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Sample records for airbag landing system

  1. Photogrammetric Measurements of CEV Airbag Landing Attenuation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Berry, Felecia C.; Dismond, Harriett R.; Cate, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    High-speed photogrammetric measurements are being used to assess the impact dynamics of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) for ground landing contingency upon return to earth. Test articles representative of the Orion capsule are dropped at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility onto a sand/clay mixture representative of a dry lakebed from elevations as high as 62 feet (18.9 meters). Two different types of test articles have been evaluated: (1) half-scale metal shell models utilized to establish baseline impact dynamics and soil characterization, and (2) geometric full-scale drop models with shock-absorbing airbags which are being evaluated for their ability to cushion the impact of the Orion CEV with the earth s surface. This paper describes the application of the photogrammetric measurement technique and provides drop model trajectory and impact data that indicate the performance of the photogrammetric measurement system.

  2. A Summary of the Development of a Nominal Land Landing Airbag Impact Attenuation System for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tutt, Ben; Gill, Susannah; Wilson, Aaron; Johnson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Airborne Systems North America (formally Irvin Aerospace Inc) has developed an Airbag Landing System for the Orion Crew Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. This work is in support of the NASA Langley Research Center Landing System Advanced Development Project. Orion is part of the Constellation Program to send human explorers back to the moon, and then onwards to Mars and other destinations in the Solar System. A component of the Vision for Space Exploration, Orion is being developed to also enable access to space following the retirement of the Space Shuttle in the next decade. This paper documents the development of a conceptual design, fabrication of prototype assemblies, component level testing and two generations of airbag landing system testing. The airbag system has been designed and analyzed using the transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA(RegisteredTradeMark). The landing system consists of six airbag assemblies; each assembly comprising a primary impact venting airbag and a non-venting anti-bottoming airbag. The anti-bottoming airbag provides ground clearance following the initial impact attenuation sequence. Incorporated into each primary impact airbag is an active vent that allows the entrapped gas to exit the control volume. The size of the vent is tailored to control the flow-rate of the exiting gas. An internal shaping structure is utilized to control the shape of the primary or main airbags prior to ground impact; this significantly improves stroke efficiency and performance.

  3. Mars Pathfinder Airbag Impact Attenuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waye, Donald; Cole, J. Kenneth; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, scheduled for launch in December 1996, is designed to validate a low cost Entry, Descent, and Landing system and to perform scientific surface operations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories teamed to design, fabricate, test and validate a prototype 0.38 scale model of an airbag impact attenuation system. A computer code was developed to predict the performance of the airbag system. A test program in Sandia's High Altitude Chamber was performed to validate the code and demonstrate the feasibility of the airbag concept and design. In addition, freefall tests were performed at representative velocities to demonstrate the structural integrity of the airbag system design. The feasibility program demonstrated that the airbag impact attenuation design will protect the lander upon impact with the Martian surface.

  4. Mars Pathfinder airbag impact attenuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Cole, J.K.; Rivellini, T.P.

    1995-04-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, scheduled for launch in November 1996, is designed to validate a low cost Entry, Descent, and Landing system and to perform scientific surface operations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories teamed to design, fabricate, test and validate a prototype 0.38 scale model of an airbag impact attenuation system. A computer code was developed to predict the performance of the airbag system. A test program in Sandia`s High Altitude Chamber was performed to validate the code and demonstrate the feasibility of the airbag concept and design. In addition, freefall tests were performed at representative velocities to demonstrate the structural integrity of the airbag system design. The feasibility program demonstrated that the airbag impact attenuation design will protect the lander upon impact with the Martian surface.

  5. Analysis-test correlation of airbag impact for Mars landing

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, M.; Davis, G.; Kuo, C.P.

    1994-12-31

    The NASA Mars Pathfinder mission is intended to demonstrate key low cost technologies for use in future science missions to Mars. Among these technologies is the landing system. Upon entering in Martian atmosphere at about 7000 m/sec., the spacecraft will deploy a series of breaking devices (parachute and solid rockets) to slow down its speed to less than 20 m/sec. as it impacts with the Martian ground. To cushion science instruments form the landing impact, an airbag system is inflated to surround the lander approximately five seconds before impact. After multiple bounces, the lander/airbags comes to rest, the airbags are deflated and retracted, and the lander opens up its petals to allow a microrover to begin exploration. Of interest here, is the final landing phase. Specifically, this paper will focus on the methodology used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of lander/airbags landing impact, and how this simulation correlates with initial tests.

  6. Airbag vent valve and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leslie D. (Inventor); Zimmermann, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An energy absorbing airbag system includes one or more vent valve assemblies for controlling the release of airbag inflation gases to maintain inflation gas pressure within an airbag at a substantially constant pressure during a ride-down of an energy absorbing event. Each vent valve assembly includes a cantilever spring that is flat in an unstressed condition and that has a free end portion. The cantilever spring is secured to an exterior surface of the airbag housing and flexed to cause the second free end portion of the cantilever spring to be pressed, with a preset force, against a vent port or a closure covering the vent port to seal the vent port until inflation gas pressure within the airbag reaches a preselected value determined by the preset force whereupon the free end portion of the cantilever spring is lifted from the vent port by the inflation gases within the airbag to vent the inflation gases from within the airbag. The resilience of the cantilever spring maintains a substantially constant pressure within the airbag during a ride-down portion of an energy absorbing event by causing the cantilever spring to vent gases through the vent port whenever the pressure of the inflation gases reaches the preselected value and by causing the cantilever spring to close the vent port whenever the pressure of the inflation gases falls below the preselected value.

  7. Airbag Landing Impact Performance Optimization for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; McKinney, John; Corliss, James M.

    2008-01-01

    This report will discuss the use of advanced simulation techniques to optimize the performance of the proposed Orion Crew Module airbag landing system design. The Boeing Company and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s Langley Research Center collaborated in the analysis of the proposed airbag landing system for the next generation space shuttle replacement, the Orion spacecraft. Using LS-DYNA to simulate the Crew Module landing impacts, two main objectives were established and achieved: the investigation of potential methods of optimizing the airbag performance in order to reduce rebound on the anti-bottoming bags, lower overall landing loads, and increase overall Crew Module stability; and the determination of the Crew Module stability and load boundaries using the optimized airbag design, based on the potential Crew Module landing pitch angles and ground slopes in both the center of gravity forward and aft configurations. This paper describes the optimization and stability and load boundary studies and presents a summary of the results obtained and key lessons learned from this analysis.

  8. A personal airbag system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Sydney; de Weck, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential simple, lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62 m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85 m/s, 0° impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the personal airbag system concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0° impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30° indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5 m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

  9. Airbag system and method for facilitating emergency egress from an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawdon, Blaine K. (Inventor); Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An airbag system for elevating the fuselage of an aircraft off a landing surface a sufficient degree to allow for emergency egress of passengers and crew through ventral emergency exit doors. An airbag assembly made up of a plurality of independent airbags is disposed within the aircraft. When activated, the airbag system deploys the airbags external of the aircraft that elevate the fuselage of the aircraft a sufficient degree to allow for utilizing the ventral emergency exit doors on the fuselage to enable evacuating the passengers and crew. An activation mechanism is connected to the inflation.devices associated with each of the airbags. The activation mechanism generates an electrical signal which activates the inflation devices, which in turn fill the airbags with a compressed fluid, thus expanding the airbags and lifting the fuselage. A crew member initiates the activation of the airbag system through one or more switches.

  10. Feasibility Study of an Airbag-Based Crew Impact Attenuation System for the Orion MPCV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Do, Sydney; deWeck, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the performance feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85m/s, 0 deg. impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the airbag-based crew impact attenuation concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0 deg impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30 deg indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

  11. Occult abdominal injuries to airbag-protected crash victims: a challenge to trauma systems.

    PubMed

    Augenstein, J S; Digges, K H; Lombardo, L V; Perdeck, E B; Stratton, J E; Malliaris, A C; Quigley, C V; Craythorne, A K; Young, P E

    1995-04-01

    A multidisciplinary, automobile crash investigation team at the University of Miami School of Medicine, William Lehman Injury Research Center of Jackson Memorial Hospital/Ryder Trauma Center in Miami, Florida, is conducting a detailed medical and engineering study. The focus is restrained (seatbelts, airbag, or both) occupants involved in frontal crashes who have been severely injured. More than 60 crashes have been included in the study to date. Analysis of the initial data supports the general conclusion that restraint systems are working to reduce many of the head and chest injuries suffered by unrestrained occupants. However, abdominal injuries among airbag-protected occupants still occur. Some are found among occupants who appeared uninjured at the scene. Case examples are provided to illustrate abdominal injuries associated with airbag-protected crashes. The challenges of recognizing injuries to airbag-protected occupants are discussed. To assist in recognizing the extent of injuries to occupants protected by airbags, it is suggested that evidence from the crash scene be used in the triage decision. For the abdominal injury cases observed in this study, deformation of the steering system was the vehicle characteristic most frequently observed. The presence of steering wheel deformation is an indicator of increased likelihood of internal injury. This may justify transporting the victim to a trauma center for a closer examination for abdominal injuries. PMID:7723087

  12. Airbag retraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows that the Mars Pathfinder airbags have been successfully retracted, allowing safe deployment of the rover ramps. The Sojourner rover is at lower right, and rocks are visible in the background. Mars Pathfinder landed successfully on the surface of Mars today at 10:07 a.m. PDT.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  13. Airbag retraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows that the Mars Pathfinder airbags have been successfully retracted, allowing safe deployment of the rover ramps. The Sojourner rover, still in its deployed position, is at center image, and rocks are visible in the background. Mars Pathfinder landed successfully on the surface of Mars today at 10:07 a.m. PDT.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  14. Overpressure and noise due to multiple airbag systems in a passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling, Robert; Henning, Peter J.; Newton, Gary, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Multiple airbag systems in passenger cars can generate overpressure and noise that may be hazardous to human hearing. Overpressure is compression of the air inside a closed compartment caused by deployment of the bags. Noise results from the action of the gas inflating the bags. SAE J247 provides a standard for measuring the combination of overpressure and noise in a passenger compartment. A special microphone has recently been developed that meets this standard, which operates down to a fraction of a hertz. Details of the microphone are given. Little appears to have been published on the overpressure and noise of modern multiple airbag systems, but early results [R. Hickling, ''The noise of the automotive safety air cushion,'' Noise Control Eng., May-June, 110-121 (1976)] provide a basic understanding of the phenomenon. Spectral data shows that peak overpressure occurs at about 2 to 3 Hz. A significant reduction in overpressure and noise can be achieved with an aspirating airbag, originally developed at General Motors, whose outer structure is inflated with gas from the inflator, and whose inner structure draws in air from the passenger compartment through one-way cloth valves. Tests have shown that such bags function well when impacted.

  15. Airbag Tracks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The circular shapes seen on the martian surface in these images are 'footprints' left by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's airbags during landing as the spacecraft gently rolled to a stop. Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24, 2004, Earth-received time. The circular region of the flower-like feature on the right is about the size of a basketball. Scientists are studying the prints for more clues about the makeup of martian soil. The images were taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity.

  16. Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet' (QTVR)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Magic Carpet Close-upMagic Carpet Close-up HD

    This section of the first color image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been further processed to produce a sharper look at a trail left by the one of rover's airbags. The drag mark was made after the rover landed and its airbags were deflated and retracted. Scientists have dubbed the region the 'Magic Carpet' after a crumpled portion of the soil that appears to have been peeled away (lower left side of the drag mark). Rocks were also dragged by the airbags, leaving impressions and 'bow waves' in the soil. The mission team plans to drive the rover over to this site to look for additional clues about the composition of the martian soil. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera.

    This extreme close-up image (see insets above) highlights the martian feature that scientists have named 'Magic Carpet' because of its resemblance to a crumpled carpet fold. Scientists think the soil here may have detached from its underlying layer, possibly due to interaction with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's airbag after landing. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.

  17. Soil disturbance by airbags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Disturbance of the drift at the Pathfinder landing site reveals a shallow subsurface that is slightly darker but has similar spectral properties. The top set of images, in true color, shows the soils disturbed by the last bounce of the lander on its airbags before coming to rest and the marks created by retraction of the airbags. In the bottom set of images color differences have been enhanced. The mast at center is the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET). The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. A shadow of the ASI/MET appears on a rock at left.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  18. ASI/MET shadow & airbags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A shadow of the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) has been cast on a rock at right in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 4. The instrument appears in two different sections due to image parallax. The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible, in addition to several rocks of varying sizes in the distance.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  19. Comparison of Real World Side Impact/Rollover Collisions With and Without Thorax Airbag/Head Protection System: A First Field Experience Study

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Peter; Lange, Wolfgang; Messner, Georg; Rauscher, Stefan; Pieske, Oliver

    2000-01-01

    After the introduction of the Thorax Airbag (TA) and the Head Protection System (HPS) by BMW there has been a significant reduction of injuries in real-world collisions. Comparison of similar collisions (in-depth collision analyses) of vehicles with and without HPS/TA indicates that the effectiveness of the system was credible. Minor injuries (AIS 1) increase while serious injuries (AIS 3+) are reduced. Based on the limited cases available, a proper statistical sampling could not be achieved at this time, however the results are to be understood as indicative of a trend. PMID:11558083

  20. Rethinking Airbag Safety: Airbag Injury Causing Bilateral Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Ogun, Olufunmilola Abimbola; Ikyaa, Sewuese Yangi; Ogun, Gabriel Olabiyi

    2014-01-01

    A healthy 40-year-old man, restrained in the front passenger seat, suffered visually disabling blunt ocular trauma following spontaneous release of the passenger side air-bag module, during vehicular deceleration, without an automobile crash. Though the driver-side airbag was also released, the driver was unharmed. The passenger suffered bilateral hyphema, bilateral vitreous hemorrhage and suspected posterior scleral rupture in the left eye and also had an eyebrow laceration, from impact with the dashboard panel covering the air-bag module, which was detached by the force of airbag deployment. This is the first reported case from West Africa and the first case in which part of the airbag module detached to cause additional trauma. This report adds to the growing burden of evidence world-wide, for a review of the safety aspects of the automobile airbag. This case clearly illustrates that although airbags reduce mortality, they carry a high risk of ocular morbidity, even with seat belt restraint. PMID:24791116

  1. Lateral impact injuries with side airbag deployments--a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Zhang, Jiangyue; Gennarelli, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide descriptive data on side impact injuries in vehicles equipped with side airbags using the United States National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The database was queried with the constraint that all vehicles must adhere to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards FMVSS 214, injured occupants be in the front outboard seats with no rollovers or ejections, and side impacts airbags be deployed in lateral crashes. Out of the 7812 crashes in the 1997-2004 weighted NASS files, AIS > or = 2 level injuries occurred to 5071 occupants. There were 3828 cases of torso-only airbags, 955 cases of torso-head bag combination, and 288 inflatable tubular structure/curtain systems. Side airbags were not attributed to be the cause of head or chest injury to any occupant at this level of severity. The predominance of torso-only airbags followed by torso-head airbag combination reflected vehicle model years and changing technology. Head and chest injuries were coupled for the vast majority of occupants with injuries to more than one body region. Comparing literature data for side impacts without side airbag deployments, the presence of a side airbag decreased AIS=2 head, chest, and extremity injuries when examining raw data incidence rates. Although this is the first study to adopt strict inclusion-exclusion criteria for side crashes with side airbag deployments, future studies are needed to assess side airbag efficacy using datasets such as matched-pair occupants in side impacts. PMID:16911812

  2. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. PMID:23499979

  3. Airbag roll marks & displaced rocks and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF TORSO SIDE AIRBAG AGGRESSIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    Torso side airbags are typically seat- or door-mounted; i.e., mounted within the seat back or within the door panel lateral to the occupant. Because previous work has shown the propensity of airbags to cause harm in unintended out-of-position occupant orientations, scientific investigation of injury risks continues. Such work involves anthropomorphic test devices and cadaveric specimens which have time and monetary costs associated with their use. These costs necessitate experimental efficiency, achieved by selecting representative airbags from the multitude of options in contemporary automobiles. This study proposes a novel method for characterizing torso side airbag deployment aggressivity for purposes of selection. The test fixture consisted of an array of rigidly positioned three-axis load cells oriented in opposition to a rigid airbag mount at fixed distances of 6 or 8 cm. Six exemplar torso airbag modules were subjected to these two deployment configurations. Force characteristics of maximum resultant force, peak and mean force onset rate, and linear impulse were quantified for comparison. Force characteristics demonstrated ranges between 210% (linear impulse) and 2,500% (mean force onset rate) of minimum value. This test method demonstrated differentiation in the diversity of SAB designs and quantified the airbag-environment interaction during deployment. These force characteristics may correlate to thoracic injury risk from out-of-position torso side airbag deployment. PMID:19369747

  5. JPL Testbed Image of Airbag Retraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the deflated airbags retracted underneath the lander petal at the JPL In-Situ Instrument Laboratory. Retracting the airbags helps clear the path for the rover to roll off the lander and onto the martian surface.

  6. Establishment and validation for the theoretical model of the vehicle airbag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Jin, Yang; Xie, Lizhe; Chen, Chao

    2015-05-01

    The current design and optimization of the occupant restraint system (ORS) are based on numerous actual tests and mathematic simulations. These two methods are overly time-consuming and complex for the concept design phase of the ORS, though they're quite effective and accurate. Therefore, a fast and directive method of the design and optimization is needed in the concept design phase of the ORS. Since the airbag system is a crucial part of the ORS, in this paper, a theoretical model for the vehicle airbag is established in order to clarify the interaction between occupants and airbags, and further a fast design and optimization method of airbags in the concept design phase is made based on the proposed theoretical model. First, the theoretical expression of the simplified mechanical relationship between the airbag's design parameters and the occupant response is developed based on classical mechanics, then the momentum theorem and the ideal gas state equation are adopted to illustrate the relationship between airbag's design parameters and occupant response. By using MATLAB software, the iterative algorithm method and discrete variables are applied to the solution of the proposed theoretical model with a random input in a certain scope. And validations by MADYMO software prove the validity and accuracy of this theoretical model in two principal design parameters, the inflated gas mass and vent diameter, within a regular range. This research contributes to a deeper comprehension of the relation between occupants and airbags, further a fast design and optimization method for airbags' principal parameters in the concept design phase, and provides the range of the airbag's initial design parameters for the subsequent CAE simulations and actual tests.

  7. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Welch, Joseph V.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). An important element of the air bag system design process is proper modeling of the proposed configuration to determine if the resulting performance meets requirements. Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations. The efforts presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, and is based on previous design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, construct the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  10. Missile launch pad: an unusual consequence of airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ronnie, Davies; Emecheta, Ikechukwu E; Kevin, Hancock

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle airbags significantly reduce vehicle occupant injuries and fatalities in road accidents. However, a number of injuries are recognised as being directly attributable to airbag deployment. The majority of these are blunt injuries due to the high force of airbag deployment and include ocular injuries, burns, chest trauma and, rarely, fatalities. The authors describe a case of mixed blunt ocular and penetrating facial trauma as a result of airbag deployment. PMID:22707498

  11. Patterns of injury associated with automobile airbag use.

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, A. A.; Banerjee, A.

    1998-01-01

    The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries. PMID:9926118

  12. Airbag-induced thumb avulsion: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Stoel, Anne-Marie C C; Vanhaecke, Jeroen; Dezillie, Marleen; Oosterlinck, Dirk; Stockmans, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Although airbags are designed to save lives and protect victims from serious injuries, airbag deployment can cause unwanted lesions. In this case report, two cases are presented of young women who sustained an important fracture dislocation of the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC I joint) caused by airbag deployment during a car collision. PMID:25762890

  13. Lifting and protecting residential structures from subsidence damage using airbags

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, T.L.; Bennett, R.M.

    1998-12-31

    Conventional practice in protecting residential structures from subsidence damage concentrates on saving the superstructure. The foundation is sacrificed, even though it represents the structural component with the greatest replacement cost. In this study, airbags were used to lift a 20 ft x 30 ft structure to test their ability to protect both the foundation and superstructure from ground settlement. Two contiguous sides of the test foundation were unreinforced, and the other two contiguous sides incorporated footing and wall reinforcement. The airbags successfully lifted the structure without causing damage, even on the unreinforced sides. This paper gives a procedure for determining airbag spacing, and describes installation and operation techniques of the airbags. The paper then focuses on the performance of the airbags in lifting the structure, and shows that airbags can preserve existing foundations during subsidence movements.

  14. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  15. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace the Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  16. Upper extremity interaction with a helicopter side airbag: injury criteria for dynamic hyperextension of the female elbow joint.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Hansen, Gail A; Kennedy, Eric A; Rath, Amber L; McNally, Craig; Kemper, Andrew R; Smith, Eric P; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Stitzel, Joel D; Davis, Martin B; Bass, Cameron R; Brozoski, Frederick T; McEntire, B Joseph; Alem, Nabih M; Crowley, John S

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a three part analysis to characterize the interaction between the female upper extremity and a helicopter cockpit side airbag system and to develop dynamic hyperextension injury criteria for the female elbow joint. Part I involved a series of 10 experiments with an original Army Black Hawk helicopter side airbag. A 5(th) percentile female Hybrid III instrumented upper extremity was used to demonstrate side airbag upper extremity loading. Two out of the 10 tests resulted in high elbow bending moments of 128 Nm and 144 Nm. Part II included dynamic hyperextension tests on 24 female cadaver elbow joints. The energy source was a drop tower utilizing a three-point bending configuration to apply elbow bending moments matching the previously conducted side airbag tests. Post-test necropsy showed that 16 of the 24 elbow joint tests resulted in injuries. Injury severity ranged from minor cartilage damage to more moderate joint dislocations and severe transverse fractures of the distal humerus. Peak elbow bending moments ranged from 42.4 Nm to 146.3 Nm. Peak bending moment proved to be a significant indicator of any elbow injury (p = 0.02) as well as elbow joint dislocation (p = 0.01). Logistic regression analyses were used to develop single and multiple variate injury risk functions. Using peak moment data for the entire test population, a 50% risk of obtaining any elbow injury was found at 56 Nm while a 50% risk of sustaining an elbow joint dislocation was found at 93 Nm for the female population. These results indicate that the peak elbow bending moments achieved in Part I are associated with a greater than 90% risk for elbow injury. Subsequently, the airbag was re-designed in an effort to mitigate this as well as the other upper extremity injury risks. Part III assessed the redesigned side airbag module to ensure injury risks had been reduced prior to implementing the new system. To facilitate this, 12 redesigned side airbag deployments were conducted

  17. [Airbag-related death in a toddler. A poorly known danger?].

    PubMed

    Cabasson, S; Bauvin, I; Firah, N; David, A; Bèze-Beyrie, P; Gréteau, S; Mensire-Marinier, A; Oilleau, L; Mansir, T

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of an 8-month-old baby killed by the deployment of an airbag. He was correctly positioned, in a safety seat designed for his age class, on the passenger side, and rear-facing. The accident occurred at low speed, on the left front of the car, without provoking any harm to the mother who was driving the vehicle, but the impact led to airbag deployment. A CT scan showed an occipital fracture, hemorrhagic parenchymal contusions, subarachnoid hemorrhage and edema, which quickly led to fatal intracranial hypertension. Severe retinal hemorrhages were also noted. Brain death was declared 24h later. Both direct impact and violent projection of the head are involved in the severity of brain lesions. Retinal hemorrhages are similar to what is observed in shaken-baby syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first French publication on this topic in childhood. In France, children are allowed to be positioned on the passenger side seat, but the airbag, if present, is supposed to be deactivated, which is not always possible. In recent cars, depowering the airbag is easy, with on/off switches, but these systems are not uniform between models. Moreover, it is very likely that this possibility is ignored by numerous parents. A widespread communication on this topic should be initiated in France to prevent such events. Banning infants from front passenger seats completely does not seem possible. Nevertheless, greater attention on the part of police departments and better information to drivers appear necessary. PMID:25725974

  18. On the Application of a Response Surface Technique to Analyze Roll-over Stability of Capsules with Airbags Using LS-Dyna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.

    2008-01-01

    As NASA moves towards developing technologies needed to implement its new Exploration program, studies conducted for Apollo in the 1960's to understand the rollover stability of capsules landing are being revisited. Although rigid body kinematics analyses of the roll-over behavior of capsules on impact provided critical insight to the Apollo problem, extensive ground test programs were also used. For the new Orion spacecraft being developed to implement today's Exploration program, new air-bag designs have improved sufficiently for NASA to consider their use to mitigate landing loads to ensure crew safety and to enable re-usability of the capsule. Simple kinematics models provide only limited understanding of the behavior of these air bag systems, and more sophisticated tools must be used. In particular, NASA and its contractors are using the LS-Dyna nonlinear simulation code for impact response predictions of the full Orion vehicle with air bags by leveraging the extensive air bag prediction work previously done by the automotive industry. However, even in today's computational environment, these analyses are still high-dimensional, time consuming, and computationally intensive. To alleviate the computational burden, this paper presents an approach that uses deterministic sampling techniques and an adaptive response surface method to not only use existing LS-Dyna solutions but also to interpolate from LS-Dyna solutions to predict the stability boundaries for a capsule on airbags. Results for the stability boundary in terms of impact velocities, capsule attitude, impact plane orientation, and impact surface friction are discussed.

  19. Full-thickness burn to the hand from an automobile airbag.

    PubMed

    Vitello, W; Kim, M; Johnson, R M; Miller, S

    1999-01-01

    An 18-year-old male was involved in a single car motor vehicle accident in which the driver's side airbag was deployed. He presented to the trauma center with complex injuries to the left hand, lacerations to the scalp, and a full-thickness burn to the ulnar aspect of the right hand that included the hypothenar area and the fifth digit. The patient was admitted to the trauma center and received immediate consultation from the burn service. He underwent debridement and split-thickness skin grafting of 50 cm2 of the right hand on postburn day 3. The graft became necrotic and the patient underwent debridement of the skin and the abductor minimi muscle of the right hand on postburn day 32. Split-thickness skin grafting and release of flexion contracture were successfully completed 18 days later. The police and fire departments reported that the airbag showed signs of thermal destruction. Upon request, Honda motors submitted information from the TRW safety systems and material safety data sheet (Mesa, Ariz, issued 1989) that showed that airbag canisters contain the chemicals sodium azide and cupric oxide. Water may react with sodium azide to form highly toxic and explosive hyfrazoic acid. These chemicals are converted to sodium hydroxide, which can cause significant chemical burns. In addition, these chemicals may ignite when exposed to live electrical wires or temperatures greater than 300 degrees F. We conclude that burns associated with damaged deployed airbags in motor vehicle accidents may be the results of both chemical and thermal injury. The extent of the burn wound may be underestimated, as our case illustrates. Full-thickness burns resulting from airbag deployment may require more aggressive initial debridement and treatment. PMID:10342473

  20. The blue ribbon panel on depowered and advanced airbags - status report on airbag performance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Susan A; Schneider, Lawrence; Segui-Gomez, Maria; Arbogast, Kristy; Augenstein, Jeffrey; Digges, Kennerly H

    2003-01-01

    In February 2000, a group of highway safety organizations sent a letter to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation expressing concern about a possible return to the 30-mph rigid barrier test using unbelted dummies previously required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208. The letter asked the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to expedite data collection of the real-world crash experience of airbag-equipped vehicles certified to the 30-mph sled test using unbelted dummies because of suggestions that depowered airbags may not provide the same level of protection, particularly to larger, unbelted occupants. For the same reason, the letter also recommended that the auto industry commit funding for additional data collection and to establish a panel of experts to evaluate the data. In response, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (Alliance) committed to funding a 3-year program to be managed by an independent third party. A panel of experts consisting of representatives from thehighway safety research community, the National Transportation Safety Board, academia, medical institutions, and the insurance industry was established as the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) for Evaluation of Depowered and Advanced Airbags and met for the first time in February 2001. The BRP also includes representatives from NHTSA and the automobile industry who participate as observers. The BRP held its first public meeting in April 2003 to provide an update of its activities and to summarize the real-world evidence on the performance of depowered airbags. This AAAM session will provide a brief summary of the public meeting. PMID:12941215

  1. Thoracic injury metrics with side airbag: Stationary and dynamic occupants

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, Frank A

    2010-01-01

    Objective Injury risk from side airbag deployment has been assessed using stationary out-of-position occupant test protocols. However, stationary conditions may not always represent real world environments. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of torso side airbag deployment on close-proximity occupants, comparing a stationary test protocol with dynamic sled conditions. Methods Chest compression and viscous metrics were quantified from sled tests utilizing post-mortem human specimens and computational simulations with three boundary conditions: rigid wall, ideal airbag interaction, and close-proximity airbag deployment. PMHS metrics were quantified from chestband contour reconstructions. The parametric effect of ΔV on close-proximity occupant was examined with the computational model. Results PMHS injuries suggested close-proximity occupants may sustain visceral trauma, which was not observed in occupants subjected to rigid wall or ideal airbag boundary conditions. Peak injury metrics were also elevated with close-proximity occupant relative to other boundary conditions. The computational model indicated decreasing influence of airbag on compression metrics with increasing ΔV. Airbag influence on viscous metric was greatest with close-proximity occupant at ΔV = 7.0 m/s, at which the response magnitude was greater than linear summation of metrics resulting from rigid impact and stationary close-proximity interaction. Conclusions These results suggest that stationary close-proximity occupants may not represent the only scenario of side airbag deployment harmful to the thoracoabdominal region. The sensitivity of the viscous metric and implications for visceral trauma are also discussed. PMID:20730691

  2. Investigating the Effects of Side Airbag Deployment in Real-World Crashes Using Crash Comparison Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Loftis, Kathryn L.; Weaver, Ashley A.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate side airbag (SAB) deployment in near side crashes and compare injuries and contact points between occupants with and without SAB deployment. Using NASS 2000–2008 and selecting for near side cases, with PDOF ± 20 degrees from 90 or 270, for non-pregnant adult belted occupants, there were 20,253 (weighted) SAB deployments. NASS showed that SABs have been increasing within the fleet, comprising 2% of airbags in 2000 and increasing to 33% of airbags in 2008. To investigate deployed SABs, we developed a three-step methology to pair CIREN cases to study the effects of deployment on occupant outcome. The first step involved extracting near side impacts from CIREN with adult, non-pregnant occupants seated in row 1 (drivers or right front passengers). In the second step, each case was quantitatively compared to FMVSS 214 barrier test standards using a 6 point similarity scoring system. Cases scoring at least 3 points were then qualitatively analyzed and 33 pairs of cases of the same vehicle make/model but opposite SAB status were chosen. Occupants with deployed SAB had reduced occurrences and severity of head and face, neck and cervical spine, and thoracic injuries and fewer injurious contacts to side components including the door, a-pillar, and window sill. SAB deployment was statistically significant for reducing occupant MAIS and ISS and thorax airbags were statistically significant for reducing thoracic and neck/cervical spine injury severity. The average ISS with SAB deployment was 21, while the average ISS of those without was 33. This study establishes methods for performing comparisons between CIREN cases based on regulatory conditions and shows injury reduction in key body regions with SAB deployment. PMID:22105386

  3. An investigation of behavioural adaptation to airbags and antilock brakes among taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F; Fosser, S; Saetermo, I A

    1997-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that safety measures may lead to behavioural adaptation (also termed risk compensation) among road users, partly or completely offsetting the intended safety effects. There is, however, limited knowledge about characteristics of safety measures possibly determining the occurrence of behavioural adaptation. The present study addresses the relationship of driving behaviour to two different kinds of in-car safety equipment, airbags and antilock braking systems (ABS). It is hypothesized that accident-reducing measures like ABS are compensated for to a larger extent than injury-reducing measures like an airbag. On-road unobtrusive measurements of speed, headway, lane occupancy, lane changes, and variability of lateral position were performed on 213 taxis, on the basis of video recordings of traffic travelling to Oslo airport. The behavioural data were matched to questionnaire information collected when the taxis arrived at the airport. In addition to information regarding ABS and airbags, the drivers reported personal background information and answered questions about driving behaviour. Taxis with ABS had significantly shorter time headways than taxis without ABS. There were no relationships with speed, possibly because dense traffic during the observation period may have prevented the drivers from driving at their preferred speed. Simple comparisons also showed fewer lane changes and a lower rate of seat-belt use among drivers of taxis with ABS. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that the latter effects might be explained by driver background factors or by car characteristics other than ABS or airbag. The headway results support the hypothesis of larger compensation for accident-reducing than for injury-reducing measures. PMID:9183467

  4. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  5. Door Velocity and Occupant Distance Affect Lateral Thoracic Injury Mitigation with Side Airbag

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between thoracic injury risk and parameters of door velocity and occupant distance was delineated in blunt lateral impact with side airbag deployment. A sled impact model was exercised with the validated MADYMO fiftieth percentile facet occupant model and a generalized finite element torso side airbag. Impact velocity was incremented from 4.0 to 9.0 m/s; occupant-airbag distance (at time of airbag activation) was incremented from 2.0 to 24.0 cm; simulations without airbag were also examined. Using compression, deflection rate, and the Viscous Criterion, airbag performance was characterized with respect to occupant injury risk at three points of interest: occupant distance of most protection, distance of greatest injury risk, and the newly defined critical distance. The occupant distance which demonstrated the most airbag protection, i.e., lowest injury risk, increased with increasing impact velocity. Greatest injury risk resulted when the occupant was nearest the airbag regardless of impact velocity. The critical distance was defined as the farthest distance at which airbag deployment exacerbated injury risk. This critical distance only varied considering chest compression, between 3 and 10 cm from the airbag, but did not vary when the Viscous Criterion were evaluated. At impact velocities less than or equal to 6 m/s, the most protective occupant location was within 2 cm of the critical distance at which the airbag became harmful. Therefore, injury mitigation with torso airbag may be more difficult to achieve at lower ΔV. PMID:21376873

  6. FEDERAL MINERAL LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of geographic information systems to combine point, line, and areal data has been widely documented, although the establishment of a particular data base presents its own unique problems. The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a geographic information system consisting of information on Federal surface ownership, Federal subsurface mineral rights, location of actual mineral occurrences and (or) known potential, and formal restrictions to mineral development. By utilizing information already compiled or soon to be collected by other agencies, the Federal Mineral Land Information System should be able to provide answers relating to mineral availability on public lands.

