull fractures or neck injuries occurred. However, all four cadavers had multiple rib fractures. These results suggested that an older, osteoporatic, small-female driver would experience AIS > or = 3 thoracic injury if exposed to this type of depowered airbag inflation for the three positions tested, but would be unlikely to experience any head or neck injury. The cadaver results provided no information about the possibility of AIS > or = 3 rib fractures for the average small, female driver. The Hybrid III small-female dummy results suggest that a low percentage (15%) of small, female drivers would experience AIS > or = 3 thoracic injuries if they had their chest on the module cover at the time of deployment of this depowered airbag. Also, for this position, the dummy results indicated a risk of an AIS = 2 neck injury for some small, female drivers. For all positions tested, the dummy results predicted that head injury was unlikely for most small-female drivers.
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...
Jiang, L.; Gu, J.; Chen, X.; You, Y.; Tang, Q.
The contradiction of land supply and demand is becoming increasingly prominent in China. The increasing efficiency of land use is an important means to resolve the conflict. We propose a scientific approach for promoting the urban intensive land use. In this paper, an evaluation system of urban intensive land use is programmed. It is designed to change the manual way of collecting index data and building index system to a dynamical way. The system improves the efficiency and accuracy of the evaluation of urban intensive land use. It achieves intensive evaluation on three scales: macro-level, medium-level and micro-level. We build two data extraction methods. One is XML-based meta-data exchange method that obtains index data from the cadastral database. Another is data monitoring method that writes the index data to the evaluation database at real time. Database technologies are used to calculate index values and build index systems dynamically. GIS technologies are use to achieve three scales evaluation of urban intensive land use.
Rodell, Matthew; Kato, Hiroko; Zaitchik, Ben
NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) produces global fields of land surface states (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) and fluxes (e.g., latent heat flux and runoff) by driving offline land surface models with observation-based inputs, using the Land Information System (LIS) software. Since production began in 2001, GLDAS has supported more than 100 scientific investigations and applications. Some examples are GEWEX and NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) global water and energy budget analyses, interpretations of hydrologic data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and forecast model initiation studies at NOAA and NASA. At the same time, the GLDAS team has continued improve results through the development of new modeling and data assimilation techniques. Here we describe several recent and ongoing innovations. These include global implementation of a runoff routing procedure, GRACE data assimilation, advanced snow cover assimilation, and irrigation modeling.
Halyo, N.; Hueschen, R. M.
This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional digital integrated automatic landing system (DIALS) for a small commercial jet transport. The system uses the Microwave Landing System (MLS), body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not require inertial platforms. The system development uses modern digital control techniques. The phases of flight considered are the localizer and glideslope capture, which may be performed simultaneously or sequentially, localizer and glideslope track (hold), crab/decrab, and flare to touchdown. The system captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes (2.5 - 5.5 deg) selected prior to glideslope capture. The results of a nonlinear simulation are presented.
Mcgee, L. A.; Foster, J. D.; Xenakis, G.
A helical-approach concept is presented for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operation of rotorcraft into congested terminal areas where separation from high-speed jet traffic is highly desirable and the airport-precision-approach aid is a Microwave Landing System (MLS). The concept takes advantage of the fact that rotorcraft need not land on the main runway but can operate from a pad that lies on an MLS radial offset from the centerline. The results of 48 flights using a UH-1H helicopter and a research avionics system are presented. Three levels of navigation sophistication were also investigated. It is shown that an approach helix can be contained in a relatively small volume and that being within the Instrument Landing System (ILS) Category II window at a 30-m (100-ft) altitude is not a requirement for a successful hover over a landing pad. Only two of the three navigation systems provided estimates that allowed all flights to descend from hover to touchdown.
The Boeing Company's mock-up CST-100 spacecraft was put through water landing development tests Oct. 1-5, 2012, at Bigelow Aerospace's headquarters outside of Las Vegas. Engineers with Bigelow have...
Prakash, Ravi; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Devin, M. Kipp; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Steltzner, Adam D.; Way, David W.
In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions.
... our national forests. ``Our best opportunity to accomplish this is in the developing of a new forest... April 9, 2012 Part II Department of Agriculture Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 National Forest System... National Forest System Land Management Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule and...
Land data assimilation systems are tasked with the merging remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven (principally) by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems is frequently degraded by the imprecise specification of parameters ...
Person, L. H., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.
Technology for advanced airborne systems and flight procedures to improve terminal-area operations in ATC environment is developed. The terminal configured vehicle (TCV) aircraft, its integrated digital electronic displays and flight controls, and how the pilot interfaces with the aircraft to fly precise curved descending approaches using Microwave Landing System (MLS) guidance are discussed.
Vorosmarty, C. J.; Lammers, R. B.
Northern Eurasia is a large and diverse region spanning land cover types from grassland/steppe to taiga forest to tundra. Understanding the interaction of these land cover types with the regional climate and hydrologic cycle is essential for understanding the system as a whole. We investigate how the northern flowing river networks over the NEESPI domain play a critical role in connecting and combining the diverse land cover types throughout the full range in latitudes which progress as far south as 45 degrees N. To provide this hydrological perspective we employ a digital river network, STN-EASE, at 25x25km grid cell resolution created specifically for high latitude hydrological analysis. The river network provides the fundamental framework for synthesis studies based on a broad suite of measures of system behavior. Along the network these deal with in-stream travel distance, river order, and hydrological contributions of major land cover types. At basin outlets these include river discharge and aggregate totals of key hydrologic variables. The taiga forests of Northern Eurasia are the dominant land cover type in the Arctic Ocean drainage of northern Eurasia. However, when viewed through the hydrological lens we find these taiga forests play an even greater role in terms of runoff generation than would be expected by area measures alone. This suggests that the northern forests are an important feature of the Arctic as well as the global climate system and a potentially important focal point in Arctic system change.
Foster, J. D.; Mcgee, L. A.; Dugan, D. C.
A program is under way to develop a data base for establishing navigation and guidance concepts for all-weather operation of rotorcraft. One of the objectives is to examine the feasibility of conducting simultaneous rotorcraft and conventional fixed-wing, noninterfering, landing operations in instrument meteorological conditions at airports equipped with microwave landing systems (MLSs) for fixed-wing traffic. An initial test program to investigate the feasibility of conducting automatic helical approaches was completed, using the MLS at Crows Landing near Ames. These tests were flown on board a UH-1H helicopter equipped with a digital automatic landing system. A total of 48 automatic approaches and landings were flown along a two-turn helical descent, tangent to the centerline of the MLS-equipped runway to determine helical light performance and to provide a data base for comparison with future flights for which the helical approach path will be located near the edge of the MLS coverage. In addition, 13 straight-in approaches were conducted. The performance with varying levels of state-estimation system sophistication was evaluated as part of the flight tests. The results indicate that helical approaches to MLS-equipped runways are feasible for rotorcraft and that the best position accuracy was obtained using the Kalman-filter state-estimation with inertial navigation systems sensors.
Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.
This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.
Wang, Dayi; Huang, Xiangyu; Guan, Yifeng
A pinpoint autonomous GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing is proposed. First, the descriptions of the mission outline for lunar soft landing are provided. Second, the GNC system design of the spacecraft is proposed. The baseline is a 3-axis stabilized system during all the phases of the mission. Orbit maneuvers are achieved by an assembled constant thrust or a throttleable main engine. The attitude control actuators are thrusters. The attitude and orbit determination is performed by sun sensors, star sensors, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), altimeter, velocimeter and lunar imaging sensors. Third, some proposed autonomous navigation and guidance methods including hazard detection and avoidance for lunar soft landing are analyzed. Finally, we draw some conclusions.
Paul, C. K.
The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) consists of a methodology of compiling land use maps by means of air photo interpretation techniques, digitizing these and other maps into machine-readable form, and numerically overlaying these various maps in two computer software routines to provide land use and natural resource data files referenced to the individual census block. The two computer routines are the Polygon Intersection Overlay System (PIOS) and an interactive graphics APL program. A block referenced file of land use, natural resources, geology, elevation, slope, and fault-line items has been created and supplied to the Los Angeles Department of City Planning for the City's portion of the Santa Monica Mountains. In addition, the interactive system contains one hundred and seventy-three socio-economic data items created by merging the Third Count U.S. Census Bureau tapes and the Los Angeles County Secured Assessor File. This data can be graphically displayed for each and every block, block group, or tract for six test tracts in Woodland Hills, California. Other benefits of LUMIS are the knowledge of air photo availability, flight pattern coverage and frequencies, and private photogrammetry companies flying Southern California, as well as a formal Delphi study of relevant land use informational needs in the Santa Monicas.
Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Hilst, F.; Faaij, A.
Cellular Automaton (CA) models of land use change are based on the assumption that the relationship between land use change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. Evaluation of the stationarity of the relationship between land use and a set of spatial attributes has been done by others (e.g., Bakker and Veldkamp, 2012). These studies, however, use logistic regression, separate from the land use change model. Therefore, they do not gain information on how to implement the spatial attributes into the model. In addition, they often compare observations for only two points in time and do not check whether the change is statistically significant. To overcome these restrictions, we assimilate a time series of observations of real land use into a land use change CA (Verstegen et al., 2012), using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the parameterization and model structure, i.e. the selection and relative importance of the drivers of location of land use change. In a case study of sugar cane expansion in Brazil, optimal model structure and parameterization were determined for each point in time for which observations were available (all years from 2004 to 2012). A systemic change, i.e. a statistically significant deviation in model structure, was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in the neighborhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model forecast uncertainty by a factor two compared to the
Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William; Boone, Arron; Mechoso, Carlos
Yongkang Xue, F. De Sales, B. Lau, A. Boone, C. R. Mechoso Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass there. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. The LSP affects the monsoon evolution through different mechanisms at different scales. It affects the surface energy balance and energy partitioning in latent and sensible heat, the atmospheric heating rate, and general circulation. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation
Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. It has also been suggested that LSP contribute to the abrupt jump in latitude of the East Asian monsoon as well as general circulation turning in some monsoon regions in its early stages. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. More comprehensive studies with multi-models are imperatively necessary.
Lebarbé, Matthieu; Potier, Pascal; Baudrit, Pascal; Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallancien, Guy
Many studies have reported multiple rib fractures sustained by an Out-of-Position (OOP) driver subjected to a frontal airbag deployment, but the injury mechanisms and thresholds remain unclear. Two successive phases occur during the bag deployment: punch-out loading of the thorax, followed by a membrane effect (Horsch et al. 1990). The aim of this study was to investigate the thoracic injuries generated by each phase separately. Tests of nine post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) were carried out on a static test bench using a driver side airbag module described by Petit et al. (2003). The steering wheel was replaced by a plate in order to increase the loading generated by the airbag. Three loading configurations were performed: membrane only, punch-out only, and both types combined. The membrane-only tests were performed with the thorax initially positioned at 13, 78 and 128 mm from the plate in order to vary the load magnitude. The punch-out and the combined tests were performed with the thorax initially 8 mm from the module. Accelerometers and angular rate sensors were fixed on the sternum and on the first, fourth, and eighth thoracic vertebrae of the PMHS. Ribs 2 to 6 were instrumented with strain gauges. The reaction force of the bag on the plate was measured using four 2-axis load cells. Results show that both pure punch-out and pure membrane loading can result in thoracic injuries. However, the rib fracture locations seemed to differ from one type of loading to the other. Moreover, for the same initial distance between the airbag module and the thorax, the injuries were more severe in the combined effect tests than in the pure punch-out or pure membrane. The nine PMHS tests formed a matrix allowing validation of a finite element model and further analysis of thoracic injury mechanisms and thresholds.
Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen
A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands within the National Park System. 3140.7 Section 3140.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands within the National Park System. 3140.7 Section 3140.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...
Cooter, E. J.
A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of Research and Development. It is populated with linked or fully coupled models that address nutrient research questions such as, "How might future policy, climate or land cover change in the Mississippi River Basin affect Nitrogen and Phosphorous loadings to the Gulf of Mexico" or, "What are the management implications of regional-scale land management changes for the sustainability of air, land and water quality?" This second question requires explicit consideration of economic (e.g. sector prices) and societal (e.g. land management) factors. Metrics that illustrate biosphere-atmosphere interactions such as atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations, atmospheric N loading to surface water, soil organic N and N percolation to groundwater are calculated. An example application has been completed that is driven by a coupled agricultural and energy sector model scenario. The economic scenario assumes that by 2022 there is: 1) no detectable change in weather patterns relative to 2002; 2) a concentration of stover processing facilities in the Upper Midwest; 3) increasing offshore Pacific and Atlantic marine transportation; and 4) increasing corn, soybean and wheat production that meets future demand for food, feed and energy feedstocks. This production goal is reached without adding or removing agricultural land area whose extent is defined by the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 2002v2011 classes 81 and 82. This goal does require, however, crop shifts and agricultural management changes. The multi-media system response over our U.S. 12km rectangular grid resolution analysis suggests that there are regions of potential environmental and health costs, as well as large areas that could experience unanticipated environmental and health
Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Lee, Wayne; Steltzner, Adam; SanMartin, Alejanhdro
System validation for a Mars entry, descent, and landing system is not simply a demonstration that the electrical system functions in the associated environments. The function of this system is its interaction with the atmospheric and surface environment. Thus, in addition to traditional test-bed, hardware-in-the-loop, testing, a validation program that confirms the environmental interaction is required. Unfortunately, it is not possible to conduct a meaningful end-to-end test of a Mars landing system on Earth. The validation plan must be constructed from an interconnected combination of simulation, analysis and test. For the Mars Exploration Rover mission, this combination of activities and the logic of how they combined to the system's validation was explicitly stated, reviewed, and tracked as part of the development plan.
FCS. There is a drive toward lean manufacturing processes throughout the industry. There is continual investment in emerging fabrication processes...inability to secure additional capital inhibits them from entering the systems integrator market. Instead UDI is pursuing lean manufacturing to cut
Bruton, Jared T; Nelson, Todd G; Zimmerman, Trent K; Fernelius, Janette D; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L
Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the 'flasher' and the 'inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.
Nelson, Todd G.; Zimmerman, Trent K.; Fernelius, Janette D.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.
Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the ‘flasher’ and the ‘inverted-cone fold’, for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver’s side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. PMID:27703707
Bruton, Jared T.; Nelson, Todd G.; Zimmerman, Trent K.; Fernelius, Janette D.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.
Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the `flasher' and the `inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.
An outline covering the history, development methodology, and major hardware/software components of the Land Analysis System (LAS) is presented. System support services including the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE), Catalog Manager, history files, and applications services are briefly described along with the general functional capabilities of the 224 available applications programs. Example interface menus are given and desired enhancements to the LAS system are listed.
Chun, J. A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Evans, J. P.; Beaudoing, H. K.
Food security can be improved by increasing the extent of agricultural land or by increasing agricultural productivity, including through intensive management such as irrigation. The objectives of this study were to incorporate practical irrigation schemes into land surface models of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) and to apply the tool to estimate the impact of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes—including evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff—in the Murray-Darling basin in Australia. Here we present results obtained using Noah Land Surface Model v3.2 within LIS without simulated irrigation (IR0) and with three irrigation simulation routines: flood irrigation (IR1), drip irrigation (IR2), and sprinkler irrigation (IR3). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation index was used to define crop growing seasons. Simulations were performed for a full year (July 2002 to June 2003) and evaluated against hydrologic flux estimates obtained in previous studies. Irrigation amounts during the growing season (August 2002 to March 2003) were simulated as 104.6, 24.6, and 188.1 GL for IR1, IR2, and IR3, respectively. These preliminary results showed water use efficiency from a drip irrigation scheme would be highest and lowest from a sprinkler irrigation scheme, with a highly optimized version of flood irrigation falling in between. Irrigation water contributed to a combination of increased evapotranspiration, runoff, and soil moisture storage in the irrigation simulations relative to IR0. Implications for water management applications and for further model development will be discussed.
ion Bxecut iwe". o Should we convert from our present acquisition management system to the "Program Manager Method "? o How can we more fully...retransmission. o Capable of sophisticated error detection ^in<] correction. o Better protect ion against electronic warfare (EW). o The capability of...voice telephone. In 1986, another secure voice telephone, the ANDVT (Advanced Narrowband Digital Voice Terminal), will extend the secure voice and data
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Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.
Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.
'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...
Machin, Ricardo A.
This slide presentation reviews NASA's work in development of landing and recovery systems for the Orion space craft. It includes a review of the available tools and skills that assist in analyzing the aerodynamic decelerators. There is a description of the work that is being done on the Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) parachutes that will be used with the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)
Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin
The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the
Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)
A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.
Irish, Dale; Shmith, Gary; Hart, Nick; Wines, Marie
Presented here is a signalling system optimized to ensure expedient call set-up for satellite telephony services in a land mobile environment. In a land mobile environment, the satellite to mobile link is subject to impairments from multipath and shadowing phenomena, which result in signal amplitude and phase variations. Multipath, caused by signal scattering and reflections, results in sufficient link margin to compensate for these variations. Direct signal attenuation caused by shadowing due to buildings and vegetation may result in attenuation values in excess of 10 dB and commonly up to 20 dB. It is not practical to provide a link with sufficient margin to enable communication when the signal is blocked. When a moving vehicle passes these obstacles, the link will experience rapid changes in signal strength due to shadowing. Using statistical models of attenuation as a function of distance travelled, a communication strategy has been defined for the land mobile environment.
Steltzner, Adam D.; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Kipp, Devin M.; Lorenzoni, Leila V.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Prakash, Ravi; Way, David W.
In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Thus, there are many design challenges that must be solved for the mission to be successful. Several pieces of the EDL design are technological firsts, such as guided entry and precision landing on another planet, as well as the entire Sky Crane maneuver. This paper discusses the MSL EDL architecture and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.
KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O'Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.
We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.
