Science.gov

Sample records for airbag restraint systems

  1. Airbag vent valve and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leslie D. (Inventor); Zimmermann, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An energy absorbing airbag system includes one or more vent valve assemblies for controlling the release of airbag inflation gases to maintain inflation gas pressure within an airbag at a substantially constant pressure during a ride-down of an energy absorbing event. Each vent valve assembly includes a cantilever spring that is flat in an unstressed condition and that has a free end portion. The cantilever spring is secured to an exterior surface of the airbag housing and flexed to cause the second free end portion of the cantilever spring to be pressed, with a preset force, against a vent port or a closure covering the vent port to seal the vent port until inflation gas pressure within the airbag reaches a preselected value determined by the preset force whereupon the free end portion of the cantilever spring is lifted from the vent port by the inflation gases within the airbag to vent the inflation gases from within the airbag. The resilience of the cantilever spring maintains a substantially constant pressure within the airbag during a ride-down portion of an energy absorbing event by causing the cantilever spring to vent gases through the vent port whenever the pressure of the inflation gases reaches the preselected value and by causing the cantilever spring to close the vent port whenever the pressure of the inflation gases falls below the preselected value.

  2. Mars Pathfinder Airbag Impact Attenuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waye, Donald; Cole, J. Kenneth; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, scheduled for launch in December 1996, is designed to validate a low cost Entry, Descent, and Landing system and to perform scientific surface operations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories teamed to design, fabricate, test and validate a prototype 0.38 scale model of an airbag impact attenuation system. A computer code was developed to predict the performance of the airbag system. A test program in Sandia's High Altitude Chamber was performed to validate the code and demonstrate the feasibility of the airbag concept and design. In addition, freefall tests were performed at representative velocities to demonstrate the structural integrity of the airbag system design. The feasibility program demonstrated that the airbag impact attenuation design will protect the lander upon impact with the Martian surface.

  3. Mars Pathfinder airbag impact attenuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Cole, J.K.; Rivellini, T.P.

    1995-04-01

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, scheduled for launch in November 1996, is designed to validate a low cost Entry, Descent, and Landing system and to perform scientific surface operations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories teamed to design, fabricate, test and validate a prototype 0.38 scale model of an airbag impact attenuation system. A computer code was developed to predict the performance of the airbag system. A test program in Sandia`s High Altitude Chamber was performed to validate the code and demonstrate the feasibility of the airbag concept and design. In addition, freefall tests were performed at representative velocities to demonstrate the structural integrity of the airbag system design. The feasibility program demonstrated that the airbag impact attenuation design will protect the lander upon impact with the Martian surface.

  4. Vehicle occupant restraint systems impact on eye injuries: a review.

    PubMed

    Almahmoud, Tahra; Barss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle occupant trauma to the eyes and associated facial structures has evolved rapidly in conjunction with safety-oriented vehicle design, including restraint systems. Trends vary worldwide with culture, personal factors, vehicle safety equipment, and the traffic environment-including physical, legislative, and enforcement. Wearing safety belts is essential to occupant protection. Airbags were designed as a supplement to protect the head from hard surfaces in frontal crashes, not as a primary countermeasure. Even where vehicle fleets are new with high airbag prevalence, but safety culture and knowledge of restraints is less than robust, injury attributable to not wearing seatbelts is frequent, especially in countries where high-powered vehicles are prevalent. Upper bodies of rapidly forward-moving unrestrained occupants collide with rearward-accelerating airbags. Airbag deployment produces injuries such as corneal abrasions, alkali burns, and the effects of globe compression. PMID:24359757

  5. Occult abdominal injuries to airbag-protected crash victims: a challenge to trauma systems.

    PubMed

    Augenstein, J S; Digges, K H; Lombardo, L V; Perdeck, E B; Stratton, J E; Malliaris, A C; Quigley, C V; Craythorne, A K; Young, P E

    1995-04-01

    A multidisciplinary, automobile crash investigation team at the University of Miami School of Medicine, William Lehman Injury Research Center of Jackson Memorial Hospital/Ryder Trauma Center in Miami, Florida, is conducting a detailed medical and engineering study. The focus is restrained (seatbelts, airbag, or both) occupants involved in frontal crashes who have been severely injured. More than 60 crashes have been included in the study to date. Analysis of the initial data supports the general conclusion that restraint systems are working to reduce many of the head and chest injuries suffered by unrestrained occupants. However, abdominal injuries among airbag-protected occupants still occur. Some are found among occupants who appeared uninjured at the scene. Case examples are provided to illustrate abdominal injuries associated with airbag-protected crashes. The challenges of recognizing injuries to airbag-protected occupants are discussed. To assist in recognizing the extent of injuries to occupants protected by airbags, it is suggested that evidence from the crash scene be used in the triage decision. For the abdominal injury cases observed in this study, deformation of the steering system was the vehicle characteristic most frequently observed. The presence of steering wheel deformation is an indicator of increased likelihood of internal injury. This may justify transporting the victim to a trauma center for a closer examination for abdominal injuries. PMID:7723087

  6. A personal airbag system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Sydney; de Weck, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential simple, lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62 m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85 m/s, 0° impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the personal airbag system concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0° impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30° indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5 m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

  7. Airbag system and method for facilitating emergency egress from an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawdon, Blaine K. (Inventor); Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An airbag system for elevating the fuselage of an aircraft off a landing surface a sufficient degree to allow for emergency egress of passengers and crew through ventral emergency exit doors. An airbag assembly made up of a plurality of independent airbags is disposed within the aircraft. When activated, the airbag system deploys the airbags external of the aircraft that elevate the fuselage of the aircraft a sufficient degree to allow for utilizing the ventral emergency exit doors on the fuselage to enable evacuating the passengers and crew. An activation mechanism is connected to the inflation.devices associated with each of the airbags. The activation mechanism generates an electrical signal which activates the inflation devices, which in turn fill the airbags with a compressed fluid, thus expanding the airbags and lifting the fuselage. A crew member initiates the activation of the airbag system through one or more switches.

  8. Component restraint system

    DOEpatents

    Blake, John C.

    1983-05-24

    An object restraint system is provided with a collar for gripping the object and a plurality of struts attached to the collar and to anchor means by universal-type joints, the struts being arranged in tangential relation about the collar.

  9. Photogrammetric Measurements of CEV Airbag Landing Attenuation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Berry, Felecia C.; Dismond, Harriett R.; Cate, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    High-speed photogrammetric measurements are being used to assess the impact dynamics of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) for ground landing contingency upon return to earth. Test articles representative of the Orion capsule are dropped at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility onto a sand/clay mixture representative of a dry lakebed from elevations as high as 62 feet (18.9 meters). Two different types of test articles have been evaluated: (1) half-scale metal shell models utilized to establish baseline impact dynamics and soil characterization, and (2) geometric full-scale drop models with shock-absorbing airbags which are being evaluated for their ability to cushion the impact of the Orion CEV with the earth s surface. This paper describes the application of the photogrammetric measurement technique and provides drop model trajectory and impact data that indicate the performance of the photogrammetric measurement system.

  10. Feasibility Study of an Airbag-Based Crew Impact Attenuation System for the Orion MPCV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Do, Sydney; deWeck, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Airbag-based methods for crew impact attenuation have been highlighted as a potential lightweight means of enabling safe land-landings for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and the next generation of ballistic shaped spacecraft. To investigate the performance feasibility of this concept during a nominal 7.62m/s Orion landing, a full-scale personal airbag system 24% lighter than the Orion baseline has been developed, and subjected to 38 drop tests on land. Through this effort, the system has demonstrated the ability to maintain the risk of injury to an occupant during a 7.85m/s, 0 deg. impact angle land-landing to within the NASA specified limit of 0.5%. In accomplishing this, the airbag-based crew impact attenuation concept has been proven to be feasible. Moreover, the obtained test results suggest that by implementing anti-bottoming airbags to prevent direct contact between the system and the landing surface, the system performance during landings with 0 deg impact angles can be further improved, by at least a factor of two. Additionally, a series of drop tests from the nominal Orion impact angle of 30 deg indicated that severe injury risk levels would be sustained beyond impact velocities of 5m/s. This is a result of the differential stroking of the airbags within the system causing a shearing effect between the occupant seat structure and the spacecraft floor, removing significant stroke from the airbags.

  11. A Summary of the Development of a Nominal Land Landing Airbag Impact Attenuation System for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tutt, Ben; Gill, Susannah; Wilson, Aaron; Johnson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Airborne Systems North America (formally Irvin Aerospace Inc) has developed an Airbag Landing System for the Orion Crew Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. This work is in support of the NASA Langley Research Center Landing System Advanced Development Project. Orion is part of the Constellation Program to send human explorers back to the moon, and then onwards to Mars and other destinations in the Solar System. A component of the Vision for Space Exploration, Orion is being developed to also enable access to space following the retirement of the Space Shuttle in the next decade. This paper documents the development of a conceptual design, fabrication of prototype assemblies, component level testing and two generations of airbag landing system testing. The airbag system has been designed and analyzed using the transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA(RegisteredTradeMark). The landing system consists of six airbag assemblies; each assembly comprising a primary impact venting airbag and a non-venting anti-bottoming airbag. The anti-bottoming airbag provides ground clearance following the initial impact attenuation sequence. Incorporated into each primary impact airbag is an active vent that allows the entrapped gas to exit the control volume. The size of the vent is tailored to control the flow-rate of the exiting gas. An internal shaping structure is utilized to control the shape of the primary or main airbags prior to ground impact; this significantly improves stroke efficiency and performance.

  12. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the installations. (d) Infant/child restraint devices (car seats) are required in private owned... ensuring the use of seat belts, shoulder restraints, and child restraining systems when applicable and...

  13. Rethinking Airbag Safety: Airbag Injury Causing Bilateral Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Ogun, Olufunmilola Abimbola; Ikyaa, Sewuese Yangi; Ogun, Gabriel Olabiyi

    2014-01-01

    A healthy 40-year-old man, restrained in the front passenger seat, suffered visually disabling blunt ocular trauma following spontaneous release of the passenger side air-bag module, during vehicular deceleration, without an automobile crash. Though the driver-side airbag was also released, the driver was unharmed. The passenger suffered bilateral hyphema, bilateral vitreous hemorrhage and suspected posterior scleral rupture in the left eye and also had an eyebrow laceration, from impact with the dashboard panel covering the air-bag module, which was detached by the force of airbag deployment. This is the first reported case from West Africa and the first case in which part of the airbag module detached to cause additional trauma. This report adds to the growing burden of evidence world-wide, for a review of the safety aspects of the automobile airbag. This case clearly illustrates that although airbags reduce mortality, they carry a high risk of ocular morbidity, even with seat belt restraint. PMID:24791116

  14. Overpressure and noise due to multiple airbag systems in a passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling, Robert; Henning, Peter J.; Newton, Gary, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Multiple airbag systems in passenger cars can generate overpressure and noise that may be hazardous to human hearing. Overpressure is compression of the air inside a closed compartment caused by deployment of the bags. Noise results from the action of the gas inflating the bags. SAE J247 provides a standard for measuring the combination of overpressure and noise in a passenger compartment. A special microphone has recently been developed that meets this standard, which operates down to a fraction of a hertz. Details of the microphone are given. Little appears to have been published on the overpressure and noise of modern multiple airbag systems, but early results [R. Hickling, ''The noise of the automotive safety air cushion,'' Noise Control Eng., May-June, 110-121 (1976)] provide a basic understanding of the phenomenon. Spectral data shows that peak overpressure occurs at about 2 to 3 Hz. A significant reduction in overpressure and noise can be achieved with an aspirating airbag, originally developed at General Motors, whose outer structure is inflated with gas from the inflator, and whose inner structure draws in air from the passenger compartment through one-way cloth valves. Tests have shown that such bags function well when impacted.

  15. Establishment and validation for the theoretical model of the vehicle airbag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Jin, Yang; Xie, Lizhe; Chen, Chao

    2015-05-01

    The current design and optimization of the occupant restraint system (ORS) are based on numerous actual tests and mathematic simulations. These two methods are overly time-consuming and complex for the concept design phase of the ORS, though they're quite effective and accurate. Therefore, a fast and directive method of the design and optimization is needed in the concept design phase of the ORS. Since the airbag system is a crucial part of the ORS, in this paper, a theoretical model for the vehicle airbag is established in order to clarify the interaction between occupants and airbags, and further a fast design and optimization method of airbags in the concept design phase is made based on the proposed theoretical model. First, the theoretical expression of the simplified mechanical relationship between the airbag's design parameters and the occupant response is developed based on classical mechanics, then the momentum theorem and the ideal gas state equation are adopted to illustrate the relationship between airbag's design parameters and occupant response. By using MATLAB software, the iterative algorithm method and discrete variables are applied to the solution of the proposed theoretical model with a random input in a certain scope. And validations by MADYMO software prove the validity and accuracy of this theoretical model in two principal design parameters, the inflated gas mass and vent diameter, within a regular range. This research contributes to a deeper comprehension of the relation between occupants and airbags, further a fast design and optimization method for airbags' principal parameters in the concept design phase, and provides the range of the airbag's initial design parameters for the subsequent CAE simulations and actual tests.

  16. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... height or weight limit allowed by your car seat's manufacturer.'' In the 1996 rulemaking (61 FR 30824... Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 571 and 572 Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year... pounds (lb)). This rule also amends the standard to incorporate use of a Hybrid III 10-year-old...

  17. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restraint systems. 636.34 Section 636.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart,...

  18. Airbag retraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows that the Mars Pathfinder airbags have been successfully retracted, allowing safe deployment of the rover ramps. The Sojourner rover is at lower right, and rocks are visible in the background. Mars Pathfinder landed successfully on the surface of Mars today at 10:07 a.m. PDT.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  19. Airbag retraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows that the Mars Pathfinder airbags have been successfully retracted, allowing safe deployment of the rover ramps. The Sojourner rover, still in its deployed position, is at center image, and rocks are visible in the background. Mars Pathfinder landed successfully on the surface of Mars today at 10:07 a.m. PDT.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  20. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  1. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gage restraint measurement systems. 213.110... measurement systems. (a) A track owner may elect to implement a Gage Restraint Measurement System (GRMS... correlation between measurements made on the ground and those recorded by the instrumentation with respect...

  2. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gage restraint measurement systems. 213.110... measurement systems. (a) A track owner may elect to implement a Gage Restraint Measurement System (GRMS... correlation between measurements made on the ground and those recorded by the instrumentation with respect...

  3. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  4. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  5. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  6. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  7. 45 CFR 1310.11 - Child Restraint Systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child Restraint Systems. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Transportation Requirements § 1310.11 Child Restraint Systems....

  8. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  9. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  10. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  11. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  12. 14 CFR 135.128 - Use of safety belts and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child restraints... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of safety belts and child restraint... Flight Operations § 135.128 Use of safety belts and child restraint systems. (a) Except as provided...

  13. Injury risk assessment of wheelchair occupant restraint systems in a frontal crash: a case for integrated restraints.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G E; Evans, J

    2000-01-01

    Obtaining proper occupant restraint fit when using a wheelchair as a motor vehicle seat is often difficult to attain with vehicle-mounted restraint systems. The comprehensive evaluation conducted in this study illustrates the occupant crash protection benefits of wheelchair-integrated restraint systems, as compared to vehicle-mounted restraint systems. Using computer crash simulation, occupant kinematic and biomechanical measures associated with a 20g/30mph frontal impact were evaluated and compared to injury criteria and SAE J2249 WTORS kinematic limits. These measures were also used to compile a Motion Criteria (MC) index and Combined Injury Criteria (CIC) index for each evaluated restraint scenario. These indices provide a composite method for comparing various crash scenarios. With the exception of an unsafe 36-inch height off-shoulder shoulder belt anchor scenario, the MC index was minimized for the integrated restraint scenario. Similarly, the CIC index was also minimized for the wheelchair-integrated restraint scenario. This preliminary study emphasizes the need for transfer of integrated restraint technology to the wheelchair transportation industry. PMID:11322156

  14. Biomechanical analysis of child restraint system - biomed 2009.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Friedman, Keith; Hutchinson, John; Mihora, Dennis; Harcourt, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that potential for the head injury to child occupants is reduced with energy absorbing foam in a rear facing restraint system. The traffic safety of the pediatric population is improved with the child restraint system. However, the child restraint is effective only if advanced protective features are incorporated. One of the protective features is the energy absorbing padding on the side wings of the child seat wherein the child would interact during the crash. A hybrid computer model of the child restraint system was developed using the commercially available MADYMO and LS-DYNA software. A rear facing child seat in the rear compartment of the vehicle was simulated. The 9 months old anthropometric dummy was modeled. The dummy was restrained in the child seat and the child seat was restrained using the lap and shoulder harness. Two computer models with and without the padding on the side wing were simulated. The input included the acceleration at the center of gravity of the vehicle and the door intrusion into the vehicular interior and the child restraint system. Results indicate that the lack of padding allowed the child's head to interact with the side wing in a concentrated manner while the padding allowed distributed contact to the head area. The padding also retained the head within the confines of the child seat with no exposure to outside environment. The head injury parameters (Head Injury Criteria and Angular Acceleration) were reduced two to three times due to padding on the extended side wing. The present study is an additional step towards a better understanding of the injury biomechanics of pediatric population involved in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:19369802

  15. The Influence of Restraint Systems on Panel Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    When a panel is tested in uniaxial compression in a test machine, the boundary conditions are not quite the same as they would be if it were part of a complete structure. A restraint system may be used to simulate conditions found in a complete vehicle. Quantifying the quality of the restraint with only point-measurement devices can leave an inadequate characterization of the out-of-plane behavior. However, today s full-field displacement monitoring techniques allow for much more accurate views of the global panel deformation and strain, and therefore allow for a better understanding of panel behavior. In the current study, the behavior of a hat-stiffened and two rod-stiffened carbon-epoxy panels is considered. Panels were approximately 2 meters tall and 0.76 to 1.06 m wide. Unloaded edges were supported by knife edges and stiffeners were attached to a support structure at selected locations to restrain out-of-plane motion. A comparison is made between test results based on full-field measurements and analyses based on assumptions of boundary conditions of a completely rigid edge restraint and the absence of any edge restraint. Results indicate that motion at the restrained edges must be considered to obtain accurate test-analysis correlation.

  16. Seatbelt versus seatbelt and airbag injuries in a single motor vehicle crash

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Ibrahim; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Peralta, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Seatbelt restraints are important for occupant safety which substantially reduces morbidity and mortality in severe motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Though, it has been established that the air bag and seatbelt use reduce injury severity and mortality but still there is limited information on the pattern of injury by restraint type. Herein, we presented two case reports which describe the injury pattern of two patients (both were restrained but only driver had airbag) involved in a single MVC. Both of them had severe traumatic injuries, however, the restrained passenger without airbag, sustained more severe injuries of intestine, kidney and spinal cord. In addition to seatbelt, airbag provides considerable protection against severe blunt abdominal trauma. Therefore, installation of airbags especially for front seat passenger is imperative for minimizing the risk of significant traumatic injuries. PMID:25810964

  17. Fly-away restraint pin mechanism for the Army's PATRIOT missile system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the longitudinal restraint mechanism for the Army's Patriot missile system is reviewed. The initial design was an ordnance pin puller with a shear plane. Because of reliability problems and a desire to reduce cost, a fly-away restraint mechanism was chosen. After being manually unlocked, the restraint pin disengages the missile during launch by missile motion.

  18. Fly-away restraint pin mechanism for the Army's PATRIOT missile system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the longitudinal restraint mechanism for the PATRIOT missile system is reviewed. Two approaches for the restraint pin design are discussed: an initial ordnance mechanism, and a passive fly-away mechanism. Because of reliability problems and a desire to reduce cost the fly-away restraint mechanism was chosen.

  19. Controlled impact demonstration seat/cabin restraint systems: FAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The FAA restraint system experiments consisted of 24 standard and modified seats, 2 standard galleys and 2 standard overhead compartments. Under the controlled impact demonstration (CID) program, the experimental objective was to demonstrate the effectiveness of individual restraint system designs when exposed to a survivable air-to-ground impact condition. What researchers were looking for was the performance exhibited by standard and modified designs, performance differences resulting from their installed cabin location, and interrelating performance demonstrated by test article and attaching floor and/or fuselage structure. The other restraint system experiment consisted of 2 standard overhead stowage compartments and 2 galley modules. Again, researchers were concerned with the retention of stowed equipment and carry-on articles. The overhead compartments were loaded with test weights up to their maximum capacity, and each of the galleys was filled with test articles: aft with normal galley equipment, forward with hazardous material test packages. A breakdown of instrumentation and distribution is given beginning with 11 instrumented type anthropomorphic dummies and 185 sensors which provided for acceleration and load measurements at the various experiment and associated structure locations. The onboard cameras provided additional coverage of these experiments, including the areas of cabin which were not instrumented. Test results showing the window-side leg forces versus pulse duration are given.

  20. Investigation of crew restraint system biomechanics. Report for May 79-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.S.; Thomson, R.A.; Fiscus, I.B.

    1982-05-01

    Experimental data were collected and analyses were performed to study the influence of the dynamic mechanical properties of restraint system components on human response to impact and restraint system haulback. Tests were accomplished to isolate the characteristics of the restraint system and the human body. Three restraint webbing materials were studied at varied strain rates. A pyrotechnically powered inertia reel was tested, but could not be analytically modeled successfully. Analytical models of the human and restraint system were used to study the influence of restraint material properties changes on human response parameters. An analytical model of a rhesus monkey was also used to study the efficacy of animal tests and scaling techniques to evaluate restraint systems for human use applications.

  1. Innovations in dynamic test restraint systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuld, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent launch system development programs have led to a new generation of large scale dynamic tests. The variety of test scenarios share one common requirement: restrain and capture massive high velocity flight hardware with no structural damage. The Space Systems Lab of McDonnell Douglas developed a remarkably simple and cost effective approach to such testing using ripstitch energy absorbers adapted from the sport of technical rockclimbing. The proven system reliability of the capture system concept has led to a wide variety of applications in test system design and in aerospace hardware design.

  2. Comparison of Real World Side Impact/Rollover Collisions With and Without Thorax Airbag/Head Protection System: A First Field Experience Study

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Peter; Lange, Wolfgang; Messner, Georg; Rauscher, Stefan; Pieske, Oliver

    2000-01-01

    After the introduction of the Thorax Airbag (TA) and the Head Protection System (HPS) by BMW there has been a significant reduction of injuries in real-world collisions. Comparison of similar collisions (in-depth collision analyses) of vehicles with and without HPS/TA indicates that the effectiveness of the system was credible. Minor injuries (AIS 1) increase while serious injuries (AIS 3+) are reduced. Based on the limited cases available, a proper statistical sampling could not be achieved at this time, however the results are to be understood as indicative of a trend. PMID:11558083

  3. Airbag Tracks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The circular shapes seen on the martian surface in these images are 'footprints' left by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's airbags during landing as the spacecraft gently rolled to a stop. Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24, 2004, Earth-received time. The circular region of the flower-like feature on the right is about the size of a basketball. Scientists are studying the prints for more clues about the makeup of martian soil. The images were taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity.

  4. Feasibility of an anticipatory noncontact precrash restraint actuation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The problem of providing an electronic warning of an impending crash to a precrash restraint system a fraction of a second before physical contact differs from more widely explored problems, such as providing several seconds of crash warning to a driver. One approach to precrash restraint sensing is to apply anticipatory system theory. This consists of nested simplified models of the system to be controlled and of the system`s environment. It requires sensory information to describe the ``current state`` of the system and the environment. The models use the sensory data to make a faster-than-real-time prediction about the near future. Anticipation theory is well founded but rarely used. A major problem is to extract real-time current-state information from inexpensive sensors. Providing current-state information to the nested models is the weakest element of the system. Therefore, sensors and real-time processing of sensor signals command the most attention in an assessment of system feasibility. This paper describes problem definition, potential ``showstoppers,`` and ways to overcome them. It includes experiments showing that inexpensive radar is a practical sensing element. It considers fast and inexpensive algorithms to extract information from sensor data.

  5. Soil disturbance by airbags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Disturbance of the drift at the Pathfinder landing site reveals a shallow subsurface that is slightly darker but has similar spectral properties. The top set of images, in true color, shows the soils disturbed by the last bounce of the lander on its airbags before coming to rest and the marks created by retraction of the airbags. In the bottom set of images color differences have been enhanced. The mast at center is the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET). The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. A shadow of the ASI/MET appears on a rock at left.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  6. Analysis-test correlation of airbag impact for Mars landing

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, M.; Davis, G.; Kuo, C.P.

    1994-12-31

    The NASA Mars Pathfinder mission is intended to demonstrate key low cost technologies for use in future science missions to Mars. Among these technologies is the landing system. Upon entering in Martian atmosphere at about 7000 m/sec., the spacecraft will deploy a series of breaking devices (parachute and solid rockets) to slow down its speed to less than 20 m/sec. as it impacts with the Martian ground. To cushion science instruments form the landing impact, an airbag system is inflated to surround the lander approximately five seconds before impact. After multiple bounces, the lander/airbags comes to rest, the airbags are deflated and retracted, and the lander opens up its petals to allow a microrover to begin exploration. Of interest here, is the final landing phase. Specifically, this paper will focus on the methodology used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of lander/airbags landing impact, and how this simulation correlates with initial tests.

  7. Lateral impact injuries with side airbag deployments--a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Zhang, Jiangyue; Gennarelli, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide descriptive data on side impact injuries in vehicles equipped with side airbags using the United States National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The database was queried with the constraint that all vehicles must adhere to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards FMVSS 214, injured occupants be in the front outboard seats with no rollovers or ejections, and side impacts airbags be deployed in lateral crashes. Out of the 7812 crashes in the 1997-2004 weighted NASS files, AIS > or = 2 level injuries occurred to 5071 occupants. There were 3828 cases of torso-only airbags, 955 cases of torso-head bag combination, and 288 inflatable tubular structure/curtain systems. Side airbags were not attributed to be the cause of head or chest injury to any occupant at this level of severity. The predominance of torso-only airbags followed by torso-head airbag combination reflected vehicle model years and changing technology. Head and chest injuries were coupled for the vast majority of occupants with injuries to more than one body region. Comparing literature data for side impacts without side airbag deployments, the presence of a side airbag decreased AIS=2 head, chest, and extremity injuries when examining raw data incidence rates. Although this is the first study to adopt strict inclusion-exclusion criteria for side crashes with side airbag deployments, future studies are needed to assess side airbag efficacy using datasets such as matched-pair occupants in side impacts. PMID:16911812

  8. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. PMID:23499979

  9. Effect of restraint stress on nociceptive responses in rats: role of the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Ibironke, G F; Mordi, N E

    2011-12-01

    Stress induced analgesia (SIA) is well known, but the reverse phenomenon, hyperalgesia is poorly documented. This study investigated the role of the histaminergic system in restraint stress hyperalgesia in rats, using thermal stimulation method (hot plate and tail flick tests). Paw licking and tail withdrawal latencies were taken before and after restraint for about one hour. Significant decreases (p<0.05) were obtained in these latencies after the restraint in both tests. Administration of H1 and H2 receptor blockers, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine respectively 30 mins before the restraint still resulted in significant reductions (p<0.05) in these latencies, connoting the persistence of hyperalgesia, showing that histamine H1 and H2 receptors did not participate in the mechanism of restraint stress hyperalgesia. We therefore suggest a histaminergic independent mechanism for restraint stress induced hyperalgesia. PMID:22547182

  10. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  11. Quantifying the Relationship Between Vehicle Interior Geometry and Child Restraint Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Abdelilah, Y.; Crandall, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The prevention of interactions of children or child restraints with other vehicle structures is critical to child passenger safety. Fifteen current vehicles and seven rear and forward facing child restraint systems were measured in an attempt to quantify the available distance between child restraints and these vehicle structures. Rear facing child restraints exhibited such small amounts of clearance that contact would be expected in the majority of frontal crashes. Upper tethers are critical in the prevention of head contact, while head contact is likely when the upper tether is not used. PMID:16968649

  12. 49 CFR 579.25 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving death or injury. For all child restraint systems manufactured during a production year covered by... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting requirements for manufacturers of child... § 579.25 Reporting requirements for manufacturers of child restraint systems. For each reporting...

  13. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restraint system conforming to the requirements of Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213) instead of one of the... CFR Part 555, must have a child restraint anchorage system installed at a front passenger designated... passenger designated seating positions pursuant to a temporary exemption granted by NHTSA under 49 CFR...

  14. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restraint system conforming to the requirements of Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213) instead of one of the... CFR Part 555, must have a child restraint anchorage system installed at a front passenger designated... passenger designated seating positions pursuant to a temporary exemption granted by NHTSA under 49 CFR...

  15. 76 FR 16472 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... published in the Federal Register of February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10637), a request for comments notice... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems... Car Assessment Program, to help caregivers find a child restraint system (``child safety seat'')...

  16. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... restraint system conforming to the requirements of Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213) instead of one of the... CFR Part 555, must have a child restraint anchorage system installed at a front passenger designated... passenger designated seating positions pursuant to a temporary exemption granted by NHTSA under 49 CFR...

  17. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... restraint system conforming to the requirements of Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213) instead of one of the... CFR Part 555, must have a child restraint anchorage system installed at a front passenger designated... passenger designated seating positions pursuant to a temporary exemption granted by NHTSA under 49 CFR...

  18. Use of a pitch adjustable foot restraint system: Operator strength capability and load requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmington, Robert P.; Poliner, Jeffrey; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    The zero-gravity environment creates a need for a proper human body restraint system to maintain a comfortable posture with less fatigue and to maximize productivity. In addition, restraint systems must be able to meet the loading demands of maintenance and assembly tasks performed on orbit. The shuttle's primary intravehicular astronaut restraint system is currently a foot loop design that attaches to flat surfaces on the shuttle, allowing for varying mounting locations and easy egress and ingress. However, this design does not allow for elevation, pitch, or foot loop length adjustment. Several prototype foot restraint systems are being evaluated for use aboard the space station and the space shuttle. The JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory initiated this study to quantify the maximum axial forces and moments that would be induced on a foot loop type of restraint while operators performed a torque wrench task, also allowing for angling the restraint pitch angle to study yet another effect. Results indicate that the greatest forces into the torque wrench and into the foot restraint system occur while the operator performs an upward effort. This study did not see any significant difference in the operators' force due to pitch orientation. Thus, in a work environment in which hand holds are available, no significant influence of the pitch angle on forces imparted to the restraint system existed.

  19. Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet' (QTVR)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Magic Carpet Close-upMagic Carpet Close-up HD

    This section of the first color image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been further processed to produce a sharper look at a trail left by the one of rover's airbags. The drag mark was made after the rover landed and its airbags were deflated and retracted. Scientists have dubbed the region the 'Magic Carpet' after a crumpled portion of the soil that appears to have been peeled away (lower left side of the drag mark). Rocks were also dragged by the airbags, leaving impressions and 'bow waves' in the soil. The mission team plans to drive the rover over to this site to look for additional clues about the composition of the martian soil. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera.

    This extreme close-up image (see insets above) highlights the martian feature that scientists have named 'Magic Carpet' because of its resemblance to a crumpled carpet fold. Scientists think the soil here may have detached from its underlying layer, possibly due to interaction with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's airbag after landing. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.

  20. Evaluation of restraint system concepts for the Japanese Experiment Module flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Backemeyer, Lynn A.

    1995-01-01

    The current International Space Station configuration includes a Japanese Experiment Module which relies on a large manipulator and a smaller dexterous manipulator to operate outside the pressurized environment of the experiment module. The module's flight demonstration is a payload that will be mounted in the aft flight deck on STS-87 to evaluate a prototype of the dexterous manipulator. Since the payload operations entail two 8-hour scenarios on consecutive days, adequate operator restraint at the workstation will be critical to the perceived success or failure of the payload. Simulations in reduced gravity environment on the KC-135A were the only way to evaluate the restraint systems and workstation configuration. Two astronaut and two non-astronaut operators evaluated the Advanced Lower Body Extremities Restraint Test and a foot loop restraint system by performing representative tasks at the workstation in each of the two restraint systems; at the end of each flight they gave their impressions of each system and the workstation. Results indicated that access to the workstation switch panels was difficult and manipulation of the hand controllers forced operators too low for optimal viewing of the aft flight deck monitors. The workstation panel should be angled for better visibility, and infrequently used switches should be on the aft flight deck panel. Pitch angle and placement of the hand controllers should optimize the operator's eye position with respect to the monitors. The lower body restraint was preferred over the foot loops because it allowed operators to maintain a more relaxed posture during long-duration tasks, its height adjustability allowed better viewing of aft flight deck monitors, and it provided better restraint for reacting forces imparted on the operator at the workstation. The foot loops provide adequate restraint for the flight demonstration tasks identified. Since results will impact the design of the workstation, both restraints should be

  1. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.110 Gage restraint... test will not be considered valid until contact with these components is restored under static...

  2. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.110 Gage restraint... test will not be considered valid until contact with these components is restored under static...

  3. National roadside survey of child restraint system use in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Roynard; Peter, Silverans; Yvan, Casteels; Philippe, Lesire

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011 the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) conducted its first roadside survey of child restraint system (CRS) use and misuse. The aim of this study was to obtain population-bases estimates of the prevalence of use and misuse of CRS and to identify predictors of misuse on the basis of observations in real traffic conditions. The survey was conducted on randomly selected sites across the country, stratified across various types of journeys. The principal parameters analysed were: the characteristics of the children and the car drivers, type of journey, types of CRS and types of misuse. The sample consisted of 1461 children (under 135cm) for whom the conditions of restraint were observed in detail and the driver was interviewed. At least 50% of the children were not correctly restrained and 10% were not restrained at all. The most significant factors associated with CRS use were the use of a seatbelt by the driver (31% of unrestrained children for unbelted drivers, compared to 7% for belted drivers - only 32% of correctly restrained children for unbelted drivers compared to 54% for belted drivers), whether the CRS was bought in a specialized shop (only 27% of misuse compared to 45% of misuse for CRS both in supermarkets) and the age of the children. The proportion of correctly restrained children (appropriate without misuse, the bottom category in the figure) has a roughly curvilinear relation with age; decreasing from 75% at age 0 to 24% at age 8 and going back up to 63% at age 10. Although the sample of ISOFIX users was small (n=76), it appears that the ISOFIX system reduced misuse significantly. Most of the drivers were ignorant of their own errors concerning the inappropriateness and/or misuse of the CRS or they were remiss and underestimated the risk. The three main reasons given by the drivers to explain or justify the misuse noticed were: low attention level to safety (inattention, time pressure, and short distance), the child's resistance to

  4. Bags, buckles, and belts: the debate over mandatory passive restraints in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E

    1983-01-01

    Seatbelt-wearing occupants of motor vehicles experience a death rate that is half that of nonbelted occupants, yet fewer than 10 percent of the population regularly wear their seatbelts. The potential of effective passenger-restraint systems to substantially reduce mortality and disability has led the federal government to consider requiring all new vehicles to come equipped with restraint systems that take effect without active participation from the passenger--airbags or automatic seatbelts. Since 1969, the government has issued several rulemakings to that effect, but each has been delayed or rescinded, the result of an ongoing debate about the policy's wisdom. Political and economic interests are at stake, as are matters of principle; and disputes over basic facts remain unresolved. Both advocates and opponents of a mandatory passive-restraint requirement agree that restraints can prevent deaths and disabilities, though there are differences of opinion as to the degree of protection afforded. Opponents of the requirement concentrate their substantive concerns on the propensity of the public to disconnect passive belts and the reluctance of prospective car buyers to pay the additional cost that airbags would entail. Cost-benefit analyses of a passive-restraint requirement find the requirement socially desirable; but they fail to take distributional issues into account, and several of their assumptions have been challenged by the automobile industry, the only major organized opposition to the requirement. This paper examines the central issues and evidence in the debate, including a consideration of alternative means of achieving effective, efficient passenger restraint. PMID:6863874

  5. 76 FR 10637 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ..., in many cases, accommodated by the vehicle. \\9\\ 67 FR 67448, Docket NHTSA-2001-10053. \\10\\ 73 FR 6261... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint... consumer information program, as part of the New Car Assessment Program, to help caregivers find a...

  6. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.110 Gage restraint... section. (4) When a functional PTLF is not available to a fully qualified person designated under § 213.7... requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127. (5) If the PTLF becomes non-functional or is missing,...

  7. Toward development of effective custom child restraint systems in motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen; Rigby, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Traveling safely in motor vehicles can be challenging for many families who have young children with physical disabilities. Harnesses, simple adaptations, and special child restraint systems are available, but sometimes these devices do not adequately meet the unique postural support requirements of children with complex seating needs. Faced with no alternative, parents may choose to use the custom seating system from a wheeled mobility device to support their children in the family car. Transporting children in this way can increase the risk of motor vehicle-related injury because custom seating systems are not designed to meet the requirements of federal motor vehicle safety regulations. We studied whether assistive technology suppliers could build custom child restraint systems that met the crashworthiness requirements of a safety standard for production child restraint systems. We provided technical instructions to 10 suppliers from different parts of North America so they could each build a custom restraint system using a transit frame that we designed. This approach allowed suppliers to make custom seats that could be attached to the transit frame using special connection hardware. We crash tested the 10 custom child restraint systems to evaluate the effectiveness of our transit frame design and fabrication instructions. Six custom restraint systems met the dynamic performance requirements of the stringent Canada Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213.3. The remaining four systems did not meet the compliance criteria due to the failure of postural belt assemblies or seat securement hardware. We recommend that future research include similar effectiveness studies to support the introduction of technical requirements for adaptive seating systems that improve occupant safety and are practical for wheelchair users, their families, and assistive technology professionals to implement. PMID:18335712

  8. Airbag Landing Impact Performance Optimization for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; McKinney, John; Corliss, James M.

    2008-01-01

    This report will discuss the use of advanced simulation techniques to optimize the performance of the proposed Orion Crew Module airbag landing system design. The Boeing Company and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s Langley Research Center collaborated in the analysis of the proposed airbag landing system for the next generation space shuttle replacement, the Orion spacecraft. Using LS-DYNA to simulate the Crew Module landing impacts, two main objectives were established and achieved: the investigation of potential methods of optimizing the airbag performance in order to reduce rebound on the anti-bottoming bags, lower overall landing loads, and increase overall Crew Module stability; and the determination of the Crew Module stability and load boundaries using the optimized airbag design, based on the potential Crew Module landing pitch angles and ground slopes in both the center of gravity forward and aft configurations. This paper describes the optimization and stability and load boundary studies and presents a summary of the results obtained and key lessons learned from this analysis.

  9. An Examination of the U.S. Regional Airline Policies Regarding Child Restraint Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carstenson, Larry; Sluti, Donald; Luedtke, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    A prior study examined the policies of U.S. air carriers with regard to the use of infant restraint systems on board commercial aircraft. This study expands on that earlier study by examining the policies of commuter air carriers in the United States regarding the use of infant restraint systems. The management policy of the commuter air carriers has been investigated and officials of the commuter air carriers were surveyed to determine how the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft varied among commuter airlines. The topics investigated included seat space for infants, restraint systems for infants, and amenities for infant passengers. The results of this study have been analyzed to ascertain if any recommendations can be made to the commuter airlines regarding the carriage of infants onboard their aircraft.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF TORSO SIDE AIRBAG AGGRESSIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    Torso side airbags are typically seat- or door-mounted; i.e., mounted within the seat back or within the door panel lateral to the occupant. Because previous work has shown the propensity of airbags to cause harm in unintended out-of-position occupant orientations, scientific investigation of injury risks continues. Such work involves anthropomorphic test devices and cadaveric specimens which have time and monetary costs associated with their use. These costs necessitate experimental efficiency, achieved by selecting representative airbags from the multitude of options in contemporary automobiles. This study proposes a novel method for characterizing torso side airbag deployment aggressivity for purposes of selection. The test fixture consisted of an array of rigidly positioned three-axis load cells oriented in opposition to a rigid airbag mount at fixed distances of 6 or 8 cm. Six exemplar torso airbag modules were subjected to these two deployment configurations. Force characteristics of maximum resultant force, peak and mean force onset rate, and linear impulse were quantified for comparison. Force characteristics demonstrated ranges between 210% (linear impulse) and 2,500% (mean force onset rate) of minimum value. This test method demonstrated differentiation in the diversity of SAB designs and quantified the airbag-environment interaction during deployment. These force characteristics may correlate to thoracic injury risk from out-of-position torso side airbag deployment. PMID:19369747

  11. JPL Testbed Image of Airbag Retraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the deflated airbags retracted underneath the lander petal at the JPL In-Situ Instrument Laboratory. Retracting the airbags helps clear the path for the rover to roll off the lander and onto the martian surface.