  7. The Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Irani, Fred M.

    1991-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system, available in the public domain, for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. The system was developed to support earth sciences research and development activities. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete on-line and hardcopy documentation, extensive image data file management, reformatting, and conversion utilities, and high level device independent access to image display hardware. The capabilities are summarized of the latest release of the system (version 5). Emphasis is given to the system portability and the isolation of hardware and software dependencies in this release.

  8. Splenic Trauma as an Adverse Effect of Torso-Protecting Side Airbags: Biomechanical and Case Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Brasel, Karen J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    Injury mechanisms from frontal airbags, first identified in anecdotal reports, are now well documented for pediatric, small female, and out-of-position occupants. In contrast, torso side airbags have not yet been consistently associated with specific injury risks in field assessments. To determine possible torso side airbag-related injuries, the present study identified crashes involving side airbags from reports within the CIREN, NASS, and SCI databases. Injury patterns were compared to patterns from lateral crashes in absence of side airbag. Splenic trauma (AIS 3+) was found present in five cases of torso side airbag deployment at lower impact severity (as measured by velocity change and compartment intrusion) than cases of splenic trauma without side airbag. Five additional cases were found to contain similar injury patterns but occurred with greater crash severity. To supplement case analyses, full scale sled tests were conducted with a THOR-NT dummy and cadaveric specimen. Four THOR tests with door- and seat-mounted torso side airbags confirmed that out-of-position (early inflation stage) airbag contact elevated thoracic injury metrics compared to optimal (fully inflated) contact. Out-of-position seat-mounted airbag deployment also produced AIS 3 splenic trauma in the cadaveric specimen. Due to potentially sudden or delayed onset of intraperitoneal hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock following splenic trauma, further biomechanical investigation of this anecdotal evidence is essential to identify injury mechanisms, prevention techniques, and methods for early diagnosis. PMID:20184829

  9. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  10. Land mobile satellite demonstration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

  11. Deflated Airbags and Petal in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this view, imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A lander petal and deflated airbag are at the bottom of the image.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  12. Testing Microwave Landing Systems With Satellite Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Less time and equipment needed to perform tests. Satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measures accuracy of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at airports used to support Shuttle landings. Provides time and three-dimensional information on position and velocity with unprecedented accuracy. Useful for testing other electronic navigation aids like LORAN, TACAN and microwave landing systems (MLS).

  13. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions☆

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  14. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  15. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  16. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-05-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  17. Mars Exploration Rover: thermal design is a system engineering activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Avila, Arturo; Awaya, Henry I.; Krylo, Robert; Novak, Keith; Phillips, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), were launched in June and July of 2003, repsectively and successfully landed on Mars in early and late January of 2004, repectively. The flight system architecture implemented many successful features of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) system: A cruise stage that transported an entry vehicle that housed the Lander, which in turn, used airbags to cushion the Rover during the landing event.

  18. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Miller, Eric J.; Hudson, Larry D.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Neufeld, David C.; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain-gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three airbags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead-weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 lb. Twenty-six load cases were applied with the aircraft resting on its landing gear, and 16 load cases were performed with the aircraft supported by the nose gear and three airbags around the center of gravity. Maximum wing tip deflection reached 17 inches. An assortment of 2, 3, 4, and 5 strain-gage load equations were derived and evaluated against independent check cases. The better load equations had root mean square errors less than 1 percent. Test techniques and lessons learned are discussed.

  19. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  20. Studies of Land Atmosphere Coupling Using the Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.; Kumar, S. V.; Eastman, J. L.; Tao, W.

    2007-05-01

    Recent studies have examined aspects of land atmosphere coupling including the roles of soil moisture and vegetation, on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and initiation and evolution of clouds. However, due to limits in computational resources and/or theoretical knowledge, many of these studies have utilized highly parameterized representations of these components so that the true nature of land atmosphere coupling is still unknown. The NASA/GSFC Land Information System (LIS; http:lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) has now been successfully coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; http:www.wrfmodel.org) model, and now provides a testbed for conducting studies of land-atmosphere coupling at water and energy cycle process resolving horizontal spatial scales (1km or less). LIS is a high-performance Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS; http:ldas.gsfc.nasa.gov) that encapsulates the capabilities of the North American LDAS (NLDAS) and the Global LDAS (GLDAS) into a single software infrastructure. The original LIS consists of several land surface models (e.g., Noah, CLM, VIC, HySSiB, Catchment) that can be run in two modes: uncoupled or coupled. In uncoupled mode, the atmospheric boundary conditions are prescribed using observationally-based precipitation, radiation and meteorological inputs, while in coupled mode, these inputs are predicted by the WRF model. In both cases, LIS incorporates remotely sensed land surface parameters including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based Leaf Area Index (LAI). In this talk, we will present results from various coupled case studies indicating a strong sensitivity of the water and energy cycles to several controls, including soil moisture, vegetation, and the atmospheric boundary layer. We will also demonstrate the value of remotely sensed observations of ecosystem properties on predicting the timing and location of convection.

  1. LSD (Landing System Development) Impact Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullio, R.; Riva, N.; Pellegrino, P.; Deloo, P.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame of the Exploration Programs, a soft landing on the planet surface is foreseen. To ensure a successful final landing phase, a landing system by using leg tripod design landing legs with adequate crushable damping system was selected, capable of absorbing the residual velocities (vertical, horizontal and angular) at touch- down, insuring stability. TAS-I developed a numerical non linear dynamic methodology for the landing impact simulation of the Lander system by using a commercial explicit finite element analysis code (i.e. Altair RADIOSS). In this paper the most significant FE modeling approaches and results of the analytical simulation of landing impact are reported, especially with respect to the definition of leg dimensioning loads and the design update of selected parts (if necessary).

  2. The Mars Exploration Rovers Entry Descent and Landing and the Use of Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam; Desai, Prasun; Lee, Wayne; Bruno, Robin

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) project, the next United States mission to the surface of Mars, uses aerodynamic decelerators in during its entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase. These two identical missions (MER-A and MER-B), which deliver NASA s largest mobile science suite to date to the surface of Mars, employ hypersonic entry with an ablative energy dissipating aeroshell, a supersonic/subsonic disk-gap-band parachute and an airbag landing system within EDL. This paper gives an overview of the MER EDL system and speaks to some of the challenges faced by the various aerodynamic decelerators.

  3. Entry Descent and Landing Systems for small planetary missions: parametric comparison of parachutes and inflatable systems for the proposed Vanguard Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouis, E.; Ellery, A.; Welch, C. S.

    2003-11-01

    Here the feasibility of a post-Beagle2 robotic Mars mission of modest size, mass and cost with a high scientific return is assessed. Based on a triad of robotics comprising a lander, a rover and three penetrating moles, the mission is astrobiology focussed, but also provides a platform for technology demonstration. The study is investigating two Entry, Descent and Landing Systems (EDLS) for the 120kg - mission based on the conventional heatshield/parachute duo and on the use of inflatable technologies as demonstrated by the IRDT/IRDT2 projects. Moreover, to make use of existing aerodynamic databases, both EDLS are considered with two geometries: the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) and Huygens/Beagle2 (B2) configurations. A versatile EDL model has been developed to provide a preliminary sizing for the different EDL systems such as heatshield, parachute, and inflatables for small to medium planetary missions. With a landed mass of 65 kg, a preliminary mass is derived for each system of the mission to provide a terminal velocity compatible with the use of airbags. On both conventional and inflatable options, the MPF configuration performs slightly better mass-wise since its cone half-angle is flatter at 70 degrees. Overall, the Inflatable Braking Device (IBD) option performs better than the conventional one and would provide in this particular case a decrease in mass of the EDLS of about 15-18% that can be redistributed to the payload.

  4. Entry descent and landing systems for small planetary missions: Parametric comparison of parachutes and inflatable systems for the proposed Vanguard Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouis, E.; Ellery, A.; Welch, C. S.

    2006-10-01

    Here, the feasibility of a post-Beagle2 robotic Mars mission of modest size, mass and cost with a high scientific return is assessed. Based on a triad of robotics comprising a lander, a rover and three penetrating moles, the mission is astrobiology focussed, but also provides a platform for technology demonstration. The study is investigating two Entry, Descent and Landing Systems (EDLS) for the 120 kg—mission based on the conventional heatshield/parachute duo and on the use of inflatable technologies as demonstrated by the IRDT/IRDT2 projects. Moreover, to make use of existing aerodynamic databases, both EDLS are considered with two geometries: the Mars pathfinder (MPF) and Huygens/Beagle2 (B2) configurations. A versatile EDL model has been developed to provide a preliminary sizing for the different EDL systems such as heatshield, parachute, and inflatables for small to medium planetary missions. With a landed mass of 65 kg, a preliminary mass is derived for each system of the mission to provide a terminal velocity compatible with the use of airbags. On both conventional and inflatable options, the MPF configuration performs slightly better mass-wise since its cone half-angle is flatter at 70. Overall, the inflatable braking device (IBD) option performs better than the conventional one and would provide in this particular case a decrease in mass of the EDLS of about 15 18% that can be redistributed to the payload.

  5. Airbags to Martian Landers: Analyses at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, K.W.

    1994-03-01

    A new direction for the national laboratories is to assist US business with research and development, primarily through cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs). Technology transfer to the private sector has been very successful as over 200 CRADAs are in place at Sandia. Because of these cooperative efforts, technology has evolved into some new areas not commonly associated with the former mission of the national laboratories. An example of this is the analysis of fabric structures. Explicit analyses and expertise in constructing parachutes led to the development of a next generation automobile airbag; which led to the construction, testing, and analysis of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mars Environmental Survey Lander; and finally led to the development of CAD based custom garment designs using 3D scanned images of the human body. The structural analysis of these fabric structures is described as well as a more traditional example Sandia with the test/analysis correlation of the impact of a weapon container.

  6. Airbag and ASI/MET instrument in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view from the lander was imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A deflated airbag is at the bottom of the image. At the extreme right, the Atmospheric Structure Instrument and Meteorology package (ASI/MET)mast, with its three windsocks, is visible.are at the bottom right of the image.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  7. Land Use Systems Model. Technical Report. Preliminary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, W. Burnet

    Since the service requirements of a utility depend on the distribution of population and land use in the service area, the planning for future requirements depends on accurate projections of future distributions. This systems approach model organizes land use data as an aid to facility planning. Included as variables are residential, commercial,…

  8. Land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  9. Necessity to adapt land use and land cover classification systems to readily accept radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.

    1977-01-01

    A hierarchial, four level, standardized system for classifying land use/land cover primarily from remote-sensor data (USGS system) is described. The USGS system was developed for nonmicrowave imaging sensors such as camera systems and line scanners. The USGS system is not compatible with the land use/land cover classifications at different levels that can be made from radar imagery, and particularly from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The use of radar imagery for classifying land use/land cover at different levels is discussed, and a possible revision of the USGS system to more readily accept land use/land cover classifications from radar imagery is proposed.

  10. Seatbelt versus seatbelt and airbag injuries in a single motor vehicle crash

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Ibrahim; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Peralta, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Seatbelt restraints are important for occupant safety which substantially reduces morbidity and mortality in severe motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Though, it has been established that the air bag and seatbelt use reduce injury severity and mortality but still there is limited information on the pattern of injury by restraint type. Herein, we presented two case reports which describe the injury pattern of two patients (both were restrained but only driver had airbag) involved in a single MVC. Both of them had severe traumatic injuries, however, the restrained passenger without airbag, sustained more severe injuries of intestine, kidney and spinal cord. In addition to seatbelt, airbag provides considerable protection against severe blunt abdominal trauma. Therefore, installation of airbags especially for front seat passenger is imperative for minimizing the risk of significant traumatic injuries. PMID:25810964

  11. Extreme Rock Distributions on Mars and Implications for Landing Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the landing of Mars Pathfinder, the size-frequency distribution of rocks from the two Viking landing sites and Earth analog surfaces was used to derive a size-frequency model, for nomimal rock distributions on Mars. This work, coupled with extensive testing of the Pathfinder airbag landing system, allowed an estimate of what total rock abundances derived from thermal differencing techniques could be considered safe for landing. Predictions based on this model proved largely correct at predicting the size-frequency distribution of rocks at the Mars Pathfinder site and the fraction of potentially hazardous rocks. In this abstract, extreme rock distributions observed in Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images are compared with those observed at the three landing sites and model distributions as an additional constraint on potentially hazardous surfaces on Mars.

  12. Portable-Beacon Landing System for Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Clary, George R.; Chisholm, John P.; Macdonald, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype beacon landing system (BLS) allows helicopters to make precise landings in all weather. BLS easily added to existing helicopter avionic equipment and readily deployed at remote sites. Small and light, system employs X-band radar and digital processing. Variety of beams pulsed sequentially by ground station after initial interrogation by weather radar of approaching helicopter. Airborne microprocessor processes pulses to determine glide slope, course deviation, and range.

  13. Future Landing Capabilities of the Mars 2020 Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipp, K. A.; Hines, E. K.; Chen, A.

    2014-06-01

    This study examines landing site elevation capability as a function of landing season, for a future mission using the heritage MSL/Mars 2020 EDL system. Results are presented for a 1200kg landed mass with different parachute technology assumptions.

  14. Land system architecture: Using land systems to adapt and mitigate global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, B.L.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Verbug, Peter H.; Murray, Alan T.

    2013-04-01

    Land systems (mosaics of land use and cover) are human environment systems, the changes in which drive and respond to local to global environmental changes, climate to macro-economy (Foley et al., 2005). Changes in land systems have been the principal proximate cause in the loss of habitats and biota globally, long contributed to atmospheric greenhouse gases, and hypothesized to have triggered climate changes in the early Holocene (Ruddiman, 2003). Land use, foremost agriculture, is the largest source of biologically active nitrogen to the atmosphere, critical to sources and sinks of carbon, and a major component in the hydrologic cycle (e.g., Bouwman et al., 2011). Changes in land systems also affect regional climate (Feddema et al., 2005; Pielke, 2005), ecosystem functions, and the array of ecosystem services they provide. Land systems, therefore, are a central feature of how humankind manages its relationship with nature-intended or not, or whether this relationship proceeds sustainably or not.

  15. Studies of some unconventional systems for solving various landing problems. [air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J.; Mcgehee, J. R.; Dreher, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Solutions to various landing problems were obtained through unconventional systems. The first, of these is the air cushion landing system, where efforts were concentrated on development of adequate braking and steering systems and an improved understanding of scaling laws and behavior. The second was concentrated on use of a wire brush skid as a drag producing device, which was shown to have good friction coefficients and reasonable wear rates at ground bearing pressures up to 689 kPa and forward speeds up to 80 km/hr. The third showed great promise in an active control landing gear where significant load reductions were possible during landing impact and subsequent rollout.

  16. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  17. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  18. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  19. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  20. Estimating Evapotranspiration with Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S. V.; Mocko, D. M.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in both land surface models (LSM) and land surface data assimilation, especially over the last decade, have substantially advanced the ability of land data assimilation systems (LDAS) to estimate evapotranspiration (ET). This article provides a historical perspective on international LSM intercomparison efforts and the development of LDAS systems, both of which have improved LSM ET skill. In addition, an assessment of ET estimates for current LDAS systems is provided along with current research that demonstrates improvement in LSM ET estimates due to assimilating satellite-based soil moisture products. Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System, we assimilate both NASA and Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) soil moisture products into the Noah LSM Version 3.2 with the North American LDAS phase 2 (NLDAS-2) forcing to mimic the NLDAS-2 configuration. Through comparisons with two global reference ET products, one based on interpolated flux tower data and one from a new satellite ET algorithm, over the NLDAS2 domain, we demonstrate improvement in ET estimates only when assimilating the LPRM soil moisture product.

  1. Dynamic PIV measurement of a compressible flow issuing from an airbag inflator nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Jang, Young Gil; Kim, Seok; Kim, Chang Soo

    2006-12-01

    Among many equipment for passenger safety, the air bag system is the most fundamental and effective device for an automobile. The inflator housing is a main part of the curtain-type air bag system, which supplies high-pressure gases in pumping up the air bag-curtain which is increasingly being adapted in deluxe cars for protecting passengers from the danger of side clash. However, flow information on the inflator housing is very limited. In this study, we measure the instantaneous velocity fields of a high-speed compressible flow issuing from the exit nozzle of an inflator housing using a dynamic PIV system. From the velocity field data measured at a high frame-rate, we evaluate the variation of the mass flow rate with time. The dynamic PIV system consists of a high-repetition Nd:YLF laser, a high-speed CMOS camera, and a delay generator. The flow images are taken at 4000 fps with synchronization of the trigger signal for inflator ignition. From the instantaneous velocity field data of flow ejecting from the airbag inflator housing at the initial stage, we can see a flow pattern of broken shock wave front and its downward propagation. The flow ejecting from the inflator housing is found to have very high velocity fluctuations, with the maximum velocity at about 700 m/s. The time duration of the high-speed flow is very short, and there is no perceptible flow after 100 ms.

  2. Computer program design for land treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.K. ); Jantrania, A.

    1989-10-01

    Municipal Sludge Land Application expert System (MuSLAXS)is as expert system developed for site assessment and design analysis of municipal sludge application on agricultural land. The system has knowledge on the technical and regulatory aspects of sludge land application and understanding of soil-plant systems for South Carolina. It can be effectively used outside South Carolina with modifications to incorporate specific regulations on land treatment and soil and crop database. A database supports this expert system and provides appropriate default values for sludge and soil characteristics, and fertilizer recommendations for crops commonly grown in South Carolina. Information on the sludge characteristics is gathered from the user, if it is available, or it is retrieved from the sludge database. Based on the recommendations by the EPA and the expert, a list of 22 constituents, for which the sludge should be analyzed is developed. This list includes: total solids, volatile solids, total nitrogen (TNK), ammonia-nitrogen, organic-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, PCBs, calcium, magnesium, chromium, boron, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and molybdenum.

  3. Apollo experience report: Earth landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.

  4. Spectroradiometric considerations for advanced land observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1986-01-01

    Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.

  5. Computer simulation of occupant neck response to airbag deployment in frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Yang, K H; Latouf, B K; King, A I

    1992-08-01

    A mathematical simulation was performed to study the potential of head and neck injury to an unbelted driver restrained by an airbag. The baseline study represented a 50th percentile male dummy driving in a compact car with the steering wheel perpendicular to the floor. The vehicle was moving at 48 km/hour at the time of impact. Model predictions were compared with sled test results. The data agreed reasonably well. A parametric study was performed to study the effect of changing the steering wheel angle and the size of the airbag. It was found that when the standard 20 degrees angle steering wheel was used, neck joint torques were decreased by 22 percent while the resultant head acceleration increased 41 percent from the base line study. When the vertical dimension of the airbag was reduced by 10 percent, neck joint torques were increased by 14 percent, while head acceleration showed a slight decrease of 9 percent. PMID:1522726

  6. Investigating occupant safety through simulating the interaction between side curtain airbag deployment and an out-of-position occupant.

    PubMed

    Potula, S R; Solanki, K N; Oglesby, D L; Tschopp, M A; Bhatia, M A

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the effect of side curtain airbag deployment on occupant injuries and safety when the occupant is either in-position or out-of-position (OOP). We used side impact vehicle collision simulations with a 1996 Dodge Neon model, which was further modified to include a side curtain airbag, a seatbelt, and a 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy. The airbag used in the study was inflated using both the uniform pressure (UP) and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods. In-position and OOP simulations were performed to assess and establish guidelines for airbag aggressivity thresholds and occupant position versus risk of injury. Three different OOP scenarios (OOP1, OOP2, OOP3) were initially setup following the work of Lund (2003), then modified such that the dummy's head was closer to the airbag, increasing the chance of injury caused by the airbag. The resultant head acceleration as a function of time for in-position and OOP simulations shows that both UP and SPH methods produce similar peak accelerations in cases where the airbag is fully inflated prior to impact. In all cases, the head peak accelerations and the head injury criteria for simulations with an airbag were significantly lower when compared with the no airbag case, which would typically indicate that the use of an airbag results in improved occupant protection during side impact. However, in the case of OOP2 and OOP3, the neck flexion forces actually increase significantly when compared with the no airbag case. This finding indicates that the HIC and neck flexion forces criterion are in conflict and that there may be a tradeoff in terms of occupant injury/safety with a side curtain airbag that is strongly correlated to the occupant position. Consequently, this study shows that safety devices result in a significant effect on occupant injury/safety when the occupant is in OOP conditions. Moreover, in some cases, simulation results show that the side curtain airbag

  7. Biomechanical and injury response to posterolateral loading from torso side airbags.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2010-11-01

    This study characterized thoracoabdominal response to posterolateral loading from a seat-mounted side airbag. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subjects were exposed to ten airbag deployments. Subjects were positioned such that the deploying airbag first contacted the posterolateral thorax between T6 and L1 while stationary (n = 3 x 2 aspects) or while subjected to left lateral sled impact at ΔV = 6.7 m/s (n = 4). Chestband contours were analyzed to quantify deformation direction in the thoracic x-y plane (zero degrees indicating anterior and 180° indicating posterior), magnitude, rate, and viscous response. Skeletal injuries were consistent with posterolateral contact; visceral injuries consisted of renal (n = 1) or splenic (n = 3) lacerations. Deformation direction was transient during sled impact, progressing from 122 ± 5° at deformation onset to 90° following maximum deflection. Angles from stationary subjects progressed from 141 ± 9° to 120°. Peak normalized deflections, peak rates, and VCmax ranges were 0.075 - 0.171, 3.7 - 12.7 m/s, and 0.3 - 0.6 m/s with stationary airbag, respectively; ranges were 0.167 - 0.297, 7.4 - 18.3 m/s, and 0.7 - 3.0 m/s with airbag sled impact, respectively. Peak deflections were measured at angles between 99° - 135° and 98° - 125° for stationary and dynamic conditions, respectively. Because of deflection angle transience and localized injury response, both posterolateral and lateral injury metrics may be required for this boundary condition. Contrasted with flat rigid or anterolateral loading, biomechanical response to side airbag interaction may be augmented by peak normalized deflection or VCmax at 130°. PMID:21512911

  8. Biomechanical and Injury Response to Posterolateral Loading from Torso Side Airbags

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized thoracoabdominal response to posterolateral loading from a seat-mounted side airbag. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subjects were exposed to ten airbag deployments. Subjects were positioned such that the deploying airbag first contacted the posterolateral thorax between T6 and L1 while stationary (n = 3 × 2 aspects) or while subjected to left lateral sled impact at ΔV = 6.7 m/s (n = 4). Chestband contours were analyzed to quantify deformation direction in the thoracic x–y plane (zero degrees indicating anterior and 180° indicating posterior), magnitude, rate, and viscous response. Skeletal injuries were consistent with posterolateral contact; visceral injuries consisted of renal (n = 1) or splenic (n = 3) lacerations. Deformation direction was transient during sled impact, progressing from 122 ± 5° at deformation onset to 90° following maximum deflection. Angles from stationary subjects progressed from 141 ± 9° to 120°. Peak normalized deflections, peak rates, and VCmax ranges were 0.075 – 0.171, 3.7 – 12.7 m/s, and 0.3 – 0.6 m/s with stationary airbag, respectively; ranges were 0.167 – 0.297, 7.4 – 18.3 m/s, and 0.7 – 3.0 m/s with airbag sled impact, respectively. Peak deflections were measured at angles between 99° – 135° and 98° – 125° for stationary and dynamic conditions, respectively. Because of deflection angle transience and localized injury response, both posterolateral and lateral injury metrics may be required for this boundary condition. Contrasted with flat rigid or anterolateral loading, biomechanical response to side airbag interaction may be augmented by peak normalized deflection or VCmax at 130°. PMID:21512911

  9. A land mobile satellite data system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, John D. B.

    The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.

  10. A land mobile satellite data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, John D. B.

    1990-01-01

    The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.

  11. Development of a portable precision landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Macdonald, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    A portable, tactical approach guidance (PTAG) system, based on a novel, X-band, precision approach concept, was developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-the-art X-band technology and digital processing techniques. The PTAG airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small microprocessor installed in conjunction with the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, PTAG pulses and outputs ILS compatible localizer and glide slope signals. The ground stations are inexpensive, portable units, each weighing less than 85 lb, including battery, that can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that PTAG has a significant potential for providing tactical aircraft with low cost, portable, precision instrument approach capability.

  12. The Sand Land Soil System and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoory, R. A.

    Worldwide arid soils such as Latterites from African Savannas to the Xeralfs and Xererts of the Mediterranean Basin Ortents and Orthids of Asian Deserts are uniquely different in their strategic roles for utilizing the land in places where a delicate balance between annual climatic cycles and general trends toward desertification predominate Arid lands cover 1 3 of global land surface and contain irreplaceable natural resources with potential productivity of meeting the demands of more than two billion people and serving as sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 to combat global warming The soil system in these arid areas are being degraded underutilized and kept in a stage of obliviousness due to inadequate public literacy and most importantly in-sufficient scientific evaluations based on pedology and soil taxonomy standards Implementation of food security projects and sustainable development programs on randomly selected sites and assessment of land degradation worldwide by powerful computers and satellite imagery techniques without field work and identification of Representative Soil Units are data producing and grant attracting but counter productive We live in a world in which there is an order out there and things are precisely measured and categorized for efficient utilization Why not the soils mainly in arid areas How we could generalize the world of soils under our feet by concept of soils are the same Expansion of educational programs quantification of multiple ecosystems within the arid regions through detailed and correlated

  13. Video guidance, landing, and imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.

  14. A Vision For A Land Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Disney, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we argue that the exploitation of EO land surface data for modelling and monitoring would be greatly facilitated by the routine generation of inter- operable low-level surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) products. We consider evidence from a range of ESA, NASA and other products and studies as well as underlying research to outline the features such a processing system might have, and to define initial research priorities.

  15. Need for airbag and seatbelt to reduce orbital injuries from steering wheel knob.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to report a blowout fracture of the orbital floor and medial wall caused by being struck by a steering wheel knob of an automobile and to discuss the use of airbags and seatbelts as a preventive measure for orbital injuries. A 58-year-old man was struck in the left eye by a steering wheel. His car hit a telephone pole, and he had a frontal collision injury. In this frontal impact, his left eye was hit by a Brodie knob attached to the steering wheel. At the time of injury, the speed of the car was about 65 km/h. He was not wearing a seatbelt, and the airbag had not deployed. Swelling and ecchymosis were observed at the left periorbital area, and he had diplopia on a left-side gaze. A CT revealed fractures in the medial and inferior wall of the left orbit. Entrapped soft tissues were reduced, and the medial wall and floor were reconstructed with a resorbable sheet. His diplopia disappeared 12 days after surgery. To prevent the injury from the steering wheel knob, an airbag should be installed in any vehicle, which has a steering wheel knob. Legislation mandating the use of airbags as well as seatbelts in vehicles with attached steering wheel knobs should be made. PMID:25376138

  16. TORSO SIDE AIRBAG OUT-OF-POSITION EVALUATION USING STATIONARY AND DYNAMIC OCCUPANTS

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    The risk of injury from torso side airbags in out-of-position (OOP) scenarios is assessed using stationary occupant conditions. Although stationary tests have been effective in frontal airbag assessments, their applicability to torso side airbags remains uncertain. Using the MADAYMO facet occupant model, thoracic OOP injury was evaluated using full-chest compression criteria (%C) and viscous criteria (VC) under stationary occupant conditions and occupant impact velocities of 6.0 m/s, 7.0 m/s, 8.0 m/s, and 9.0 m/s. During airbag deployment with a stationary occupant, peak %C = 21.8 % while peak VC = 0.86. At 6.0 m/s impact velocity, peak %C increased to 35.1 %; at 9.0 m/s impact velocity %C = 45.0 %. Similarly, peak VC increased from 1.19 at 6.0 m/s and to 1.96 at 9.0 m/s. These results demonstrated that thoracic injury metrics %C and VC increased in dynamic testing conditions. Therefore dynamic occupant tests may be required to effectively assess OOP thoracic injury risk. PMID:19096733

  17. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030981. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  18. Development of Land Analysis System display modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Douglas; Hollaren, Douglas; Huewe, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) display modules were developed to allow a user to interactively display, manipulate, and store image and image related data. To help accomplish this task, these modules utilize the Transportable Applications Executive and the Display Management System software to interact with the user and the display device. The basic characteristics of a display are outlined and some of the major modifications and additions made to the display management software are discussed. Finally, all available LAS display modules are listed along with a short description of each.

  19. Industrial use of land observation satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. B., III

    1984-01-01

    The principal industrial users of land observation satellite systems are the geological industries; oil/gas, mining, and engineering/environmental companies. The primary system used is LANDSAT/MSS. Currently, use is also being made of the limited amounts of SKYLAB photography, SEASAT and SIR-A radar, and the new LANDSAT/TM data available. Although considered experimental, LANDSAT data is now used operationally by several hundred exploration and engineering companies worldwide as a vastly improved geological mapping tool to help direct more expensive geophysical and drilling phases, leading to more efficient decision-making and results. Future needs include global LANDSAT/TM; higher spatial resolution; stereo and radar; improved data handling, processing distribution and archiving systems, and integrated geographical information systems (GIS). For a promising future, governments must provide overall continuity (government and/or private sector) of such systems, insure continued government R and D, and commit to operating internationally under the civil Open Skies policy.

  20. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  1. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  2. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  3. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  4. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.

  5. 75 FR 41886 - Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan Kara Area; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan... order withdraws 1,278.09 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry under the United... made of National Forest System land, to protect the Inyan Kara area of the Black Hills National......

  6. Overview of the land analysis system (LAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Olseson, Lyndon R.

    1987-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is a fully integrated digital analysis system designed to support remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems research. LAS is being developed through a cooperative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center and the U. S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. LAS has over 275 analysis modules capable to performing input and output, radiometric correction, geometric registration, signal processing, logical operations, data transformation, classification, spatial analysis, nominal filtering, conversion between raster and vector data types, and display manipulation of image and ancillary data. LAS is currently implant using the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). While TAE was designed primarily to be transportable, it still provides the necessary components for a standard user interface, terminal handling, input and output services, display management, and intersystem communications. With TAE the analyst uses the same interface to the processing modules regardless of the host computer or operating system. LAS was originally implemented at EROS on a Digital Equipment Corporation computer system under the Virtual Memorial System operating system with DeAnza displays and is presently being converted to run on a Gould Power Node and Sun workstation under the Berkeley System Distribution UNIX operating system.

  7. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  8. Finite Element Simulation Study of a Frontal Driver Airbag Deployment for Out-of-Position Situations.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Baudrit, Pascal; Gopal, Madana

    2003-10-01

    As more and more active restraint devices are added by vehicle manufacturers for occupant protection, the history of driver frontal airbags illustrates that the design performance of such devices for in-position (IP) occupants often have to be limited in order to reduce their aggressiveness for out-of-position (OOP) situations. As of today, a limited number of publications dealing with FE simulation of airbag deployment for OOP are available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of airbag deployment simulations based on an extensive set of well-defined physical test matrix. A driver frontal airbag was chosen (European mid-size car sample) for this study. It was deployed against a force plate (14 tests in a total of 6 configurations), and used with Hybrid III 50(th) percentile dummy (HIII) in OOP tests (6 tests, 4 configurations). Special attention was paid to control the boundary conditions used in experiments in order to improve the modeling process. The initial positioning of the dummy (chin against the top of the steering wheel rim, and back of the torso parallel to the plane of the rim) for both physical and numerical dummies was maintained from 23 targets digitized using a 3D Faro arm. Specific test position/conditions that were deemed important were repeated to understand the sensitivity and variation. The software used for the FEM simulations was Radioss, using uniform pressure method. The bag was meshed and folded using Excel and Matlab routines. The inflator characteristics were adapted from data provided by the inflator manufacturer. The body-block test conducted at 7 mm was used to tune the different model parameters and the remaining body-block, 50(th)%le HIII OOP and plate tests were used for validation. The results show comparison of simulation and tests records. The simulations show a satisfactory matching of the test results within the first 60 ms and capture the key events of the bag deployment in a promising manner. The major

  9. Preliminary study of a possible automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, W. L.; Winfrey, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Navigation and control laws for a possible automatic landing system have been investigated. The system makes use of data from an inertial table and either an airborne or ground radar to generate signals that guide the airplane to a landing. All landing maneuvers take place within a zone that extends 6000 m out from the touchdown point, 4000 m on each side of the runway center line, and 540 m high. The results show that the system can adequately control the airplane on steep, curved decelerating approaches to a landing that takes place with small errors from the desired landing point and desired airplane attitude. The system studied would interface well with the scanning beam microwave landing system (MLS). The use of this system with the MLS makes it possible to incorporate an independent landing monitor.