Hansen, Chris; Tsai, Ted
As a precursor to future manned missions to the moon, an inexpensive, unmanned vehicle that could carry small, scientific payloads to the lunar surface was studied by NASA. The vehicle, called the Common Lunar Lander, required extremely optimized structural systems to increase the potential payload mass. A lightweight energy-absorbing system (LAGFEAS), which also acts as a landing load-limiter was designed to help achieve this optimized structure. Since the versatile and easily tailored system is a load-limiter, it allowed for the structure to be designed independently of the ever-changing landing energy predictions. This paper describes the LAGFEAS system and preliminary verification testing performed at NASA's Johnson Space Center for the Common Lunar Lander program.
Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.
NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.
Manning, Rob; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Graves, Claude
Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description, Scope and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the HPLS. Roadmap Process and Approach. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Key Requirements. Top Level HPLS Roadmap. Capability Presentations by Leads. Mission Drivers Requirements. "AEDL" System Engineering. Communication & Navigation Systems. Hypersonic Systems. Super to Subsonic Decelerator Systems. Terminal Descent and Landing Systems. A Priori In-Situ Mars Observations. AEDL Analysis, Test and Validation Infrastructure. Capability Technical Challenges. Capability Connection Points to other Roadmaps/Crosswalks. Summary of Top Level Capability. Forward Work.
Leroy, B. E.
It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint.
Hibbard, K. A.; Skaggs, R.; Wilson, T.
Climate change affects water, and land resources, and with growing human activity, each of these sectors relies increasingly on the others for critical resources. Events such as drought across the South Central U.S. during 2011 demonstrate that climatic impacts within each of these sectors can cascade through interactions between sectors. Energy, water, and land resources are each vulnerable to impacts on either of the other two sectors. For example, energy systems inherently require land and water. Increased electricity demands to contend with climate change can impose additional burdens on overly subscribed water resources. Within this environment, energy systems compete for water with agriculture, human consumption, and other needs. In turn, climate driven changes in landscape attributes and land use affect water quality and availability as well as energy demands. Diminishing water quality and availability impose additional demands for energy to access and purify water, and for land to store and distribute water. In some situations, interactions between water, energy, and land resources make options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions vulnerable to climate change. Energy options such as solar power or biofuel use can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions as well as U.S. dependence on foreign resources. As a result, the U.S. is expanding renewable energy systems. Advanced technology such as carbon dioxide capture with biofuels may offer a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. But as with fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can impose significant demands for water and land. For example, solar power mayrequire significant land to site facilities and water for cooling or to produce steam. Raising crops to produce biofuels uses arable land and water that might otherwise be available for food production. Thus, warmer and drier climate can compromise these renewable energy resources, and drought can stress water supplies creating competition between energy
Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.
The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands
Bolten, J. D.; Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Toll, D. L.; Engman, E.; Habib, S.; Ozdogan, M.
The Arab region of the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) suffers from arid conditions, dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. These factors have nearly exhausted the existing water resources in the region and have led to a re-evaluation of water management plans and budgeting schemes between nations. In order to utilize the existing resources more efficiently, it is necessary that all nations within the MENA have access to optimal estimates of hydrological states and fluxes relevant to water resources. However, the region is poorly monitored due to trans-boundary issues and sparse in situ networks. This presentation will introduce a methodology and implementation strategy envisaged to achieve these goals through the development of a Land Data Assimilation System designed specifically for the Arab region (ALDAS). The ALDAS optimally merges available in situ data with satellite-based estimates of meteorological variables including data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) within a land surface modeling framework. As a result of this effort, a platform for data sharing among MENA nations is being prepared to provide timely regional estimates of hydrological states and fluxes at 1/8th degree resolution. To be discussed will be development and status of the land data assimilation system, and preliminary results from land surface model simulations over the region.
Thornton, C. L.; Young, L. E.; Wu, S. C.; Thomas, J. B.
An MLS (microwave landing system) certification system based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. To determine the position history of the flight inspection aircraft during runway approach, signals from the GPS satellites, together with on-board radar altimetry, are used. It is shown that the aircraft position relative to a fixed point on the runway at threshold can be determined to about 30 cm vertically and 1 m horizontally. A requirement of the system is that the GPS receivers be placed on each flight inspection aircraft and at selected ground sites. The effects of different error sources on the determination of aircraft instantaneous position and its dynamics are analyzed.
Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.
It is known from several previous investigations that many categories of land-use can be mapped via computer processing of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data. The results are presented of one such experiment using the USGS/NASA land-use classification system. Douglas County, Georgia, was chosen as the test site for this project. It was chosen primarily because of its recent rapid growth and future growth potential. Results of the investigation indicate an overall land-use mapping accuracy of 67% with higher accuracies in rural areas and lower accuracies in urban areas. It is estimated, however, that 95% of the State of Georgia could be mapped by these techniques with an accuracy of 80% to 90%.
James, Joan; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Caswell, Shane V.; Onate, James; Cortes, Nelson
Background: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be detrimental to any athlete, having both short- and long-term health consequences. Examining preseason screening landing mechanics can indicate the likelihood of injury during the season. Furthermore, previous injury is also commonly referred as a predisposing factor for reinjury. Hypothesis: Players with a history of lower extremity injury would have higher Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores than those with no previous injury, and healthy soccer athletes who sustained an injury during the 2014 season would have higher LESS scores than those who remained uninjured. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-four Division I male and female soccer athletes (19 men, 15 women; mean age, 19.6 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 172.4 ± 8.7 cm; mean weight, 70.8 ± 9.1 kg). An a priori sample size estimation for a power of 0.80 (80%) and an alpha error of 0.05 with an estimated effect size of 0.6 for a sample of 30 participants was attained. Participants performed a drop-landing task and were scored on their landing mechanics using the LESS. Lower extremity injuries were tracked during the season. LESS scores between those with and without a history of injury and those who were injured and uninjured during the season were compared using 2 separate 1-way analyses of variance. Results: No statistically significant differences (F1,33 = 0.47, P = 0.50) existed between LESS scores in athletes who had a previous injury history compared with those with no injury history. No statistically significant differences (F1,20 = 0.05, P = 0.83) existed between LESS scores in healthy athletes who were injured during the 2014 season compared with those healthy athletes who were uninjured. Conclusion: No differences were present between athletes with and without a history of lower extremity injury. The majority of healthy participants who were injured during the season had similar LESS
Crow, W. T.; Yilmaz, M. Tugrul
Land data assimilation systems are commonly tasked with merging remotely sensed surface soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems can be degraded by the incorrect specification of parameters describing modeling and observation errors. Here the Auto-Tuned Land Data Assimilation System (ATLAS) is introduced to simultaneously solve for all parameters required for the application of a simple land data assimilation system to integrate satellite-based rainfall and soil moisture retrievals for drought monitoring applications. The approach is based on combining a triple collocation (TC) strategy with the statistical analysis of filtering innovations and designed to leverage the simultaneous availability of satellite-based soil moisture products acquired from both active and passive microwave remote sensing. A number of variants of the ATLAS approach—each based on a different strategy for leveraging TC and innovation analysis within an adaptive filtering framework—are derived and evaluated through a synthetic twin experiment. In addition, a preliminary real data analysis is conducted using actual satellite-based products and evaluated against independent ground-based observations. Results illustrate the potential of ATLAS to improve the analysis of soil moisture anomalies using data products derived from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and the NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive missions.
Humans have been fascinated with the idea of exploring Mars since the very beginning of the space age. Largely due to the belief that life may have at one time existed in some form, surface exploration has been the ultimate ambition of this exploration. Unfortunately engineers and scientists discovered early on that landing a spacecraft on the surface of Mars was to become one of the most difficult and treacherous challenges of robotic space exploration. At arrival to Mars, a spacecraft will be traveling at velocities between 4 and 7 km/s. 100% of this kinetic energy (KE) must be safely removed for a lander to deliver its payload to the surface. Fortunately Mars has an atmosphere substantial enough to allow the combination of a high drag heatshield and a parachute to remove 99% and 0.98% respectively of this kinetic energy. Unfortunately the atmosphere is not substantial enough to bring a lander to a safe touchdown. This means that an additional landing system is required to remove the remaining kinetic energy. On all previous successful missions the landing system has consisted of 2 major elements, a propulsion subsystem to remove an additional 0.002% (approx.50 - 100 m/s ) of the original KE and a final dedicated touchdown system. The first generation Mars landers used legs to accomplish touchdown. The second generation of Mars lander touchdown systems used airbags to mitigate the last few meters per second of residual velocity. NASA is currently developing a third generation landing system in an effort to reduce cost, mass and risk while simultaneously increasing performance as measured by payload fraction to the surface and accessible terrain roughness.
McAllister, William K.
One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they
... States mining laws for a period of 20 years on behalf of the United States Forest Service to protect the...-775-6257. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Forest Service will manage the land to protect... made of National Forest System land, to protect the Inyan Kara area of the Black Hills National...
Wyatt, J. Matney
Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.
Lapola, David M.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Ferreira, Manuel E.; Nobre, Carlos A.; Aguiar, Ana Paula D.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Costa, Marcos H.; Joly, Carlos A.; Leite, Christiane C.; Moutinho, Paulo; Sampaio, Gilvan; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Vieira, Ima C. G.
Agriculture, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions and local/regional climate change have been closely intertwined in Brazil. Recent studies show that this relationship has been changing since the mid 2000s, with the burgeoning intensification and commoditization of Brazilian agriculture. On one hand, this accrues considerable environmental dividends including a pronounced reduction in deforestation (which is becoming decoupled from agricultural production), resulting in a decrease of ~40% in nationwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2005, and a potential cooling of the climate at the local scale. On the other hand, these changes in the land-use system further reinforce the long-established inequality in land ownership, contributing to rural-urban migration that ultimately fuels haphazard expansion of urban areas. We argue that strong enforcement of sector-oriented policies and solving long-standing land tenure problems, rather than simply waiting for market self-regulation, are key steps to buffer the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification at the forefront of a sustainable pathway for land use in Brazil.
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...
Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.
There exists a great unsatisified demand for land mobile communications in Europe, particularly in sectors of business activity such as the road transport industry. This demand could best be satisfied by means of satellite-based private networks providing voice and data communications in a hub configuration. The potential market is estimated to encompass several hundred thousand road vehicles and the transmission capacity required would be several thousand channels. ESA is currently demonstrating the potential of satellite communications for this type of application, using a system called PRODAT. System studies are being performed with the aim of defining the architecture of a regional satellite system for Europe.
Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.
The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.
the Lockheed-Georgia Company attempted to solve the airport problem by use of a pressurized, trunk- type , air- cushi* landing system (ACLS) on its...which result from span distributed load type aircraft. To accomplish this objective the following study steps are performed: 1) A revised Spanloader...The fan performance characteristics, which are shown on Figure 25, were estimated by sealing an off-the-shelf Industrial type fan in accordance with
Gilreath, M. C.
The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.
Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.
A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.
Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.
Alewell, C.; Birkholz, A.; Meusburger, K.; Schindler Wildhaber, Y.; Mabit, L.
As sediment loads impact freshwater systems and infrastructure, their origin in complex landscape systems is of crucial importance for optimization of catchment management. We differentiated sediment source contribution to a lowland river in Central Switzerland in using compound specific stable isotopes analysis (CSIA). We found a clear distinction of sediment sources originating from forest and agricultural land use. We suggest to generally reduce uncertainty of sediment source attribution, in (i) aiming for approaches with least possible data complexity to reduce analytical effort as well as refraining from undetected source attribution and/or tracer degradation obscured by complex high data demanding modelling approaches, (ii) to use compound content (in our case long chain fatty acid (FA)) rather than soil organic matter content when converting isotopic signature to soil contribution and (iii) to restrict evaluation to the long-chain FAs (C22:0 to C30:0) not to introduce errors due to aquatic contributions from algae and microorganisms. Results showed unambiguously that during base flow agricultural land contributed up to 65 % of the suspended sediments, while forest was the dominant sediment source during high flow, which indicates that during base and high flow conditions connectivity of sediment source areas with the river change. Our findings are the first results highlighting significant differences in compound specific stable isotope (CSSI) signature and quantification of sediment sources from land uses dominated by C3 plant cultivation.
Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Peach, L. L.; Phillips, J. D.; Anderson, D. J.; Dugan, D. C.; Ross, V. L.
Joint NASA/FAA helicopter flight tests were conducted to investigate airborne radar approaches (ARA) and microwave landing system (MLS) approaches. Flight-test results were utilized to prove NASA with a data base to be used as a performance measure for advanced guidance and navigation concepts, and to provide FAA with data for establishment of TERPS criteria. The first flight-test investigation consisted of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, using weather/mapping radar, operational pilots, and a Bell 212 helicopter. The second flight-test investigation consisted of IFR MLS approaches at Crows Landing (near Ames Research Center), with a Bell UH-1H helicopter, using NASA, FAA, and operational industry pilots. Tests are described and results discussed.
Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.
Staffa, Eugene; Subramaniam, Ram
Inmarsat has provided mobile satellite communication services for land mobile applications for well over a decade. Having started with the Inmarsat-A voice and telex system, Inmarsat is committed to the evolution of services towards a global personal, handheld satellite communicator. Over the years, users have benefitted from the evolution of technologies, increased user friendliness and portability of terminals and ever decreasing cost of operations. This paper describes the various present systems, their characteristics and applications, and outlines their contributions in the evolution towards the personal global communicator.
Staffa, Eugene; Subramaniam, Ram
Inmarsat has provided mobile satellite communication services for land mobile applications for well over a decade. Having started with the Inmarsat-A voice and telex system, Inmarsat is committed to the evolution of services towards a global personal, handheld satellite communicator. Over the years, users have benefitted from the evolution of technologies, increased user friendliness and portability of terminals and ever decreasing cost of operations. This paper describes the various present systems, their characteristics and applications, and outlines their contributions in the evolution towards the personal global communicator.
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands within the National Park System... Lands within the National Park System. Conversions of existing oil and gas leases and valid claims based on mineral locations to combined hydrocarbon leases within units of the National Park System shall...
Houser, Paul R.
The Land Information System (LIS) was developed to use advanced flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation frameworks to integrate extremely large satellite- and ground-based observations with advanced land surface models to produce continuous high-resolution fields of land surface states and fluxes. The resulting fields are extremely useful for drought and flood assessment, agricultural planning, disaster management, weather and climate forecasting, water resources assessment, and the like. We envisioned transforming the LIS modeling system into a scientific cloud computing-aware web and data service that would allow clients to easily setup and configure for use in addressing large water management issues. The focus of this Phase 1 project was to determine the scientific, technical, commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed LIS-cloud innovations that are currently barriers to broad LIS applicability. We (a) quantified the barriers to broad LIS utility and commercialization (high performance computing, big data, user interface, and licensing issues); (b) designed the proposed LIS-cloud web service, model-data interface, database services, and user interfaces; (c) constructed a prototype LIS user interface including abstractions for simulation control, visualization, and data interaction, (d) used the prototype to conduct a market analysis and survey to determine potential market size and competition, (e) identified LIS software licensing and copyright limitations and developed solutions, and (f) developed a business plan for development and marketing of the LIS-cloud innovation. While some significant feasibility issues were found in the LIS licensing, overall a high degree of LIS-cloud technical feasibility was found.
Leroy, B. E.
It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290
Beskenis, Sharon Otero; Green, David F., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.; Johnson, Edward J., Jr.
This report summarizes the software products and system architectures developed by Lockheed Martin in support of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at NASA Langley Research Center. It presents an overview of the technical aspects, capabilities, and system integration issues associated with an integrated display system (IDS) that collects, processes and presents information to an aircraft flight crew during all phases of landing, roll-out, turn-off, inbound taxi, outbound taxi and takeoff. Communications hardware, drivers, and software provide continuous real-time data at varying rates and from many different sources to the display programs for presentation on a head-down display (HDD) and/or a head-up display (HUD). An electronic moving map of the airport surface is implemented on the HDD which includes the taxi route assigned by air traffic control, a text messaging system, and surface traffic and runway status information. Typical HUD symbology for navigation and control of the aircraft is augmented to provide aircraft deceleration guidance after touchdown to a pilot selected exit and taxi guidance along the route assigned by ATC. HUD displays include scene-linked symbolic runways, runway exits and taxiways that are conformal with the actual locations on the airport surface. Display formats, system architectures, and the various IDS programs are discussed.
The design, development, implementation and flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) are discussed. The system was implemented and flight tested on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV), a Boeing 737-100. The design uses modern optimal control methods. The direct digital design obtained uses a 10 Hz rate for the sampling of sensors and the control commands. The basic structure of the control law consists of a steady state Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix. The sensor information used includes Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, attitude, calibrated airspeed, and body accelerations. The phases of the final approach considered are localized and steep glideslope capture (which may be performed simultaneously or independently), localizer and glideslope track, crab/decrab, and flare to touchdown. The system can capture, track, and flare from conventional, as well as steep, glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg. All of the modes of the control law including the Kalman filters were implemented on the TSRV flight computers which use fixed point arithmetic with 16 bit words. The implementation considerations are described as well as an analysis of the flight test results.
Leland, T. J. W.; Thompson, W. C.
An experimental study was conducted in order to determine the landing-impact behavior of a 0.3-scale, dynamically (but not physically) similar model of a high-density Navy fighter equipped with an air cushion landing system. The model was tested over a range of landing contact attitudes at high forward speeds and sink rates on a specialized test fixture at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The investigation indicated that vertical acceleration at landing impact was highly dependent on the pitch angle at ground contact, the higher acceleration of approximately 5g occurring near zero body-pitch attitude. A limited number of low-speed taxi tests were made in order to determine model stability characteristics. The model was found to have good pitch-damping characteristics but stability in roll was marginal.
Wang, Haitao; Xing, J. T.; Price, W. G.; Li, Weiji
A mathematical model is developed to control aircraft vibrations caused by runway excitation using an active landing gear system. Equations are derived to describe the integrated aircraft-active system. The nonlinear characteristics of the system are modelled and it is actively controlled using a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) strategy. The performance of this system and its corresponding passive system are compared using numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the impact loads and the vertical displacement of the aircraft's centre of gravity caused by landing and runway excitations are greatly reduced using the active system, which result in improvements to the performance of the landing gear system, benefits the aircraft's fatigue life, taxiing performance, crew/passenger comfort and reduces requirements on the unevenness of runways.