  12. 75 FR 68664 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Child Restraint Systems; Booster Seat Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may visit http://www.regulations.gov . Please send two paper copies... Systems; Booster Seat Effectiveness Estimates Based on CDS and State Data AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... Standard 213, Child Restraint Systems. The report's title is: Booster Seat ] Effectiveness Estimates...

  13. Launch vehicle system requirements and restraints for the ERTS-A spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The technical requirements and restraints imposed by the ERTS spacecraft upon the Delta launch vehicle, shroud system, associated launch complex, and range are presented for technical coordination among various agencies involved in the launch vehicle and launch operations. The payload and spacecraft systems are described, and the mission, design, test, and launch base data are outlined.

  14. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... SFAD 1 means Static Force Application Device 1 shown in Figures 12 to 16 of this standard. SFAD 2 means Static Force Application Device 2 shown in Figures 17 and 18 of this standard. Shuttle bus means a bus... restraint system conforming to the requirements of Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213) instead of one of...

  15. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  16. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), booster-type child restraint systems (as defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  17. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  18. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  19. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap....-registered civil aircraft (except a free balloon that incorporates a basket or gondola, or an airship type... aircraft (except a free balloon that incorporates a basket or gondola, or an airship type...

  20. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. 571.213 Section 571.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards...

  1. ASI/MET shadow & airbags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A shadow of the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) has been cast on a rock at right in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 4. The instrument appears in two different sections due to image parallax. The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible, in addition to several rocks of varying sizes in the distance.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  2. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. PMID:26289766

  3. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  4. Legal restraints on dissemination of instructional materials by educational communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, N. N.

    1972-01-01

    The legal restraints on the use of electronic communications systems for dissemination of instructional materials in the United States are discussed. First the laws are examined relating to public school elementary and secondary education, with primary emphasis on selection of courses of study and instructional materials. The second part contains an examination of the copyright laws, both the copyright law now in effect and the revision thereto currently pending before the Congress of the United States.

  5. Restraining Loose Equipment Aboard the International Space Station: The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth A.; Reynolds, D. W.; Vanhooser, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) grows, so do the supplies and equipment needed to support its daily operations. Each day many items must be unstowed and relocated to various worksites so they are readily available to the crew. Due to the lack of gravity, these items may become loose and float away if not restrained. The Payload Equipment Restraint System was developed to meet the new and unique challenge of restrain no loose equipment aboard the ISS.

  6. Missile launch pad: an unusual consequence of airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Ronnie, Davies; Emecheta, Ikechukwu E; Kevin, Hancock

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle airbags significantly reduce vehicle occupant injuries and fatalities in road accidents. However, a number of injuries are recognised as being directly attributable to airbag deployment. The majority of these are blunt injuries due to the high force of airbag deployment and include ocular injuries, burns, chest trauma and, rarely, fatalities. The authors describe a case of mixed blunt ocular and penetrating facial trauma as a result of airbag deployment. PMID:22707498

  7. Patterns of injury associated with automobile airbag use.

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, A. A.; Banerjee, A.

    1998-01-01

    The wide use of automobile airbags has undoubtedly reduced the mortality and the incidence of serious injuries from motor vehicle accidents. However, automobile airbags appear to be associated with a variety of injuries including fatal injuries, ocular injuries, upper limb and chest injuries. Further improvements in airbag design together with education of the general public in their use should help reduce airbag-related injuries. PMID:9926118

  8. Airbag-induced thumb avulsion: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Stoel, Anne-Marie C C; Vanhaecke, Jeroen; Dezillie, Marleen; Oosterlinck, Dirk; Stockmans, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Although airbags are designed to save lives and protect victims from serious injuries, airbag deployment can cause unwanted lesions. In this case report, two cases are presented of young women who sustained an important fracture dislocation of the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC I joint) caused by airbag deployment during a car collision. PMID:25762890

  9. A prototype Crew Medical Restraint System (CMRS) for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, S. L.; Eichstadt, F. T.; Billica, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Crew Medical Restrain System (CMRS) is a prototype system designed and developed for use as a universally deployable medical restraint/workstation on Space Station Freedom (SSF), the Shuttle Transportation System (STS), and the Assured Crew Rescue Vehicle (ACRV) for support of an ill or injured crewmember requiring stabilization and transportation to Earth. The CMRS will support all medical capabilities of the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) by providing a restraint/interface system for all equipment (advance life support packs, defibrillator, ventilator, portable oxygen supply, IV pump, transport monitor, transport aspirator, and intervenous fluids delivery system) and personnel (patient and crew medical officers). It must be functional within the STS, ACRV, and all SSF habitable volumes. The CMRS will allow for medical capabilities within CPR, ACLS and ATLS standards of care. This must all be accomplished for a worst case transport time scenario of 24 hours from SSF to a definitive medical care facility on Earth. A presentation of the above design prototype with its subsequent one year SSF/HMF and STS/ACRV high fidelity mock-up ground based simulation testing will be given. Also, parabolic flight and underwater Weightless Test Facility evaluations will be demonstrated for various medical contingencies. The final design configuration to date will be discussed with future space program impact considerations.

  10. Finite Element Simulation Study of a Frontal Driver Airbag Deployment for Out-of-Position Situations.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Baudrit, Pascal; Gopal, Madana

    2003-10-01

    As more and more active restraint devices are added by vehicle manufacturers for occupant protection, the history of driver frontal airbags illustrates that the design performance of such devices for in-position (IP) occupants often have to be limited in order to reduce their aggressiveness for out-of-position (OOP) situations. As of today, a limited number of publications dealing with FE simulation of airbag deployment for OOP are available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of airbag deployment simulations based on an extensive set of well-defined physical test matrix. A driver frontal airbag was chosen (European mid-size car sample) for this study. It was deployed against a force plate (14 tests in a total of 6 configurations), and used with Hybrid III 50(th) percentile dummy (HIII) in OOP tests (6 tests, 4 configurations). Special attention was paid to control the boundary conditions used in experiments in order to improve the modeling process. The initial positioning of the dummy (chin against the top of the steering wheel rim, and back of the torso parallel to the plane of the rim) for both physical and numerical dummies was maintained from 23 targets digitized using a 3D Faro arm. Specific test position/conditions that were deemed important were repeated to understand the sensitivity and variation. The software used for the FEM simulations was Radioss, using uniform pressure method. The bag was meshed and folded using Excel and Matlab routines. The inflator characteristics were adapted from data provided by the inflator manufacturer. The body-block test conducted at 7 mm was used to tune the different model parameters and the remaining body-block, 50(th)%le HIII OOP and plate tests were used for validation. The results show comparison of simulation and tests records. The simulations show a satisfactory matching of the test results within the first 60 ms and capture the key events of the bag deployment in a promising manner. The major

  11. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards. PMID:19398366

  12. Biomechanics of side impact injuries: evaluation of seat belt restraint system, occupant kinematics and injury potential.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred; Frieder, Russell; Friedman, Keith; Renfroe, David

    2006-01-01

    Side impact crashes are the second most severe motor vehicle accidents resulting in serious and fatal injuries. One of the occupant restraint systems in the vehicle is the three point lap/shoulder harness. However, the lap/shoulder restraint is not effective in a far-side crash (impact is opposite to the occupant location) since the occupant may slip out of the shoulder harness. The present comprehensive study was designed to delineate the biomechanics of far-side planar crashes. The first part of the study involves a car-to-car crash to study the crash dynamics and occupant kinematics; the second part involves an epidemiological analysis of NASS/CDS 1988-2003 database to study the distribution of serious injury; the third part includes the mathematical MADYMO analysis to study the occupant kinematics in detail; and the fourth part includes an in-depth analysis of a real world far-side accident to delineate the injury mechanism and occupant kinematics. Results indicate that the shoulder harness is ineffective in far-side crashes. The upper torso of the belted driver dummy slips out of the shoulder harness and interacted with the opposite vehicle interior such as the door panel. The unbelted occupants had a similar head injury severity pattern compared to belted occupants. The present study is another step to advance towards better understanding of the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of side impact injuries. PMID:17946783

  13. Lifting and protecting residential structures from subsidence damage using airbags

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, T.L.; Bennett, R.M.

    1998-12-31

    Conventional practice in protecting residential structures from subsidence damage concentrates on saving the superstructure. The foundation is sacrificed, even though it represents the structural component with the greatest replacement cost. In this study, airbags were used to lift a 20 ft x 30 ft structure to test their ability to protect both the foundation and superstructure from ground settlement. Two contiguous sides of the test foundation were unreinforced, and the other two contiguous sides incorporated footing and wall reinforcement. The airbags successfully lifted the structure without causing damage, even on the unreinforced sides. This paper gives a procedure for determining airbag spacing, and describes installation and operation techniques of the airbags. The paper then focuses on the performance of the airbags in lifting the structure, and shows that airbags can preserve existing foundations during subsidence movements.

  14. Rib Fracture Patterns and Radiologic Detection – A Restraint-Based Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Jeff; Kent, Richard; Patrie, James; Fertile, Jay; Martin, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the rib fracture patterns generated in simulated frontal collisions and the visibility of the rib fractures on plain film radiographs. Using 29 cadaver subjects, rib fractures were identified on oblique, lateral, and anteroposterior chest films by five radiologists independently and were compared with fractures found during a detailed necropsy. Physical, geometric, and experimental factors demonstrated an influence on the ability of a radiologist to identify rib fractures on an x-ray. Specifically, the restraint system configuration, the total number of fractures, the circumferential location of the fracture, the rib number, and the aspect (right or left) affected fracture identification. The results verify that torso belt loading produces rib fractures generally located along the path of the belt whereas superimposed airbag loading results in a more distributed and posterolateral fracture pattern. A higher proportion of rib fractures was identified on x-ray for occupants restrained by only a belt (44% of fractures) than for occupants restrained by both a belt and an airbag (24% of fractures). Overall, less than 40% of the rib fractures were detected upon an initial examination of radiographs. After being provided with the location of all fractures, detection increased to 49%. On average, occult rib fractures resulted in an average underreporting of injury severity of more than one AIS level. PMID:11558086

  15. Upper extremity interaction with a helicopter side airbag: injury criteria for dynamic hyperextension of the female elbow joint.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Hansen, Gail A; Kennedy, Eric A; Rath, Amber L; McNally, Craig; Kemper, Andrew R; Smith, Eric P; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Stitzel, Joel D; Davis, Martin B; Bass, Cameron R; Brozoski, Frederick T; McEntire, B Joseph; Alem, Nabih M; Crowley, John S

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a three part analysis to characterize the interaction between the female upper extremity and a helicopter cockpit side airbag system and to develop dynamic hyperextension injury criteria for the female elbow joint. Part I involved a series of 10 experiments with an original Army Black Hawk helicopter side airbag. A 5(th) percentile female Hybrid III instrumented upper extremity was used to demonstrate side airbag upper extremity loading. Two out of the 10 tests resulted in high elbow bending moments of 128 Nm and 144 Nm. Part II included dynamic hyperextension tests on 24 female cadaver elbow joints. The energy source was a drop tower utilizing a three-point bending configuration to apply elbow bending moments matching the previously conducted side airbag tests. Post-test necropsy showed that 16 of the 24 elbow joint tests resulted in injuries. Injury severity ranged from minor cartilage damage to more moderate joint dislocations and severe transverse fractures of the distal humerus. Peak elbow bending moments ranged from 42.4 Nm to 146.3 Nm. Peak bending moment proved to be a significant indicator of any elbow injury (p = 0.02) as well as elbow joint dislocation (p = 0.01). Logistic regression analyses were used to develop single and multiple variate injury risk functions. Using peak moment data for the entire test population, a 50% risk of obtaining any elbow injury was found at 56 Nm while a 50% risk of sustaining an elbow joint dislocation was found at 93 Nm for the female population. These results indicate that the peak elbow bending moments achieved in Part I are associated with a greater than 90% risk for elbow injury. Subsequently, the airbag was re-designed in an effort to mitigate this as well as the other upper extremity injury risks. Part III assessed the redesigned side airbag module to ensure injury risks had been reduced prior to implementing the new system. To facilitate this, 12 redesigned side airbag deployments were conducted

  16. [Airbag-related death in a toddler. A poorly known danger?].

    PubMed

    Cabasson, S; Bauvin, I; Firah, N; David, A; Bèze-Beyrie, P; Gréteau, S; Mensire-Marinier, A; Oilleau, L; Mansir, T

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of an 8-month-old baby killed by the deployment of an airbag. He was correctly positioned, in a safety seat designed for his age class, on the passenger side, and rear-facing. The accident occurred at low speed, on the left front of the car, without provoking any harm to the mother who was driving the vehicle, but the impact led to airbag deployment. A CT scan showed an occipital fracture, hemorrhagic parenchymal contusions, subarachnoid hemorrhage and edema, which quickly led to fatal intracranial hypertension. Severe retinal hemorrhages were also noted. Brain death was declared 24h later. Both direct impact and violent projection of the head are involved in the severity of brain lesions. Retinal hemorrhages are similar to what is observed in shaken-baby syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first French publication on this topic in childhood. In France, children are allowed to be positioned on the passenger side seat, but the airbag, if present, is supposed to be deactivated, which is not always possible. In recent cars, depowering the airbag is easy, with on/off switches, but these systems are not uniform between models. Moreover, it is very likely that this possibility is ignored by numerous parents. A widespread communication on this topic should be initiated in France to prevent such events. Banning infants from front passenger seats completely does not seem possible. Nevertheless, greater attention on the part of police departments and better information to drivers appear necessary. PMID:25725974

  17. Development and application of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, work restraint system, stowage container and return line tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Okelly, J. K.; Whitsett, C. W.; Petynia, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a self-contained zero-gravity backpack designed for astronaut extravehicular activity, is discussed with reference to the system requirements and characteristics, and potential near-term and future uses. Attention is given to the MMU man-machine interfaces, propulsion capability, attitude control, crew restraint hardware, donning, doffing, activation, and deactivation. Specific applications discussed include: spacecraft inspection and servicing, assembly of large space systems, payload deployment/retrieval, and crew rescue.

  18. Full-thickness burn to the hand from an automobile airbag.

    PubMed

    Vitello, W; Kim, M; Johnson, R M; Miller, S

    1999-01-01

    An 18-year-old male was involved in a single car motor vehicle accident in which the driver's side airbag was deployed. He presented to the trauma center with complex injuries to the left hand, lacerations to the scalp, and a full-thickness burn to the ulnar aspect of the right hand that included the hypothenar area and the fifth digit. The patient was admitted to the trauma center and received immediate consultation from the burn service. He underwent debridement and split-thickness skin grafting of 50 cm2 of the right hand on postburn day 3. The graft became necrotic and the patient underwent debridement of the skin and the abductor minimi muscle of the right hand on postburn day 32. Split-thickness skin grafting and release of flexion contracture were successfully completed 18 days later. The police and fire departments reported that the airbag showed signs of thermal destruction. Upon request, Honda motors submitted information from the TRW safety systems and material safety data sheet (Mesa, Ariz, issued 1989) that showed that airbag canisters contain the chemicals sodium azide and cupric oxide. Water may react with sodium azide to form highly toxic and explosive hyfrazoic acid. These chemicals are converted to sodium hydroxide, which can cause significant chemical burns. In addition, these chemicals may ignite when exposed to live electrical wires or temperatures greater than 300 degrees F. We conclude that burns associated with damaged deployed airbags in motor vehicle accidents may be the results of both chemical and thermal injury. The extent of the burn wound may be underestimated, as our case illustrates. Full-thickness burns resulting from airbag deployment may require more aggressive initial debridement and treatment. PMID:10342473

  19. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    PubMed Central

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  20. Airbag roll marks & displaced rocks and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking southwest from the lander, soil disturbances indicating the spacecraft rolled through the landing site are visible. Arriving from the east, the lander, still encased in its protective airbags, rolled up a slight rise and then rolled back down to its final position. The inset at left shows displaced rocks near the rock 'Flat Top.' Dark patches of disturbed soil indicate where the rocks had originally rested Both insets show rocks that were pushed into the soil from the weight of the lander, visible from the areas of raised rims of dark, disturbed soil around several rocks. The south summit of Twin Peaks is in the background, while a lander petal, deflated airbag, and rear rover deployment ramp are in the foreground.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  1. The helmet head restraint system: a viable solution for resting state fMRI in awake monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Monfardini, Elisabetta; Guedj, Carole; Gardechaux, Gislène; Hynaux, Clément; Farnè, Alessandro; Meunier, Martine

    2014-02-01

    In monkey neuroimaging, head restraint is currently achieved via surgical implants. Eradicating such invasive head restraint from otherwise non-invasive monkey studies could represent a substantial progress in terms of Reduction and Refinement. Two non-invasive helmet-based methods are available but they are used exclusively by the pioneering research groups who designed them. In the absence of independent replication, they have had little impact in replacing the surgical implants. Here, we built a modified version of the helmet system proposed by Srihasam et al. (2010 NeuroImage, 51(1), 267-73) and tested it for resting state fMRI in awake monkeys. Extremely vulnerable to motion artifacts, resting state fMRI represents a decisive test for non-invasive head restraint systems. We compared two monkeys restrained with the helmet to one monkey with a surgically implanted head post using both a seed-based approach and an independent component analysis. Technically, the helmet system proved relatively easy to develop. Scientifically, although it allowed more extensive movements than the head post system, the helmet proved viable for resting state fMRI, in particular when combined with the independent component analysis that deals more effectively with movement-related noise than the seed-based approach. We also discuss the pros and cons of such device in light of the European Union new 2013 regulation on non-human primate research and its firm Reduction and Refinement requests. PMID:24121168

  2. Injury Potential at Center Rear Seating Positions in Rear-Facing Child Restraint Systems in Side Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Hans W.; Humm, John R.; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Head injuries occur to occupants of rear-facing child restraint systems in side impacts. This study examined the head injury potential of center-seated occupants using sled tests at change in velocities of 35, 29 and 24 km/h. Other parameters included combinations of with and without a simulated door. A twelve-month-old child dummy was used in combination, convertible and infant rear-facing child restraint systems. Head excursions and head injury criteria (HIC) were obtained. In 35 km/h tests without simulated door, head excursions ranged from 568 to 655 mm, exceeding the simulated door intrusion plane. HIC ranged from 87 to 157, below the 390 limit. At this velocity but with the simulated door, HIC ranged from 804 to 1297. Head excursions ranged from 424 to 480 mm. In 29 and 24 km/h tests, the dummy and child restraint system impacted the simulated door. HIC ranged from 275 to 604 and 141 to 314, and head excursions ranged from 388 to 470 mm and 365 to 460 mm, respectively. Far-side belt loads were 2.4–3.2 kN and 1.7–2.3 kN for the 35 km/h tests without and with the simulated door, and 1.5–2.1 kN and 1.0–1.6 kN for 29 and 24 km/h tests with the simulated door. These findings indicate that occupants in the center seating position in smaller/medium-size vehicles may impact an intruding door and sustain head injuries. A need exists for better protection/attachment methods for center positioned rear-facing child restraint systems to reduce the injury potential in side impacts at velocities greater than 29 km/h. PMID:24406965

  3. The blue ribbon panel on depowered and advanced airbags - status report on airbag performance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Susan A; Schneider, Lawrence; Segui-Gomez, Maria; Arbogast, Kristy; Augenstein, Jeffrey; Digges, Kennerly H

    2003-01-01

    In February 2000, a group of highway safety organizations sent a letter to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation expressing concern about a possible return to the 30-mph rigid barrier test using unbelted dummies previously required by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208. The letter asked the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to expedite data collection of the real-world crash experience of airbag-equipped vehicles certified to the 30-mph sled test using unbelted dummies because of suggestions that depowered airbags may not provide the same level of protection, particularly to larger, unbelted occupants. For the same reason, the letter also recommended that the auto industry commit funding for additional data collection and to establish a panel of experts to evaluate the data. In response, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (Alliance) committed to funding a 3-year program to be managed by an independent third party. A panel of experts consisting of representatives from thehighway safety research community, the National Transportation Safety Board, academia, medical institutions, and the insurance industry was established as the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) for Evaluation of Depowered and Advanced Airbags and met for the first time in February 2001. The BRP also includes representatives from NHTSA and the automobile industry who participate as observers. The BRP held its first public meeting in April 2003 to provide an update of its activities and to summarize the real-world evidence on the performance of depowered airbags. This AAAM session will provide a brief summary of the public meeting. PMID:12941215

  4. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... structural element designed to restrain forward motion of the child's torso in a forward impact. Belt... Force distribution. S5.2.1 Minimum head support surface—child restraints other than car beds. S5.2.1.1... when a force of less than 40 newtons (N) is applied and shall release when a force of not more than...

  5. Thoracic injury metrics with side airbag: Stationary and dynamic occupants

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, Frank A

    2010-01-01

    Objective Injury risk from side airbag deployment has been assessed using stationary out-of-position occupant test protocols. However, stationary conditions may not always represent real world environments. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of torso side airbag deployment on close-proximity occupants, comparing a stationary test protocol with dynamic sled conditions. Methods Chest compression and viscous metrics were quantified from sled tests utilizing post-mortem human specimens and computational simulations with three boundary conditions: rigid wall, ideal airbag interaction, and close-proximity airbag deployment. PMHS metrics were quantified from chestband contour reconstructions. The parametric effect of ΔV on close-proximity occupant was examined with the computational model. Results PMHS injuries suggested close-proximity occupants may sustain visceral trauma, which was not observed in occupants subjected to rigid wall or ideal airbag boundary conditions. Peak injury metrics were also elevated with close-proximity occupant relative to other boundary conditions. The computational model indicated decreasing influence of airbag on compression metrics with increasing ΔV. Airbag influence on viscous metric was greatest with close-proximity occupant at ΔV = 7.0 m/s, at which the response magnitude was greater than linear summation of metrics resulting from rigid impact and stationary close-proximity interaction. Conclusions These results suggest that stationary close-proximity occupants may not represent the only scenario of side airbag deployment harmful to the thoracoabdominal region. The sensitivity of the viscous metric and implications for visceral trauma are also discussed. PMID:20730691

  6. Investigating the Effects of Side Airbag Deployment in Real-World Crashes Using Crash Comparison Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Loftis, Kathryn L.; Weaver, Ashley A.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate side airbag (SAB) deployment in near side crashes and compare injuries and contact points between occupants with and without SAB deployment. Using NASS 2000–2008 and selecting for near side cases, with PDOF ± 20 degrees from 90 or 270, for non-pregnant adult belted occupants, there were 20,253 (weighted) SAB deployments. NASS showed that SABs have been increasing within the fleet, comprising 2% of airbags in 2000 and increasing to 33% of airbags in 2008. To investigate deployed SABs, we developed a three-step methology to pair CIREN cases to study the effects of deployment on occupant outcome. The first step involved extracting near side impacts from CIREN with adult, non-pregnant occupants seated in row 1 (drivers or right front passengers). In the second step, each case was quantitatively compared to FMVSS 214 barrier test standards using a 6 point similarity scoring system. Cases scoring at least 3 points were then qualitatively analyzed and 33 pairs of cases of the same vehicle make/model but opposite SAB status were chosen. Occupants with deployed SAB had reduced occurrences and severity of head and face, neck and cervical spine, and thoracic injuries and fewer injurious contacts to side components including the door, a-pillar, and window sill. SAB deployment was statistically significant for reducing occupant MAIS and ISS and thorax airbags were statistically significant for reducing thoracic and neck/cervical spine injury severity. The average ISS with SAB deployment was 21, while the average ISS of those without was 33. This study establishes methods for performing comparisons between CIREN cases based on regulatory conditions and shows injury reduction in key body regions with SAB deployment. PMID:22105386

  7. An investigation of behavioural adaptation to airbags and antilock brakes among taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F; Fosser, S; Saetermo, I A

    1997-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that safety measures may lead to behavioural adaptation (also termed risk compensation) among road users, partly or completely offsetting the intended safety effects. There is, however, limited knowledge about characteristics of safety measures possibly determining the occurrence of behavioural adaptation. The present study addresses the relationship of driving behaviour to two different kinds of in-car safety equipment, airbags and antilock braking systems (ABS). It is hypothesized that accident-reducing measures like ABS are compensated for to a larger extent than injury-reducing measures like an airbag. On-road unobtrusive measurements of speed, headway, lane occupancy, lane changes, and variability of lateral position were performed on 213 taxis, on the basis of video recordings of traffic travelling to Oslo airport. The behavioural data were matched to questionnaire information collected when the taxis arrived at the airport. In addition to information regarding ABS and airbags, the drivers reported personal background information and answered questions about driving behaviour. Taxis with ABS had significantly shorter time headways than taxis without ABS. There were no relationships with speed, possibly because dense traffic during the observation period may have prevented the drivers from driving at their preferred speed. Simple comparisons also showed fewer lane changes and a lower rate of seat-belt use among drivers of taxis with ABS. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that the latter effects might be explained by driver background factors or by car characteristics other than ABS or airbag. The headway results support the hypothesis of larger compensation for accident-reducing than for injury-reducing measures. PMID:9183467

  8. Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, C.; Whitmore, M.; Mount, F.

    1999-01-01

    Confined workstations, where the operator has limited visibility and physical access to the work area, may cause prolonged periods of unnatural posture. Impacts on performance, in terms of fatigue and posture, may occur especially if the task is tedious and repetitive or requires static muscle loading. The glovebox design is a good example of the confined workstation concept. Within the scope of the 'Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation' project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations in ground, KC-135 and Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as gloveboxes, and also including crew restraint requirements. As part of the proposed integrated evaluations, two Shuttle Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) were manifested; one on Space Transportation System (STS)-90 and one on STS-88. The DSO on STS-90 evaluated use of the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS). The STS-88 mission was planned to evaluate a restraint system at the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). In addition, KC- 1 35 flights were conducted to investigate user/workstation/restraint integration for long-duration microgravity use. The scope of these evaluations included workstations and restraints to be utilized in the ISS environment, but also incorporated other workstations/ restraints in an attempt to provide findings/requirements with broader applications across multiple programs (e.g., Shuttle, ISS, and future Lunar-Mars programs). In addition, a comprehensive electronic questionnaire has been prepared and is under review by the Astronaut Office which will compile crewmembers' lessons learned information concerning glovebox and restraint use following their missions. These evaluations were intended to be complementary and were coordinated with hardware developers, users (crewmembers), and researchers. This report is intended to provide a summary of the

  9. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-01

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. PMID:26940240

  10. Door Velocity and Occupant Distance Affect Lateral Thoracic Injury Mitigation with Side Airbag

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between thoracic injury risk and parameters of door velocity and occupant distance was delineated in blunt lateral impact with side airbag deployment. A sled impact model was exercised with the validated MADYMO fiftieth percentile facet occupant model and a generalized finite element torso side airbag. Impact velocity was incremented from 4.0 to 9.0 m/s; occupant-airbag distance (at time of airbag activation) was incremented from 2.0 to 24.0 cm; simulations without airbag were also examined. Using compression, deflection rate, and the Viscous Criterion, airbag performance was characterized with respect to occupant injury risk at three points of interest: occupant distance of most protection, distance of greatest injury risk, and the newly defined critical distance. The occupant distance which demonstrated the most airbag protection, i.e., lowest injury risk, increased with increasing impact velocity. Greatest injury risk resulted when the occupant was nearest the airbag regardless of impact velocity. The critical distance was defined as the farthest distance at which airbag deployment exacerbated injury risk. This critical distance only varied considering chest compression, between 3 and 10 cm from the airbag, but did not vary when the Viscous Criterion were evaluated. At impact velocities less than or equal to 6 m/s, the most protective occupant location was within 2 cm of the critical distance at which the airbag became harmful. Therefore, injury mitigation with torso airbag may be more difficult to achieve at lower ΔV. PMID:21376873

  11. The Effectiveness of Child Restraint Systems for Children Aged 3 Years or Younger During Motor Vehicle Collisions: 1996 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effectiveness of child restraints in preventing death during motor vehicle collisions among children 3 years or younger. Methods. We conducted a matched cohort study using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from 1996 to 2005. We estimated death risk ratios using conditional Poisson regression, bootstrapping, multiple imputation, and a sensitivity analysis of misclassification bias. We examined possible effect modification by selected factors. Results. The estimated death risk ratios comparing child safety seats with no restraint were 0.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.34) for infants, 0.24 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.30) for children aged 1 year, 0.40 (95% CI = 0.32, 0.51) for those aged 2 years, and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.52) for those aged 3 years. Estimated safety seat effectiveness was greater during rollover collisions, in rural environments, and in light trucks. We estimated seat belts to be as effective as safety seats in preventing death for children aged 2 and 3 years. Conclusions. Child safety seats are highly effective in reducing the risk of death during severe traffic collisions and generally outperform seat belts. Parents should be encouraged to use child safety seats in favor of seat belts. PMID:19059860

  12. Restraint Stress Alters Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and CRF Systems in the Rat Central Amygdala: Significance for Anxiety-Like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Hansson, Anita C.; Ubaldi, Massimo; Kallupi, Marsida; Cruz, Maureen T.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Heilig, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is the primary mediator of stress responses, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) plays an important role in the modulation of these stress responses. Thus, in this multidisciplinary study, we explored the relationship between the N/OFQ and the CRF systems in response to stress. Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we assessed the effect of body restraint stress on the gene expression of CRF and N/OFQ-related genes in various subdivisions of the amygdala, a critical brain structure involved in the modulation of stress response and anxiety-like behaviors. We found a selective upregulation of the NOP and downregulation of the CRF1 receptor transcripts in the CeA and in the BLA after body restraint. Thus, we performed intracellular electrophysiological recordings of GABAA-mediated IPSPs in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) to explore functional interactions between CRF and N/OFQ systems in this brain region. Acute application of CRF significantly increased IPSPs in the CeA, and this enhancement was blocked by N/OFQ. Importantly, in stress-restraint rats, baseline CeA GABAergic responses were elevated and N/OFQ exerted a larger inhibition of IPSPs compared with unrestraint rats. The NOP antagonist [Nphe1]-nociceptin(1–13)NH2 increased the IPSP amplitudes in restraint rats but not in unrestraint rats, suggesting a functional recruitment of the N/OFQ system after acute stress. Finally, we evaluated the anxiety-like response in rats subjected to restraint stress and nonrestraint rats after N/OFQ microinjection into the CeA. Intra-CeA injections of N/OFQ significantly and selectively reduced anxiety-like behavior in restraint rats in the elevated plus maze. These combined results demonstrate that acute stress increases N/OFQ systems in the CeA and that N/OFQ has antistress properties. PMID:24403138

  13. Surgical Instrument Restraint in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Dawson, David L.; Melton, Shannon; Hooker, Dona; Cantu, Hilda

    2000-01-01

    Performing a surgical procedure during spaceflight will become more likely with longer duration missions in the near future. Minimal surgical capability has been present on previous missions as the definitive medical care time was short and the likelihood of surgical events too low to justify surgical hardware availability. Early demonstrations of surgical procedures in the weightlessness of parabolic flight indicated the need for careful logistical planning and restraint of surgical hardware. The consideration of human ergonomics also has more impact in weightlessness than in the conventionall-g environment. Three methods of surgical instrument restraint - a Minor Surgical Kit (MSK), a Surgical Restraint Scrub Suit (SRSS), and a Surgical Tray (ST) were evaluated in parabolic flight surgical procedures. The Minor Surgical Kit was easily stored, easily deployed, and demonstrated the best ability to facilitate a surgical procedure in weightlessness. Important factors in this surgical restraint system include excellent organization of supplies, ability to maintain sterility, accessibility while providing secure restraint, ability to dispose of sharp items and biological trash, and ergonomical efficiency.

  14. A New and Innovative Use of the Thermal Knife and Kevlar Cord Components in a Restraint and Release System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Alphonso; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Kevlar cord and two thermal knives are key components in the Soar Array Restraint and Release System (SARRS) on the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SARRS uses a 25-foot (7.62 m) length Kevlar cord that encircles the spacecraft and secures the solar panels in stowed configuration for launch. Once in orbit, one of two redundantly configured thermal knives severs the Kevlar cord and permits the panels to deploy. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the design, development test results, and the various innovations that were created during the development of this novel use of the thermal knife and Kevlar cord.

  15. Splenic Trauma as an Adverse Effect of Torso-Protecting Side Airbags: Biomechanical and Case Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Brasel, Karen J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    Injury mechanisms from frontal airbags, first identified in anecdotal reports, are now well documented for pediatric, small female, and out-of-position occupants. In contrast, torso side airbags have not yet been consistently associated with specific injury risks in field assessments. To determine possible torso side airbag-related injuries, the present study identified crashes involving side airbags from reports within the CIREN, NASS, and SCI databases. Injury patterns were compared to patterns from lateral crashes in absence of side airbag. Splenic trauma (AIS 3+) was found present in five cases of torso side airbag deployment at lower impact severity (as measured by velocity change and compartment intrusion) than cases of splenic trauma without side airbag. Five additional cases were found to contain similar injury patterns but occurred with greater crash severity. To supplement case analyses, full scale sled tests were conducted with a THOR-NT dummy and cadaveric specimen. Four THOR tests with door- and seat-mounted torso side airbags confirmed that out-of-position (early inflation stage) airbag contact elevated thoracic injury metrics compared to optimal (fully inflated) contact. Out-of-position seat-mounted airbag deployment also produced AIS 3 splenic trauma in the cadaveric specimen. Due to potentially sudden or delayed onset of intraperitoneal hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock following splenic trauma, further biomechanical investigation of this anecdotal evidence is essential to identify injury mechanisms, prevention techniques, and methods for early diagnosis. PMID:20184829

  16. Restraint Method of Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion in Distribution Network by Power Conditioner Systems using Measured Data from IT Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Shimoda, Kazuki; Tanaka, Motohiro; Taoka, Hisao; Matsuki, Junya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro

    Recently, the amount of distributed generation (DG) such as photovoltaic system and wind power generator system installed in a distribution system has been increasing because of reduction of the effects on the environment. However, the harmonic troubles in the distribution system are apprehended in the background of the increase of connection of DGs through the inverters and the spread of power electronics equipment. In this paper, the authors propose a restraint method of voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) in a whole distribution network by active filter (AF) operation of plural power conditioner systems (PCS). Moreover, the authors propose a determination method of the optimal gain of AF operation so as to minimize the maximum value of voltage THD in the distribution network by the real-time feedback control with measured data from the information technology (IT) switches. In order to verify the validity of the proposed method, the numerical calculations are carried out by using an analytical model of distribution network interconnected DGs with PCS.

  17. Deflated Airbags and Petal in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of the lander's deflated airbags and a petal are at the lower area of this view, imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A lander petal and deflated airbag are at the bottom of the image.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  18. Assessment of a three-point restraint system with a pre-tensioned lap belt and an inflatable, force-limited shoulder belt.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Dennis, Nate J; Lessley, David; Forman, Jason; Higuchi, Kazuo; Tanji, Hiromasa; Ato, Tadayuki; Kameyoshi, Hikaru; Arbogast, Kristy

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the performance of a 3-point restraint system incorporating an inflatable shoulder belt with a nominal 2.5-kN load limiter and a non-inflatable lap belt with a pretensioner (the "Airbelt"). Frontal impacts with PMHS in a rear seat environment are presented and the Airbelt system is contrasted with an earlier 3-point system with inflatable lap and shoulder belts but no load-limiter or pretensioners, which was evaluated with human volunteers in the 1970s but not fully reported in the open literature (the "Inflataband"). Key differences between the systems include downward pelvic motion and torso recline with the Inflataband, while the pelvis moved almost horizontally and the torso pitched forward with the Airbelt. One result of these kinematic differences was an overall more biomechanically favorable restraint loading but greater maximum forward head excursion with the Airbelt. The Airbelt is shown to generate generally lower head, neck, and thoracic injury metrics and PMHS trauma than other, non-inflatable rear-seat restraint concepts (viz., a standard 3-point belt and a pre-tensioned shoulder belt with a progressive load limiter). Further study is needed to evaluate the Airbelt system for different size occupants (e.g., children), non-frontal impact vectors, and for out-of-position occupants and to allow the results with this particular system to be generalized to a broader range of Airbelt designs. PMID:22869308

  19. Restraint stress in biomedical research: an update.

    PubMed

    Glavin, G B; Paré, W P; Sandbak, T; Bakke, H K; Murison, R

    1994-01-01

    Since the publication of our initial review of restraint stress in 1986, much work has continued with this technique, either as a tool for the investigation of other pharmacological, physiological, or pathologic phenomena or with restraint stress itself serving as the object of the study. As we noted in 1986, the major use of restraint has been for the induction of stress responses in animals and, more specifically, for the investigation of drug effects, particularly as they affect typical stress-related pathology--gastrointestinal, neuroendocrine, and immunological agents have been extensively studied. In compiling this update on restraint stress and its effects, we noted an increasing emphasis on central nervous system mechanisms in peripheral disease, especially gastrointestinal disease. In particular, many CNS-active agents have been tested for their effects on gastric and duodenal lesion formation and gastric secretion, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, noradrenergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and peptidergic compounds. Some of these agents are especially active in the gastrointestinal tract even when administered centrally, further solidifying the concept of a brain-gut axis. The present update includes studies of: methods and procedures, pre-restraint manipulations, post-restraint/healing effects, and drug effects. In addition, a current bibliography of reports that have employed restraint is included. PMID:8058215

  20. Head impact mechanisms of a child occupant seated in a child restraint system as determined by impact testing.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoichi; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Mizuno, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Naruyuki

    2011-11-01

    In side collision accidents, the head is the most frequently injured body region for child occupants seated in a child restraint system (CRS). Accident analyses show that a child's head can move out of the CRS shell, make hard contact with the vehicle interior, and thus sustain serious injuries. In order to improve child head protection in side collisions, it is necessary to understand the injury mechanism of a child in the CRS whose head makes contact with the vehicle interior. In this research, an SUV-to-car oblique side crash test was conducted to reconstruct such head contacts. A Q3s child dummy was seated in a CRS in the rear seat of the target car. The Q3s child dummy's head moved out beyond the CRS side wing, moved laterally, and made contact with the side window glass and the doorsill. It was demonstrated that the hard head contact, which produced a high HIC value, could occur in side collisions. A series of sled tests was carried out to reproduce the dummy kinematic behavior observed in the SUV-to-car crash test, and the sled test conditions such as sled angle, ECE seat slant angle and velocity-time history that duplicated the kinematic behavior were determined. A parametric study also was conducted with the sled tests; and it was found that the impact angle, harness slack, chest clip, and the CRS side wing shape affected the torso motion and head contact with the vehicle interior. PMID:22869307

  1. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system issues in the real world and the virtual world: combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter J; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E

    2007-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that transit providers accommodate passengers who use "common wheelchairs" when traveling in a motor vehicle. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems are commonly used to secure wheelchairs and restrain occupants in fixed-route and demand route transit vehicles. Throughout the 17 years since the Americans with Disabilities Act has been in effect, transit providers have complained about the usability of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems, and improper securement has been linked to injuries among wheelchair users during "nonimpact incidents." This research study explored the use of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems in actual practice and the potential risks of misuse to wheelchair-seated individuals. The qualitative research conducted in this study revealed that improper wheelchair securement (i.e. using less than four tiedown straps) can be fairly common practice in fixed-route transit. In addition, preliminary computer simulations show that improper wheelchair securement in emergency driving conditions may place wheelchair occupants at a greater risk of injury. It should be noted, however, that this is a pilot study and has its limitations. For example, qualitative data were gathered from one metropolitan area transit provider across a limited range of vehicle and wheelchair types. Additionally, the computer simulation model used in this study was originally validated for impact situations. PMID:18335708

  2. Prehensile Foot Restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willits, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed prehensile foot restraint enables such workers as astronauts and divers to maintain fixed positions in zero gravity or in buoyancy with minimal effort. With foot restraint worker devotes attention fully to task at hand, with little concern about holding on to supporting structure. Claw near toe of shoe grips rail. Wearer uses flexible shaft, first to lock claw tightly on bar; then, when work is done, to open claw. Underwater or in space, device boosts productivity.