  10. Boeing CST-100 Mock-Up Undergoes Airbag Stabilization Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Boeing Company's mock-up CST-100 spacecraft was put through water landing development tests Oct. 1-5, 2012, at Bigelow Aerospace's headquarters outside of Las Vegas. Engineers with Bigelow have...

  11. The Impact of Seat belts and Airbags on High Grade Renal Injuries and Nephrectomy Rates in Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A; Fantus, Richard J.; Mellett, Michele M.; Fantus, Richard J.; Villines, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the most common cause of blunt genitourinary trauma. We compared renal injuries with no protective device to those with seat belts and/or airbags utilizing the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Our primary endpoint was a reduction in high-grade renal injuries (grades III-V) with a secondary endpoint of reduction in nephrectomy rate. Materials and Methods The NTDB research datasets, admission year 2010, 2011, and 2012, were queried for MVC occupants with renal injury. Subjects were stratified by protective device and airbag deployment. Abbreviated Injury Score was converted to American Association for the Surgery of Trauma renal injury grade and nephrectomy rates were evaluated. Intergroup comparisons were analyzed for renal injury grades, nephrectomy, length of stay, and mortality with chi-square or one-way ANOVA. Protective device relative risk reduction was determined. Results A review of 466,028 MVCs revealed 3,846 renal injuries. Injured occupants without a protective device had a higher rate of high grade renal injury (45.1%) compared to those with seat belts (39.9%, p=0.008), airbags (42.3%, p=0.317), and seat belts with airbags (34.7%, p<0.001). Seat belts (20.0%, p<0.001), airbags (10.5% p<0.001), and seat belts with airbags (13.3%, p<0.001) reduced the rate of nephrectomy compared to no protective device (56.2%). The combination of seatbelts and airbags also reduced total hospital length of stay (p<0.001) and ICU days (p=0.005). Relative risk reduction of high-grade renal injuries (23.1%) and nephrectomy (39.9%) were highest for combined protective devices. Conclusions Occupants of MVCs with protective devices have reduced rates of high-grade renal injury and nephrectomy. Reduction appears most pronounced with the combination of seat belts and airbags. PMID:24846798

  12. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1963-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively.

  13. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system which provides the pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V sub R) within the safe zone of the runway or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. An important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in headwind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system displays the position of the airplane on the runway, indicating runway used and runway available, summarizes the critical information into a situation advisory flag, flags engine failures and off-nominal acceleration performance, and indicates where on the runway particular events such as decision speed (V sub 1), rotation speed (V sub R) and expected stop points will occur based on actual or predicted performance. The display also indicates airspeed, wind vector, engine pressure ratios, second segment climb speed, and balanced field length (BFL). The system detects performance deficiencies by comparing the airplane's present performance with a predicted nominal performance based upon the given conditions.

  14. The land potential knowledge system (LandPKS): Increasing land productivity and resilience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Africa must significantly increase agricultural production to meet the needs of a growing population. Current efforts focus on intensifying production on currently used lands and expanding to un- or under-utilized lands. The success of both strategies requires understanding the land’s potential prod...

  15. Land System Science: between global challenges and local realities.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Peter H; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Mertz, Ole; Espindola, Giovana

    2013-10-01

    This issue of Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability provides an overview of recent advances in Land System Science while at the same time setting the research agenda for the Land System Science community. Land System Science is not just representing land system changes as either a driver or a consequence of global environmental change. Land systems also offer solutions to global change through adaptation and mitigation and can play a key role in achieving a sustainable future earth. The special issue assembles 14 articles that entail different perspectives on land systems and their dynamics, synthesizing current knowledge, highlighting currently under-researched topics, exploring scientific frontiers and suggesting ways ahead, integrating a plethora of scientific disciplines. PMID:24851141

  16. A Land Surface Data Assimilation Framework Using the Land Information System: Description and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Land Information System (LIS) is a hydrologic modeling framework that integrates various community land surface models, ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable assessment and prediction of hydrologic conditions at various spatia...

  17. Advances in Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    Assimilation of remotely sensed land surface observations into regional to global scale numerical models have the potential to significantly advance our ability, to assess, understand, and predict surface water, energy, and carbon cycles. This session seeks to assess the state-of-the-art in data assimilation methods for integrating land surface remote sensing and modeling, with a focus on practical applications and techniques. Assimilated land surface variables of interest include (but are not limited to, soil moisture, surface temperature, snowpack, streamflow, vegetation dynamics, and carbon storage. Contributions describing the development of practical land surface data assimilation methods, multivariate land surface data assimilation strategies, evaluation of the required accuracy and resolution of remote sensing observations, the effects of scale, process complexity, and uncertainty on data assimilation, and the optimal treatment of model and observation errors are encouraged.

  18. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  19. Do Increasingly Globalized Land Systems Promote or Undermine Sustainability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Scholars are now studying land systems in a global context using such concepts as "telecoupling." Research to date has recognized that local land systems may be undermined by globalization, and local people displaced. The land change community emphasizes the ways in which local people make decisions about natural resources given the opportunities and constraints that globalization presents. This talk will present a summary of current land systems science research in agribusiness, global trade and financial institutions, highlighting key ways in which sustainability measures can capture the effects of these actors and activities.

  20. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  1. 77 FR 44144 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...) published a National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register, on April 9, 2012, (77 FR 21162). Errors have been found in the rule with respect to punctuation, hyphenation, and... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AD02 National Forest System Land Management Planning;...

  2. Incorporating JULES into NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Investigations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Land Information System (LIS; lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed over the past decade with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS features a high performance and flexible design, and operates on an ensemble of land surface models for extension over user-specified regional or global domains. The extensible interfaces of LIS allow the incorporation of new domains, land surface models (LSMs), land surface parameters, meteorological inputs, data assimilation and optimization algorithms. In addition, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation and uncertainty estimation, and has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. A visiting fellowship is currently underway to implement JULES into LIS and to undertake some fundamental science on the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. An overview of the LIS system, features, and sample results will be presented in an effort to engage the community in the potential advantages of LIS-JULES for a range of applications. Ongoing efforts to develop a framework for diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling will also be presented using the suite of LSM and PBL schemes available in LIS and WRF along with observations from the U. S .. Southern Great Plains. This methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which will serve as a testbed for future experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  3. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  4. A Reusable Design for Precision Lunar Landing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhrman, Linda; Brand, Timothy; Fill, Tom; Norris, Lee; Paschall, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The top-level architecture to accomplish NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is to use Lunar missions and systems not just as an end in themselves, but also as testbeds for the more ambitious goals of Human Mars Exploration (HME). This approach means that Lunar missions and systems are most likely going to be targeted for (Lunar) polar missions, and also for long-duration (months) surface stays. This overacting theme creates basic top-level requirements for any next-generation lander system: 1) Long duration stays: a) Multiple landers in close proximity; b) Pinpoint landings for "surface rendezvous"; c) Autonomous landing of pre-positioned assets; and d) Autonomous Hazard Detection and Avoidance. 2) Polar and deep-crater landings (dark); 3) Common/extensible systems for Moon and Mars, crew and cargo. These requirements pose challenging technology and capability needs. Compare and contrast: 4) Apollo: a) 1 km landing accuracy; b) Lunar near-side (well imaged and direct-to-Earth com. possible); c) Lunar equatorial (landing trajectories offer best navigation support from Earth); d) Limited lighting conditions; e) Significant ground-in-the-loop operations; 5) Lunar Access: a) 10-100m landing precision; b) "Anywhere" access includes polar (potentially poor nav. support from Earth) and far side (poor gravity and imaging; no direct-to-Earth com); c) "Anytime" access includes any lighting condition (including dark); d) Full autonomous landing capability; e) Extensible design for tele-operation or operator-in-the-loop; and f) Minimal ground support to reduce operations costs. The Lunar Access program objectives, therefore, are to: a) Develop a baseline Lunar Precision Landing System (PLS) design to enable pinpoint "anywhere, anytime" landings; b) landing precision 10m-100m; c) Any LAT, LON; and d) Any lighting condition; This paper will characterize basic features of the next generation Lunar landing system, including trajectory types, sensor suite options and a reference

  5. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - LAND APPLICATION AREAS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system land applications as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting a...

  6. Application of the global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) mobile apps to land degradation, restoration and climate change adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combatting land degradation, promoting restoration and adapting to climate change all require an understanding of land potential. A global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) is being developed that will address many of these limitations using an open source approach designed to allow anyone w...

  7. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    PubMed

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. PMID:25617787

  8. Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, J. Matney

    2011-06-01

    Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

  9. Enhancing Adaptive Filtering Approaches for Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estima...

  10. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  11. PLANS FOR THE LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS) INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Management System (LMS) is an initiative of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) to address technology requirements related to land and water resource management in both military and Civil Works mission areas. The purpose of LMS is to provide rel...

  12. Acquiring observation error covariance information for land data assimilation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estimat...

  13. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  14. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2011-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite-and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected as a co-winner of NASA?s 2005 Software of the Year award.LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has e volved from two earlier efforts -- North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations.In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling

  15. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2009-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov; Kumar et al., 2006; Peters- Lidard et al.,2007) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected ase co-winner of NASA's 2005 Software of the Year award. LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has evolved from two earlier efforts North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS; Rodell al. 2004) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations. In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by

  16. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  17. Biomechanics of side impact: Injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Gennarelli, Thomas A.; Weigelt, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of side impact trauma-related biomedical investigations with specific reference to certain aspects of epidemiology relating to the growing elderly population, improvements in technology such as side airbags geared toward occupant safety, and development of injury criteria. The first part is devoted to the involvement of the elderly by identifying variables contributing to injury including impact severity, human factors, and national and international field data. This is followed by a survey of various experimental models used in the development of injury criteria and tolerance limits. The effects of fragility of the elderly coupled with physiological changes (e.g., visual, musculoskeletal) that may lead to an abnormal seating position (termed out-of-position) especially for the driving population are discussed. Fundamental biomechanical parameters such as thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forces; upper and lower spinal and sacrum accelerations; and upper, middle and lower chest deflections under various initial impacting conditions are evaluated. Secondary variables such as the thoracic trauma index and pelvic acceleration (currently adopted in the United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards), peak chest deflection, and viscous criteria are also included in the survey. The importance of performing research studies with specific focus on out-of-position scenarios of the elderly and using the most commonly available torso side airbag as the initial contacting condition in lateral impacts for occupant injury assessment is emphasized. PMID:16527285

  18. The shock-absorbed system of the airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callerio, Pietro

    1940-01-01

    A discussion is given of the behavior of the shock-absorbing system, consisting of elastic struts and tires, under landing, take-off, and taxying conditions, and a general formula derived for obtaining the minimum stroke required to satisfy the conditions imposed on the landing gear. Finally, the operation of some typical shock-absorbing systems are examined and the necessity brought out for taking into account, in dynamic landing-gear tests, the effect of the wing lift at the instant of contact with the ground.

  19. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  20. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  1. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  2. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands. 2650.4-6 Section 2650.4-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally §...

  3. Determining Land System Sustainability through a Land Architecture Approach: Example of Southern Yucatán (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, B. L., II

    2009-12-01

    Sustainable land systems involve an array of tradeoffs, not only among ecosystem services, but between those services and human outcomes. These tradeoffs are affected by the architecture of the land system—the kind, size, pattern, and distribution of land uses and covers. Working towards a model capable of handling a full array of ecosystem services and human outcomes, the concept of land architecture is illustrated through a simplified land system in the seasonal tropical forests of the southern Yucatán where sustainability is sought through the competing goals of forest conservation-preservation and agricultural development, both cultivation and ranching. Land architecture and tradeoff impacts are compared between two communities emphasizing, respectfully, forest conservation-preservation and agriculture. The role of spatial scale is also illustrated. Vulnerability and resilience assessments of land systems should be enhanced through a land architecture approach.

  4. a Study of Urban Intensive Land Evaluating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Gu, J.; Chen, X.; You, Y.; Tang, Q.

    2012-07-01

    The contradiction of land supply and demand is becoming increasingly prominent in China. The increasing efficiency of land use is an important means to resolve the conflict. We propose a scientific approach for promoting the urban intensive land use. In this paper, an evaluation system of urban intensive land use is programmed. It is designed to change the manual way of collecting index data and building index system to a dynamical way. The system improves the efficiency and accuracy of the evaluation of urban intensive land use. It achieves intensive evaluation on three scales: macro-level, medium-level and micro-level. We build two data extraction methods. One is XML-based meta-data exchange method that obtains index data from the cadastral database. Another is data monitoring method that writes the index data to the evaluation database at real time. Database technologies are used to calculate index values and build index systems dynamically. GIS technologies are use to achieve three scales evaluation of urban intensive land use.

  5. Ongoing Development of NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Kato, Hiroko; Zaitchik, Ben

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) produces global fields of land surface states (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) and fluxes (e.g., latent heat flux and runoff) by driving offline land surface models with observation-based inputs, using the Land Information System (LIS) software. Since production began in 2001, GLDAS has supported more than 100 scientific investigations and applications. Some examples are GEWEX and NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) global water and energy budget analyses, interpretations of hydrologic data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and forecast model initiation studies at NOAA and NASA. At the same time, the GLDAS team has continued improve results through the development of new modeling and data assimilation techniques. Here we describe several recent and ongoing innovations. These include global implementation of a runoff routing procedure, GRACE data assimilation, advanced snow cover assimilation, and irrigation modeling.

  6. Operational considerations in utilization of microwave landing system approach and landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of microwave landing system (MLS) equipment are reviewed and the flight performance of the terminal configured vehicle B-737 airplane during nearly five years of flight experience with MLS is summarized. Most of these flights involved curved, descending flight paths with automatic landings and final approaches as short as 0.44 n. mi. Possible uses to solve noise abatement problems with MLS equipment of varying degrees of complexity are discussed. It is concluded that altitude derived from MLS is superior to other sources near the airport traffic pattern.

  7. Flight test evaluation of the E-systems Differential GPS category 3 automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Mcnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) III precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT III precision approach and landing applications. An IAI Westwind 1124 aircraft (N24RH) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by E-Systems. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and landings. The navigation sensor error accuracy requirements were based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and landings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and landings shows that the E-Systems DGPS system met the navigation sensor error requirements for a successful approach and landing 98 out of 100 approaches and landings, based on the requirements specified in the FAA CAT III Level 2 Flight Test Plan. In addition, the E-Systems DGPS system met the integrity requirements for a successful approach and landing or stationary trial for all 100 approaches and landings and all ten stationary trials, based on the requirements specified in the FAA CAT III Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  8. Biofuels, land and water : a systems approach to sustainability.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Snyder, S. W.; LaFreniere, L.

    2009-08-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Assessing land-use change in Ireland using the Land-Parcel Identification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; O'Brien, Phillip; Green, Stuart; Gonzales Del Campo, Ainhoa; Jones, Michael; Stout, Jane

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dynamics linked to Land-Use and Land-Use Change (LULUC) are considered a major factor in the global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) budget. The major sources of carbon to the atmosphere are the loss of above and below ground biomass as well as the loss of soil organic carbon. Estimates have shown that in the decade between 1990 and 2000 emissions related to LULUC and forestry have been between 0.5 and 2.7 Gt C yr-1. The major sources are conversion from forestry to agriculture and grasslands to cropland; conversely land-use change from cropland to grassland can facilitate soil carbon sequestration. While the effects of different types of land-use change on the GHG budget have been well studied, assessing land-use change at a national level is subject to uncertainty. In Ireland LULUC are currently modelled using national statistical data on total land-uses as well as socio-economic data. This may lead to inaccuracies as it neither provides information on direct land-use change trajectories nor spatially explicit information such as soil properties. The aim of this study is to assess the suitability of the land-parcel identification system (LPIS) to assess overall inter-annual land-use change as well as the immediate trajectory of change reported, and to provide tools for this purpose. For the available LPIS datasets (2000 to 2012) a number of issues have been identified. (1) Duplication of parcels led to a major overestimation of the agricultural area. On average 20917.7 ±7157.6 parcels showed one or multiple duplicates, leading to an overestimation of the agricultural area by 58194.2 ±11578.4km2, (2) no continuous identification of parcels through time complicates tracking land-use change, and (3) parcel outline changes over time without indication if the changes represent real-world changes or corrections of the LPIS database. Geoinformation Systems tools have been developed to address those issues, including a tool to remove duplicate parcels and a tool that

  10. The auto-tuned land data assimilation system (ATLAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilation systems are tasked with the merging remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven (principally) by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems is frequently degraded by the imprecise specification of parameters ...

  11. Global Evapotranspiration Estimates using the Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Rodell, M.

    2005-05-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is being used extensively by the research community for studies ranging from climate and weather forecast initialization to the improvement of hydrologic decision support systems. The goal of the GLDAS is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface modeling and data assimilation techniques, in order to generate optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes (Rodell et al., 2004). The GLDAS software, which has been streamlined and parallelized by the Land Information System (LIS) software infrastructure, drives multiple, offline (not coupled to the atmosphere) land surface models, integrates a huge quantity of observation based data, executes on a global domain at high spatial resolutions (2.5° to 1 km), and is capable of producing results in near-real time. A vegetation-based "tiling" approach is used to simulate sub-grid scale variability, with a 1 km global vegetation dataset as its basis. Soil and elevation parameters are based on high-resolution global datasets. Observation-based precipitation and downward radiation products, as well as output fields from the best available global coupled atmospheric data assimilation systems, are employed to force the models. The international research community is using GLDAS to help assess global land surface conditions as part of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP), and GLDAS has been identified as NASA's land surface contribution to the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) enabling better use of remote sensing data in operational weather and climate forecasting. The global 1km resolution capability of LIS allows it to take advantage of the latest satellite observations, such as MODIS leaf area index and surface temperature, at their full resolution. In this presentation we will critically evaluate global LIS-based evapotranspiration estimates at

  12. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  13. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Pongratz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-11-15

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and AQ3 modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-economic systems, respectively. To date, cooperation between these communities has been limited. Based on common interests, this work discusses research priorities in representing land use and land-cover change for improved collaboration across modelling, observing and measurement communities. Major research topics in land use and land-cover change are those that help us better understand (1) the interaction of land use and land cover with the climate system (e.g. carbon cycle feedbacks), (2) the provision of goods and ecosystem services by terrestrial (natural and anthropogenic) land-cover types (e.g. food production), (3) land use and management decisions and (4) opportunities and limitations for managing climate change (for both mitigation and adaptation strategies).

  14. TOXIC ORGANIC VOLATILIZATION FROM LAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodology was evaluated for estimating volatilization of toxic organic chemicals from unsaturated soils. Projections were compared with laboratory data for simulated rapid infiltration wastewater treatment systems receiving primary municipal wastewater spiked with a suite of 18...

  15. LUMIS: A Land Use Management Information System for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) consists of a methodology of compiling land use maps by means of air photo interpretation techniques, digitizing these and other maps into machine-readable form, and numerically overlaying these various maps in two computer software routines to provide land use and natural resource data files referenced to the individual census block. The two computer routines are the Polygon Intersection Overlay System (PIOS) and an interactive graphics APL program. A block referenced file of land use, natural resources, geology, elevation, slope, and fault-line items has been created and supplied to the Los Angeles Department of City Planning for the City's portion of the Santa Monica Mountains. In addition, the interactive system contains one hundred and seventy-three socio-economic data items created by merging the Third Count U.S. Census Bureau tapes and the Los Angeles County Secured Assessor File. This data can be graphically displayed for each and every block, block group, or tract for six test tracts in Woodland Hills, California. Other benefits of LUMIS are the knowledge of air photo availability, flight pattern coverage and frequencies, and private photogrammetry companies flying Southern California, as well as a formal Delphi study of relevant land use informational needs in the Santa Monicas.

  16. Using Geo-informational System for determining land degradation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangul, I.; Mangul, S.

    The largest part of agricultural lands of the Republic of Moldova is concentrated in the arid zone Frequent droughts once in 2-4 years inflict vital causalities to agriculture of the Republic of Moldova However droughts influence doesn t only limit itself to forming production Drought after-effect is highly ruinous for water reserves industrial enterprises functioning rhythm and human health Droughts make for the drying up and crumbling of soil which is subject to excessive human influence and result in land degradation desertification Term desertification means land degradation in the droughty zones It is necessary to mention that the droughty ecosystems are extremely fragile and sensitive overexploitation Nowadays in the Republic of Moldova 33-37 of agricultural lands is eroded Republic of Moldova joined the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification on December 24 1998 The Government of the Republic of Moldova ratified the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification in 2000 Within the framework of executing the National Action Plan by National Committee to Combat Desertification Geo-informational System on arid questions was organized In addition a lot of indexes corresponding to international standards were used for the evaluation of drought of the territory and land degradation processes Mostly this information is presented in maps erosion landslides aridity water resources A rich experience of using satellite information for determining land degradation demonstrates high effectiveness of this method Satellite

  17. Systemic change increases forecast uncertainty of land use change models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Hilst, F.; Faaij, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) models of land use change are based on the assumption that the relationship between land use change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. Evaluation of the stationarity of the relationship between land use and a set of spatial attributes has been done by others (e.g., Bakker and Veldkamp, 2012). These studies, however, use logistic regression, separate from the land use change model. Therefore, they do not gain information on how to implement the spatial attributes into the model. In addition, they often compare observations for only two points in time and do not check whether the change is statistically significant. To overcome these restrictions, we assimilate a time series of observations of real land use into a land use change CA (Verstegen et al., 2012), using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the parameterization and model structure, i.e. the selection and relative importance of the drivers of location of land use change. In a case study of sugar cane expansion in Brazil, optimal model structure and parameterization were determined for each point in time for which observations were available (all years from 2004 to 2012). A systemic change, i.e. a statistically significant deviation in model structure, was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in the neighborhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model forecast uncertainty by a factor two compared to the

  18. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  19. Land-surface processes and monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William; Boone, Arron; Mechoso, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Yongkang Xue, F. De Sales, B. Lau, A. Boone, C. R. Mechoso Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass there. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. The LSP affects the monsoon evolution through different mechanisms at different scales. It affects the surface energy balance and energy partitioning in latent and sensible heat, the atmospheric heating rate, and general circulation. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation

  20. Land-surface processes and monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. It has also been suggested that LSP contribute to the abrupt jump in latitude of the East Asian monsoon as well as general circulation turning in some monsoon regions in its early stages. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. More comprehensive studies with multi-models are imperatively necessary.

  1. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  2. Multimedia Modeling System Response to Regional Land Management Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooter, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of Research and Development. It is populated with linked or fully coupled models that address nutrient research questions such as, "How might future policy, climate or land cover change in the Mississippi River Basin affect Nitrogen and Phosphorous loadings to the Gulf of Mexico" or, "What are the management implications of regional-scale land management changes for the sustainability of air, land and water quality?" This second question requires explicit consideration of economic (e.g. sector prices) and societal (e.g. land management) factors. Metrics that illustrate biosphere-atmosphere interactions such as atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations, atmospheric N loading to surface water, soil organic N and N percolation to groundwater are calculated. An example application has been completed that is driven by a coupled agricultural and energy sector model scenario. The economic scenario assumes that by 2022 there is: 1) no detectable change in weather patterns relative to 2002; 2) a concentration of stover processing facilities in the Upper Midwest; 3) increasing offshore Pacific and Atlantic marine transportation; and 4) increasing corn, soybean and wheat production that meets future demand for food, feed and energy feedstocks. This production goal is reached without adding or removing agricultural land area whose extent is defined by the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 2002v2011 classes 81 and 82. This goal does require, however, crop shifts and agricultural management changes. The multi-media system response over our U.S. 12km rectangular grid resolution analysis suggests that there are regions of potential environmental and health costs, as well as large areas that could experience unanticipated environmental and health

  3. Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Lee, Wayne; Steltzner, Adam; SanMartin, Alejanhdro

    2004-01-01

    System validation for a Mars entry, descent, and landing system is not simply a demonstration that the electrical system functions in the associated environments. The function of this system is its interaction with the atmospheric and surface environment. Thus, in addition to traditional test-bed, hardware-in-the-loop, testing, a validation program that confirms the environmental interaction is required. Unfortunately, it is not possible to conduct a meaningful end-to-end test of a Mars landing system on Earth. The validation plan must be constructed from an interconnected combination of simulation, analysis and test. For the Mars Exploration Rover mission, this combination of activities and the logic of how they combined to the system's validation was explicitly stated, reviewed, and tracked as part of the development plan.

  4. The Challenges of Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tommaso

    2004-01-01

    Humans have been fascinated with the idea of exploring Mars since the very beginning of the space age. Largely due to the belief that life may have at one time existed in some form, surface exploration has been the ultimate ambition of this exploration. Unfortunately engineers and scientists discovered early on that landing a spacecraft on the surface of Mars was to become one of the most difficult and treacherous challenges of robotic space exploration. At arrival to Mars, a spacecraft will be traveling at velocities between 4 and 7 km/s. 100% of this kinetic energy (KE) must be safely removed for a lander to deliver its payload to the surface. Fortunately Mars has an atmosphere substantial enough to allow the combination of a high drag heatshield and a parachute to remove 99% and 0.98% respectively of this kinetic energy. Unfortunately the atmosphere is not substantial enough to bring a lander to a safe touchdown. This means that an additional landing system is required to remove the remaining kinetic energy. On all previous successful missions the landing system has consisted of 2 major elements, a propulsion subsystem to remove an additional 0.002% (approx.50 - 100 m/s ) of the original KE and a final dedicated touchdown system. The first generation Mars landers used legs to accomplish touchdown. The second generation of Mars lander touchdown systems used airbags to mitigate the last few meters per second of residual velocity. NASA is currently developing a third generation landing system in an effort to reduce cost, mass and risk while simultaneously increasing performance as measured by payload fraction to the surface and accessible terrain roughness.

  5. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  6. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  7. Finite element analysis of occupant head injuries: parametric effects of the side curtain airbag deployment interaction with a dummy head in a side impact crash.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xingqiao; Potula, S; Grewal, H; Solanki, K N; Tschopp, M A; Horstemeyer, M F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated and assessed the dependence of dummy head injury mitigation on the side curtain airbag and occupant distance under a side impact of a Dodge Neon. Full-scale finite element vehicle simulations of a Dodge Neon with a side curtain airbag were performed to simulate the side impact. Owing to the wide range of parameters, an optimal matrix of finite element calculations was generated using the design method of experiments (DOE); the DOE method was performed to independently screen the finite element results and yield the desired parametric influences as outputs. Also, analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques were used to analyze the finite element results data. The results clearly show that the influence of moving deformable barrier (MDB) strike velocity was the strongest influence parameter on both cases for the head injury criteria (HIC36) and the peak head acceleration, followed by the initial airbag inlet temperature. Interestingly, the initial airbag inlet temperature was only a ~30% smaller influence than the MDB velocity; also, the trigger time was a ~54% smaller influence than the MDB velocity when considering the peak head accelerations. Considering the wide range in MDB velocities used in this study, results of the study present an opportunity for design optimization using the different parameters to help mitigate occupant injury. As such, the initial airbag inlet temperature, the trigger time, and the airbag pressure should be incorporated into vehicular design process when optimizing for the head injury criteria. PMID:23567214

  8. Facilities and capabilities catalog for landing and escape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert E. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This catalog serves as a single source reference for designers of landing and escape systems for spacecraft, aircraft, weapons, and airdrop system. It includes those facilities which may be required by a system designer in planning a development test program for many applications. The primary objective of this catalog is to provide a means for identifying critical facilities with the U.S. which can be used for the development of landing and escape systems. A secondary objective is to provide a useful tool to the system designer for picking and choosing facilities and capabilities. The six chapters in this volume include wind tunnels, drop zones, test aircraft, fabrication facilities, design tools, and other miscellaneous facilities. A different data sheet format is used for each of the chapters which provides information on performance, location, special capabilities, and a local point of contact. All inputs were solicited from the individual facilities and have not been independently verified for accuracy.

  9. Land-mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

  10. 78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...The Forest Service has issued proposed directives to Forest Service Handbook (FSH 1909.12) and Manual (FSM 1920) establishing procedures and responsibilities for implementing the National Forest System (NFS) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent overall guidance to Forest Service Line Officers and Agency employees in developing,......

  11. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Register, on April 9, 2012 (77 FR 21162). DATES: These corrections are effective April 19, 2013. ADDRESSES... Register, page 21162, April 9, 2012, (77 FR 21162) the United States Department of Agriculture (Department... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AB86 National Forest System Land Management Planning;...

  12. TOXIC AND PRIORITY ORGANICS IN MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the research reported herein was to begin a methodical investigation of organic priority pollutants applied to plant-soil systems at rates characteristic of municipal sludge land treatment. A single chemical was applied at rates of 0.1, 10, and 100-fold of the expecte...

  13. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  14. Orion Landing and Recovery Systems Development - Government Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machin, Ricardo A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's work in development of landing and recovery systems for the Orion space craft. It includes a review of the available tools and skills that assist in analyzing the aerodynamic decelerators. There is a description of the work that is being done on the Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) parachutes that will be used with the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

  15. Fish farming in land-based closed-containment systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...

  16. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the

  17. Electro-optic precision approach and landing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, David

    1995-06-01

    The ASIST (Aircraft Ship Integrated Secure and Traverse) system is a second generation shipborne helicopter handling system developed by Indal Technologies Inc. (ITI). The first generation of the RAST (Recovery Assist, Securing and Traversing) system has established itself as the most successful shipborne helicopter handling system in the world, with more than 150 shipsets delivered or on order to naval forces sailing all the world's oceans. ASIST completed sea trials by July 31, 1992 and production units are in operation with the Chilean Navy. A significant feature of ASIST is the incorporation of a Helicopter Position Sensing Subsystem (HPSS) which is based on an automatic target detection technique developed at ITI. The HPSS will detect a laser beacon equipped helicopter within one second (usually 0.25 second) of it appearing in the field of view of the system cameras. The system then will track the helicopter and provide real time helicopter position relative to the landing area updated every 1/30 second until it is landed. A Rapid Securing Device (RSD) will also be driven by the position data to track the helicopter at low hover. Once the system has detected that the helicopter has landed on the deck, the RSD automatically approaches the helicopter and secures it. This occurs within two seconds. The RSD and traversing system are then used to align the helicopter with the deck tracks and manoeuvre it into a hanger, all without the need for manned intervention.

  18. Benefits of Australian Design Rule 69 (full frontal crash protection) and airbags in frontal crashes in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fitzharris, Michael; Fildes, Brian; Newstead, Stuart; Logan, David

    2004-01-01

    In-depth data at MUARC was used to evaluate the Australian Design Rule 69 (ADR69) - Full frontal dynamic crash requirement, as well as the effectiveness of frontal airbag deployment on injury risk and associated cost of injury. ADR69 was introduced in Australia in mid-1995 and was based largely on the US equivalent FMVSS-208. The results indicate reductions in excess of 90% in the likelihood of sustaining AIS 2+ injuries in body regions where frontal airbags would be expected to benefit. The average injury cost savings for drivers of post-ADR69 manufactured vehicles was found to be up to AUD$19,000 depending on body region considered. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. A robust signalling system for land mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irish, Dale; Shmith, Gary; Hart, Nick; Wines, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Presented here is a signalling system optimized to ensure expedient call set-up for satellite telephony services in a land mobile environment. In a land mobile environment, the satellite to mobile link is subject to impairments from multipath and shadowing phenomena, which result in signal amplitude and phase variations. Multipath, caused by signal scattering and reflections, results in sufficient link margin to compensate for these variations. Direct signal attenuation caused by shadowing due to buildings and vegetation may result in attenuation values in excess of 10 dB and commonly up to 20 dB. It is not practical to provide a link with sufficient margin to enable communication when the signal is blocked. When a moving vehicle passes these obstacles, the link will experience rapid changes in signal strength due to shadowing. Using statistical models of attenuation as a function of distance travelled, a communication strategy has been defined for the land mobile environment.