Captain, K. M.; Boghani, A. B.; Wormley, D. N.
A program to develop analytical tools for evaluating the dynamic performance of Air Cushion Landing Systems (ACLS) is described. The heave (vertical) motion of the ACLS was analyzed, and the analysis was extended to cover coupled heave-pitch motions. The mathematical models developed are based on a fundamental analysis of the body dynamics and fluid mechanics of the aircraft-cushion-runway interaction. The air source characteristics, flow losses in the feeding ducts, trunk and cushion, the effects of fluid compressibility, and dynamic trunk deflections, including ground contact are considered. A computer program, based on the heave-pitch analysis, was developed to simulate the dynamic behavior of an ACLS during landing impact and taxi over an irregular runway. The program outputs include ACLS motions, loadings, pressures, and flows as a function of time. To illustrate program use, three basic types of simulations were carried out. The results provide an initial indication of ACLS performance during (1) a static drop, (2) landing impact, and (3) taxi over a runway irregularity.
Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, Alejandro M.; Burkhart, Paul D.; mendeck, Gavin F.
In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of
Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Mendeck, Gavin F.
In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of
Britt, C. L., Jr.; Wheelock, S. L.
An experimental microwave multilateration system has been developed by NASA to provide highly accurate position and velocity measurements during the approach and landing phase of VTOL aircraft. The system uses an angle modulated ranging signal to provide both range and range rate measurements between an aircraft transponder and multiple ground stations. Range and range rate measurements are converted to coordinate measurements, and the coordinate information is transmitted via an integral data link to the aircraft. This paper describes the development of the multilateration system and the associated digital signal processing techniques. Advantages and disadvantages of several processing techniques are discussed. The operation and accuracy of the system as determined from both analytical studies and flight experiments will be described.
Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.
The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.
Wang, Shih Hao; Lim, Chen Chee; Teng, Yu Ti
A case of choroidal rupture caused by airbag-associated blunt eye trauma and complicated with massive subretinal hemorrhage and vitreous hemorrhage that was successfully treated with intravitreal injection of expansile gas and bevacizumab is presented. A 53-year-old man suffered from loss of vision in his right eye due to blunt eye trauma by a safety airbag after a traffic accident. On initial examination, the patient had no light perception in his right eye. Dilated ophthalmoscopy revealed massive subretinal hemorrhage with macular invasion and faint vitreous hemorrhage. We performed intravitreal injection of pure sulfur hexafluoride twice for displacement, after which visual acuity improved to 0.03. For persistent subretinal hemorrhage and suspicion of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) injection was administered. After 3 weeks, the visual acuity of his right eye recovered to 0.4. For early-stage choroidal rupture-induced subretinal hemorrhage and complications of suspected CNV, intravitreal injection of expandable gas and intraocular injection of antiangiogenesis drugs seem to be an effective treatment. PMID:28203191
... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915... Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer responsibilities... standard for employee safety or employee protection from fire hazards in land-side facilities,...
Land data assimilation systems typically require complex parameterizations in order to: define required observation operators, quantify observing/forecasting errors and calibrate a land surface assimilation model. These parameters are commonly defined in an arbitrary manner and, if poorly specified,...
Lawrence, D. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Brovkin, V.; Calvin, K. V.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Jones, C.; Pongratz, J.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Shevliakova, E.
Earth System Models (ESMs) are including increasingly comprehensive treatments of land use and land management, representing not only land cover change, but also land use in the form of prognostic crop and pasture models, irrigation, fertilization, wood harvest, and urbanization. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) is a new (proposed) satellite-MIP within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) that is designed to address the following main science questions: (1) What are the effects of land use and land-use change on climate (past-future)? (2) What are the effects of climate change on land-use and land-use change? (3) Are there regional land management strategies with promise to help mitigate and adapt to climate change? LUMIP will coordinate across existing land use change projects such as LUCID, AgMIP, GSWP3, Trendy, and LUC4C. LUMIP encompasses three major activities: (1) input and output data harmonization and standardization, (2) development of model metrics to assess ESM performance with respect to the impact of land use on climate and carbon cycling, and (3) design and execution of a concise set of land model and ESM experiments for assessment of the impacts of historic and projected land use on the climate system and to separate effects of fossil fuel vs. land use, biogeochemical vs biogeophysical processes, and land cover vs land management. Preliminary results from idealized model experiments will be presented.
... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970... value (protection/rejuvenation of resources, improved visitor experience) to the park and...
... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970... value (protection/rejuvenation of resources, improved visitor experience) to the park and...
NASA's Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) is a distributed information management system designed to support NASA's land science community. The PLDS provides a wide range of services including management of information about scientific data, access to a library of scientific data, a data ordering capability, communications, connection to data analysis facilities, and electronic mail. The PLDS provides these services by offering the scientist the capability to search for and order data, and to communicate electronically with other scientists and computers. Three functions enable scientists to find what data are available and where they reside. The first two, Find data summaries and Read detailed descriptions give summary and detailed descriptions about data sets or groups of related data sets, science, projects, and institutions which archive land data. The third, gives information about specific pieces of data. This last function has two components, Search systemwide inventory and Search local inventory. The first component enables the user to find data elements (images, geological samples, transects, maps, etc.) that exist anywhere in the PLDS while the second has only information about data at the local site. The first enables the user to find pieces of data from several different data sets with the same temporal and spatial coverage and other elements common to most data sets, while the second allows the user to select a data set based on these descriptors and on those that are unique to a data set. The PLDS provides capabilities that enable electronic file transfers, intercomputer connection, and electronic mail. Both TCP/IP and DECnet protocols are supported via the NASA Science Internet (NIS). Access is also available through Telenet.
Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.
Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.
The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.
Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.
A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.
Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.
Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Arias, P.; Armesto, J.
Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.
Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.
NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.
Munkhbaatar, B.; Lee, J.
National land information system (NLIS) is an essential part of the Mongolian land reform. NLIS is a web based and centralized system which covers administration of cadastral database all over the country among land departments. Current ongoing NLIS implementation is vital to improve the cadastral system in Mongolia. This study is intended to define existing problems in current Mongolian cadastral system and propose administrative institutional and systematic implementation through NLIS. Once NLIS launches with proposed model of comprehensive cadastral system it will lead to not only economic and sustainable development but also contribute to citizens' satisfaction and lessen the burdensomeness of bureaucracy. Moreover, prevention of land conflicts, especially in metropolitan area as well as gathering land tax and fees. Furthermore after establishment of NLIS, it is advisable that connecting NLIS to other relevant state administrational organizations or institutions that have relevant database system. Connections with other relevant organizations will facilitate not only smooth and productive workflow but also offer reliable and more valuable information by its systemic integration with NLIS.
Seitz, R. N.; Keefer, R. L.; Britton, L. J.; Wilson, J. M.
The paper describes the Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System (MINIS), a data management system for land-use applications. MINIS is written nearly entirely in FORTRAN IV, and has a full range of conditional, Boolean and arithmetic commands, as well as extensive format control and the capability of interactive file creation and updating. It requires a mini or microcomputer with at least 64 K of core or semiconductor memory. MINIS has its own equation-oriented query language for retrieval from different kinds of data bases. It features a graphics output which permits output of overlay maps. Some experience of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Tennessee State Planning Office with MINIS is discussed.
Economic assessment of land use change in drylands depends on understanding potential productivity, degradation resistance and resilience, all of which vary widely and are often ignored. Rapidly increasing demand, together with new technologies, migration and global capital mobility are driving dram...
Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.
This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.
HayaRamos, Rodrigo; Boneti, Davide
ExoMars is ESA's current mission to planet Mars. A high mobility rover and a fixed station will be deployed on the surface of Mars. This paper regards the flight mechanics of the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phases used for the mission analysis and design of the Baseline and back-up scenarios of the mission. The EDL concept is based on a ballistic entry, followed by a descent under parachutes and inflatable devices (airbags) for landing. The mission analysis and design is driven by the flexibility in terms of landing site, arrival dates and the very stringent requirement in terms of landing accuracy. The challenging requirements currently imposed to the mission need innovative analysis and design techniques to support system design trade-offs to cope with the variability in entry conditions. The concept of the Global Entry Corridor has been conceived, designed, implemented and successfully validated as a key tool to provide a global picture of the mission capabilities in terms of landing site reachability.
Deng, Xiangzheng; Su, Hongbo; Zhan, Jinyan
In this paper we present and develop a new model, which we have calledDynamics of Land Systems (DLS). The DLS model is capable of integrating multiple datasources to simulate the dynamics of a land system. Three main modules are incorporatedin DLS: a spatial regression module, to explore the relationship between land uses andinfluencing factors, a scenario analysis module of the land uses of a region during thesimulation period and a spatial disaggregation module, to allocate land use changes froma regional level to disaggregated grid cells. A case study on Taips County in North Chinais incorporated in this paper to test the functionality of DLS. The simulation results underthe baseline, economic priority and environmental scenarios help to understand the landsystem dynamics and project near future land-use trajectories of a region, in order tofocus management decisions on land uses and land use planning.
Sircar, J. K. (Principal Investigator)
The University of Maryland's Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory submitted to NASA/Goddard an interim progress report on the work being conducted within its Pilot Land Data System IPLDS project. The Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory addressed the following tasks: (1) identify data types and data sources needed to describe the selected test sites in collaboration with Goddard's Hydrological Sciences Branch; (2) define the procedures necessary to access/acquire this data; (3) conduct meetings with the PLDS Systems Engineering Group to identify functional specification priorities for PLDS development; (4) assemble documentation on historical remotely sensed imagery and transfer of such information to the PLDS Data Management Group; (5) collect data identified by Goodard's Hydrological Sciences Branch for data set inventory in PLD; (6) develop a Workstation-PLDS system interface over high speed lines, (7) develop and test through a Phase 1 demonstration of a micro workstation to access PLDS; and (8) establish interdepartmental agreement of development of computer link for electronic access of water resources data from USGS.
Bonan, G. B.
Many of the terrestrial models included in Earth system models simulate changes to the land surface from human activities. In the Community Land Model (CLM), for example, irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, soil tillage, wood harvesting, and numerous crop types are represented in addition to anthropogenic land-cover change (e.g., deforestation, reforestation, and afforestation). These land uses are included in the models because they have a strong influence on the hydrological cycle (irrigation), crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions (nitrogen fertilization, crop type), and carbon storage (wood harvesting, tillage). However, the representation of these processes in Earth system models is uncertain, as is the specification of transient changes from 1850 through the historical era and into the future. A more fundamental aspect of land surface models is the coupling of land and atmosphere through exchanges of energy, mass, and momentum. Here, too, anthropogenic activities can affect climate through land-cover change and land management. Eddy covariance flux tower analyses suggest that the land management effects are as significant as the land-cover change effects. These analyses pose a challenge to land surface models - How well do the models simulate the effects of land management (e.g., changes in leaf area index or community composition) on surface flux exchange with the atmosphere? Here I use the CLM and a new, advanced multilayer canopy flux model to illustrate challenges in model surface fluxes and the influence of land management on surface fluxes.
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.212 Indian lands safety management system...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...
Mohr, Karen Irene; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.
The present generation of general circulation models (GCM) use parameterized cumulus schemes and run at hydrostatic grid resolutions. To improve the representation of cloud-scale moist processes and landeatmosphere interactions, a global, Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) coupled to the Land Information System (LIS) has been developed at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. The MMFeLIS has three components, a finite-volume (fv) GCM (Goddard Earth Observing System Ver. 4, GEOS-4), a 2D cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, GCE), and the LIS, representing the large-scale atmospheric circulation, cloud processes, and land surface processes, respectively. The non-hydrostatic GCE model replaces the single-column cumulus parameterization of fvGCM. The model grid is composed of an array of fvGCM gridcells each with a series of embedded GCE models. A horizontal coupling strategy, GCE4fvGCM4Coupler4LIS, offered significant computational efficiency, with the scalability and I/O capabilities of LIS permitting landeatmosphere interactions at cloud-scale. Global simulations of 2007e2008 and comparisons to observations and reanalysis products were conducted. Using two different versions of the same land surface model but the same initial conditions, divergence in regional, synoptic-scale surface pressure patterns emerged within two weeks. The sensitivity of largescale circulations to land surface model physics revealed significant functional value to using a scalable, multi-model land surface modeling system in global weather and climate prediction.
Thekkudan, Joyce; Luckraz, Heyman; Ng, Alex; Norell, Mike
Blunt trauma to the chest is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The latter is usually due to an aortic transection, whereas the former is related to myocardial contusion, cardiac valve injury, coronary artery disruption and intracardiac shunts due to the formation of septal defects. The main mechanisms causing these injuries are due to the sudden deceleration force and compression within the chest cavity. Moreover, there is also the sudden increase in intravascular pressure due to a mechanical compression effect and a hormonal adrenergic surge during the event. We report a case of a tricuspid valve injury caused by the deployment of the airbag during a high-speed impact car accident and the subsequent damage to the tricuspid valve chordal mechanism. The patient's management and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the injury are reviewed.
Hong, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Dianfeng; Xia, Yin; Hu, Xi
With the development of "3S" technologies, a large quantity of spatial-temporal data related to land use has been accessed. Being scattered across different departments and lacking of relevant analysis tools made them utilize insufficiently. Although some experts have applied data mining to solve this problem, most of them have only provided one method for single task to build the mining systems. However, it is undesirable to use just one method to mine. In addition, the single function systems can not be used widely and conveniently. Hence, under full investigation on operations of land use, a multi-source data mining prototype system for land use is proposed by integrating of technologies of GIS and spatial data mining. According to the general data mining process, aiming at the multi-demands of land evaluation and land planning and so on, the system is developed by using ArcEngine 9.0 and VB.net. The system integrates basic geospatial data, land use/cover data, and thematic data as data sources, excavates different knowledge of land Quality, land use zoning rules, land use patterns and change rules and so on. Based on the types of knowledge, the system accordingly provides several different mining methods, including decision tree, support vector machine, artificial neural network, time series, spatial association rules, etc. Wide adaptability of the system is demonstrated by using some cases. The results of the system can meet multipurpose needs and be used to support decision-making of the land management department.
Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.
We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.
Davis, Amelie Y.
Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol
Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Houser, Paul R.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)
The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is a global land parameterization that uses prescribed meteorology as forcing in order to determine regular gridded land surface states (temperature and moisture) and other properties (e.g. water and heat fluxes). In the present experiment, the assimilation of surface skin temperature is incorporated into the land parameterizations. The meteorological forcing was derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-3) Data Assimilation System (DAS) for the full year of 1998 GLDAS can use several land parameterizations, but here we use the Mosaic land surface model and the Common Land Model (CLM). TOVS surface temperature observations are assimilated into GLDAS. The TOVS observations are less frequent that observations used in previous experiments (ISCCP). The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the impact of the TOVS assimilation on both Mosaic and CLM. We will especially consider the impact of coarse temporal observations on the assimilation and bias correction.
Heilimo, Jyri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Martynov, Maxim; Schmidt, Walter; Harri, Ari-Matti; Vsevolod Koryanov, D.; Kazakovtcev, Victor; Haukka, Harri; Arruego, Ignacio; Finchenko, Valery; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrei; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero
Abstract A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) or Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth’s atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD  project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth’s atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. “Mini-1” category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: - qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, - Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, - m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, - V (m/s): re-entry velocity and - theta(deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet (“Mini-1” category) -type
Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero
A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD  project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and Θ (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being
Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.
The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on
Deng, Xingqiao; Potula, S; Grewal, H; Solanki, K N; Tschopp, M A; Horstemeyer, M F
In this study, we investigated and assessed the dependence of dummy head injury mitigation on the side curtain airbag and occupant distance under a side impact of a Dodge Neon. Full-scale finite element vehicle simulations of a Dodge Neon with a side curtain airbag were performed to simulate the side impact. Owing to the wide range of parameters, an optimal matrix of finite element calculations was generated using the design method of experiments (DOE); the DOE method was performed to independently screen the finite element results and yield the desired parametric influences as outputs. Also, analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques were used to analyze the finite element results data. The results clearly show that the influence of moving deformable barrier (MDB) strike velocity was the strongest influence parameter on both cases for the head injury criteria (HIC36) and the peak head acceleration, followed by the initial airbag inlet temperature. Interestingly, the initial airbag inlet temperature was only a ~30% smaller influence than the MDB velocity; also, the trigger time was a ~54% smaller influence than the MDB velocity when considering the peak head accelerations. Considering the wide range in MDB velocities used in this study, results of the study present an opportunity for design optimization using the different parameters to help mitigate occupant injury. As such, the initial airbag inlet temperature, the trigger time, and the airbag pressure should be incorporated into vehicular design process when optimizing for the head injury criteria.
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific transportation system; and...
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... interference. For those FWS transportation systems that require a CMS, in both metropolitan and...
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970....214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific transportation system; and...
... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... Forest System Land Management Rule. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS...: (a) The BIA shall have a nationwide BMS for the federally and tribally owned IRR bridges that...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS...: (a) The BIA shall have a nationwide BMS for the federally and tribally owned IRR bridges that...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.214 Indian lands congestion management...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems §...
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems §...