  3. Oxytocin via its receptor affects restraint stress-induced methamphetamine CPP reinstatement in mice: Involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-Yan; Du, Ping; Fu, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Fang; Song, Ming; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yang, Jing-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Our previous study revealed that intracerebroventricular oxytocin (OT) markedly inhibited the restraint stress-priming conditioned place preference (CPP) reinstatement induced by methamphetamine (MAP) via the glutamatergic system. In this study, the effect of microinjection with OT into mesocorticolimbic regions, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the dorsal hippocampus (DHC), on the restraint stress-priming CPP reinstatement were further studied. The results showed that a 15-min restraint stress significantly reinstated MAP-induced CPP, which was inhibited by the microinjection of OT (0.5 and 2.5μg/μl/mouse) into the mPFC. Atosiban (Ato), a selective inhibitor of OT receptor, could absolutely block the effect of OT (2.5μg/μl/mouse). The reinstatement was inhibited by microinjecting with OT (2.5 but not 0.5μg/μl/mouse) into the DHC, which could not be reversed by Ato. Western blotting results showed that the levels of GLT1, VGLUT2, NR2B, p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB expressions in the mPFC were increased and CaMKII was decreased markedly after the stress-priming MAP-induced CPP reinstatement test. OT blocked the changing levels of GLT1, VGLUT2, NR2B, p-CREB and CaMK II, which were reversed by Ato, but failed to affect the elevated expression of p-ERK1/2. In DHC, the levels of VGLUT2, p-ERK1/2 and CREB expressions were reduced during the stress-induced reinstatement, which could be reversed by OT and further abolished by Ato. The present results suggest that mPFC and DHC play differential roles in restraint stress-priming CPP reinstatement induced by MAP and OT via OT receptor affects the reinstatement in which the glutamatergic system is involved. PMID:24269543

  4. A restraint-free small animal SPECT imaging system with motion tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, A.G.; Gleason, S.S.; Goddard, J.; Kross, B.; Majewski, S.; Meikle, S.R.; Paulus, M.J.; Pomper, M.; Popov, V.; Smith, M.F.; Welch, B.L.; Wojcik, R.

    2005-06-01

    We report on an approach toward the development of a high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system to image the biodistribution of radiolabeled tracers such as Tc-99m and I-125 in unrestrained/unanesthetized mice. An infrared (IR)-based position tracking apparatus has been developed and integrated into a SPECT gantry. The tracking system is designed to measure the spatial position of a mouse's head at a rate of 10-15 frames per second with submillimeter accuracy. The high-resolution, gamma imaging detectors are based on pixellated NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator arrays, position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, and novel readout circuitry requiring fewer analog-digital converter (ADC) channels while retaining high spatial resolution. Two SPECT gamma camera detector heads based upon position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes have been built and installed onto the gantry. The IR landmark-based pose measurement and tracking system is under development to provide animal position data during a SPECT scan. The animal position and orientation data acquired by the tracking system will be used for motion correction during the tomographic image reconstruction.

  5. TRIO Platform: A Novel Low Profile In vivo Imaging Support and Restraint System for Mice

    PubMed Central

    Voziyanov, Vladislav; Kemp, Benjamin S.; Dressel, Chelsea A.; Ponder, Kayla; Murray, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    High resolution, in vivo optical imaging of the mouse brain over time often requires anesthesia, which necessitates maintaining the animal's body temperature and level of anesthesia, as well as securing the head in an optimal, stable position. Controlling each parameter usually requires using multiple systems. Assembling multiple components into the small space on a standard microscope stage can be difficult and some commercially available parts simply do not fit. Furthermore, it is time-consuming to position an animal in the identical position over multiple imaging sessions for longitudinal studies. This is especially true when using an implanted gradient index (GRIN) lens for deep brain imaging. The multiphoton laser beam must be parallel with the shaft of the lens because even a slight tilt of the lens can degrade image quality. In response to these challenges, we have designed a compact, integrated in vivo imaging support system to overcome the problems created by using separate systems during optical imaging in mice. It is a single platform that provides (1) sturdy head fixation, (2) an integrated gas anesthesia mask, and (3) safe warm water heating. This THREE-IN-ONE (TRIO) Platform has a small footprint and a low profile that positions a mouse's head only 20 mm above the microscope stage. This height is about one half to one third the height of most commercially available immobilization devices. We have successfully employed this system, using isoflurane in over 40 imaging sessions with an average of 2 h per session with no leaks or other malfunctions. Due to its smaller size, the TRIO Platform can be used with a wider range of upright microscopes and stages. Most of the components were designed in SOLIDWORKS® and fabricated using a 3D printer. This additive manufacturing approach also readily permits size modifications for creating systems for other small animals. PMID:27199633

  6. TRIO Platform: A Novel Low Profile In vivo Imaging Support and Restraint System for Mice.

    PubMed

    Voziyanov, Vladislav; Kemp, Benjamin S; Dressel, Chelsea A; Ponder, Kayla; Murray, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    High resolution, in vivo optical imaging of the mouse brain over time often requires anesthesia, which necessitates maintaining the animal's body temperature and level of anesthesia, as well as securing the head in an optimal, stable position. Controlling each parameter usually requires using multiple systems. Assembling multiple components into the small space on a standard microscope stage can be difficult and some commercially available parts simply do not fit. Furthermore, it is time-consuming to position an animal in the identical position over multiple imaging sessions for longitudinal studies. This is especially true when using an implanted gradient index (GRIN) lens for deep brain imaging. The multiphoton laser beam must be parallel with the shaft of the lens because even a slight tilt of the lens can degrade image quality. In response to these challenges, we have designed a compact, integrated in vivo imaging support system to overcome the problems created by using separate systems during optical imaging in mice. It is a single platform that provides (1) sturdy head fixation, (2) an integrated gas anesthesia mask, and (3) safe warm water heating. This THREE-IN-ONE (TRIO) Platform has a small footprint and a low profile that positions a mouse's head only 20 mm above the microscope stage. This height is about one half to one third the height of most commercially available immobilization devices. We have successfully employed this system, using isoflurane in over 40 imaging sessions with an average of 2 h per session with no leaks or other malfunctions. Due to its smaller size, the TRIO Platform can be used with a wider range of upright microscopes and stages. Most of the components were designed in SOLIDWORKS® and fabricated using a 3D printer. This additive manufacturing approach also readily permits size modifications for creating systems for other small animals. PMID:27199633

  7. Special Purpose Crew Restraints for Teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina; Norris, Lena

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and long duration space missions being planned for the moon and Mars, humans will be living and working in microgravity over increasingly long periods of time. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility, and access to the activity area. These challenges can result in prolonged periods of unnatural postures for the crew, ultimately causing pain, injury, and loss of productivity. Determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment is crucial to mission success. While a number of general purpose restraints have been used on ISS (handrails, foot loops), experience has shown that these general purpose restraints may not be optimal, or even acceptable for some tasks that have unique requirements. For example, some onboard activities require extreme stability (e.g., glovebox microsurgery), and others involve the use of arm, torso and foot movements in order to perform the task (e-g. robotic teleoperation); standard restraint systems will not work in these situations. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (WAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center began evaluations of crew restraints for these special situations by looking at NASAs Robonaut. Developed by the Robot Systems Technology Branch, Robonaut is a humanoid robot that can be remotely operated through a tetepresence control system by an operator. It was designed to perform work in hazardous environments (e.g., Extra Vehicular Activities). A Robonaut restraint was designed, modeled for the population, and ultimately tested onboard the KC-135 microgravity aircraft. While in microgravity, participants were asked to get in and out of the restraint from different locations, perform maximum reach exercises, and finally to teleoperate Robonaut while in the restraint. The sessions were videotaped

  8. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  9. The Physical Restraint Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Professional and government committees are examining use of physical restraints with troubled youth as a result of reports of problems with its use. Examples of what is being done to improve practice standards in area of crisis intervention include limiting how often restrictive procedures can be use; stating the technique must never negatively…

  10. Bedrails: restraints or enablers?

    PubMed

    Mullette, Betty; Zulkowski, Karen

    2004-08-01

    Bedrails presently are used as both mobility restraints and enablers in long-term care facilities. As enablers, bedrails facilitate movement and may reduce the risk of pressure ulcer development. As restraints, they impede movement and may increase risk of ulcer development. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act regulations on restraint use have led to confusion for state Medicare surveyors and facilities regarding the definition of appropriate bedrail use and need for supportive documentation. Consequently, some facilities receive deficiency citations for inappropriate use or documentation while others do not. The purpose of this survey was to compare responses of Directors of Nursing in long-term care facilities and Medicare state surveyors to determine how each interprets the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act bedrail language for use and documentation. Questionnaires on bedrail use and documentation were sent to state surveyors and Directors of Nursing. One hundred, three (103) Directors of Nursing in 45 states and 65 surveyors from 39 states participated in the survey (response rate 61%). Study results demonstrated general acceptance of bedrail use as an enabler but not as a restraint by both Directors of Nursing and state surveyors. Four percent (4%) of Directors of Nursing reported receiving a citation for bedrail use and 59% of surveyors reported issuing citations for bedrail use. Significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding appropriate bedrail use and necessary documentation. The intent of Medicare guidelines and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services is to standardize care for nursing home residents in the United States; yet, current regulations are open to individual interpretation by state surveyors and confusion exists between the intent of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act and the daily operations of nursing homes. Educating clinicians about the risks and benefits of bedrail use, either as restraint or enabler, and

  11. Airbags to Martian Landers: Analyses at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, K.W.

    1994-03-01

    A new direction for the national laboratories is to assist US business with research and development, primarily through cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs). Technology transfer to the private sector has been very successful as over 200 CRADAs are in place at Sandia. Because of these cooperative efforts, technology has evolved into some new areas not commonly associated with the former mission of the national laboratories. An example of this is the analysis of fabric structures. Explicit analyses and expertise in constructing parachutes led to the development of a next generation automobile airbag; which led to the construction, testing, and analysis of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mars Environmental Survey Lander; and finally led to the development of CAD based custom garment designs using 3D scanned images of the human body. The structural analysis of these fabric structures is described as well as a more traditional example Sandia with the test/analysis correlation of the impact of a weapon container.

  12. Airbag and ASI/MET instrument in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view from the lander was imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A deflated airbag is at the bottom of the image. At the extreme right, the Atmospheric Structure Instrument and Meteorology package (ASI/MET)mast, with its three windsocks, is visible.are at the bottom right of the image.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  13. The Temptation and Restraint Inventory for measuring drinking restraint.

    PubMed

    Collins, R L; Lapp, W M

    1992-04-01

    In the present study, the measurement of drinking restraint was broadened by developing new items that better characterized its cognitive nature as well as by testing a factor structure which represents restraint as including both the regulation and the failure to regulate alcohol intake. A previously observed (Collins, George & Lapp, 1989) three-component structure of the Restrained Drinking Scale (RDS; Ruderman & McKirnan, 1984) was confirmed. In addition, two factors were extracted from the new set of cognitive items, which when combined with the RDS clusters formed a new measure of drinking restraint, the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). The factor structure of the TRI matched the conceptualization of drinking restraint as involving successful and unsuccessful regulation of alcohol intake, and differentially predicted self-reported weekly consumption and alcohol-related problems. PMID:1591514

  14. Direct and collateral effects of restraints and restraint fading.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W W; Piazza, C C; Bowman, L G; Hanley, G P; Adelinis, J D

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical restraints are commonly used to reduce the risks associated with severe self-injurious behavior (SIB), but may result in movement restriction and adverse side effects (e.g., bone demineralization). Restraint fading may provide a method for decreasing SIB while increasing movement and reducing these side effects. In the current investigation, rigid arm sleeves and restraint fading (gradually reducing the rigidity of the sleeves) were used with 3 clients who engaged in hand-to-head SIB. Restraints and fading reduced the hand-to-head SIB of all clients. However, for 1 client, the addition of a water mist procedure further reduced SIB to near-zero levels. For a 2nd client, another form of SIB developed that was not prevented by the rigid sleeves. For a 3rd client, a topography of SIB that was not physically prevented by the rigid sleeves was also reduced when restraints and fading were introduced. PMID:9103987

  15. Dynamic PIV measurement of a compressible flow issuing from an airbag inflator nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Jang, Young Gil; Kim, Seok; Kim, Chang Soo

    2006-12-01

    Among many equipment for passenger safety, the air bag system is the most fundamental and effective device for an automobile. The inflator housing is a main part of the curtain-type air bag system, which supplies high-pressure gases in pumping up the air bag-curtain which is increasingly being adapted in deluxe cars for protecting passengers from the danger of side clash. However, flow information on the inflator housing is very limited. In this study, we measure the instantaneous velocity fields of a high-speed compressible flow issuing from the exit nozzle of an inflator housing using a dynamic PIV system. From the velocity field data measured at a high frame-rate, we evaluate the variation of the mass flow rate with time. The dynamic PIV system consists of a high-repetition Nd:YLF laser, a high-speed CMOS camera, and a delay generator. The flow images are taken at 4000 fps with synchronization of the trigger signal for inflator ignition. From the instantaneous velocity field data of flow ejecting from the airbag inflator housing at the initial stage, we can see a flow pattern of broken shock wave front and its downward propagation. The flow ejecting from the inflator housing is found to have very high velocity fluctuations, with the maximum velocity at about 700 m/s. The time duration of the high-speed flow is very short, and there is no perceptible flow after 100 ms.

  16. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    concept based on previous flight experiences, the needs of future tasks, and crewmembers' preferences. Also, a catalog with existing IVA/EVA restraint and mobility aids has been developed. Other efforts included the ISS crew debrief data on restraints, compilation of data from MIR, Skylab and ISS on restraints, and investigating possibility of an in-flight evaluation of current restraint systems. Preliminary restraint concepts were developed and presented to long duration crewmembers and focus groups for feedback. Currently, a selection criterion is being refined for prioritizing the candidate concepts. Next steps include analytical and computer modeling evaluations of the selected candidate concepts, prototype development, and microgravity evaluations.

  17. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  18. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  19. Computer simulation of occupant neck response to airbag deployment in frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Yang, K H; Latouf, B K; King, A I

    1992-08-01

    A mathematical simulation was performed to study the potential of head and neck injury to an unbelted driver restrained by an airbag. The baseline study represented a 50th percentile male dummy driving in a compact car with the steering wheel perpendicular to the floor. The vehicle was moving at 48 km/hour at the time of impact. Model predictions were compared with sled test results. The data agreed reasonably well. A parametric study was performed to study the effect of changing the steering wheel angle and the size of the airbag. It was found that when the standard 20 degrees angle steering wheel was used, neck joint torques were decreased by 22 percent while the resultant head acceleration increased 41 percent from the base line study. When the vertical dimension of the airbag was reduced by 10 percent, neck joint torques were increased by 14 percent, while head acceleration showed a slight decrease of 9 percent. PMID:1522726

  20. Investigating occupant safety through simulating the interaction between side curtain airbag deployment and an out-of-position occupant.

    PubMed

    Potula, S R; Solanki, K N; Oglesby, D L; Tschopp, M A; Bhatia, M A

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the effect of side curtain airbag deployment on occupant injuries and safety when the occupant is either in-position or out-of-position (OOP). We used side impact vehicle collision simulations with a 1996 Dodge Neon model, which was further modified to include a side curtain airbag, a seatbelt, and a 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy. The airbag used in the study was inflated using both the uniform pressure (UP) and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods. In-position and OOP simulations were performed to assess and establish guidelines for airbag aggressivity thresholds and occupant position versus risk of injury. Three different OOP scenarios (OOP1, OOP2, OOP3) were initially setup following the work of Lund (2003), then modified such that the dummy's head was closer to the airbag, increasing the chance of injury caused by the airbag. The resultant head acceleration as a function of time for in-position and OOP simulations shows that both UP and SPH methods produce similar peak accelerations in cases where the airbag is fully inflated prior to impact. In all cases, the head peak accelerations and the head injury criteria for simulations with an airbag were significantly lower when compared with the no airbag case, which would typically indicate that the use of an airbag results in improved occupant protection during side impact. However, in the case of OOP2 and OOP3, the neck flexion forces actually increase significantly when compared with the no airbag case. This finding indicates that the HIC and neck flexion forces criterion are in conflict and that there may be a tradeoff in terms of occupant injury/safety with a side curtain airbag that is strongly correlated to the occupant position. Consequently, this study shows that safety devices result in a significant effect on occupant injury/safety when the occupant is in OOP conditions. Moreover, in some cases, simulation results show that the side curtain airbag

  1. Biomechanical and injury response to posterolateral loading from torso side airbags.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2010-11-01

    This study characterized thoracoabdominal response to posterolateral loading from a seat-mounted side airbag. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subjects were exposed to ten airbag deployments. Subjects were positioned such that the deploying airbag first contacted the posterolateral thorax between T6 and L1 while stationary (n = 3 x 2 aspects) or while subjected to left lateral sled impact at ΔV = 6.7 m/s (n = 4). Chestband contours were analyzed to quantify deformation direction in the thoracic x-y plane (zero degrees indicating anterior and 180° indicating posterior), magnitude, rate, and viscous response. Skeletal injuries were consistent with posterolateral contact; visceral injuries consisted of renal (n = 1) or splenic (n = 3) lacerations. Deformation direction was transient during sled impact, progressing from 122 ± 5° at deformation onset to 90° following maximum deflection. Angles from stationary subjects progressed from 141 ± 9° to 120°. Peak normalized deflections, peak rates, and VCmax ranges were 0.075 - 0.171, 3.7 - 12.7 m/s, and 0.3 - 0.6 m/s with stationary airbag, respectively; ranges were 0.167 - 0.297, 7.4 - 18.3 m/s, and 0.7 - 3.0 m/s with airbag sled impact, respectively. Peak deflections were measured at angles between 99° - 135° and 98° - 125° for stationary and dynamic conditions, respectively. Because of deflection angle transience and localized injury response, both posterolateral and lateral injury metrics may be required for this boundary condition. Contrasted with flat rigid or anterolateral loading, biomechanical response to side airbag interaction may be augmented by peak normalized deflection or VCmax at 130°. PMID:21512911

  2. Biomechanical and Injury Response to Posterolateral Loading from Torso Side Airbags

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized thoracoabdominal response to posterolateral loading from a seat-mounted side airbag. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subjects were exposed to ten airbag deployments. Subjects were positioned such that the deploying airbag first contacted the posterolateral thorax between T6 and L1 while stationary (n = 3 × 2 aspects) or while subjected to left lateral sled impact at ΔV = 6.7 m/s (n = 4). Chestband contours were analyzed to quantify deformation direction in the thoracic x–y plane (zero degrees indicating anterior and 180° indicating posterior), magnitude, rate, and viscous response. Skeletal injuries were consistent with posterolateral contact; visceral injuries consisted of renal (n = 1) or splenic (n = 3) lacerations. Deformation direction was transient during sled impact, progressing from 122 ± 5° at deformation onset to 90° following maximum deflection. Angles from stationary subjects progressed from 141 ± 9° to 120°. Peak normalized deflections, peak rates, and VCmax ranges were 0.075 – 0.171, 3.7 – 12.7 m/s, and 0.3 – 0.6 m/s with stationary airbag, respectively; ranges were 0.167 – 0.297, 7.4 – 18.3 m/s, and 0.7 – 3.0 m/s with airbag sled impact, respectively. Peak deflections were measured at angles between 99° – 135° and 98° – 125° for stationary and dynamic conditions, respectively. Because of deflection angle transience and localized injury response, both posterolateral and lateral injury metrics may be required for this boundary condition. Contrasted with flat rigid or anterolateral loading, biomechanical response to side airbag interaction may be augmented by peak normalized deflection or VCmax at 130°. PMID:21512911

  3. Restraint Theory: The Search for a Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Michael R.

    A review of research indicates that cognitive restraint is insufficient in accounting for the relationship between restraint and negative affect eating. To explore what mechanism may be responsible for restraint effects, college students in two samples (Total N=378) completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TEQ), a restraint scale…

  4. Improving patient care through implementation of nurse-driven restraint protocols.

    PubMed

    Winston, P A; Morelli, P; Bramble, J; Friday, A; Sanders, J B

    1999-08-01

    Nationally, much attention has been placed on the indiscriminate application and abuse of restraint usage. This was the impetus for health care institutions across the country to relook at the policy, practices, and procedures regarding restraints. Our health care system made changes to our restraint policy, practice guidelines, and procedures in an effort to assure protection of the patients' health and safety while preserving their dignity, rights, and well-being. The mission was to pursue a restraint-appropriate environment by restraining only those patients who were assessed as being at risk of harming self and to protect the patient or others from injury. Our overall goal was to reduce restraint usage. This article describes the current policies, practice guidelines, and procedures for identifying clinically appropriate and adequately justified situations for restraint usage. The focus is on implementation of nurse-driven restraint protocols to improve patient care. All efforts directed at improvements in restraint usage and management of a patient in restraints has reduced our overall numbers of patients in restraints as well as significantly reduced risk of incidence for patients in restraints. PMID:10476623

  5. Wheelchair integrated occupant restraints: feasibility in frontal impact.

    PubMed

    VanRoosmalen, L; Bertocci, G E; Ha, D; Karg, P

    2001-12-01

    Individuals often use their wheelchair as a motor vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles. The current use of fixed vehicle-mounted wheelchair occupant restraint systems (FWORSs) often results in poor belt fit and discomfort. Additionally, satisfaction, usability and usage rate of FWORSs during transit use are often low. The automotive industry has shown improved occupant restraint usage, belt fit and injury protection when integrating the upper torso and pelvic restraint in a motor vehicle seat. This study compared occupant injury measures of a FWORS to a concept wheelchair integrated restraint system (WIRS) using a 20g frontal sled impact test with a 30 mph change in velocity. Neck loads, neck moments, head, pelvis and chest acceleration, sternum compression and knee and head excursion data were recorded from the wheelchair seated 50th percentile male hybrid III anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD). The WIRS resulted in a lower head injury criteria (HIC) value, lower sternum compression and a lower upper-torso restraint load than the FWORS. Compared with the FWORS, increased head, knee and wheelchair excursions and higher neck loads and moments were measured in the WIRS test. Both restraint scenario injury parameters were complied with occupant injury criteria based on General Motors Injury Assessment Reference Values (GM-IARVs) and occupant kinematic requirements defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) voluntary standard, J2249. A higher motion criteria index was calculated for the WIRS scenario and a comparable combined injury criteria index was calculated for both restraint scenarios. The sled impact test showed WIRS concept feasibility, facilitating further development by industrial manufacturers who might further want to pursue this restraint principle to increase wheelchair occupant safety and comfort during transport in motor vehicles. PMID:11801410

  6. Need for airbag and seatbelt to reduce orbital injuries from steering wheel knob.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to report a blowout fracture of the orbital floor and medial wall caused by being struck by a steering wheel knob of an automobile and to discuss the use of airbags and seatbelts as a preventive measure for orbital injuries. A 58-year-old man was struck in the left eye by a steering wheel. His car hit a telephone pole, and he had a frontal collision injury. In this frontal impact, his left eye was hit by a Brodie knob attached to the steering wheel. At the time of injury, the speed of the car was about 65 km/h. He was not wearing a seatbelt, and the airbag had not deployed. Swelling and ecchymosis were observed at the left periorbital area, and he had diplopia on a left-side gaze. A CT revealed fractures in the medial and inferior wall of the left orbit. Entrapped soft tissues were reduced, and the medial wall and floor were reconstructed with a resorbable sheet. His diplopia disappeared 12 days after surgery. To prevent the injury from the steering wheel knob, an airbag should be installed in any vehicle, which has a steering wheel knob. Legislation mandating the use of airbags as well as seatbelts in vehicles with attached steering wheel knobs should be made. PMID:25376138

  7. TORSO SIDE AIRBAG OUT-OF-POSITION EVALUATION USING STATIONARY AND DYNAMIC OCCUPANTS

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    The risk of injury from torso side airbags in out-of-position (OOP) scenarios is assessed using stationary occupant conditions. Although stationary tests have been effective in frontal airbag assessments, their applicability to torso side airbags remains uncertain. Using the MADAYMO facet occupant model, thoracic OOP injury was evaluated using full-chest compression criteria (%C) and viscous criteria (VC) under stationary occupant conditions and occupant impact velocities of 6.0 m/s, 7.0 m/s, 8.0 m/s, and 9.0 m/s. During airbag deployment with a stationary occupant, peak %C = 21.8 % while peak VC = 0.86. At 6.0 m/s impact velocity, peak %C increased to 35.1 %; at 9.0 m/s impact velocity %C = 45.0 %. Similarly, peak VC increased from 1.19 at 6.0 m/s and to 1.96 at 9.0 m/s. These results demonstrated that thoracic injury metrics %C and VC increased in dynamic testing conditions. Therefore dynamic occupant tests may be required to effectively assess OOP thoracic injury risk. PMID:19096733

  8. End effector with astronaut foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a foot restraint platform designed primarily for use by an astronaut being rigidly and permanently attached to an end effector which is suitable for attachment to the manipulator arm of a remote manipulating system is described. The foot restraint platform is attached by a brace to the end effector at a location away from the grappling interface of the end effector. The platform comprises a support plate provided with a pair of stirrups for receiving the toe portion of an astronaut's boots when standing on the platform and a pair of heel retainers in the form of raised members which are fixed to the surface of the platform and located to provide abutment surfaces for abutting engagement with the heels of the astronaut's boots when his toes are in the stirrups. The heel retainers preclude a backward sliding movement of the feet on the platform and instead require a lifting of the heels in order to extract the feet. The brace for attaching the foot restraint platform to the end effector may include a pivot or swivel joint to permit various orientations of the platform with respect to the end effector.

  9. The Impact of Seat belts and Airbags on High Grade Renal Injuries and Nephrectomy Rates in Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A; Fantus, Richard J.; Mellett, Michele M.; Fantus, Richard J.; Villines, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the most common cause of blunt genitourinary trauma. We compared renal injuries with no protective device to those with seat belts and/or airbags utilizing the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Our primary endpoint was a reduction in high-grade renal injuries (grades III-V) with a secondary endpoint of reduction in nephrectomy rate. Materials and Methods The NTDB research datasets, admission year 2010, 2011, and 2012, were queried for MVC occupants with renal injury. Subjects were stratified by protective device and airbag deployment. Abbreviated Injury Score was converted to American Association for the Surgery of Trauma renal injury grade and nephrectomy rates were evaluated. Intergroup comparisons were analyzed for renal injury grades, nephrectomy, length of stay, and mortality with chi-square or one-way ANOVA. Protective device relative risk reduction was determined. Results A review of 466,028 MVCs revealed 3,846 renal injuries. Injured occupants without a protective device had a higher rate of high grade renal injury (45.1%) compared to those with seat belts (39.9%, p=0.008), airbags (42.3%, p=0.317), and seat belts with airbags (34.7%, p<0.001). Seat belts (20.0%, p<0.001), airbags (10.5% p<0.001), and seat belts with airbags (13.3%, p<0.001) reduced the rate of nephrectomy compared to no protective device (56.2%). The combination of seatbelts and airbags also reduced total hospital length of stay (p<0.001) and ICU days (p=0.005). Relative risk reduction of high-grade renal injuries (23.1%) and nephrectomy (39.9%) were highest for combined protective devices. Conclusions Occupants of MVCs with protective devices have reduced rates of high-grade renal injury and nephrectomy. Reduction appears most pronounced with the combination of seat belts and airbags. PMID:24846798

  10. Development and testing of a restraint free small animal SPECT imaging system with infrared based motion tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, A.G.; Kross, B.; Gleason, S.S.; Goddard, J.; Majewski, S.; Meikle, S.R.; Paulus, M.J.; Pomper, M.; Popov, V.; Smith, M.F.; Welch, B.L.; Wojcik, R.

    2003-10-01

    The development and initial evaluation of a high-resolution single photon emission tomography (SPECT) based system to image the biodistribution of radiolabeled tracers such as Tc-99m and I-125 in unrestrained/un-anesthetized mice. An infrared (IR) based position tracking apparatus has been developed and integrated into a SPECT gantry. The tracking system is designed to measure the spatial position of a mouse's head at a rate of 10-15 frames per second with sub-millimeter accuracy. The high resolution, gamma imaging detectors are based on pixelated NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator arrays, arrays of compact position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes and novel readout circuitry for lower device cost while retaining high spatial resolution. Two SPECT gamma camera detector heads based on a 4 /spl times/ 8 array of Hamamatsu R8520-C12 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes have been built and installed onto the gantry. The IR landmark-based pose measurement and tracking system is under development to provide animal position data during a SPECT scan. The animal position and orientation data acquired by the IR tracking system is used for motion correction during the tomographic image reconstruction.

  11. 21 CFR 880.6760 - Protective restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protective restraint. 880.6760 Section 880.6760... Devices § 880.6760 Protective restraint. (a) Identification. A protective restraint is a device, including but not limited to a wristlet, anklet, vest, mitt, straight jacket, body/limb holder, or other type...

  12. Enhanced rigid-bond restraints

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Andrea; Dittrich, Birger; Sheldrick, George M.

    2012-07-01

    An extension is proposed to the rigid-bond description of atomic thermal motion in crystals. The rigid-bond model [Hirshfeld (1976 ▶). Acta Cryst. A32, 239–244] states that the mean-square displacements of two atoms are equal in the direction of the bond joining them. This criterion is widely used for verification (as intended by Hirshfeld) and also as a restraint in structure refinement as suggested by Rollett [Crystallographic Computing (1970 ▶), edited by F. R. Ahmed et al., pp. 167–181. Copenhagen: Munksgaard]. By reformulating this condition, so that the relative motion of the two atoms is required to be perpendicular to the bond, the number of restraints that can be applied per anisotropic atom is increased from about one to about three. Application of this condition to 1,3-distances in addition to the 1,2-distances means that on average just over six restraints can be applied to the six anisotropic displacement parameters of each atom. This concept is tested against very high resolution data of a small peptide and employed as a restraint for protein refinement at more modest resolution (e.g. 1.7 Å)

  13. On the Application of a Response Surface Technique to Analyze Roll-over Stability of Capsules with Airbags Using LS-Dyna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.

    2008-01-01

    As NASA moves towards developing technologies needed to implement its new Exploration program, studies conducted for Apollo in the 1960's to understand the rollover stability of capsules landing are being revisited. Although rigid body kinematics analyses of the roll-over behavior of capsules on impact provided critical insight to the Apollo problem, extensive ground test programs were also used. For the new Orion spacecraft being developed to implement today's Exploration program, new air-bag designs have improved sufficiently for NASA to consider their use to mitigate landing loads to ensure crew safety and to enable re-usability of the capsule. Simple kinematics models provide only limited understanding of the behavior of these air bag systems, and more sophisticated tools must be used. In particular, NASA and its contractors are using the LS-Dyna nonlinear simulation code for impact response predictions of the full Orion vehicle with air bags by leveraging the extensive air bag prediction work previously done by the automotive industry. However, even in today's computational environment, these analyses are still high-dimensional, time consuming, and computationally intensive. To alleviate the computational burden, this paper presents an approach that uses deterministic sampling techniques and an adaptive response surface method to not only use existing LS-Dyna solutions but also to interpolate from LS-Dyna solutions to predict the stability boundaries for a capsule on airbags. Results for the stability boundary in terms of impact velocities, capsule attitude, impact plane orientation, and impact surface friction are discussed.

  14. Making the transition to restraint-free care.

    PubMed

    Blakeslee, J A; Goldman, B D; Papougenis, D; Torell, C A

    1991-02-01

    When implementing a change to restraint-free care, education and communication at all levels of the organization are powerful strategies to overcome resistance. Within each facility, there are at least six identifiable groups, with attitudes based on their educational background, life experiences and perceptions that are targets for change. An anonymous attitudinal survey and sensitivity session serve as effective "unfreezing" tools for all levels of staff to express concerns regarding physical restraints and to recognize the need for change. Change requires a slow, methodical system where specific alternatives are gradually introduced. Success with the easier cases encourages staff to continue efforts with more challenging cases. PMID:1902243

  15. Exercising restraint: autonomy, welfare and elderly patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, S

    1996-01-01

    Despite moves to enhance the autonomy of clients of health care services, the use of a variety of physical restraints on the freedom of movement of frail, elderly patients continues in nursing homes. This paper confronts the use of restraints on two grounds. First, it challenges the assumption that use of restraints is necessary to protect the welfare of frail, elderly patients by drawing on a range of data indicating the limited efficacy of restraints. Secondly, it argues that the duty to respect individual autonomy extends to a duty to respect the autonomy of patients who are elderly, frail and living in nursing homes. PMID:8798938

  16. Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, J. Matney

    2011-06-01

    Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

  17. The Effect of Obesity on the Restraint of Automobile Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-01-01

    As obesity rates increase, the protection of obese occupants will become increasingly important in vehicle and restraint design. As a first step in this effort, this study seeks to compare the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of obese post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to (approximately) 50th percentile adult male PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pre-tensioning restraint system. Forty-eight km/h, frontal impact sled tests were performed with a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant compartment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. The restraint system consisted of a 3-point belt with a pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter at the retractor. The test subjects were either obese PMHS or approximately 50th percentile adult male PMHS. Instrumentation included accelerometer packages on the spine. Deformation of the subjects' chests were measured using chestbands placed nominally at the superior-inferior locations of the 4th and 8th ribs. Tension in the restraint system was measured at the upper shoulder belt, lower shoulder belt, and the lap belt. Motion of the head, shoulder, pelvis, and knee were recorded using high-speed video. Two obese PMHS (average mass 137 kg, average stature 186 cm) and three approximately mid-sized male PMHS (average mass 68 kg, average stature 176 cm) were tested. The obese PMHS exhibited significantly greater forward motion of the head and the pelvis compared to the mid-sized PMHS. The obese PMHS also exhibited backwards torso rotation at the time of maximum forward excursion, whereas the mid-sized PMHS did not. The obese PMHS exhibited average maximum chest compressions of approximately 44% (± 9% standard deviation) of their initial chest depths, and exhibited 26 g (± 2 g) average 3 ms clip maximum chest resultant acceleration. In comparison, the mid-sized PMHS exhibited averages of 29% (± 9%) maximum chest compression and 35 g (± 4 g) maximum 3 ms clip chest acceleration. The obese PMHS exhibited 7 and 2 rib

  18. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  19. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Martin H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction.

  20. Biomechanics of side impact: Injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Gennarelli, Thomas A.; Weigelt, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of side impact trauma-related biomedical investigations with specific reference to certain aspects of epidemiology relating to the growing elderly population, improvements in technology such as side airbags geared toward occupant safety, and development of injury criteria. The first part is devoted to the involvement of the elderly by identifying variables contributing to injury including impact severity, human factors, and national and international field data. This is followed by a survey of various experimental models used in the development of injury criteria and tolerance limits. The effects of fragility of the elderly coupled with physiological changes (e.g., visual, musculoskeletal) that may lead to an abnormal seating position (termed out-of-position) especially for the driving population are discussed. Fundamental biomechanical parameters such as thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forces; upper and lower spinal and sacrum accelerations; and upper, middle and lower chest deflections under various initial impacting conditions are evaluated. Secondary variables such as the thoracic trauma index and pelvic acceleration (currently adopted in the United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards), peak chest deflection, and viscous criteria are also included in the survey. The importance of performing research studies with specific focus on out-of-position scenarios of the elderly and using the most commonly available torso side airbag as the initial contacting condition in lateral impacts for occupant injury assessment is emphasized. PMID:16527285

  1. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  2. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  3. Exogenous agmatine has neuroprotective effects against restraint-induced structural changes in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Cai, Zheng-Wei; Regunathan, Soundar; Ordway, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of arginine catalysed by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is considered a novel neuromodulator and possesses neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. The present study examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint stress-induced morphological changes in rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 h of restraint stress daily for 21 days. Immunohistochemical staining with β-tubulin III showed that repeated restraint stress caused marked morphological alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Stress-induced alterations were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Interestingly, endogenous agmatine levels, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as well as in the striatum and hypothalamus of repeated restraint rats were significantly reduced as compared with the controls. Reduced endogenous agmatine levels in repeated restraint animals were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. Moreover, administration of exogenous agmatine to restrained rats abolished increases of arginine decarboxylase protein levels. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exogenously administered agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint-induced structural changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings indicate that stress-induced reductions in endogenous agmatine levels in the rat brain may play a permissive role in neuronal pathology induced by repeated restraint stress. PMID:18364017

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition increases glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Júnia R O L; Miranda, Paulo A C; Fóscolo, Rodrigo B; Lemos, Joao P M; Paula, Luciano F; Silveira, Warley C; Santos, Robson A S; Pinheiro, Sérgio V B; Coimbra, Candido C; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting involvement of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in carbohydrate metabolism and its response to stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic inhibition of the RAS on glucose and insulin levels during acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 10 mg/kg per day enalapril solution or vehicle for 14 days. After 14 days, rats were divided into three experimental groups: enalapril + restraint (ER), vehicle + restraint (VR) and enalapril + saline (ES). Rats in the restraint groups were subjected to 30 min restraint stress, whereas rats in the ES groups were given saline infusion instead. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 20 and 30 min restraint stress or saline infusion. After restraint, a hyperglycaemic response was observed in the ER and VR groups that peaked at 20 and 10 min, respectively (P < 0.05 compared with baseline). The area under the glucose curve was markedly increased in the ER and VR groups compared with that in the ES group (P < 0.05 for both). Importantly, restraint induced a marked increase in insulin secretion in the ER group compared with only a mild elevation in the VR group; insulin secretion in both groups peaked at 20 min (P < 0.05 compared with baseline). Analysis of the area under the insulin curve confirmed an increase in insulin secretion in the ER compared with the VR and ES groups (P < 0.05 for both). The results of the present study reinforce that the RAS is involved in modulating responses to stress and suggest that RAS inhibition with enalapril may increase glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint. PMID:23734984

  5. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  6. Constraints and restraints in crystal structure analysis

    PubMed Central

    Immirzi, Attilio

    2009-01-01

    The widely used restraint-based approach to structural analysis using diffraction data is critiqued. The convenience of using rigid constraints, through the use of internal coordinates, is discussed. PMID:22477768

  7. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  8. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  9. Does Brief Bradycardia at the Onset of Arm-Restraint Predict Infants' Emotional Reactivity during Restraint?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christin L.; Jones, Blake L.