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; Burkhart, P. Dan; Chen, Allen; Comeaux, Keith A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Kipp, Devin M.; Lorenzoni, Leila V.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Powell, Richard W.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Sell, Steven W.; Prakash, Ravi; Way, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. In addition to landing more mass than prior missions to Mars, MSL will offer access to regions of Mars that have been previously unreachable. The MSL EDL sequence is a result of a more stringent requirement set than any of its predecessors. Notable among these requirements is landing a 900 kg rover in a landing ellipse much smaller than that of any previous Mars lander. In meeting these requirements, MSL is extending the limits of the EDL technologies qualified by the Mars Viking, Mars Pathfinder, and Mars Exploration Rover missions. Thus, there are many design challenges that must be solved for the mission to be successful. Several pieces of the EDL design are technological firsts, such as guided entry and precision landing on another planet, as well as the entire Sky Crane maneuver. This paper discusses the MSL EDL architecture and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  1. Occupant kinematics and estimated effectiveness of side airbags in pole side impacts using a human FE model with internal organs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigeki; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Yuichi

    2008-11-01

    When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models. Finite element simulations were conducted assuming a case where a passenger vehicle collides against a pole at 29km/h. Occupant kinematics, force-deformation responses and pressure levels were compared between cases with and without side airbag deployment. The results indicated that strain to the ribs and pressure to the organs was smaller with side airbag deployment. The side airbag widened the contact area at the torso, helping to distribute the force to the shoulder, arm and chest. Such distributed force helped generate relatively smaller deformation in the ribs. Furthermore, the side airbag deployment helped restrict the spine displacement. The smaller displacement contributed to lowering the magnitude of contact force between the torso and the door. The study also examined the correlations between the pressure levels in the internal organs, rib deflection, and V*C of chest. The study found that the V*C(t) peak appeared to be synchronized with the organ pressure peak, suggesting that the pressure level of the internal organs could be one possible

  2. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

  3. Load-limiting landing gear footpad energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Tsai, Ted

    1994-01-01

    As a precursor to future manned missions to the moon, an inexpensive, unmanned vehicle that could carry small, scientific payloads to the lunar surface was studied by NASA. The vehicle, called the Common Lunar Lander, required extremely optimized structural systems to increase the potential payload mass. A lightweight energy-absorbing system (LAGFEAS), which also acts as a landing load-limiter was designed to help achieve this optimized structure. Since the versatile and easily tailored system is a load-limiter, it allowed for the structure to be designed independently of the ever-changing landing energy predictions. This paper describes the LAGFEAS system and preliminary verification testing performed at NASA's Johnson Space Center for the Common Lunar Lander program.

  4. The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O'Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

    2009-03-05

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  5. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint.

  6. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap NRC Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Graves, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description, Scope and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the HPLS. Roadmap Process and Approach. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Key Requirements. Top Level HPLS Roadmap. Capability Presentations by Leads. Mission Drivers Requirements. "AEDL" System Engineering. Communication & Navigation Systems. Hypersonic Systems. Super to Subsonic Decelerator Systems. Terminal Descent and Landing Systems. A Priori In-Situ Mars Observations. AEDL Analysis, Test and Validation Infrastructure. Capability Technical Challenges. Capability Connection Points to other Roadmaps/Crosswalks. Summary of Top Level Capability. Forward Work.

  7. Intersects between Land, Energy, Water and the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Skaggs, R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change affects water, and land resources, and with growing human activity, each of these sectors relies increasingly on the others for critical resources. Events such as drought across the South Central U.S. during 2011 demonstrate that climatic impacts within each of these sectors can cascade through interactions between sectors. Energy, water, and land resources are each vulnerable to impacts on either of the other two sectors. For example, energy systems inherently require land and water. Increased electricity demands to contend with climate change can impose additional burdens on overly subscribed water resources. Within this environment, energy systems compete for water with agriculture, human consumption, and other needs. In turn, climate driven changes in landscape attributes and land use affect water quality and availability as well as energy demands. Diminishing water quality and availability impose additional demands for energy to access and purify water, and for land to store and distribute water. In some situations, interactions between water, energy, and land resources make options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions vulnerable to climate change. Energy options such as solar power or biofuel use can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions as well as U.S. dependence on foreign resources. As a result, the U.S. is expanding renewable energy systems. Advanced technology such as carbon dioxide capture with biofuels may offer a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. But as with fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can impose significant demands for water and land. For example, solar power mayrequire significant land to site facilities and water for cooling or to produce steam. Raising crops to produce biofuels uses arable land and water that might otherwise be available for food production. Thus, warmer and drier climate can compromise these renewable energy resources, and drought can stress water supplies creating competition between energy

  8. Video Guidance, Landing, and Imaging system (VGLIS) for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Flemming, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system that is capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was demonstrated. The system was breadboarded and "flown" on a physical simulator consisting of a control panel and monitor, a dynamic simulator, and a PDP-9 computer. The breadboard VGLIS consisted of an image dissector camera and the appropriate processing logic. Results are reported.

  9. The Earth System's Missing Energy and Land Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.

    2013-05-01

    The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands

  10. Biofidelity evaluation of WorldSID and ES-2re under side impact conditions with and without airbag.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewung; Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Park, Gwansik; Crandall, Jeff; Svendsen, Andy; Whitcomb, Bryant; Ayyagari, Murthy; Mishra, Prashast; Markusic, Craig

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the biofidelity of the WorldSID and the ES-2re under whole-body side impact conditions with and without a side airbag using the biomechanical cadaveric response data generated from 4.3m/s whole-body side impact tests. Impact forces, spinal kinematics, and chest deflections were considered in the biofidelity evaluation. Average responses and response corridors of PMHS were created using a time-alignment technique to reduce variability of the PMHS responses while maintaining the sum of the time shifts to be zero for each response. Biofidelity of the two dummies was compared using a correlation and analysis (CORA) method. The WorldSID demonstrated better biofidelity than the ES-2re in terms of CORA ratings in the conditions with airbag (0.53 vs. 0.46) and without an airbag (0.57 vs. 0.49). Lastly, the kinematic analysis of the two dummies indicated an overly compliant shoulder response of the WorldSID and excessive forward rotation of the ES-2re relative to the PMHS. PMID:26943014

  11. Testing of CMA-2000 Microwave Landing System (MLS) airborne receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labreche, L.; Murfin, A. J.

    1989-09-01

    Microwave landing system (MLS) is a precision approach and landing guidance system which provides position information and various air to ground data. Position information is provided on a wide coverage sector and is determined by an azimuth angle measurement, an elevation angle measurement, and a range measurement. MLS performance standards and testing of the MLS airborne receiver is mainly governed by Technical Standard Order TSO-C104 issued by the Federal Aviation Administration. This TSO defines detailed test procedures for use in determining the required performance under standard and stressed conditions. It also imposes disciplines on software development and testing procedures. Testing performed on the CMA-2000 MLS receiver and methods used in its validation are described. A computer automated test system has been developed to test for compliance with RTCA/DO-177 Minimum Operation Performance Standards. Extensive software verification and traceability tests designed to ensure compliance with RTCA/DO-178 are outlined.

  12. GPS-based certification for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Young, L. E.; Wu, S. C.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    An MLS (microwave landing system) certification system based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. To determine the position history of the flight inspection aircraft during runway approach, signals from the GPS satellites, together with on-board radar altimetry, are used. It is shown that the aircraft position relative to a fixed point on the runway at threshold can be determined to about 30 cm vertically and 1 m horizontally. A requirement of the system is that the GPS receivers be placed on each flight inspection aircraft and at selected ground sites. The effects of different error sources on the determination of aircraft instantaneous position and its dynamics are analyzed.

  13. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [compatibility of land use classification system with computer processing techniques employed for land use mapping from ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is known from several previous investigations that many categories of land-use can be mapped via computer processing of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data. The results are presented of one such experiment using the USGS/NASA land-use classification system. Douglas County, Georgia, was chosen as the test site for this project. It was chosen primarily because of its recent rapid growth and future growth potential. Results of the investigation indicate an overall land-use mapping accuracy of 67% with higher accuracies in rural areas and lower accuracies in urban areas. It is estimated, however, that 95% of the State of Georgia could be mapped by these techniques with an accuracy of 80% to 90%.

  14. Real-world personal conversations using a hands-free embedded wireless device while driving: effect on airbag-deployment crash rates.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A; Schreiner, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    A wireless device embedded in the vehicle allowed the user to engage in a personal hands-free conversation (HFC), and automatically placed an emergency notification call to an OnStar call center if the vehicle was involved in a crash in which its airbag deployed. A database stored the exact counts, start timestamps, and billed durations of all HFC and airbag notification calls. In 30 months of naturalistic driving, there were 91 million HFC calls from an average of 323,994 drivers per month who made calls. There were 14 airbag deployments in 276 million driver-minutes of HFC conversation for an exposed incidence rate of 5.08 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. There were 2,023 airbag deployments in an estimated 24.7 billion driver-minutes of no HFC conversation for a not-exposed incidence rate of 8.18 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. The crash incidence rate ratio (IRR) is the ratio of these two rates or 0.62 (95% C.I. 0.37 to 1.05). Sensitivity analyses controlled for the impact on the crash IRR of estimated time spent driving per day and calls by passengers. Counting all crashes as much as 20 minutes later than a call as related to that call gave similar results. We conclude that for personal conversations using a hands-free embedded device the risk of an airbag crash is somewhere in a range from a moderately lower risk to a risk near that of driving without a recent personal conversation. These results are not consistent with the large increase in crash risk reported in epidemiological studies using the case-crossover method. PMID:19000076

  15. Pervasive transition of the Brazilian land-use system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, David M.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Ferreira, Manuel E.; Nobre, Carlos A.; Aguiar, Ana Paula D.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Costa, Marcos H.; Joly, Carlos A.; Leite, Christiane C.; Moutinho, Paulo; Sampaio, Gilvan; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions and local/regional climate change have been closely intertwined in Brazil. Recent studies show that this relationship has been changing since the mid 2000s, with the burgeoning intensification and commoditization of Brazilian agriculture. On one hand, this accrues considerable environmental dividends including a pronounced reduction in deforestation (which is becoming decoupled from agricultural production), resulting in a decrease of ~40% in nationwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2005, and a potential cooling of the climate at the local scale. On the other hand, these changes in the land-use system further reinforce the long-established inequality in land ownership, contributing to rural-urban migration that ultimately fuels haphazard expansion of urban areas. We argue that strong enforcement of sector-oriented policies and solving long-standing land tenure problems, rather than simply waiting for market self-regulation, are key steps to buffer the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification at the forefront of a sustainable pathway for land use in Brazil.

  16. The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, William K.

    2003-01-01

    One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they

  17. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  18. A satellite system for land-mobile communications in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.

    1988-01-01

    There exists a great unsatisified demand for land mobile communications in Europe, particularly in sectors of business activity such as the road transport industry. This demand could best be satisfied by means of satellite-based private networks providing voice and data communications in a hub configuration. The potential market is estimated to encompass several hundred thousand road vehicles and the transmission capacity required would be several thousand channels. ESA is currently demonstrating the potential of satellite communications for this type of application, using a system called PRODAT. System studies are being performed with the aim of defining the architecture of a regional satellite system for Europe.

  19. Position determination accuracy from the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis and results are given for the position determination accuracy obtainable from the microwave landing guidance system. Siting arrangements, coverage volumes, and accuracy standards for the azimuth, elevation, and range functions of the microwave system are discussed. Results are given for the complete coverage of the systems and are related to flight operational requirements for position estimation during flare, glide slope, and general terminal area approaches. Range rate estimation from range data is also analyzed. The distance measuring equipment accuracy required to meet the range rate estimation standards is determined, and a method of optimizing the range rate estimate is also given.

  20. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  1. Models for estimating runway landing capacity with Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.

  2. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS)....

  3. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  4. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210 Section 970.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  5. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210 Section 971.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In...

  6. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210 Section 970.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  7. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210 Section 971.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In...

  8. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212 Section 972.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system...

  9. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS)....

  10. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208 Section 970.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system...

  11. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208 Section 971.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS)....

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  13. 76 FR 81911 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to establish an advisory... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning...

  14. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap: Wrap Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob

    2005-01-01

    When and how does the full scale system and subsystems need to be qualified & Human-rated for flight? Answer: No later than 29. Full scale AEDL Flight Tests can and should be done at Earth (need to get fast turn around between multiple tests). Do we need a Full Scale Validation Flight Test at Mars? Answer: Not, specifically, but the AEDL community is very uncomfortable with the notion of the very first full scale AEDL being piloted. The full scale unpiloted AEDL advance cargo mission that immediately precedes the human landing could do the trick. What kind of precursor AEDL Flight Tests are needed at Mars? Answer: We need to validate our performance & aerodynamic models by flying a scaled (1/10th?) version of the Full Scale Mission by 22. When and how do we decide on the AEDL system to fly? Answer: No later than 2015 (earlier is harder). We need to do multi-path full scale flight simulations and subscale / component development testing starting ASAP. If we find an AEDL for a landing mass of 40 MT, will this same architecture and technology paradigm extend to landing 80 MT? 120 MT? Is there another break point? Answer: We do not know yet.

  15. Microwave landing system modeling with application to air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulose, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Compared to the current instrument landing system, the microwave landing system (MLS), which is in the advanced stage of implementation, can potentially provide significant fuel and time savings as well as more flexibility in approach and landing functions. However, the expanded coverage and increased accuracy requirements of the MLS make it more susceptible to the features of the site in which it is located. An analytical approach is presented for evaluating the multipath effects of scatterers that are commonly found in airport environments. The approach combines a multiplane model with a ray-tracing technique and a formulation for estimating the electromagnetic fields caused by the antenna array in the presence of scatterers. The model is applied to several airport scenarios. The reduced computational burden enables the scattering effects on MLS position information to be evaluated in near real time. Evaluation in near real time would permit the incorporation of the modeling scheme into air traffic control automation; it would adaptively delineate zones of reduced accuracy within the MLS coverage volume, and help establish safe approach and takeoff trajectories in the presence of uneven terrain and other scatterers.

  16. Flight tests of IFR landing approach systems for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Peach, L. L.; Phillips, J. D.; Anderson, D. J.; Dugan, D. C.; Ross, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    Joint NASA/FAA helicopter flight tests were conducted to investigate airborne radar approaches (ARA) and microwave landing system (MLS) approaches. Flight-test results were utilized to prove NASA with a data base to be used as a performance measure for advanced guidance and navigation concepts, and to provide FAA with data for establishment of TERPS criteria. The first flight-test investigation consisted of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, using weather/mapping radar, operational pilots, and a Bell 212 helicopter. The second flight-test investigation consisted of IFR MLS approaches at Crows Landing (near Ames Research Center), with a Bell UH-1H helicopter, using NASA, FAA, and operational industry pilots. Tests are described and results discussed.

  17. Optimum combination of leasing systems on public lands

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.L.

    1984-12-01

    Bonus bidding for oil and gas leases on public lands has been a reasonably satisfactory system for capturing the average rent available while being neutral with respect to economic decisions such as abandonment. However, it places a heavy burden of risk and uncertainty on the lessee. There is some reason to believe that social gains are to be had from shifting some of the risk and uncertainty to the lessors (governmental units). Profit-share or royalty bidding tends to accomplish such a shift. However, optimality seems to call for a combination of bonus bidding and profit-share (or royalty) bidding, the latter on wildcat tracts and the former on drainage tracts. Profit-share bidding is somewhat superior to royalty bidding, and the best definition of ''profit'' for the purpose is profits in excess of a normal return on investment. The combination suggested above may be especially desirable in a program of accelerated leasing of public lands. 2 figs.

  18. Simulation of airbag impact on eyes with different axial lengths after transsclerally fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens by using finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jane; Uchio, Eiichi; Goto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the biomechanical response of an impacting airbag on eyes with different axial lengths with transsclerally fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL). Materials and methods Simulations in a model human eye were performed with a computer using a finite element analysis program created by Nihon, ESI Group. The airbag was set to be deployed at five different velocities and to impact on eyes with three different axial lengths. These eyes were set to have transsclerally fixated PC IOL by a 10-0 polypropylene possessing a tensile force limit of 0.16 N according to the United States Pharmacopeia XXII. Results The corneoscleral opening was observed at a speed of 40 m/second or more in all model eyes. Eyes with the longest axial length of 25.85 mm had the greatest extent of deformity at any given impact velocity. The impact force exceeded the tensile force of 10-0 polypropylene at an impact velocity of 60 m/second in all eyes, causing breakage of the suture. Conclusion Eyes with transsclerally fixated PC IOL could rupture from airbag impact at high velocities. Eyes with long axial lengths experienced a greater deformity upon airbag impact due to a thinner eye wall. Further basic research on the biomechanical response for assessing eye injuries could help in developing a better airbag and in the further understanding of ocular traumas. PMID:25709387

  19. Evolution of INMARSAT systems and applications: The land mobile experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staffa, Eugene; Subramaniam, Ram

    1993-01-01

    Inmarsat has provided mobile satellite communication services for land mobile applications for well over a decade. Having started with the Inmarsat-A voice and telex system, Inmarsat is committed to the evolution of services towards a global personal, handheld satellite communicator. Over the years, users have benefitted from the evolution of technologies, increased user friendliness and portability of terminals and ever decreasing cost of operations. This paper describes the various present systems, their characteristics and applications, and outlines their contributions in the evolution towards the personal global communicator.

  20. Flight Mechanics of the Entry, Descent and Landing of the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HayaRamos, Rodrigo; Boneti, Davide

    2007-01-01

    ExoMars is ESA's current mission to planet Mars. A high mobility rover and a fixed station will be deployed on the surface of Mars. This paper regards the flight mechanics of the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phases used for the mission analysis and design of the Baseline and back-up scenarios of the mission. The EDL concept is based on a ballistic entry, followed by a descent under parachutes and inflatable devices (airbags) for landing. The mission analysis and design is driven by the flexibility in terms of landing site, arrival dates and the very stringent requirement in terms of landing accuracy. The challenging requirements currently imposed to the mission need innovative analysis and design techniques to support system design trade-offs to cope with the variability in entry conditions. The concept of the Global Entry Corridor has been conceived, designed, implemented and successfully validated as a key tool to provide a global picture of the mission capabilities in terms of landing site reachability.

  1. Evolving the Land Information System into a Cloud Computing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Paul R.

    2015-02-17

    The Land Information System (LIS) was developed to use advanced flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation frameworks to integrate extremely large satellite- and ground-based observations with advanced land surface models to produce continuous high-resolution fields of land surface states and fluxes. The resulting fields are extremely useful for drought and flood assessment, agricultural planning, disaster management, weather and climate forecasting, water resources assessment, and the like. We envisioned transforming the LIS modeling system into a scientific cloud computing-aware web and data service that would allow clients to easily setup and configure for use in addressing large water management issues. The focus of this Phase 1 project was to determine the scientific, technical, commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed LIS-cloud innovations that are currently barriers to broad LIS applicability. We (a) quantified the barriers to broad LIS utility and commercialization (high performance computing, big data, user interface, and licensing issues); (b) designed the proposed LIS-cloud web service, model-data interface, database services, and user interfaces; (c) constructed a prototype LIS user interface including abstractions for simulation control, visualization, and data interaction, (d) used the prototype to conduct a market analysis and survey to determine potential market size and competition, (e) identified LIS software licensing and copyright limitations and developed solutions, and (f) developed a business plan for development and marketing of the LIS-cloud innovation. While some significant feasibility issues were found in the LIS licensing, overall a high degree of LIS-cloud technical feasibility was found.

  2. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  3. Integrated Display System for Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beskenis, Sharon Otero; Green, David F., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.; Johnson, Edward J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the software products and system architectures developed by Lockheed Martin in support of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at NASA Langley Research Center. It presents an overview of the technical aspects, capabilities, and system integration issues associated with an integrated display system (IDS) that collects, processes and presents information to an aircraft flight crew during all phases of landing, roll-out, turn-off, inbound taxi, outbound taxi and takeoff. Communications hardware, drivers, and software provide continuous real-time data at varying rates and from many different sources to the display programs for presentation on a head-down display (HDD) and/or a head-up display (HUD). An electronic moving map of the airport surface is implemented on the HDD which includes the taxi route assigned by air traffic control, a text messaging system, and surface traffic and runway status information. Typical HUD symbology for navigation and control of the aircraft is augmented to provide aircraft deceleration guidance after touchdown to a pilot selected exit and taxi guidance along the route assigned by ATC. HUD displays include scene-linked symbolic runways, runway exits and taxiways that are conformal with the actual locations on the airport surface. Display formats, system architectures, and the various IDS programs are discussed.

  4. Flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, implementation and flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) are discussed. The system was implemented and flight tested on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV), a Boeing 737-100. The design uses modern optimal control methods. The direct digital design obtained uses a 10 Hz rate for the sampling of sensors and the control commands. The basic structure of the control law consists of a steady state Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix. The sensor information used includes Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, attitude, calibrated airspeed, and body accelerations. The phases of the final approach considered are localized and steep glideslope capture (which may be performed simultaneously or independently), localizer and glideslope track, crab/decrab, and flare to touchdown. The system can capture, track, and flare from conventional, as well as steep, glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg. All of the modes of the control law including the Kalman filters were implemented on the TSRV flight computers which use fixed point arithmetic with 16 bit words. The implementation considerations are described as well as an analysis of the flight test results.

  5. Landing impact studies of a 0.3-scale model air cushion landing system for a Navy fighter airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Thompson, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine the landing-impact behavior of a 0.3-scale, dynamically (but not physically) similar model of a high-density Navy fighter equipped with an air cushion landing system. The model was tested over a range of landing contact attitudes at high forward speeds and sink rates on a specialized test fixture at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The investigation indicated that vertical acceleration at landing impact was highly dependent on the pitch angle at ground contact, the higher acceleration of approximately 5g occurring near zero body-pitch attitude. A limited number of low-speed taxi tests were made in order to determine model stability characteristics. The model was found to have good pitch-damping characteristics but stability in roll was marginal.

  6. Dynamic heave-pitch analysis of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, K. M.; Boghani, A. B.; Wormley, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    A program to develop analytical tools for evaluating the dynamic performance of Air Cushion Landing Systems (ACLS) is described. The heave (vertical) motion of the ACLS was analyzed, and the analysis was extended to cover coupled heave-pitch motions. The mathematical models developed are based on a fundamental analysis of the body dynamics and fluid mechanics of the aircraft-cushion-runway interaction. The air source characteristics, flow losses in the feeding ducts, trunk and cushion, the effects of fluid compressibility, and dynamic trunk deflections, including ground contact are considered. A computer program, based on the heave-pitch analysis, was developed to simulate the dynamic behavior of an ACLS during landing impact and taxi over an irregular runway. The program outputs include ACLS motions, loadings, pressures, and flows as a function of time. To illustrate program use, three basic types of simulations were carried out. The results provide an initial indication of ACLS performance during (1) a static drop, (2) landing impact, and (3) taxi over a runway irregularity.

  7. Multiscale decomposition for heterogeneous land-atmosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaofeng; Shao, Yaping; Hintz, Michael; Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine

    2015-02-01

    The land-atmosphere system is characterized by pronounced land surface heterogeneity and vigorous atmospheric turbulence both covering a wide range of scales. The multiscale surface heterogeneities and multiscale turbulent eddies interact nonlinearly with each other. Understanding these multiscale processes quantitatively is essential to the subgrid parameterizations for weather and climate models. In this paper, we propose a method for surface heterogeneity quantification and turbulence structure identification. The first part of the method is an orthogonal transform in the probability density function (PDF) domain, in contrast to the orthogonal wavelet transforms which are performed in the physical space. As the basis of the whole method, the orthogonal PDF transform (OPT) is used to asymptotically reconstruct the original signals by representing the signal values with multilevel approximations. The "patch" idea is then applied to these reconstructed fields in order to recognize areas at the land surface or in turbulent flows that are of the same characteristics. A patch here is a connected area with the same approximation. For each recognized patch, a length scale is then defined to build the energy spectrum. The OPT and related energy spectrum analysis, as a whole referred to as the orthogonal PDF decomposition (OPD), is applied to two-dimensional heterogeneous land surfaces and atmospheric turbulence fields for test. The results show that compared to the wavelet transforms, the OPD can reconstruct the original signal more effectively, and accordingly, its energy spectrum represents the signal's multiscale variation more accurately. The method we propose in this paper is of general nature and therefore can be of interest for problems of multiscale process description in other geophysical disciplines.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, Alejandro M.; Burkhart, Paul D.; mendeck, Gavin F.

    2006-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of

  9. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Mendeck, Gavin F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of

  10. Development of land based radar polarimeter processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.

  11. Integrating land management into Earth system models: the importance of land use transitions at sub-grid-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Julia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that changes in surface climate and carbon fluxes caused by land management (i.e., modifications of vegetation structure without changing the type of land cover) can be as large as those caused by land cover change. Further, such effects may occur on substantial areas: while about one quarter of the land surface has undergone land cover change, another fifty percent are managed. This calls for integration of management processes in Earth system models (ESMs). This integration increases the importance of awareness and agreement on how to diagnose effects of land use in ESMs to avoid additional model spread and thus unnecessary uncertainties in carbon budget estimates. Process understanding of management effects, their model implementation, as well as data availability on management type and extent pose challenges. In this respect, a significant step forward has been done in the framework of the current IPCC's CMIP5 simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5): The climate simulations were driven with the same harmonized land use dataset that, different from most datasets commonly used before, included information on two important types of management: wood harvest and shifting cultivation. However, these new aspects were employed by only part of the CMIP5 models, while most models continued to use the associated land cover maps. Here, we explore the consequences for the carbon cycle of including subgrid-scale land transformations ("gross transitions"), such as shifting cultivation, as example of the current state of implementation of land management in ESMs. Accounting for gross transitions is expected to increase land use emissions because it represents simultaneous clearing and regrowth of natural vegetation in different parts of the grid cell, reducing standing carbon stocks. This process cannot be captured by prescribing land cover maps ("net transitions"). Using the MPI-ESM we find that ignoring gross transitions

  12. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  13. Development and flight test of a deployable precision landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.; Murray, James E.; Neufeld, David C.; Reed, R. Dale

    1994-01-01

    A joint NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and Johnson Space Center program was conducted to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of entry from space that included a precision landing. The feasibility of this system was studied using a flight model of a spacecraft in the generic shape of a flattened biconic that weighed approximately 150 lb and was flown under a commercially available, ram-air parachute. Key elements of the vehicle included the Global Positioning System guidance for navigation, flight control computer, ultrasonic sensing for terminal altitude, electronic compass, and onboard data recording. A flight test program was used to develop and refine the vehicle. This vehicle completed an autonomous flight from an altitude of 10,000 ft and a lateral offset of 1.7 miles that resulted in a precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. At times, the autonomous flight was conducted in the presence of winds approximately equal to vehicle airspeed. Several novel techniques for computing the winds postflight were evaluated. Future program objectives are also presented.

  14. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  15. A guide to NASA's Pilot Land Data System (PLDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) is a distributed information management system designed to support NASA's land science community. The PLDS provides a wide range of services including management of information about scientific data, access to a library of scientific data, a data ordering capability, communications, connection to data analysis facilities, and electronic mail. The PLDS provides these services by offering the scientist the capability to search for and order data, and to communicate electronically with other scientists and computers. Three functions enable scientists to find what data are available and where they reside. The first two, Find data summaries and Read detailed descriptions give summary and detailed descriptions about data sets or groups of related data sets, science, projects, and institutions which archive land data. The third, gives information about specific pieces of data. This last function has two components, Search systemwide inventory and Search local inventory. The first component enables the user to find data elements (images, geological samples, transects, maps, etc.) that exist anywhere in the PLDS while the second has only information about data at the local site. The first enables the user to find pieces of data from several different data sets with the same temporal and spatial coverage and other elements common to most data sets, while the second allows the user to select a data set based on these descriptors and on those that are unique to a data set. The PLDS provides capabilities that enable electronic file transfers, intercomputer connection, and electronic mail. Both TCP/IP and DECnet protocols are supported via the NASA Science Internet (NIS). Access is also available through Telenet.

  16. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  17. A parsimonious land data assimilation system for the SMAP/GPM satellite era

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilation systems typically require complex parameterizations in order to: define required observation operators, quantify observing/forecasting errors and calibrate a land surface assimilation model. These parameters are commonly defined in an arbitrary manner and, if poorly specified,...

  18. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... value (protection/rejuvenation of resources, improved visitor experience) to the park and adjacent... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems §...

  19. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  20. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  2. Deployable Landing Leg Concept for Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Solano, Paul; Bartos, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Exploration program is investigating the merits of land landing concepts for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Four options are under investigation: retro-rockets which fire and slow the vehicle before contact with the landing surface, deployable crushable material which deploys just before landing and crushes during land contact, airbags which deploy just before landing and deflate during land contact, and deployable legs which deploy before landing and contain material that absorbs energy during land contact. The purpose of the present work is to determine the effectiveness of the deployable leg concept. To accomplish this goal, structural models of the deployable leg concept are integrated with the Crew Model (CM) and computational simulations are performed to determine vehicle and component loadings and acceleration levels. Details of the modeling approach, deployable leg design, and resulting accelerations are provided.

  3. A land-potential knowledge system (LandPKS) based on local and scientific knowledge of land productivity and resilience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic assessment of land use change in drylands depends on understanding potential productivity, degradation resistance and resilience, all of which vary widely and are often ignored. Rapidly increasing demand, together with new technologies, migration and global capital mobility are driving dram...

  4. A flexible approach to an Operational Land Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for an Operational Land Observing System (OLOS) formulated to satisfy a broad spectrum of perceived user needs for a diverse discipline community. The concept formulated will allow continuous orthographic imaging across multiple spectral bands, near-global stereoscopic imaging, and next-day oblique imaging of any desired spot on earth. Imaging parameters will be adaptable to known phenomena characteristics to facilitate information extraction including optional onboard theme selection. The conceptual system will provide 6- to 12-hour quick-look capability, 48-hour turnaround on all standard imaging products, and a guaranteed data flow schedule reliability for 10 to 20 years. A fleet of successive operational satellites will be used.

  5. A mini/microcomputer-based land use information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitz, R. N.; Keefer, R. L.; Britton, L. J.; Wilson, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the Multipurpose Interactive NASA Information System (MINIS), a data management system for land-use applications. MINIS is written nearly entirely in FORTRAN IV, and has a full range of conditional, Boolean and arithmetic commands, as well as extensive format control and the capability of interactive file creation and updating. It requires a mini or microcomputer with at least 64 K of core or semiconductor memory. MINIS has its own equation-oriented query language for retrieval from different kinds of data bases. It features a graphics output which permits output of overlay maps. Some experience of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Tennessee State Planning Office with MINIS is discussed.

  6. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  7. a Study on the Improvement of Cadastral System in Mongolia - Focused on National Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkhbaatar, B.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    National land information system (NLIS) is an essential part of the Mongolian land reform. NLIS is a web based and centralized system which covers administration of cadastral database all over the country among land departments. Current ongoing NLIS implementation is vital to improve the cadastral system in Mongolia. This study is intended to define existing problems in current Mongolian cadastral system and propose administrative institutional and systematic implementation through NLIS. Once NLIS launches with proposed model of comprehensive cadastral system it will lead to not only economic and sustainable development but also contribute to citizens' satisfaction and lessen the burdensomeness of bureaucracy. Moreover, prevention of land conflicts, especially in metropolitan area as well as gathering land tax and fees. Furthermore after establishment of NLIS, it is advisable that connecting NLIS to other relevant state administrational organizations or institutions that have relevant database system. Connections with other relevant organizations will facilitate not only smooth and productive workflow but also offer reliable and more valuable information by its systemic integration with NLIS.

  8. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  9. Activities of the Pilot Land Data System project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sircar, J. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The University of Maryland's Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory submitted to NASA/Goddard an interim progress report on the work being conducted within its Pilot Land Data System IPLDS project. The Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory addressed the following tasks: (1) identify data types and data sources needed to describe the selected test sites in collaboration with Goddard's Hydrological Sciences Branch; (2) define the procedures necessary to access/acquire this data; (3) conduct meetings with the PLDS Systems Engineering Group to identify functional specification priorities for PLDS development; (4) assemble documentation on historical remotely sensed imagery and transfer of such information to the PLDS Data Management Group; (5) collect data identified by Goodard's Hydrological Sciences Branch for data set inventory in PLD; (6) develop a Workstation-PLDS system interface over high speed lines, (7) develop and test through a Phase 1 demonstration of a micro workstation to access PLDS; and (8) establish interdepartmental agreement of development of computer link for electronic access of water resources data from USGS.