Chernetskiy, Maxim; Gobron, Nadine; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Disney, Mathias
Upcoming satellite constellations will substantially increase the amount of Earth Observation (EO) data, and presents us with the challenge of consistently using all these available information to infer the state of the land surface, parameterised through Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). A promising approach to this problem is the use of physically based models that describe the processes that generate the images, using e.g. radiative transfer (RT) theory. However, these models need to be inverted to infer the land surface parameters from the observations, and there is often not enough information in the EO data to satisfactorily achieve this. Data assimilation (DA) approaches supplement the EO data with prior information in the form of models or prior parameter distributions, and have the potential for solving the inversion problem. These methods however are computationally expensive. In this study, we show the use of fast surrogate models of the RT codes (emulators) based on Gaussian Processes (Gomez-Dans et al, 2016) embedded with the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) framework (Lewis et al 2012) in order to estimate the surface of the land surface from a heterogeneous set of optical observations. The study uses time series of moderate spatial resolution observations from MODIS (250 m), MERIS (300 m) and MISR (275 m) over one site to infer the temporal evolution of a number of land surface parameters (and associated uncertainties) related to vegetation: leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content, etc. These parameter estimates are then used as input to an RT model (semidiscrete or PROSAIL, for example) to calculate fluxes such as broad band albedo or fAPAR. The study demonstrates that blending different sensors in a consistent way using physical models results in a rich and coherent set of land surface parameters retrieved, with quantified uncertainties. The use of RT models also allows for the consistent prediction of fluxes
Baker, John D.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Eisenman, David J.; Peer, Scott G.; Fasanella, Edward L.; Lawrence, Charles
Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Chief Engineer requested a risk comparison of the Integrated Landing System design developed by NASA and the design developed by Contractor- referred to as the LM 604 baseline. Based on the results of this risk comparison, the CEV Chief engineer requested that the NESC evaluate identified risks and develop strategies for their reduction or mitigation. The assessment progressed in two phases. A brief Phase I analysis was performed by the Water versus Land-Landing Team to compare the CEV Integrated Landing System proposed by the Contractor against the NASA TS-LRS001 baseline with respect to risk. A phase II effort examined the areas of critical importance to the overall landing risk, evaluating risk to the crew and to the CEV Crew Module (CM) during a nominal land-landing. The findings of the assessment are contained in this report.
An advisory report to be used by NASA in developing a program plan for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) was developed. The purpose of the PLDS is to improve the ability of NASA and NASA sponsored researchers to conduct land-related research. The goal of the planning workshops was to provide and coordinate planning and concept development between the land related science and computer science disciplines, to discuss the architecture of the PLDs, requirements for information science technology, and system evaluation. The findings and recommendations of the Working Group are presented. The pilot program establishes a limited scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical, and management approaches to satisfying the needs of the land science community. The PLDS paves the way for a land data system to improve data access, processing, transfer, and analysis, which land sciences information synthesis occurs on a scale not previously permitted because of limits to data assembly and access.
Zang, Thomas A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Kinney, David J.; Howard, Austin R.; Chen, George T.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Westhelle, Carlos H.
NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the Study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.
Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John
Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.
Africa is facing numerous challenges including a rapidly growing population, soil erosion, declining soil fertility and climate change. In the face of all these problems, the need to feed the growing population has led to expansion of land for agriculture and pasture production rather than increasin...
Lee, E. G. S.; Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Rutishauser, H. J.; Farley, H. L.; Fish, R. B.; Jeffcoat, R. L.
Several concepts are developed for air cushion landing systems (ACLS) which have the potential for improving performance characteristics (roll stiffness, heave damping, and trunk flutter), and reducing fabrication cost and complexity. After an initial screening, the following five concepts were evaluated in detail: damped trunk, filled trunk, compartmented trunk, segmented trunk, and roll feedback control. The evaluation was based on tests performed on scale models. An ACLS dynamic simulation developed earlier is updated so that it can be used to predict the performance of full-scale ACLS incorporating these refinements. The simulation was validated through scale-model tests. A full-scale ACLS based on the segmented trunk concept was fabricated and installed on the NASA ACLS test vehicle, where it is used to support advanced system development. A geometrically-scaled model (one third full scale) of the NASA test vehicle was fabricated and tested. This model, evaluated by means of a series of static and dynamic tests, is used to investigate scaling relationships between reduced and full-scale models. The analytical model developed earlier is applied to simulate both the one third scale and the full scale response.
Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert
Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)
Roumeliotis, Chris; Grinblat, Jonathan; Reeves, Glenn
Second Chance (SECC) was a bare bones version of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) flight software that ran on Curiosity's backup computer, which could have taken over swiftly in the event of a reset of Curiosity's prime computer, in order to land her safely on Mars. Without SECC, a reset of Curiosity's prime computer would have lead to catastrophic mission failure. Even though a reset of the prime computer never occurred, SECC had the important responsibility as EDL's guardian angel, and this responsibility would not have seen such success without unparalleled systems engineering. This paper will focus on the systems engineering behind SECC: Covering a brief overview of SECC's design, the intense schedule to use SECC as a backup system, the verification and validation of the system's "Do No Harm" mandate, the system's overall functional performance, and finally, its use on the fateful day of August 5th, 2012.
Hayashi, Shigeki; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Yuichi
When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models. Finite element simulations were conducted assuming a case where a passenger vehicle collides against a pole at 29km/h. Occupant kinematics, force-deformation responses and pressure levels were compared between cases with and without side airbag deployment. The results indicated that strain to the ribs and pressure to the organs was smaller with side airbag deployment. The side airbag widened the contact area at the torso, helping to distribute the force to the shoulder, arm and chest. Such distributed force helped generate relatively smaller deformation in the ribs. Furthermore, the side airbag deployment helped restrict the spine displacement. The smaller displacement contributed to lowering the magnitude of contact force between the torso and the door. The study also examined the correlations between the pressure levels in the internal organs, rib deflection, and V*C of chest. The study found that the V*C(t) peak appeared to be synchronized with the organ pressure peak, suggesting that the pressure level of the internal organs could be one possible
Kim, Taewung; Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Park, Gwansik; Crandall, Jeff; Svendsen, Andy; Whitcomb, Bryant; Ayyagari, Murthy; Mishra, Prashast; Markusic, Craig
This study evaluated the biofidelity of the WorldSID and the ES-2re under whole-body side impact conditions with and without a side airbag using the biomechanical cadaveric response data generated from 4.3m/s whole-body side impact tests. Impact forces, spinal kinematics, and chest deflections were considered in the biofidelity evaluation. Average responses and response corridors of PMHS were created using a time-alignment technique to reduce variability of the PMHS responses while maintaining the sum of the time shifts to be zero for each response. Biofidelity of the two dummies was compared using a correlation and analysis (CORA) method. The WorldSID demonstrated better biofidelity than the ES-2re in terms of CORA ratings in the conditions with airbag (0.53 vs. 0.46) and without an airbag (0.57 vs. 0.49). Lastly, the kinematic analysis of the two dummies indicated an overly compliant shoulder response of the WorldSID and excessive forward rotation of the ES-2re relative to the PMHS.
Landing Characteristics of the Apollo Spacecraft with Deployed Heat Shield Impact Attenuation Systems. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/4-scale dynamic model of the Apollo spacecraft command module using two different active (heat shield deployed prior to landing) landing systems for impact attenuation. One landing system (configuration 1) consisted of six hydraulic struts and eight crushable honeycomb struts. The other landing system (configuration 2), consisted of four hydraulic struts and six strain straps. Tests made on water and the hard clay-gravel composite landing surfaces simulated parachute letdown (vertical) velocities of 23 ft/sec (7.0 m/s) (full scale). Landings made on the sand landing surface simulated vertical velocities of 30 ft/sec (9.1 m/s). Horizontal velocities of from 0 to 50 ft/sec (15 m/s) were simulated. Landing attitudes ranged from -30'degrees to 20 degrees, and the roll attitudes were O degrees, 90 degrees, and 180 degrees. For configuration 1, maximum normal accelerations at the vehicle center of gravity for landings on water, sand, and the hard clay-gravel composite surface were 9g, 20g, and 18g, respectively. The maximum normal center-of-gravity acceleration for configuration 2 which was landed only on the hard clay-gravel landing surface was approximately 19g. Accelerations for configuration 2 were generally equal to or lower than accelerations for configuration 1 and normal. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030975. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Daugherty, R. H.
An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate several concepts for braking and steering a vehicle equipped with an air cushion landing system (ACLS). The investigation made use of a modified airboat equipped with an ACLS. Braking concepts were characterized by the average deceleration of the vehicle. Reduced lobe flow and cavity venting braking concepts were evaluated in this program. The cavity venting braking concept demonstrated the best performance, producing decelerations on the test vehicle on the same order as moderate braking with conventional wheel brakes. Steering concepts were evaluated by recording the path taken while attempting to follow a prescribed maneuver. The steering concepts evaluated included using rudders only, using differential lobe flow, and using rudders combined with a lightly loaded, nonsteering center wheel. The latter concept proved to be the most accurate means of steering the vehicle on the ACLS, producing translational deviations two to three times higher than those from conventional nose-gear steering. However, this concept was still felt to provide reasonably precise steering control for the ACLS-equipped vehicle.
Smith, Timothy B.; Goodale, Katherine L.
The Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG) and the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) have encouraged Landsat receiving stations around the world to share information about their data holdings through the exchange of metadata records. Receiving stations forward their metadata records to the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) on a quarterly basis. The EDC maintains the records for each station, coordinates changes to the database, and provides metadata to the stations as requested. The result is a comprehensive international database listing most of the world's Landsat data acquisitions This exchange of information began in the early 1980's with the inclusion in the EDC database os scenes acquired by a receiving station in Italy. Through the years other stations have agreed to participate; currently ten of the seventeen stations actively share their metadata records. Coverage maps have been generated to depict the status of the database. The Worldwide Landsat database is also available though the Global Land Information System (GLIS).
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS...
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the...) Develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a specific FH; and (2) Have CMS...
Green, Robert O.; Simmonds, John J.
As a calibrated imaging spectrometer flying at a 20 km altitude, AVIRIS may contribute to the Landsat and the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System efforts. These contributions come in the areas of: (1) on-orbit calibration, (2) specification of new spectral bands, (3) validation of algorithms, and (4) investigation of an imaging spectrometer of the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System.
... historical values of the structure. (d) For any bridge in the inventory or subset thereof, BMS reporting... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210... lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the BMS must meet the following requirements: (a) The tri-party partnership shall have a BMS for the FH...
... historical values of the structure. (d) For any bridge in the inventory or subset thereof, BMS reporting... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210... lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the BMS must meet the following requirements: (a) The tri-party partnership shall have a BMS for the FH...
... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...
Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.
The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.
de Graaff, Jan; Duran Zuazo, Victor-Hugo; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk
The ultimate objective of the EU Olivero project was to improve the quality of life of the rural population and to assure the sustainable use of the natural resources of land and water in the sloping and mountainous olive production systems (SMOPS) areas in Southern Europe. One specific objective was to develop, with end-users, alternative future scenarios for olive orchards in the five Olivero target areas. This paper discusses the development of these scenarios, and their socio-economic and environmental effects. After presenting the different production systems (SMOPS) and their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, a general overview is given of the medium- and long-term prospects. These have been validated by experts from the olive sector and foresee changes towards abandonment, intensification and organic production. On balance, the changes could lead to lower production of some target areas in future. An analysis of major external factors affecting the future development of SMOPS indicates there will be labour shortages and increased wage rates, reduced subsidies and constant or rising olive oil prices. On the basis of these assumptions, four future scenarios are developed for the five target areas, with the help of a Linear Programming simulation model. The results are presented for two target areas. For the Trás-os-Montes target area in Portugal, three of the four tested scenarios point to a high level of abandonment, while in the most positive scenario the areas under semi-intensive low input and organic SMOPS increase. In the Granada and Jaen target area in Spain, all scenarios hint at intensification, and only the orchards on the steepest slopes are likely to be abandoned. The direction and extent of environmental effects (erosion, fire risk, pollution, water use and biodiversity) differ per scenario, as do the extent of cross-compliance and agri-environmental measures.
Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Martin, Susana
We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface. Our development and assessments show clearly that this kind of inflatable technology originally developed for the Martian atmosphere, is feasible for use by Earth entry and descent applications. The preliminary results are highly promising indicating that the current Mars probe design could be used as it is for the Earth. According tp our analyses, the higher atmospheric pressure at an altitude of 12 km and less requires an additional pressurizing device for the in atable system increasing the entry mass by approximately 2 kg. These analyses involved the calculation of 120 different atmospheric entry and descent trajectories. The analysis of the existing technologies and current trends have indicated that the kind of inflatable technology pursued by RITD has high potential to enhance the European space technology expertise. This kind of technology is clearly feasible for utilization by Earth entry and descent applications.
Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C
Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement.
Yang, Z. L.; Zhang, Y.; Kwon, Y.; Lin, P.; Zhao, L.; Hoar, T. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Toure, A. M.; Rodell, M.
Land plays an important role in shaping regional and global climate and the water cycle. However, many of these processes are not well understood, which is largely due to the lack of high quality datasets. Over the past 5 years, we have developed a global-scale multi-sensor snow data assimilation system based on NCAR's Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) coupled to the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4); CLM4 can be replaced by CLM4.5 or the latest versions as they become available. This data assimilation system can be applied to all land areas to take advantage of high-resolution regional-specific observations. The DART data assimilation system has an unprecedented large ensemble (80-member) atmospheric forcing (temperature, precipitation, winds, humidity, radiation) with a quality of typical reanalysis products, which not only facilitates ensemble land data assimilation, but also allows a comprehensive study of many feedback processes (e.g. the snow albedo feedback and soil moisture-precipitation feedback). While initial findings were reported in the past AGU, AMS and GEWEX meetings, this paper will present comprehensive results from the CLM/DART with assimilating MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) snow cover fraction and GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) terrestrial water storage. Besides our prototype snow data assimilation, the coupled CLM4/DART framework is useful for data assimilation involving other variables, such as soil moisture, skin temperature, and leaf area index from various satellite sources and ground observations. Such a truly multi-mission, multi-platform, multi-sensor, and multi-scale data assimilation system with DART will, ultimately, help constrain earth system models using all kinds of observations to improve their prediction skills from intraseasonal to interannual. Some preliminary results from using our snow data assimilation output in seasonal climate prediction will be presented as well.
Young, Richard A; Schreiner, Christopher
A wireless device embedded in the vehicle allowed the user to engage in a personal hands-free conversation (HFC), and automatically placed an emergency notification call to an OnStar call center if the vehicle was involved in a crash in which its airbag deployed. A database stored the exact counts, start timestamps, and billed durations of all HFC and airbag notification calls. In 30 months of naturalistic driving, there were 91 million HFC calls from an average of 323,994 drivers per month who made calls. There were 14 airbag deployments in 276 million driver-minutes of HFC conversation for an exposed incidence rate of 5.08 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. There were 2,023 airbag deployments in an estimated 24.7 billion driver-minutes of no HFC conversation for a not-exposed incidence rate of 8.18 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. The crash incidence rate ratio (IRR) is the ratio of these two rates or 0.62 (95% C.I. 0.37 to 1.05). Sensitivity analyses controlled for the impact on the crash IRR of estimated time spent driving per day and calls by passengers. Counting all crashes as much as 20 minutes later than a call as related to that call gave similar results. We conclude that for personal conversations using a hands-free embedded device the risk of an airbag crash is somewhere in a range from a moderately lower risk to a risk near that of driving without a recent personal conversation. These results are not consistent with the large increase in crash risk reported in epidemiological studies using the case-crossover method.
Barberis, S.; Settimo, F.; Giralda, A.; Mistretta, I.; Loisy, C.; Parmentier, J. L.
A network architecture containing the capabilities offered by the Message Handling System (MHS) to the PRODAT Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) is described taking into account the constraints of a preexisting satellite system which is going to become operational. The mapping between MHS services and PRODAT requirements is also reported and shows that the supplied performance can be significantly enhanced to both fixed and mobile users. The impact of the insertion of additional features on the system structure, especially on the centralized control unit, are also addressed.
Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Yu, Chien-Hwa
Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of system analysis, driving force-state-response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure in this work. The integrated management of the land, water, and air resources of a river basin system is considered in the procedure. Two modified land use management procedures combined with the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure are developed in this work. Based on the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure, the sustainable river basin land use management DSR dynamic decision support system (SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS) is developed by using the Vensim, MS Excel, ArcView, and Visual Basic software. The concepts of object-orientation are used to develop the system dynamic optimization and simulation models of SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS. Based on the modified land use management procedures, SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS is used to assist decision makers in generating the land use plans of the Nankan river basin in Taoyuan County of Taiwan. Since the decisions of land, water and air resources management are still made at different agencies, the land use management system should be modified based on the innovational procedure to implement the management strategy developed in this work. The results show that the modified land use management procedures can be a guidance for the governments in modifying the systems and regulation of urban and regional plans in Taiwan.
Pease, P. B.
The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to manipulate and analyze digital data in raster format and provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for analysis. LAS offers these features under VMS with optional image display capabilities for IVAS and other display devices as well as the X-Windows environment. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as for the processing and analysis of image data. Users may choose between mouse-driven commands or the traditional command line input mode. LAS functions include supervised and unsupervised image classification, film product generation, geometric registration, image repair, radiometric correction and image statistical analysis. Data files accepted by LAS include formats such as Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The enhanced geometric registration package now includes both image to image and map to map transformations. The over 200 LAS functions fall into image processing scenario categories which include: arithmetic and logical functions, data transformations, fourier transforms, geometric registration, hard copy output, image restoration, intensity transformation, multispectral and statistical analysis, file transfer, tape profiling and file management among others. Internal improvements to the LAS code have eliminated the VAX VMS dependencies and improved overall system performance. The maximum LAS image size has been increased to 20,000 lines by 20,000 samples with a maximum of 256 bands per image. The catalog management system used in earlier versions of LAS has been replaced by a more streamlined and maintenance-free method of file management. This system is not dependent on VAX/VMS and relies on file naming conventions alone to allow the use of identical LAS file names on different operating systems. While the LAS code has been improved, the original capabilities
Masiá, J.; Eixerés, B.; Dols, J. F.; Esquerdo, T. V.
The car control adaptations are used in vehicles in order to facilitate the driving to persons with physical handicaps. This does not have to suppose a decrease of the passive safety that is required to the vehicles. In order to analyze this relation there will be characterized the different control adaptations that are in use together with the different devices of passive safety that can be mounted in the vehicles in diverse cases of impact in order to generate models of simulation. The methodology used to generate this simulation consists of the first phase in which there develops the three-dimensional model of the driving place. For it, there has been used a commercial software of three-dimensional design. Once realized this one divides, the model is imported to the finite elements software in which meshing is generated. Finally, dynamic simulation software is used to assign the most important characteristics like material properties, contact interfaces, gas expansion models, airbag fold types, etc.
Budge, Scott E.; Chester, David B.