    2011-01-01

    Using electrocardiogram data with 78 six-month-old infants, this study examined the presence or absence of brief orienting bradycardia during the onset of maternal arm-restraint and subsequent differences between infants on behavioral organization during restraint. Results showed that 45 of the infants exhibited brief episodes of bradycardia at…

  10. Finite element analysis of occupant head injuries: parametric effects of the side curtain airbag deployment interaction with a dummy head in a side impact crash.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xingqiao; Potula, S; Grewal, H; Solanki, K N; Tschopp, M A; Horstemeyer, M F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated and assessed the dependence of dummy head injury mitigation on the side curtain airbag and occupant distance under a side impact of a Dodge Neon. Full-scale finite element vehicle simulations of a Dodge Neon with a side curtain airbag were performed to simulate the side impact. Owing to the wide range of parameters, an optimal matrix of finite element calculations was generated using the design method of experiments (DOE); the DOE method was performed to independently screen the finite element results and yield the desired parametric influences as outputs. Also, analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques were used to analyze the finite element results data. The results clearly show that the influence of moving deformable barrier (MDB) strike velocity was the strongest influence parameter on both cases for the head injury criteria (HIC36) and the peak head acceleration, followed by the initial airbag inlet temperature. Interestingly, the initial airbag inlet temperature was only a ~30% smaller influence than the MDB velocity; also, the trigger time was a ~54% smaller influence than the MDB velocity when considering the peak head accelerations. Considering the wide range in MDB velocities used in this study, results of the study present an opportunity for design optimization using the different parameters to help mitigate occupant injury. As such, the initial airbag inlet temperature, the trigger time, and the airbag pressure should be incorporated into vehicular design process when optimizing for the head injury criteria. PMID:23567214

  11. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  12. Benefits of Australian Design Rule 69 (full frontal crash protection) and airbags in frontal crashes in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fitzharris, Michael; Fildes, Brian; Newstead, Stuart; Logan, David

    2004-01-01

    In-depth data at MUARC was used to evaluate the Australian Design Rule 69 (ADR69) - Full frontal dynamic crash requirement, as well as the effectiveness of frontal airbag deployment on injury risk and associated cost of injury. ADR69 was introduced in Australia in mid-1995 and was based largely on the US equivalent FMVSS-208. The results indicate reductions in excess of 90% in the likelihood of sustaining AIS 2+ injuries in body regions where frontal airbags would be expected to benefit. The average injury cost savings for drivers of post-ADR69 manufactured vehicles was found to be up to AUD$19,000 depending on body region considered. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Occupant kinematics and estimated effectiveness of side airbags in pole side impacts using a human FE model with internal organs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigeki; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Yuichi

    2008-11-01

    When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models. Finite element simulations were conducted assuming a case where a passenger vehicle collides against a pole at 29km/h. Occupant kinematics, force-deformation responses and pressure levels were compared between cases with and without side airbag deployment. The results indicated that strain to the ribs and pressure to the organs was smaller with side airbag deployment. The side airbag widened the contact area at the torso, helping to distribute the force to the shoulder, arm and chest. Such distributed force helped generate relatively smaller deformation in the ribs. Furthermore, the side airbag deployment helped restrict the spine displacement. The smaller displacement contributed to lowering the magnitude of contact force between the torso and the door. The study also examined the correlations between the pressure levels in the internal organs, rib deflection, and V*C of chest. The study found that the V*C(t) peak appeared to be synchronized with the organ pressure peak, suggesting that the pressure level of the internal organs could be one possible

  14. Biofidelity evaluation of WorldSID and ES-2re under side impact conditions with and without airbag.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewung; Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Park, Gwansik; Crandall, Jeff; Svendsen, Andy; Whitcomb, Bryant; Ayyagari, Murthy; Mishra, Prashast; Markusic, Craig

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the biofidelity of the WorldSID and the ES-2re under whole-body side impact conditions with and without a side airbag using the biomechanical cadaveric response data generated from 4.3m/s whole-body side impact tests. Impact forces, spinal kinematics, and chest deflections were considered in the biofidelity evaluation. Average responses and response corridors of PMHS were created using a time-alignment technique to reduce variability of the PMHS responses while maintaining the sum of the time shifts to be zero for each response. Biofidelity of the two dummies was compared using a correlation and analysis (CORA) method. The WorldSID demonstrated better biofidelity than the ES-2re in terms of CORA ratings in the conditions with airbag (0.53 vs. 0.46) and without an airbag (0.57 vs. 0.49). Lastly, the kinematic analysis of the two dummies indicated an overly compliant shoulder response of the WorldSID and excessive forward rotation of the ES-2re relative to the PMHS. PMID:26943014

  15. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  16. Efficient Cooperative Restraint Training With Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Theil, Jacob H.; Moadab, Gilda

    2013-01-01

    It is sometimes necessary for nonhuman primates to be restrained during biomedical and psychosocial research. Such restraint is often accomplished using a “primate chair.” The present paper details a method for training adult rhesus macaques to cooperate with a chair restraint procedure using positive and negative reinforcement. Successful training was accomplished rapidly in approximately 14 training days. The success of this training technique suggests that this method represents a refinement to traditional techniques despite the behavioral heterogeneity in the animal sample (which includes animals previously deemed unfit for traditional pole-and-collar training). PMID:23544752

  17. Real-world personal conversations using a hands-free embedded wireless device while driving: effect on airbag-deployment crash rates.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A; Schreiner, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    A wireless device embedded in the vehicle allowed the user to engage in a personal hands-free conversation (HFC), and automatically placed an emergency notification call to an OnStar call center if the vehicle was involved in a crash in which its airbag deployed. A database stored the exact counts, start timestamps, and billed durations of all HFC and airbag notification calls. In 30 months of naturalistic driving, there were 91 million HFC calls from an average of 323,994 drivers per month who made calls. There were 14 airbag deployments in 276 million driver-minutes of HFC conversation for an exposed incidence rate of 5.08 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. There were 2,023 airbag deployments in an estimated 24.7 billion driver-minutes of no HFC conversation for a not-exposed incidence rate of 8.18 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. The crash incidence rate ratio (IRR) is the ratio of these two rates or 0.62 (95% C.I. 0.37 to 1.05). Sensitivity analyses controlled for the impact on the crash IRR of estimated time spent driving per day and calls by passengers. Counting all crashes as much as 20 minutes later than a call as related to that call gave similar results. We conclude that for personal conversations using a hands-free embedded device the risk of an airbag crash is somewhere in a range from a moderately lower risk to a risk near that of driving without a recent personal conversation. These results are not consistent with the large increase in crash risk reported in epidemiological studies using the case-crossover method. PMID:19000076

  18. Occupant Restraint in the Rear Seat: ATD Responses to Standard and Pre-tensioning, Force-Limiting Belt Restraints

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h ΔV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5th percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50th percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a ΔV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate these restraints

  19. Occupant restraint in the rear seat: ATD responses to standard and pre-tensioning, force-limiting belt restraints.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h DeltaV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5(th) percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50(th) percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p < or = 0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a DeltaV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate

  20. Review of the medical and legal literature on restraint chairs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Edward M; Coyne, Christopher J; Chan, Theodore C; Hall, Christine A; Vilke, Gary M

    2015-07-01

    Use of restraint chairs by law enforcement for violent individuals has generated controversy and a source of litigation because of reported injuries and deaths of restrained subjects. The purpose of this study is to review the available medical and legal literature and to allow the development of evidence-based, best practice recommendations to inform the further development of restraint chair policies. This is a structured literature review of four databases, two medical and two legal. The medical review focus was on the restraint chair with additional review of materials regarding other restraint methods and options. The legal review focused on litigation cases involving the restraint chair. The review of the medical literature revealed 21 peer-reviewed studies investigating the physiological or psychological effects of using a restraint chair on humans or primates. Of these studies, 20 were performed on primates. The single human study revealed no clinically significant effects from the restraint chair on test subjects. The legal literature review revealed very few cases where the restraint chair was either a major or minor focus. The overall issues relating to the restraint chair cases involved deviations from set protocols and rarely involved issues with the chair itself. The available medical literature reveals that the restraint chair poses little to no medical risk. Additionally, when used appropriately, the restraint chair alone carries little legal liability. With proper monitoring and adherence to set protocols, the restraint chair is a safe and appropriate device for use in restraining violent individuals. PMID:26048505

  1. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  2. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  3. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  4. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  5. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  6. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating...

  7. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal... Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice'' and (2) a draft companion document entitled, ``NIJ...

  8. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... the Federal Register (69 FR 74848) a final rule \\1\\ upgrading the agency's head restraint standard in... reason why NHTSA continues to allow head restraint removal as an option (see 69 FR 74871). The mere fact... equipped with optional head restraints.\\15\\ \\15\\ 69 FR 74847, 74871. Because the petitioner did not...

  9. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  10. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  11. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  12. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restraints. 460.114 Section 460.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  13. Evaluation of the Tennessee Child Restraint Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    This paper reports on a study of the effects of a Tennessee law aimed at increasing the protection of children in cars. The law, which came into force January 1, 1978, requires parents to use child restraints properly when transporting their children who are less than 4 years old. Alternatively, the law permits children to be held in arms, a…

  14. Simulation of airbag impact on eyes with different axial lengths after transsclerally fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens by using finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jane; Uchio, Eiichi; Goto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the biomechanical response of an impacting airbag on eyes with different axial lengths with transsclerally fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL). Materials and methods Simulations in a model human eye were performed with a computer using a finite element analysis program created by Nihon, ESI Group. The airbag was set to be deployed at five different velocities and to impact on eyes with three different axial lengths. These eyes were set to have transsclerally fixated PC IOL by a 10-0 polypropylene possessing a tensile force limit of 0.16 N according to the United States Pharmacopeia XXII. Results The corneoscleral opening was observed at a speed of 40 m/second or more in all model eyes. Eyes with the longest axial length of 25.85 mm had the greatest extent of deformity at any given impact velocity. The impact force exceeded the tensile force of 10-0 polypropylene at an impact velocity of 60 m/second in all eyes, causing breakage of the suture. Conclusion Eyes with transsclerally fixated PC IOL could rupture from airbag impact at high velocities. Eyes with long axial lengths experienced a greater deformity upon airbag impact due to a thinner eye wall. Further basic research on the biomechanical response for assessing eye injuries could help in developing a better airbag and in the further understanding of ocular traumas. PMID:25709387

  15. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight. PMID:11540491

  16. M.E.366-J embodiment design project: Portable foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Randall; Meyer, Eikar; Schmidt, Davey; Enders, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    During space shuttle operations, astronauts require support to carry out tasks in the weightless environment. In the past, portable foot restraints (PFR) with orientations adjustable in pitch, roll, and yaw provided this support for payload bay operations. These foot restraints, however, were designed for specific tasks with a load limit of 111.2 Newtons. Since the original design, new applications for foot restraints have been identified. New designs for the foot restraints have been created to boost the operational work load to 444.8 Newtons and decrease setup times. What remains to be designed is an interface between the restraint system and the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots. NASA provided a proposed locking device involving a spring-loaded mechanism. This locking mechanism must withstand loads of 1334.4 Newtons in any direction and weigh less than 222.4 Newtons. This paper develops an embodiment design for the interface between the PFR and the EMU boots. This involves design of the locking mechanism and a removable cleat that allows the boot to interface with this mechanism. The design team used the Paul Beitz engineering methodology to present the systematic development, structural analysis, and production considerations of the embodiment design. This methodology provides a basis for understanding the justification behind the decisions made in the design.

  17. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  18. Restraint stress in biobehavioral research: Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Buynitsky, Tatyana; Mostofsky, David I

    2009-07-01

    In the 15 years since the publication of two previous reviews on restraint stress much advancement has been made in the field. However, while previous reviews have focused mainly on drug effects, recent research has focused on broader implications in the health fields. This research has placed an increased emphasis on stress effects in physiological, immunological, endocrine and developmental processes as well as the impact of stress on numerous disorders. A major problem with our review was the inability to identify a large number of articles focusing on restraint and immobilization, since those keywords were often omitted from the title or not referred to within the body of the article. It seems likely that additional reviews with extended literature research of this field are required. PMID:19463853

  19. Weight control and restraint of laboratory rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Van Breda Kolff, K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of restrained and confined rats in some procedures used in combustion toxicology introduces the problems of obtaining rats of the appropriate size for the apparatus, and of identifying any artifacts resulting from the use of restraint alone. Feeding studies indicate that controlled feeding of fast-growing strains such as the Sprague-Dawley can hold rat size essentially constant for significant periods of time. The undesirable aspects are the need to cage the animals individually, with resultant psychological as well as metabolic effects. Restraint studies of slow-growing strains such as the Fischer 344 indicate that denying access to food and water for periods of several hours at a time interrupts normal gain only temporarily.

  20. A study of the NASS-CDS system for injury/fatality rates of occupants in various restraints and a discussion of alternative presentation methods.

    PubMed

    Stucki, S L; Biss, D J

    2000-01-01

    An analysis was performed using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database to compare the injury/fatality rates of variously restrained driver occupants as compared to unrestrained driver occupants in the total database of drivers/frontals, and also by Delta-V. A structured search of the NASS-CDS was done using the SAS statistical analysis software to extract the data for this analysis and the SUDAAN software package was used to arrive at statistical significance indicators. In addition, this paper goes on to investigate different methods for presenting results of accident database searches including significance results; a risk versus Delta-V format for specific exposures; and, a percent cumulative injury versus Delta-V format to characterize injury trends. These alternative analysis presentation methods are then discussed by example using the present study results. PMID:11558105

  1. A Study of the NASS-CDS System for Injury/Fatality Rates of Occupants in Various Restraints and A Discussion of Alternative Presentation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stucki, Sheldon Lee; Biss, David J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis was performed using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database to compare the injury/fatality rates of variously restrained driver occupants as compared to unrestrained driver occupants in the total database of drivers/frontals, and also by Delta-V. A structured search of the NASS-CDS was done using the SAS® statistical analysis software to extract the data for this analysis and the SUDAAN software package was used to arrive at statistical significance indicators. In addition, this paper goes on to investigate different methods for presenting results of accident database searches including significance results; a risk versus Delta-V format for specific exposures; and, a percent cumulative injury versus Delta-V format to characterize injury trends. These alternative analysis presentation methods are then discussed by example using the present study results. PMID:11558105

  2. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  3. Dietary restraint and heightened reactivity to food.

    PubMed

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Yates, Heather M; Witcomb, Gemma L

    2004-03-01

    Previously, studies have explored the relationship between dietary behavior and salivary reactivity to food. Despite this, it remains unclear which behaviors are associated with enhanced reactivity. One problem is that measures of behavior have not been compared directly. In particular, it is unclear whether elevated reactivity is associated with measures of dietary restraint or with measures of failed dietary control and a tendency to overeat. To address this problem, we compared the association between salivary reactivity and scores on the subscales of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (restraint, disinhibition, and hunger). Estimates of reactivity were derived from the difference between a baseline saliva measure and a similar measure taken in close proximity to hot pizza. Our second aim was to explore how salivary reactivity changes after a meal. Female participants (N=40) were tested before and after a lunch (cheese sandwiches). All tended to show reactivity to pizza before but not after lunch. No significant differences were associated with the disinhibition or hunger subscales. However, prelunch reactivity was significantly greater in those participants with high scores on the restraint scale. This does not appear to be related to reported levels of hunger before lunch. Rather, it may reveal an intrinsic difference between the reaction of restrained and unrestrained eaters to food. PMID:15059687

  4. Development and psychometric properties of the Smoking Restraint Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Blake, Grant A; Ferguson, Stuart G; Palmer, Matthew A; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-03-01

    Restraint is a component of self-control that focuses on the deliberate reduction of an undesired behavior and is theorized to play a role in smoking reduction and cessation. However, there exists no instrument to assess smoking restraint. This research aimed to develop the Smoking Restraint Questionnaire (SRQ) to meet this need. Participants were 406 smokers (48% female; 52.2% nondaily) with a mean age of 38.83 years (SD = 12.05). They completed a baseline questionnaire designed to assess smoking restraint. They also completed 21 days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA), during which they recorded each cigarette smoked and answered questions related to planned restraint every morning, and restraint attempts every evening. The 4-item questionnaire of smoking restraint was found to fit a single factor (root mean square error of approximation = .038, comparative fit index = .99, Tucker-Lewis index = .99), and the resulting composite was reliable (composite reliability = 0.74). The questionnaire contains items that assess the setting of weekly restraint goals and attempts at not lighting up when tempted to smoke. Participant SRQ scores positively correlated with EMA data on plans to restrain (p < .001) and frequency of restraint attempts (p < .001). These correlations suggest that the SRQ has good predictive validity in relation to the intention and behaviors of smoking reduction. The SRQ is promising as a measure of smoking restraint and may enable further research and insights into smoking reduction and cessation. PMID:26551266

  5. Community mental health care in Trieste and beyond: an "open door-no restraint" system of care for recovery and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Mezzina, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Since Franco Basaglia's appointment in 1971 as director of the former San Giovanni mental hospital, Trieste has played an international benchmark role in community mental health care. Moving from deinstitutionalization, the Department of Mental Health (DMH) has become a laboratory for innovation on social psychiatry, developing a model that can be defined as the "whole system, whole community" approach. The DMH provides care through a network of community services but also places great emphasis on working with the wider community with a view to promoting mental health and taking care of the social fabric. The network of services is based on 24/7 Community Mental Health Services, whose organization and activities are here described in detail. Data are provided on activity and outcome. The performance of DMH as a World Health Organization collaborating center disseminating best community mental health practices is also reviewed. PMID:24840089

  6. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Miller, Eric J.; Hudson, Larry D.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Neufeld, David C.; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain-gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three airbags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead-weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 lb. Twenty-six load cases were applied with the aircraft resting on its landing gear, and 16 load cases were performed with the aircraft supported by the nose gear and three airbags around the center of gravity. Maximum wing tip deflection reached 17 inches. An assortment of 2, 3, 4, and 5 strain-gage load equations were derived and evaluated against independent check cases. The better load equations had root mean square errors less than 1 percent. Test techniques and lessons learned are discussed.

  7. Staff resistance to restraint reduction: identifying & overcoming barriers.

    PubMed

    Curran, Staci Silver

    2007-05-01

    Professional organizations, regulating agencies, and hospital administrators have taken a strong stance on restraint reduction policies. When implementing a restraint reduction initiative, it is important to identify the barriers to restraint reduction, such as concern for personal safety, lack of knowledge about and practice using alternate de-escalation skills, and fear of disrupting the therapeutic milieu by using a variety of de-escalation methods. Education aimed to reduce the use of restraints needs to do more than simply provide information. It is important to acknowledge the emotional response of the nursing staff and the culture of the current practice. A variety of educational strategies, including role-playing, and case studies will help identify attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that are congruent with reducing the use of restraints. If the ultimate goal of restraint reduction is philosophical change, it will eventually lead to a new culture of practice. PMID:17526330

  8. Lightweight Restraint For Coupling Flanges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Willie D.

    1989-01-01

    End flanges of flexible coupling system restrained against excessive rotation or axial separation by inexpensive, lightweight mechanism based on cables and pulleys. Restraining mechanism adapted to cable, duct, hose, or passageway couplings between vehicles, or to other applications in which angular and positional misalignments must be restricted to moderate specified values. Total misalignment of two end flanges limited to amount of slack available in cable-and-pulley mechanism. When cable taut, further axial separation of flange centers restrained, but small tilts accommodated by running of cable through pulleys.

  9. Astronaut James Newman during in-space evaluation of portable foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist, conducts an in-space evaluation of the portable foot restraint (PFR) which will be used operationally on the first Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission and future Shuttle missions. Behind him the starboard Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pod can be seen.

  10. Psychiatric Nurses’ Perceptions about Physical Restraint; A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fereidooni Moghadam, Malek; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of physical restraint as an intervention in the care of psychiatric patients dates back to the beginning of psychiatry. Although it is a challenging question, it is still one of the common procedures in psychiatry. Considering that very little research has been done in Iran in relation to physical restraint, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of  nurses working in psychiatric wards regarding physical restraint. Methods: This qualitative study was done on 14 nurses working in the psychiatric hospitals of Ahvaz city, southern Iran, during 2011-2012. The participants were selected by purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, which were continued until data saturation and emergence of themes. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Four categories emerged: (1) Restraint as a multi-purpose procedure, (2) Processing of physical restraint, (3) Restraint as a challenging subject and (4) The effects of restraint on the spectrum. Each category has several different sub-categories. Conclusion: The participants described using physical restraint as one of the main strategies to control psychiatric patients, and despite having negative consequences, it is extensively used. Given the risks and challenges of using physical restraint, nursing education should find alternative methods. PMID:25349842

  11. Measuring Dietary Restraint Status: Comparisons between the Dietary Intent Scale and the Restraint Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Jessica A.; Gleaves, David H.; Kuijer, Roeline G.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of young women’s self-reported dietary restraint status is complex. Compared to Herman and Polivy’s commonly utilized Restraint Scale (RS), Stice’s Dietary Intent Scale (DIS) is less understood. Because the DIS is becoming a popular research tool, it is important to understand how this scale compares to more traditional measures of restraint. We conducted two correlational studies (Study 1 N = 110; Study 2 N = 216) to ascertain the similarities and the differences between the DIS and – as a comparison measure – the well-researched RS. We explored how the two scales were related to several body image variables (e.g., thin-ideal internalization); with a range of self-regulatory variables (e.g., dispositional self-control); with observed food intake during a taste test; and with 18-month weight change (Study 2 only). Participants were female University students and were not selected for dieting or disordered eating. Unlike RS scores, DIS scores were not significantly correlated with the majority of variables tapping into unsuccessful self-regulation. However, our data also highlighted similarities between the two restraint scales (e.g., association with 18-month weight-loss) and demonstrated that not only were participants’ DIS scores un-related to unsuccessful self-regulatory variables, neither were they related to the variables tapping into successful self-regulation. PMID:25988136

  12. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia) is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Results Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1%) of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Discussion The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor) has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. Conclusions The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally ill is receiving

  13. Restraint Use in Residential Programs: Why Are Best Practices Ignored?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Huckshorn, Kevin Ann; Caldwell, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Several states and providers have embarked on initiatives to reduce using restraint and seclusion in residential programs. Restraint and seclusion are associated with harm to youth and staff, significant costs, reduced quality of care, and less engagement of youth and families. Successful reduction/prevention strategies have been identified,…

  14. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and restraint requirements... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint requirements. Inmates under escort will be within the constant and immediate visual supervision of escorting staff...

  15. Seclusion and Restraint: Federal Updates and Advocacy Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Kelly; Klotz, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, allegations of abuse and death related to seclusion and restraint, media coverage of these events, subsequent federal investigations, and Congressional hearings about this topic have resulted in increased pressure on Congress to pass legislation to address the use of seclusion and restraint in the school setting.…

  16. Is Restraint a Model of Binge Eating and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Michael R.; And Others

    Restraint theory assumes that restrained eating is functionally equivalent to dieting and that "restraint" accounts for the eating behavior of overweight individuals. This study evaluated both of these assumptions. In the first part of the study, normal weight women were divided into groups of unrestrained nondieters, restrained nondieters, and…

  17. Restraint, Detainment, and Seclusion of Students in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Deidra Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how the courts have addressed the restraint, detainment, and seclusion of students in public schools. The study includes an analysis of 100 court cases on the topic of restraint, detainment, and seclusion of students in public schools, which occurred in state and federal jurisdictions, from 1977 to 2012. Cases were examined…

  18. Right coronary artery dissection and aneurysm presented as acute inferior myocardial infarction from an automobile airbag trauma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chunlai; Hu, Wuming; Zhu, Ning; Zhao, Xuyong; Xu, Jian; Ye, Shiyong; Xiang, Yijia; Lv, Linchun

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery dissection and aneurysm culminating in acute myocardial infarction are rare after blunt chest trauma. We are reporting a case of a previously healthy 52-year-old man who presented with right inferior lobe contusion, pleural effusion, right interlobar fissure effusion, bone fracture of right fourth rib, and acute inferior wall myocardial infarction and who experienced blunt trauma in his right chest wall by an airbag deployment in a car accident. Coronary angiography showed an aneurysm in the middle of right coronary artery with 70% afferent narrowing just distal to the aneurysm with no visible atherosclerotic lesion. A 4.0×20 mm TEXUS Liberté stent in the lesion was deployed, and a good coronary flow was obtained without residual stenosis and the aneurysm vanished. PMID:26319191

  19. Effects of restraint on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzabata, Hassina; Multon, Stephane; Sellier, Alain; Houari, Hacene

    2012-07-15

    Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) is a chemical reaction that causes expansion in civil engineering structures. The safety level of such damaged structures has to be reassessed. To do this, the mechanical conditions acting on DEF expansions have to be analysed and, in particular, the variation of strength with expansion and the effect of restraint on the DEF expansion. This paper highlights several points: DEF expansion is isotropic in stress-free conditions, compressive stresses decrease DEF expansion in the direction subjected to restraint and lead to cracks parallel to the restraint, and expansion measured in the stress-free direction of restrained specimens is not modified. Thus restraint causes a decrease of the volumetric expansion and DEF expansion under restraint is anisotropic. Moreover, the paper examines the correlation between DEF expansion and concrete damage, providing data that can be used for the quantification of the effect of stresses on DEF induced expansion.

  20. Effects of intracisternal administration of cannabidiol on the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to acute restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Granjeiro, Erica M; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimarães, Francisco S; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Resstel, Leonardo B M

    2011-10-01

    Systemic administration of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, attenuates the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to restraint stress. Although the brain structures related to CBD effects are not entirely known, they could involve brainstem structures responsible for cardiovascular control. Therefore, to investigate this possibility the present study verified the effects of CBD (15, 30 and 60 nmol) injected into the cisterna magna on the autonomic and behavioral changes induced by acute restraint stress. During exposure to restraint stress (1h) there was a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Also, 24h later the animals showed a decreased percentage of entries onto the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. These effects were attenuated by CBD (30 nmol). The drug had no effect on MAP and HR baseline values. These results indicate that intracisternal administration of CBD can attenuate autonomic responses to stress. However, since CBD decreased the anxiogenic consequences of restraint stress, it is possible that the drug is also acting on forebrain structures. PMID:21771609

  1. Parents’ experience with child safety restraint in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Child safety restraints are effective measures in protecting children from an injury while traveling in a car. However, the rate of child restraint use is extremely low in Chinese cities. Parent drivers could play an important role in promoting child safety restraint use, but not all of them take active responsibility. Methods This study used a qualitative approach and included 14 in-depth interviews among parents with a child, under the age of 6, living in Shantou City (7 child safety restraint users and 7 non-users). Purposive sampling was used to recruit eligible parent drivers who participated in a previous observation study. Interview data were collected from March to April 2013. The audio taped and transcribed data were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results Four key themes on child safety restraint emerged from the in-depth interviews with parents. These included 1) Having a child safety restraint installed in the rear seat with an adult sitting next to the restrained child is ideal, and child safety restraint is seen as an alternative when adult accompaniment is not available; 2) Having effective parental education strategies could help make a difference in child safety restraint use; 3) Inadequate promotion and parents’ poor safety awareness contribute to the low rate of child safety restraint in China; 4) Mandatory legislation on child safety restraint use could be an effective approach. Conclusion Inadequate promotion and low awareness of safe traveling by parents were closely linked to low child safety seat usage under the circumstance of no mandatory legislation. Future intervention efforts need to focus on increasing parents’ safe travel awareness combined with CSS product promotion before the laws are enacted. PMID:24708776

  2. NMDA antagonist MK 801 in nucleus accumbens core but not shell disrupts the restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    De Giovanni, Laura N; Guzman, Andrea S; Virgolini, Miriam B; Cancela, Liliana M

    2016-12-15

    Relapse is a common feature of cocaine addiction. In rodents, it can be elicited by cues, stress or the drug. Restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) is a useful model to study the mechanisms involved in stress-induced relapse of drug-seeking behavior. There is evidence that the glutamate NMDA receptors are critically involved in drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of seeking behavior and drug-CPP responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of NMDA receptors within core vs. shell nucleus accumbens (NAc) subregions to restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP. After extinction of cocaine-conditioned preference, animals were administered MK 801 systemically or directly into intra-core or intra-shell, and restrained for 30min or left undisturbed in their home-cages. First, we demonstrated that restraint stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-CPP depends on the duration of restraint as well as on the context in which it is applied. Second, this effect was blocked by systemic MK 801 administration either before or after restraint. Third, intra-core but not intra-shell administration abrogated the restraint stress-induced reinstatement. These findings show that NMDA receptors within NAc core, but not shell, play a critical role in restraint stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-CPP. PMID:27506656

  3. Dietary restraint and gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of preconceptional dieting and restrained eating was related to higher weight gains in pregnancy. Design Dieting practices were assessed among a prospective cohort of pregnant women using the Revised Restraint Scale. Women were classified on three separate subscales as restrained eaters, dieters, and weight cyclers. Subjects Participants included 1,223 women in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Main outcome measures Total gestational weight gain and adequacy of weight gain (ratio of observed/expected weight gain based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations). Statistical analyses performed Multiple linear regression was used to model the two weight gain outcomes, while controlling for potential confounders including physical activity and weight gain attitudes. Results There was a positive association between each subscale and total weight gain, as well as adequacy of weight gain. Women classified as cyclers gained an average of 2 kg more than non-cyclers, and showed higher observed/expected ratios by 0.2 units. Among restrained eaters and dieters, there was a differential effect by BMI. With the exception of underweight women, all other weight status women with a history of dieting or restrained eating gained more weight during pregnancy and had higher adequacy of weight gain ratios. In contrast, underweight women with a history of restrained eating behaviors gained less weight compared to underweight women without those behaviors. Conclusions Restrained eating behaviors were associated with weight gains above the IOM recommendations for normal, overweight, and obese women, and weight gains below the recommendations for underweight women. Excessive gestational weight gain is of concern given its association with postpartum weight retention. The dietary restraint tool is useful for identifying women who would benefit from nutritional counseling prior to or during pregnancy in regards to achieving targeted

  4. Effect of physical restraint on the limits of thermoregulation in telemetered rats.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cenk; Grace, Curtis E; Gordon, Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    Physical restraint of rodents is needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means of psychological stress. Hyperthermia is often observed in restrained rats, presumably as a result of impairments in heat dissipation. However, such a hyperthermic response should be dependent on the prevailing ambient conditions. To understand how ambient temperature (T(a)) affects the thermoregulatory response to restraint, core temperature (T(c)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored by telemetry in rats subjected to 1 h of physical restraint while T(a) was maintained at 14-30 °C in 2 °C increments. The T(c) of unrestrained rats was unaffected by T(a). During restraint, T(c) was elevated at ambient temperatures with the exception of 14 °C, at which the rats became mildly hypothermic. There was an inverse relationship between T(a) and HR in both unrestrained and restrained rats; however, HR was significantly elevated in restrained rats at all ambient temperatures except 22 and 24 °C. Heat loss from the tail, estimated from T(c) and tail skin temperature, was markedly reduced at all but the highest ambient temperatures in restrained rats. The data suggest that the T(a) limits of normothermia are narrowed in the restrained rat. That is, between 16 and 20 °C, the rat maintains a relatively stable T(c) that is slightly elevated above that of the unrestrained rat. At ambient temperatures above or below this range, the rat shows signs of hyperthermia and hypothermia, respectively. In contrast, the limits of normothermia for unrestrained rats range from 14 (or lower) to 30 °C. Overall, the ideal T(a) for restrained rats appears to be 20 °C and no higher than 22 °C for the thermoregulatory system to maintain a regulated T(c) in rats well adapted to physical restraint. PMID:21890524

  5. Chronic restraint stress reduces carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    LI, MENG; SUN, QUAN; LI, SHENGLI; ZHAI, YANAN; WANG, JINGJING; CHEN, BAIAN; LU, JING

    2016-01-01

    Stress as a cofactor has been reported to affect the progression and severity of liver diseases. The present study investigated the effect of chronic restraint stress on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. A total of 30 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: Oil-treated control group; CCl4-treated group; and CCl4 + restraint-treated group. CCl4 was administrated via intraperitoneal injection once every 3 days over a period of 42 days. In the CCl4 + restraint-treated group, mice were immobilized using 50 ml centrifuge tubes for 0.5 h to inflict chronic restraint stress immediately after the injection of CCl4. On day 42, blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis. The effect of restraint on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice was evaluated by analyzing the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histopathological examination of liver samples was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Masson's trichrome, 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B (5-HT2B) receptor and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immumohistochemical staining. ALT, AST, 5-HT2B receptor and α-SMA expression levels were significantly increased in mice exposed to CCl4 in comparison with those in the oil-treated control mice (P<0.01). However, these increases were significantly reduced by exposure to restraint (P<0.05). HE and Masson's trichrome staining revealed that restraint can alleviate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. These results suggest that chronic restraint stress reduces the development of liver fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells via 5-HT2B receptor. Therefore, restraint may be a useful therapeutic approach in the management of liver fibrosis. PMID:27284296

  6. 28 CFR 552.24 - Use of four-point restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of four-point restraints. 552.24... CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.24 Use of four-point restraints. When the Warden determines that four-point restraints are the only means available to obtain and...

  7. 28 CFR 552.24 - Use of four-point restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of four-point restraints. 552.24... CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.24 Use of four-point restraints. When the Warden determines that four-point restraints are the only means available to obtain and...

  8. Pilot Hartsfield in sleep restraint tethered to forward middeck lockers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Hartsfield demonstrates the sleeping accomodations onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The sleep restraint is located in the middeck area of the spacecraft and is tethered to forward middeck lockers.

  9. Justifying a presumption of restraint in animal biotechnology research.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2008-06-01

    Articulating the public's widespread unease about animal biotechnology has not been easy, and the first attempts have not been able to provide an effective tool for navigating the moral permissibility of this research. Because these moral intuitions have been difficult to cash out, they have been belittled as representing nothing more than fear or confusion. But there are sound philosophical reasons supporting the public's opposition to animal biotechnology and these arguments justify a default position of resistance I call the Presumption of Restraint. The Presumption of Restraint constitutes a justificatory process that sets out the criteria for permitting or rejecting individual biotechnology projects. This Presumption of Restraint can be overridden by compelling arguments that speak to a project's moral and scientific merit. This strategy creates a middle-of-the-road stance that can embrace particular projects, while rejecting others. The Presumption of Restraint can also serve as a model for assessing moral permissibility in other areas of technological innovation. PMID:18726779

  10. Programming new geometry restraints: parallelity of atomic groups

    PubMed Central

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they can be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox (cctbx) are presented. PMID:26306091

  11. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they canmore » be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.« less

  12. Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

  13. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they can be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.

  14. Restraints and the code of ethics: An uneasy fit.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Wanda K

    2010-02-01

    This article examines the use of physical restraints through the four broad principles of ethics common to all helping professions. It asks whether the continued use of physical restraints is consistent with ethical practice through the lens of those principles. It also examines where the necessity to use restraints in the absence of empirically supported alternatives leaves professionals in terms of conflicts between ethical principles and makes recommendations for changes in education and clinical practice. It concludes that an analysis through a bioethics lens demonstrates that the use of restraints as a tool in psychiatric settings is a complex and multifaceted problem. Principles of ethics may often be in conflict with each other in instances where patients must be physically restrained. PMID:20117684

  15. Psychiatric Patients Experiences with Mechanical Restraints: An Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Lanthén, Klas; Rask, Mikael; Sunnqvist, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine psychiatric patients' experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients' experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable. PMID:26199931

  16. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Foot Restraint Equipment Device (FRED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cindy; Qazi, A. S.; Mount, Francis

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of the Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, evaluations were proposed to be conducted in ground, KC-135, and/or Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors engineering (HFE) issues concerning confined/unique workstations, including crew restraint requirements. As part of these evaluations, KC-135 flights were conducted to investigate user/ workstation/ restraint integration for microgravity use of the FRED with the RMS workstation. This evaluation was a pre-cursor to Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) - 904 on STS-88. On that mission, a small-statured astronaut will be using the FRED restraint while working at the Aft RMS workstation. The DSO will collect video for later posture analyses, as well as subjective data in the form of an electronic questionnaire. This report describes the current FRED KC-135 evaluations. The primary objectives were to evaluate the usability of the FRED and to verify the DSO in-flight setup. The restraint interface evaluation consisted of four basic areas of restraint use: 1) adjustability; 2) general usability and comfort; 3) usability at the RMS workstation; and 4) assembly and disassembly.

  17. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively 13C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved.

  18. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively (13)C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved. PMID:25625825

  19. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  20. Air Bag Parameter Study with Out-Of-Position Small Female Test Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Short; Steve Kozak

    2000-06-19

    The development of the Advanced Restraint System has lead to an innovative way in which we evaluate the systems effect on the occupant. This paper presents some initial investigation into the driver airbag system that consists of an inflator, cushion fold, tear seam pattern, and offset of the airbag cover to steering wheel rim plane. An initial DOE is reviewed to establish significant parameters and to identify equations for further investigation.

  1. Vibration control of cables with damped flexible end restraint: Theoretical model and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the theoretical formulation and associated numerical and experimental studies on a novel passive control approach to reducing cable vibrations. In this approach, a damped flexible restraint consisting of a viscous damper and an elastic spring is attached to the end of cable in the horizontal direction to suppress its transverse vibrations. The dynamic equations of the cable-restraint system are established by D'Alembert's principle and then transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations through Garlerkin method. These equations are subsequently solved using the Runge-Kutta method. Parametric studies on a prototype cable are performed to investigate the influence of various parameters, particularly the damper coefficient and the spring stiffness, on the suppression of the cable vibrations. A series of laboratory experiments have also been carried out on a 9.5 m scaled cable with the installation of a damped flexible end restraint. The effectiveness of the approach has been verified from the experiments in that a system damping ratio of order of 2% was obtained. The experimental observations are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  2. Young Unlicensed Drivers and Passenger Safety Restraint Use in U.S. Fatal Crashes: Concern for Risk Spillover Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jonathan; Anderson, Craig L.; Dziura, James D.; Crowley, Michael J.; Vaca, Federico E.