  10. Vehicle occupant restraint systems impact on eye injuries: a review.

    PubMed

    Almahmoud, Tahra; Barss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle occupant trauma to the eyes and associated facial structures has evolved rapidly in conjunction with safety-oriented vehicle design, including restraint systems. Trends vary worldwide with culture, personal factors, vehicle safety equipment, and the traffic environment-including physical, legislative, and enforcement. Wearing safety belts is essential to occupant protection. Airbags were designed as a supplement to protect the head from hard surfaces in frontal crashes, not as a primary countermeasure. Even where vehicle fleets are new with high airbag prevalence, but safety culture and knowledge of restraints is less than robust, injury attributable to not wearing seatbelts is frequent, especially in countries where high-powered vehicles are prevalent. Upper bodies of rapidly forward-moving unrestrained occupants collide with rearward-accelerating airbags. Airbag deployment produces injuries such as corneal abrasions, alkali burns, and the effects of globe compression. PMID:24359757

  11. Land-use implications of wind-energy-conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R.J.

    1981-02-01

    An estimated 20 utilities in the United States are now investigating potential wind machine sites in their areas. Identifying sites for wind machine clusters (wind farms) involves more than just finding a location with a suitable wind resource. Consideration must also be given to the proximity of sites to existing transmission lines, environmental impacts, aesthetics, and legal concerns as well as the availability of and alternative uses for the land. These issues have made it increasingly difficult for utilities to bring conventional power plants on-line quickly. Utilities are now required, however, to give careful consideration to specific legal, social, and environmental questions raised by the siting of wind energy conversion systems (WECS).

  12. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  13. The NASA-Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Framework - Land Information System: Global Land/atmosphere Interaction with Resolved Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, Karen Irene; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2013-01-01

    The present generation of general circulation models (GCM) use parameterized cumulus schemes and run at hydrostatic grid resolutions. To improve the representation of cloud-scale moist processes and landeatmosphere interactions, a global, Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) coupled to the Land Information System (LIS) has been developed at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. The MMFeLIS has three components, a finite-volume (fv) GCM (Goddard Earth Observing System Ver. 4, GEOS-4), a 2D cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, GCE), and the LIS, representing the large-scale atmospheric circulation, cloud processes, and land surface processes, respectively. The non-hydrostatic GCE model replaces the single-column cumulus parameterization of fvGCM. The model grid is composed of an array of fvGCM gridcells each with a series of embedded GCE models. A horizontal coupling strategy, GCE4fvGCM4Coupler4LIS, offered significant computational efficiency, with the scalability and I/O capabilities of LIS permitting landeatmosphere interactions at cloud-scale. Global simulations of 2007e2008 and comparisons to observations and reanalysis products were conducted. Using two different versions of the same land surface model but the same initial conditions, divergence in regional, synoptic-scale surface pressure patterns emerged within two weeks. The sensitivity of largescale circulations to land surface model physics revealed significant functional value to using a scalable, multi-model land surface modeling system in global weather and climate prediction.

  14. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  15. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  16. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  17. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  18. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  19. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  20. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  1. The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Transverse Impulse Rocket System (TIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanMartin, Alejandro Miguel; Bailey, Erik

    2005-01-01

    In a very short period of time the MER project successfully developed and tested a system, TIRS/DIMES, to improve the probability of success in the presence of large Martian winds. The successful development of TIRS/DIMES played a big role in the landing site selection process by enabling the landing of Spirit on Gusev crater, a site of very high scientific interest but with known high wind conditions. The performance of TIRS by Spirit at Gusev Crater was excellent. The velocity prediction error was small and Big TIRS was fired reducing the impact horizontal velocity from approximately 23 meters per second to approximately 11 meters per second, well within the airbag capabilities. The performance of TIRS by Opportunity at Meridiani was good. The velocity prediction error was rather large (approximately 6 meters per second, a less than 2 sigma value, but TIRS did not fire which was the correct action.

  2. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol

  3. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Martynov, Maxim; Schmidt, Walter; Harri, Ari-Matti; Vsevolod Koryanov, D.; Kazakovtcev, Victor; Haukka, Harri; Arruego, Ignacio; Finchenko, Valery; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrei; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    Abstract A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) or Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth’s atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth’s atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. “Mini-1” category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: - qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, - Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, - m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, - V (m/s): re-entry velocity and - theta(deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet (“Mini-1” category) -type

  4. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    2014-05-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and Θ (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being

  5. Coded multicarrier 16 QAM system for land mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaoka, Hideichi; Omori, Youko

    1995-06-01

    This paper studies a coded multicarrier 16 QAM system for land mobile communications and proposed methods for improving quality and bit-rate and spectral efficiency. The proposed system uses a symbol-timing adjustment method in addition to a multicarrier transmission scheme to provide immunity against frequency-selective fading distortion which becomes more severe for high bit-rate transmission. The system uses pilot-symbol aided 16 QAM to increase spectral efficiency. It also uses methods of symbol allocation to carriers and symbol interleaving, in addition to Reed-Solomon coding with maximum likelihood decoding, to increase the bit error rate (BER) performance. Space diversity method, with maximum ratio combining, can be used to further improve the BER performance. A computer simulation of the proposed system is carried out with a bandwidth of 200 kHz and a total information rate of 256 kbit/s. The simulation results show that the proposed system provides immunity against frequency-selective fading and that space diversity further improves this. A BER of less than 10(exp -4) is obtained at a E(sub b)/N(sub 0) of 30 dB and a delay spread of 3.4 microsecs in the case of non-diversity. A BER of less 10(exp -4) is also obtained at a E(sub b)/N(sub 0) of 15 dB and a delay spread of 5.5 microsecs in the case of diversity. These results confirm that the proposed system can achieve high quality and high bit-rate transmission with high spectral efficiency.

  6. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 2001, is available for inspection as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. It is also available from the... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  7. Retrieval of land parameters by multi-sensor information using the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskiy, Maxim; Gobron, Nadine; Gomez-Dans, Jose; Disney, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Upcoming satellite constellations will substantially increase the amount of Earth Observation (EO) data, and presents us with the challenge of consistently using all these available information to infer the state of the land surface, parameterised through Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). A promising approach to this problem is the use of physically based models that describe the processes that generate the images, using e.g. radiative transfer (RT) theory. However, these models need to be inverted to infer the land surface parameters from the observations, and there is often not enough information in the EO data to satisfactorily achieve this. Data assimilation (DA) approaches supplement the EO data with prior information in the form of models or prior parameter distributions, and have the potential for solving the inversion problem. These methods however are computationally expensive. In this study, we show the use of fast surrogate models of the RT codes (emulators) based on Gaussian Processes (Gomez-Dans et al, 2016) embedded with the Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) framework (Lewis et al 2012) in order to estimate the surface of the land surface from a heterogeneous set of optical observations. The study uses time series of moderate spatial resolution observations from MODIS (250 m), MERIS (300 m) and MISR (275 m) over one site to infer the temporal evolution of a number of land surface parameters (and associated uncertainties) related to vegetation: leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content, etc. These parameter estimates are then used as input to an RT model (semidiscrete or PROSAIL, for example) to calculate fluxes such as broad band albedo or fAPAR. The study demonstrates that blending different sensors in a consistent way using physical models results in a rich and coherent set of land surface parameters retrieved, with quantified uncertainties. The use of RT models also allows for the consistent prediction of fluxes

  8. The Land Potential Knowledge System: Application of earth observation data for sustainable land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Africa is facing numerous challenges including a rapidly growing population, soil erosion, declining soil fertility and climate change. In the face of all these problems, the need to feed the growing population has led to expansion of land for agriculture and pasture production rather than increasin...

  9. Constellation Program (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Integrated Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John D.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Eisenman, David J.; Peer, Scott G.; Fasanella, Edward L.; Lawrence, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Chief Engineer requested a risk comparison of the Integrated Landing System design developed by NASA and the design developed by Contractor- referred to as the LM 604 baseline. Based on the results of this risk comparison, the CEV Chief engineer requested that the NESC evaluate identified risks and develop strategies for their reduction or mitigation. The assessment progressed in two phases. A brief Phase I analysis was performed by the Water versus Land-Landing Team to compare the CEV Integrated Landing System proposed by the Contractor against the NASA TS-LRS001 baseline with respect to risk. A phase II effort examined the areas of critical importance to the overall landing risk, evaluating risk to the crew and to the CEV Crew Module (CM) during a nominal land-landing. The findings of the assessment are contained in this report.

  10. Experimental and analytical studies of advanced air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, E. G. S.; Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Rutishauser, H. J.; Farley, H. L.; Fish, R. B.; Jeffcoat, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Several concepts are developed for air cushion landing systems (ACLS) which have the potential for improving performance characteristics (roll stiffness, heave damping, and trunk flutter), and reducing fabrication cost and complexity. After an initial screening, the following five concepts were evaluated in detail: damped trunk, filled trunk, compartmented trunk, segmented trunk, and roll feedback control. The evaluation was based on tests performed on scale models. An ACLS dynamic simulation developed earlier is updated so that it can be used to predict the performance of full-scale ACLS incorporating these refinements. The simulation was validated through scale-model tests. A full-scale ACLS based on the segmented trunk concept was fabricated and installed on the NASA ACLS test vehicle, where it is used to support advanced system development. A geometrically-scaled model (one third full scale) of the NASA test vehicle was fabricated and tested. This model, evaluated by means of a series of static and dynamic tests, is used to investigate scaling relationships between reduced and full-scale models. The analytical model developed earlier is applied to simulate both the one third scale and the full scale response.

  11. The Pilot Land Data System: Report of the Program Planning Workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An advisory report to be used by NASA in developing a program plan for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) was developed. The purpose of the PLDS is to improve the ability of NASA and NASA sponsored researchers to conduct land-related research. The goal of the planning workshops was to provide and coordinate planning and concept development between the land related science and computer science disciplines, to discuss the architecture of the PLDs, requirements for information science technology, and system evaluation. The findings and recommendations of the Working Group are presented. The pilot program establishes a limited scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical, and management approaches to satisfying the needs of the land science community. The PLDS paves the way for a land data system to improve data access, processing, transfer, and analysis, which land sciences information synthesis occurs on a scale not previously permitted because of limits to data assembly and access.

  12. Interfacing geographic information systems and remote sensing for rural land-use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.

  13. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Kinney, David J.; Howard, Austin R.; Chen, George T.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Westhelle, Carlos H.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the Study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

  14. Results from Assimilating AMSR-E Soil Moisture Estimates into a Land Surface Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)

  15. Right coronary artery dissection and aneurysm presented as acute inferior myocardial infarction from an automobile airbag trauma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chunlai; Hu, Wuming; Zhu, Ning; Zhao, Xuyong; Xu, Jian; Ye, Shiyong; Xiang, Yijia; Lv, Linchun

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery dissection and aneurysm culminating in acute myocardial infarction are rare after blunt chest trauma. We are reporting a case of a previously healthy 52-year-old man who presented with right inferior lobe contusion, pleural effusion, right interlobar fissure effusion, bone fracture of right fourth rib, and acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and who experienced blunt trauma in his right chest wall by an airbag deployment in a car accident. Coronary angiography showed an aneurysm in the middle of right coronary artery with 70% afferent narrowing just distal to the aneurysm with no visible atherosclerotic lesion. A 4.0×20 mm TEXUS Liberté stent in the lesion was deployed, and a good coronary flow was obtained without residual stenosis and the aneurysm vanished. PMID:26319191

  16. The Unparalleled Systems Engineering of MSL's Backup Entry, Descent, and Landing System: Second Chance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roumeliotis, Chris; Grinblat, Jonathan; Reeves, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Second Chance (SECC) was a bare bones version of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) flight software that ran on Curiosity's backup computer, which could have taken over swiftly in the event of a reset of Curiosity's prime computer, in order to land her safely on Mars. Without SECC, a reset of Curiosity's prime computer would have lead to catastrophic mission failure. Even though a reset of the prime computer never occurred, SECC had the important responsibility as EDL's guardian angel, and this responsibility would not have seen such success without unparalleled systems engineering. This paper will focus on the systems engineering behind SECC: Covering a brief overview of SECC's design, the intense schedule to use SECC as a backup system, the verification and validation of the system's "Do No Harm" mandate, the system's overall functional performance, and finally, its use on the fateful day of August 5th, 2012.

  17. Multiscale Land surface feedbacks within agricultural and urban systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will first discuss the interplay between agricultural landscapes and regional hydroclimatology with particular emphasis on the US Corn Belt. Results and experiences from studies underway as part of a multistate project (Making Climate Information Useful 2 Usable- U2U) will be summarized. The presentation will also highlight experiences regarding the different challenges in developing the regional assessment and guidance regarding sustainable futures. Study results will also be compared with findings from other geographical regions where agriculture - climate linkages are stretching the limits of sustainable water use. A vulnerability framework that can be considered for such agriculture - climate - water links will also be presented. The second issue the presentation will discuss relates to the urban land surface feedbacks and efforts underway to guide efforts related to greening as well as regional landuse planning. The complex links between city structures, urban layouts, and regional climate will be synthesized and the framework regarding a decision support system that is being developed will be presented. Salient points of the modeling efforts, data challenges, and the need for linking multiple disciplines will be presented with special focus on droughts and the need for considering complex multiscale coupled interactions within the analysis.

  18. Global land information system (GLIS) access to worldwide Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Timothy B.; Goodale, Katherine L.

    1993-01-01

    The Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG) and the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) have encouraged Landsat receiving stations around the world to share information about their data holdings through the exchange of metadata records. Receiving stations forward their metadata records to the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) on a quarterly basis. The EDC maintains the records for each station, coordinates changes to the database, and provides metadata to the stations as requested. The result is a comprehensive international database listing most of the world's Landsat data acquisitions This exchange of information began in the early 1980's with the inclusion in the EDC database os scenes acquired by a receiving station in Italy. Through the years other stations have agreed to participate; currently ten of the seventeen stations actively share their metadata records. Coverage maps have been generated to depict the status of the database. The Worldwide Landsat database is also available though the Global Land Information System (GLIS).

  19. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  20. Data-Analysis System for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Timothy; Chang, Christine; Sartorius, Edgar; Finley, Susan; White, Leslie; Estabrook, Polly; Fort, David

    2005-01-01

    A report describes the Entry Descent Landing Data Analysis (EDA), which is a system of signal-processing software and computer hardware for acquiring status data conveyed by multiple-frequency-shift-keying tone signals transmitted by a spacecraft during descent to the surface of a remote planet. The design of the EDA meets the challenge of processing weak, fluctuating signals that are Doppler-shifted by amounts that are only partly predictable. The software supports both real-time and post processing. The software performs fast-Fourier-transform integration, parallel frequency tracking with prediction, and mapping of detected tones to specific events. The use of backtrack and refinement parallel-processing threads helps to minimize data gaps. The design affords flexibility to enable division of a descent track into segments, within each of which the EDA is configured optimally for processing in the face of signal conditions and uncertainties. A dynamic-lock-state feature enables the detection of signals using minimum required computing power less when signals are steadily detected, more when signals fluctuate. At present, the hardware comprises eight dual-processor personal-computer modules and a server. The hardware is modular, making it possible to increase computing power by adding computers.

  1. 23 CFR 971.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... available for inspection and copying as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (c) The tri-party partnership shall... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 971.212... lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  2. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212 Section 973.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  3. A role for AVIRIS in the Landsat and Advanced Land Remote Sensing Systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Simmonds, John J.

    1993-01-01

    As a calibrated imaging spectrometer flying at a 20 km altitude, AVIRIS may contribute to the Landsat and the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System efforts. These contributions come in the areas of: (1) on-orbit calibration, (2) specification of new spectral bands, (3) validation of algorithms, and (4) investigation of an imaging spectrometer of the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System.

  4. A Generic, Interoperable, Hydrologic Data Assimilation Framework using the Land Information System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a hydrologic modeling system that integrates the use of various community land surface models, use of ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable hydrologic prediction at variou...

  5. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  6. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210 Section 973.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  7. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210 Section 973.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  8. Using scatterometer-based surface soil moisture products to optimally calibrate land data assimilation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilation systems are designed to merge uncertain land surface model predictions with error-prone observations. Ingestion into a data assimilation systems represents a critical pathway towards key applications goals for remotely-sensed surface soil moisture products. However, the effe...

  9. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212 Section 973.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  10. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204, the...) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of lanes, length, width,...

  11. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,” AASHTO, 2001, is available for inspection as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. It is also available from the... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  12. A Terminal Descent Sensor Trade Study Overview for the Orion Landing and Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Catherine; Prakash, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    This trade study was conducted as a part of the Orion Landing System Advanced Development Project to determine possible Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS) architectures that could be used for a rocket assisted landing system. Several technologies were considered for the Orion TDS including radar, lidar, GPS applications, mechanical sensors, and gamma ray altimetry.

  13. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  14. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

  15. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Martin, Susana

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface. Our development and assessments show clearly that this kind of inflatable technology originally developed for the Martian atmosphere, is feasible for use by Earth entry and descent applications. The preliminary results are highly promising indicating that the current Mars probe design could be used as it is for the Earth. According tp our analyses, the higher atmospheric pressure at an altitude of 12 km and less requires an additional pressurizing device for the in atable system increasing the entry mass by approximately 2 kg. These analyses involved the calculation of 120 different atmospheric entry and descent trajectories. The analysis of the existing technologies and current trends have indicated that the kind of inflatable technology pursued by RITD has high potential to enhance the European space technology expertise. This kind of technology is clearly feasible for utilization by Earth entry and descent applications.

  16. Cross-Site Comparison of Land-Use Decision-Making and Its Consequences across Land Systems with a Generalized Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement. PMID:24489696

  17. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement. PMID:24489696

  18. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. PMID:22050390

  19. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970...: (i) Identify and document measures for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the...

  20. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems... for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the causes of congestion; (iii)...

  1. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems... for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the causes of congestion; (iii)...

  2. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... document measures for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the causes of congestion;...

  3. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970...: (i) Identify and document measures for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the...

  4. Message handling system concepts and services in a land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barberis, S.; Settimo, F.; Giralda, A.; Mistretta, I.; Loisy, C.; Parmentier, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture containing the capabilities offered by the Message Handling System (MHS) to the PRODAT Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) is described taking into account the constraints of a preexisting satellite system which is going to become operational. The mapping between MHS services and PRODAT requirements is also reported and shows that the supplied performance can be significantly enhanced to both fixed and mobile users. The impact of the insertion of additional features on the system structure, especially on the centralized control unit, are also addressed.

  5. LAS - LAND ANALYSIS SYSTEM, VERSION 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to manipulate and analyze digital data in raster format and provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for analysis. LAS offers these features under VMS with optional image display capabilities for IVAS and other display devices as well as the X-Windows environment. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as for the processing and analysis of image data. Users may choose between mouse-driven commands or the traditional command line input mode. LAS functions include supervised and unsupervised image classification, film product generation, geometric registration, image repair, radiometric correction and image statistical analysis. Data files accepted by LAS include formats such as Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The enhanced geometric registration package now includes both image to image and map to map transformations. The over 200 LAS functions fall into image processing scenario categories which include: arithmetic and logical functions, data transformations, fourier transforms, geometric registration, hard copy output, image restoration, intensity transformation, multispectral and statistical analysis, file transfer, tape profiling and file management among others. Internal improvements to the LAS code have eliminated the VAX VMS dependencies and improved overall system performance. The maximum LAS image size has been increased to 20,000 lines by 20,000 samples with a maximum of 256 bands per image. The catalog management system used in earlier versions of LAS has been replaced by a more streamlined and maintenance-free method of file management. This system is not dependent on VAX/VMS and relies on file naming conventions alone to allow the use of identical LAS file names on different operating systems. While the LAS code has been improved, the original capabilities

  6. Establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems in African countries for Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, T. C.; Troxler, T.

    2015-12-01

    As signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developing countries are required to produce greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories every two years. For many developing countries, including many of those in Africa, this is a significant challenge as it requires establishing a robust and sustainable GHG inventory system. In order to help support these efforts, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked in collaboration with the UNFCCC to assist African countries in establishing sustainable GHG inventory systems and generating high-quality inventories on a regular basis. The sectors we have focused on for these GHG inventory capacity building efforts in Africa are Agriculture and Land Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) as these tend to represent a significant portion of their GHG emissions profile and the data requirements and methodologies are often more complex than for other sectors. To support these efforts, the U.S. EPA has provided technical assistance in understanding the methods in the IPCC Guidelines, assembling activity data and emission factors, including developing land-use maps for representing a country's land base, and implementing the calculations. EPA has also supported development of various tools such as a Template Workbook that helps the country build the institutional arrangement and strong documentation that are necessary for generating GHG inventories on a regular basis, as well as performing other procedures as identified by IPCC Good Practice Guidance such as quality assurance/quality control, key category analysis and archiving. Another tool used in these projects and helps country's implement the methods from the IPCC Guidelines for the Agriculture and LULUCF sectors is the Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) tool. This tool helps countries assemble the activity data and emission factors, including supporting the import of GIS maps, and applying the equations from the IPPC Guidelines to

  7. Towards the development of an on-line model error identification system for land surface models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complexity of potential error sources in land surface models, the accurate specification of model error parameters has emerged as a major challenge in the development of effective land data assimilation systems for hydrologic and hydro-climatic applications. While several on-line procedur...

  8. Cartography and Information Systems for the Luna-Glob Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Zubarev, A.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    We provide cartography and information system support to the LUNA-GLOB mission and assess candidate landing sites [1] on the basis of different available remote sensing data sets. The main goal of our work is to identify science opportunities in the sub-polar areas and to detect possible hazards for any landing spacecraft.

  9. Impact of agricultural land management systems on soil microbial diversity and plant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased diversity of fungal rDNA ITS-1 amplicons, as measured by the Shannon-Weiner index, was associated with land management practices that minimise soil disturbance (bahiagrass pasture and undisturbed weed fallow) when compared with organic or conventional land management systems. Diversity de...

  10. Decision Support Systems (DSSs) For Contaminated Land Management - Gaps And Challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plethora of information is available when considering decision support systems for risk-based management of contaminated land. Broad issues of what is contaminated land, what is a brownfield, and what is remediation are discussed in EU countries and the U.S. Making decisions ...

  11. Energy and resource consumption of land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  12. Land use planning and early warning systems for limiting drought impacts and promoting recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use planning and drought early warning systems both require an understanding of ecological potential and resilience, and how they vary across space and through time. A large body of literature and local knowledge has documented the importance of considering soil variability for land use plannin...

  13. Re-engineering land administration systems for sustainable development — from rhetoric to reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Ian P.

    Current land administration systems are the product of 19th century economic and land market paradigms and have failed to properly support sustainable development. The need for urgent reform is accepted, but the way forward unclear in many jurisdictions. This paper will discuss current international initiatives and research to develop a new land administration vision to promote sustainable development. Within this context, this paper describes the changing humankind to land relationship, identifies some of the growing environmental pressures facing modern society and the need for sustainable development, explores the evolving role of land administration in society and highlights the need for land administration systems to play a more proactive role in supporting sustainable development objectives. The process to re-engineer land administrations is briefly reviewed. The paper then highlights the development of a national land administration vision and strategy. In proposing strategies the paper draws on international trends and experiences such as highlighted in the recent United Nations — International Federation of Surveyors Declaration on Land Administration for Sustainable Development.

  14. Atmosphere, ocean, and land: Critical gaps in Earth system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Hartley, Dana

    1992-01-01

    We briefly review current knowledge and pinpoint some of the major areas of uncertainty for the following fundamental processes: (1) convection, condensation nuclei, and cloud formation; (2) oceanic circulation and its coupling to the atmosphere and cryosphere; (3) land surface hydrology and hydrology-vegetation coupling; (4) biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases; and (5) upper atmospheric chemistry and circulation.

  15. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  16. 76 FR 1629 - Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Big Ice Cave; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY... Big Ice Cave, its subterranean water supply, and Federal improvements. The land has been and will...-5052. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Forest Service will manage the land to protect the Big Ice...

  17. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; et al

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence ofmore » phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.« less

  18. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee -Hong; Jimenez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia -Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2014-09-29

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. The expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae.

  19. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    PubMed Central

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee-Hong; Jiménez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia-Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae. PMID:25267653

  20. Estimating model and observation error covariance information for land data assimilation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to operate efficiently, data assimilation systems require accurate assumptions concerning the statistical magnitude and cross-correlation structure of error in model forecasts and assimilated observations. Such information is seldom available for the operational implementation of land data ...

  1. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in cropland and grazing land systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop and grazing land management influences greenhouse gas emissions, which can be reduced by adopting conservation practices. Operators of cropland systems use a variety of practices that have implications for emissions, such as nutrient additions, irrigation, liming applications, tillage practices...

  2. A low-cost inertial smoothing system for landing approach guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niessen, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    Accurate position and velocity information with low noise content for instrument approaches and landings is required for both control and display applications. In a current VTOL automatic instrument approach and landing research program, radar-derived landing guidance position reference signals, which are noisy, have been mixed with acceleration information derived from low-cost onboard sensors to provide high-quality position and velocity information. An in-flight comparison of signal quality and accuracy has shown good agreement between the low-cost inertial smoothing system and an aided inertial navigation system. Furthermore, the low-cost inertial smoothing system has been proven to be satisfactory in control and display system applications for both automatic and pilot-in-the-loop instrument approaches and landings.

  3. 77 FR 50985 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land... committee can provide the most valuable input and recommendations for implementation of the new...

  4. Requirements for ongoing development of the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S. W.; Newcomer, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Pilot Land Data System being developed to address the information processing needs of the NASA land sciences research community is presented. The objective of the pilot program is to establish a limited-scale, distributed information system for the archival, location, transfer, integration, and manipulation of data across multiple sites connected by a high-speed communications network. Functional capabilities required for users to create, access, and maintain local and distributed data bases containing various types of data in support of land sciences research are summarized.

  5. Decision-support systems for natural-hazards and land-management issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinitz, Laura; Forney, William; Byrd, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS Western Geographic Science Center are developing decision-support systems (DSSs) for natural-hazards and land-management issues. DSSs are interactive computer-based tools that use data and models to help identify and solve problems. These systems can provide crucial support to policymakers, planners, and communities for making better decisions about long-term natural hazards mitigation and land-use planning.

  6. Miltipath measurements for land mobile satellite service using global positioning system signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemmon, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed multipath system for the land mobile satellite radio channel using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is presented. The measurement technique and equipment used to make multipath measurements on communications links are briefly described. The system configuration and performance specifications of the proposed measurement system are discussed.

  7. Improved Modeling of Land-Atmosphere Interactions using a Coupled Version of WRF with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Lapenta, William M.; Petars-Lidard, Christa D.

    2007-01-01

    The exchange of energy and moisture between the Earth's surface and the atmospheric boundary layer plays a critical role in many hydrometeorological processes. Accurate and high-resolution representations of surface properties such as sea-surface temperature (SST), vegetation, soil temperature and moisture content, and ground fluxes are necessary to better understand the Earth-atmosphere interactions and improve numerical predictions of weather and climate phenomena. The NASA/NWS Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center is currently investigating the potential benefits of assimilating high-resolution datasets derived from the NASA moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Goddard Space Flight Center Land Information System (LIS). The LIS is a software framework that integrates satellite and ground-based observational and modeled data along with multiple land surface models (LSMs) and advanced computing tools to accurately characterize land surface states and fluxes. The LIS can be run uncoupled to provide a high-resolution land surface initial condition, and can also be run in a coupled mode with WRF to integrate surface and soil quantities using any of the LSMs available in LIS. The LIS also includes the ability to optimize the initialization of surface and soil variables by tuning the spin-up time period and atmospheric forcing parameters, which cannot be done in the standard WRF. Among the datasets available from MODIS, a leaf-area index field and composite SST analysis are used to improve the lower boundary and initial conditions to the LIS/WRF coupled model over both land and water. Experiments will be conducted to measure the potential benefits from using the coupled LIS/WRF model over the Florida peninsula during May 2004. This month experienced relatively benign weather conditions, which will allow the experiments to focus on the local and mesoscale

  8. Landing performance of an air cushion landing system installed on a 1/10-scale dynamic model on the C-8 Buffalo airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the landing behavior of a 1/10-scale dynamic model of the C-8 Buffalo airplane equipped with an air-cushion landing system (ACLS) on a variety of surfaces including both calm and rough water and a smooth hard surface. Taxi runs were made on the hard surface over several obstacles. Landings were made with the model at various pitch and roll attitudes and vertical velocities and at one nominal horizontal velocity. Data from the landings include time histories of the trunk and air-cushion pressures and accelerations at selected locations on the model.

  9. A fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation - a case study in Shunde, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Ge, A.; Hu, Y.; Li, C.; Wang, L.

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, potential evaluation methods for farmland consolidation have depended mainly on the experts' experiences, statistical computations or subjective adjustments. Some biases usually exist in the results. Thus, computer-aided technology has become essential. In this study, an intelligent evaluation system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established, and this system can deal with numerical data, discrete data and symbolic data. When the original land data are input, the level of potential of the agricultural land for development will be output by this new model. The provision of objective proof for decision-making by authorities in rural management is helpful. Agricultural land data characteristically comprise large volumes, complex varieties and more indexes. In land consolidation, it is very important to construct an effective index system. A group of indexes need to be selected for land consolidation. In this article, a fuzzy measure was adopted to accomplish the selection of specific features. A fuzzy integral based on a fuzzy measure is a type of fusion tool. The optimal solution with the fewest non-zero elements was obtained for the fuzzy measure by solving a fuzzy integral. This algorithm provides a quick and optimal way to identify the land-index system when preparing to conduct land consolidation. This new research was applied to Shunde's "Three Old" consolidation project which provides the data. Our estimation system was compared with a conventional evaluation system that is still accepted by the public. Our results prove to be consistent, and the new model is more automatic and intelligent. The results of this estimation system are significant for informing decision-making in land consolidation.

  10. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  11. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  12. INTEGRATED LAND-USE SYSTEMS: ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING AGROFOREST AND ALTERNATIVE LAND-USE PRACTICES TO ENHANCE CARBON CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Degraded or sub-standard soils and marginal lands occupy a significant proportion of boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. anagement of these lands with a wide range of existing, site-specific, integrated, agroforest systems represents a significant global opportunity to reduce ...

  13. Mapping land surface emissivity in the Teide volcanic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Africa; Arbelo, Manuel; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Nunez-Casillas, Laia; González-Calvo, Alejandro

    In light the greatly improvement introduced by satellite remote sensing for Earth sciences ap-plications, increasing notably the quality of the surface parameters inferred, climate studies and models developed from them have experienced a significant progress. Even so, it is important to make sure the accuracy of the remote products by means of in situ observations. Although there are some natural surfaces in which a constant emissivity assumption could be assumed, as surfaces highly vegetated, in general, land surface emissivity (LSE) varies sig-nificantly with many factors, as physical constituents, surface moisture content, roughness or particle size. This lack of accurate surface emissivity information makes us to compile a spec-tral emissivity library in a suitable site in the Teide National Park, Tenerife Island (Spain), to be used in land surface temperature validation experiences, as well as to be incorporated in geological and climate studies. The zone is a highly-elevated volcanic site composed of different types of lava formed as a part of the volcanic activity of Tenerife Island. To this end, emissivity measurements of several volcanic rocks from the Teide National Park have been developed using the box method. They include both in situ and laboratory mea-surements. The results have been compared with LSE extracted by means of high spatial resolution information from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Ra-diometer (ASTER) sensor and the Temperature and Emissivity Separation algorithm provided by the ASTER Standard Product AST-05.

  14. Simulation study of two VTOL control/display systems in IMC approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, V. K.

    1981-01-01

    Both systems had full attitude command; the more complex system (Type 1) also had translational velocity command. The systems were applied to existing models of a VTOL lift-fan transport and the AV-8A Harrier. Simulated landings were made on a model of a DD963 Spruance-class destroyer. It was concluded that acceptable transitions and vertical landings can be performed, using the Type 1 system, in free-air turbulence up to 2.5 m/sec and sea state 6 and, using the Type 2 system, in free-air turbulence up to 1.5 m/sec and sea state 4.

  15. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  16. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  17. Land-Atmosphere Coupling Studies Using the LIS-WRF System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2011-01-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface temperature and moisture states. The strength of coupling between the land surface and PBL in numerical weather prediction and climate models remains largely unexplored and undiagnosed due to the complex interactions and feedbacks present across a range of scales. In this study, a framework for diagnosing local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) at the process-level is presented using a coupled mesoscale model with a suite of PBL and land surface model (LSM) options along with observations from the U. S. Southern Great Plains. Specifically, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been coupled to NASA's Land Information System (LIS), which provides a flexible and high-resolution representation and initialization of land surface physics and states. Coupling diagnostics based on the evolution of near-surface temperature and humidity are examined along with the sensitivity of a range of PBL-LSM combinations to perturbations in soil moisture. Ultimately, this work provides a testbed to study factors controlling LoCo using the LIS-WRF system, in an effort to develop and evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  18. Modeling Global Change in Local Places: Capturing Global Change and Local Impacts in a Global Land System Change Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, P.; Eitelberg, D.; Ornetsmueller, C.; van Vliet, J.