The latest mission proposals for exploration of solar system bodies require accurate position and velocity data during the descent phase in order to ensure safe, soft landing at the pre-designated sites. During landing maneuvers, the accuracy of the on-board inertial measurement unit (IMU) may not be reliable due to drift over extended travel times to destinations. NASA has proposed an advanced Doppler lidar system with multiple beams that can be used to accurately determine attitude and position of the landing vehicle during descent, and to detect hazards that might exist in the landing area. In order to assess the effectiveness of such a Doppler lidar landing system, it is valuable to simulate the system with different beam numbers and configurations. In addition, the effectiveness of the system to detect and map potential landing hazards must be understood. This paper reports the simulated system performance for a proposed multi-beam Doppler lidar using the LadarSIM system simulation software. Details of the simulation methods are given, as well as lidar performance parameters such as range and velocity accuracy, detection and false alarm rates, and examples of the Doppler lidars ability to detect and characterize simulated hazards in the landing site. The simulation includes modulated pulse generation and coherent detection methods, beam footprint simulation, beam scanning, and interaction with terrain.
The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...
A plethora of information is available when considering decision support systems for risk-based management of contaminated land. Broad issues of what is contaminated land, what is a brownfield, and what is remediation are discussed in EU countries and the U.S. Making decisions ...
Increased diversity of fungal rDNA ITS-1 amplicons, as measured by the Shannon-Weiner index, was associated with land management practices that minimise soil disturbance (bahiagrass pasture and undisturbed weed fallow) when compared with organic or conventional land management systems. Diversity de...
... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General... mechanism and its supporting structure must be designed for maximum flight load factors with the gear retracted and must be designed for the combination of friction, inertia, brake torque, and air...
... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General... mechanism and its supporting structure must be designed for maximum flight load factors with the gear retracted and must be designed for the combination of friction, inertia, brake torque, and air...
Land use planning and drought early warning systems both require an understanding of ecological potential and resilience, and how they vary across space and through time. A large body of literature and local knowledge has documented the importance of considering soil variability for land use plannin...
Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Zubarev, A.; Robinson, M. S.
We provide cartography and information system support to the LUNA-GLOB mission and assess candidate landing sites  on the basis of different available remote sensing data sets. The main goal of our work is to identify science opportunities in the sub-polar areas and to detect possible hazards for any landing spacecraft.
Williamson, Ian P.
Current land administration systems are the product of 19th century economic and land market paradigms and have failed to properly support sustainable development. The need for urgent reform is accepted, but the way forward unclear in many jurisdictions. This paper will discuss current international initiatives and research to develop a new land administration vision to promote sustainable development. Within this context, this paper describes the changing humankind to land relationship, identifies some of the growing environmental pressures facing modern society and the need for sustainable development, explores the evolving role of land administration in society and highlights the need for land administration systems to play a more proactive role in supporting sustainable development objectives. The process to re-engineer land administrations is briefly reviewed. The paper then highlights the development of a national land administration vision and strategy. In proposing strategies the paper draws on international trends and experiences such as highlighted in the recent United Nations — International Federation of Surveyors Declaration on Land Administration for Sustainable Development.
Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.
As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to
Haldemann, A. F.; Anderson, F. S.
The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) airbag landing system imposes a maximum slope of 5 degrees over 100 m length-scales. This limit avoids dangerous changes in elevation over the horizontal travel distance of the lander on its parachute between the time of the last radar altimeter detection of the surface and the time the retro-rockets fire and the bridle to the airbags is cut. Stereo imagery from the MGS MOC can provide information at this length scale, but MOC stereo coverage is sparse, even when targeted to MER landing sites. Additionally, MGS spacecraft stability issues affect the DEMs at precisely the hectometric length-scale1. The MOLA instrument provides global coverage pulse-width measurements2 over a single MOLA-pulse footprint, which is about 100 m in diameter. However, the pulse spread only provides an upper bound on the 100 m slope. We chose another approach. We sample the inter-pulse root-mean-square (RMS) height deviations for MOLA track segments restricted to pixels of 0.1 deg latitude by 0.1 deg longitude. Then, under the assumption of self-affine topography, we determine the scale-dependence of the RMS deviations and extrapolate that behavior over the range of 300 m to 1.2 km downward to the 100 m scale. Shepard et al.3 clearly summarize the statistical properties of the RMS deviation (noting that it also goes by the name structure function, variogram or Allan deviation), and we follow their nomenclature. The RMS deviation is a useful measure in that it can be directly converted to RMS-slope for a given length-scale. We map the results of this self-affine extrapolation method for each of the proposed MER landing sites as well as Viking Lander 1 (VL1) and Pathfiner (MPF). In order of decreasing average hectometer RMS-slopes, Melas (about 4.5 degrees) > Elysium EP80 > Gusev > MPF > Elysium EP78 > VL1 > Athabasca > Isidis > Hematite (about 1 degree). We also map the scaling parameter (Hurst exponent); its behavior in the MER landing site regions is
Le Page, Yannick; West, Tris O.; Link, Robert; Patel, Pralit
The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used to project future societal and environmental scenarios, based on economic modeling and on a detailed representation of food and energy production systems. The terrestrial module in GCAM represents agricultural activities and ecosystems dynamics at the subregional scale, and must be downscaled to be used for impact assessments in gridded models (e.g., climate models). In this study, we present the downscaling algorithm of the GCAM model, which generates gridded time series of global land use and land cover (LULC) from any GCAM scenario. The downscaling is based on a number of user-defined rules and drivers, including transition priorities (e.g., crop expansion preferentially into grasslands rather than forests) and spatial constraints (e.g., nutrient availability). The default parameterization is evaluated using historical LULC change data, and a sensitivity experiment provides insights on the most critical parameters and how their influence changes regionally and in time. Finally, a reference scenario and a climate mitigation scenario are downscaled to illustrate the gridded land use outcomes of different policies on agricultural expansion and forest management. Several features of the downscaling can be modified by providing new input data or changing the parameterization, without any edits to the code. Those features include spatial resolution as well as the number and type of land classes being downscaled, thereby providing flexibility to adapt GCAM LULC scenarios to the requirements of a wide range of models and applications. The downscaling system is version controlled and freely available.
Thurman, Sam W.
Many important scientific objectives for Mars exploration require the ability to land safely at select sites. The 'first-generation' entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems used in previous missions imposed limitations on target site selection due to the delivery accuracy achievable and those systems' inability to recognize and avoid hazardous terrain. This abstract outlines key capabilities of a proposed second-generation EDL system, currently under development by a consortium of NASA centers, Industry, and academic institutions.
Laurence, Robert T.; And Others
A method for introducing estates in land to first-year law students is presented in detail. A key element is its use of transparencies to graphically represent crucial concepts and appropriate language. The concepts are introduced in a systematic fashion to allow students to build an understanding gradually. (JMD)
Prinn, Ronald G.; Hartley, Dana
We briefly review current knowledge and pinpoint some of the major areas of uncertainty for the following fundamental processes: (1) convection, condensation nuclei, and cloud formation; (2) oceanic circulation and its coupling to the atmosphere and cryosphere; (3) land surface hydrology and hydrology-vegetation coupling; (4) biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases; and (5) upper atmospheric chemistry and circulation.
Destefanis, Stefano; Buchwald, Robert; Pellegrino, Pasquale; Schroder, Silvio
Several mission studies have been performed focusing on a soft and precision landing using landing legs. Examples for such missions are Mars Sample Return scenarios (MSR), Lunar landing scenarios (MoonNEXT, Lunar Lander) and small body sample return studies (Marco Polo, MMSR, Phootprint). Such missions foresee a soft landing on the planet surface for delivering payload in a controlled manner and limiting the landing loads.To ensure a successful final landing phase, a landing system is needed, capable of absorbing the residual velocities (vertical, horizontal and angular) at touch- down, and insuring a controlled attitude after landing. Such requirements can be fulfilled by using landing legs with adequate damping.The Landing System Development (LSD) study, currently in its phase 2, foresees the design, analysis, verification, manufacturing and testing of a representative landing leg breadboard based on the Phase B design of the ESA Lunar Lander. Drop tests of a single leg will be performed both on rigid and soft ground, at several impact angles. The activity is covered under ESA contract with TAS-I as Prime Contractor, responsible for analysis and verification, Astrium GmbH for design and test and QinetiQ Space for manufacturing. Drop tests will be performed at the Institute of Space Systems of the German Aerospace Center (DLR-RY) in Bremen.This paper presents an overview of the analytical simulations (test predictions and design verification) performed, comparing the results produced by Astrium made multi body model (rigid bodies, nonlinearities accounted for in mechanical joints and force definitions, based on development tests) and TAS-I made nonlinear explicit model (fully deformable bodies).
Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.
Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.
Gascó, G.; Guerrero, F.; Gallardo, J.; Gascó, J. M.; Saa, A.
The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is producing changes in the learning system. One of the new learning system is the use of Moodle which is an Open Source Course Management System (CMS), also known as a Learning Management System (LMS) or a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It has become very popular among educators around the world as a tool for creating online dynamic web sites for their students. Professors of Soil Science Department of Universidad Politécnica de Madrid are introducing the use of moodle combined with the portfolio development in the learning of the subject of Land Evaluation. The objective of this subject is the application of the land capability system to the land evaluation of an specific area. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of the application of LMS in the teaching of Land Evaluation at University level.
Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.
Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluative approaches, with particular attention to the identification of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Policy decisions defining land use are mostly implemented through spatial planning and related zoning, and this involves trade-offs between many sectoral interests and conflicting challenges aimed at win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, the paper proposes a methodological approach for a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), named Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through the empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluative approach implemented in a DSDSS helps to elaborate "urbanization susceptibility maps", where spatial analysis combined with a multi-criteria method proved to be useful for facing the main issues related to land consumption and minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.
Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.
Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluation approaches, with particular attention to the development of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Land use policy decisions are implemented mostly through spatial planning and its related zoning. This involves trade-offs between many sectorial interests and conflicting challenges seeking win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, this paper proposes a methodological approach for developing a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), denominated Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluation approach implemented in a DSDSS helps produce "urbanization suitability maps" in which spatial analysis combined with multi-criteria evaluation methods proved to be useful for both facing the main issues relating to land consumption as well as minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.
..., Communications common carriers, Communications equipment, Radio, Telecommunications, Telephone, Television... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land...
Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; ...
Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence ofmore » phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.« less
Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia -Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.
Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.
Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee-Hong; Jiménez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N; van Baren, Marijke J; Price, Dana C; Wei, Chia-Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z
Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.
Wharton, S. W.; Newcomer, J. A.
The Pilot Land Data System being developed to address the information processing needs of the NASA land sciences research community is presented. The objective of the pilot program is to establish a limited-scale, distributed information system for the archival, location, transfer, integration, and manipulation of data across multiple sites connected by a high-speed communications network. Functional capabilities required for users to create, access, and maintain local and distributed data bases containing various types of data in support of land sciences research are summarized.
Dinitz, Laura; Forney, William; Byrd, Kristin
Scientists at the USGS Western Geographic Science Center are developing decision-support systems (DSSs) for natural-hazards and land-management issues. DSSs are interactive computer-based tools that use data and models to help identify and solve problems. These systems can provide crucial support to policymakers, planners, and communities for making better decisions about long-term natural hazards mitigation and land-use planning.
Duma, Stefan M; Boggess, Brian M; Crandall, Jeff R; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Seki, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Takashi
Computer simulations, dummy experiments with a new enhanced upper extremity and small female cadaver experiments were used to analyze the small female upper extremity response under side airbag loading. After establishing a worst case initial position, three tests were performed with the fifth percentile female hybrid III anthropometric test dummy and six experiments with small female cadaver subjects. A new fifth percentile female enhanced upper extremity was developed for the dummy experiments that included a two-axis wrist load cell in addition to the existing six-axis load cells in both the forearm and humerus. Forearm pronation was also included in the new dummy upper extremity to increase the biofidelity of the interaction with the handgrip. Instrumentation for both the cadaver and dummy tests included accelerometers and MHD angular rate sensors on the forearm, humerus, upper and lower spine. In order to quantify the applied loads to the cadaver hand and wrist from the door mounted handgrip, the handgrip was mounted to the door through a five-axis load cell and instrumented with accelerometers for inertial compensation. All six of the cadaver tests resulted in upper extremity injuries including comminuted mid-shaft humerus fractures, osteochondral fractures of the elbow joint surfaces, a transverse fracture of the distal radius and an osteochondral fracture of the lunate carpal bone. The results from the 6 cadaver tests presented in this study were combined with the results from 12 previous cadaver tests. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between observed injuries and measured occupant response. Using inertially compensated force measurements from the dummy mid-shaft forearm load cell, the linear combination of elbow axial force and shear force was significantly (P=0.05) correlated to the observed elbow injuries.
Lemmon, John J.
A proposed multipath system for the land mobile satellite radio channel using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is presented. The measurement technique and equipment used to make multipath measurements on communications links are briefly described. The system configuration and performance specifications of the proposed measurement system are discussed.
Thompson, W. C.
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the landing behavior of a 1/10-scale dynamic model of the C-8 Buffalo airplane equipped with an air-cushion landing system (ACLS) on a variety of surfaces including both calm and rough water and a smooth hard surface. Taxi runs were made on the hard surface over several obstacles. Landings were made with the model at various pitch and roll attitudes and vertical velocities and at one nominal horizontal velocity. Data from the landings include time histories of the trunk and air-cushion pressures and accelerations at selected locations on the model.
Case, Jonathan L.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Lapenta, William M.; Petars-Lidard, Christa D.
The exchange of energy and moisture between the Earth's surface and the atmospheric boundary layer plays a critical role in many hydrometeorological processes. Accurate and high-resolution representations of surface properties such as sea-surface temperature (SST), vegetation, soil temperature and moisture content, and ground fluxes are necessary to better understand the Earth-atmosphere interactions and improve numerical predictions of weather and climate phenomena. The NASA/NWS Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center is currently investigating the potential benefits of assimilating high-resolution datasets derived from the NASA moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Goddard Space Flight Center Land Information System (LIS). The LIS is a software framework that integrates satellite and ground-based observational and modeled data along with multiple land surface models (LSMs) and advanced computing tools to accurately characterize land surface states and fluxes. The LIS can be run uncoupled to provide a high-resolution land surface initial condition, and can also be run in a coupled mode with WRF to integrate surface and soil quantities using any of the LSMs available in LIS. The LIS also includes the ability to optimize the initialization of surface and soil variables by tuning the spin-up time period and atmospheric forcing parameters, which cannot be done in the standard WRF. Among the datasets available from MODIS, a leaf-area index field and composite SST analysis are used to improve the lower boundary and initial conditions to the LIS/WRF coupled model over both land and water. Experiments will be conducted to measure the potential benefits from using the coupled LIS/WRF model over the Florida peninsula during May 2004. This month experienced relatively benign weather conditions, which will allow the experiments to focus on the local and mesoscale
Wang, J.; Ge, A.; Hu, Y.; Li, C.; Wang, L.
Traditionally, potential evaluation methods for farmland consolidation have depended mainly on the experts' experiences, statistical computations or subjective adjustments. Some biases usually exist in the results. Thus, computer-aided technology has become essential. In this study, an intelligent evaluation system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established, and this system can deal with numerical data, discrete data and symbolic data. When the original land data are input, the level of potential of the agricultural land for development will be output by this new model. The provision of objective proof for decision-making by authorities in rural management is helpful. Agricultural land data characteristically comprise large volumes, complex varieties and more indexes. In land consolidation, it is very important to construct an effective index system. A group of indexes need to be selected for land consolidation. In this article, a fuzzy measure was adopted to accomplish the selection of specific features. A fuzzy integral based on a fuzzy measure is a type of fusion tool. The optimal solution with the fewest non-zero elements was obtained for the fuzzy measure by solving a fuzzy integral. This algorithm provides a quick and optimal way to identify the land-index system when preparing to conduct land consolidation. This new research was applied to Shunde's "Three Old" consolidation project which provides the data. Our estimation system was compared with a conventional evaluation system that is still accepted by the public. Our results prove to be consistent, and the new model is more automatic and intelligent. The results of this estimation system are significant for informing decision-making in land consolidation.
Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.
The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.
Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.
Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management
The FCC has allocated the L-band spectrum to geostationary satellite-based mobile radio, mobile telephone, and other similar services, which will then become available for large numbers of rural and suburban users. An expedient means of increasing capacity involves the use of single channel per carrier, demand-assignment multiple access with voice and frequency reuse via multiple beams, and orbital reuse by means of multiple satellites. Attention is given to several of the operational, systematic, and technological considerations of the first generation of land mobile satellite services furnishing thin-route services throughout North America.
simulated carrier landings in a Buckeye T-2C jet-trainer onto a carrier via the Fresnel lens Optical landing System (FLOLS). A number of simulator-device...carrier using the Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS) is analyzed in terms of two loops: flight path (FLOLS) control and speed (angle of attack
Verburg, P.; Eitelberg, D.; Ornetsmueller, C.; van Vliet, J.
Global land use models are driven by demands for food and urban space. However, at the same time many transitions in land use and land cover are driven by societal changes and the demand for a wide range of landscape functions or ecosystem services, including the conservation of biodiversity, regulation of climate and floods, and recreation. Some of these demands lead to tele-connected land use change through the transport of good and services, others are place-based and shape the local realities of land system change. Most current land use change models focus on land cover changes alone and ignore the importance of changes in land management and landscape configuration that affect climate, biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services. This talk will present an alternative approach to global land use modelling based on the simulation of changes in land systems in response to a wide set of ecosystem service demands. Simulations at global scale illustrate that accounting for demands for livestock products, carbon sequestration and biological conservation (following the Aichi targets) leads to different outcomes of land change models and allows the identification of synergies between carbon and biodiversity targets. An application in Laos indicates the complex transitions in land systems and landscapes that occur upon the transition from shifting cultivation to permanent agriculture and tree-crop plantations. We discuss the implications of such land system representations for Earth system modelling.
Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.