    2012-01-01

    Young unlicensed drivers are more likely to be in fatal crashes and to engage in high-risk driving behaviors like impaired driving, speeding, and driving unrestrained. In a crash context, the influence of these high-risk behaviors may spillover to adversely affect passenger safety restraint use. We conducted an analysis of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System from years 1996–2008. Fatal crashes involving a driver aged 15–24 years and at least one passenger aged 15–24 years were included. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was undertaken to assess the effect of unlicensed driving on passenger restraint use. We controlled for established predictors of passenger restraint use including driver restraint use, gender, number of occupants, driver drinking, number of occupants, crash year, and crash location (rural vs. urban). 102,092 passengers were involved in fatal crashes during the time period with 64,803 unique drivers. 6,732 (10.51%) were never licensed drivers and 5,603 (8.8%) were drivers with suspended, revoked, or expired licenses. Rates of unlicensed driving ranged from 17.7% to 22.1% and increased over time. While passengers in fatal crashes averaged a mere 40.9% restraint use, passengers of never and invalidly licensed drivers had a further decreased odds of wearing a safety restraint (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.69–0.77, p<0.001) and (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79–0.90, p<0.001). Unlicensed driving is involved in a disproportionate and increasing number of preventable crash fatalities and plays a detrimental role in the lifesaving safety behaviors of their passengers. Our findings highlight an alarming peer influence between unlicensed drivers and passengers, placing increased emphasis on the need to better understand and characterize this present and growing threat. PMID:23169115

  3. Compliance with best practice: implementing the best available evidence in the use of physical restraint in residential aged care.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Janet

    2008-09-01

    The Aged Care Clinical Fellowship, funded by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing and conducted through the Joanna Briggs Institute is an initiative designed to improve the care of older Australians through clinical leadership and promotion of best practice. This paper outlines one of the projects undertaken at Carinya of Bicton, a residential aged high care facility, using an audit and feedback process to implement best practice standards in the use of physical restraint. Aims  Between 12% and 47% of residents in residential care facilities are restrained; however, initial observation of residents restrained in the project facility showed that restraint devices were utilised in up to 40% of residents. Within the aged care sector there has been a shift in attitude to reducing or eliminating restraint in aged care facilities. Restraint is seen as a negative experience for the resident, being associated with physical discomfort, embarrassment and restriction of freedom and of movement. The purpose of the project was to improve practice in the area of physical restraint through the process of auditing current practice against evidence-based, best practice criteria and ultimately to reduce the level of restraint in the facility. Methods  This practice improvement project utilised an audit and implementation cycle. The Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and best practice criteria developed from a systematic review were used to determine compliance with best practice. The Getting Research into Practice module was then employed to develop strategies to improve practice. Results  The follow-up audit indicated there has been a reduction in the number of residents restrained, increased use of alternatives to restraint and an awareness on the part of all care staff of the policies and procedures, which govern the use of restraint in the facility. Conclusions  It is recognised that the success of this project is in

  4. Restraint stress delays endometrial adaptive remodeling during mouse embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2015-01-01

    In mice, previously, we showed that restraint stress reduces the number of embryo implantation sites in the endometrium. Here, we hypothesized that the uterine microenvironment is altered by restraint stress and consequently is suboptimal for embryo implantation. On embryonic day 1 (E1), 60 of 154 pregnant CD1 mice underwent restraint stress (4 h), repeated daily to E3, E5 or E7 (n = 10 mice per group). Restraint stress decreased food intake and suppressed body weight gain on E3, E5 and E7. Restraint stress decreased the actual and relative weight (percent body weight) of uterus and ovary on E5 (by 14.9%, p = 0.03; 16.1%, p = 0.004) and E7 (by 16.8%, p = 0.03; 20.0%, p = 0.01). Morphologically, restraint stress decreased relative endometrial area (by 8.94-18.8%, p = 0.003-0.021) and uterine gland area (by 30.6%, p < 0.01 on E3 and 44.5%, p < 0.01 on E5). Immunohistochemistry showed that restraint stress decreased microvessel density (by 12.9-70.5%, p < 0.01) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (by 14.6-45.9%, p = 0.007-0.02). Restraint stress decreased by 32.4-39.8% (p = 0.002-0.01) the mean optical density ratio for proliferating cell nuclear antigen/terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay showed a dose-dependent decrease in proliferative activity of endometrial stromal cells (from 52 of 154 pregnant E5 control mice) incubated with H2O2 (100-1000 μM) in vitro. These findings supported the hypothesis that restraint stress negatively influences endometrial adaptive remodeling via an oxidative stress pathway, which resulted in fewer implantation sites. PMID:26365550

  5. Vehicle Interior Interactions and Kinematics of Rear Facing Child Restraints in Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Gopalan, S.; Abdelilah, Y.; Marshall, R. J.; Crandall, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rear facing child restraints in frontal crashes can be determined by controlling a) the child’s kinematics and b) interactions with vehicle structures. Twelve sled tests were performed to analyze the effect of the location and structural properties of vehicle interior components. The role of restraint kinematics was studied by developing computational models which underwent idealized motions. Stiff structures originally offset from the restraint, but which contact the restraint late in the test, cause increased injury values. Attachment methods which reduce child restraint rotation and more rigidly couple the restraint to the vehicle result in the best safety performance. PMID:16179150

  6. Beyond Reason and Personal Integrity: Toward a Pedagogy of Coercive Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that coercive restraint is justified when grave social injuries are sustained. Argues that adult education theories that advocate enlightenment of perpetrators are inadequate. Urges a pedagogy of coercive restraint to alleviate social injustice. (SK)

  7. Effect of habituation on the susceptibility of the rat to restraint ulcers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1980-01-01

    The frequency and gravity of restraint ulcers were found to significantly diminish in rats previously exposed to brief periods of immobilization. The rats' becoming habituated to restraint conditions probably explains this phenomenon.

  8. Nerve growth factor stimulates axon outgrowth through negative regulation of growth cone actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance

    PubMed Central

    Turney, Stephen G.; Ahmed, Mostafa; Chandrasekar, Indra; Wysolmerski, Robert B.; Goeckeler, Zoe M.; Rioux, Robert M.; Whitesides, George M.; Bridgman, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes growth, differentiation, and survival of sensory neurons in the mammalian nervous system. Little is known about how NGF elicits faster axon outgrowth or how growth cones integrate and transform signal input to motor output. Using cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that myosin II (MII) is required for NGF to stimulate faster axon outgrowth. From experiments inducing loss or gain of function of MII, specific MII isoforms, and vinculin-dependent adhesion-cytoskeletal coupling, we determined that NGF causes decreased vinculin-dependent actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance. Inhibition of MII blocked NGF stimulation, indicating the central role of restraint in directed outgrowth. The restraint consists of myosin IIB- and IIA-dependent processes: retrograde actin network flow and transverse actin bundling, respectively. The processes differentially contribute on laminin-1 and fibronectin due to selective actin tethering to adhesions. On laminin-1, NGF induced greater vinculin-dependent adhesion–cytoskeletal coupling, which slowed retrograde actin network flow (i.e., it regulated the molecular clutch). On fibronectin, NGF caused inactivation of myosin IIA, which negatively regulated actin bundling. On both substrates, the result was the same: NGF-induced weakening of MII-dependent restraint led to dynamic microtubules entering the actin-rich periphery more frequently, giving rise to faster elongation. PMID:26631553

  9. Role of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ and NOP Receptors in the Response to Acute and Repeated Restraint Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, G; Dawe, K L; Hogan, R; Hunjan, T; Roper, J; Hazell, G; Lolait, S J; Fulford, A J

    2012-01-01

    Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-expressing neurones are abundantly expressed in the hypothalamus and limbic system and are implicated in the regulation of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and stress responses. We investigated the role of the endogenous N/OFQ receptor (NOP) system using the nonpeptidic NOP antagonist, JTC-801 [N-(4-amino-2-methylquinolin-6-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenoxy-methyl)benzamide monohydrochloride], during the HPA axis response to acute physical/psychological stress (60 min of restraint). Although i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) had no significant effect on restraint-induced plasma corticosterone release at 30 or 60 min post-injection, i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) in quiescent rats significantly increased basal plasma corticosterone at the 30-min time-point compared to i.v. vehicle (1% dimethysulphoxide in sterile saline). Central injection of JTC-801 i.c.v. was associated with increased Fos expression in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus 90 min after infusion compared to vehicle control. These findings contrast to the effects of i.c.v. UFP-101, a NOP antagonist that we have previously shown to have no effect on HPA activity in quiescent rats. To determine whether restraint stress was associated with compensatory changes in N/OFQ precursor (ppN/OFQ) or NOP receptor mRNAs, in a separate study, we undertook reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation analysis of ppN/OFQ and NOP transcripts in the brains of male Sprague–Dawley rats. In support of an endogenous role for central N/OFQ in psychological stress, we found that acute restraint significantly decreased preproN/OFQ transcript expression in the hippocampus 2 h after stress compared to unstressed controls. PpN/OFQ mRNA was also reduced in the mediodorsal forebrain 4 h after stress. NOP mRNA was reduced in the hypothalamus 2 h after restraint and at 4 h in mediodorsal forebrain and hippocampus. In situ hybridisation

  10. An Analysis of the Restraint Event and Its Behavioral Effects on Clients and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert J.; Timbers, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    Programs serving troubled youth continuously struggle with the issue of using physical restraints and other coercive interventions. This paper revisits the issues and motivations surrounding restraint use. It offers an analytic perspective on the physical restraint cycle and the factors that tend to support its recurrence. (JDM)

  11. Public Policy on Physical Restraint of Children with Disabilities in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, James K.; Schwilk, Christopher; Mitruski, Megan

    2006-01-01

    The US Constitution, federal and state legislatures, courts, and regulations permit physical restraint for both therapeutic (i.e., behavior change) and risk prevention purposes. Although most venues limit restraint as punishment, no government entity prohibits use of physical restraint as a response to imminent danger. This paper provides a…

  12. The Effects of Non-Contingent Self-Restraint on Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerth, Denise Marzullo; Progar, Patrick R.; Morales, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Self-restraint is a pervasive phenomenon among individuals who engage in self-injurious behaviour (SIB). Materials and Methods: The present study examined the use of clothing as a socially acceptable alternative to self-restraint to reduce SIB and other topographies of self-restraint in an adolescent diagnosed with autism. Two separate…

  13. Restraint Use Legislation: Its Prospects for Increasing the Protection of Children in Cars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.

    Young children and infants are especially vulnerable to serious injury in auto collisions because so few of them are protected by restraints or because legally required restraint devices are improperly used. Seat belt use laws tend to exclude children and child restraint legislation which exists includes gaps and shortcomings that limit its…

  14. Functional Analysis of Self-Injurious Behavior and Its Relation to Self-Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooker, Griffin W.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Some individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also exhibit self-restraint. In the present study, a series of three functional analyses were conducted to determine the variables that maintained a participant's SIB, one without restraint items available, one with a preferred and effective form of self-restraint (an airplane pillow)…

  15. Restraint use in acute and extended mental health services for older persons.

    PubMed

    Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; Oster, Candice; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2013-12-01

    Restraint of older persons in inpatient and residential care is used to control aggression, and prevent falls and other adverse outcomes. Initiatives to reduce these practices are being implemented worldwide. However, there has been little examination of restraint practice in psychiatric services for older persons. This paper reports a retrospective comparative analysis of restraint use in three acute and two extended care psychiatric inpatient wards in Australia. The analysis involved examination of restraint incidents and comparison of restrained and non-restrained patients. There was significant variation in restraint use between wards. On one acute ward, 12.74% of patients were restrained, although restraint use declined during the data collection period. Patients with dementia were restrained at higher rates than patients with other diagnoses, and restrained patients stayed in hospital for a longer duration. Restraint occurred early in admission, and few differences emerged between those restrained once or multiple times. Mechanical restraint was more prevalent than physical restraint, with restraint predominantly used to manage aggression and falls. Findings provide new data on restraint in older persons' psychiatric services. Greater conceptual understandings of behaviours associated with dementia and the unique needs of patients with these disorders may assist in reducing restraint use in these settings. PMID:23009335

  16. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a deficit, spent almost…

  17. Manual restraint and shows of force: the City-128 study.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Len; Van Der Merwe, Marie; Paterson, Brodie; Stewart, Duncan

    2012-02-01

    Manual restraint is used to manage disturbed behaviour by patients. This study aimed to assess the relationship of manual restraint and show of force to conflict behaviours, the use of containment methods, service environment, physical environment, patient routines, staff characteristics, and staff group variables. Data from a multivariate, cross-sectional study of 136 acute psychiatric wards in England were used to conduct this analysis. Manual restraint was used less frequently on English acute psychiatric wards (0.20 incidents per day) than show of force (0.28 incidents per day). Both were strongly associated with the proportion of patients subject to legal detention, aggressive behaviours, and the enforcement of treatment and detention. Medical, nursing, and security guard staff provision were associated in different ways with variations in the use of these coercive interventions. An effective ward structure of rules and routines was associated with less dependence on these control methods. Training for manual restraint should incorporate the scenarios of attempted absconding and enforcement of treatment, as well as violent behaviour. Attempts to lessen usage of these interventions could usefully focus on increasing the availability of medical staff to patients, reducing reliance on security guards and establishing a good ward structure. PMID:21733054

  18. Universal bellows joint restraint permits angular and offset movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, R. F., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Universal joint-type restraint that employs ball joints permits maximum angular and lateral offset movement in a bellows joint without danger of rupture or pressure drop in the line. It is used in high pressure and high temperature applications in refineries, steam plants, or stationary power plants.

  19. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  1. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  3. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling,...

  4. Reward improves cancellation and restraint inhibition across childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sinopoli, Katia J; Schachar, Russell; Dennis, Maureen

    2011-09-01

    Inhibitory control allows for the regulation of thought and action and interacts with motivational variables, such as reward, to modify behavior adaptively as environments change. The authors examined the effects of reward on two distinct forms of inhibitory control, cancellation and restraint. Typically developing children and adolescents completed 2 versions of the stop signal task (cancellation and restraint) under 3 reward conditions (neutral, low reward, and high reward), where rewards were earned for successful inhibitory control. Rewards improved both cancellation and restraint inhibition, with similar effects of reward on each form of inhibitory control. Rewards did not alter the speed of response execution in either task, suggesting that rewards specifically altered inhibition processes without influencing processes related to response execution. Adolescents were faster and less variable than children when executing and inhibiting their responses. There were similar developmental effects of reward on the speed of inhibitory control, but group differences were found in terms of accuracy of inhibition in the restraint task. These results clarify how reward modulates two different forms of regulatory behavior in children and adolescents. PMID:21744952

  5. Adult Education Between Past and Present Restraints and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrnja, Ilija; Klapan, Anita

    Analysis of the theoretical and methodological basis for adult education is always somewhere between history, the present, and an orientation toward the future. The key questions that must be addressed when predicting the future of education are related to the following areas: determining how to overcome the restraints that are imminent to past…

  6. Choosing Staff Members Reduces Time in Mechanical Restraint Due to Self-Injurious Behaviour and Requesting Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Craig C.; Lydersen, Tore; Johnson, Paul R.; Weiss, Shannon R.; Marconi, Michael R.; Cleave, Mary L.; Weber, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mechanical restraints to protect a person who engaged in dangerous self-injury was decreased by manipulation of an establishing operation involving the client choosing the staff person who would work with her. Materials and Methods: The client was a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with autism, bipolar disorder, static cerebral…

  7. Dietary restraint: what's the harm? A review of the relationship between dietary restraint, weight trajectory and the development of eating pathology.

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Anderson, L M; Reilly, E E; Gorrell, S

    2016-04-01

    Dietary restraint has historically been implicated as a risk factor for the development of eating pathology. Despite existing findings, recent research suggests that many individuals are capable of practicing dietary restraint without negative effects. In order to successfully incorporate the positive aspects of dietary restraint into interventions for healthy weight management, a nuanced examination of the relationship between dietary restraint and resulting eating patterns is necessary. Accordingly, the current review seeks to clarify the existing literature with regard to dietary restraint. First, this review examines the construct of dietary restraint and differentiates dietary restraint from related constructs, such as weight loss dieting. Second, it identifies situations in which dietary restraint has been linked with positive outcomes, such as healthy weight management and prevention of eating pathology. Altogether, it appears that dietary restraint can prove a beneficial strategy for those attempting to control their weight, as it does not relate to increased levels of eating pathology when practiced as part of a well-validated weight management programme. PMID:26841705

  8. Pregnant Women and the Use of Corrections Restraints and Substance Use Commitment.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C H; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Jain, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    Recent evolving trends in the United States legal system regarding how policies and laws are applied to pregnant women include concerns over the use of restraints or shackles in pregnant inmates and forced treatment or commitment of pregnant women for substance abuse. These topics raise many questions, such as: how violent are women, particularly pregnant women; what are the informed consent and treatment implications; and who is at risk of harm? In addition, questions have been raised regarding maternal versus fetal rights, especially when the mother uses substances during a pregnancy. We review legal decisions and organizational position statements and highlight ethics-related concerns. PMID:26438814

  9. Evaluating Pregnant Occupant Restraints: The Effect of Local Uterine Compression on the Risk of Fetal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Duma, Stefan M.; Moorcroft, David M.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Duma, Greg G.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop effective restraint systems for the pregnant occupant, injury criteria for determining fetal injury risk must be developed. This study presents computer simulations of a 30 week pregnant occupant that illustrate the importance of local uterine compression on the risk of fetal injury. Frontal impact simulations with a range of velocities and belt positions were used to identify the best correlation between local uterine compression and peak strain measured at the uterine-placental interface. It is suggested that future pregnant dummy development and specifically pregnant injury criteria should be based on local uterine compression relative to the placental attachment location. PMID:15319120

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Differential Restraint: The Devil is in the Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The Differential Restraint, a mechanism used on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover to maintain symmetry of the mobility system during the launch, cruise, and entry descent and landing phases of the MSL mission, completed nearly three full design cycles before a finalized successful design was achieved. This paper address the lessons learned through these design cycles, including three major design elements that can easily be overlooked during the design process, including, tolerance stack contribution to load path, the possibility of Martian dirt as a failure mode, and the effects of material properties at temperature extremes.

  11. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  12. JLigand: a graphical tool for the CCP4 template-restraint library

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Andrey A.; Young, Paul; Isupov, Michail N.; Moroz, Olga V.; Vagin, Alexey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2012-04-01

    The CCP4 template-restraint library defines restraints for biopolymers, their modifications and ligands that are used in macromolecular structure refinement. JLigand is a graphical editor for generating descriptions of new ligands and covalent linkages. Biological macromolecules are polymers and therefore the restraints for macromolecular refinement can be subdivided into two sets: restraints that are applied to atoms that all belong to the same monomer and restraints that are associated with the covalent bonds between monomers. The CCP4 template-restraint library contains three types of data entries defining template restraints: descriptions of monomers and their modifications, both used for intramonomer restraints, and descriptions of links for intermonomer restraints. The library provides generic descriptions of modifications and links for protein, DNA and RNA chains, and for some post-translational modifications including glycosylation. Structure-specific template restraints can be defined in a user’s additional restraint library. Here, JLigand, a new CCP4 graphical interface to LibCheck and REFMAC that has been developed to manage the user’s library and generate new monomer entries is described, as well as new entries for links and associated modifications.

  13. Service users and staff from secure intellectual disability settings: views on three physical restraint procedures.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter; Stenfert Kroese, Biza

    2008-09-01

    The appropriateness of and justification for physical restraint procedures in intellectual disabilities settings is an emotive issue. It creates a number of ethical dilemmas for nursing staff. This article examines the views of service users and nursing staff from secure residential facilities where restraint is used frequently. Both groups were asked to rate three videotaped restraint procedures for their acceptability. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the acceptability ratings of the methods of restraint. Service users were then interviewed about their restraint experiences. They reported feeling very angry, sad, stressed and confused and not at all happy or relaxed when being restrained. Scores indicated that participants were significantly happier and less stressed after restraint than during restraint. PMID:18728144

  14. Car restraints and seating position for prevention of motor vehicle injuries in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petridou, E; Skalkidou, A; Lescohier, I; Trichopoulos, D

    1998-04-01

    The protective effect of child restraint and the relative safety of front and rear seating in a population where children often travel unrestrained was assessed in a population based case-control study. The cases were all 129 children aged 0-11 years injured as car passengers in a motor vehicle accident who contacted, during 1996, one of the two major children's hospitals in Athens; emergency cases are accepted by the two hospitals on alternate days throughout the year, thus generating a random sample of children injured as car passengers. The prevalence of the studied exposures in the study base was estimated from an inspection survey comprising a random sample of 191 children of the same age who travelled in passenger cars. The survey was conducted by medical staff from our centre in collaboration with the road traffic police. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated after adjustment for confounding factors through the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. The OR for injury was 3.3 among unrestrained children compared with restrained children (comparison essentially limited to children aged 0-4 years) and 5.0 for children seated in the front compared with those seated in the rear (comparison essentially limited among unrestrained children). Protective effect estimates derived from this analytical study suggest that in Greece about two thirds of all childhood injuries from car crashes could have been avoided through the regular use of a proper child restraint. The data also indicate that, in the absence of a child restraint system, a rear seating position conveys substantial protection and could explain the low mortality of children as car passengers in Greece, a country which is characterised by a high overall road traffic mortality as well as a high childhood accident mortality. PMID:9623396

  15. Restraint stress delays reentrainment in male and female diurnal and nocturnal rodents.

    PubMed

    Mohawk, Jennifer A; Lee, Theresa M

    2005-06-01

    A temporary loss of normal circadian entrainment, such as that associated with shift work and transmeridian travel, can result in an array of detrimental symptoms, making rapid reentrainment of rhythmicity essential. While there is a wealth of literature examining the effects of stress on the entrained circadian system, less is known about the influence of stress on circadian function following a phase shift of the light: dark (LD) cycle. The authors find that recovery of locomotor activity synchronization is altered by restraint stress in the diurnal rodent Octodon degus (degu) and the nocturnal rat. In the first experiment, degus were subjected to a 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle. Sixty minutes after the new lights-on, animals underwent 60 min of restraint stress. The number of days it took each animal to reentrain its activity rhythms to the new LD cycle was recorded and compared to the number of days it took the animal to reentrain under control conditions. When subjected to restraint stress, degus took 30% longer to reentrain their activity rhythms (p < 0.01). In a second experiment, rats underwent a similar experimental paradigm. As with the degus, stress significantly delayed the reentrainment of rats' activity rhythms (p < 0.01). There was no interaction between sex and stress on the rate of reentrainment for either rats or degus. Furthermore, there was no effect of stress on the free-running activity rhythm of degus, suggesting that the effect of stress on reentrainment rate is not secondary to alterations of period length. Together, these data point to a detrimental effect of stress on recovery of entrainment of circadian rhythms, which is independent of activity niche and sex. PMID:15851531

  16. Relatchable launch restraint mechanism for deployable booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A new Relatchable Launch Mechanism was developed which enables a deployable system to be restrained and released repeatedly rather than the normal one shot release systems of the past. The deployable systems are of the self extending type which rely on a lanyard attached to a drive motor to control the deployment and retraction. The Relatch Mechanism uses the existing drive motor to also actuate the latch. The design and kinematics of the Relatch Mechanism as used on two flight programs are described.

  17. Airbag bounce marks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  18. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin strapped into sleep restraint in crew quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, is photographed strapped into the sleep restraint in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Kerwin is wearing the special cap which contains biomedical instrumentation for the M133 Sleep Monitoring Experiment. The purpose of the M133 experiment is to evaluate quantity and quality of sleep during prolonged space flight by the analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity.

  19. Development of restraint material and tucked fabric joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmullen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate and select a suitable restraint material for the exterior of space suits pressurized to 4.0 PSID for normal operations, and to develop and improve tucked fabric joints for motions associated with the human shoulder, elbow, knee, waist, hip, ankle, and wrist. The many attributes of the end items are summarized to include structural integrity, simplicity, low maintenance, lightweight, high durability, low elongation, full range mobility, long life, and resistance to degradation in the operational environment.

  20. [Suicidal fall from height after restraint or accident?].

    PubMed

    Wöllner, Kirsten; Ortmann, Jan; Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Restraining patients is common practice in psychiatric hospitals and is permitted by section 1906 BGB (German Civil Code) if there is a risk of suicide or serious self-damage because of a mental disease or mental disability. Permanent monitoring and supervision during restraints should be obligatory not only in psychiatric hospitals. Nevertheless a number of deaths have occurred during restraints, usually due to strangulation. Reports of cases with suicidal actions after self-release from restraint are rare in the literature. We report on the case of a 45-year-old woman who had suffered from schizophrenia for more than 20 years. After admission to a hospital, she had to be restrained since she became more and more aggressive. When the monitor showed no vital signs any more, nurses checked the patient's room and found an empty bed. The woman was detected lying on the ground in a pool of blood under an open window of the hospital. The cause of death was a polytrauma with leading cranio-cerebral injuries. Obviously the woman had freed herself from the restraining device and committed suicide by jumping out of the window on the third floor. PMID:26548037

  1. Modulation of cortical interhemispheric interactions by motor facilitation or restraint.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Ana Cristina; Banca, Paula; Pascoal, Augusto Gil; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Sargento-Freitas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Cortical interhemispheric interactions in motor control are still poorly understood and it is important to clarify how these depend on inhibitory/facilitatory limb movements and motor expertise, as reflected by limb dominance. Here we addressed this problem using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a task involving dominant/nondominant limb mobilization in the presence/absence of contralateral limb restraint. In this way we could modulate excitation/deactivation of the contralateral hemisphere. Blocks of arm elevation were alternated with absent/present restraint of the contralateral limb in 17 participants. We found the expected activation of contralateral sensorimotor cortex and ipsilateral cerebellum during arm elevation. In addition, only the dominant arm elevation (hold period) was accompanied by deactivation of ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex, irrespective of presence/absence of contralateral restraint, although the latter increased deactivation. In contrast, the nondominant limb yielded absent deactivation and reduced area of contralateral activation upon restriction. Our results provide evidence for a difference in cortical communication during motor control (action facilitation/inhibition), depending on the "expertise" of the hemisphere that controls action (dominant versus nondominant). These results have relevant implications for the development of facilitation/inhibition strategies in neurorehabilitation, namely, in stroke, given that fMRI deactivations have recently been shown to reflect decreases in neural responses. PMID:24707408

  2. Female gonadal hormones, mild restraint, and male preference.

    PubMed

    Uphouse, L; Hiegel, C; Sarkar, J; Hurlburt, J; Templeton, C; Guptarak, J; Maswood, N

    2008-10-01

    The partner preference paradigm was used to test the hypothesis that mild restraint reduced sexual motivation of female rats. Ovariectomized rats were primed with 10 pg estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate and 500 microg progesterone. Additional rats were injected with sesame seed oil. These three groups of rats (oil-oil, estradiol benzoate-oil, or estradiol benzoate-progesterone; OO, EO, EP) were placed for 10 min in an arena, the ends of which enclosed either a sexually active male or an ovariectomized, unprimed female. Time spent near the sexually active male relative to time spent near either stimulus animal was used as the index of male preference. As expected, hormonal treatment significantly increased male preference. After this first 10 min interval, females were returned to the home cage or restrained for 5 min in a Decapicone. Thereafter, male preference was recorded for another 10 min. Consistent with the first 10 min period, EP rats spent significantly more time near the male than did OO rats while EO rats were intermediate. There was no effect of restraint, but there was a significant increase in self-grooming. These findings contrast with previous studies and allow the suggestion that a brief, mild restraint fails to influence the female's sexual motivation. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18582496

  3. Estimation of restraint stress in rats using salivary amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Takimura, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ichinose, Mitsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    The rat is an ideal model animal for studying physical and psychological stresses. Recent human studies have shown that salivary amylase activity is a useful biomarker of stress in our social life. To estimate the usefulness of amylase activity as a biomarker of stress in rats, we analyzed changes in physiological parameters including amylase activity and anatomical variables, which were induced by a mild restraint of paws (10 min, 3 times/week, 9 weeks). The quantities of food and water intake and excretion amount of the stress rats were smaller than those of the control rats during the experimental period (5-13 weeks). The body weight of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats. Moreover, the enlargement of the adrenal gland was confirmed in the stress rats, indicating that the mild restraint caused a chronic stress response. The amylase activities of the stress rats were significantly greater than those of the control rats at 5 weeks of age. However, the amylase activity of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats after 6 weeks of age. These results indicate that amylase activity is increased by acute stress and reduced by chronic stress, which is caused by repeated restraint stress. In conclusion, amylase activity is a useful biomarker of acute and chronic stresses in rats. PMID:22753135

  4. Predictors of physical restraint in a psychiatric emergency setting

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Termeh; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the negative consequences of using physical restraints, we conducted this study to identify patients who are more frequently restrained in a psychiatric emergency ward as an initial step to limit the use of restraint to the minimum possible. Methods: This was a retrospective case control study conducted in Iran Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We reviewed the files of 607 patients who were admitted during a one year period using convenience sampling; of them, 186 were in the restrained group and 421 in the unrestrained group. Results: Surprisingly, no significant difference was found between the restrained and unrestrained groups in demographic characteristics. The patients who were referred because of violence were diagnosed as having methamphetamine induced psychotic disorder or bipolar I disorder in manic 1episode and had a higher odds of being restrained (OR=2.51, OR=1.61, and OR=1.57 respectively). Being restrained was also associated with a longer duration of hospitalization and duration of staying in the emergency ward. Moreover, patients in their first admission were more frequently restrained. Conclusion: Medical and nursing staff should consider special measures for the patients who are at a higher risk for being restrained. More frequent visits and education for both patients and staff may be effective in reducing the number of physical restraints for these groups of patients. PMID:26913259

  5. Beyond emergencies: the use of physical restraints in medical and psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Glezer, Anna; Brendel, Rebecca Weintraub

    2010-01-01

    Physical restraints, such as locked-door seclusion and two- or four-point leather restraints, are frequently used in both the medical and psychiatric settings. Efforts are currently under way to reduce the use of physical restraints in psychiatric settings; various institutional, state, and federal policies are place. However, using these same restraints in the context of providing medical care for psychiatric patients is more complicated, as it is uncertain which principles and regulations apply in a particular setting. For example, is the restraint governed by the policies that regulate the psychiatric application of restraints, by those that regulate the medical application of restraints, or by both? This article reviews the principles and regulations governing the use of restraints on psychiatric patients, with specific attention to the use of restraints in providing medical treatment to that patient population. Also addressed are general principles of risk management to help avoid negative outcomes and to reduce the risk of litigation for unauthorized or unlawful restraint. A case example is used to illustrate these concepts. PMID:21080773

  6. Understanding Mental Health Service User Experiences of Restraint Through Debriefing: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Sara; Cleverley, Kristin; Perivolaris, Athina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine debriefing data to understand experiences before, during, and after a restraint (seclusion, chemical, and physical) event from the perspective of inpatients at a large urban mental health and addiction hospital. Method: Audits were conducted on a purposeful sample of inpatient charts containing post-restraint event inpatient debrief forms (n = 55). Qualitative data from the forms were analyzed thematically. Results: Loss of autonomy and related anger, conflict with staff and other inpatients, and unmet needs were the most common factors precipitating restraint events. Inpatients often reported that increased communication with staff could have prevented restraint. Inpatients described having had various negative emotional states and responses during restraint events, including fear and rejection. Post-restraint, inpatients often desired to leave the unit for fresh air or to engage in leisure activities. Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study is the first to use debriefing form data to explore mental health inpatients’ experiences of restraint. Inpatients view restraint negatively and do not experience it as a therapeutic intervention. Debriefing, guided by a form, is useful for understanding the inpatient’s experience of restraint, and should be used to re-establish the therapeutic relationship and to inform plans of care. In addition, individual and collective inpatient perspectives should inform alternatives to restraint. PMID:26454726

  7. The Option of Seclusion and Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudelski, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Eight years ago, Carleen Doucet was making her regular visits to schools in the Lafayette Parish district of Louisiana, where she works as the system's crisis intervention specialist, when she noticed a disturbing trend: More students with severe emotional disabilities were enrolled in the district than ever before. Few teachers and other school…

  8. Coercive Restraint Therapies: A Dangerous Alternative Mental Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Physicians caring for adopted or foster children should be aware of the use of coercive restraint therapy (CRT) practices by parents and mental health practitioners. CRT is defined as a mental health intervention involving physical restraint and is used in adoptive or foster families with the intention of increasing emotional attachment to parents. Coercive restraint therapy parenting (CRTP) is a set of child care practices adjuvant to CRT. CRT and CRTP have been associated with child deaths and poor growth. Examination of the CRT literature shows a conflict with accepted practice, an unusual theoretic basis, and an absence of empirical support. Nevertheless, CRT appears to be increasing in popularity. This article discusses possible reasons for the increase, and offers suggestions for professional responses to the CRT problem. Introduction The term coercive restraint therapy (CRT) describes a category of alternative mental health interventions that are generally directed at adopted or foster children, that are claimed to cause alterations in emotional attachment, and that employ physically intrusive techniques. Other names for such treatments are attachment therapy, corrective attachment therapy, dyadic synchronous bonding, holding therapy, rage reduction therapy, and Z-therapy. CRT may be carried out by practitioners trained in extracurricular workshops, or such practitioners may instruct parents who perform all or part of the treatment. CRT practices involve the use of restraint as a tool of treatment rather than simply as a safety device. While restraining the child, CRT practitioners may also exert physical pressure in the form of tickling or intense prodding of the torso, grab the child's face, and command the child to kick the legs rhythmically. Some CRT practitioners lie prone with their body weight on the child, a practice they call compression therapy. Most practitioners restrain the child in a supine position, but some

  9. Behavioral Effects of Acclimatization To Restraint Protocol Used for Awake Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Michael D.; Pira, Ashley S.; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Functional MRI of awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 minutes per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance on a forced swim test (FST). Our results show that USV calls are reduced significantly by day 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although rats show less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference is gone once animals are given a 2 week hiatus. Overall, we show that animals adapt to the restraint over the five day period, however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrant further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. PMID:23562621

  10. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. PMID:23562621

  11. Contribution of Social Isolation, Restraint, and Hindlimb Unloading to Changes in Hemodynamic Parameters and Motion Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsvirkun, Darya; Bourreau, Jennifer; Mieuset, Aurélie; Garo, Florian; Vinogradova, Olga; Larina, Irina; Navasiolava, Nastassia; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The most accepted animal model for simulation of the physiological and morphological consequences of microgravity on the cardiovascular system is one of head-down hindlimb unloading. Experimental conditions surrounding this model include not only head-down tilting of rats, but also social and restraint stresses that have their own influences on cardiovascular system function. Here, we studied levels of spontaneous locomotor activity, blood pressure, and heart rate during 14 days under the following experimental conditions: cage control, social isolation in standard rat housing, social isolation in special cages for hindlimb unloading, horizontal attachment (restraint), and head-down hindlimb unloading. General activity and hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored in conscious rats by telemetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were both evaluated during treadmill running to reveal cardiovascular deconditioning development as a result of unloading. The main findings of our work are that: social isolation and restraint induced persistent physical inactivity, while unloading in rats resulted in initial inactivity followed by normalization and increased locomotion after one week. Moreover, 14 days of hindlimb unloading showed significant elevation of blood pressure and slight elevation of heart rate. Hemodynamic changes in isolated and restrained rats largely reproduced the trends observed during unloading. Finally, we detected no augmentation of tachycardia during moderate exercise in rats after 14 days of unloading. Thus, we concluded that both social isolation and restraint, as an integral part of the model conditions, contribute essentially to cardiovascular reactions during head-down hindlimb unloading, compared to the little changes in the hydrostatic gradient. PMID:22768322

  12. The importance of spatial heterogeneity and self-restraint on mutualism stability - a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W; Luo, Jun; He, Jun-Zhou; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that enable mutualisms to evolve and to subsequently remain stable over time, is essential to fully understand patterns of global biodiversity and for evidence based conservation policy. Theoretically, spatial heterogeneity of mutualists, through increased likelihood of fidelity between cooperative partners in structured populations, and 'self-restraint' of symbionts, due to selection against high levels of virulence leading to short-term host overexploitation, will result in either a positive correlation between the reproductive success of both mutualists prior to the total exploitation of any host resource or no correlation after any host resource has been fully exploited. A quantitative review by meta-analysis on the results of 96 studies from 35 papers, showed no evidence of a significant fitness correlation between mutualists across a range of systems that captured much taxonomic diversity. However, when the data were split according to four categories of host: 1) cnidarian corals, 2) woody plants, 3) herbaceous plants, and 4) insects, a significantly positive effect in corals was revealed. The trends for the remaining three categories did not significantly differ to zero. Our results suggest that stability in mutualisms requires alternative processes, or mechanisms in addition to, spatial heterogeneity of hosts and/or 'self-restraint' of symbionts. PMID:26434680

  13. Cold-restraint induced gastric lesions in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G.R.; Iams, S.G.

    1981-02-23

    Spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to 2 hr of cold-restraint stress at 4-6/sup o/C following a 24 hr fast. WKY rats had a significantly greater incidence and degree of ulceration of the gastric glandular mucosa than did SHR rats. Mean arterial pressure, obtained from a chronic arterial cannula, fell during 2 hr of cold-restraint stress in both SHR and WKY rats. Heart rate was unchanged in WKY but fell significantly in SHR. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), determined by radioenzymatic assay, increased significantly following stress. Increased levels of NE remained similar for both SHR and WKY rats, while post-stress levels of E for the SHR rats greatly exceeded E levels for WKY rats. A greater degree of hypothermia was also noted in SHR rats. Decreased stress induced ulcerogenesis in the SHR may be due to the well-known altered hemodynamic and autonomic nervous system reactivity in this strain or other factors not yet discovered.

  14. Biotribology of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design--effect of motion restraint on wear, tibio-femoral kinematics and particles.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Thomas M; Schroeder, Christian; Kyun Kim, Tae; Miehlke, Rolf K; Fritz, Bernhard; Jansson, Volkmar; Utzschneider, Sandra

    2014-07-18

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of a biphaseal anterior-posterior (AP) and internal-external (IE) motion restraint system on the wear behaviour, tibio-femoral kinematics and particle release of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design in comparison to the widely used linear restraint. in vitro wear simulation was performed using a posterior stabilised total knee replacement with a mobile rotating platform gliding surface design to compare the standard ISO 14243-1:2002 (E) protocol with a linear AP and IE motion restraint and the new ISO 14243-1:2009 (E) protocol with a biphaseal AP and IE motion restraint. For the mobile gliding surfaces, an increase in wear rate by more than a magnitude was measured applying the biphaseal protocol (8.5±1.6 mg/million cycles) in a direct comparison to the linear protocol (0.33±0.07 mg/million cycles), with statistically significant difference. The amplitudes of AP displacement were 3.22±0.47 mm for the biphaseal test, compared to 1.97±0.22 mm in the linear test and the amplitudes of the IE rotation angle had mean values of 7.32°±0.91° under the biphaseal setup, compared to 1.97°±0.14° under linear motion restraint test conditions. From our observations, we conclude that the changes in AP translation and IE rotation motion restraints from ISO linear to ISO biphaseal test conditions highly impact the knee joint kinematics and wear behaviour of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design. PMID:24837220

  15. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression. PMID:25680935

  16. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:17056408

  17. Effects of positional restraint on oxygen saturation and heart rate following exercise.

    PubMed

    Reay, D T; Howard, J D; Fligner, C L; Ward, R J

    1988-03-01

    This report assesses the effects on peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate that positional restraint induces when a person is prone, handcuffed, and "hog-tied." Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were monitored at rest, during exercise, and during recovery from exercise for 10 adult subjects. The effects of positional restraint produced a mean recovery time that was significantly prolonged. Consequently, the physiological effects produced by positional restraint should be recognized in deaths where such measures are used. PMID:3354518

  18. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed. PMID:11800190

  19. Restraint stress induces and exacerbates intestinal inflammation in interleukin-10 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Joo Sung

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of restraint stress on chronic colitis in interleukin (IL)-10 deficient (IL-10-/-) mice. METHODS: The first experiment compared the effect of restraint stress on the development of intestinal inflammation in wild-type and IL-10-/- mice. Both wild-type and IL-10-/- mice were physically restrained in a well-ventilated, 50 cm3 conical polypropylene tube for 2 h per day for three consecutive days. The second experiment was performed to assess the effect of restraint stress on exacerbation of colitis induced by piroxicam in IL-10-/- mice. The IL-10-/- mice were exposed to restraint stress for 2 h per day for 3 consecutive days, and then treated with piroxicam for 4 d at a dose of 200 ppm administered in the rodent chow. RESULTS: In the first experiment, none of the wild-type mice with or without restraint stress showed clinical and histopathological abnormality in the gut. However, IL-10-/- mice exposed to restraint stress exhibited histologically significant intestinal inflammation as compared to those without restraint stress. In the second experiment, restraint stress significantly reduced body weight and increased the severity of intestinal inflammation assessed by histopathologic grading in IL-10-/- mice. Colonic IL12p40 mRNA expression was strongly increased in mice exposed to restraint stress. CONCLUSION: This novel animal model could be useful in future study of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26229400

  20. 42 CFR 483.362 - Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARE FACILITIES Condition of Participation for the Use of Restraint or Seclusion in Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 §...

  1. 42 CFR 483.362 - Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARE FACILITIES Condition of Participation for the Use of Restraint or Seclusion in Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 §...