    2015-12-01

    Global land use models are driven by demands for food and urban space. However, at the same time many transitions in land use and land cover are driven by societal changes and the demand for a wide range of landscape functions or ecosystem services, including the conservation of biodiversity, regulation of climate and floods, and recreation. Some of these demands lead to tele-connected land use change through the transport of good and services, others are place-based and shape the local realities of land system change. Most current land use change models focus on land cover changes alone and ignore the importance of changes in land management and landscape configuration that affect climate, biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services. This talk will present an alternative approach to global land use modelling based on the simulation of changes in land systems in response to a wide set of ecosystem service demands. Simulations at global scale illustrate that accounting for demands for livestock products, carbon sequestration and biological conservation (following the Aichi targets) leads to different outcomes of land change models and allows the identification of synergies between carbon and biodiversity targets. An application in Laos indicates the complex transitions in land systems and landscapes that occur upon the transition from shifting cultivation to permanent agriculture and tree-crop plantations. We discuss the implications of such land system representations for Earth system modelling.

  19. Forcing a Global, Offline Land Surface Modeling System with Observation-Based Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Houser, Paul R.; Jambor, U.; Gottschalck, J.; Radakovich, J.; Arsenault, K.; Meng, C.-J.; Mitchell, K. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) drives multiple uncoupled land surface models in order to produce optimal output fields of surface states in near-real time, globally, at 1/4 degree spatial resolution. These fields are then made available for coupled atmospheric model initialization and further research. One of the unique aspects of GLDAS is its ability to ingest both modeled and observation-derived forcing for running global scale land surface models. This paper compares results of runs forced by modeled and observed precipitation and shortwave radiation fields. Differences are examined and the impact of the observations on model skill is assessed.

  20. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

  1. Analysis of Summer Thunderstorms in Central Alabama Using the NASA Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.

  2. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to state wide land information system in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizer, J. E.; Borchert, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. To update and refine existing state-wide land resource information systems, the Minnesota State Planning Agency is assessing the feasibility of extracting resource information from ERTS-1 imagery. Work has centered on a comparative analysis of Minnesota Land Management Information System (MLMIS) and ERTS-1 land use classes. The associated problems of determining appropriate data cell size and optimal seasonal timing have also been addressed. Using ERTS-1 images, dominant land use is classified as follows: urban, forest, agriculture, extractive, transportation, water, and wetlands. Preliminary analysis suggests that with appropriate changes in operational definitions these general classes can be further refined for the benefit of MLMIS users. Additional detail appears most feasible extractive classes.

  3. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  4. 78 FR 58555 - Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This order replaces expired Public Land Order No. 6689 (53 FR... Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land... to protect the recreational uses and improvements at the Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds within...

  5. The Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS): mobile apps and collaboration for optimizing climate change investments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Massive investments in climate change mitigation and adaptation are projected during coming decades. Many of these investments will seek to modify how land is managed. The return on both types of investments can be increased through an understanding of land potential: the potential of the land to s...

  6. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    PubMed Central

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  7. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover.

    PubMed

    Coomes, Oliver T; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2011-08-23

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time--with community enclosure--by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of "land-use" poverty traps--a "subsistence crop" trap and a "short fallow" trap--and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  8. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Franciska T.; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A.; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C.; d’Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W. H. Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R.; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P.; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H.; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

  9. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-08-27

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

  10. An Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip; Quaife, Tristan; Kaminski, Tomas; Styles, Jon

    2013-04-01

    In order to monitor the land surface, EO data provides the means of achieving global coverage in a timely fashion. Different sensors orbit the Earth acquiring data at different times and with different spectral and spatial properties. Blending all these observations presents a considerable challenge. Purely statistical methods based on machine learning techniques require accurate and extensive ground truth for "training" models. The complexities of the processes that take place in the scene result in limited usefulness of these models outside their training region or period. Models that describe the physical processes that give rise to the measurements, based on radiative transfer theory, offer a more robust way of interpreting the recorded data and relating it to surface properties such as leaf area index, chlorophyll concentration, etc. Unfortunately, the information content in the signals is rarely sufficient to unambigously determine the many parameters that are required in typical radiative transfer models. To improve on this, the use of prior information is required. Typically, this information is given as parameter ranges, or maybe even distributions, which can have a positive effect in the so-called "inverse problem". Data assimilation techniques allow one to use models of the land surface as priors, to constrain the inverse problem. These models can be very useful in improving the ability of inverting the observations, as the models can give very valuable information on the dynamics of some parameters, like LAI. However, some parameters that have a strong bearing on the observations (some pigments, leaf angle distributions...) have no analogues in typical DGVMs. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate the use of weak constraint 4DVAR data assimilation to the problem of inverting optical RT models. We demonstrate that the use of this technique results in important gains in parameter uncertainty reduction for a typical satellite mission, including

  11. Navigation systems for approach and landing of VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Mohr, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of navigation systems used for research investigations in the V/STOLAND avionics system are described. The navigation systems prove position and velocity in a cartestian reference frame aligned with the runway. They use filtering techniques to combine the raw position data from navaids (e.g., TACAN, MLS) with data from onboard inertial sensors. The filtering techniques which use both complementary and Kalman filters, are described. The software for the navigation systems is also described.

  12. A wideband channel model for land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, Axel; Buonomo, Sergio; Sforza, Mario; Lutz, Erich

    1995-01-01

    A wideband channel model for Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) services is presented which characterizes the time-varying transmission channel between a satellite and a mobile user terminal. The channel model statistic parameters are the results of fitting procedures to measured data. The data used for fitting have a time resolution of 33 ns corresponding to a bandwidth of 30 MHz. Thus, the model is capable to characterize the channel behaviour for a wide range of services e.g., voice transmission, digital audio broadcasting (DAB), and spread spectrum modulation schemes. The model is presented for different environments and scenarios. The model is derived for a quasi-mobile user with hand-held terminal being in two different environments: rural and urban. The parameters needed for the description are (a) the number of echoes, (b) the distribution of the echo power, and (c) the distribution of the echo delay. It is shown that the direct path follows a Rician distribution whereas the reflected paths are Rayleigh/lognormal distributed. The parameters are given for an elevation angle of 25 deg.

  13. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Steve J; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  14. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  15. An economics systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  16. Remote sensing applications for urban planning - The LUMIS project. [Land Use Management Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.; Diegert, C.

    1975-01-01

    The Santa Monica mountains of Los Angeles consist primarily of complexly folded sedimentary marine strata with igneous and metamorphic rocks at the eastern end of the mountains. With the increased development of the Santa Monicas, a study was conducted to determine the critical land use data items in the mountains. Two information systems developed in parallel are described. One capitalizes on the City's present computer line printer system, and the second utilizes map overlay techniques on an interactive computer terminal. Results concerning population, housing, and land improvement illustrate the successful linking of ordinal and nominal data files in the interactive system.-

  17. The Development of the MSL Guidance, Navigation, and Control System for Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    San Martin, A. Miguel; Lee, Steven W.; Wong, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission successfully delivered the Curiosity rover to its intended target. It was the most complex and ambitious landing in the history of the red planet. A key component of the landing system, the requirements for which were driven by the mission ambitious science goals, was the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system. This paper will describe the technical challenges of the MSL GN&C system, the resulting architecture and design needed to meet those challenges, and the development process used for its implementation and testing.

  18. The Watershed Planning System: A Tool for Integrated Land Use Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. G.

    2002-05-01

    The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections

  19. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  20. Soil organic phosphorus in soils under different land use systems in northeast Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slazak, Anna; Freese, Dirk; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is commonly known as a major plant nutrient, which can act as a limiting factor for plant growth in many ecosystems, including different land use systems. Organic P (Po), transformations in soil are important in determining the overall biological availability of P and additionally Po depletion is caused by land cultivation. It is expected that changes of land use modifies the distribution of soil P among the various P-pools (Ptotal, Plabile, Po), where the Plabile forms are considered to be readily available to plants and Po plays an important role with P nutrition supply for plants. The aim of the study was to measure the different soil P pools under different land use systems. The study was carried out in northeast of Brandenburg in Germany. Different land use systems were studied: i) different in age pine-oak mixed forest stands, ii) silvopastoral land, iii) arable lands. Samples were taken from two mineral soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Recently, a variety of analytical methods are available to determine specific Po compounds in soils. The different P forms in the soil were obtained by a sequential P fractionation by using acid and alkaline extractants, which mean that single samples were subjected to increasingly stronger extractants, consequently separating the soil P into fractions based on P solubility. The soil Ptotal for the forest stands ranged from 100 to 183 mg kg -1 whereas Po from 77 to 148 mg kg -1. The Po and Plabile in both soil layers increased significantly with increase of age-old oak trees. The most available-P fraction was Plabile predominate in the oldest pine-oak forest stand, accounting for 29% of soil Ptotal. For the silvopasture and arable study sites the Ptotal content was comparable. However, the highest value of Ptotal was measured in the 30 years old silvopastoral system with 685 mg kg-1 and 728 mg kg-1 at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively than in arable lands. The results have shown that the 30 years old

  1. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John; Craig, Anthony; Calvin, Kate; Jones, Andrew; Collins, William; Edmonds, Jae; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter; Thomson, Allison

    2015-04-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario-based earth system simulations.

  2. From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K.; Jones, A.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P.; Thomson, A.

    2014-11-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across integrated assessment and earth system models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario

  3. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Waste Application Systems - Module 12, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of…

  4. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  7. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Transportation demand management measures; (B) Traffic operational improvements; (C) Public transportation... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION...

  8. Benchmarking the performance of a land data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of land data assimilation systems to operational agricultural drought monitoring requires the development of (at least) three separate system sub-components: 1) a retrieval model to invert satellite-derived observations into soil moisture estimates, 2) a prognostic soil water balance...

  9. Description of the VTOL Approach and Landing Technology (VALT) CH-47 research system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. R.; Niessen, F. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.; Abbott, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Research Center modified a CH-47B helicopter to provide a general-purpose variable-stability capability for the VTOL approach and landing technology (VALT) program. The functional aspects and capabilities of the overall system are described. Automatic decelerating approach data are presented to illustrate the performance of the overall system.

  10. An evaluation of the land and material requirements for the satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ankerbrandt, S. D.

    1980-01-01

    Current research and evaluation of the physical resources requirements for the Satellite Power System (SPS) concentrates on three topics: land requirements and the siting of rectennas; the environmental impacts of the rectenna siting; and the materials requirements. The first two focus exclusively on the Earth based element of the SPS while the materials assessment considered requirements for both the space and Earth systems.

  11. Space shuttle post-entry and landing analysis. Volume 1: Candidate system evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, B. S.; Duiven, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to aid in the evaluation and design of multi-sensor navigation schemes proposed for the orbiter. The scope of the effort is limited to the post-entry, energy management, and approach and landing mission phases. One candidate system based on conventional navigation aids is illustrated including two DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) stations and ILS (Instrument Landing System) glide slope and localizer antennas. Some key elements of the system not shown are the onboard IMUs (Inertial Measurement Units), altimeters, and a computer. The latter is programmed to mix together (filter) the IMU data and the externally-derived data. A completely automatic, all-weather landing capability is required. Since no air-breathing engines will be carried on orbital flights, there will be no chance to go around and try again following a missed approach.

  12. Development and flight test of a helicopter, X-band, portable precision landing system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Chisholm, J. P.; Macdonald, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    A beacon landing system (BLS) is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques. The bLS airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small micropreocessor, installed in conjunction wht the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, BLS pulses and outputs ILS-compatible localizer and glide slope signals. Range information is obtained using an on-board weather/mapping radar in conjunction with the BLS. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit; it weighs less than 70 lb and can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight-test program show that the BLS has a significant potential for providing rotorcaraft with low-cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  13. Commercialization of the land remote sensing system: An examination of mechanisms and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, J. K.; Gaelick, C.; Greenberg, J. S.; Logsdon, J.; Monk, T.

    1983-01-01

    In September 1982 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized (by Title II of H.R. 5890 of the 97th Congress) to plan and provide for the management and operation of the civil land remote sensing satellite systems, to provide for user fees, and to plan for the transfer of the ownership and operation of future civil operational land remote sensing satellite systems to the private sector. As part of the planning for transfer, a number of approaches were to be compared including wholly private ownership and operation of the system by an entity competitively selected, mixed government/private ownership and operation, and a legislatively-chartered privately-owned corporation. The results of an analysis and comparison of a limited number of financial and organizational approaches for either transfer of the ownership and operation of the civil operational land remote sensing program to the private sector or government retention are presented.

  14. Design and implementation of small navigation system on land vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuaiqi

    2013-03-01

    This paper is focused on the problem of frame loss and truncation on multi-channel universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) embedded in Integrated Navigation Systems, and it contains attitude heading reference system (AHRS) and global positioning system (GPS). An advanced design based on FPGA and ARM processor is discussed in this paper, in which FPGA would be used to coordinate with each logic modules, expand UART for GPS and AHRS, resolve navigation information, and save specify data to SD card, which can reduce the delay in data receiving and resolving, while ARM is applied in the area of parameters estimation and navigation algorithms. The experiment results show that this navigation system can use UART to receive, resolve data frames and save data while ARM execute parameter estimation and navigation algorithms in real time. This integrated navigation can effectively avoid the phenomenon of data frame loss or truncation in UART receiving, and can improve the navigation precision.

  15. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, P.J.; Kohley, T.W.; Oakleaf, J.

    2000-01-01

    Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

  16. Description and performance of the Langley visual landing display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A television/model board system is described which provides a means of generating a six-degree-of-freedom visual out-the-window scene for the pilot of a simulated aircraft. The hardware and its performance of capability for meeting the visual requirements for a wide range of simulation studies are detailed. Also included is a description of the computer software required for the system. An example of software implementation in a real-time computer program is provided.

  17. Recreational system optimization to reduce conflict on public lands.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Fraser; Boggs, Jennifer; Reed, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    In response to federal administrative rule, the Tahoe National Forest (TNF), California, USA engaged in trail-route prioritization for motorized recreation (e.g., off-highway-vehicles) and other recreation types. The prioritization was intended to identify routes that were suitable and ill-suited for maintenance in a transportation system. A recreational user survey was conducted online (n = 813) for user preferences for trail system characteristics, recreational use patterns, and demographics. Motorized trail users and non-motorized users displayed very clear and contrasting preferences for the same system. As has been found by previous investigators, non-motorized users expressed antagonism to motorized use on the same recreational travel system, whereas motorized users either supported multiple-use routes or dismissed non-motorized recreationists' concerns. To help the TNF plan for reduced conflict, a geographic information system (GIS) based modeling approach was used to identify recreational opportunities and potential environmental impacts of all travel routes. This GIS-based approach was based on an expert-derived rule set. The rules addressed particular environmental and recreation concerns in the TNF. Route segments were identified that could be incorporated into minimal-impact networks to support various types of recreation. The combination of potential impacts and user-benefits supported an optimization approach for an appropriate recreational travel network to minimize environmental impacts and user-conflicts in a multi-purpose system. PMID:22773115

  18. Recreational System Optimization to Reduce Conflict on Public Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilling, Fraser; Boggs, Jennifer; Reed, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    In response to federal administrative rule, the Tahoe National Forest (TNF), California, USA engaged in trail-route prioritization for motorized recreation (e.g., off-highway-vehicles) and other recreation types. The prioritization was intended to identify routes that were suitable and ill-suited for maintenance in a transportation system. A recreational user survey was conducted online ( n = 813) for user preferences for trail system characteristics, recreational use patterns, and demographics. Motorized trail users and non-motorized users displayed very clear and contrasting preferences for the same system. As has been found by previous investigators, non-motorized users expressed antagonism to motorized use on the same recreational travel system, whereas motorized users either supported multiple-use routes or dismissed non-motorized recreationists' concerns. To help the TNF plan for reduced conflict, a geographic information system (GIS) based modeling approach was used to identify recreational opportunities and potential environmental impacts of all travel routes. This GIS-based approach was based on an expert-derived rule set. The rules addressed particular environmental and recreation concerns in the TNF. Route segments were identified that could be incorporated into minimal-impact networks to support various types of recreation. The combination of potential impacts and user-benefits supported an optimization approach for an appropriate recreational travel network to minimize environmental impacts and user-conflicts in a multi-purpose system.

  19. Software Release and Distribution of the NASA Land Information System: Legacy and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Tian, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Land Information System (LIS) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS began in 2002 as a project to develop a high performance and high resolution land surface modeling framework by modernizing the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS). In 2005, the LIS team was first introduced to NASA's software release process when they applied for and co-won NASA's Software of the Year award. Over the years, LIS has developed a broad user-base including many US government agencies such as Air Force, NOAA, USGS, Army Corps of Engineers; many universities; and a few foreign agencies. All software developed for NASA must go through the software release process, which involves fully describing the software, identifying all persons who contributed to the software, and investigating who holds rights to the software. In August 2009, the LIS team reported version 6.0 of the Land Information System to the Innovative Partnerships Program Office (IPPO) via a New Technology Report (NTR). In April 2010, LIS 6.0 became available for release, on a project basis, to US government agencies and to entities working under a US government grant or contract, in contrast to previous versions of LIS, which were released as open source. This presentation discusses NASA's release process as experienced by the LIS team, discusses why LIS is restricted to a project-based release instead of having an open source release, discusses issues encountered with a project-based release including how this has affected LIS' user-base, and discusses lessons learned.

  20. Evaluation of the navigation performance of shipboard-VTOL-landing guidance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.; Steck, S. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Merz, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a VTOL aircraft landing approach navigation system that receives data (1) from either a microwave scanning beam (MSB) or a radar-transponder (R-T) landing guidance system, and (2) information data-linked from an aviation facility ship. State-of-the-art low-cost-aided inertial techniques and variable gain filters were used in the assumed navigation system. Compensation for ship motion was accomplished by a landing pad deviation vector concept that is a measure of the landing pad's deviation from its calm sea location. The results show that the landing guidance concepts were successful in meeting all of the current Navy navigation error specifications, provided that vector magnitude of the allowable error, rather than the error in each axis, is a permissible interpretation of acceptable performance. The success of these concepts, however, is strongly dependent on the distance measuring equipment bias. In addition, the 'best possible' closed-loop tracking performance achievable with the assumed point-mass VTOL aircraft guidance concept is demonstrated.

  1. Present and future of desertification in Spain: Implementation of a surveillance system to prevent land degradation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Ibáñez, Javier; Del Barrio, Gabriel; Sanjuán, Maria E; Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Vicente, Silvio; Ruiz, Alberto; Puigdefábregas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Mitigation strategies are crucial for desertification given that once degradation starts, other solutions are extremely expensive or unworkable. Prevention is key to handle this problem and solutions should be based on spotting and deactivating the stressors of the system. Following this topic, the Spanish Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (SPACD) created the basis for implementing two innovative approaches to evaluate the threat of land degradation in the country. This paper presents tools for preventing desertification in the form of a geomatic approach to enable the periodic assessments of the status and trends of land condition. Also System Dynamics modelling has been used to integrate bio-physical and socio-economic aspects of desertification to explain and analyse degradation in the main hot spots detected in Spain. The 2dRUE procedure was implemented to map the land-condition status by comparing potential land productivity according to water availability, the limiting factor in arid lands, with plant-biomass data. This assessment showed that 20% of the territory is degraded and an additional 1% is actively degrading. System Dynamics modelling was applied to study the five desertification landscapes identified by the SPACD. The risk analysis, implemented on these models, concluded that 'Herbaceous crops affected by soil erosion' is the landscape most at risk, while the Plackett-Burman sensitivity analysis used to rank the factors highlighted the supremacy of climatic factors above socioeconomic drivers. PMID:27135580

  2. The development and application of a decision support system for land management in the Lake Tahoe Basin—The Land Use Simulation Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include

  3. Implementation of Pin Point Landing Vision Components in an FPGA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfopolous, Arin; Metz, Brandon; Villalpando, Carlos; Matthies, Larry; Serrano, Navid

    2011-01-01

    Pin-point landing is required to enable missions to land close, typically within 10 meters, to scientifically important targets in generally hazardous terrain. In Pin Point Landing both high accuracy and high speed estimation of position and orientation is needed to provide input to the control system to safely choose and navigate to a safe landing site. A proposed algorithm called VISion aided Inertial NAVigation (VISINAV) has shown that the accuracy requirements can be met. [2][3] VISINAV was shown in software only, and was expected to use FPGA enhancements in the future to improve the computational speed needed for pin point landing during Entry Descent and Landing (EDL). Homography, feature detection and spatial correlation are computationally intensive parts of VISINAV. Homography aligns the map image with the descent image so that small correlation windows can be used, and feature detection provides regions that spatial correlation can track from frame to frame in order to estimate vehicle motion. On MER the image Homography, Feature Detection and Correlation would take approximately 650ms tracking 75 features between frames. We implemented Homography, Feature detection and Correlation on a Virtex 4 LX160 FPGA to run in under 25ms while tracking 500 features to improve algorithm reliability and throughput.

  4. Land, sea, and air unmanned systems research and development at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Laird, Robin; Kogut, Greg; Andrews, John; Fletcher, Barbara; Webber, Todd; Arrieta, Rich; Everett, H. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems. On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff- and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a number of projects in these areas.

  5. Microwave scanning beam landing system compatibility and performance: Engineering analyses 75-1 and 75-2. [space shuttle orbiter landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The microwave scanning beam landing system (MSBLS) is the primary position sensor of the Orbiter's navigation subsystem during the autoland phase of the flight. Portions of the system are discussed with special emphasis placed on potential problem areas as referenced to the Orbiter's mission. Topics discussed include system compatability, system accuracy, and expected RF signal levels. A block and flow diagram of MSBLS system operation is included with a list of special tests required to determine system performance.

  6. Airborne multisensor system for the autonomous detection of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheerer, Klaus

    1997-07-01

    A concept of a modular multisensor system for use on an airborne platform is presented. THe sensor system comprises two high resolution IR sensors working in the mid and far IR spectral regions, a RGB video camera with its sensitivity extended to the near IR in connection with a laser illuminator, and a radar with a spatial resolution adapted to the expected mine sizes. The sensor concept emerged from the evaluation of comprehensive static and airborne measurements on numerous buried and unburied mines. The measurements were performed on single mines and on minefields, layed down according to military requirements. The system has an on-board realtime image processing capability and is intended to operate autonomously with a data link to a mobile groundstation. Data from a navigation unit serve to transform the location of identified mines into a geodetic coordinate system. The system will be integrated into a cylindrical structure of about 40 cm diameter. This may be a drone or simply a tube which can be mounted on any carrier whatever. The realization of a simplified demonstrator for captive flight tests is planned by 1998.

  7. Scaling water and energy fluxes in climate system: Three land-atmospheric modeling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.F.; Lakshmi, V. )

    1993-05-01

    The effects of small-scale heterogeneity in land-surface characteristics on the large-scale fluxes of water and energy in the land-atmosphere system have become a central focus of many of the climatology research experiments. The acquisition of high-resolution land-surface data through remote sensing and intensive land-climatology field experiments (like HAPEX and FIFE) has provided data to investigate the interactions between microscale land-atmosphere interactions and macroscale models. One essential research question is how to account for the small-scale heterogeneities and whether [open quotes]effective[close quotes] parameters can be used in the macroscale models. To address this question of scaling, three modeling experiments were performed and are reviewed in the paper. The first is concerned with the land-surface hydrology during rain events and between rain events. The second experiment applies the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) to a heterogeneous domain and the spatial and temporal latent heat flux is analyzed. The third experiment uses thermatic mapper (TM) data to look at the scaling of the normalized vegetation index (NDVI), latent heat flux, and sensible heat flux through either scaling of the TM-derived fields using the TM data or the fields derived from aggregated TM data. In all three experiments it was found that the surface fluxes and land characteristics can be scaled, and that macroscale models based on effective parameters are sufficient to account for the small-scale heterogeneities investigated. The paper also suggests that the scale at which a macroscale model becomes valid, the representative elementary scale (REA), is on the order 1.5-3 correlation lengths, which for land processes investigated appears to be about 1000-1500 m. At scales less than the REA scale, exact patterns of subgrid heterogeneities are needed for accurate small-scale modeling. 31 refs., 19 figs.

  8. Mars Exploration Rover Entry, Descent, and Landing: A Thermal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Sunada, Eric T.; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.; Phillip, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    Perhaps the most challenging mission phase for the Mars Exploration Rovers was the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). During this phase, the entry vehicle attached to its cruise stage was transformed into a stowed tetrahedral Lander that was surrounded by inflated airbags through a series of complex events. There was only one opportunity to successfully execute an automated command sequence without any possible ground intervention. The success of EDL was reliant upon the system thermal design: 1) to thermally condition EDL hardware from cruise storage temperatures to operating temperature ranges; 2) to maintain the Rover electronics within operating temperature ranges without the benefit of the cruise single phase cooling loop, which had been evacuated in preparation for EDL; and 3) to maintain the cruise stage propulsion components for the critical turn to entry attitude. Since the EDL architecture was inherited from Mars Pathfinder (MPF), the initial EDL thermal design would be inherited from MPF. However, hardware and implementation differences from MPF ultimately changed the MPF inheritance approach for the EDL thermal design. With the lack of full inheritance, the verification and validation of the EDL thermal design took on increased significance. This paper will summarize the verification and validation approach for the EDL thermal design along with applicable system level thermal testing results as well as appropriate thermal analyses. In addition, the lessons learned during the system-level testing will be discussed. Finally, the in-flight EDL experiences of both MER-A and -B missions (Spirit and Opportunity, respectively) will be presented, demonstrated how lessons learned from Spirit were applied to Opportunity.

  9. A fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation - a case study in Shunde, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Ge, A.; Hu, Y.; Li, C.; Wang, L.

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, potential evaluation methods for farmland consolidation have depended mainly on the experts' experiences, statistical computations or subjective adjustments. Some biases usually exist in the results. Thus, computer-aided technology has become essential. In this study, an intelligent evaluation system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established, and this system can deal with numerical data, discrete data and symbolic data. When the original land data are input, the level of potential of the agricultural land for development will be output by this new model. The provision of objective proof for decision making by authorities in rural management is helpful. Agricultural land data characteristically comprise large volumes, complex varieties and more indexes. In land consolidation, it is very important to construct an effective index system. We needed to select a group of indexes useful for land consolidation according to the concrete demand. In this paper, a fuzzy measure, which can describe the importance of a single feature or a group of features, is adopted to accomplish the selection of specific features. A fuzzy integral that is based on a fuzzy measure is a type of fusion tool. We obtained the optimal solution for a fuzzy measure by solving a fuzzy integral. The fuzzy integrals can be transformed to a set of linear equations. We applied the L1-norm regularization method to solve the linear equations, and we found a solution with the fewest nonzero elements for the fuzzy measure; this solution shows the contribution of corresponding features or the combinations of decisions. This algorithm provides a quick and optimal way to identify the land index system when preparing to conduct the research, such as we describe herein, on land consolidation. Shunde's "Three Old" consolidation project provides the data for this work. Our estimation system was compared with a conventional evaluation system that is still accepted by the public. Our results prove

  10. The role of GMES / Sentinels in Land-Surface Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.

    2009-04-01

    A general trend in the current status of representation of Land Surface schemes into Earth System models is driven by the parameterisation of "cycles" instead of individual processes. Particular emphasis is made to account for couplings among the individual cycles, as between the carbon and water cycles. Moreover, the current tendency is to use the measured data -time series in most cases- together with models, in a data assimilation scenario where inputs from multiple sources are integrated. Such approach is more and more necessary as land models tend to be more complex, and particularly due to the fact that land surface variability is not just driven by physical and chemical processes, but intricate biological processes also altered by anthropogenic influences. Human influences in the land system (land use changes, urban development, etc.) and the impacts of natural disasters are becoming also part of land models, but critical data in high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to properly model such processes. Until now, problems with data availability, data inconsistency and lack of adequate temporal sampling have limited the potential usefulness of such observations in modelling land surface processes. The availability of the GMES / Sentinel series of satellites represents a quite unique opportunity for consolidation of current tendencies and development of new science based on the new type of data that soon will become available. The usefulness of the different Sentinel missions for Land science has been recognised. Although the Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Moreover, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF ACCEPTABLE SYSTEMS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective was to demonstrate sludge application systems for farmland that would minimize any adverse effects on the environment and public health, achieve both urban and rural acceptance, and be generally beneficial for producer and receptor of the sludge. A comprehensive hea...

  12. Integrated Multimedia Modeling System Response to Regional Land Management Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of research and development. It is ...

  13. 77 FR 8895 - Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Red Cloud Campground; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land... historical interpretive integrity of the Red Cloud Campground within the Cibola National Forest, and to... to develop the Red Cloud Campground facility and the unique recreational and historical...

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Parker, T.; Crisp, J.; Squyres, S.; Carr, M.; Haldemann, A.; Arvidson, R.; Ehlmann, B.; Bell, J.

    2004-01-01

    Selection of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites took place over a three year period in which engineering constraints were identified, 155 possible sites were downselected to the final two, surface environments and safety considerations were developed, and the potential science return at the sites was considered. Landing sites in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum were selected because they appeared acceptably safe for MER landing and roving and had strong morphologic and mineralogical indicators of liquid water in their past and thus appeared capable of addressing the science objectives of the MER missions, which are to determine the aqueous, climatic, and geologic history of sites on Mars where conditions may have been favorable to the preservation of evidence of possible pre-biotic or biotic processes. Engineering constraints important to the selection included: latitude (10 N-15 S) for maximum solar power; elevation (<-1.3 km) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander; low horizontal winds, shear and turbulence in the last few kilometers to minimize horizontal velocity; low 10-m scale slopes to reduce airbag spinup and bounce; moderate rock abundance to reduce abrasion or stroke-out of the airbags; and a radar-reflective, load-bearing and trafficable surface safe for landing and roving that is not dominated by fine-grained dust. In selecting the MER landing sites these engineering constraints were addressed via comprehensive evaluation of surface and atmospheric characteristics from existing remote sensing data and models as well as targeted orbital information acquired from Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey. This evaluation resulted in a number of predictions of the surface characteristics of the sites, which are tested in this abstract. Relating remote sensing signatures to surface characteristics at landing sites allows these sites to be used as ground truth for the orbital data, is essential for selecting and validating landing sites for

  15. Heave-pitch-roll analysis and testing of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Wormley, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical tools (analysis and computer simulation) needed to explain and predict the dynamic operation of air cushion landing systems (ACLS) is described. The following tasks were performed: the development of improved analytical models for the fan and the trunk; formulation of a heave pitch roll analysis for the complete ACLS; development of a general purpose computer simulation to evaluate landing and taxi performance of an ACLS equipped aircraft; and the verification and refinement of the analysis by comparison with test data obtained through lab testing of a prototype cushion. Demonstration of simulation capabilities through typical landing and taxi simulation of an ACLS aircraft are given. Initial results show that fan dynamics have a major effect on system performance. Comparison with lab test data (zero forward speed) indicates that the analysis can predict most of the key static and dynamic parameters (pressure, deflection, acceleration, etc.) within a margin of a 10 to 25 percent.

  16. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  17. Sensor Integration in a Low Cost Land Mobile Mapping System

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A.; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved. PMID:22736985

  18. Thermal neutron activation system for confirmatory nonmetallic land mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Cousins, Thomas; Jones, Trevor; Brisson, Jean R.; Jamieson, Terry; Waller, Ed; LeMay, Francois; Ing, Harry; Clifford, Edward T. H.; Selkirk, Barkley

    1998-09-01

    To detect and locate buried landmines, the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) is developing a teleoperated, vehicle-mounted, multisensor system called ILDP. In operation, a suite of 4 detectors scan ahead of the vehicle. Their outputs are combined through data fusion to indicate the possibility of a mine at a particular location, within a 30 cm radius. A thermal neutron activation (TNA) sensor, mounted behind the vehicle, is used to confirm the presence of explosives via detection of the 10.83 MeV gamma-ray associated with neutron capture on 14N. The TNA system developed for this uses a 100 microgram 252Cf neutron source surrounded by four 7.62 cm X 7.62 cm NaI(Tl) detectors. A combination of the use of state-of-the art radiation transport codes for design, judicious choice of specialized shielding materials and development of high-rate, fast pulse processing electronics has led to a system which can; (1) confirm the presence of all surface-laid or shallowly-buried anti-tank mines in a few seconds to a minute (depending on mass of explosive) (2) confirm the presence of anti-tank mines down to 20 cm depth in less than 5 minutes. (3) confirm the presence of large (greater than 100 g Nitrogen) anti-personnel mines in less than five minutes (4) operate in adverse climatic conditions. These results have been verified in field trials using the prototype sensor. Work is now ongoing to miniaturize the electronics, make the system robust and easy to use and investigate the use of an electronic neutron generator expected to enter service by the year 2000.

  19. Trajectories of Future Land Use for Earth System Modeling of the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Lu, X.; Kicklighter, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Northeast includes some of the nation's most populated cities and their supporting hinterlands, with an urban corridor spanning from Maine to Virginia. The megaregion's centuries-long history of landscape transformations has had enduring impact on the region's hydrology, ecosystems and socioeconomy. Driven by policy decisions made in the next decade, future landscape changes will also interplay with climate change, with multi-decadal effects that are currently poorly understood. While existing national and global land cover trajectories will play an important role in understanding these future impacts, they do not allow for investigation of many issues of interest to regional stakeholders, such as local zoning and suburban sprawl, the development of a regional food system, or varying rates of natural lands protection. Existing land cover trajectories also do not usually provide the detail needed as input drivers for earth system models, such as disaggregated vegetation types or harmonized time series of infrastructure management. We discuss the development of a simple land use/land cover allocation scheme to develop such needed trajectories, their implementation for 4 regional socioeconomic pathways developed collaboratively with regional stakeholders, and their preliminary use in regional ecosystem modeling.