Land-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface temperature and moisture states. The strength of coupling between the land surface and PBL in numerical weather prediction and climate models remains largely unexplored and undiagnosed due to the complex interactions and feedbacks present across a range of scales. In this study, a framework for diagnosing local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) at the process-level is presented using a coupled mesoscale model with a suite of PBL and land surface model (LSM) options along with observations from the U. S. Southern Great Plains. Specifically, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been coupled to NASA's Land Information System (LIS), which provides a flexible and high-resolution representation and initialization of land surface physics and states. Coupling diagnostics based on the evolution of near-surface temperature and humidity are examined along with the sensitivity of a range of PBL-LSM combinations to perturbations in soil moisture. Ultimately, this work provides a testbed to study factors controlling LoCo using the LIS-WRF system, in an effort to develop and evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.
Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba
The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.
Deng, Guo; Zhu, Yuejian; Gong, Jiandong; Chen, Dehui; Wobus, Richard; Zhang, Zhe
Atmospheric variability is driven not only by internal dynamics, but also by external forcing, such as soil states, SST, snow, sea-ice cover, and so on. To investigate the forecast uncertainties and effects of land surface processes on numerical weather prediction, we added modules to perturb soil moisture and soil temperature into NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS), and compared the results of a set of experiments involving different configurations of land surface and atmospheric perturbation. It was found that uncertainties in different soil layers varied due to the multiple timescales of interactions between land surface and atmospheric processes. Perturbations of the soil moisture and soil temperature at the land surface changed sensible and latent heat flux obviously, as compared to the less or indirect land surface perturbation experiment from the day-to-day forecasts. Soil state perturbations led to greater variation in surface heat fluxes that transferred to the upper troposphere, thus reflecting interactions and the response to atmospheric external forcing. Various verification scores were calculated in this study. The results indicated that taking the uncertainties of land surface processes into account in GEFS could contribute a slight improvement in forecast skill in terms of resolution and reliability, a noticeable reduction in forecast error, as well as an increase in ensemble spread in an under-dispersive system. This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of the effects of land surface processes on predictability. Further research using more complex and suitable methods is needed to fully explore our understanding in this area.
altitudes with long range flight patterns which make them difficult to detect until at extremely close range. The highly accurate com- mand and control...guidance packages of cruise missiles make deployed personnel and assets extremely vulnerable to attack. The current capability of the U.S. Armed...acquire information to make milestone decisions in the acquisition, production, and fielding of this defense system. 1.3 LOCATION OF PROPOSED
Václavík, Tomáš; Langerwisch, Fanny; Cotter, Marc; Fick, Johanna; Häuser, Inga; Hotes, Stefan; Kamp, Johannes; Settele, Josef; Spangenberg, Joachim H.; Seppelt, Ralf
Much of our knowledge about land use and ecosystem services in interrelated social-ecological systems is derived from place-based research. While local and regional case studies provide valuable insights, it is often unclear how relevant this research is beyond the study areas. Drawing generalized conclusions about practical solutions to land management from local observations and formulating hypotheses applicable to other places in the world requires that we identify patterns of land systems that are similar to those represented by the case study. Here, we utilize the previously developed concept of land system archetypes to investigate potential transferability of research from twelve regional projects implemented in a large joint research framework that focus on issues of sustainable land management across four continents. For each project, we characterize its project archetype, i.e. the unique land system based on a synthesis of more than 30 datasets of land-use intensity, environmental conditions and socioeconomic indicators. We estimate the transferability potential of project research by calculating the statistical similarity of locations across the world to the project archetype, assuming higher transferability potentials in locations with similar land system characteristics. Results show that areas with high transferability potentials are typically clustered around project sites but for some case studies can be found in regions that are geographically distant, especially when values of considered variables are close to the global mean or where the project archetype is driven by large-scale environmental or socioeconomic conditions. Using specific examples from the local case studies, we highlight the merit of our approach and discuss the differences between local realities and information captured in global datasets. The proposed method provides a blueprint for large research programs to assess potential transferability of place-based studies to other
Harrison, K.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Santanello, J. A.; Kirschbaum, D. B.
Recent advances in information systems technology have significantly improved our ability to fully exploit the information content of remote sensing data. In this talk, we discuss a range of applications for the optimization and uncertainty tools recently incorporated into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) to address this challenge. LIS is a high-resolution, high-performance, land surface modeling and data assimilation system that supports a wide range of land surface research and applications. The applications of the new optimization and uncertainty tools involve several LIS land-coupled models, including the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), models of land microwave emission (the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM)), radiative transfer (Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation's Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)), landslide and streamflow simulation. The impact of parameter estimation on land surface modeling is investigated for a range of studies, including soil moisture modeling in the Walnut Gulch experimental watershed, land data assimilation over the continental United States, and coupled land-atmosphere forecasts using WRF for the Southern Great Plains. In addition, the uncertainty in the outputs of such coupled systems is investigated. The uncertainty methods include Monte Carlo for propagating parameter uncertainties and model errors as well as Markov chain Monte Carlo methods that enable the updating of parameter uncertainties with remote sensing data. The tradeoffs between uncertainty estimation and parameter estimation are also highlighted. Finally, remaining challenges for the development of information systems of this kind are identified, including challenges in their use as part of mission simulation experiments.
Rodell, Matthew; Houser, Paul R.; Jambor, U.; Gottschalck, J.; Radakovich, J.; Arsenault, K.; Meng, C.-J.; Mitchell, K. E.
The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) drives multiple uncoupled land surface models in order to produce optimal output fields of surface states in near-real time, globally, at 1/4 degree spatial resolution. These fields are then made available for coupled atmospheric model initialization and further research. One of the unique aspects of GLDAS is its ability to ingest both modeled and observation-derived forcing for running global scale land surface models. This paper compares results of runs forced by modeled and observed precipitation and shortwave radiation fields. Differences are examined and the impact of the observations on model skill is assessed.
James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary
Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.
DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.
NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.
... reference, see § 1915.5); (2) Automatic sprinkler systems according to NFPA 25-2002 Standard for the... § 1915.5), and either (i) NFPA 13-2002 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems (incorporated... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...
Li, Li; Chen, Zhenjie
This article analyzes Kunming land use planning and management information system from the system building objectives and system building requirements aspects, nails down the system's users, functional requirements and construction requirements. On these bases, the three-tier system architecture based on C/S and B/S is defined: the user interface layer, the business logic layer and the data services layer. According to requirements for the construction of land use planning and management information database derived from standards of the Ministry of Land and Resources and the construction program of the Golden Land Project, this paper divides system databases into planning document database, planning implementation database, working map database and system maintenance database. In the design of the system interface, this paper uses various methods and data formats for data transmission and sharing between upper and lower levels. According to the system analysis results, main modules of the system are designed as follows: planning data management, the planning and annual plan preparation and control function, day-to-day planning management, planning revision management, decision-making support, thematic inquiry statistics, planning public participation and so on; besides that, the system realization technologies are discussed from the system operation mode, development platform and other aspects.
Sizer, J. E.; Borchert, J. R. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. To update and refine existing state-wide land resource information systems, the Minnesota State Planning Agency is assessing the feasibility of extracting resource information from ERTS-1 imagery. Work has centered on a comparative analysis of Minnesota Land Management Information System (MLMIS) and ERTS-1 land use classes. The associated problems of determining appropriate data cell size and optimal seasonal timing have also been addressed. Using ERTS-1 images, dominant land use is classified as follows: urban, forest, agriculture, extractive, transportation, water, and wetlands. Preliminary analysis suggests that with appropriate changes in operational definitions these general classes can be further refined for the benefit of MLMIS users. Additional detail appears most feasible extractive classes.
Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)
NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.
8217 was within the U.S. Phase III Program design requirements, the ICAO ’reduced capability system’ requirements, and the ICAO ’full capability system’ requirements. The TRSB system installation did not adversely affect the ILS. (Author)
Weber, Herbert; Lichtenberger, Ralf; Wolf, Thomas
Highly dynamic 3-D deformations of airbag caps in the time interval from the ignition of the airbag to the fracture of the covers have been studied optically. The large out-of-plane displacement compared to the in-plane displacements afforded that the measurement problem was solved by combining white light speckle correlation with fringe projection. In order to record the speckle patterns and the fringe patterns simultaneously by two high speed CCD cameras they had to be separated spectrally. The in-plane displacements yield from the speckle patterns by pattern recognition methods. The out-of-plane displacements can be calculated from the contour of the caps. They yield from the phase maps which are calculated from the fringe patterns. For each time instant only one image is available so that phase shifting procedures to evaluate the fringe patterns could not be applied. In this paper we present a method which is based on the simulation of a phase locked loop (PLL). This results in continuous phase maps without phase unwrapping.
Massive investments in climate change mitigation and adaptation are projected during coming decades. Many of these investments will seek to modify how land is managed. The return on both types of investments can be increased through an understanding of land potential: the potential of the land to s...
Coomes, Oliver T; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M
In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time--with community enclosure--by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of "land-use" poverty traps--a "subsistence crop" trap and a "short fallow" trap--and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth.
de Vries, Franciska T.; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A.; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C.; d’Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W. H. Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R.; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P.; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H.; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D.
Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339
de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D
Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world.
Pouliot, D.; Homer, C.; Ressl, R.; Takaki, F.; Meneses, C.; Latifovic, R.; Giri, C.; Colditz, R.; Jimenez, F.; Orozco, R.; Hossain, N.; Lopez, G.; Palafox, R.; Díaz, P.
At the Land Cover Summit meeting held in Washington, DC in September 2006 the North American Land Change Monitoring System (NLCMS) project was initiated between representatives from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the National Institute of Geographic Statistics and Information of Mexico (INEGI) and the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). The objective of the NALCMS is a joint effort to create a harmonized system for multi-scale and multi-temporal monitoring and reporting of North American land cover change. The proposed system couples 250m and 30m resolutions, offering products relevant at both spatial scales. The two spatial resolutions will provide users with investigation, confirmation, calibration, and assessment of 250m change products with 30m product support. This combination of spatial resolutions offers a valuable increase in temporal frequency, context, and strategic prioritization for 30m products. In due course these land change products can provide continental, national, and regional consistency to land cover and land cover change analysis.
Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip; Quaife, Tristan; Kaminski, Tomas; Styles, Jon
In order to monitor the land surface, EO data provides the means of achieving global coverage in a timely fashion. Different sensors orbit the Earth acquiring data at different times and with different spectral and spatial properties. Blending all these observations presents a considerable challenge. Purely statistical methods based on machine learning techniques require accurate and extensive ground truth for "training" models. The complexities of the processes that take place in the scene result in limited usefulness of these models outside their training region or period. Models that describe the physical processes that give rise to the measurements, based on radiative transfer theory, offer a more robust way of interpreting the recorded data and relating it to surface properties such as leaf area index, chlorophyll concentration, etc. Unfortunately, the information content in the signals is rarely sufficient to unambigously determine the many parameters that are required in typical radiative transfer models. To improve on this, the use of prior information is required. Typically, this information is given as parameter ranges, or maybe even distributions, which can have a positive effect in the so-called "inverse problem". Data assimilation techniques allow one to use models of the land surface as priors, to constrain the inverse problem. These models can be very useful in improving the ability of inverting the observations, as the models can give very valuable information on the dynamics of some parameters, like LAI. However, some parameters that have a strong bearing on the observations (some pigments, leaf angle distributions...) have no analogues in typical DGVMs. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate the use of weak constraint 4DVAR data assimilation to the problem of inverting optical RT models. We demonstrate that the use of this technique results in important gains in parameter uncertainty reduction for a typical satellite mission, including
Land resource sustainability for urban development characterizes the problem of decision-making with multiplicity and uncertainty. A decision support system prototype aids in the assessment of incremental land development plan proposals put forth within the long-term community priority of a sustainable growth. Facilitating this assessment is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multi-criteria evaluation and decision support system. The decision support system incorporates multiple sustainability criteria, weighted strategically responsive to local public policy priorities and community-specific situations and values, while gauging and directing desirable future courses of development. Furthermore, the decision support system uses a GIS, which facilitates an assessment of urban form with multiple indicators of sustainability as spatial criteria thematically. The resultant land-use sustainability scores indicate, on the ratio-scale of AHP, whether or not a desirable urban form is likely in the long run, and if so, to what degree. The two alternative modes of synthesis in AHP-ideal and distributive-provide assessments of a land development plan incrementally (short-term) and city-wide pattern comprehensively (long-term), respectively. Thus, the spatial decision support system facilitates proactive and collective public policy determination of land resource for future sustainable urban development.
Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon
This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201
indicated that performance of the TRSB Small Community azimuth subsystem met ICAO (AWOP) ’full capability system’ requirements. Although an accurate...averaged value were well within ICAO (AWOP) ’full capability system’ error limit boundaries. (Author)
demonstrations indicated that the performance of the TRSB Small Community System configuration was within the Phase III design requirements and met the ICAO ’full capability system’ requirements. (Author)
San Martin, A. Miguel; Lee, Steven W.; Wong, Edward C.
On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission successfully delivered the Curiosity rover to its intended target. It was the most complex and ambitious landing in the history of the red planet. A key component of the landing system, the requirements for which were driven by the mission ambitious science goals, was the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system. This paper will describe the technical challenges of the MSL GN&C system, the resulting architecture and design needed to meet those challenges, and the development process used for its implementation and testing.
Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.; Diegert, C.
The Santa Monica mountains of Los Angeles consist primarily of complexly folded sedimentary marine strata with igneous and metamorphic rocks at the eastern end of the mountains. With the increased development of the Santa Monicas, a study was conducted to determine the critical land use data items in the mountains. Two information systems developed in parallel are described. One capitalizes on the City's present computer line printer system, and the second utilizes map overlay techniques on an interactive computer terminal. Results concerning population, housing, and land improvement illustrate the successful linking of ordinal and nominal data files in the interactive system.-
Weller, D. G.
The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections
Jahn, Axel; Buonomo, Sergio; Sforza, Mario; Lutz, Erich
A wideband channel model for Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) services is presented which characterizes the time-varying transmission channel between a satellite and a mobile user terminal. The channel model statistic parameters are the results of fitting procedures to measured data. The data used for fitting have a time resolution of 33 ns corresponding to a bandwidth of 30 MHz. Thus, the model is capable to characterize the channel behaviour for a wide range of services e.g., voice transmission, digital audio broadcasting (DAB), and spread spectrum modulation schemes. The model is presented for different environments and scenarios. The model is derived for a quasi-mobile user with hand-held terminal being in two different environments: rural and urban. The parameters needed for the description are (a) the number of echoes, (b) the distribution of the echo power, and (c) the distribution of the echo delay. It is shown that the direct path follows a Rician distribution whereas the reflected paths are Rayleigh/lognormal distributed. The parameters are given for an elevation angle of 25 deg.
DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy
Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study  identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.
Slazak, Anna; Freese, Dirk; Hüttl, Reinhard F.
Phosphorus (P) is commonly known as a major plant nutrient, which can act as a limiting factor for plant growth in many ecosystems, including different land use systems. Organic P (Po), transformations in soil are important in determining the overall biological availability of P and additionally Po depletion is caused by land cultivation. It is expected that changes of land use modifies the distribution of soil P among the various P-pools (Ptotal, Plabile, Po), where the Plabile forms are considered to be readily available to plants and Po plays an important role with P nutrition supply for plants. The aim of the study was to measure the different soil P pools under different land use systems. The study was carried out in northeast of Brandenburg in Germany. Different land use systems were studied: i) different in age pine-oak mixed forest stands, ii) silvopastoral land, iii) arable lands. Samples were taken from two mineral soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Recently, a variety of analytical methods are available to determine specific Po compounds in soils. The different P forms in the soil were obtained by a sequential P fractionation by using acid and alkaline extractants, which mean that single samples were subjected to increasingly stronger extractants, consequently separating the soil P into fractions based on P solubility. The soil Ptotal for the forest stands ranged from 100 to 183 mg kg -1 whereas Po from 77 to 148 mg kg -1. The Po and Plabile in both soil layers increased significantly with increase of age-old oak trees. The most available-P fraction was Plabile predominate in the oldest pine-oak forest stand, accounting for 29% of soil Ptotal. For the silvopasture and arable study sites the Ptotal content was comparable. However, the highest value of Ptotal was measured in the 30 years old silvopastoral system with 685 mg kg-1 and 728 mg kg-1 at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively than in arable lands. The results have shown that the 30 years old
Lohmann, Dag; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Houser, Paul R.; Wood, Eric F.; Schaake, John C.; Robock, Alan; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Sheffield, Justin; Duan, Qingyun; Luo, Lifeng; Higgins, R. Wayne; Pinker, Rachel T.; Tarpley, J. Dan
This paper is part of a series of papers about the multi-institutional North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project. It compares and evaluates streamflow and water balance results from four different land surface models (LSMs) within the continental United States. These LSMs have been run for the retrospective period from 1 October 1996 to 30 September 1999 forced by atmospheric observations from the Eta Data Assimilation System (EDAS) analysis, measured precipitation, and satellite-derived downward solar radiation. These model runs were performed on a common 1/8° latitude-longitude grid and used the same database for soil and vegetation classifications. We have evaluated these simulations using U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured daily streamflow data for 9 large major basins and 1145 small- to medium-sized basins from 23 km2 to 10,000 km2 distributed over the NLDAS domain. Model runoff was routed with a common distributed and a lumped optimized linear routing model. The diagnosis of the model water balance results demonstrates strengths and weaknesses in the models, our insufficient knowledge of ad hoc parameters used for the model runs, the interdependence of model structure and model physics, and the lack of good forcing data in parts of the United States, especially in regions with extended snow cover. Overall, the differences between the LSM water balance terms are of the same magnitude as the mean water balance terms themselves. The modeled mean annual runoff shows large regional differences by a factor of up to 4 between models. The corresponding difference in mean annual evapotranspiration is about a factor of 2. The analysis of runoff timing for the LSMs demonstrates the importance of correct snowmelt timing, where the resulting differences in streamflow timing can be up to four months. Runoff is underestimated by all LSMs in areas with significant snowfall.
Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.
The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.
Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K.; Jones, A.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P.; Thomson, A.
Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across integrated assessment and earth system models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario
Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John; Craig, Anthony; Calvin, Kate; Jones, Andrew; Collins, William; Edmonds, Jae; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter; Thomson, Allison
Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario-based earth system simulations.