  2. Assessment of the utility of contact-based restraints in accelerating the prediction of protein structure using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Raval, Alpan; Piana, Stefano; Eastwood, Michael P; Shaw, David E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a well-established tool for the computational study of protein structure and dynamics, but its application to the important problem of protein structure prediction remains challenging, in part because extremely long timescales can be required to reach the native structure. Here, we examine the extent to which the use of low-resolution information in the form of residue-residue contacts, which can often be inferred from bioinformatics or experimental studies, can accelerate the determination of protein structure in simulation. We incorporated sets of 62, 31, or 15 contact-based restraints in MD simulations of ubiquitin, a benchmark system known to fold to the native state on the millisecond timescale in unrestrained simulations. One-third of the restrained simulations folded to the native state within a few tens of microseconds-a speedup of over an order of magnitude compared with unrestrained simulations and a demonstration of the potential for limited amounts of structural information to accelerate structure determination. Almost all of the remaining ubiquitin simulations reached near-native conformations within a few tens of microseconds, but remained trapped there, apparently due to the restraints. We discuss potential methodological improvements that would facilitate escape from these near-native traps and allow more simulations to quickly reach the native state. Finally, using a target from the Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment, we show that distance restraints can improve simulation accuracy: In our simulations, restraints stabilized the native state of the protein, enabling a reasonable structural model to be inferred. PMID:26266489

  3. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D. Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. Objective: To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. Methods: A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Results: Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada’s healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. Conclusions: There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers. PMID:21886279

  4. Acute stress enhances the expression of neuroprotection- and neurogenesis-associated genes in the hippocampus of a mouse restraint model

    PubMed Central

    Sannino, Giuseppina; Pasqualini, Lorenza; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Montilla, Patricia; Soverchia, Laura; Ruggeri, Barbara; Falcinelli, Silvia; Renzi, Alessandra; Ludka, Colleen; Kirchner, Thomas; Grünewald, Thomas G. P.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo; Hardiman, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Stress arises from an external demand placed on an organism that triggers physiological, cognitive and behavioural responses in order to cope with that request. It is thus an adaptive response useful for the survival of an organism. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize global changes in gene expression in the hippocampus in response to acute stress stimuli, by employing a mouse model of short-term restraint stress. In our experimental design mice were subjected to a one time exposure of restraint stress and the regulation of gene expression in the hippocampus was examined 3, 12 and 24 hours thereafter. Microarray analysis revealed that mice which had undergone acute restraint stress differed from non-stressed controls in global hippocampal transcriptional responses. An up-regulation of transcripts contributing directly or indirectly to neurogenesis and neuronal protection including, Ttr, Rab6, Gh, Prl, Ndufb9 and Ndufa6, was observed. Systems level analyses revealed a significant enrichment for neurogenesis, neuron morphogenesis- and cognitive functions-related biological process terms and pathways. This work further supports the hypothesis that acute stress mediates a positive action on the hippocampus favouring the formation and the preservation of neurons, which will be discussed in the context of current data from the literature. PMID:26863456

  5. The use of child safety restraints with nursery furniture.

    PubMed

    Watson, W L; Ozanne-Smith, J

    1993-06-01

    In Australia, nursery furniture is associated with just over 6% of all injuries to children between birth and 3 years of age and 19% (or almost one in five) of all injuries in the first year of life. In the case of injury associated with prams or strollers and high chairs, the vast majority of injuries occur as the result of falls (75 and 83% respectively). Interviews with parents whose children suffered an injury as a result of a fall from a pram or stroller or from a high chair indicate that only a small proportion of the children (28 and 25% respectively) were wearing any form of safety restraint prior to their injury despite the fact that, in both samples, the percentage of safety restraints fitted was about 80%. The potential for serious injury from such falls is great as most injuries in both groups (96 and 75% respectively) were to the head. One death associated with a stroller and one death as a result of a fall from a high chair have been recorded for Victoria between 1985 and 1988. In the absence of mandatory requirements for the design and manufacture of nursery furniture, there is a need to provide information about nursery furniture safety to parents and care-givers through nursery furniture retailers and through maternity hospitals and child health centres. In particular, the promotion of the correct use of an appropriate and effective child restraint is a relatively simple and inexpensive measure that could prevent up to 80% of all injuries associated with the three items of nursery furniture most often related to injury: strollers or prams, high chairs and change tables. PMID:8518008

  6. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. PMID:26835591

  7. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. PMID:21538502

  8. The use of restraints or seclusion in the school setting.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    It is the position of National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is an essential advocate for the health and well-being of all students. Promoting a safe and secure environment is vital to the educational success and emotional development of children. The use of restraints or seclusion can potentially cause injury or death and therefore should be used only as a brief intervention where there is the risk of imminent danger to the child, staff, or classmates (Mohr, LeBel, O’Halloran, & Preustch, 2010; United States Department of Education [USDE], 2012). PMID:25816445

  9. Anxiolytic-like effects of restraint during the dark cycle in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yuki; Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Hasebe, Shigeru; Toratani, Yui; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2015-05-01

    Stress during developmental stage may cause psychological morbidities, and then the studies on stress are important in adolescent rodents. Restraint is used as a common stressor in rodents and the effects of restraint during the light cycle have been studied, but those of restraint during the dark cycle have not. The present study examined the effects of restraint during the light and dark cycles on anxiety behaviors in adolescent mice. Restraint for 3h during either the light or dark cycle impaired memory function in the fear conditioning test, but did not affect locomotor activity. In the elevated plus-maze test, restraint during the dark cycle reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Repeated exposure to a 3-h period dark cycle restraint for 2 weeks had a similar anxiolytic-like effect. In contrast, restraint for 3h during the light cycle produced anxiety behavior in adolescent, but not adult, mice. The light cycle stress increased plasma corticosterone levels, and elevated c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, basolateral amygdala and dentate gyrus, and enhanced serotonin turnover in the hippocampus and striatum, while the dark cycle stress did not. There was no difference in the stress-mediated reduction in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time between dark and light cycle restraint. These findings suggest that the anxiolytic effect of dark cycle restraint is mediated by corticosterone, serotonin or γ-aminobutyric acid-independent mechanisms, although the anxiogenic effect of light cycle restraint is associated with changes in plasma corticosterone levels and serotonin turnover in specific brain regions. PMID:25687845

  10. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-05-15

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements.

  11. Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spexarth, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A Mathcad computer program largely automates the design and analysis of the restraint layer (the primary load-bearing layer) of an inflatable vessel that consists of one or more sections having cylindrical, toroidal, and/or spherical shape(s). A restraint layer typically comprises webbing in the form of multiple straps. The design task includes choosing indexing locations along the straps, computing the load at every location in each strap, computing the resulting stretch at each location, and computing the amount of undersizing required of each strap so that, once the vessel is inflated and the straps thus stretched, the vessel can be expected to assume the desired shape. Prior to the development of this program, the design task was performed by use of a difficult-to-use spreadsheet program that required manual addition of rows and columns depending on the numbers of strap rows and columns of a given design. In contrast, this program is completely parametric and includes logic that automatically adds or deletes rows and columns as needed. With minimal input from the user, this program automatically computes indexing locations, strap lengths, undersizing requirements, and all design data required to produce detailed drawings and assembly procedures. It also generates textual comments that help the user understand the calculations.

  12. 28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. 552.26 Section 552.26 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... § 552.26 Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. (a) In immediate...

  13. The Association for Behavior Analysis International Position Statement on Restraint and Seclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Bailey, Jon S.; Dorsey, Michael F.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Lennox, David; Riordan, Mary M.; Spreat, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A task force authorized by the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) generated the statement below concerning the techniques called "restraint" and "seclusion." Members of the task force independently reviewed the scientific literature concerning restraint and seclusion and agreed unanimously to the…

  14. CCBD's Position Summary on Physical Restraint & Seclusion Procedures in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Reece; Albrecht, Susan; Johns, Bev

    2009-01-01

    This document is a summary of policy recommendations from two longer and more detailed documents available from the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) regarding the use of physical restraint and seclusion procedures in schools. These recommendations include: (1) CCBD believes that physical restraint or seclusion procedures…

  15. CCBD's Position Summary on the Use of Physical Restraint Procedures in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Reece; Albrecht, Susan; Johns, Bev

    2009-01-01

    This document provides policy recommendations of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders regarding the use of physical restraint procedures in schools. It includes (a) an introduction, (b) a declaration of principles, and (c) recommendations regarding the use of physical restraint in school settings. Explanation or elaboration of…

  16. Prior Restraint in High School: Does It Violate Students' First Amendment Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trager, Robert E.

    The Supreme Court of the United States has issued three significant rulings on the question of prior restraint by government officials of material to be published in print media. Each time it ruled that only in exceptional circumstances will prior restraint be permitted. Lower federal courst have not taken the same view regarding prior restraint…

  17. Factors Associated with the Use of Restraints in the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Xiao, Feiya; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    The improper use of reported restraints has been associated with serious injury and death in both mental health and school settings. However, there is currently no federal legislation that regulates the use of reported restraints in the schools in contrast to health care facilities (e.g., Children's Health Act of 2000). As children with…

  18. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  19. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  20. Peer Drug Associations and Emotional Restraint: Causes or Consequences of Adolescents' Drug Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Danish, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Used three-wave longitudinal design to examine relationships among emotional restraint, peer drug associations, and gateway drug use among 1,256 middle school students. In reciprocal model, low emotional restraint was significantly related to subsequent increases in gateway drug use among boys. In contrast, peer drug models and peer pressure were…

  1. 75 FR 44284 - Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... of Justice Programs Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide... of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide. SUMMARY: In an effort to..., National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public the draft ``NIJ...

  2. Recent Changes in State Policies and Legislation Regarding Restraint or Seclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe and evaluate the extent to which recent changes to state-level policy are related to seclusion and restraint in schools and detail what components of comprehensive restraint and seclusion policy are indicated. We examined state policy documents and coded them for the presence of specific characteristics related to…

  3. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  4. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  5. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Principles governing the use of force and... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22 Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints. (a) Staff ordinarily shall first...

  6. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  7. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principles governing the use of force and... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22 Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints. (a) Staff ordinarily shall first...

  8. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles governing the use of force and... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22 Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints. (a) Staff ordinarily shall first...

  9. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principles governing the use of force and... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22 Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints. (a) Staff ordinarily shall first...

  10. 28 CFR 552.22 - Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principles governing the use of force and... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.22 Principles governing the use of force and application of restraints. (a) Staff ordinarily shall first...

  11. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  12. 28 CFR 552.27 - Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation of use of force and..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.27 Documentation of use of force and application of restraints incidents. Staff...

  13. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT ON THE LIMITS OF THERMOREGULATION IN TELEMETERED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical restraint of rodents is often needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means of psychological stress. It is generally assumed that thermoregulation is impaired during restraint, leading to hyperthermia. A hyperthermic response should be r...

  14. Treatment of Self-Restraint Associated with the Application of Protective Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Katherine V.; Roane, Henry S.; Kelley, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The current investigation assessed the effectiveness of protective equipment, specifically arm splints, in reducing the occurrence of severe self-injurious behavior (SIB). Although the protective equipment reduced rates of SIB to near-zero levels, self-restraint subsequently emerged. In an attempt to reduce self-restraint while maintaining…

  15. Suppression of Pica by Overcorrection and Physical Restraint: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Bakker, Leon W.

    1984-01-01

    Each occurrence of pica (ingestion of inedible objects) in two profoundly retarded adults was followed by either overcorrection or physical restraint. Although both procedures reduced the occurrence of pica and had a similar effect on collateral behaviors, physical restraint was clinically more effective in terms of immediate response reduction.…

  16. 42 CFR 483.358 - Orders for the use of restraint or seclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... seclusion and trained in the use of emergency safety interventions. Federal regulations at 42 CFR 441.151... with staff. (d) If the order for restraint or seclusion is verbal, the verbal order must be received by... restraint or seclusion must verify the verbal order in a signed written form in the resident's record....

  17. 42 CFR 483.358 - Orders for the use of restraint or seclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... seclusion and trained in the use of emergency safety interventions. Federal regulations at 42 CFR 441.151... with staff. (d) If the order for restraint or seclusion is verbal, the verbal order must be received by... restraint or seclusion must verify the verbal order in a signed written form in the resident's record....

  18. Education on physical restraint reduction in dementia care: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, A; Mosel, K; Curren, D; Prendergast, J; Harrington, A; Muir-Cochrane, E

    2013-01-01

    Dementia is a priority area for all countries as populations age and dementia prevalence increases. The use of physical restraint is a possible clinical practice for persons with dementia across settings when behaviours indicate a perceived need. Indeed, this may be the first choice in practice, occurring in part because of lack of education, safety concerns, perceived costs and staffing issues. This article reviews the literature on the issues surrounding, and use of, physical restraint for people with dementia, highlighting the rationales for use and the benefits and barriers to physical restraint. Recommendations include the importance of education and policy to reduce or eliminate physical restraint of persons with dementia to overcome identified barriers at the individual, cultural and organizational levels. An educational programme from the literature review is proposed specific to the reduction or elimination of physical restraint. PMID:24336665

  19. Seat Integrated and Conventional Restraints: A Study of Crash Injury/Fatality Rates in Rollovers

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Burnett, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This study used police-reported motor vehicle crash data from eleven states to determine ejection, fatality, and fatal/serious injury risks for belted drivers in vehicles with conventional seatbelts compared to belted drivers in vehicles with seat integrated restraint systems (SIRS). Risks were compared for 11,159 belted drivers involved in single- or multiple-vehicle rollover crashes. Simple driver ejection (partial and complete), fatality, and injury rates were derived, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine relative contribution of factors (including event calendar year, vehicle age, driver age/gender/alcohol use) that significantly influence the likelihood of fatality and fatal/serious injury to belted drivers in rollovers. Results show no statistically significant difference in driver ejection, fatality, or fatal/serious injury rates between vehicles with conventional belts and vehicles with SIRS. PMID:19026243

  20. Chronic orthostatic and antiorthostatic restraint induce neuroendocrine, immune and neurophysiological disorders in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assenmacher, I.; Mekaouche, M.; Maurel, D.; Barbanel, G.; Givalois, L.; Boissin, J.; Malaval, F.; Ixart, G.

    The tail-cast suspension rat model has been developed in ground laboratories interested in space physiology for extensive study of mechanisms causing the pathophysiological syndrome associated with space flights. We used individually-caged male rats to explore the effects of acute and chronic (7d) orthostatic restraint (OR) and head-down anti-orthostatic restraint (AOR) on a series of physiological variables. The acute restraint study showed that (1) the installation of the OR device induced an acute reaction for 2 days, with a substantial rise in ACTH (x2) and CORT (x6), and that (2) the head-down tilt from OR to AOR induced (i) within 10 min and lasting 60 min a 2-fold rise in the intra-cerebro-ventricular pressure (Picv) monitored with an icv telemetric recording system, which receded to normal between 60 and 120 min; and (ii) within 30 min a short-lived 4-fold rise in plasma ACTH and CORT levels. Chronic OR induced (1) the suppression of the diurnal ACTH/CORT rhythm, with increased mean levels, especially for ACTH, (2) a degraded circadian locomotor activity rhythm manifested by a significant reduction in the spectral power of the 24h periodicity and a concomitant emergence of shorter (ultradian) periodicities, (3) an associated, but less pronounced alteration of the diurnal rhythm in body temperature; and (4) a marked increase in baseline plasma levels of IL-1β and an increased reactivity in cytokine release following an E. coli endotoxin (LPS) challenge. AOR induced (1) a similar obliteration of the circadian ACTH/CORT rhythm, (2) the loss of close correlation between ACTH and CORT, (3) a generalized increase in baseline plasma IL-1β levels and (4) more extensive degradation of the arcadian periodicity for both locomotor activity and, to a lesser extent, body temperature, replaced by dominant spectral powers for ultradian periodicities (3 to 10h). In conclusion, both experimental paradigms — but AOR more than OR — caused a blockade of the arcadian

  1. Chronic restraint-induced stress has little modifying effect on radiation hematopoietic toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Katsube, Takanori; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Vares, Guillaume; Liu, Qiang; Morita, Akinori; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Both radiation and stresses cause detrimental effects on humans. Besides possible health effects resulting directly from radiation exposure, the nuclear plant accident is a cause of social psychological stresses. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced stresses (CRIS) attenuated Trp53 functions and increased carcinogenesis susceptibility of Trp53-heterozygous mice to total-body X-irradiation (TBXI), having a big impact on the academic world and a sensational effect on the public, especially the residents living in radioactively contaminated areas. It is important to investigate the possible modification effects from CRIS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53wt) animals. Prior to a carcinogenesis study, effects of TBXI on the hematopoietic system under CRIS were investigated in terms of hematological abnormality in the peripheral blood and residual damage in the bone marrow erythrocytes using a mouse restraint model. Five-week-old male Trp53wt C57BL/6J mice were restrained 6 h per day for 28 consecutive days, and TBXI (4 Gy) was given on the 8th day. Results showed that CRIS alone induced a marked decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) and the white blood cell (WBC) count, while TBXI caused significantly lower counts of RBCs, WBCs and blood platelets, and a lower concentration of hemoglobin regardless of CRIS. CRIS alone did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte proliferation and on induction of micronucleated erythrocytes, whereas TBXI markedly inhibited erythrocyte proliferation and induced a significant increase in the incidences of micronucleated erythrocytes, regardless of CRIS. These findings suggest that CRIS does not have a significant impact on radiation-induced detrimental effects on the hematopoietic system in Trp53wt mice. PMID:26045492

  2. Effectiveness of Booster Seats Compared With No Restraint or Seat Belt Alone for Crash Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Griffin, Russell; McGwin, Gerald; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; He, Wei; Zhu, Shankuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of belt-positioning booster seats, compared with no restraint use and with seat belt use only, during motor vehicle crashes among U.S. children. Methods This was a retrospective matched cohort study with data from the 1998 through 2009 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). The study sample consisted of children aged 0 to 10 years who were not seated in the front seat of the vehicle. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of overall, fatal, and regional body injury. Results Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats experienced less overall injury (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 0, adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55 to 0.96; Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score of 2 or higher, adjusted RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.58; ISS > 8, adjusted RR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.56), and less injury in most body regions except the neck (adjusted RR = 4.79, 95% CI = 1.43 to 16.00) than did children with no restraint use. Children using seat belts in belt-positioning booster seats had an equal risk of injury but higher risks of neck (adjusted RR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.02 to 3.40) and thorax (adjusted RR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.33 to 6.15) injury than did children restrained by seat belts only. Conclusions Children using belt-positioning booster seats appear to experience a higher risk of AIS > 0 injury to the neck and thorax than do children using seat belts only. Future research should examine whether the observed increase in neck and thorax injuries can be attributed to improper use of booster seats. PMID:24050794

  3. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  4. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material failure, vertical loads of at least 200,000 pounds (90,718.5 kg) applied in upward and downward... mating coupler (or simulated coupler) having only frictional vertical force resistance at the mating... section. A test is successful when a vertical disengagement or material failure does not occur during...

  5. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tank car shall be equipped with couplers capable of sustaining, without disengagement or material... successful when a vertical disengagement or material failure does not occur during the application of any...

  6. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tank car shall be equipped with couplers capable of sustaining, without disengagement or material... successful when a vertical disengagement or material failure does not occur during the application of any...

  7. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tank car shall be equipped with couplers capable of sustaining, without disengagement or material... successful when a vertical disengagement or material failure does not occur during the application of any...

  8. 49 CFR 179.14 - Coupler vertical restraint system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tank car shall be equipped with couplers capable of sustaining, without disengagement or material... successful when a vertical disengagement or material failure does not occur during the application of any...

  9. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  10. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. PMID:26232073

  11. Positional asphyxia without active restraint following an assault.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Tarini; Byard, Roger W

    2013-11-01

    Deaths due to positional asphyxia are most often accidental, associated with alcohol and/or drug intoxication. A 19-year-old male is reported who was assaulted and placed in a head-down position in the back of a car were he was later found dead. Brush abrasions indicated that he had been dragged to the vehicle. The head and right shoulder were wedged into the foot well with the body uppermost. At autopsy, there was marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper chest with conjunctival ecchymoses, bruising of the face and scalp, focal subarachnoid hemorrhage, minor cerebral contusion, and diffuse cerebral swelling with early hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Toxicology was negative. Death was attributed to HIE resulting from the unusual positioning of the body. Cases of positional asphyxia involving others may not always include restraint, and when encountered should initiate a careful evaluation of the possible events and lethal pathophysiological processes. PMID:23786332

  12. Automobile restraints for children: a review for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrew W.

    2002-01-01

    MORE CANADIAN CHILDREN DIE OF ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES than of any other cause. Nonuse and misuse of child restraints is common and leads to preventable severe injuries or deaths. This article, intended for clinicians interested in injury prevention counselling, advocacy, research, and treatment of child occupants in car crashes, reviews current knowledge about child safety seats and discusses controversies related to their use. Children should sit in the back seat of a vehicle and should be properly restrained in a current age- and size-appropriate device (rear-facing infant seat, child safety seat, booster seat, or lap and shoulder seat belt) that is properly adjusted. The centre rear seat is safer than side positions, but a lap belt alone should be avoided. The age at which children should start sitting in a forward-facing position is controversial. Children should be seated away from air bags. Resources to aid in patient counselling are described. PMID:12389841

  13. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  14. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  15. Dieting, dietary restraint, and binge eating disorder among overweight adolescents in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 +/- 0.8 kg/m2 in the low-restraint group and 25.1 +/- 0.8 kg/m2 in the high-restraint group (p < 0.05).Twenty percent of participants in the low-restraint group and 72% of those in the high-restraint group followed weight management practices for losing weight. The mean total TFEQ score was 21.5 +/- 7.8 for chronic dieters and 25.5 +/- 8.7 for non-chronic dieters. Chronic dieter participants had significantly lower scores than non-chronic dieters (p < 0.05). Findings indicate that overweight adolescents (dieting 5-10 times or more than 10 times in the past year) reported higher disinhibition and hunger scores than others (no dieting in the past year). Also, adolescents with BED reported significantly higher scores of disinhibition and hunger than did adolescents with non-BED. Conversely, overweight adolescents with BED showed significantly higher cognitive restraint scores than did adolescents with non-BED. In sum, high scores on restraint, hunger, and disinhibition of overweight adolescent girls as measured by the TFEQ, are associated with low self-esteem, high social physique anxiety, and high trait anxiety. PMID:19086675

  16. Effect of restraint stress on lead-induced male reproductive toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Priya, P Hari; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2012-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic immobilization stress interferes with lead-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Early pubertal male Wistar rats were subjected to either restraint stress (5 hr/day) or maintained on lead (0.15%) containing water or both for 60 days. Restraint stress or lead treatment significantly decreased the weight of the testes and epididymis. The daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm viability were also decreased after exposure to lead or subjected to restraint stress. The levels of serum testosterone and also activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased with a significant increase in the serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels in rats exposed to lead or restraint stress indicating decreased steroidogenesis. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels and decrease in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity levels were observed in the testes of rats subjected to restraint stress or exposed to lead indicating increased oxidative stress. Extensive histopathological malformations were observed in the testis of the treated rats. From the findings, the study suggests that restraint stress or exposure to lead affects male reproduction in rats by inducing oxidative stress followed by decreasing steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. A significant decrease in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis was also observed in rats subjected to both restraint stress and lead treatment as compared to lead alone treated rats indicating immobilization stress augments lead-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats. PMID:22753343

  17. Adrenocortical response in rats subjected to a stress of restraint by immobilization whether accompanied by hypothermia or not

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Prioux-Guyonneau, M.; Libian, L.

    1980-01-01

    The restraint associated with hypothermia which increases the adrenal activity in rats was investigated. In rats with nomothermia or light hypothermia, the plasma and adrenal corticosterone levels increase at least threefold whatever the duration of restraint. Their return to normal values depends on the duration of the restraint. Exposure to cold produces in free rats a light hypothermia with an increase of the plasma and adrenal corticosterone levels, and in restraint animals an important hypothermia which does not potentiate the stimulation of adrenocortical activity induced by the restraint alone.

  18. Plasma native and peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin responses to restraint stress in rats. Adaptation to repeated restraint.

    PubMed Central

    Pierzchala, K; Van Loon, G R

    1990-01-01

    Met-enkephalin and related proenkephalin A-derived peptides circulate in plasma at picomolar concentration as free, native pentapeptide and at nanomolar concentration in cryptic forms. We have optimized conditions for measurement of immunoreactive Met-enkephalin in plasma and for generation by trypsin and carboxypeptidase B of much greater amounts of total peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin in plasma of rats, dogs, and humans. Free Met-enkephalin (11 pM) is constituted by native pentapeptide and its sulfoxide. Characterization of plasma total Met-enkephalin derived by peptidic hydrolysis revealed a small amount (38 pM) of Met-enkephalin associated with peptides of molecular mass less than 30,000 D, and probably derived from proenkephalin A, but much larger amounts of Met-enkephalin associated with albumin (1.2 nM) and with a globulin-sized protein (2.8 nM). Thus, plasma protein precursors for peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin differ structurally and chemically from proenkephalin A. Met-enkephalin generated from plasma by peptidic hydrolysis showed naloxone-reversible bioactivity comparable to synthetic Met-enkephalin. Prolonged exposure of adult, male rats to restraint stress produced biphasic plasma responses, with peaks occurring at 30 s and 30 min in both free native and total peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin. Repeated daily exposure to this 30-min stress resulted in adaptive loss of responses of both forms to acute restraint. Initial plasma responses of Met-enkephalin paralleled those of epinephrine and norepinephrine, but subsequently showed divergence of response. In conclusion, Met-enkephalin circulates in several forms, some of which may be derived from proteins other than proenkephalin A, and plasma levels of both free native, and peptidase-derivable Met-enkephalin are modulated physiologically. PMID:2312729

  19. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    PubMed

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  20. Acute restraint stress increases carotid reactivity in type-I diabetic rats by enhancing Nox4/NADPH oxidase functionality.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Josimar D; Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; Moreira, Rafael P; do Prado, Alejandro F; da Silva, Carlos H T P; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-10-15

    Hyperglycemia increases the generation of reactive oxygen species and affects systems that regulate the vascular tone including renin-angiotensin system. Stress could exacerbate intracellular oxidative stress during Diabetes upon the activation of angiotensin AT1/NADPH oxidase pathway, which contributes to the development of diabetic cardiovascular complications. For this study, type-I Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. 28 days after streptozotocin injection, the animals underwent to acute restraint stress for 3 h. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II were obtained in carotid rings pre-treated or not with Nox or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Nox1 or Nox4 expression and activity were assessed by Western blotting and lucigenin chemiluminescence, respectively. The role of Nox1 and Nox4 on reactive oxygen species generation was evaluated by flow cytometry and Amplex Red assays. Cyclooxygenases expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The contractile response evoked by angiotensin II was increased in diabetic rat carotid. Acute restraint stress increased this response in this vessel by mechanisms mediated by Nox4, whose local expression and activity in generating hydrogen peroxide are increased. The contractile hyperreactivity to angiotensin II in stressed diabetic rat carotid is also mediated by metabolites derived from cyclooxygenase-2, whose local expression is increased. Taken together, our findings suggest that acute restraint stress exacerbates the contractile hyperreactivity to angiotensin II in diabetic rat carotid by enhancing Nox4-driven generation of hydrogen peroxide, which evokes contractile tone by cyclooxygenases-dependent mechanisms. Finally, these findings highlight the harmful role played by acute stress in modulating diabetic vascular complications. PMID:26387612

  1. Effects of audio-visual stimulation on the incidence of restraint ulcers on the Wistar rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. S.; Martin, F.; Lambert, R.

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory simulation in restrained rats was investigated. Both mixed audio-visual and pure sound stimuli, ineffective in themselves, were found to cause a significant increase in the incidence of restraint ulcers in the Wistar Rat.

  2. Mental incapacity and restraint for treatment: present law and proposals for reform

    PubMed Central

    Bridgman, A.

    2000-01-01

    The House of Lords in F v West Berkshire Health Authority [1989] considered the lawfulness of providing care and treatment for a mentally incapacitated adult. They did not, however, directly consider the use of restraint to enable the provision of care in the face of resistance from the patient. The law has since had good cause to give consideration to this important issue. This paper establishes the present law in the context of using restraint to deliver care. Although the legal principles established have derived from what might be considered to be "hard cases", life-and-death cases, they apply to all aspects of routine medical, dental and nursing care. Further, the paper considers the recent government proposals and the effect those proposals may have on the routine care of such patients. Key Words: Law • mental incapacity - adults • statutory restraint • common law restraint PMID:11055044

  3. Ethical dilemmas in social work practice with disabled people: the use of physical restraint.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, David

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the use of restraint with disabled adults and children and uses a case study of one particular child to explore issues related to the use of restraint, including the consent of the person subjected to restraint, their human rights, and the balancing of these rights with the need to reduce the risk of harm. The case study involves a young woman who requested to be restrained in a particular way and the challenges this posed to the staff caring for her. The article concludes that in many complex situations there is no clearly right approach to take, and each situation involving restraint must be considered on an individual case-by-case basis. PMID:22544483

  4. Effects of Differential Reinforcement, Physical Restraint and Verbal Reprimand on Stereotyped Body-Rocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, S. P. K.

    1995-01-01

    A boy with severe mental retardation was unresponsive to his environment and spent 80% of his day body-rocking. Stereotyped body-rocking was greatly reduced via differential reinforcement of incompatible responding (DRI), physical restraint, and reprimand. (JDD)

  5. [Representation and practice about "chimical restraints": qualitative study with 50 health worker].

    PubMed

    Colombier, Brice; Moulias, Sophie; Curatolo, Niccolo; Cudennec, Tristan; Muller, Florence; Preulier, Delphine; Teillet, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    The term "chemical restraints" seems to be used in medical practice, but does not have the same meaning for all French health care professionals. In available literature it is considered as use of psychotropic medications for behavioral disorders. We used qualitative research method based on semi-directive interviews, in order to better understand meaning of "chemical restraint" term for geriatric medical and paramedical personnel. This term is well understood, rarely used, wrong for some professional because "drugs do not hold". The term of "physical restraint" has a more tangible reality. The term of "sedation of psychocomportemental troubles" is more common and seems to have a less pejorative connotation. In practice chemical restraint may correspond to emergency use of benzodiazepines or neuroleptics by injection at doses leading to the patient's sedation without his consent. PMID:25786421

  6. Seclusion and restraint as measures of the quality of hospital care: any exceptions?

    PubMed

    Sacks, Michael H; Walton, Michael F

    2014-11-01

    The Joint Commission has recently included seclusion and restraint as quality-of-care indicators for hospital-based inpatient psychiatric services. Their inclusion is the result of abuse of these practices, wide variation across hospitals, and cultural influences, including the consumer and recovery movements. Over the next few years, these indicators will increasingly influence treatment modalities available to hospitalized patients. This Open Forum provides a brief history of changing attitudes toward use of seclusion and restraint. It describes three clinical scenarios that highlight appropriate and humane use of seclusion and restraint and that illustrate the clinical complexities associated with their use. Potential unforeseen consequences of the reduction or elimination of seclusion and restraint are described. PMID:25124498

  7. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

  8. Opinions of forensic schizophrenia patients on the use of restraints: controversial legislative issues.

    PubMed

    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst Margetić, Branka; Ivanec, Dragutin

    2014-12-01

    The use of restraints is a controversial issue even though legal regulations may seem straightforward. Our aims were to evaluate the forensic patients' opinions on certain aspects of restraining and to compare these opinions with the current legal norms. Inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry in Popovača, Croatia, were asked the following questions about the use of mechanical restraints: (a) Should the patients' family be informed about the use of restraints? (b) Should the physician ask the patient whether to inform the family about the use of restraints? (c) Can the use of restraints be a kind of punishment for intentionally aggressive behavior toward people in their environment? and (d) Should restraints be used if the patient requests to be restrained? The patients were assessed according to the Temperament and character inventory and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Fifty-four forensic patients with a history of serious offences were included in the study. Their average age was 44.7 (± 8.39) years and the mean duration of their treatment was 6.6 (± 5.08) years. There was no predominant opinion on sharing the information with the family, but there was a relationship between the opinions and psychopathology and personality. Regardless of the patients' mental state and personality, the opinions on the voluntary use of restraints and the use of restraints as punishment for intentionally aggressive behavior were mainly positive. The patients' opinions suggest a need for the implementation of more specific guidelines in the area of forensic psychiatry. PMID:24902820

  9. Succeeding in Sustained Reduction in the use of Restraint using the Improvement Model.

    PubMed

    Bell, Alyssa; Gallacher, Neil

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Scottish Patient Safety Programme - Mental Health one of the main drivers was the reduction of harm to patients caused by restraint. The aim of this project was to reduce the number of restraints on our Acute Admissions ward. Through use the of the Improvement Model (PDSA), frontline staff were empowered to implement small tests of change at a grassroots level. This approach has led to frontline staff having ownership of driving the changes on a daily basis within the Clinical area. The use of a restraint data collection tool has been adapted and developed with frontline staff to ensure that the staff have ownership of data collected and is used to facilitate improvement. This data is used to inform the development of our Physical Interventions training. Most recently, following analysis, were able to introduce changes to promote the increased use of de-escalation and a shift from prone restraint to the safer seated restraint position. Patient involvement has been paramount with their inclusion in the debrief process. The information gleaned from the patients is used for staff and patient reflection. This has created a learning environment not only for staff but also patients and carers. Everyone involved is able to identify reasons and triggers and generate ideas to reduce the possibility of another restraint. The use of staff and patient safety climate surveys has ensured that we are constantly monitoring improvements in the feeling of safety amongst staff and patients. Our approach has resulted in a change in the culture of restraint resulting in a sustained reduction of 50% in restraint. PMID:27335641

  10. Succeeding in Sustained Reduction in the use of Restraint using the Improvement Model

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Alyssa; Gallacher, Neil

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Scottish Patient Safety Programme – Mental Health one of the main drivers was the reduction of harm to patients caused by restraint. The aim of this project was to reduce the number of restraints on our Acute Admissions ward. Through use the of the Improvement Model (PDSA), frontline staff were empowered to implement small tests of change at a grassroots level. This approach has led to frontline staff having ownership of driving the changes on a daily basis within the Clinical area. The use of a restraint data collection tool has been adapted and developed with frontline staff to ensure that the staff have ownership of data collected and is used to facilitate improvement. This data is used to inform the development of our Physical Interventions training. Most recently, following analysis, were able to introduce changes to promote the increased use of de-escalation and a shift from prone restraint to the safer seated restraint position. Patient involvement has been paramount with their inclusion in the debrief process. The information gleaned from the patients is used for staff and patient reflection. This has created a learning environment not only for staff but also patients and carers. Everyone involved is able to identify reasons and triggers and generate ideas to reduce the possibility of another restraint. The use of staff and patient safety climate surveys has ensured that we are constantly monitoring improvements in the feeling of safety amongst staff and patients. Our approach has resulted in a change in the culture of restraint resulting in a sustained reduction of 50% in restraint. PMID:27335641

  11. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. PMID:23032304

  12. Validation of a new restraint docking method for solution structure determinations of protein-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Polshakov, V I; Morgan, W D; Birdsall, B; Feeney, J

    1999-06-01

    A new method is proposed for docking ligands into proteins in cases where an NMR-determined solution structure of a related complex is available. The method uses a set of experimentally determined values for protein-ligand, ligand-ligand, and protein-protein restraints for residues in or near to the binding site, combined with a set of protein-protein restraints involving all the other residues which is taken from the list of restraints previously used to generate the reference structure of a related complex. This approach differs from ordinary docking methods where the calculation uses fixed atomic coordinates from the reference structure rather than the restraints used to determine the reference structure. The binding site residues influenced by replacing the reference ligand by the new ligand were determined by monitoring differences in 1H chemical shifts. The method has been validated by showing the excellent agreement between structures of L. casei dihydrofolate reductase trimetrexate calculated by conventional methods using a full experimentally determined set of restraints and those using this new restraint docking method based on an L. casei dihydrofolate reductase methotrexate reference structure. PMID:10610140

  13. A bitter sweet asynchrony. The relation between eating attitudes, dietary restraint on smell and taste function.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tucker, Megan; Gerstner, Nora

    2013-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that individuals with eating disorders have an impaired sense of smell and taste, though the influence of eating attitudes, dietary restraint and gender in a non-clinical sample is unknown. In two studies (study 1: 32 females, 28 males; study 2: 29 females) participants completed questionnaires relating to Eating Attitudes (EAT) and dietary restraint (DEBQ) followed by an odour (study 1: isoamyl acetate, study 2: chocolate) threshold and taste test. In study 2 we also measured the number of fungiform papillae taste buds. Study one revealed that increases in pathological eating attitudes predicted poorer olfactory sensitivity (males/females) and lower bitterness ratings for the bitter tastant (females only), suggestive of poorer taste acuity. In study two we found that both eating attitudes and restraint predicted poorer sensitivity to an odour associated to a forbidden food (chocolate) and that increasing eating attitudes predicted higher sweetness ratings for the bitter tastant. Interestingly increases in restraint were associated with an increased number of fungiform papillae which was not related to bitter or sweet intensity. These findings demonstrate that in a young healthy sample that subtle differences in eating pathology and dietary restraint predict impaired olfactory function to food related odours. Further that perception of bitter tastants is poorer with changes in eating pathology but not dietary restraint. PMID:23811349

  14. An experimental test of the capture-restraint protocol for estimating the acute stress response.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Jesse J; Norris, D Ryan; Newman, Amy E M

    2013-01-01

    Stress-induced increases in glucocorticoids (GCs) modulate behavior and are key in directing energy reserves. The capture-restraint protocol was developed to experimentally stimulate and quantify the magnitude of the acute stress response by comparing baseline GC levels with those collected after restraining a subject for a period of time, typically 30 min. This protocol has been used extensively in the field and lab, yet few studies have investigated whether it parallels hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation under natural acute stressors. We examined the hypothesis that acute stress from the capture-restraint protocol accurately mimics the adrenocortical response induced by a natural acute stressor. Using wild-caught rock pigeons Columba livia in a repeated-measures design, we compared plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations at baseline, after exposure to acute capture-restraint (30 min in a cloth bag), after tethering in a harness (30 min), and after a real but nonlethal attack by a predatory raptor. As found in previous studies, the capture-restraint treatment significantly increased CORT levels of pigeons compared with baseline. However, we also found that when pigeons were exposed to an attack by a raptor, their CORT levels were more than twice as high compared with the capture-restraint treatment. Our results provide evidence that an authentic acute stressor can activate the HPA axis to a greater extent than the capture-restraint protocol and also suggest that real predation attempts can have a significant effect on acute stress levels of wild birds. PMID:23434787

  15. Thinness expectancies and restraint in Black and White college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika M K; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, women of diverse racial backgrounds, including Black women, experience disordered eating symptoms. While there has been an increase in research comparing disordered eating symptoms across ethnic groups, there remains a dearth of research on the mechanisms of action underlying the development of these symptoms in non-White populations. Thinness expectancies prospectively predict disordered eating symptoms in adolescent girls, but the majority of research on expectancies has been conducted with White samples. Restraint, or self-initiated attempts to restrict food intake, may be precipitated by cognitive factors such as thinness expectancies. In the current study, we followed a sample of Black and White women over one semester of college to assess the influence of thinness expectancies and ethnic identity on restraint. Our sample consisted of 193 college women (93 Black women). We found that White women experienced restraint at higher levels than Black women, but both Black and White women experienced an increase in restraint across the first semester in college. The endorsement of thinness expectancies added significant incremental variance to the prediction of restraint over time, when baseline restraint was included in the model. These effects were not moderated by ethnicity nor ethnic identity. This study adds to the scarce literature on phenomenology of disordered eating in Black women. PMID:23910764

  16. Rappertk: a versatile engine for discrete restraint-based conformational sampling of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Swanand P; Karmali, Anjum M; Blundell, Tom L

    2007-01-01

    Background Macromolecular structures are modeled by conformational optimization within experimental and knowledge-based restraints. Discrete restraint-based sampling generates high-quality structures within these restraints and facilitates further refinement in a continuous all-atom energy landscape. This approach has been used successfully for protein loop modeling, comparative modeling and electron density fitting in X-ray crystallography. Results Here we present a software toolkit (Rappertk) which generalizes discrete restraint-based sampling for use in structural biology. Modular design and multi-layered architecture enables Rappertk to sample conformations of any macromolecule at many levels of detail and within a variety of experimental restraints. Performance against a Cα-tracing benchmark shows that the efficiency has not suffered despite the overhead required by this flexibility. We demonstrate the toolkit's capabilities by building high-quality β-sheets and by introducing restraint-driven sampling. RNA sampling is demonstrated by rebuilding a protein-RNA interface. Ability to construct arbitrary ligands is used in sampling protein-ligand interfaces within electron density. Finally, secondary structure and shape information derived from EM are combined to generate multiple conformations of a protein consistent with the observed density. Conclusion Through its modular design and ease of use, Rappertk enables exploration of a wide variety of interesting avenues in structural biology. This toolkit, with illustrative examples, is freely available to academic users from . PMID:17376228

  17. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  18. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Soren; Gildberg, Frederik A.