  20. Assessing land-use history for reporting on cropland dynamics - A case study using the Land-Parcel Identification System in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; González, Ainhoa; Jones, Michael; O'Brien, Phillip; Stout, Jane C.; Green, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In developed countries, cropland and grassland conversions and management can be a major factor in Land Use and Land Use Change (LULUC) related Greenhouse Gas (GHG) dynamics. Depending on land use, management and factors such as soil properties land can either act as source or sink for GHGs. Currently many countries depend on national statistics combined with socio-economic modelling to assess current land use as well as inter-annual changes. This potentially introduces a bias as it neither provides information on direct land- use change trajectories nor spatially explicit information to assess the environmental context. In order to improve reporting countries are shifting towards high resolution spatial datasets. In this case study, we used the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), a pan-European geographical database developed to assist farmers and authorities with agricultural subsidies, to analyse cropland dynamics in Ireland. The database offer high spatial resolution and is updated annually. Generally Ireland is considered grassland dominated with 90 % of its agricultural area under permanent grassland, and only a small area dedicated to cropland. However an in-depth analysis of the LPIS for the years 2000 to 2012 showed strong underlying dynamics. While the annual area reported as cropland remained relatively constant at 3752.3 ± 542.3 km2, the area of permanent cropland was only 1251.9 km2. Reversely, the area that was reported as cropland for at least one year during the timeframe was 7373.4 km2, revealing a significantly higher area with cropland history than annual statistics would suggest. Furthermore, the analysis showed that one quarter of the land converting from or to cropland will return to the previous land use within a year. To demonstrate potential policy impact, we assessed cropland/grassland dynamics from the 2008 to 2012 commitment period using (a) annual statistics, and (b) data including land use history derived from LPIS. Under

  1. Propagation measurements for an Australian land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundrock, Anthony J.; Harvey, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of attenuation statistics using a helicopter and an instrumented van are discussed. Results are given for two different tree densities, for elevation angles of 30, 45 and 60 degrees and for frequencies of 893, 1550 and 2660 MHz. These results show that at 1550 MHz and 45 degrees elevation angle, attenuation values of 5.0 and 8.6 dB were exceeded 10 percent of the time for roadside tree densities of 35 percent and 85 percent respectively. Comparisons with other results made in the Northern Hemisphere are made and show general agreement. The implication of the measured values on system design are discussed, and it is shown that, for Australia, an adaptive margin allocation scheme would require an average margin of approximately 5 dB.

  2. Proposal for analog synthesis of a land mine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Fernando; Domenech, Gines; Ruiz, Ramon; Cabello, Diego; Lopez, Paula

    2003-08-01

    The detection of buried landmines is an important problem in regions where an army conflict has occurred. In particular, antipersonnel plastic mines cannot be detected with classical techniques, such as metal detectors. So a very promising detection technique based on a thermal model of the soil is applied to detect this kind of mines, in which infrared (IR) images of the soil are used. The core of this technique is the solution of the heat transfer process in the soil and at the soil-air interface, which is a very time consuming process. To overcome this problem we propose an analog circuit which can solve the equations that model the system reducing time cost by taking advantage of the inherent massive parallelism of the circuit. The description of the equations is made with VHDL--AMS and then an automatic synthesis tool generates a circuit which solves the equations.

  3. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  4. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shutoff for the warning device prescribed in this paragraph, the warning system must be designed so that.... There may not be a manual shutoff for this warning device. The flap position sensing unit may be... burst, or rocks, water, and slush that may enter the landing gear bay....

  5. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shutoff for the warning device prescribed in this paragraph, the warning system must be designed so that.... There may not be a manual shutoff for this warning device. The flap position sensing unit may be... burst, or rocks, water, and slush that may enter the landing gear bay....

  6. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shutoff for the warning device prescribed in this paragraph, the warning system must be designed so that.... There may not be a manual shutoff for this warning device. The flap position sensing unit may be... burst, or rocks, water, and slush that may enter the landing gear bay....

  7. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection and Assignment of Frequencies, and Transition of the Upper 200 Channels in...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment §...

  9. Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.

  10. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  11. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  12. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  13. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  14. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  15. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  16. AIR LAND WATER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (ALEAS): A MULTI-MEDIA MODEL FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Land Water Analysis System (ALWAS) is a multi-media environmental model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of toxicants, the surface runoff of deposited toxicants, and the subsequent fate of these materials in surface water bodies. ALWAS dipicts the spatial and tem...

  17. Evaluation of VICAR software capability for land information support system needs. [Elk River quadrangle, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the processing capability of the VICAR software for land information support system needs is presented. The geometric and radiometric properties of four sets of LANDSAT data taken over the Elk River, Idaho quadrangle were compared. Storage of data sets, the means of location, pixel resolution, and radiometric and geometric characteristics are described. Recommended modifications of VICAR programs are presented.

  18. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  19. Leveraging microwave polarization information for calibration of a land data assimilation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This letter contributes a new approach to calibrating a tau-omega radiative transfer model coupled to a land surface model with low frequency (< 10 GHz) microwave brightness temperature (TB) observations. The problem of calibrating this system is generally poorlyposed because various parameter combi...

  20. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... alternative strategies to improve bridge condition, safety and serviceability; (2) Estimate the costs of any... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  1. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... alternative strategies to improve bridge condition, safety and serviceability; (2) Estimate the costs of any... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  2. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... alternative strategies to improve bridge condition, safety and serviceability; (2) Estimate the costs of any... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  3. 77 FR 472 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule; Correction AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The... FR doc. 2011- 33535, on page 81911, in the first column, correct the ``Dates'' caption to...

  4. Overview and validation work of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, D.; Mitchell, K.; Houser, P.; Wood, E.; Schaake, J.; Lettenmaier, D.; Robock, A.; Cosgrove, B.; Duan, Q.; Luo, L.; Nldas Team

    2003-04-01

    This talk presents the results of the multi-institution partnership to develop, execute, validate and improve a realtime and retrospective North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) sponsored by GAPP. NOAA NCEP, NASA/GSFC, NWS Hydrology Lab, NESDIS, Princeton University, University of Washington, University of Maryland, and Rutgers University have undertaken the development and prototype realtime demonstration of national, realtime, hourly, 15-km, uncoupled land-surface models forced by observed precipitation and observed GOES-derived solar insolation. This system is referred to as the NLDAS, as future enhancements will include the assimilation of satellite-derived land-surface fields such as skin temperature, soil moisture, and snowpack. The hallmarks of this LDAS project are 4 separate realtime land-surface models (LSMs) running in parallel in the NCEP computer environment on a common 0.125 degree grid using common a) NCEP-derived hourly atmospheric forcing, b) common land-surface characteristics (to the extent possible), and c) a common streamflow routing model. The land-surface state variables (e.g. soil moisture and temperature, snowpack) of the 4 LSMs will all be continuously cycled forward in realtime. The participating LSMs so far include the NOAH LSM, the MOSAIC LSM, the VIC-3L LSM, and the Sacramento Model. Specifically this talk describes the forcing data creation and validation for the retrospective and realtime system. Model validation mainly focuses on streamflow in small (< 10000 km**2) and large scale basins, but also includes includes snowpack and surface temperature validation on a variety of scales, from local mesoscale observing networks and in-situ measurements to large scale satellite-based retrievals of snow cover, surface insolation and skin temperature. The results show large inter-model differences in energy and water partitioning of the participating models.

  5. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product

  6. The Utility of the Real-Time NASA Land Information System Data for Drought Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture are a crucial component for the proper monitoring of drought conditions. The large spatial variability of soil moisture complicates the problem. Unfortunately, in situ soil moisture observing networks typically consist of sparse point observations, and conventional numerical model analyses of soil moisture used to diagnose drought are of coarse spatial resolution. Decision support systems such as the U.S. Drought Monitor contain drought impact resolution on sub-county scales, which may not be supported by the existing soil moisture networks or analyses. The NASA Land Information System, which is run with 3 km grid spacing over the eastern United States, has demonstrated utility for monitoring soil moisture. Some of the more useful output fields from the Land Information System are volumetric soil moisture in the 0-10 cm and 40-100 cm layers, column-integrated relative soil moisture, and the real-time green vegetation fraction derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) swath data that are run within the Land Information System in place of the monthly climatological vegetation fraction. While these and other variables have primarily been used in local weather models and other operational forecasting applications at National Weather Service offices, the use of the Land Information System for drought monitoring has demonstrated utility for feedback to the Drought Monitor. Output from the Land Information System is currently being used at NWS Huntsville to assess soil moisture, and to provide input to the Drought Monitor. Since feedback to the Drought Monitor takes place on a weekly basis, weekly difference plots of column-integrated relative soil moisture are being produced by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center and analyzed to facilitate the process. In addition to the Drought Monitor, these data are used to assess drought conditions for monthly feedback to the Alabama Drought Monitoring

  7. Lidar Systems for Precision Navigation and Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. Currently, NASA is developing novel lidar sensors aimed at needs of future planetary landing missions. These lidar sensors are a 3-Dimensional Imaging Flash Lidar, a Doppler Lidar, and a Laser Altimeter. The Flash Lidar is capable of generating elevation maps of the terrain that indicate hazardous features such as rocks, craters, and steep slopes. The elevation maps collected during the approach phase of a landing vehicle, at about 1 km above the ground, can be used to determine the most suitable safe landing site. The Doppler Lidar provides highly accurate ground relative velocity and distance data allowing for precision navigation to the landing site. Our Doppler lidar utilizes three laser beams pointed to different directions to measure line of sight velocities and ranges to the ground from altitudes of over 2 km. Throughout the landing trajectory starting at altitudes of about 20 km, the Laser Altimeter can provide very accurate ground relative altitude measurements that are used to improve the vehicle position knowledge obtained from the vehicle navigation system. At altitudes from approximately 15 km to 10 km, either the Laser Altimeter or the Flash Lidar can be used to generate contour maps of the terrain, identifying known surface features such as craters, to perform Terrain relative Navigation thus further reducing the vehicle s relative position error. This paper describes the operational capabilities of each lidar sensor and provides a status of their development. Keywords: Laser Remote Sensing, Laser Radar, Doppler Lidar, Flash Lidar, 3-D Imaging, Laser Altimeter, Precession Landing, Hazard Detection

  8. Analysis of Summertime Convective Initiation in Central Alabama Using the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Robert S.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    During the summer months in the southeastern United States, convective initiation presents a frequent challenge to operational forecasters. Thunderstorm development has traditionally been referred to as random due to their disorganized, sporadic appearance and lack of atmospheric forcing. Horizontal variations in land surface characteristics such as soil moisture, soil type, land and vegetation cover could possibly be a focus mechanism for afternoon convection during the summer months. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) provides a stand-alone land surface modeling framework that incorporates these varying soil and vegetation properties, antecedent precipitation, and atmospheric forcing to represent the soil state at high resolution. The use of LIS as a diagnostic tool may help forecasters to identify boundaries in land surface characteristics that could correlate to favored regions of convection initiation. The NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) team has been collaborating with the National Weather Service Office in Birmingham, AL to help incorporate LIS products into their operational forecasting methods. This paper highlights selected convective case dates from summer 2009 when synoptic forcing was weak, and identifies any boundaries in land surface characteristics that may have contributed to convective initiation. The LIS output depicts the effects of increased sensible heat flux from urban areas on the development of convection, as well as convection along gradients in land surface characteristics and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These features may promote mesoscale circulations and/or feedback processes that can either enhance or inhibit convection. With this output previously unavailable to operational forecasters, LIS provides a new tool to forecasters in order to help eliminate the randomness of summertime convective initiation.

  9. Improving land vehicle situational awareness using a distributed aperture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Jean; Bias, Jason; Wells, Ashley; Riddle, Larry; van der Wal, Gooitzen; Piacentino, Mike; Mandelbaum, Robert

    2005-05-01

    U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has performed early work to develop a Distributed Aperture System (DAS). The DAS aims at improving the situational awareness of armored fighting vehicle crews under closed-hatch conditions. The concept is based on a plurality of sensors configured to create a day and night dome of surveillance coupled with heads up displays slaved to the operator's head to give a "glass turret" feel. State-of-the-art image processing is used to produce multiple seamless hemispherical views simultaneously available to the vehicle commander, crew members and dismounting infantry. On-the-move automatic cueing of multiple moving/pop-up low silhouette threats is also done with the possibility to save/revisit/share past events. As a first step in this development program, a contract was awarded to United Defense to further develop the Eagle VisionTM system. The second-generation prototype features two camera heads, each comprising four high-resolution (2048x1536) color sensors, and each covering a field of view of 270°hx150°v. High-bandwidth digital links interface the camera heads with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based custom processor developed by Sarnoff Corporation. The processor computes the hemispherical stitch and warp functions required for real-time, low latency, immersive viewing (360°hx120°v, 30° down) and generates up to six simultaneous extended graphics array (XGA) video outputs for independent display either on a helmet-mounted display (with associated head tracking device) or a flat panel display (and joystick). The prototype is currently in its last stage of development and will be integrated on a vehicle for user evaluation and testing. Near-term improvements include the replacement of the color camera heads with a pixel-level fused combination of

  10. Management of land use land cover through the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Praveen

    Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence

  11. The international geosphere biosphere programme data and information system global land cover data set (DIScover)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS), through the mapping expertise of the U.S. Geological Survey and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, recently guided the completion of a 1-km resolution global land cover data set from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. The 1-km resolution land cover product, 'DISCover,' was based on monthly normalized difference vegetation index composites from 1992 and 1993. The development of DISCover was coordinated by the IGBP-DIS Land Cover Working Group as part of the IGBP-DIS Focus 1 activity. DISCover is a 17-class land cover data set based on the scientific requirements of IGBP elements. The mapping used unsupervised classification and postclassification refinement using ancillary data. The development of this data set was motivated by the need for global land cover data with higher spatial resolution, improved temporal specificity, and known classification accuracy. The completed DISCover data set will soon be validated to determine the accuracy of the global classification.

  12. A land data assimilation system for simultaneous simulation of soil moisture and vegetation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the importance of the coupling between vegetation dynamics and root-zone soil moisture in land-atmosphere interactions, there is no land data assimilation system (LDAS) that currently addresses this issue, limiting the capacity to positively impact weather and seasonal forecasting. We develop a new LDAS that can improve the skill of an ecohydrological model to simulate simultaneously surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics by assimilating passive microwave observations that are sensitive to both surface soil moisture and terrestrial biomass. This LDAS first calibrates both hydrological and ecological parameters of a land surface model, which explicitly simulates vegetation growth and senescence. Then, it adjusts the model states of soil moisture and leaf area index (LAI) sequentially using a genetic particle filter. We can adjust the subsurface soil moisture, which is not observed directly by satellites, because we simulate the interactions between vegetation dynamics and subsurface water dynamics. From a point-scale evaluation, we succeed in improving the performance of our land surface model and generate ensembles of the model state whose distribution reflects the combined information in the land surface model and satellite observations. We show that the adjustment of the subsurface soil moisture significantly improves the capacity to simulate vegetation dynamics in seasonal forecast timescales. This LDAS can contribute to the generation of ensemble initial conditions of surface and subsurface soil moisture and LAI for a probabilistic framework of weather and seasonal forecasting.

  13. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Settler's Grove of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This order replaces Public Land Order 6658 (52 FR 36577 (1987... one of the few remaining stands of old- growth western red cedar trees in the Settler's Grove...

  14. Seismic characterization of the Wasatch fault system beneath Salt Lake City using a land streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, B.; Liberty, L. M.; Gribler, G.

    2015-12-01

    We characterize the active Wasatch fault system beneath downtown Salt Lake City by measuring p- and s-wave velocities and seismic reflection profiling. Our focus was on the segment boundary between the Warm Springs and East Bench faults. We collected 14.5 km along 9 west-east profiles in 3 field days using a 60 m aperture seismic land streamer and 200 kg weight drop system. From a p-wave refraction analysis, we measure velocities from 230-3900 m/s for the upper 20-25 meters. Shear wave velocities for the upper 30 m, derived from a multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) approach, show velocities that range from 100-1800 m/s. P-wave reflection images from the upper 100 m depth indicate offset and truncated (mostly) west-dipping strata (Bonneville Lake deposits?) that suggest active faults extend beneath the downtown urban corridor. We identify saturated sediments on the lower elevation (western) portions of the profiles and shallow high velocity (dry) strata to the east of the mapped faults. We observe slow p-wave velocities near identified faults that may represent the fault's colluvial wedge. These velocity results are best highlighted with Vp/Vs ratios. Analyzing shear wave velocities by NEHRP class, we estimate soft soil (NEHRP D) limited less than 1 m depth along most profiles, and stiff soil (NEHRP C) to up to 25 m depth in some locations. However near steep topographic slopes (footwall deposits), we identify NEHRP Class D stiff soil velocities to less than 2 m depth before transition to NEHRP Class C soft rock. Depth to hard rock (velocities >760 m/s) are as shallow as 20 m below the land surface on some steep slopes beneath north Salt Lake City and greater than our imaging depths along the western portions of our profiles. Our findings suggest large variations in seismic velocities beneath the Salt Lake City corridor and that multiple fault strands related to the Warm Springs fault segment extend beneath downtown.

  15. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  16. The Significance of Land-Atmosphere Processes in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land

  17. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.

  18. Design and Application of a Community Land Benchmarking System for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Koven, C. D.; Kluzek, E. B.; Mao, J.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Benchmarking has been widely used to assess the ability of climate models to capture the spatial and temporal variability of observations during the historical era. For the carbon cycle and terrestrial ecosystems, the design and development of an open-source community platform has been an important goal as part of the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) project. Here we developed a new benchmarking software system that enables the user to specify the models, benchmarks, and scoring metrics, so that results can be tailored to specific model intercomparison projects. Evaluation data sets included soil and aboveground carbon stocks, fluxes of energy, carbon and water, burned area, leaf area, and climate forcing and response variables. We used this system to evaluate simulations from the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) with prognostic atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the period from 1850 to 2005 (i.e., esmHistorical simulations archived on the Earth System Grid Federation). We found that the multi-model ensemble had a high bias in incoming solar radiation across Asia, likely as a consequence of incomplete representation of aerosol effects in this region, and in South America, primarily as a consequence of a low bias in mean annual precipitation. The reduced precipitation in South America had a larger influence on gross primary production than the high bias in incoming light, and as a consequence gross primary production had a low bias relative to the observations. Although model to model variations were large, the multi-model mean had a positive bias in atmospheric carbon dioxide that has been attributed in past work to weak ocean uptake of fossil emissions. In mid latitudes of the northern hemisphere, most models overestimate latent heat fluxes in the early part of the growing season, and underestimate these fluxes in mid-summer and early fall, whereas sensible heat fluxes show the opposite trend.

  19. Opportunity Landing Spot Panorama (3-D Model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this three-dimensional model of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional model and the billboard. Portions of the terrain model lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    The rocky outcrop traversed by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is visible in this zoomed-in portion of a three-dimensional model of the rover's landing site. Opportunity has acquired close-up images along the way, and scientists are using the rover's instruments to closely examine portions of interest. The white fragments that look crumpled near the center of the image are portions of the airbags. Distant scenery is displayed on a spherical backdrop or 'billboard' for context. Artifacts near the top rim of the crater are a result of the transition between the three-dimensional model and the billboard. Portions of the terrain model lacking sufficient data appear as blank spaces or gaps, colored reddish-brown for better viewing. This image was generated using special software from NASA's Ames Research Center and a mosaic of images taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  20. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion

    PubMed Central

    Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M.; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I. Nengah S.; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M.; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. PMID:27114577

  1. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jochen; Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I Nengah S; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-05-19

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. PMID:27114577

  2. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.

  3. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreves, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    The Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) was conceived as a low-cost, rapidly-developed means of providing soft landing for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module (CM). Its experimental main parachute cluster deployment technique and off-the-shelf hardware necessitated a full-scale drop test prior to the MLAS mission in order to reduce overall mission risk. This test was successfully conducted at Wallops Flight Facility on March 6, 2009, with all vehicle and parachute systems functioning as planned. The results of the drop test successfully qualified the LPD system for the MLAS flight test. This document captures the design, concept of operations and results of the drop test.

  4. The role of ERTS in the establishment and of a nationwide land cover information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abram, P.; Tullos, J.

    1974-01-01

    The economic potential of utilizing an ERTS type satellite in the development, updating, and maintenance of a nation-wide land cover information system in the post-1977 time frame was examined. Several alternative acquisition systems were evaluated for land cover data acquisition, processing, and interpretation costs in order to determine, on a total life cycle cost basis, under which conditions of user demand (i.e., area of coverage, frequency of coverage, timeliness of information, and level of information detail) an ERTS type satellite would be cost effective, and what the annual cost savings benefits would be. It was concluded that a three satellite system with high and low altitude aircraft and ground survey team utilizing automatic interpretation and classification techniques is an economically sound proposal.

  5. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Jasinski, Michael; Mocko, David; Kempler, Steven

    2016-01-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and indicator data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. The NCA-LDAS data will be archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp, THREDDS, Mirador search and download, and Giovanni visualization and analysis system.

  6. Leveraging microwave polarization information for the calibration of a land data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Crow, Wade T.; De Jeu, Richard A. M.

    2014-12-01

    This letter contributes a new approach to calibrating a tau-omega radiative transfer model coupled to land surface model output with low-frequency (<10 GHz) microwave brightness temperature (TB) observations. The problem of calibrating this system is generally poorly posed because various parameter combinations may yield indistinguishable (least squares error) results. This is theoretically important for a land data assimilation system since alternative parameter combinations have different impacts on the sensitivity of TB to soil moisture and misattribution of systematic error may therefore disrupt data assimilation system performance. Via synthetic experiments we demonstrate that using TB polarization difference to parameterize vegetation opacity can improve the stability of calibrated soil moisture/TB sensitivities relative to the more typical approach of utilizing ancillary information to estimate vegetation opacity. The proposed approach fully follows from the radiative transfer model, implemented according to commonly adopted assumptions, and reduces by one the number of calibration parameters.

  7. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff

  8. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide. PMID:26282747

  9. Integration between terrestrial-based and satellite-based land mobile communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcidiancono, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    A survey is given of several approaches to improving the performance and marketability of mobile satellite systems (MSS). The provision of voice/data services in the future regional European Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS), network integration between the Digital Cellular Mobile System (GSM) and LMSS, the identification of critical areas for the implementation of integrated GSM/LMSS areas, space segment scenarios, LMSS for digital trunked private mobile radio (PMR) services, and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques for a terrestrial/satellite system are covered.

  10. Model evaluation using a community benchmarking system for land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Kluzek, E. B.; Koven, C. D.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface models is an important step in identifying deficiencies in Earth system models and developing improved estimates of future change. For the land surface and carbon cycle, the design of an open-source system has been an important objective of the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) project. Here we evaluated CMIP5 and CLM models using a benchmarking system that enables users to specify models, data sets, and scoring systems so that results can be tailored to specific model intercomparison projects. Our scoring system used information from four different aspects of global datasets, including climatological mean spatial patterns, seasonal cycle dynamics, interannual variability, and long-term trends. Variable-to-variable comparisons enable investigation of the mechanistic underpinnings of model behavior, and allow for some control of biases in model drivers. Graphics modules allow users to evaluate model performance at local, regional, and global scales. Use of modular structures makes it relatively easy for users to add new variables, diagnostic metrics, benchmarking datasets, or model simulations. Diagnostic results are automatically organized into HTML files, so users can conveniently share results with colleagues. We used this system to evaluate atmospheric carbon dioxide, burned area, global biomass and soil carbon stocks, net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, terrestrial water storage, evapotranspiration, and surface radiation from CMIP5 historical and ESM historical simulations. We found that the multi-model mean often performed better than many of the individual models for most variables. We plan to publicly release a stable version of the software during fall of 2014 that has land surface, carbon cycle, hydrology, radiation and energy cycle components.

  11. A web-based system for supporting global land cover data production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gang; Chen, Jun; He, Chaoying; Li, Songnian; Wu, Hao; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) data production and verification process is very complicated, time consuming and labor intensive, requiring huge amount of imagery data and ancillary data and involving many people, often from different geographic locations. The efficient integration of various kinds of ancillary data and effective collaborative classification in large area land cover mapping requires advanced supporting tools. This paper presents the design and development of a web-based system for supporting 30-m resolution GLC data production by combining geo-spatial web-service and Computer Support Collaborative Work (CSCW) technology. Based on the analysis of the functional and non-functional requirements from GLC mapping, a three tiers system model is proposed with four major parts, i.e., multisource data resources, data and function services, interactive mapping and production management. The prototyping and implementation of the system have been realised by a combination of Open Source Software (OSS) and commercially available off-the-shelf system. This web-based system not only facilitates the integration of heterogeneous data and services required by GLC data production, but also provides online access, visualization and analysis of the images, ancillary data and interim 30 m global land-cover maps. The system further supports online collaborative quality check and verification workflows. It has been successfully applied to China's 30-m resolution GLC mapping project, and has improved significantly the efficiency of GLC data production and verification. The concepts developed through this study should also benefit other GLC or regional land-cover data production efforts.

  12. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  13. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  14. The role of GMES / Sentinels in Land-Surface Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.

    2009-04-01

    A general trend in the current status of representation of Land Surface schemes into Earth System models is driven by the parameterisation of "cycles" instead of individual processes. Particular emphasis is made to account for couplings among the individual cycles, as between the carbon and water cycles. Moreover, the current tendency is to use the measured data -time series in most cases- together with models, in a data assimilation scenario where inputs from multiple sources are integrated. Such approach is more and more necessary as land models tend to be more complex, and particularly due to the fact that land surface variability is not just driven by physical and chemical processes, but intricate biological processes also altered by anthropogenic influences. Human influences in the land system (land use changes, urban development, etc.) and the impacts of natural disasters are becoming also part of land models, but critical data in high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to properly model such processes. Until now, problems with data availability, data inconsistency and lack of adequate temporal sampling have limited the potential usefulness of such observations in modelling land surface processes. The availability of the GMES / Sentinel series of satellites represents a quite unique opportunity for consolidation of current tendencies and development of new science based on the new type of data that soon will become available. The usefulness of the different Sentinel missions for Land science has been recognised. Although the Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Moreover, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation

  15. Customer-oriented Data Formats and Services for Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products at the NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, BIll; Vollmer, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products simulated by four land surface Models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GESDISC).

  16. Improvement of the Russian system of medical care at the site of space crew landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Bogomolov, Valery; Polyakov, Alexey

    The crew members are delivered to ISS and return back to the Earth on the space craft "Soyuz TMA" at present time. The technical means providing the safe landing of space crews are reliable enough. In spite of that the complex of negative factors (long lasting alternating and shock overloads, effects of landing apparatus rotation on vestibular system) affects the crew during landing and can reach the extreme values under the certain conditions. According to this fact there is a possibility of appearance of bodily damages of different weight besides the traditional functional disturbances. The group of search and rescue on the landing site includes the medical specialists appropriately equipped to stop the symptoms of medical contingency (strong vestibule-vegetative reactions, traumas of different weight, etc.) Medical evacuation complex which provides the acceptable conditions for the cosmonauts including the conditions for medical care is delivered to the landing site as well. The long term experience of search and rescue assurance at the landing site have shown that the specialists successfully cope with this task. In some cases it was required to give the medical help which allowed to improve the general condition and physical capacity of crewmembers and provide their evacuation to the places of postflight rehabilitation. At the same time the solution of some of the problems from our point of view could increase the efficacy of medical care for the landing crew. The organization of the training on emergency under the field conditions for medical specialists on the regular basis (not less that once a year) is extremely important. The equipment of medical specialists requires the regular improvement and modernization due to the fast changing medical technologies and standards. Wearable medical sets must provide the first aid performing in accordance to the modern medical requirements. It is also necessary to include in the list of equipment the textbook of

  17. Relative impacts of land-use, management intensity and fertilization on microbial community structure in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity have not been well described. Soil microbial communities under three agricultural management systems (conventionally tilled cropland, hayed pasture, and grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems [inorganic fertilizer (I...

  18. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Jasinski, M. F.; Mocko, D. M.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. The resulting system, the NCA - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS), is a NASA contribution to the NCA. The outputs of the NCA-LDAS contribute to the development and evaluation of a suite of water indicators. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and validation data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. Currently released data include NCA-LDAS outputs from the Noah Land Surface Model version 3.3 (Noah-3.3) and Catchment Land Surface Model version Fortuna-2.5 (CLSM-F2.5) and the post- processed data sets for the routing variables. The NCA-LDAS data have temporal and spatial resolutions, respectively, of daily and 0.125x0.125 degree, covering North America (25N ~ 53N; 125W ~ 67W) and the period January 1979 to December 2012. The data files are in self-describing, machine-independent netCDF-4 format. The data contain a set of water- and energy-related Essential Climate Variables (ECV). The NCA-LDAS data are archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp (ftp://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/s4pa/NCA_LDAS), THREDDS (http://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/thredds/catalog.html), and Mirador search and download (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/). This presentation describes the main characteristics of the NCA-LDAS data and data services (access, subsetting, visualization, and analysis). The major differences between the NCA-LDAS data and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data are discussed

  19. Geomorphic response to agricultural land use in small fluvial systems - The role of landscape connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeppl, R.; Keiler, M.; Glade, T.; Engage-Geomorphological Systems; Risk Research

    2010-12-01

    Nearly all river catchments are affected directly or indirectly by human actions, e.g. varying agricultural land use or interventions into to river course and flow lead to significant geomorphic changes. The rates of fluvial change are accelerating in many river catchments and public and institutional awareness of these changes and their consequences has grown. This trend leads to an increasing need for a deeper understanding of how the system elements are interrelated (connected) and how fluvial systems respond to human activities. Most of the studies relating to such topics focus on extrinsic (e.g. climatic) factors, although vegetation cover is one of the primary intrinsic factors on sediment yield to a river and even the most susceptible factor for human alterations. Furthermore, nearly all of the published studies are dealing with large rivers, disregarding the much more abundant smaller ones, which in sum do also influence larger rivers. The presented study contributes to gain a deeper understanding of how river systems geomorphologically respond to human activities. The focus in this study is on the importance of hillslope-channel connectivity relationships, as well as on connectivity relationships between the channel reaches in catchments with agricultural land use. Therefore, aerial photograph and airborne laserscan-interpretations were used to create detailed land use and river maps in order to gather current land use and river planform geometry conditions. The land use data was integrated to a GIS-related spatial soil erosion model so as to determine sources of fine sediment from eroding top soil in agricultural areas. Furthermore, a DEM-based multiple-flow model was applied to examine hillslope-channel connectivity relationships. River bed sediment composition, sediment embeddedness and in-channel accumulation of fine sediments were surveyed as potential indicators for geomorphic system response to agricultural land-use, as well as to determine

  20. From Land Use to Land Cover: Restoring the Afforestation Signal in a Coupled Integrated Assessment - Earth System Model and the Implications for CMIP5 RCP Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K. V.; Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P. E.; Thomson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAM projections. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. The CMIP5 CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 RCP4.5 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because afforestation was relied upon to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the CESM land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different RCP4.5 climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Although the IAMs and ESMs were not expected to have exactly the same climate forcing, due in part to different terrestrial carbon cycles and atmospheric radiation algorithms, the ESMs were expected to project climates representative of the RCP scenarios. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between IAM and ESM models. High RCP4.5 afforestation might also contribute to inconsistencies as

  1. From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K.; Jones, A.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P.; Thomson, A.

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAM projections. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. The CMIP5 CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 RCP4.5 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because afforestation was relied upon to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different RCP4.5 climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Although the IAMs and ESMs were not expected to have exactly the same climate forcing, due in part to different terrestrial carbon cycles and atmospheric radiation algorithms, the ESMs were expected to project climates representative of the RCP scenarios. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. High RCP4.5 afforestation might also contribute to inconsistencies as some ESMs might

  2. Land Surface Water and Energy Flux Evaluation from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDAS) for Water Resources Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, D. L.; Dong, J.; Houser, P.; Cosgrove, B.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kumar, S.

    2006-05-01

    The primary objective of our study is to evaluate surface water and energy balance for water resources applications through study of a selected range of modeling and data assimilation systems associated with NASA and NOAA. Specifically, the combined analysis of North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data, North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), and Land Information System (LIS) data versus in- situ measurements provides a unique look at the water and energy flux estimation from different modeling and data system approaches. For reference we used Coordinated Enhanced Observing Periods (CEOP 3&4) data measured at a half-hour frequency from October 2002 to December 2004 in the US Southern Great Plains. Comparison shows that large biases are found on partitioning sensible heat and latent heat fluxes in most models during spring and summer season in 2003. Possible factors, such as model forcing, land cover classifications and model physics, affecting the energy fluxes are further investigated at a spatial high resolution through NASA LIS. It was found that the model forcing data, land cover classifications and model physics had significant influences on the energy flux estimation. This study will suggest the optimal forcing data and modeling for future operational predictions.