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the level at which transportation system... the tribes, shall develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the level at which transportation system... the tribes, shall develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a...
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the level at which transportation system... the tribes, shall develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means the level at which transportation system... the tribes, shall develop criteria to determine when a CMS is to be implemented for a...
The application of land data assimilation systems to operational agricultural drought monitoring requires the development of (at least) three separate system sub-components: 1) a retrieval model to invert satellite-derived observations into soil moisture estimates, 2) a prognostic soil water balance...
Clarkson, W. W.; And Others
Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of…
... AREAS Conversion of Existing Oil and Gas Leases and Valid Claims Based on Mineral Locations § 3140.7 Lands within the National Park System. Conversions of existing oil and gas leases and valid claims based on mineral locations to combined hydrocarbon leases within units of the National Park System shall...
Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.
EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.
Cauley, J. K.; Gaelick, C.; Greenberg, J. S.; Logsdon, J.; Monk, T.
In September 1982 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized (by Title II of H.R. 5890 of the 97th Congress) to plan and provide for the management and operation of the civil land remote sensing satellite systems, to provide for user fees, and to plan for the transfer of the ownership and operation of future civil operational land remote sensing satellite systems to the private sector. As part of the planning for transfer, a number of approaches were to be compared including wholly private ownership and operation of the system by an entity competitively selected, mixed government/private ownership and operation, and a legislatively-chartered privately-owned corporation. The results of an analysis and comparison of a limited number of financial and organizational approaches for either transfer of the ownership and operation of the civil operational land remote sensing program to the private sector or government retention are presented.
Crawford, B. S.; Duiven, E. M.
The general purpose of this study is to aid in the evaluation and design of multi-sensor navigation schemes proposed for the orbiter. The scope of the effort is limited to the post-entry, energy management, and approach and landing mission phases. One candidate system based on conventional navigation aids is illustrated including two DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) stations and ILS (Instrument Landing System) glide slope and localizer antennas. Some key elements of the system not shown are the onboard IMUs (Inertial Measurement Units), altimeters, and a computer. The latter is programmed to mix together (filter) the IMU data and the externally-derived data. A completely automatic, all-weather landing capability is required. Since no air-breathing engines will be carried on orbital flights, there will be no chance to go around and try again following a missed approach.
Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Chisholm, J. P.; Macdonald, S. L.
A beacon landing system (BLS) is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques. The bLS airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small micropreocessor, installed in conjunction wht the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, BLS pulses and outputs ILS-compatible localizer and glide slope signals. Range information is obtained using an on-board weather/mapping radar in conjunction with the BLS. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit; it weighs less than 70 lb and can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight-test program show that the BLS has a significant potential for providing rotorcaraft with low-cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.
Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Chisholm, J. P.; Macdonald, S. L.
A beacon landing system (BLS) is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques. The BLS airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small microprocessor, installed in conjunction with the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, BLS pulses and outputs ILS-compatible localizer and glide slope signals. Range information is obtained using an on-board weather/mapping radar in conjunction with the BLS. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit; it weighs less than 70 lb and can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight-test program show that the BLS has a significant potential for providing rotorcraft with low-cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.
Crist, P.J.; Kohley, T.W.; Oakleaf, J.
Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.
Geiger, J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Tian, Y.
The NASA Land Information System (LIS) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS began in 2002 as a project to develop a high performance and high resolution land surface modeling framework by modernizing the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS). In 2005, the LIS team was first introduced to NASA's software release process when they applied for and co-won NASA's Software of the Year award. Over the years, LIS has developed a broad user-base including many US government agencies such as Air Force, NOAA, USGS, Army Corps of Engineers; many universities; and a few foreign agencies. All software developed for NASA must go through the software release process, which involves fully describing the software, identifying all persons who contributed to the software, and investigating who holds rights to the software. In August 2009, the LIS team reported version 6.0 of the Land Information System to the Innovative Partnerships Program Office (IPPO) via a New Technology Report (NTR). In April 2010, LIS 6.0 became available for release, on a project basis, to US government agencies and to entities working under a US government grant or contract, in contrast to previous versions of LIS, which were released as open source. This presentation discusses NASA's release process as experienced by the LIS team, discusses why LIS is restricted to a project-based release instead of having an open source release, discusses issues encountered with a project-based release including how this has affected LIS' user-base, and discusses lessons learned.
Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil
This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include
Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Ibáñez, Javier; Del Barrio, Gabriel; Sanjuán, Maria E; Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Vicente, Silvio; Ruiz, Alberto; Puigdefábregas, Juan
Mitigation strategies are crucial for desertification given that once degradation starts, other solutions are extremely expensive or unworkable. Prevention is key to handle this problem and solutions should be based on spotting and deactivating the stressors of the system. Following this topic, the Spanish Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (SPACD) created the basis for implementing two innovative approaches to evaluate the threat of land degradation in the country. This paper presents tools for preventing desertification in the form of a geomatic approach to enable the periodic assessments of the status and trends of land condition. Also System Dynamics modelling has been used to integrate bio-physical and socio-economic aspects of desertification to explain and analyse degradation in the main hot spots detected in Spain. The 2dRUE procedure was implemented to map the land-condition status by comparing potential land productivity according to water availability, the limiting factor in arid lands, with plant-biomass data. This assessment showed that 20% of the territory is degraded and an additional 1% is actively degrading. System Dynamics modelling was applied to study the five desertification landscapes identified by the SPACD. The risk analysis, implemented on these models, concluded that 'Herbaceous crops affected by soil erosion' is the landscape most at risk, while the Plackett-Burman sensitivity analysis used to rank the factors highlighted the supremacy of climatic factors above socioeconomic drivers.
Mcgee, L. A.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.; Steck, S. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Merz, A. W.
The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a VTOL aircraft landing approach navigation system that receives data (1) from either a microwave scanning beam (MSB) or a radar-transponder (R-T) landing guidance system, and (2) information data-linked from an aviation facility ship. State-of-the-art low-cost-aided inertial techniques and variable gain filters were used in the assumed navigation system. Compensation for ship motion was accomplished by a landing pad deviation vector concept that is a measure of the landing pad's deviation from its calm sea location. The results show that the landing guidance concepts were successful in meeting all of the current Navy navigation error specifications, provided that vector magnitude of the allowable error, rather than the error in each axis, is a permissible interpretation of acceptable performance. The success of these concepts, however, is strongly dependent on the distance measuring equipment bias. In addition, the 'best possible' closed-loop tracking performance achievable with the assumed point-mass VTOL aircraft guidance concept is demonstrated.
The microwave scanning beam landing system (MSBLS) is the primary position sensor of the Orbiter's navigation subsystem during the autoland phase of the flight. Portions of the system are discussed with special emphasis placed on potential problem areas as referenced to the Orbiter's mission. Topics discussed include system compatability, system accuracy, and expected RF signal levels. A block and flow diagram of MSBLS system operation is included with a list of special tests required to determine system performance.
Morfopolous, Arin; Metz, Brandon; Villalpando, Carlos; Matthies, Larry; Serrano, Navid
Pin-point landing is required to enable missions to land close, typically within 10 meters, to scientifically important targets in generally hazardous terrain. In Pin Point Landing both high accuracy and high speed estimation of position and orientation is needed to provide input to the control system to safely choose and navigate to a safe landing site. A proposed algorithm called VISion aided Inertial NAVigation (VISINAV) has shown that the accuracy requirements can be met.  VISINAV was shown in software only, and was expected to use FPGA enhancements in the future to improve the computational speed needed for pin point landing during Entry Descent and Landing (EDL). Homography, feature detection and spatial correlation are computationally intensive parts of VISINAV. Homography aligns the map image with the descent image so that small correlation windows can be used, and feature detection provides regions that spatial correlation can track from frame to frame in order to estimate vehicle motion. On MER the image Homography, Feature Detection and Correlation would take approximately 650ms tracking 75 features between frames. We implemented Homography, Feature detection and Correlation on a Virtex 4 LX160 FPGA to run in under 25ms while tracking 500 features to improve algorithm reliability and throughput.
Rollins, J. D.
A television/model board system is described which provides a means of generating a six-degree-of-freedom visual out-the-window scene for the pilot of a simulated aircraft. The hardware and its performance of capability for meeting the visual requirements for a wide range of simulation studies are detailed. Also included is a description of the computer software required for the system. An example of software implementation in a real-time computer program is provided.
Shilling, Fraser; Boggs, Jennifer; Reed, Sarah
In response to federal administrative rule, the Tahoe National Forest (TNF), California, USA engaged in trail-route prioritization for motorized recreation (e.g., off-highway-vehicles) and other recreation types. The prioritization was intended to identify routes that were suitable and ill-suited for maintenance in a transportation system. A recreational user survey was conducted online (n = 813) for user preferences for trail system characteristics, recreational use patterns, and demographics. Motorized trail users and non-motorized users displayed very clear and contrasting preferences for the same system. As has been found by previous investigators, non-motorized users expressed antagonism to motorized use on the same recreational travel system, whereas motorized users either supported multiple-use routes or dismissed non-motorized recreationists' concerns. To help the TNF plan for reduced conflict, a geographic information system (GIS) based modeling approach was used to identify recreational opportunities and potential environmental impacts of all travel routes. This GIS-based approach was based on an expert-derived rule set. The rules addressed particular environmental and recreation concerns in the TNF. Route segments were identified that could be incorporated into minimal-impact networks to support various types of recreation. The combination of potential impacts and user-benefits supported an optimization approach for an appropriate recreational travel network to minimize environmental impacts and user-conflicts in a multi-purpose system.
Shilling, Fraser; Boggs, Jennifer; Reed, Sarah
In response to federal administrative rule, the Tahoe National Forest (TNF), California, USA engaged in trail-route prioritization for motorized recreation (e.g., off-highway-vehicles) and other recreation types. The prioritization was intended to identify routes that were suitable and ill-suited for maintenance in a transportation system. A recreational user survey was conducted online ( n = 813) for user preferences for trail system characteristics, recreational use patterns, and demographics. Motorized trail users and non-motorized users displayed very clear and contrasting preferences for the same system. As has been found by previous investigators, non-motorized users expressed antagonism to motorized use on the same recreational travel system, whereas motorized users either supported multiple-use routes or dismissed non-motorized recreationists' concerns. To help the TNF plan for reduced conflict, a geographic information system (GIS) based modeling approach was used to identify recreational opportunities and potential environmental impacts of all travel routes. This GIS-based approach was based on an expert-derived rule set. The rules addressed particular environmental and recreation concerns in the TNF. Route segments were identified that could be incorporated into minimal-impact networks to support various types of recreation. The combination of potential impacts and user-benefits supported an optimization approach for an appropriate recreational travel network to minimize environmental impacts and user-conflicts in a multi-purpose system.
Nguyen, Hoa G.; Laird, Robin; Kogut, Greg; Andrews, John; Fletcher, Barbara; Webber, Todd; Arrieta, Rich; Everett, H. R.
The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems. On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff- and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a number of projects in these areas.
Wang, J.; Ge, A.; Hu, Y.; Li, C.; Wang, L.
Traditionally, potential evaluation methods for farmland consolidation have depended mainly on the experts' experiences, statistical computations or subjective adjustments. Some biases usually exist in the results. Thus, computer-aided technology has become essential. In this study, an intelligent evaluation system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established, and this system can deal with numerical data, discrete data and symbolic data. When the original land data are input, the level of potential of the agricultural land for development will be output by this new model. The provision of objective proof for decision making by authorities in rural management is helpful. Agricultural land data characteristically comprise large volumes, complex varieties and more indexes. In land consolidation, it is very important to construct an effective index system. We needed to select a group of indexes useful for land consolidation according to the concrete demand. In this paper, a fuzzy measure, which can describe the importance of a single feature or a group of features, is adopted to accomplish the selection of specific features. A fuzzy integral that is based on a fuzzy measure is a type of fusion tool. We obtained the optimal solution for a fuzzy measure by solving a fuzzy integral. The fuzzy integrals can be transformed to a set of linear equations. We applied the L1-norm regularization method to solve the linear equations, and we found a solution with the fewest nonzero elements for the fuzzy measure; this solution shows the contribution of corresponding features or the combinations of decisions. This algorithm provides a quick and optimal way to identify the land index system when preparing to conduct the research, such as we describe herein, on land consolidation. Shunde's "Three Old" consolidation project provides the data for this work. Our estimation system was compared with a conventional evaluation system that is still accepted by the public. Our results prove
Andrieu, Joel; Gallais, Frederic; Mallepeyre, Vincent; Bertrand, Valerie; Beillard, Bruno; Jecko, Bernard; Guillerey, Regis; Legoff, Marc
PULSAR is an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) short pulse Radar developed by the CELAR (French Technical Center for Armament Electronics) and the IRCOM (Research Institute of Microwave and Optical Communications) in order to detect foliage and ground concealed mines. An instrumentation measurement system has been designed and implemented, in particular new 2D broad band antennas with a very low pulse distortion. The clutter suppression is based on background subtraction and wavelet transforms. These data are used to obtain SAR ultra wide band images by transient methods. The following discussion describes the device, the experimental results and the signal processing currently utilized. Future development efforts on this system (generator, acquisition means .) are detailed. At the same time a theoretical study is made to estimate target transient responses captured by the system. So a FDTD code is modified to simulate buried objects detection by the radar.
Ruggieri, Marina; Valdoni, Francesco; Vatalaro, Francesco
An architecture for a mobile satellite system proposed for integration with the pan-European GSM terrestrial cellular system is described. A cellular satellite system concept is outlined with emphasis on multispot coverage of the cell, and a carrier-to-interference analysis is performed. It is noted that a suitable payload structure is needed to allow the flexible management of the channels assigned to a certain cell, and a multiport transponder (MPT) payload architecture is introduced, where an MPT is a wideband transparent multibeam cell-transponder provided with an intrinsic soft-fail capability. A proposal for a comprehensive program encompassing an experiment including a propagation mission and a communication mission is discussed, and attention is focused on experiments with highly inclined orbit mobile-radio channels, statistical channel models, and mobile-terminal terrain antenna.
Miller, G. K., Jr.
A series of ground-based and in-flight simulation studies of the application of steady-state decoupled longitudinal controls to a short take-off and landing (STOL) transport have been made. The externally blown flap STOL was selected for study because it was considered to be a worst-case situation from the control viewpoint. The decoupled longitudinal control system used constant prefilter and feedback gains to provide independent control of flight-path angle, pitch angle, and forward velocity during landing approach. The decoupled controls were compared to a more conventional stability augmentation system. The pilots were enthusiastic about the decoupled controls; the pilot workload was reduced and the landing performance significantly improved. The benefit of the decoupled controls was more dramatic during in-flight simulation using a variable stability airplane than was the case with either fixed- or moving-base, ground-based simulators.
Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Wormley, D. N.
The analytical tools (analysis and computer simulation) needed to explain and predict the dynamic operation of air cushion landing systems (ACLS) is described. The following tasks were performed: the development of improved analytical models for the fan and the trunk; formulation of a heave pitch roll analysis for the complete ACLS; development of a general purpose computer simulation to evaluate landing and taxi performance of an ACLS equipped aircraft; and the verification and refinement of the analysis by comparison with test data obtained through lab testing of a prototype cushion. Demonstration of simulation capabilities through typical landing and taxi simulation of an ACLS aircraft are given. Initial results show that fan dynamics have a major effect on system performance. Comparison with lab test data (zero forward speed) indicates that the analysis can predict most of the key static and dynamic parameters (pressure, deflection, acceleration, etc.) within a margin of a 10 to 25 percent.
Mcgee, L. A.
Spiral approaches adjacent to the active runways of CTOL airports have been proposed as a means of effectively interfacing CTOL and VTOL landing operations. Assuming an airport equipped with a Microwave Landing System (MLS), a VTOL aircraft following a spiral approach path might, depending on the specific trajectory, pass alternatively in and out of the linear coverage of the MLS and thereby suffer degraded navigation performance. The objective of this study was to employ essentially state-of-the-art aided inertial navigation concepts to explore the expected navigation performance operating in the environment just described. Results show that aided inertial concepts utilizing simple body-mounted inertia systems may be adequate for an instrument landing if the MLS azimuth and Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) signal coverages extend to within a few feet of the ground.
A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.
A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of research and development. It is ...
Muirhead, B. K.
This paper describes the system integration and test experiences, problems and lessons learned during the assembly, test and launch operations (ATLO) phase of the Mars Pathfinder flight system scheduled to land on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft consists of three spacecraft systems: cruise stage, entry vehicle and lander. The cruise stage carries the entry and lander vehicles to Mars and is jettisoned prior to entry. The entry vehicle, including aeroshell, parachute and deceleration rockets, protects the lander during the direct entry and reduces its velocity from 7.6 to 0 km/s in stages during the 5 min entry sequence. The lander's touchdown is softened by airbags which are retracted once stopped on the surface. The lander then uprights itself, opens up fully and begins surface operations including deploying its camera and rover. This paper overviews the system design and the results of the system integration and test activities, including the entry, descent and landing subsystem elements. System test experiences including science instruments, the microrover, Sojourner, and software are discussed. The final qualification of the entry, descent and landing subsystems during this period is also discussed.
Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Lu, X.; Kicklighter, D. W.
The U.S. Northeast includes some of the nation's most populated cities and their supporting hinterlands, with an urban corridor spanning from Maine to Virginia. The megaregion's centuries-long history of landscape transformations has had enduring impact on the region's hydrology, ecosystems and socioeconomy. Driven by policy decisions made in the next decade, future landscape changes will also interplay with climate change, with multi-decadal effects that are currently poorly understood. While existing national and global land cover trajectories will play an important role in understanding these future impacts, they do not allow for investigation of many issues of interest to regional stakeholders, such as local zoning and suburban sprawl, the development of a regional food system, or varying rates of natural lands protection. Existing land cover trajectories also do not usually provide the detail needed as input drivers for earth system models, such as disaggregated vegetation types or harmonized time series of infrastructure management. We discuss the development of a simple land use/land cover allocation scheme to develop such needed trajectories, their implementation for 4 regional socioeconomic pathways developed collaboratively with regional stakeholders, and their preliminary use in regional ecosystem modeling.