    2016-01-01

    Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitutes the perhaps most extensive exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR seriously collide with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented. This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients’ rights call for taking notice of patient evaluations. Consequently, if it comes out that psychiatric staff failed to pay appropriate consideration for the patient’s mental state, perspective, and expressions, patient response deviations are to be judicially interpreted in this light potentially rendering MR use illegitimated. While specification of law criteria might possibly improve law use and promote patients’ rights, education of psychiatry professionals must address the need for, as far as possible, paying due regard to meeting patient perspectives and participation principles as well as formal law and documentation requirements. PMID:27123152

  19. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients' Legal Rights.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Soren; Gildberg, Frederik A

    2016-01-01

    Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitutes the perhaps most extensive exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR seriously collide with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients' legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented. This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients' rights call for taking notice of patient evaluations. Consequently, if it comes out that psychiatric staff failed to pay appropriate consideration for the patient's mental state, perspective, and expressions, patient response deviations are to be judicially interpreted in this light potentially rendering MR use illegitimated. While specification of law criteria might possibly improve law use and promote patients' rights, education of psychiatry professionals must address the need for, as far as possible, paying due regard to meeting patient perspectives and participation principles as well as formal law and documentation requirements. PMID:27123152

  20. Reducing the use of seclusion and restraint in psychiatric emergency and adult inpatient services- improving patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Wale, Joyce B; Belkin, Gary S; Moon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of seclusion and restraint (S/R) use has been given national priority by the US government, The Joint Commission, and patient advocacy groups. It is associated with high rates of patient and staff injuries and is a coercive and potentially traumatizing intervention. The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) is the largest municipal health care system in the country, with 11 HHC facilities operating psychiatric emergency services and inpatient psychiatric services. HHC operates 1117 adult inpatient psychiatric beds with an average length of stay of 22.2 days that generated over 19,000 discharges in 2009. In 2009, there were over 36,000 psychiatric emergency services visits. HHC's Office of Behavioral Health provides strategic leadership, planning, and support for the operations and quality objectives of these services. In January 2007, the corporate office initiated the Seclusion and Restraint Reduction Initiative, with a sequenced, intensive series of interventions and strategies to help focus the behavioral health leadership and staff on the need for continued culture change toward a more patient-centered and safe system of psychiatric emergency and adult inpatient care. From 2007 to 2009, there was a substantial decline in HHC's overall rate of S/R incidents in inpatient units. The more substantial impact was in the reduced overall time spent in S/R; the reduced frequency of use of S/R; and the reduced likelihood of patient injury from S/R use. PMID:21841927

  1. Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Babygirija, R; Zheng, J; Bülbül, M; Cerjak, D; Ludwig, K; Takahashi, T

    2010-11-01

    We have recently shown that impaired gastric motility observed in acute restraint stress was restored following repeated restraint stress in mice. Repeated restraint stress up-regulates oxytocin mRNA expression and down-regulates corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression at the hypothalamus. Oxytocin knockout mice (OXT-KO) have been widely used to study the central oxytocin signalling pathways in response to various stressors. We studied the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on solid gastric emptying and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild-type (WT) and OXT-KO mice. Heterozygous (HZ) parents (B6; 129S-Oxt(tm1Wsy)/J mice) were bred in our animal facility. Male OXT-KO, WT and HZ littermates were used for the study. Solid gastric emptying was measured following acute restraint stress (for 90 min) or repeated restraint stress (for five consecutive days). Expression of CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences of gastric emptying in WT (68.4 ± 4.1%, n = 6), HZ (71.8 ± 3.1%, n = 6) and OXT-KO (70.6 ± 3.1%, n = 6) mice in nonstressed conditions. Acute stress significantly delayed gastric emptying in OXT-KO mice (33.10 ± 2.5%, n = 6) WT (39.1 ± 1.1%, n = 6) and HZ mice (35.8 ± 1.2%, n = 6). Following repeated restraint stress loading, gastric emptying was significantly restored in WT (68.3 ± 4.5%, n = 6) and HZ mice (63.1 ± 2.6%, n = 6). By contrast, gastric emptying was still delayed in OXT-KO mice (34.7 ± 1.3%, n = 6) following repeated restraint stress. The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the PVN was much pronounced in OXT-KO mice compared to WT or HZ mice following repeated restraint stress. These findings suggest that central oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following repeated restraint stress in mice. PMID:20969650

  2. Use and Avoidance of Seclusion and Restraint: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Seclusion and Restraint Workgroup

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Daryl K.; Holloman, Garland H

    2012-01-01

    Issues surrounding reduction and/or elimination of episodes of seclusion and restraint for patients with behavioral problems in crisis clinics, emergency departments, inpatient psychiatric units, and specialized psychiatric emergency services continue to be an area of concern and debate among mental health clinicians. An important underlying principle of Project BETA (Best practices in Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation) is noncoercive de-escalation as the intervention of choice in the management of acute agitation and threatening behavior. In this article, the authors discuss several aspects of seclusion and restraint, including review of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines regulating their use in medical behavioral settings, negative consequences of this intervention to patients and staff, and a review of quality improvement and risk management strategies that have been effective in decreasing their use in various treatment settings. An algorithm designed to help the clinician determine when seclusion or restraint is most appropriate is introduced. The authors conclude that the specialized psychiatric emergency services and emergency departments, because of their treatment primarily of acute patients, may not be able to entirely eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint events, but these programs can adopt strategies to reduce the utilization rate of these interventions. PMID:22461919

  3. Highway crash costs in the United States by driver age, blood alcohol level, victim age, and restraint use.

    PubMed

    Miller, T R; Lestina, D C; Spicer, R S

    1998-03-01

    This paper estimates 1993 U.S. highway crash incidence and costs by driver age, alcohol use, victim age, occupant status, and restraint use. Notable findings are: (1) crash costs of novice drivers are high enough to yield preliminary benefit-cost ratios around 4-8 for a provisional licensing system that restricts driving after midnight and 11 for zero alcohol tolerance for young drivers with violators receiving a 6-month suspension; (2) the costs to people other than the intoxicated driver per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099% exceed the value of driver mobility; (3) the safety costs of drunk driving appear to exceed $5.80 per mile, compared with $2.50 per mile driven at BACs of 0.08-0.099%, and $0.11 per mile driven sober; (4) highway crashes cause an estimated 3.2% of U.S. medical spending, including more than 14% of medical spending for ages 15-24; (5) ignoring crash-involved occupants whose restraint use is unknown, the 13% of occupants who police reported were traveling unrestrained accounted for an estimated 42% of the crash costs; and (6) if these unrestrained occupants buckled up, the medical costs of crashes would decline by an estimated 18% (almost $4 billion annually) and the comprehensive costs by 24%. PMID:9450118

  4. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  5. Predictors of Seclusion or Restraint Use Within Residential Treatment Centers for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Green-Hennessy, Sharon; Hennessy, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    This study identified predictors of seclusion or restraint use among licensed and/or accredited residential treatment centers (RTCs) for children and youth in the United States responding to a federally-sponsored survey of mental health services. 693 licensed and/or accredited child and adolescent RTCs responded to questions about the demographic and admission status of clients served on an identified date, services offered, size, ownership, funding, and their use of seclusion or restraint practices within the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting facility use of seclusion or restraint. A large majority of licensed and/or accredited child and adolescent RTCs (82 %) reported using seclusion or restraint in the prior year. Contrary to prior research, individual patient characteristics (percent of males, minorities, and involuntary admissions) did not predict the use of coercive techniques. Instead facility and funding variables accounted for approximately 27 % of the variance in the use of seclusion or restraint. Larger, privately-owned RTC's funded primarily through public monies and which offered medication and programming for SED youth were more likely to endorse having used seclusion or restraint in the previous year. Despite visible policy and advocacy efforts to reduce seclusion and restraint use over the past decade, a majority of licensed and/or accredited RTCs for children and adolescents report using such practices. Findings emphasize the importance of examining facility-level variables in predicting their use, and highlight the disconnect between nationally espoused goals and current practices regarding coercive techniques in child and adolescent RTCs. PMID:25733324

  6. Algorithm for selection of optimized EPR distance restraints for de novo protein structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Kazmier, Kelli; Alexander, Nathan S.; Meiler, Jens; Mchaourab, Hassane S.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid protein structure determination approach combining sparse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) distance restraints and Rosetta de novo protein folding has been previously demonstrated to yield high quality models (Alexander et al., 2008). However, widespread application of this methodology to proteins of unknown structures is hindered by the lack of a general strategy to place spin label pairs in the primary sequence. In this work, we report the development of an algorithm that optimally selects spin labeling positions for the purpose of distance measurements by EPR. For the α-helical subdomain of T4 lysozyme (T4L), simulated restraints that maximize sequence separation between the two spin labels while simultaneously ensuring pairwise connectivity of secondary structure elements yielded vastly improved models by Rosetta folding. 50% of all these models have the correct fold compared to only 21% and 8% correctly folded models when randomly placed restraints or no restraints are used, respectively. Moreover, the improvements in model quality require a limited number of optimized restraints, the number of which is determined by the pairwise connectivities of T4L α-helices. The predicted improvement in Rosetta model quality was verified by experimental determination of distances between spin labels pairs selected by the algorithm. Overall, our results reinforce the rationale for the combined use of sparse EPR distance restraints and de novo folding. By alleviating the experimental bottleneck associated with restraint selection, this algorithm sets the stage for extending computational structure determination to larger, traditionally elusive protein topologies of critical structural and biochemical importance. PMID:21074624

  7. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  8. Discrete restraint-based protein modeling and the Cα-trace problem

    PubMed Central

    DePristo, Mark A.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Blundell, Tom L.

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel de novo method to generate protein models from sparse, discretized restraints on the conformation of the main chain and side chain atoms. We focus on Cα-trace generation, the problem of constructing an accurate and complete model from approximate knowledge of the positions of the Cα atoms and, in some cases, the side chain centroids. Spatial restraints on the Cα atoms and side chain centroids are supplemented by constraints on main chain geometry, ϕ/ξ angles, rotameric side chain conformations, and inter-atomic separations derived from analyses of known protein structures. A novel conformational search algorithm, combining features of tree-search and genetic algorithms, generates models consistent with these restraints by propensity-weighted dihedral angle sampling. Models with ideal geometry, good ϕ/ξ angles, and no inter-atomic overlaps are produced with 0.8 Å main chain and, with side chain centroid restraints, 1.0 Å all-atom root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) from the crystal structure over a diverse set of target proteins. The mean model derived from 50 independently generated models is closer to the crystal structure than any individual model, with 0.5 Å main chain RMSD under only Cα restraints and 0.7 Å all-atom RMSD under both Cα and centroid restraints. The method is insensitive to randomly distributed errors of up to 4 Å in the Cα restraints. The conformational search algorithm is efficient, with computational cost increasing linearly with protein size. Issues relating to decoy set generation, experimental structure determination, efficiency of conformational sampling, and homology modeling are discussed. PMID:12931001

  9. Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.

    PubMed

    Kishwar, M

    1997-01-01

    The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is

  10. Dangerous Use of Seclusion and Restraints in Schools Remains Widespread and Difficult to Remedy: A Review of Ten Cases. United States Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Majority Committee Staff Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Senate (NJ1), 2014

    2014-01-01

    There is no evidence that physically restraining or putting children in unsupervised seclusion in the K-12 school system provides any educational or therapeutic benefit to a child. In fact, use of either seclusion or restraints in non-emergency situations poses significant physical and psychological danger to students. Yet the first round of data…

  11. The Minnesota Child Passenger Restraint and Education Account. A Report to the Minnesota Legislature on Activities and Expenditures as Required by the 1994 Session Laws, Chapter 635, Section 15 as Contained in M.S. 169.685, Subdivision 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Public Safety, St. Paul. Office of Traffic Safety.

    Minnesota Statute 169.685 (Seat Belts and Passenger Restraint Systems for Children) requires all drivers to correctly place children under the age of 4 years in child car seats. In response to the requirements of the amended statute, this report presents information to the Minnesota legislature on the commissioner's activities and expenditure of…

  12. Maternal restraint stress delays maturation of cation-chloride cotransporters and GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at puberty.

    PubMed

    Veerawatananan, Bovorn; Surakul, Pornprom; Chutabhakdikul, Nuanchan

    2016-06-01

    The GABAergic synapse undergoes structural and functional maturation during early brain development. Maternal stress alters GABAergic synapses in the pup's brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults; however, the mechanism for this is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of maternal restraint stress on the development of Cation-Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) and the GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at different postnatal ages. Our results demonstrate that maternal restraint stress induces a transient but significant increase in the level of NKCC1 (Sodium-Potassium Chloride Cotransporter 1) only at P14, followed by a brief, yet significant increase in the level of KCC2 (Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter 2) at P21, which then decreases from P28 until P40. Thus, maternal stress alters NKCC1 and KCC2 ratio in the hippocampus of rat pups, especially during P14 to P28. Maternal restraint stress also caused biphasic changes in the level of GABAA receptor subunits in the pup's hippocampus. GABAA receptor α1 subunit gradually increased at P14 then decreased thereafter. On the contrary, GABAA receptor α5 subunit showed a transient decrease followed by a long-term increase from P21 until P40. Altogether, our study suggested that the maternal restraint stress might delay maturation of the GABAergic system by altering the expression of NKCC1, KCC2 and GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups. These changes demonstrate the dysregulation of inhibitory neurotransmission during early life, which may underlie the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases at adolescence. PMID:26844244

  13. Maternal restraint stress delays maturation of cation-chloride cotransporters and GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at puberty

    PubMed Central

    Veerawatananan, Bovorn; Surakul, Pornprom; Chutabhakdikul, Nuanchan

    2015-01-01

    The GABAergic synapse undergoes structural and functional maturation during early brain development. Maternal stress alters GABAergic synapses in the pup's brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults; however, the mechanism for this is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of maternal restraint stress on the development of Cation-Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) and the GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at different postnatal ages. Our results demonstrate that maternal restraint stress induces a transient but significant increase in the level of NKCC1 (Sodium–Potassium Chloride Cotransporter 1) only at P14, followed by a brief, yet significant increase in the level of KCC2 (Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter 2) at P21, which then decreases from P28 until P40. Thus, maternal stress alters NKCC1 and KCC2 ratio in the hippocampus of rat pups, especially during P14 to P28. Maternal restraint stress also caused biphasic changes in the level of GABAA receptor subunits in the pup's hippocampus. GABAA receptor α1 subunit gradually increased at P14 then decreased thereafter. On the contrary, GABAA receptor α5 subunit showed a transient decrease followed by a long-term increase from P21 until P40. Altogether, our study suggested that the maternal restraint stress might delay maturation of the GABAergic system by altering the expression of NKCC1, KCC2 and GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups. These changes demonstrate the dysregulation of inhibitory neurotransmission during early life, which may underlie the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases at adolescence. PMID:26844244

  14. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa; Domingo, Jose L.

    2010-02-15

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  15. CENTRAL 5-ALPHA REDUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE IS REQUIRED FOR TESTOSTERONE’S INHIBITION OF THE HYPOTHALAMO-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS RESPONSE TO RESTRAINT STRESS IN ADULT MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Robert J.; Kudwa, Andrea E.; Donner, Nina C.; McGivern, Robert F.; Brown, Roger

    2013-01-01

    In rodents, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is controlled by a precise regulatory mechanism that is influenced by circulating gonadal and adrenal hormones. In males, gonadectomy increases the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) response to stressors, and androgen replacement returns the response to that of the intact male. Testosterone (T) actions in regulating HPA activity may be through aromatization to estradiol, or by 5α-reduction to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To determine if the latter pathway is involved, we assessed the function of the HPA axis response to restraint stress following hormone treatments, or after peripheral or central treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Initially, we examined the timecourse whereby gonadectomy alters the CORT response to restraint stress. Enhanced CORT responses were evident within 48hrs following gonadectomy. Correspondingly, treatment of intact male rats with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, for 48 hrs, enhanced the CORT and ACTH response to restraint stress. Peripheral injections of gonadectomized male rats with DHT or T for 48 hrs reduced the ACTH and CORT response to restraint stress. The effects of T, but not DHT, could be blocked by the third ventricle administration of finasteride prior to stress application. These data indicate that the actions of T in modulating HPA axis activity involve 5α-reductase within the central nervous system. These results further our understanding of how T acts to modulate the neuroendocrine stress responses and indicate that 5α reduction to DHT is a necessary step for T action. PMID:23880372

  16. Central 5-alpha reduction of testosterone is required for testosterone's inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response to restraint stress in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Handa, Robert J; Kudwa, Andrea E; Donner, Nina C; McGivern, Robert F; Brown, Roger

    2013-09-01

    In rodents, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is controlled by a precise regulatory mechanism that is influenced by circulating gonadal and adrenal hormones. In males, gonadectomy increases the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) response to stressors, and androgen replacement returns the response to that of the intact male. Testosterone (T) actions in regulating HPA activity may be through aromatization to estradiol, or by 5α-reduction to the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To determine if the latter pathway is involved, we assessed the function of the HPA axis response to restraint stress following hormone treatments, or after peripheral or central treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Initially, we examined the timecourse whereby gonadectomy alters the CORT response to restraint stress. Enhanced CORT responses were evident within 48 h following gonadectomy. Correspondingly, treatment of intact male rats with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, for 48 h, enhanced the CORT and ACTH response to restraint stress. Peripheral injections of gonadectomized male rats with DHT or T for 48 h reduced the ACTH and CORT response to restraint stress. The effects of T, but not DHT, could be blocked by the third ventricle administration of finasteride prior to stress application. These data indicate that the actions of T in modulating HPA axis activity involve 5α-reductase within the central nervous system. These results further our understanding of how T acts to modulate the neuroendocrine stress responses and indicate that 5α reduction to DHT is a necessary step for T action. PMID:23880372

  17. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    PubMed

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  18. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m2 (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m2 (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m2 or at 125 μg/m2 or at 375 μg/m2 in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  19. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m(2) (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m(2) (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m(2) or at 125 μg/m(2) or at 375 μg/m(2) in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  20. The validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders in predicting dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The study examined the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. The aim was to determine if the maintaining mechanisms of clinical perfectionism, core low self esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties have a direct impact on dietary restraint or an indirect impact via eating, shape and weight concerns. The model was tested in a community sample of 224 females recruited via the internet. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data. The relationship between maintaining mechanisms and dietary restraint was due to maintaining mechanisms impacting indirectly on dietary restraint via eating disorder psychopathology. The results lend support for the validity of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders as the maintaining mechanisms lead to restraint via the core psychopathology of eating concerns, weight concerns and shape concerns. The findings suggest the four maintaining mechanisms alone are not enough to lead to dietary restraint, the core psychopathology of eating disorders needs to be present, which supports the predictions of the theory. These results help establish the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. PMID:22365794

  1. Are common measures of dietary restraint and disinhibited eating reliable and valid in obese persons?

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Brittany K; Forbush, Kelsie T; Hunt, Tyler K

    2015-04-01

    Disordered eating measures were developed and validated in primarily normal weight samples; thus, it is unclear if the psychometric properties are equivalent across weight groups. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of self-reported disinhibited eating and dietary restraint measures in a community-recruited sample of overweight individuals (N = 201) and obese individuals (N = 101) and normal weight matched controls. Coefficient alpha and average inter-item correlations were used to test internal consistency reliability. Correlations between lifetime disordered eating behaviors and measures of dietary restraint and disinhibited eating were used to test convergent validity. Disordered eating measures included: Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3), and Restraint Scale. Correlations between lifetime disordered eating behaviors and measures of non-disordered-eating-related psychopathology were used to test discriminant validity. Results indicated that most measures demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability across groups, with the exception of the Restraint Scale. Significantly higher convergent correlations between lifetime history of fasting and TFEQ Cognitive Restraint emerged for the overweight vs. obese group, and the magnitude of discriminant correlations between lifetime history of binge eating and the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS) Well Being scale was stronger in the normal weight vs. overweight group. Findings suggest the majority restrained and disinhibited eating measures are reliable and valid among weight groups, and are suitable to use in overweight and obese populations. PMID:25582416

  2. Protein structure prediction using global optimization by basin-hopping with NMR shift restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Falk; Strodel, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Computational methods that utilize chemical shifts to produce protein structures at atomic resolution have recently been introduced. In the current work, we exploit chemical shifts by combining the basin-hopping approach to global optimization with chemical shift restraints using a penalty function. For three peptides, we demonstrate that this approach allows us to find near-native structures from fully extended structures within 10 000 basin-hopping steps. The effect of adding chemical shift restraints is that the α and β secondary structure elements form within 1000 basin-hopping steps, after which the orientation of the secondary structure elements, which produces the tertiary contacts, is driven by the underlying protein force field. We further show that our chemical shift-restraint BH approach also works for incomplete chemical shift assignments, where the information from only one chemical shift type is considered. For the proper implementation of chemical shift restraints in the basin-hopping approach, we determined the optimal weight of the chemical shift penalty energy with respect to the CHARMM force field in conjunction with the FACTS solvation model employed in this study. In order to speed up the local energy minimization procedure, we developed a function, which continuously decreases the width of the chemical shift penalty function as the minimization progresses. We conclude that the basin-hopping approach with chemical shift restraints is a promising method for protein structure prediction.

  3. Depressed Affect and Dietary Restraint in Adolescent Boys’ and Girls’ Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Radin, Rachel M.; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Courville, Amber B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls’ propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  4. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres

    PubMed Central

    van Arkel, R. J.; Amis, A. A.; Cobb, J. P.; Jeffers, J. R. T.

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:484–91. PMID:25820886

  5. Success importance and urge magnitude as determinants of cardiovascular response to a behavioral restraint challenge.

    PubMed

    Agtarap, Stephanie D; Wright, Rex A; Mlynski, Christopher; Hammad, Rawan; Blackledge, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Decades of research have investigated a conceptual analysis concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort in people confronted with performance challenges, that is, opportunities to alter some course of events by acting. One suggestion is that effort and associated cardiovascular responses should be determined jointly by the difficulty of meeting a challenge and the importance of doing so. The present experiment tested this in a context involving behavioral restraint, that is, effortful resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. Participants were presented a mildly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty low) or a strongly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty high) with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement and social evaluation. As expected, SBP responses assessed during the work period were proportional to clip evocativeness - i.e., the difficulty of the restraint challenge - when importance was high, but low regardless of clip evocativeness when importance was low. Findings conceptually replicate previous cardiovascular results and support extension of the guiding analysis to the behavioral restraint realm. PMID:26968495

  6. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  7. Experience-dependent effects of context and restraint stress on corticolimbic c-Fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Ann N.; Anouti, Danya P.; Lacagnina, Michael J.; Nikulina, Ella M.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2014-01-01

    Stressors are typically multidimensional, comprised of multiple physical and sensory components that rarely occur as single isolated events. In this study, the functional activation patterns of key corticolimbic structures in response to context exposure alone, its combination with restraint, and how prior experience with either of these modulates subsequent activation was measured using Fos expression. On day 1, rats were transported to a novel context and either restrained for 6 hours or left undisturbed. On day 2, these two groups were either restrained or not in the same context, then processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. Regardless of previous experience, rats in context and not restrained expressed more Fos-like immunoreactive (IR) labeling in CA1 and CA3 of dorsal hippocampus, and basolateral and central amygdala, while this pattern was reversed in the dentate gyrus infrapyramidal blade. Conversely for the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the previous day's experience with restraint or immediate experience with restraint elevated Fos-like IR compared to rats placed in context on both days. These data show that exposure to context produces robust Fos induction in the hippocampus and amygdala, regardless of prior experience with restraint and compared to the immediate experience to restraint, with prior experience modulating Fos expression within the mPFC. PMID:23662914

  8. Improved Tactile Shear Feedback: Tactor Design and an Aperture-Based Restraint.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, B T; Stewart, C A; Provancher, W R

    2011-01-01

    Tactile feedback could replace or augment visual and auditory communication in a range of important applications. This paper advances the field of tactile communication by presenting performance data on a variety of tactors and a finger restraint that is suitable for use in portable devices. Tactors, the contact elements between the device and the skin, and finger restraints were evaluated using a tangential skin displacement direction identification task. We tested tactors of three sizes and two different textures. Rough textured tactors improved communication accuracy compared to smooth tactors, but tactor size did not have a statistically significant effect. Aperture-based restraints of three sizes were evaluated on both the index finger and the thumb. The aperture-based restraint was effective when used on both the index finger and the thumb, with performances on par with our previously tested thimble-based restraint. Participants performed better with larger apertures than with smaller apertures, but there was no interaction between aperture size and finger size, meaning that the same aperture could be used with a range of finger sizes. Subjects' perceptual acuity varied with stimulus direction. We discuss the effects of contact force, finger size, and differences in perceptual acuity between the index finger and thumb. PMID:26963654

  9. Effect of Hemin on Brain Alterations and Neuroglobin Expression in Water Immersion Restraint Stressed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ragy, Merhan; Ali, Fatma; Ramzy, Maggie M.

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, the heme oxygenase (HO) system has been reported to be very active and its modulation seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Hemin as HO-1 inducer has been shown to attenuate neuronal injury so the goal of this study was to assess the effect of hemin therapy on the acute stress and how it would modulate neurological outcome. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group and stressed group with six-hour water immersion restraint stress (WIRS) and stressed group, treated with hemin, in which each rat received a single intraperitoneal injection of hemin at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight at 12 hours before exposure to WIRS. Stress hormones, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured and expressions of neuroglobin and S100B mRNA in brain tissue were assayed. Our results revealed that hemin significantly affects brain alterations induced by acute stress and this may be through increased expression of neuroglobin and through antioxidant effect. Hemin decreased blood-brain barrier damage as it significantly decreased the expression of S100B. These results suggest that hemin may be an effective therapy for being neuroprotective against acute stress. PMID:27073715

  10. Effects of Restraint and Immobilization on Electrosensory Behaviors of Weakly Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hitschfeld, Éva M.; Stamper, Sarah A.; Vonderschen, Katrin; Fortune, Eric S.; Chacron, Maurice J.

    2016-01-01

    Weakly electric fishes have been an important model system in behavioral neuroscience for more than 40 years. These fishes use a specialized electric organ to produce an electric field that is typically below 1 volt/cm and serves in many behaviors including social communication and prey detection. Electrical behaviors are easy to study because inexpensive and widely available tools enable continuous monitoring of the electric field of individual or groups of interacting fish. Weakly electric fish have been routinely used in tightly controlled neurophysiological experiments in which the animal is immobilized using neuromuscular blockers (e.g., curare). Although experiments that involve immobilization are generally discouraged because it eliminates movement-based behavioral signs of pain and distress, many observable electrosensory behaviors in fish persist when the animal is immobilized. Weakly electric fish thus offer a unique opportunity to assess the effects of immobilization on behaviors including those that may reflect pain and distress. We investigated the effects of both immobilization and restraint on a variety of electrosensory behaviors in four species of weakly electric fishes and observed minor effects that were not consistent between the species tested or between particular behaviors. In general, we observed small increases and decreases in response magnitude to particular electrosensory stimuli. Stressful events such as asphyxiation and handling, however, resulted in significant changes in the fishes’ electrosensory behaviors. Signs of pain and distress include marked reductions in responses to electrosensory stimuli, inconsistent responses, and reductions in or complete cessation of the autogenous electric field. PMID:19949252

  11. Restraint and seclusion use in U.S. school settings: recommendations from allied treatment disciplines.

    PubMed

    LeBel, Janice; Nunno, Michael A; Mohr, Wanda K; O'Halloran, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Restraint and seclusion (R&S) are high risk, emergency procedures that are used in response to perceived violent, dangerous situations. They have been employed for years in a variety of settings that serve children, such as psychiatric hospitals and residential treatment facilities, but are now being recognized as used in the public schools. The field of education has begun to examine these practices in response to national scrutiny and a Congressional investigation. The fields of mental health and child welfare were similarly scrutinized 10 years ago following national media attention and have advanced R&S practice through the adoption of a prevention framework and core strategies to prevent and reduce use. A review of the evolution of the national R&S movement, the adverse effects of these procedures, and a comprehensive approach to prevent their use with specific core strategies such as leadership, workforce development, and youth and family involvement in order to facilitate organizational culture and practice change are discussed. Proposed guidelines for R&S use in schools and systemic recommendations to promote R&S practice alignment between the child-serving service sectors are also offered. PMID:22239396

  12. Acute restraint stress enhances hippocampal endocannabinoid function via glucocorticoid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alger, Bradley E

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioural stress normally triggers a complex, multilevel response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca(2+)-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR)-mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  13. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Chester A.; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone. PMID:23055093

  14. Effects of restraint and immobilization on electrosensory behaviors of weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Hitschfeld, Eva M; Stamper, Sarah A; Vonderschen, Katrin; Fortune, Eric S; Chacron, Maurice J

    2009-01-01

    Weakly electric fishes have been an important model system in behavioral neuroscience for more than 40 years. These fishes use a specialized electric organ to produce an electric field that is typically below 1 volt/cm and serves in many behaviors including social communication and prey detection. Electrical behaviors are easy to study because inexpensive and widely available tools enable continuous monitoring of the electric field of individual or groups of interacting fish. Weakly electric fish have been routinely used in tightly controlled neurophysiological experiments in which the animal is immobilized using neuromuscular blockers (e.g., curare). Although experiments that involve immobilization are generally discouraged because it eliminates movement-based behavioral signs of pain and distress, many observable electrosensory behaviors in fish persist when the animal is immobilized. Weakly electric fish thus offer a unique opportunity to assess the effects of immobilization on behaviors including those that may reflect pain and distress. We investigated the effects of both immobilization and restraint on a variety of electrosensory behaviors in four species of weakly electric fishes and observed minor effects that were not consistent between the species tested or between particular behaviors. In general, we observed small increases and decreases in response magnitude to particular electrosensory stimuli. Stressful events such as asphyxiation and handling, however, resulted in significant changes in the fishes electrosensory behaviors. Signs of pain and distress include marked reductions in responses to electrosensory stimuli, inconsistent responses, and reductions in or complete cessation of the autogenous electric field. PMID:19949252

  15. Item Description: ISS TransHab Restraint Sample and Photo Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Constance

    2000-01-01

    The yellow strap seen in the display is a piece of the main restraint layer of a test article for the ISS TransHab spacecraft, First conceived as a technology which is capable of supporting a [human] crew of six on an extended space journey such as the six-month trip to Mars, TransHab (short for "Transit habitat") is the first space inflatable module ever designed. As this text is written it is being considered as a replacement for the Habitation module on the International Space Station (ISS). It constitutes a major breakthrough both in technology and in tectonics: capable of tight packaging at light weight for efficient launch, the vehicle can then be inflated to its full size on orbit via its own inflation tanks. This is made possible by the separation of its main structural elements from its pressure-shell. In other words, all spacecraft flown to date have been of an exoskeletal type---i.e., its hard outer shell acts both as a pressure container and as its main channel for structural loading This includes the ISS, which is currently under construction in Low Earth Orbit [275 miles above the Earth]. By contrast TransHab is the first endoskeletal space Habitat, consisting of a dual system: a light, reconfigurable central structure of graphite composite and a multilayered, deployable pressure shell.

  16. Influence of dosage and chemical restraints on feline excretory urography.

    PubMed

    Ajadi, R A; Adetunji, A; Omoerah, V O; Okoh, J U

    2006-12-01

    Three series of trials involving 10 domestic short-haired cats were carried out to determine the influence of dosage of contrast media or type of chemical restraint on feline excretory urography. The 1st series (group A) involved 5 cats sedated with 2.0 mg/kg intramuscular (i.m) injection of 2% xylazine and receiving 800 mg/kg of 76 % meglumine diatrizoate (urografin). The 2nd series (group B) involved another 5 cats sedated with 2.0 mg/kg (i.m) injection of 2% xylazine and receiving 1200 mg/kg of 76% urografin. The 3rd series (group C) involved the repeat urography of the group B cats but sedated with 15 mg/kg (i.m) injection of 5% ketamine hydrochloride. Ventrodorsal radiographs were obtained immediately, 5, 15 and 40 minutes after the injection of 76% urografin. Scores were assigned to nephrographic opacification as described in the literature. The heart rates, respiratory rates and rectal temperatures of the cats were also determined before sedation, after sedation, immediately after the injection of 76% urografin and at 15-minute intervals over a period of 60 minutes. In this study, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the nephrographic opacification scores between the group A and group B cats at times 0 and 40 minutes post-administration of urografin. Group A cats had good initial nephrographic opacification which faded later while the nephrographic opacification of group B cats progressively increased. Similarly, nephrographic opacification was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the xylazine-sedated cats (groups A and B) than the ketamine-sedated cats (group C). However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in heart rates, respiratory rates and rectal temperatures between the 3 groups of cats. It was therefore concluded that increasing the dosage of urografin above 800 mg/kg in cats does not provide additional beneficial effects on the nephrograms produced. Xylazine sedation was observed to produce better nephrographic opacification

  17. [Mechanical restraints in the elderly: technical proposals and recommendations for use in the social environment].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Delgado, Joan

    2013-01-01

    There is some confusion in the national gerontological literature in the use of terms that refer to mechanical restraints. There is a lack of dialogue as regards ethical conflicts that suggest their use, as well as a significant generalization of the claims against, and the absence of positive references despite its high prevalence as shown by some authors. This paper presents some technical proposals on the definition, the use of terms, and the use of mechanical restraints in the social environment, such as putting the ethical dialogue to arguments based on the prevalence, define them in terms of their intent, agree on a classification of the different restraint methods, identify the types and levels of risk, and intervene specifically in accordance with these proposals. Finally, recommendations are added with regards to risks, the decision process, prescription and the withdrawal process. PMID:23743357

  18. Examination of a model of multiple sociocultural influences on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, T L; Wertheim, E H; Paxton, S J

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the perceived role of three types of sociocultural agents (peers, parents, and media) in influencing body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. Participants were 577 grade 10 girls from six schools who completed questionnaires in class and had height and weight measured. Two path analyses resulted in a similar pattern. While current body size strongly predicted ideal body size and body dissatisfaction, perceived influence of multiple sociocultural agents regarding thinness also had a direct relationship with body ideal and dissatisfaction. Dietary restraint was predicted directly from body dissatisfaction and sociocultural influences. Peers, parents, and media varied in their perceived influence. The findings support the idea that those girls who show the most body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint live in a subculture supporting a thin ideal and encouraging dieting. PMID:11572305

  19. Sudden death due to sickle cell crisis during law enforcement restraint.

    PubMed

    Channa Perera, S D; Pollanen, Michael S

    2007-07-01

    We report a case of vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis in a young schizophrenic man with undiagnosed sickle cell trait who was restrained. Prior to being restrained he had locked himself in his apartment for two days without food or water. He was subsequently restrained, and transferred to hospital while handcuffed to the stretcher. He died suddenly during restraint. At autopsy, there was acute vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis associated with hypernatremic dehydration. There were no injuries present. We conclude that the death was due to vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis secondary to dehydration. It is important for the forensic pathologist to remember that death may occur suddenly during restraint from an unexpected mechanism other than excited delirium leading to cardiac arrhythmia or restraint asphyxia. PMID:16914356

  20. Caring through restraint: violence, intimacy and identity in mental health practice.

    PubMed

    Hejtmanek, Katie

    2010-12-01

    In this article, I discuss the meanings of "restraints," or physical intervention strategies that are used at a total institution for mentally ill adolescents in the United States. This paper argues that this particularly complex form of mental health treatment is simultaneously a violent and an intimate way in which men relate to one another and also takes on complex meanings about trust and identity in mental health recovery. Using data from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork at one residential treatment center, this article examines what restraints reveal and embody about intimate interpersonal staff/client relationships, how Black men relate to one another in this setting and how staff members use physical interventions to link institutional mental health treatment with street violence in the outside world. I conclude that understanding these meanings of restraints provides a valuable way of understanding local knowledge in mental health practice, treatment and recovery. PMID:20865446

  1. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment. PMID:26407381

  2. Textile mechanical elements in aerospace vehicle parachute systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, M. J.; French, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, design considerations, and design details for textile mechanical elements used in aerospace vehicle parachute systems are briefly reviewed. Friction burns are noted as a major cause of parachute system failures. The friction burn hazard can be minimized by designing for predeployment and deployment sequence control with textile mechanical restraints. Two basic restraint designs (restraint loops and line ties) are discussed and various applications of the designs shown.

  3. Behavioural and biochemical changes in maternally separated Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to restraint stress.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, P J; Dimatelis, J J; Russell, V A

    2016-02-01

    Early life adversity has been associated with the development of various neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood such as depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine if stress during adulthood can exaggerate the depression-/anxiety-like behaviour observed in the widely accepted maternally separated (MS) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of depression. A further aim was to determine whether the behavioural changes were accompanied by changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the protein profile of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Depression-/anxiety-like behaviour was measured in the elevated plus maze, open field and forced swim test (FST) in the MS SD rats exposed to chronic restraint stress in adulthood. As expected, MS increased immobility of SD rats in the FST but restraint stress did not enhance this effect of MS on SD rats. A proteomic analysis of the PFC revealed a decrease in actin-related proteins in MS and non-separated rats subjected to restraint stress as well as a decrease in mitochondrial energy-related proteins in the stressed rat groups. Since MS during early development causes a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and long-term changes in the response to subsequent stress, it may have prevented restraint stress from exerting its effects on behaviour. Moreover, the decrease in proteins related to mitochondrial energy metabolism in MS rats with or without subsequent restraint stress may be related to stress per se and not depression-like behaviour, because rats subjected to restraint stress displayed similar decreases in energy-related proteins and spent less time immobile in the FST than control rats. PMID:26555398

  4. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Oliver S. Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  5. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered Insulin Signalling in Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Morakinyo, Ayodele O; Ajiboye, Kolawole I; Oludare, Gabriel O; Samuel, Titilola A

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were exposed to one of the four different restraint stressors; 1 h, twice daily for a period of 7 days (S7D), 14 days (S14D) and 28 days (S28D). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated following the final stress exposure. ELISA were performed to assess the level of insulin and adiponectin as well as expression of INSR and GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle. Plasma corticosterone level was also determined as a marker of stress exposure. Restraint stress for 7 days caused transient glucose intolerance, while S14D rats demonstrated increased glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. However, restraint stress for 28 days had no effect on glucose tolerance, but did cause an increase in glucose response to insulin challenge. The serum level of adiponectin was significantly (p< 0.05) lower compared with the control value while insulin remained unchanged except at in S28D rats that had a significant (p<0.05) increase. The expression of INSR and GLUT4 receptors were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased in the skeletal muscle of restraint stress exposed rats. There was a significant (p< 0.05) increase in the plasma corticosterone level of the stress rats compared with their control counterparts. Restraint stress caused glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which becomes accommodated with prolonged exposure and was likely related to the blunted insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. PMID:27574760

  6. Mars Exploration Rover: thermal design is a system engineering activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Avila, Arturo; Awaya, Henry I.; Krylo, Robert; Novak, Keith; Phillips, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), were launched in June and July of 2003, repsectively and successfully landed on Mars in early and late January of 2004, repectively. The flight system architecture implemented many successful features of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) system: A cruise stage that transported an entry vehicle that housed the Lander, which in turn, used airbags to cushion the Rover during the landing event.