  3. Application of Calspan pitch rate control system to the Space Shuttle for approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, N. C.; Chalk, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    A pitch rate control system designed for use in the shuttle during approach and landing was analyzed and compared with a revised control system developed by NASA and the existing OFT control system. The design concept control system uses filtered pitch rate feedback with proportional plus integral paths in the forward loop. Control system parameters were designed as a function of flight configuration. Analysis included time and frequency domain techniques. Results indicate that both the Calspan and NASA systems significantly improve the flying qualities of the shuttle over the OFT. Better attitude and flight path control and less time delay are the primary reasons. The Calspan system is preferred because of reduced time delay and simpler mechanization. Further testing of the improved flight control systems in an in-flight simulator is recommended.

  4. Characterizing Mediterranean Land Surfaces as Component of the Regional Climate System by Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Koslowsky, D.; Menenti, M.; Nerry, F.; Otterman, Joseph; Starr, D.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive areas in the Mediterranean region are subject to land degradation and desertification. The high variability of the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere affects the regional climate. Relevant surface characteristics, such as spectral reflectance, surface emissivity in the thermal-infrared region, and vegetation indices, serve as "primary" level indicators for the state of the surface. Their spatial, seasonal and interannual variability can be monitored from satellites. Using relationships between these primary data and combining them with prior information about the land surfaces (such as topography, dominant soil type, land use, collateral ground measurements and models), a second layer of information is built up which specifies the land surfaces as a component of the regional climate system. To this category of parameters which are directly involved in the exchange of energy, momentum and mass between the surface and the atmosphere, belong broadband albedo, thermodynamic surface temperature, vegetation types, vegetation cover density, soil top moisture, and soil heat flux. Information about these parameters finally leads to the computation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The methodology was tested with pilot data sets. Full resolution, properly calibrated and normalized NOAA-AVHRR multi-annual primary data sets are presently compiled for the whole Mediterranean area, to study interannual variability and longer term trends.

  5. Automatic carrier landing system for V/STOL aircraft using L1 adaptive and optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharapura Ramesh, Shashank

    This thesis presents a framework for developing automatic carrier landing systems for aircraft with vertical or short take-off and landing capability using two different control strategies---gain-scheduled linear optimal control, and L1 adaptive control. The carrier landing sequence of V/STOL aircraft involves large variations in dynamic pressure and aerodynamic coefficients arising because of the transition from aerodynamic-supported to jet-borne flight, descent to the touchdown altitude, and turns performed to align with the runway. Consequently, the dynamics of the aircraft exhibit a highly non-linear dynamical behavior with variations in flight conditions prior to touchdown. Therefore, the implication is the need for non-linear control techniques to achieve automatic landing. Gain-scheduling has been one of the most widely employed techniques for control of aircraft, which involves designing linear controllers for numerous trimmed flight conditions, and interpolating them to achieve a global non-linear control. Adaptive control technique, on the other hand, eliminates the need to schedule the controller parameters as they adapt to changing flight conditions.

  6. Development of Lidar Sensor Systems for Autonomous Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Vanek, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Lidar has been identified by NASA as a key technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar landing vehicles. NASA LaRC has been developing three laser/lidar sensor systems under the ALHAT project. The capabilities of these Lidar sensor systems were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard helicopters and a fixed wing aircraft. The airborne tests were performed over Moon-like terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. These tests provided the necessary data for the development of signal processing software, and algorithms for hazard detection and navigation. The tests helped identify technology areas needing improvement and will also help guide future technology advancement activities.

  7. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  8. A Computerized Data-Base System for Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Collected at Ground-Water Sampling Sites in the Pilot National Water Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Jonathon C.

    1989-01-01

    Data-base software has been developed for the management of land-use and land-cover data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a pilot program to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report describes the purpose, use, and design of the land-use and land-cover data-base software. The software provides capabilities for interactive storage and retrieval of land-use and land-cover data collected at ground-water sampling sites. Users of the software can add, update, and delete land-use and land-cover data. The software also provides capabilities to group, print, and summarize the data. The land-use and land-cover data-base software supports multiple data-base systems so that data can be accessed by persons in different offices. Data-base systems are organized in a tiered structure. Each data-base system contains all the data stored in the data-base systems located in the lower tiers of the structure. Data can be readily transmitted from lower tiers to high tiers of the structure. Therefore, the data-base system at the highest tier of the structure contains land-use and land-cover data for the entire pilot program.

  9. Development of the mechanical cryocooler system for the Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilletti, Adam; Burgess, Christopher; Donchev, Anton; Watson, Stuart; Weatherstone Akbar, Shane; Gamo-Albero, Victoria; Romero-Largacha, Victor; Caballero-Olmo, Gema

    2014-11-01

    The Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer is a dual view Earth observing instrument developed as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme. It is scheduled for launch on two satellites, Sentinel 3A and 3B in 2014. The instrument detectors are cooled to below 85 K by two split Stirling Cryocoolers running in hot redundancy. These coolers form part of a cryocooler system that includes a support structure and drive electronics. Aspects of the system design, including control and reduction of exported vibration are discussed; and results, including thermal performance and exported vibration from the Engineering Model Cryooler System test campaign are presented.

  10. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1972: Successful use of proposed land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Changes in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. The period of change investigated was from November 1970 to late summer or early fall, 1972. Seasonal changes also were studied using successive ERTS images. Types of equipment used to aid interpretation included a color additive viewer, a twenty-power magnifier, a density slicer, and a diazo copy machine for making ERTS color composites in hard copy. Types of changes detected have been: (1) cropland or rangeland developed for new residential areas; (2) rangeland converted to new cropland; and (3) possibly new areas of industrial or commercial development. A map of land use previously compiled from air photos was updated in this manner.

  11. Ultrawideband radar echoes of land mine targets measured at oblique incidence using a 250-kW impulse radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chant, Ian J.; Staines, Geoff

    1997-07-01

    United Nations Peacekeeping forces around the world need to transport food, personnel and medical supplies through disputed regions were land mines are in active use as road blocks and terror weapons. A method of fast, effective land mine detection is needed to combat this threat to road transport. The technique must operate from a vehicle travelling at a reasonable velocity and give warning far enough ahead for the vehicle to stop in time to avoid the land mine. There is particular interest in detecting low- metallic content land mines. One possible solutionis the use of ultra-wide-band (UWB) radar. The Australian Defence Department is investigating the feasibility of using UWB radar for land mine detection from a vehicle. A 3 GHz UWB system has been used to collect target response from a series of inert land mines and mine-like objects placed on the ground and buried in the ground. The targets measured were a subset of those in the target set described in Wong et al. with the addition of inert land mines corresponding to some of the surrogate targets in this set. The results are encouraging for the detection of metallic land mines and the larger non-metallic land mines. Smaller low-metallic- content anti-personnel land mines are less likely to be detected.

  12. An innovative technique in scanning land areas with a multi-FIDLER system.

    PubMed

    Marianno, C M; Higley, K A; Hunter, D

    2001-05-01

    Remediation can be a long and tedious effort. One possible step in this process is the scanning of land to locate elevated areas of radiological contamination. By adapting existing global positioning technology with radiation detection systems, this process can be significantly accelerated. The Field Instrument for Detecting Low Energy Radiation (FIDLER) was used in conjunction with a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Trimble data logger. With this system two different land areas were scanned using two different scanning methods. In the first method, three FIDLERs were attached to a baby jogger and were used to scan a 20-acre site devoid of vegetation. The second technique involved individuals carrying the instruments over a 15-acre site that contained vegetation. Here the FIDLERs were waved in front of the workers in 50-cm arcs. In all cases, radiological and position data were collected by the data loggers. Using these results, accurate maps were generated for each site clearly illustrating areas and spots of elevated activity. By employing this technique over 250,000 data points pertaining to position and count rate were used to map nearly 40 acres of land in under 3 wk. PMID:11316088

  13. Characterizing hydrological hazards and trends with the NASA South Asia Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Limaye, A. S.; Searby, N. D.; Doorn, B.; Bolten, J. D.; Toll, D. L.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Narula, K.; Nischal, S.; Iceland, C.; Bajracharya, B.; Kumar, S.; Shrestha, B. R.; Murthy, M.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    South Asia faces severe challenges to meet the need of water for agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes while coping with the threats posed by climate and land use/cover changes on regional hydrology. South Asia is also characterized by extreme climate contrasts, remote and poorly-monitored headwaters regions, and large uncertainties in estimates of consumptive water withdrawals. Here, we present results from the South Asia Land Data Assimilation System (South Asia LDAS) that apply multiple simulations involving different combination of forcing datasets, land surface models, and satellite-derived parameter datasets to characterize the distributed water balance of the subcontinent. The South Asia LDAS ensemble of simulations provides a range of uncertainty associated with model products. The system includes customized irrigation schemes to capture water use and HYMAP streamflow routing for application to floods. This presentation focuses on two key application areas for South Asia LDAS: the representation of extreme floods in transboundary rivers, and the estimate of water use in irrigated agriculture. We show that South Asia LDAS captures important features of both phenomena, address opportunities and barriers for the use of South Asia LDAS in decision support, and review uncertainties and limitations.This work is being performed by an interdisciplinary team of scientists and decision makers, to ensure that the modeling system meets the needs of decision makers at national and regional levels.

  14. Land-use planning of Volyn region (Ukraine) using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Land-use development planning is carried out in order to create a favourable environment for human life, sustainable socioeconomic and spatial development. Landscape planning is an important part of land-use development that aims to meet the fundamental principles of sustainable development. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a fundamental tool to make a better landscape planning at different territorial levels, providing data and maps to support decision making. The objective of this work is to create spatio-temporal, territorial and ecological model of development of Volyn region (Ukraine). It is based on existing spatial raster and vector data and includes the analysis of territory dynamics as the aspects responsible for it. A spatial analyst tool was used to zone the areas according to their environmental components and economic activity. This analysis is fundamental to define the basic parameters of sustainability of Volyn region. To carry out this analysis, we determined the demographic capacity of districts and the analysis of spatial parameters of land use. On the basis of the existing natural resources, we observed that there is a need of landscape protection and integration of more are natural areas in the Pan-European Ecological Network. Using GIS technologies to landscape planning in Volyn region, allowed us to identify, natural areas of interest, contribute to a better resource management and conflict resolution. Geographic Information Systems will help to formulate and implement landscape policies, reform the existing administrative system of Volyn region and contribute to a better sustainable development.

  15. Evaluation of the Space Shuttle Transatlantic Abort Landing Atmospheric Sounding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, Frank B.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the quality of thermodynamic and wind data measured by or derived from the Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) Atmospheric Sounding System (TASS). The system has Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking capability and includes a helium-filled latex balloon that carries an instrument package (sonde) and various ground equipment that receives and processes the data from the sonde. TASS is used to provide vertical profiles of thermodynamic and low-resolution wind data in support of Shuttle abort landing operations at TAL sites. TASS uses GPS to determine height, wind speed, and wind direction. The TASS sonde has sensors that directly measure air temperature and relative humidity. These are then used to derive air pressure and density. Test flights were conducted where a TASS sonde and a reference sonde were attached to the same balloon and the two profiles were compared. The objective of the testing was to determine if TASS thermodynamic and wind data met Space Shuttle Program (SSP) accuracy requirements outlined in the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Program Requirements Document (PRD).

  16. AgRISTARS: Renewable resources inventory. Land information support system implementation plan and schedule. [San Juan National Forest pilot test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of the use of remote sensing and computer technology to support the land management planning effort at the national forests level are outlined. The task planning and system capability development were reviewed. A user evaluation is presented along with technological transfer methodology. A land management planning pilot test of the San Juan National Forest is discussed.

  17. Heterogeneity and scaling land-atmospheric water and energy fluxes in climate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of small-scale heterogeneity in land surface characteristics on the large-scale fluxes of water and energy in land-atmosphere system has become a central focus of many of the climatology research experiments. The acquisition of high resolution land surface data through remote sensing and intensive land-climatology field experiments (like HAPEX and FIFE) has provided data to investigate the interactions between microscale land-atmosphere interactions and macroscale models. One essential research question is how to account for the small scale heterogeneities and whether 'effective' parameters can be used in the macroscale models. To address this question of scaling, three modeling experiments were performed and are reviewed in the paper. The first is concerned with the aggregation of parameters and inputs for a terrestrial water and energy balance model. The second experiment analyzed the scaling behavior of hydrologic responses during rain events and between rain events. The third experiment compared the hydrologic responses from distributed models with a lumped model that uses spatially constant inputs and parameters. The results show that the patterns of small scale variations can be represented statistically if the scale is larger than a representative elementary area scale, which appears to be about 2 - 3 times the correlation length of the process. For natural catchments this appears to be about 1 - 2 sq km. The results concerning distributed versus lumped representations are more complicated. For conditions when the processes are nonlinear, then lumping results in biases; otherwise a one-dimensional model based on 'equivalent' parameters provides quite good results. Further research is needed to fully understand these conditions.

  18. A Ground-Based Near Infrared Camera Array System for UAV Auto-Landing in GPS-Denied Environment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Li, Guangpo; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yanning; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Zhuoyue; Li, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel infrared camera array guidance system with capability to track and provide real time position and speed of a fixed-wing Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) during a landing process. The system mainly include three novel parts: (1) Infrared camera array and near infrared laser lamp based cooperative long range optical imaging module; (2) Large scale outdoor camera array calibration module; and (3) Laser marker detection and 3D tracking module. Extensive automatic landing experiments with fixed-wing flight demonstrate that our infrared camera array system has the unique ability to guide the UAV landing safely and accurately in real time. Moreover, the measurement and control distance of our system is more than 1000 m. The experimental results also demonstrate that our system can be used for UAV automatic accurate landing in Global Position System (GPS)-denied environments. PMID:27589755

  19. Simulation evaluation of two VTOL control/display systems in IMC approach and shipboard landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, V. K.

    1984-01-01

    Two control/display systems, which differed in overall complexity but were both designed for VTOL flight operations to and from small ships in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), were tested using the Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA). Both systems have attitude command in transition and horizontal-velocity command in hover; the more complex system also has longitudinal-acceleration and flightpath-angle command in transition, and vertical-velocity command in hover. The most important overall distinction between the two systems for the viewpoint of implementation is that in one - the more complex - engine power and nozzle position are operated indirectly through flight controllers, whereas in the other they are operated directly by the pilot. Simulated landings were made on a moving model of a DD 963 Spruance-class destroyer. Acceptable transitions can be performed in turbulence of 3 m/sec rms using either system. Acceptable landings up to sea state 6 can be performed using the more complex system, and up to sea state 5 using the other system.

  20. Bioenergy costs and potentials with special attention to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, A.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Dietrich, J.; Klein, D.; Bauer, N.; Krause, M.; Beringer, T.; Gerten, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the coming decades, an increasing competition for global land and water resources can be expected, due to rising demand for agricultural products, goals of nature conservation, and changing production conditions due to climate change. Especially biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, is being proposed to play a substantial role in future energy systems if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements, land availability for biomass plantations, and implications for the land system. In order to explore the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low carbon transition with special attention to implications for the land system, we present a modeling framework with detailed biophysical and economic representation of the land and energy sector: We have linked the global dynamic vegetation and water balance model LPJmL (Bondeau et al. 2007, Rost et al. 2008), the global land and water use model MAgPIE (Lotze-Campen et al. 2008, Popp et al. 2010), and the global energy-economy-climate model ReMIND (Leimbach et al. 2009). In this modeling framework LPJmL supplies spatially explicit (0.5° resolution) agricultural yields as well as carbon and water stocks and fluxes. Based on this biophysical input MAgPIE delivers cost-optimized land use patterns (0.5° resolution), associated GHG emissions and rates of future yield increases in agricultural production. Moreover, shadow prices are calculated for irrigation water (as an indicator for water scarcity), food commodities, and bioenergy (as an indicator for changes in production costs) under different land use constraints such as forest conservation for climate change mitigation and as a contribution to biodiversity conservation. The energy-economy-climate model ReMIND generates the demand for

  1. Summary for policymakers: Unlocking the sustainable potential of land resources. Evaluation systems, strategies and tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land evaluation can be used by national policymakers, international development organizations, farmers, and conservationists to increase productivity, biodiversity conservation success, and to promote innovation. Land evaluation helps make better decisions about how to use the land, and is therefore...

  2. Research on the electro-optical assistant landing system based on the dual camera photogrammetry algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Yuhe; Huang, Yifan; Li, Lin

    2015-08-01

    Based on the location technique of beacon photogrammetry, Dual Camera Photogrammetry (DCP) algorithm was used to assist helicopters landing on the ship. In this paper, ZEMAX was used to simulate the two Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras imaging four beacons on both sides of the helicopter and output the image to MATLAB. Target coordinate systems, image pixel coordinate systems, world coordinate systems and camera coordinate systems were established respectively. According to the ideal pin-hole imaging model, the rotation matrix and translation vector of the target coordinate systems and the camera coordinate systems could be obtained by using MATLAB to process the image information and calculate the linear equations. On the basis mentioned above, ambient temperature and the positions of the beacons and cameras were changed in ZEMAX to test the accuracy of the DCP algorithm in complex sea status. The numerical simulation shows that in complex sea status, the position measurement accuracy can meet the requirements of the project.

  3. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  4. Conservation strategies for effective land management of protected areas using an erosion prediction information system (EPIS).

    PubMed

    Millward, A A; Mersey, J E

    2001-04-01

    This research demonstrates the predictive modeling capabilities of a geographic information system (GIS)-based soil erosion potential model to assess the effects of implementing land use change within a tropical watershed. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was integrated with a GIS to produce an Erosion Prediction Information System (EPIS) and modified to reflect conditions found in the mountainous tropics. Research was conducted in the Zenzontia subcatchment of the Río Ayuquíla, located within the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve (SMBR), México. Expanding agricultural activities within this area will accentuate the already high rate of soil erosion and resultant sediment loading occurring in the Río Ayuquíla. Two land-use change scenarios are modeled with the EPIS: (1) implementation of soil conservation practices in erosion prone locations; and (2) selection of sites for agricultural expansion which minimize potential soil loss. Confronted with limited financial resources and the necessity for expedient action, managers of the SMBR can draw upon the predictive capacity of the EPIS to facilitate rapid and informed land-use planning decisions. PMID:11383105

  5. Channel aware HARQ scheme based on LDPC codes for land mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongli; Zhu, Guangxi; Wang, Desheng; Wu, Lifen

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a channel aware HARQ (CA-HARQ) scheme based on data punctured rate compatible LDPC (DP-LDPC) codes, which might satisfy the demand for bandwidth and rate in land mobile communication system, is proposed. The scheme is based on type II HARQ technique cooperated with a DP- LDPC code. In the proposed scheme, the effective rate of the LDPC code is adapted according to the channel quality information (CQI) estimated at the receiver, so as to decrease the redundancy when the channel is good and vice versa, the retransmitted blocks are combined with the previous information transmitted to achieve high probability of successful decoding. In this paper, we use a 2-bit CQI feedback scheme. Simulation results, which based on a land mobile satellite channel, show that the proposed channel aware H-ARQ scheme based on DP-LDPC codes improved the throughput by 0.4dB at low SNR compared to a pure DP-LDPC type II HARQ, and it can also be an effective solution to compensate rain attenuation and multipath fading in land mobile satellite systems.

  6. Extreme temperature trends in major cropping systems and their relation to agricultural land use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; Siebert, S.; Holbrook, N. M.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    High temperature extremes during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify temperatures by altering the surface energy budget. Here we investigate growing season climate trends in major cropping systems and their relationship with agricultural land use change. In the US Midwest, 100-year trends exhibit a transition towards more favorable conditions, with cooler summer temperature extremes and increased precipitation. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an important influence on historical temperatures, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that cooling is primarily associated with agricultural intensification increasing the potential for evapotranspiration, consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest temperature percentiles, and that increased evapotranspiration generally leads to greater precipitation. Temperatures over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler temperatures revert to historically high extremes. Preliminary results indicate these relationships between temperature extremes, irrigation, and intensification are also observed in other major summer cropping systems, including northeast China, Argentina, and the Canadian Prairies.

  7. Atmospheric Risk Assessment for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Allen; Vasavada, Ashwin; Cianciolo, Alicia; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Dan; Hinson, David; Lewis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. As with previous Mars landers, atmospheric conditions during entry, descent, and landing directly impact the performance of MSL's EDL system. While the vehicle's novel guided entry system allows it to "fly out" a range of atmospheric uncertainties, its trajectory through the atmosphere creates a variety of atmospheric sensitivities not present on previous Mars entry systems and landers. Given the mission's stringent landing capability requirements, understanding the atmosphere state and spacecraft sensitivities takes on heightened importance. MSL's guided entry trajectory differs significantly from recent Mars landers and includes events that generate different atmospheric sensitivities than past missions. The existence of these sensitivities and general advancement in the state of Mars atmospheric knowledge has led the MSL team to employ new atmosphere modeling techniques in addition to past practices. A joint EDL engineering and Mars atmosphere science and modeling team has been created to identify the key system sensitivities, gather available atmospheric data sets, develop relevant atmosphere models, and formulate methods to integrate atmosphere information into EDL performance assessments. The team consists of EDL engineers, project science staff, and Mars atmospheric scientists from a variety of institutions. This paper provides an overview of the system performance sensitivities that have driven the atmosphere modeling approach, discusses the atmosphere data sets and models employed by the team as a result of the identified sensitivities, and introduces the tools used to translate atmospheric knowledge into quantitative EDL performance assessments.

  8. Development of Thermal Protection Materials for Future Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Arnold, James O.; Hwang, Helen; Wright, Michael J.; Szalai, Christine E.; Blosser, Max; Poteet, Carl C.

    2010-01-01

    Entry Systems will play a crucial role as NASA develops the technologies required for Human Mars Exploration. The Exploration Technology Development Program Office established the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. An assessment of current entry system technologies identified significant opportunity to improve the current state of the art in thermal protection materials in order to enable landing of heavy mass (40 mT) payloads. To accomplish this goal, the EDL Project has outlined a framework to define, develop and model the thermal protection system material concepts required to allow for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. Two primary classes of ablative materials are being developed: rigid and flexible. The rigid ablatives will be applied to the acreage of a 10x30 m rigid mid L/D Aeroshell to endure the dual pulse heating (peak approx.500 W/sq cm). Likewise, flexible ablative materials are being developed for 20-30 m diameter deployable aerodynamic decelerator entry systems that could endure dual pulse heating (peak aprrox.120 W/sq cm). A technology Roadmap is presented that will be used for facilitating the maturation of both the rigid and flexible ablative materials through application of decision metrics (requirements, key performance parameters, TRL definitions, and evaluation criteria) used to assess and advance the various candidate TPS material technologies.

  9. Development and flight test of a helicopter compact, portable, precision landing system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.; Bull, J. S.; Davis, T. J.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne, radar-based, precision approach concept is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. A transponder-based beacon landing system (BLS) applying state-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques, was built and is being flight tested to demonstrate the concept feasibility. The BLS airborne hardware consists of an add-on microprocessor, installed in conjunction with the aircraft weather/mapping radar, which analyzes the radar beacon receiver returns and determines range, localizer deviation, and glide-slope deviation. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit which can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that the BLS concept has a significant potential for providing rotorcraft with low-cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  10. Propagation effects for land mobile satellite systems: Overview of experimental and modeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1992-01-01

    Models developed and experiments performed to characterize the propagation environment associated with land mobile communication using satellites are discussed. Experiments were carried out with transmitters on stratospheric balloons, remotely piloted aircraft, helicopters, and geostationary satellites. This text is comprised of compiled experimental results for the expressed use of communications engineers, designers of planned Land Mobile Satellite Systems (LMSS), and modelers of propagation effects. The results presented here are mostly derived from systematic studies of propagation effects for LMSS geometries in the United States associated with rural and suburban regions. Where applicable, the authors also draw liberally from the results of other related investigations in Canada, Europe, and Australia. Frequencies near 1500 MHz are emphasized to coincide with frequency bands allocated for LMSS by the International Telecommunication Union, although earlier experimental work at 870 MHz is also included.

  11. Global positioning system surveying to monitor land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    A subsidence research program began in 1985 to document the extent and magnitude of land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, an area of about 15 600 km2m, using Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying. In addition to periodic conventional spirit levelling, an examination was made of the changes in GPS-derived ellipsoidal height differences (summary differences) between pairs of adjacent bench marks in central Sacramento Valley from 1986 to 1989. The average rates of land subsidence in the southern Sacramento Valley for the past several decades were determined by comparing GPS-derived orthometric heights with historic published elevations. A maximum average rate of 0.053 m year-1 (0.90 m in 17 years) of subsidence has been measured. -Author

  12. Land use, spatial scale, and stream systems: Lessons from an agricultural region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vondracek, B.; Blann, K.L.; Cox, C.B.; Nerbonne, J.F.; Mumford, K.G.; Nerbonne, B.A.; Sovell, L.A.; Zimmerman, J.K.H.

    2005-01-01

    We synthesized nine studies that examined the influence of land use at different spatial scales in structuring biotic assemblages and stream channel characteristics in southeastern Minnesota streams. Recent studies have disagreed about the relative importance of catchment versus local characteristics in explaining variation in fish assemblages. Our synthesis indicates that both riparian- and catchment-scale land use explained significant variation in water quality, channel morphology, and fish distribution and density. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages can be positively affected by increasing the extent of perennial riparian and upland vegetation. Our synthesis is robust; more than 425 stream reaches were examined in an area that includes a portion of three ecoregions. Fishes ranged from coldwater to warmwater adapted. We suggest that efforts to rehabilitate stream system form and function over the long term should focus on increasing perennial vegetation in both riparian areas and uplands and on managing vegetation in large, contiguous blocks. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  13. Flight Testing a Real-Time Hazard Detection System for Safe Lunar Landing on the Rocket-Powered Morpheus Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trawny, Nikolas; Huertas, Andres; Luna, Michael E.; Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Martin, Keith E.; Carson, John M.; Johnson, Andrew E.; Restrepo, Carolina; Roback, Vincent E.

    2015-01-01

    The Hazard Detection System (HDS) is a component of the ALHAT (Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology) sensor suite, which together provide a lander Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system with the relevant measurements necessary to enable safe precision landing under any lighting conditions. The HDS consists of a stand-alone compute element (CE), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and a gimbaled flash LIDAR sensor that are used, in real-time, to generate a Digital Elevation Map (DEM) of the landing terrain, detect candidate safe landing sites for the vehicle through Hazard Detection (HD), and generate hazard-relative navigation (HRN) measurements used for safe precision landing. Following an extensive ground and helicopter test campaign, ALHAT was integrated onto the Morpheus rocket-powered terrestrial test vehicle in March 2014. Morpheus and ALHAT then performed five successful free flights at the simulated lunar hazard field constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center, for the first time testing the full system on a lunar-like approach geometry in a relevant dynamic environment. During these flights, the HDS successfully generated DEMs, correctly identified safe landing sites and provided HRN measurements to the vehicle, marking the first autonomous landing of a NASA rocket-powered vehicle in hazardous terrain. This paper provides a brief overview of the HDS architecture and describes its in-flight performance.

  14. Land mobile satellite communication system. Volume 3: Annexes to volume 2: Particular aspects of market analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.; Capone, R.

    1986-06-01

    The socioeconomic desirability in terms of market demand, technical economic feasibility, and price-performance for a Land Mobile Communication system ground based and/or satellite aided, able to satisfy the request of the traffic demand, foreseeable in the 1995 to 2005 time frame, for the Western European countries was assessed. The criterion of economic value of the mobile system is considered as the driving element. Data on traffic; socioeconomic factors; economic factors; and radiotelephony, paging, and dispatch subscription and value for money trends are presented.

  15. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System:Capabilities for Operational Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, C. W.; Schneider, S.; Murphy, R.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, the tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Once operational later this decade, NPOESS will replace NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) systems. The IPO, through its Acquisition and Operations contractor, Northrop Grumman, will launch NPOESS spacecraft into three orbital planes to provide a single, national system capable of satisfying both civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving the existing "weather" satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - ocean, atmosphere, land, and the space environment. NPOESS will transform today's short-term, space-based ocean research missions into a sustained, operational ocean remote sensing observation program. Land measurements comprise seven of the fifty-five user-validated requirements for geophysical measurements that will be made by NPOESS sensors. In 1997, the IPO initiated a robust sensor risk reduction effort for early development of the critical sensor suites and algorithms necessary to support NPOESS. In 2001, preliminary design efforts were completed for the last of five critical imaging/sounding instruments for NPOESS. Land requirements have directly and substantially "driven" the design of two NPOESS sensors: the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS). Compared to the predecessor operational systems, NPOESS will deliver higher resolution (spatial and temporal

  16. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  17. LUMIS: Land Use Management and Information Systems; coordinate oriented program documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An integrated geographic information system to assist program managers and planning groups in metropolitan regions is presented. The series of computer software programs and procedures involved in data base construction uses the census DIME file and point-in-polygon architectures. The system is described in two parts: (1) instructions to operators with regard to digitizing and editing procedures, and (2) application of data base construction algorithms to achieve map registration, assure the topological integrity of polygon files, and tabulate land use acreages within administrative districts.

  18. Refinement and validation of two digital Microwave Landing System (MLS) theoretical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duff, W. G.; Guarino, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Two digital microwave landing system theoretical models are considered which are generic models for the Doppler and scanning-beam frequency reference versions of the MLS. These models represent errors resulting from both system noise and discrete multipath. The data used for the validation effort were obtained from the Texas Instrument conventional scanning beam and the Hazeltine Doppler feasibility hardware versions of the MLS. Topics discussed include tape read software, time history plots, computation of power spectral density, smoothed power spectra, best-fit models, different equations for digital simulation, and discrete multipath errors.

  19. Selection of the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J. A.; Parker, T.J.; Kass, D.M.; Crisp, J.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Adler, M.; Lee, W.J.; Bridges, N.T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Carr, M.H.; Kirk, R.L.; Knocke, P.C.; Roncoli, R.B.; Weitz, C.M.; Schofield, J.T.; Zurek, R.W.; Christensen, P.R.; Fergason, R.L.; Anderson, F.S.; Rice, J. W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The selection of Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater as the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites took over 2 years, involved broad participation of the science community via four open workshops, and narrowed an initial ???155 potential sites (80-300 ?? 30 km) to four finalists based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included (1) latitude (10??N- 15??S) for maximum solar power, (2) elevation (less than - 1.3 km) for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander, (3) low horizontal winds, shear, and turbulence in the last few kilometers to minimize horizontal velocity, (4) low 10-m-scale slopes to reduce airbag spin-up and bounce, (5) moderate rock abundance to reduce abrasion or strokeout of the airbags, and (6) a radar-reflective, load-bearing, and trafficable surface safe for landing and roving that is not dominated by fine-grained dust. The evaluation of sites utilized existing as well as targeted orbital information acquired from the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey. Three of the final four landing sites show strong evidence for surface processes involving water and appear capable of addressing the science objectives of the missions, which are to determine the aqueous, climatic, and geologic history of sites on Mars where conditions may have been favorable to the preservation of evidence of possible prebiotic or biotic processes. The evaluation of science criteria placed Meridiani and Gusev as the highest-priority sites. The evaluation of the three most critical safety criteria (10-m-scale slopes, rocks, and winds) and landing simulation results indicated that Meridiani and Elysium Planitia are the safest sites, followed by Gusev and Isidis Planitia. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Recent Progresses in Incorporating Human Land-Water Management into Global Land Surface Models Toward Their Integration into Earth System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-01-01

    The global water cycle has been profoundly affected by human land-water management. As the changes in the water cycle on land can affect the functioning of a wide range of biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system, it is essential to represent human land-water management in Earth system models (ESMs). During the recent past, noteworthy progress has been made in large-scale modeling of human impacts on the water cycle but sufficient advancements have not yet been made in integrating the newly developed schemes into ESMs. This study reviews the progresses made in incorporating human factors in large-scale hydrological models and their integration into ESMs. The study focuses primarily on the recent advancements and existing challenges in incorporating human impacts in global land surface models (LSMs) as a way forward to the development of ESMs with humans as integral components, but a brief review of global hydrological models (GHMs) is also provided. The study begins with the general overview of human impacts on the water cycle. Then, the algorithms currently employed to represent irrigation, reservoir operation, and groundwater pumping are discussed. Next, methodological deficiencies in current modeling approaches and existing challenges are identified. Furthermore, light is shed on the sources of uncertainties associated with model parameterizations, grid resolution, and datasets used for forcing and validation. Finally, representing human land-water management in LSMs is highlighted as an important research direction toward developing integrated models using ESM frameworks for the holistic study of human-water interactions within the Earths system.