Zeng, Chunlai; Hu, Wuming; Zhu, Ning; Zhao, Xuyong; Xu, Jian; Ye, Shiyong; Xiang, Yijia; Lv, Linchun
Coronary artery dissection and aneurysm culminating in acute myocardial infarction are rare after blunt chest trauma. We are reporting a case of a previously healthy 52-year-old man who presented with right inferior lobe contusion, pleural effusion, right interlobar fissure effusion, bone fracture of right fourth rib, and acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and who experienced blunt trauma in his right chest wall by an airbag deployment in a car accident. Coronary angiography showed an aneurysm in the middle of right coronary artery with 70% afferent narrowing just distal to the aneurysm with no visible atherosclerotic lesion. A 4.0×20 mm TEXUS Liberté stent in the lesion was deployed, and a good coronary flow was obtained without residual stenosis and the aneurysm vanished.
Zimmermann, Jesko; González, Ainhoa; Jones, Michael; O'Brien, Phillip; Stout, Jane C.; Green, Stuart
In developed countries, cropland and grassland conversions and management can be a major factor in Land Use and Land Use Change (LULUC) related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) dynamics. Depending on land use, management and factors such as soil properties land can either act as source or sink for GHGs. Currently many countries depend on national statistics combined with socio-economic modelling to assess current land use as well as inter-annual changes. This potentially introduces a bias as it neither provides information on direct land- use change trajectories nor spatially explicit information to assess the environmental context. In order to improve reporting countries are shifting towards high resolution spatial datasets. In this case study, we used the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), a pan-European geographical database developed to assist farmers and authorities with agricultural subsidies, to analyse cropland dynamics in Ireland. The database offer high spatial resolution and is updated annually. Generally Ireland is considered grassland dominated with 90 % of its agricultural area under permanent grassland, and only a small area dedicated to cropland. However an in-depth analysis of the LPIS for the years 2000 to 2012 showed strong underlying dynamics. While the annual area reported as cropland remained relatively constant at 3752.3 ± 542.3 km2, the area of permanent cropland was only 1251.9 km2. Reversely, the area that was reported as cropland for at least one year during the timeframe was 7373.4 km2, revealing a significantly higher area with cropland history than annual statistics would suggest. Furthermore, the analysis showed that one quarter of the land converting from or to cropland will return to the previous land use within a year. To demonstrate potential policy impact, we assessed cropland/grassland dynamics from the 2008 to 2012 commitment period using (a) annual statistics, and (b) data including land use history derived from LPIS. Under
Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A.; Bastos, Luísa
Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved. PMID:22736985
Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A; Bastos, Luísa
Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved.
McFee, John E.; Cousins, Thomas; Jones, Trevor; Brisson, Jean R.; Jamieson, Terry; Waller, Ed; LeMay, Francois; Ing, Harry; Clifford, Edward T. H.; Selkirk, Barkley
To detect and locate buried landmines, the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) is developing a teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multisensor system called ILDP. In operation, a suite of 4 detectors scan ahead of the vehicle. Their outputs are combined through data fusion to indicate the possibility of a mine at a particular location, within a 30 cm radius. A thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensor, mounted behind the vehicle, is used to confirm the presence of explosives via detection of the 10.83 MeV gamma-ray associated with neutron capture on 14N. The TNA system developed for this uses a 100 microgram 252Cf neutron source surrounded by four 7.62 cm X 7.62 cm NaI(Tl) detectors. A combination of the use of state-of-the art radiation transport codes for design, judicious choice of specialized shielding materials and development of high-rate, fast pulse processing electronics has led to a system which can; (1) confirm the presence of all surface-laid or shallowly-buried anti-tank mines in a few seconds to a minute (depending on mass of explosive) (2) confirm the presence of anti-tank mines down to 20 cm depth in less than 5 minutes. (3) confirm the presence of large (greater than 100 g Nitrogen) anti-personnel mines in less than five minutes (4) operate in adverse climatic conditions. These results have been verified in field trials using the prototype sensor. Work is now ongoing to miniaturize the electronics, make the system robust and easy to use and investigate the use of an electronic neutron generator expected to enter service by the year 2000.
8217 control installed, for each of the five time-delay values. In all cases , the average mean square error was reduced approximately 70% by the addition...assistance with explanations of the ACLS. Credit should also be given to Lieutenant John Pinnel , a classmate at the Air Force Institute of Technology...the system with and without the control installed, for each of the five time-delay values. In all cases , the average mean square error was reduced
reactions reflected these weaknesses in that Soldier usage and proficiency ratings of many LW tasks and skills were low. Training on LW system...company in a single classroom), the trainers were unable to adapt to the diversity in learning rates and military experience in the target population...impacts within the target population. Training in NET was not sufficient to instill confidence in leaders. Leaders’ ratings of their confidence in the
vari- lon ( in also o( ( ur in relo( ,(I i( r(iones with- ation of native N in the soil. Only a few systems in an othvrs, isi aerated soil it the N and...minerals is a aerated The organic C content is generally low, process unlikely to be of major significance for particularly when secondary wastewaters are...prototypes were totally stored in subsurface concrete tanks for use in ex- enclosed, all of the drainage water could be di- periments that required
Matolak, David W.
In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-238 Joint Precision Approach and Landing System Increment 1A (JPALS Inc 1A) As of FY 2017...PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service
Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...
Lamm, Alexa J.; Lamm, Kevan W.; Strickland, L. Rochelle
Many outside influences are altering higher education including a decline in resources, changes in student demographics, the impacts of technology, and the shift to an information age. The need for faculty members to become leaders that can handle swift changes to the culture of Colleges of Agriculture within the land-grant system are needed now…
Kotin, A. D.
The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.
The objective of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is to provide best-available estimates of near surface meteorological conditions and soil hydrological status for the Continental United States. The first two phases of NLDAS, however, have not included the assimilation of rem...
Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)
A preliminary evaluation of the processing capability of the VICAR software for land information support system needs is presented. The geometric and radiometric properties of four sets of LANDSAT data taken over the Elk River, Idaho quadrangle were compared. Storage of data sets, the means of location, pixel resolution, and radiometric and geometric characteristics are described. Recommended modifications of VICAR programs are presented.
This letter contributes a new approach to calibrating a tau-omega radiative transfer model coupled to a land surface model with low frequency (< 10 GHz) microwave brightness temperature (TB) observations. The problem of calibrating this system is generally poorlyposed because various parameter combi...
Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.
This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.
Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin
The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product
White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.
Measurements of soil moisture are a crucial component for the proper monitoring of drought conditions. The large spatial variability of soil moisture complicates the problem. Unfortunately, in situ soil moisture observing networks typically consist of sparse point observations, and conventional numerical model analyses of soil moisture used to diagnose drought are of coarse spatial resolution. Decision support systems such as the U.S. Drought Monitor contain drought impact resolution on sub-county scales, which may not be supported by the existing soil moisture networks or analyses. The NASA Land Information System, which is run with 3 km grid spacing over the eastern United States, has demonstrated utility for monitoring soil moisture. Some of the more useful output fields from the Land Information System are volumetric soil moisture in the 0-10 cm and 40-100 cm layers, column-integrated relative soil moisture, and the real-time green vegetation fraction derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) swath data that are run within the Land Information System in place of the monthly climatological vegetation fraction. While these and other variables have primarily been used in local weather models and other operational forecasting applications at National Weather Service offices, the use of the Land Information System for drought monitoring has demonstrated utility for feedback to the Drought Monitor. Output from the Land Information System is currently being used at NWS Huntsville to assess soil moisture, and to provide input to the Drought Monitor. Since feedback to the Drought Monitor takes place on a weekly basis, weekly difference plots of column-integrated relative soil moisture are being produced by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center and analyzed to facilitate the process. In addition to the Drought Monitor, these data are used to assess drought conditions for monthly feedback to the Alabama Drought Monitoring
Kumar, Sri; Harcourt, John; Herbst, Brian; Strickland, Daniel
Airbag related injuries to infants in rear facing child seats are common in frontal crashes. Several vehicular modifications such as deactivated passenger airbags, manual cut-off switches, depowered airbags and smart airbags have been advanced to mitigate the effect of airbag deployment on child seats. However, there is limited research effort to address the biomechanics of airbag injuries due to modification in child restraint systems. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the biomechanical effects of a protective barrier between the rear facing child restraint and the frontal passenger airbag of the vehicle. An experimental study was conducted using an Anthropometric Test Dummy (ATD) in a vehicular partial structure (buck). The rear facing child seat was placed in the right front passenger seat of the vehicle. The child seat was restrained using the three-point restraint in the vehicle. The six-month-old instrumented ATD was restrained in the child seat. The ATD was instrumented with the head tri-axial and two uni-axial linear accelerometers. The uni-axial linear acceleration was used to calculate the angular acceleration. Two different rear facing child seats, the standard rear facing infant seat and the rear facing infant seat inside the protective barrier structure were tested. In each test, the Head Injury Criteria (HIC) and angular head acceleration were measured. Results show that the HIC was reduced by 95% and the angular head acceleration was reduced by 85% by the protective barrier. The head injury values were well below the tolerance limit for the child with the barrier. The protective barrier deflected the airbag away from the ATDs head and also acted as a shield to minimize airbag force on the child seat. In the typical infant seat, the airbag contacted the ATDs head and exerted significant force on the child seat which rotated the seat rearward. These kinematic responses may explain the clinical observation of severe head injuries by
Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.
The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. Currently, NASA is developing novel lidar sensors aimed at needs of future planetary landing missions. These lidar sensors are a 3-Dimensional Imaging Flash Lidar, a Doppler Lidar, and a Laser Altimeter. The Flash Lidar is capable of generating elevation maps of the terrain that indicate hazardous features such as rocks, craters, and steep slopes. The elevation maps collected during the approach phase of a landing vehicle, at about 1 km above the ground, can be used to determine the most suitable safe landing site. The Doppler Lidar provides highly accurate ground relative velocity and distance data allowing for precision navigation to the landing site. Our Doppler lidar utilizes three laser beams pointed to different directions to measure line of sight velocities and ranges to the ground from altitudes of over 2 km. Throughout the landing trajectory starting at altitudes of about 20 km, the Laser Altimeter can provide very accurate ground relative altitude measurements that are used to improve the vehicle position knowledge obtained from the vehicle navigation system. At altitudes from approximately 15 km to 10 km, either the Laser Altimeter or the Flash Lidar can be used to generate contour maps of the terrain, identifying known surface features such as craters, to perform Terrain relative Navigation thus further reducing the vehicle s relative position error. This paper describes the operational capabilities of each lidar sensor and provides a status of their development. Keywords: Laser Remote Sensing, Laser Radar, Doppler Lidar, Flash Lidar, 3-D Imaging, Laser Altimeter, Precession Landing, Hazard Detection
James, Robert S.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.
During the summer months in the southeastern United States, convective initiation presents a frequent challenge to operational forecasters. Thunderstorm development has traditionally been referred to as random due to their disorganized, sporadic appearance and lack of atmospheric forcing. Horizontal variations in land surface characteristics such as soil moisture, soil type, land and vegetation cover could possibly be a focus mechanism for afternoon convection during the summer months. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) provides a stand-alone land surface modeling framework that incorporates these varying soil and vegetation properties, antecedent precipitation, and atmospheric forcing to represent the soil state at high resolution. The use of LIS as a diagnostic tool may help forecasters to identify boundaries in land surface characteristics that could correlate to favored regions of convection initiation. The NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) team has been collaborating with the National Weather Service Office in Birmingham, AL to help incorporate LIS products into their operational forecasting methods. This paper highlights selected convective case dates from summer 2009 when synoptic forcing was weak, and identifies any boundaries in land surface characteristics that may have contributed to convective initiation. The LIS output depicts the effects of increased sensible heat flux from urban areas on the development of convection, as well as convection along gradients in land surface characteristics and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These features may promote mesoscale circulations and/or feedback processes that can either enhance or inhibit convection. With this output previously unavailable to operational forecasters, LIS provides a new tool to forecasters in order to help eliminate the randomness of summertime convective initiation.
Bundrock, Anthony J.; Harvey, Robert
Measurements of attenuation statistics using a helicopter and an instrumented van are discussed. Results are given for two different tree densities, for elevation angles of 30, 45 and 60 degrees and for frequencies of 893, 1550 and 2660 MHz. These results show that at 1550 MHz and 45 degrees elevation angle, attenuation values of 5.0 and 8.6 dB were exceeded 10 percent of the time for roadside tree densities of 35 percent and 85 percent respectively. Comparisons with other results made in the Northern Hemisphere are made and show general agreement. The implication of the measured values on system design are discussed, and it is shown that, for Australia, an adaptive margin allocation scheme would require an average margin of approximately 5 dB.
Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence
Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.
The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS), through the mapping expertise of the U.S. Geological Survey and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, recently guided the completion of a 1-km resolution global land cover data set from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. The 1-km resolution land cover product, 'DISCover,' was based on monthly normalized difference vegetation index composites from 1992 and 1993. The development of DISCover was coordinated by the IGBP-DIS Land Cover Working Group as part of the IGBP-DIS Focus 1 activity. DISCover is a 17-class land cover data set based on the scientific requirements of IGBP elements. The mapping used unsupervised classification and postclassification refinement using ancillary data. The development of this data set was motivated by the need for global land cover data with higher spatial resolution, improved temporal specificity, and known classification accuracy. The completed DISCover data set will soon be validated to determine the accuracy of the global classification.
Fortin, Jean; Bias, Jason; Wells, Ashley; Riddle, Larry; van der Wal, Gooitzen; Piacentino, Mike; Mandelbaum, Robert
U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has performed early work to develop a Distributed Aperture System (DAS). The DAS aims at improving the situational awareness of armored fighting vehicle crews under closed-hatch conditions. The concept is based on a plurality of sensors configured to create a day and night dome of surveillance coupled with heads up displays slaved to the operator's head to give a "glass turret" feel. State-of-the-art image processing is used to produce multiple seamless hemispherical views simultaneously available to the vehicle commander, crew members and dismounting infantry. On-the-move automatic cueing of multiple moving/pop-up low silhouette threats is also done with the possibility to save/revisit/share past events. As a first step in this development program, a contract was awarded to United Defense to further develop the Eagle VisionTM system. The second-generation prototype features two camera heads, each comprising four high-resolution (2048x1536) color sensors, and each covering a field of view of 270°hx150°v. High-bandwidth digital links interface the camera heads with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based custom processor developed by Sarnoff Corporation. The processor computes the hemispherical stitch and warp functions required for real-time, low latency, immersive viewing (360°hx120°v, 30° down) and generates up to six simultaneous extended graphics array (XGA) video outputs for independent display either on a helmet-mounted display (with associated head tracking device) or a flat panel display (and joystick). The prototype is currently in its last stage of development and will be integrated on a vehicle for user evaluation and testing. Near-term improvements include the replacement of the color camera heads with a pixel-level fused combination of
Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.
The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land
Brophy, B.; Liberty, L. M.; Gribler, G.
We characterize the active Wasatch fault system beneath downtown Salt Lake City by measuring p- and s-wave velocities and seismic reflection profiling. Our focus was on the segment boundary between the Warm Springs and East Bench faults. We collected 14.5 km along 9 west-east profiles in 3 field days using a 60 m aperture seismic land streamer and 200 kg weight drop system. From a p-wave refraction analysis, we measure velocities from 230-3900 m/s for the upper 20-25 meters. Shear wave velocities for the upper 30 m, derived from a multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) approach, show velocities that range from 100-1800 m/s. P-wave reflection images from the upper 100 m depth indicate offset and truncated (mostly) west-dipping strata (Bonneville Lake deposits?) that suggest active faults extend beneath the downtown urban corridor. We identify saturated sediments on the lower elevation (western) portions of the profiles and shallow high velocity (dry) strata to the east of the mapped faults. We observe slow p-wave velocities near identified faults that may represent the fault's colluvial wedge. These velocity results are best highlighted with Vp/Vs ratios. Analyzing shear wave velocities by NEHRP class, we estimate soft soil (NEHRP D) limited less than 1 m depth along most profiles, and stiff soil (NEHRP C) to up to 25 m depth in some locations. However near steep topographic slopes (footwall deposits), we identify NEHRP Class D stiff soil velocities to less than 2 m depth before transition to NEHRP Class C soft rock. Depth to hard rock (velocities >760 m/s) are as shallow as 20 m below the land surface on some steep slopes beneath north Salt Lake City and greater than our imaging depths along the western portions of our profiles. Our findings suggest large variations in seismic velocities beneath the Salt Lake City corridor and that multiple fault strands related to the Warm Springs fault segment extend beneath downtown.
Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.
Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.
Mu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Koven, C. D.; Kluzek, E. B.; Mao, J.; Randerson, J. T.
Benchmarking has been widely used to assess the ability of climate models to capture the spatial and temporal variability of observations during the historical era. For the carbon cycle and terrestrial ecosystems, the design and development of an open-source community platform has been an important goal as part of the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) project. Here we developed a new benchmarking software system that enables the user to specify the models, benchmarks, and scoring metrics, so that results can be tailored to specific model intercomparison projects. Evaluation data sets included soil and aboveground carbon stocks, fluxes of energy, carbon and water, burned area, leaf area, and climate forcing and response variables. We used this system to evaluate simulations from the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) with prognostic atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the period from 1850 to 2005 (i.e., esmHistorical simulations archived on the Earth System Grid Federation). We found that the multi-model ensemble had a high bias in incoming solar radiation across Asia, likely as a consequence of incomplete representation of aerosol effects in this region, and in South America, primarily as a consequence of a low bias in mean annual precipitation. The reduced precipitation in South America had a larger influence on gross primary production than the high bias in incoming light, and as a consequence gross primary production had a low bias relative to the observations. Although model to model variations were large, the multi-model mean had a positive bias in atmospheric carbon dioxide that has been attributed in past work to weak ocean uptake of fossil emissions. In mid latitudes of the northern hemisphere, most models overestimate latent heat fluxes in the early part of the growing season, and underestimate these fluxes in mid-summer and early fall, whereas sensible heat fluxes show the opposite trend.