  7. Analysis of Heart Rate and Self-Injury with and without Restraint in an Individual with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather; Hagopian, Louis P.; Beaulieu, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    The relation between self-injury and heart rate was analyzed for an individual who appeared anxious while engaging in self-injury. The analysis involved manipulating the presence or absence of restraint while simultaneously measuring heart rate. The following findings were obtained and replicated: (a) when some form of restraint was applied, heart…

  8. Loan a Seat for Safety: How to Establish and Operate an Infant and Child Restraint Loan Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Office of Highway Safety Planning, Lansing.

    This manual presents guidelines for starting and running a child restraint rental program to provide car seats and safety belts. Briefly discussed are reasons for starting a child restraint loan program, how such a program works, and information on similar programs. Issues of staffing, space needs, supplies, and equipment are addressed and…

  9. Preventing the Use of Restraint and Seclusion with Young Children: "The Role of Effective, Positive Practices". Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Ostryn, Cheryl; Fox, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major concerns expressed regarding the use of restraint and seclusion to control the behavior of children with disabilities and/or challenging behavior. In May of 2009, for example, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) released findings regarding a number of cases in which seclusion and restraint were…

  10. 75 FR 64351 - The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... the Federal Register of June 17, 1992 (57 FR 27063). The first report was delivered to the USTR in... COMMISSION The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global... Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints, including the scheduling of a public hearing...

  11. Restraint of Liquid Jets by Surface Tension in Microgravity Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Tension in Microgravity Modeled Microgravity poses many challenges to the designer of spacecraft tanks. Chief among these are the lack of phase separation and the need to supply vapor-free liquid or liquidfree vapor to the spacecraft processes that require fluid. One of the principal problems of phase separation is the creation of liquid jets. A jet can be created by liquid filling, settling of the fluid to one end of the tank, or even closing a valve to stop the liquid flow. Anyone who has seen a fountain knows that jets occur in normal gravity also. However, in normal gravity, the gravity controls and restricts the jet flow. In microgravity, with gravity largely absent, jets must be contained by surface tension forces. Recent NASA experiments in microgravity (Tank Pressure Control Experiment, TPCE, and Vented Tank Pressure Experiment, VTRE) resulted in a wealth of data about jet behavior in microgravity. VTRE was surprising in that, although it contained a complex geometry of baffles and vanes, the limit on liquid inflow was the emergence of a liquid jet from the top of the vane structure. Clearly understanding the restraint of liquid jets by surface tension is key to managing fluids in low gravity. To model this phenomenon, we need a numerical method that can track the fluid motion and the surface tension forces. The fluid motion is modeled with the Navier-Stokes equation formulated for low-speed incompressible flows. The quantities of velocity and pressure are placed on a staggered grid, with velocity being tracked at cell faces and pressure at cell centers. The free surface is tracked via the introduction of a color function that tracks liquid as 1/2 and gas as -1/2. A phase model developed by Jacqmin is used. This model converts the discrete surface tension force into a barrier function that peaks at the free surface and decays rapidly. Previous attempts at this formulation have been criticized for smearing the interface. However, by sharpening the phase

  12. Behavioral effects and CRF expression in brain structures of high- and low-anxiety rats after chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Wisłowska-Stanek, Aleksandra; Lehner, Małgorzata; Skórzewska, Anna; Krząścik, Paweł; Płaźnik, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of chronic restraint stress (5 weeks, 3h/day) on behavior and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression in rats selected for high (HR) and low anxiety (LR). The conditioned freezing response was used as a discriminating variable. Moreover, we assessed the influence of acute restraint on CRF expression in the brain in HR and LR rats. We found that chronic restraint induced symptoms of anhedonia (decreased consumption of 1% sucrose solution) in HR rats. In addition, HR restraint rats showed an increased learned helplessness behavior (immobility time in the Porsolt test) as well as neophobia in the open field test vs. LR restraint and HR control rats. These behavioral changes were accompanied by a decreased expression of CRF in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) compared to the HR control and LR restraint rat groups, respectively. The acute restraint condition increased the expression of CRF in the pPVN of HR rats compared to the HR control group, and enhanced the expression of CRF in the CA1 area and DG of LR restraint animals compared to the HR restraint and LR control rats, respectively. The present results indicate that chronic restraint stress in high anxiety rats attenuated CRF expression in the pPVN and DG, which was probably due to detrimental actions on the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland feedback mechanism, thus modulating the stress response and inducing anhedonia and depressive-like symptoms. PMID:27150225

  13. Reduction of Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Don E.; Grossett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    We used an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach to increase behavior intervention plans and decrease the use of mechanical restraint. First, recipients were tracked as a member of the priority group if they engaged in frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others and/or if they had been placed in mechanical…

  14. RESTRAINT-INDUCED ANALGESIA IN THE CD-1 MOUSE: INTERACTIONS WITH MORPHINE AND TIME OF DAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tail-flick response of adult male CD-1 mice was used to assess the analgesic properties of restraint alone and in combination with morphine during the diurnal and nocturnal periods. ice were restrained in conical metal devices that allowed a change in position from supine to ...

  15. Body image and cognitive restraint are risk factors for obesity in French adolescents.

    PubMed

    Megalakaki, Olga; Mouveaux, Marie; Hubin-Gayte, Mylène; Wypych, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The present study explored the links between cognitive restraint and body image in obese adolescents when compared with normal-weight adolescents according to sex. Body image was measured on the Body Esteem Scale and cognitive restraint by means of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18). Although the results did not reveal any significant correlation between overall scores on these two measures, subscale scores showed that the obese adolescents used cognitive restraint more than the normal-weight adolescents did as a strategy for regulating their diet and were less satisfied with their body image. The normal-weight adolescents' use of cognitive restraint was correlated with body-weight dissatisfaction. Despite these differences, the two populations shared several characteristics. All the adolescents were dissatisfied with the way they thought that others saw them. The loss of control was one of their major concerns, although in the obese adolescents, it went hand in hand with major emotional investment. The results suggest that these are the variables responsible for adolescents' eating habits, regardless of their weight. The most discriminating variable when crossed with weight was sex, with girls being less satisfied with their body image, especially when they were obese. PMID:23807773

  16. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    NOHARA, Masakatsu; TOHEI, Atsushi; SATO, Takumi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments. PMID:26852731

  17. Influence of ambient temperatures on the production of restraint ulcers in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the influence of ambient temperature on the production of restraint ulcers in the rat is described. It concludes that the production of restrain ulcers, is favored by the reduction of the environmental temperature, whether the rat has been subjected to a fast or not.

  18. Changing the Definition of Education. On Kant's Educational Paradox between Freedom and Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffar, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Ever since Kant asked: "How am I to develop the sense of freedom in spite of the restraint?" in his lecture on education, the tension between necessary educational influence and unacceptable restriction of the child's individual development and freedom has been considered an educational paradox. Many have suggested solutions to the…

  19. Restraint Procedures and Challenging Behaviours in Intellectual Disability: An Analysis of Causative Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…

  20. Examination of a Model of Multiple Sociocultural Influences on Adolescent Girls' Body Dissatisfaction and Dietary Restraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkley, Tracy L.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Paxton, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the perceived role of sociocultural agents (peers, parents, and media) in influencing body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint in adolescent girls. While current body size strongly predicted ideal body size and dissatisfaction, perceived influence of sociocultural agents also had a direct relationship with body ideal and…

  1. A Descriptive Study of the Use of Restraint and Seclusion in a Special Education School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villani, V. Susan; Parsons, Aaron E.; Church, Robin P.; Beetar, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The literature regarding the use of restraint and seclusion in schools is scant, perhaps due to the controversial nature of the topic. With few exceptions, schools have not published policies or data regarding these procedures even when doing so would further the discussion about standards for staff training, student safety, and…

  2. The Relationship between Seclusion and Restraint Use and Childhood Abuse among Psychiatric Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Joseph H.; Springer, Justin; Beck, Niels C.; Menditto, Anthony; Coleman, James

    2011-01-01

    Seclusion and restraint (S/R) is a controversial topic in the field of psychiatry, due in part to the high rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse found among psychiatric inpatients. The trauma-informed care perspective suggests that the use of S/R with previously abused inpatients may result in retraumatization due to mental associations…

  3. 78 FR 55629 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Inflatable Three-Point Restraint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Inflatable Three-Point... features associated with installation of an inflatable three-point restraint safety belt with an...

  4. Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.

    PubMed

    Brown, A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers. PMID:24463067

  5. Effects of dietary restraint, obesity, and gender on holiday eating behavior and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Klesges, R C; Klem, M L; Bene, C R

    1989-11-01

    This investigation evaluated the impact of dietary restraint, relative weight, and gender on holiday eating behavior and weight gain. 65 Ss (31 men and 34 women) completed detailed food records for the 2 days before, the 4 days during, and the 2 days after the Thanksgiving weekend. Results indicated increased eating during the Thanksgiving holiday, with men eating more than women and the obese eating less than the nonobese. There was also a significant Total Restraint X Weight X Time interaction, with unrestrained normal-weight subjects behaving similarly to high-restrained overweight subjects over time. There was also a highly reliable Total Restraint X Sex X Time interaction. The most striking finding from this interaction was that high-restrained women displayed decreases in their dietary intake over time. Correlational analyses revealed that restraint scores were negatively associated with dietary intake over the 8-day period but were positively associated with weight gain. The implications for dieting, eating behavior, and energy balance are discussed. PMID:2592685

  6. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve Installation and Use of Child Passenger Safety Restraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Wright, Kalon A.

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install…

  7. Learning from Tragedy: A Survey of Child and Adolescent Restraint Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunno, Michael A.; Holden, Martha J.; Tollar, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This descriptive study examines 45 child and adolescent fatalities related to restraints in residential (institutional) placements in the United States from 1993 to 2003. Method: The study team used common Internet search engines as its primary case discovery strategy to determine the frequency and the nature of the fatalities, as well…

  8. The Lack of Motor Vehicle Occupant Restraint Use in Children Arriving at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kathryn D.; Faries, S. Glenn

    2008-01-01

    Background: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of mortality for children aged 4-14 in the United States. Many children are driven daily to school, increasing their exposure to potential injury, especially if they are not appropriately restrained. Observing the level of motor vehicle occupant restraint (MVOR) use upon school arrival could…

  9. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Temple; Shivley, Chelsey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A common animal welfare question is: how stressful is handling and restraining farm animals for veterinary procedures even when no surgical or invasive procedures are done? It depends on how a particular animal perceives it. For one animal, restraint for an injection may be a positive experience associated with food treats and a different animal may be highly fearful and actively resist being restrained. The animal’s response is highly dependent on both its previous experiences and inherited traits such as temperament. Abstract An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship. PMID:26633523

  10. Validity of Dietary Restraint Scales: Reply to van Strien et al. (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Lowe, Michael R.; Burton, Emily

    2006-01-01

    In T. van Strien, R. C. M. E. Engels, W. van Staveren, and C. P. Herman's (see record 2006-03905-010) comment, they contested the conclusion that dietary restraint scales are invalid measures of acute dietary restriction (E. Stice, M. Fisher, & M. R. Lowe, 2004). The authors respond to their concerns and conclude that researchers should (a) not…

  11. 19 CFR 159.44 - Special duties on merchandise imported under agreements in restraint of trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special duties on merchandise imported under agreements in restraint of trade. 159.44 Section 159.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Special Duties § 159.44 Special duties on...

  12. Manual Restraint and Common Compound Administration Routes in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Machholz, Elton; Mulder, Guy; Ruiz, Casimira; Corning, Brian F.; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Being able to safely and effectively restrain mice and rats is an important part of conducting research. Working confidently and humanely with mice and rats requires a basic competency in handling and restraint methods. This article will present the basic principles required to safely handle animals. One-handed, two-handed, and restraint with specially designed restraint objects will be illustrated. Often, another part of the research or testing use of animals is the effective administration of compounds to mice and rats. Although there are a large number of possible administration routes (limited only by the size and organs of the animal), most are not used regularly in research. This video will illustrate several of the more common routes, including intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and oral gavage. The goal of this article is to expose a viewer unfamiliar with these techniques to basic restraint and substance administration routes. This video does not replace required hands-on training at your facility, but is meant to augment and supplement that training. PMID:23051623

  13. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT ON THE LIMITS OF THERMOREGULATION IN TELEMETERED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical restraint of rodents is needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means ofpsychological stress. Hyperthermia is often observed in restrained rats, presumably as a result of impairments in heat dissipation. However, such a hyperthermic resp...

  14. Client Factors as Predictors of Restraint and Seclusion in People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirs, Jan G. M.; Blok, Jan B.; Tolhoek, Myrte A.; El Aouat, Fadoua; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To gain more insight into the antecedent factors of restraint in institutionalised people with intellectual disability (ID), the role played by several demographic and psychological client variables was investigated. Methods: The data of 475 people (age range 12-95 years) who were residents in a Dutch institution for people with ID…

  15. 76 FR 13620 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Compartment Seating and Restraints to Proposed Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), CDC, HHS, in collaboration with the National Truck Equipment Association, Ambulance Manufacturers Division (NTEA-AMD) has developed a series of proposed ambulance component test standards. One such standard, AMD STANDARD 026--Seat, Seat Mount and Occupant Restraint Dynamic Test--Proposed (draft), seeks to improve occupant and......

  16. Child and Adolescent Inpatient Restraint Reduction: A State Initiative to Promote Strength-Based Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…

  17. Self-Injurious Behavior, Self-Restraint, and Compulsive Behaviors in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…

  18. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  19. Pregravid BMI is associated with dietary restraint and psychosocial factors during pregnancy1

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; London, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the association of pregravid weight status, dietary restraint and psychosocial factors during pregnancy. We used data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition study, that recruited 2,006 women at prenatal clinics before 20 weeks’ gestation who were >16 years and English speaking. Institute of Medicine BMI cutpoints of underweight (<19.8), normal weight (19.8–26.0), overweight (>26.0–29.0), obese (>29.0–34.9) and an additional category morbidly obese (≥ 35.0), were used to categorize weight status. Eight psychosocial measures and dietary restraint were assessed with regard to BMI; perceived stress, trait anxiety, depression symptoms, and internal locus of control (LOC), chance LOC, powerful others LOC, self-esteem and mastery. Linear regression was used to estimate associations, controlling for potential confounders. A significant test for trend was found between increasing pregravid weight categories and perceived stress, trait anxiety, depression symptoms, powerful others LOC, self-esteem, mastery and dietary restraint. In adjusted models, pregravid obesity was independently associated with perceived stress, trait anxiety and depression. Morbidly obese status was independently associated with all measures except internal LOC. A strong linear association was found between increasing weight categories and dietary restraint. A consistent association was found between pregravid weight status, psychosocial factors and dietary restraint. If corroborated, these findings suggest that with increasing pregravid weight, pregnant women are at greater risk for experiencing negative psychological states, are less likely to experience positive personal dispositions, and may need additional support to prevent adverse maternal complications and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:19131943

  20. Prenatal exposure to restraint or predator stresses attenuates field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ahmadzadeh, Ramin; Roshan-Milani, Shiva

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to stress is known to change synaptic plasticity and results in long-term depression; further, this stress precipitates seizures. In the study described here, the prenatal restraint and predator stress models were used to test the hypothesis that indirect prenatal stresses influence hippocampal synaptic potentiation and may affect seizures susceptibility in infant rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control, restraint-stressed, and predator-stressed groups. Both stressed groups were exposed to the stressor on gestation days 15, 16, and 17. The restraint stress involved 1-h sessions twice daily in a Plexiglas tube and the predator stress involved 2-h sessions once daily in a cage placed within the visual range of a caged cat. Blood corticosterone (COS) levels were measured in different time points. Hippocampal slices were prepared and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were studied on postnatal day 15. Pilocarpine was administered on postnatal day 25 and mortality rates were measured after 2 and 24h. Restraint and predator stresses resulted in significantly elevated COS blood levels in dams and pups. Both the amplitude and slope of fEPSP in the CA1 area decreased significantly in the stressed groups as compared to the control. Prenatal restraint and predator stresses significantly increased the fatal effect of pilocarpine at 24h after injection. Exposure to prenatal stresses and COS blood levels elevation reduce hippocampal synaptic potentiation and increase mortality rate of seizure in infant rats and may affect on later seizure susceptibility and prognosis. PMID:21925585

  1. Research in biomechanics of occupant protection.

    PubMed

    King, A I; Yang, K H

    1995-04-01

    This paper discusses the biomechanical bases for occupant protection against frontal and side impact. Newton's Laws of Motion are used to illustrate the effect of a crash on restrained and unrestrained occupants, and the concept of ride down is discussed. Occupant protection through the use of energy absorbing materials is described, and the mechanism of injury of some of the more common injuries is explained. The role of the three-point belt and the airbag in frontal protection is discussed along with the potential injuries that can result from the use of these restraint systems. Side impact protection is more difficult to attain but some protection can be derived from the use of padding or a side impact airbag. It is concluded that the front seat occupants are adequately protected against frontal impact if belts are worn in an airbag equipped vehicle. Side impact protection may not be uniform in all vehicles. PMID:7723097

  2. Antioxidant supplementation overcomes the deleterious effects of maternal restraint stress-induced oxidative stress on mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lian, Hua-Yu; Gao, Yan; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Wu, Xiu-Fen; Wang, Tian-Yang; Li, Hong; Tan, Jing-He

    2013-12-01

    In this study, using a mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that restraint stress would impair the developmental potential of oocytes by causing oxidative stress and that antioxidant supplementation could overcome the adverse effect of stress-induced oxidative stress. Female mice were subjected to restraint stress for 24 h starting 24 h after equine chorionic gonadotropin injection. At the end of stress exposure, mice were either killed to recover oocytes for in vitro maturation (IVM) or injected with human chorionic gonadotropin and caged with male mice to observe in vivo development. The effect of antioxidants was tested in vitro by adding them to IVM medium or in vivo by maternal injection immediately before restraint stress exposure. Assays carried out to determine total oxidant and antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels indicated that restraint stress increased oxidative stress in mouse serum, ovaries, and oocytes. Whereas the percentage of blastocysts and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in oocytes from restraint-stressed mice, addition of antioxidants to IVM medium significantly improved their blastocyst development. Supplementation of cystine and cysteamine to IVM medium reduced ROS levels and aneuploidy while increasing glutathione synthesis and improving pre- and postimplantation development of oocytes from restraint-stressed mice. Furthermore, injection of the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate into restraint-stressed mice significantly improved the blastocyst formation and postimplantation development of their oocytes. In conclusion, restraint stress at the oocyte prematuration stage impaired the developmental potential of oocytes by increasing oxidative stress and addition of antioxidants to IVM medium or maternal antioxidant injection overcame the detrimental effect of stress-induced oxidative stress. The data reported herein are helpful when making attempts to

  3. Knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of family caregivers and home care providers of physical restraint use with home-dwelling elders: a cross-sectional study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of physical restraints by family caregivers with home-dwelling elders has not been extensively studied but it might be widespread. Furthermore, it is also not clear how home care providers who support family caregivers perceive the use of physical restraint in elders’ homes. This study assessed family caregivers’ and home care providers’ knowledge and perceptions of physical restraint used with elders living at home in Japan, a country with the highest proportion of elders in the world and where family caregiving is common. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of 494 family caregivers, 201 home helpers, 78 visiting nurses, 131 visiting physicians, and 158 care managers of home-dwelling frail elders needing some care and medical support in Japan, using questionnaires on knowledge of 11 physical restraint procedures prohibited in institutions and 10 harmful effects of physical restraints, perceptions of 17 reasons for requiring physical restraints, and experiences involving physical restraint use. Results Family caregivers were aware of significantly fewer recognized prohibited physical restraint procedures and recognized harmful effects of physical restraint than home care providers, and differences among home care providers were significant. The average importance rating from 1 (least) to 5 (most) of the 17 reasons for requiring physical restraints was significantly higher among family caregivers than home care providers, and significantly different among the home care providers. Moreover, these differences depended in part on participation in physical restraint education classes. While 20.1% of family caregivers had wavered over using physical restraints, 40.5% of home care providers had seen physical restraints used in elders’ homes and 16.7% had advised physical restraint use or used physical restraints themselves. Conclusions Knowledge and perceptions of physical restraints differed between family caregivers and home care

  4. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  5. The effects of restraint on uptake of radioactive sulfate in the salivary and gastric secretions of rats with pyloric ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chayvialle, J. A.; Lambert, R.; Ruet, D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of restraint on the amount of nondialysable radioactive sulfate in the gastric wall and the gastric juice and saliva were investigated. It was found that restraint provokes a significant decrease in salivary radioactive sulfate. This, in turn, is responsible for the decrease of sulfate in the gastric contents observed under these conditions in rats with pyloric ligation. Esophageal ligation associated with this prevents passage of saliva and lowers the amount of radioactive sulfate in the gastric juice. Restraint causes then an increase in the amount of sulfate in the gastric juice, the value observed being very much lower than that of rats with a free esophagus. At the level of the gastric wall, the change observed during restraint does not reach a significant threshold.

  6. A new default restraint library for the protein backbone in Phenix: a conformation-dependent geometry goes mainstream

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Chemical restraints are a fundamental part of crystallographic protein structure refinement. In response to mounting evidence that conventional restraints have shortcomings, it has previously been documented that using backbone restraints that depend on the protein backbone conformation helps to address these shortcomings and improves the performance of refinements [Moriarty et al. (2014 ▸), FEBS J. 281, 4061–4071]. It is important that these improvements be made available to all in the protein crystallography community. Toward this end, a change in the default geometry library used by Phenix is described here. Tests are presented showing that this change will not generate increased numbers of outliers during validation, or deposition in the Protein Data Bank, during the transition period in which some validation tools still use the conventional restraint libraries. PMID:26894545

  7. Characteristics of plasma plume and effect mechanism of lateral restraint during high power CO2 laser welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue; Cai, Yan; Sun, Dawei; Zhu, Junjie; Wu, Yixiong

    2014-12-01

    A novel lateral restraint method was proposed to suppress plasma plume of high power CO2 laser welding using a pair of copper blocks with cooling water. The plasma plume was observed with a high-speed camera, and its core zone and periphery zone were investigated based on the specific processing algorithm. With the specially designed shifting unit, the spectrum of plasma plume was scanned both in 1-D and 2-D mode. Based on the selected spectral lines, electron temperature and electron number density of plasma plume were calculated. The characteristics of plasma plume, as well as the restraint mechanism, were discussed both in 1-D and 2-D mode. Results showed that the cooling effect, blowing effect and the static pressure were enhanced by the lateral restraint, and the restraint effect of the near-wall low-temperature area limited the expansion of plasma plume greatly.

  8. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy...

  9. Initiatives to reduce the use of seclusion and restraints on people with developmental disabilities: a systematic review and quantitative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; McVilly, Keith R; McGillivray, Jane A

    2013-11-01

    Contrary to the expectations articulated in public policy, restrictive interventions are commonly used in support services for people with developmental disabilities. This systematic review and quantitative synthesis was undertaken to investigate whether the use of seclusion and restraints on people with developmental disabilities can be reduced. Searches of the Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO electronic databases returned 7226 records, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria for this review. A further 3 papers were obtained through scanning the reference lists of those articles included from the initial literature search. All 14 studies were single-subject designs focusing on initiatives to reduce physical or mechanical restraint. Between the baseline and intervention phases, there were mean reductions in the frequency and duration of restraint use of 79% (SD=21%, n=13 subjects from 7 studies) and 45% (SD=58%, n=10 subjects from 6 studies), respectively. For studies in which restraint use to manage agitation and aggression was targeted, there was a 79% (SD=21%, n=13 subjects from 7 studies) decrease in the frequency and a 28% (SD=67%, n=6 subjects from 3 studies) reduction in the duration of restraint. With respect to studies in which restraint use to prevent self-harm was targeted, there was a 71% (SD=34%, n=4 subjects from 3 studies) reduction in restraint use. Effect sizes were calculable, using non-overlap approaches, for 9 of the 14 studies. The magnitudes of the effect sizes suggest that, on average, the interventions were effective in reducing the use of restraints. The effects generated in studies where restraint use for self-harm was targeted were typically more pronounced than those in which restraint use for agitation and aggression was addressed. There were broad variations, however, in the percentage reductions in restraint use and in the magnitudes of the effect sizes. Although the findings of this review are encouraging, more

  10. Appearance investment mediates the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Chang, Felicia M; Jarry, Josée L; Kong, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether appearance investment explains the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint. Data were collected from 305 undergraduate female participants in an online survey. Mediation analyses were conducted using Preacher and Hayes (2008) Indirect Mediation macro. Results showed that both components of appearance investment that is, holding appearance as central to self-definition and the tendency to engage in appearance management behaviours, mediate the association between fear of negative evaluation and dietary restraint. The Baron and Kenny (1986) method further showed that holding appearance as central to self-definition fully mediates this association but that engagement in appearance management behaviours only partially mediates it. These results suggest that appearance investment could prompt women to diet to try to lose weight to fend off feared negative evaluation from others. PMID:24331830

  11. Flexible torsion-angle noncrystallographic symmetry restraints for improved macromolecular structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Headd, Jeffrey J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Gildea, Richard J.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the great challenges in refining macromolecular crystal structures is a low data-to-parameter ratio. Historically, knowledge from chemistry has been used to help to improve this ratio. When a macromolecule crystallizes with more than one copy in the asymmetric unit, the noncrystallographic symmetry relationships can be exploited to provide additional restraints when refining the working model. However, although globally similar, NCS-related chains often have local differences. To allow for local differences between NCS-related molecules, flexible torsion-based NCS restraints have been introduced, coupled with intelligent rotamer handling for protein chains, and are available in phenix.refine for refinement of models at all resolutions. PMID:24816103

  12. Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1,095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot. PMID:24064190

  13. [The syndrome of cognitive restraint: from the nutritional standard to eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Le Barzic, M

    2001-09-01

    It has been shown that behavioral and dietary treatments of obesity are ineffective in producing lasting weight loss and that dieting is associated with episodes of overeating. Dietary restraint leads to emotional and cognitive disturbances as well as to problems with eating. Treating dieting and encouraging natural eating may improve self-esteem, depression, eating pathology and life-style, and so far, weight and health risk factors. PMID:11547227

  14. Finite element comparison of human and Hybrid III responses in a frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Danelson, Kerry A; Golman, Adam J; Kemper, Andrew R; Gayzik, F Scott; Clay Gabler, H; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-12-01

    The improvement of finite element (FE) Human Body Models (HBMs) has made them valuable tools for investigating restraint interactions compared to anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various combinations of safety restraint systems on the sensitivity of thoracic injury criteria using matched ATD and Human Body Model (HBM) simulations at two crash severities. A total of seven (7) variables were investigated: 3-point belt with two (2) load limits, frontal airbag, knee bolster airbag, a buckle pretensioner, and two (2) delta-v's - 40kph and 50kph. Twenty four (24) simulations were conducted for the Hybrid III ATD FE model and repeated with a validated HBM for 48 total simulations. Metrics tested in these conditions included sternum deflection, chest acceleration, chest excursion, Viscous Criteria (V*C) criteria, pelvis acceleration, pelvis excursion, and femur forces. Additionally, chest band deflection and rib strain distribution were measured in the HBM for additional restraint condition discrimination. The addition of a frontal airbag had the largest effect on the occupant chest metrics with an increase in chest compression and acceleration but a decrease in excursion. While the THUMS and Hybrid III occupants demonstrated the same trend in the chest compression measurements, there were conflicting results in the V*C, acceleration, and displacement metrics. Similarly, the knee bolster airbag had the largest effect on the pelvis with a decrease in acceleration and excursion. With a knee bolster airbag the simulated occupants gave conflicting results, the THUMS had a decrease in femur force and the ATD had an increase. Preferential use of dummies or HBM's is not debated; however, this study highlights the ability of HBM metrics to capture additional chest response metrics. PMID:26432065

  15. Centrifuge man-rating of a conceptual internal abdominal bladder restraint in an extended coverage anti-G suit.

    PubMed

    Balldin, U I; Krock, L P; Danielsson, C H; Johansson, S A

    1996-07-01

    An extended coverage anti-G suit, has been demonstrated to improve +Gz tolerance substantially. In some pilots/subjects, however, the abdominal bladder of the anti-G suit may expand excessively upward and inward causing discomfort and pain. This man-rating was performed to evaluate the effects on +Gz protection of an internal abdominal bladder restraint in the Swedish Tactical Flight Combat Suit (TFCS) used in conjunction with pressure breathing during G (PBG). The tests were executed in the Armstrong Laboratory Centrifuge at Brooks AFB with four Swedish test fighter pilots. The centrifuge profiles included gradual onset runs (GOR, relaxed) and rapid onset runs (ROR, with straining), as well as simulated aerial combat maneuver (SACM) runs up to +9 Gz until subjects experienced light loss or fatigue or surpassed 228 s. All subjects withstood 60 s at +9 Gz during GOR and ROR runs with and without abdominal bladder restraint. No difference There was no difference in SACM duration times. In three of four subjects, abdominal pain or discomfort experienced without abdominal bladder restraint disappeared with the addition of a bladder restraint. Ratings of perceived exertion (after 5 peaks at +9 Gz in the SACM), subjective +Gz tolerance, overall comfort, fatigue, and heat stress demonstrated no relevant differences with and without abdominal bladder restraint. Therefore, to enhance comfort, it seems possible to modify the TFCS by adding an abdominal bladder internal restraint without compromising its operational +Gz protection. PMID:11543403

  16. Cognitive dietary restraint is associated with eating behaviors, lifestyle practices, personality characteristics and menstrual irregularity in college women.

    PubMed

    McLean, Judy A; Barr, Susan I

    2003-04-01

    This study characterized associations of restraint with selected physical, lifestyle, personality and menstrual cycle characteristics in female university students. The survey instrument, distributed to 1350 women, included standardized questionnaires (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale), and assessed weight and dieting history, exercise, lifestyle characteristics, menstrual cycle characteristics and whether participants were following vegetarian diets. Among the 596 respondents included in the analysis (44%), women with high (n=145), medium (n=262) or low (n=189) restraint had similar ages, heights and weights. Despite this, compared to women with low scores, those with high scores exercised more (4.6+/-5.3 vs. 3.2+/-3.5 h/wk), were more likely to be vegetarian (14.5 vs. 3.7%), have a history of eating disorders (13.7 vs. 1.2%), be currently trying to lose weight (80.3 vs. 15.3%), report irregular menstrual cycles (34.7 vs. 17.0%), and have scores reflecting lower self-esteem and higher perceived stress. Menstrual irregularity was an independent predictor of restraint score, and restraint score was the only variable to differentiate women with regular and irregular menstrual cycles. We conclude that women with high restraint may use a combination of behavioral strategies for weight control, and differ from women with low restraint scores in personality characteristics and weight history. Some of these behaviors or characteristics may influence menstrual function. PMID:12781168

  17. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  18. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  19. Behavioural responses in a net restraint test predict interrenal reactivity in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Magnhagen, C; Backström, T; Øverli, Ø; Winberg, S; Nilsson, J; Vindas, M A; Brännäs, E

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a 1 min net restraint test was evaluated as a method to predict stress-coping style in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, by investigating the relationship between behaviour during the test and levels of plasma cortisol sampled after 30 min confinement. In two separate groups of S. alpinus, general linearized model revealed significant correlations between cortisol levels and principal component scores extracted from principal component analysis, combining measures of activity in the tests. With the use of glmulti, the model selection ruled out any effects of size, sex and order of capture on interrenal reactivity. In general, S. alpinus that were more active in the net restraint test also had low levels of circulating cortisol, suggesting a proactive coping style. The results from two repeated runs were not correlated, but both runs, performed eight days apart, show a negative correlation between post-stress cortisol level and activity in the net. The lack of consistency could be explained by different treatments before each run and individual differences in behavioural plasticity. The net restraint test is thus predictive of stress-coping style in S. alpinus, and has the benefit of being less time-consuming than the commonly used confinement stress test. PMID:25919345

  20. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  1. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; McNair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. We hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. Design and Methods This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs <5% weight loss, and linear regression was used to identify predictors of percent weight loss. Results 27 subjects (37 ± 4.5 yrs, 93.8 ± 12.1 kg, BMI 33.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) completed the study, with mean weight loss of -5.4 ± 3.3 kg (-5.7 ± 3.2%). Subjects with ≥5% weight loss had higher baseline pre-breakfast hunger (p=0.017), desire to eat (p=0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006), and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p=0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (p=0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p<0.001) were found to be predictors of weight loss. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals reporting greater hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. PMID:26584649

  2. Maternal profiling of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 deficient mice in association with restraint stress

    PubMed Central

    D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Stevenson, Sharon A.; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Mice deficient in corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CRF2) (C57BL/6J:129Sv background) exhibit impaired maternal defense (protection of offspring) and are more reactive to stressors than wild-type mice. To further understand CRF2’s role in maternal behavior, we crossed the knockout mice with a line bred for high maternal defense that also has elevated maternal care relative to inbred lines. Maternal care was normal in knockout mice (relative to wild-type). Maternal defense was impaired as previously observed. Exposure to a mild stressor (15 min restraint) did not trigger deficits in maternal defense in either genotype as determined by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis. However, when examining difference scores between unrestrained and restrained conditions, knockout mice exhibited significant decreases in maternal defense with stress, suggesting knockouts are more susceptible to a mild stressor’s effects. To gain possible insights into brain activity differences between WT and KO mice, we examined c-Fos expression in association with stress. Unrestrained KO mice exhibited significantly lower c-Fos levels relative to unrestrained WT mice in 9 regions, including lateral septum and periaqueductal gray. For WT mice, restraint stress triggered c-Fos activity increases in 3 regions while for KO mice, restraint stress triggered c-Fos increases in 16 regions. Taken together, our results suggest both altered behavioral and c-Fos responses to stress in lactating CRF2 KO mice. PMID:18817761

  3. Compression-Loaded Composite Panels With Elastic Edge Restraints and Initial Prestress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    A parametric study of the effects of test-fixture-induced initial prestress and elastic edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling responses of a compression-loaded, quasi-isotropic curved panel is presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code with high-fidelity models. The results presented show that a wide range of prebuckling and buckling behavior can be obtained by varying parameters that represent circumferential loaded-edge restraint and rotational unloaded-edge restraint provided by a test fixture and that represent the mismatch in specimen and test-fixture radii of curvature. For a certain range of parameters, the panels exhibit substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations that yield buckling loads nearly twice the corresponding buckling load predicted by a traditional linear bifurcation buckling analysis for shallow curved panels. In contrast, the results show another range of parameters exist for which the nonlinear prebuckling deformations either do not exist or are relatively benign, and the panels exhibit buckling loads that are nearly equal to the corresponding linear bifurcation buckling load. Overall, the results should be of particular interest to scientists, engineers, and designers involved in simulating flight-hardware boundary conditions in structural verification and certification tests, involved in validating structural analysis tools, and interested in tailoring buckling performance.

  4. Improving Loop Modeling of the Antibody Complementarity-Determining Region 3 Using Knowledge-Based Restraints

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Jessica A.; Koehler Leman, Julia; Cisneros, Alberto; Crowe, James E.; Meiler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Structural restrictions are present even in the most sequence diverse portions of antibodies, the complementary determining region (CDR) loops. Previous studies identified robust rules that define canonical structures for five of the six CDR loops, however the heavy chain CDR 3 (HCDR3) defies standard classification attempts. The HCDR3 loop can be subdivided into two domains referred to as the “torso” and the “head” domains and two major families of canonical torso structures have been identified; the more prevalent “bulged” and less frequent “non-bulged” torsos. In the present study, we found that Rosetta loop modeling of 28 benchmark bulged HCDR3 loops is improved with knowledge-based structural restraints developed from available antibody crystal structures in the PDB. These restraints restrict the sampling space Rosetta searches in the torso domain, limiting the φ and ψ angles of these residues to conformations that have been experimentally observed. The application of these restraints in Rosetta result in more native-like structure sampling and improved score-based differentiation of native-like HCDR3 models, significantly improving our ability to model antibody HCDR3 loops. PMID:27182833

  5. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  6. Changes of testicular phosphorylated proteins in response to restraint stress in male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Uabundit, Nongnut; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate male reproductive parameters via changes of potential testicular protein markers in restraint-stress rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (non-immobilized control and restraint-immobilized/stress groups, n=8 each group). The stress animals were immobilized (12 h/d) by a restraint cage for 7 consecutive days. All reproductive parameters, morphology and histology were observed and compared between groups. In addition, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and phosphotyrosine proteins (previously localized in Sertoli and late spermatid cells) in testicular lysate was assayed by immuno-Western blotting. Results: Testosterone level, sperm concentration and sperm head normality of stress rats were significantly decreased while the corticosterone level was increased as compared with the control (P<0.05). Histologically, stress rats showed low sperm mass in epididymal lumen and some atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Although the expression of testicular StAR protein was not significantly different between groups, changed patterns of the 131, 95, and 75 kDa testicular phosphorylated proteins were observed in the stress group compared with the control group. The intensity of a testicular 95-kDa phosphorylated protein was significantly decreased in stress rats. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the alteration of testicular phosphorylated protein patterns, associated with adverse male reproductive parameters in stress rats. It could be an explanation of some infertility in stress males. PMID:26739523

  7. Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zegang; Wang, Guilin; Cui, Lin; Wang, Qimin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress may be implicated in chronic stress-induced depression. Several flavonoids with anti-oxidative effects have been proved to be anti-depressive. Myricetin is a well-defined flavonoid with the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin on depressant-like behaviors in mice subjected to repeated restraint (4 h/day) for 21 days. Our results showed that myricetin administration specifically reduced the immobility time in mice exposed to chronic stress, as tested in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Myricetin treatment improved activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In addition, myricetin treatment decreased plasma corticosterone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effects of myricetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in hippocampus were also investigated. The results revealed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provided more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves helpless behaviors. The protective effects of myricetin might be partially mediated by an influence on BDNF levels and might be attributed to myricetin-mediated anti-oxidative stress in the hippocampus. PMID:26633366

  8. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy. PMID:24890778

  9. The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Ghrelin on Restraint Stress-Induced Thymus Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jie Wan; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hyuk Soon

    2016-01-01

    Thymic atrophy is a complication that results from exposure to many environmental stressors, disease treatments, and microbial challenges. Such acute stress-associated thymic loss can have a dramatic impact on the host's ability to replenish the necessary naïve T cell output to reconstitute the peripheral T cell numbers and repertoire to respond to new antigenic challenges. We have previously reported that treatment with the orexigenic hormone ghrelin results in an increase in the number and proliferation of thymocytes after dexamethasone challenge, suggesting a role for ghrelin in restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis and its potential use as a thymostimulatory agent. In an effort to understand how ghrelin suppresses thymic T cell apoptosis, we have examined the various signaling pathways induced by receptor-specific ghrelin stimulation using a restraint stress mouse model. In this model, stress-induced apoptosis in thymocytes was effectively blocked by ghrelin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that ghrelin prevents the cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bim, Caspase-3, and PARP. In addition, ghrelin stimulation activates the Akt and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in a time/dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of the FoxO3a pathway in the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Together, these findings suggest that ghrelin inhibits apoptosis by modulating the stress-induced apoptotic signal pathway in the restraint-induced thymic apoptosis. PMID:27574503

  10. Dynamic failure mechanisms in armor grade ceramics (the effect of lateral confinement and membrane restraint)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarva, Sai Sushilkumar

    Light weight ceramics such as SiC and Al2O3, have been used in impact related applications such as integrated armor for more than a decade and are an excellent prospect for the next-generation multi-functional armor systems. It is known that ceramics fail under a wide variety of failure modes ranging from brittle to ductile depending on the deformation conditions, such as the strain rate and the state of stress. The dynamic properties are dependent on the underlying failure mechanisms. The underpinning mechanisms of compression failure and their effect on the mechanical properties have been examined over a range of deformation rates from quasi-static to ballistic strain rates. Under moderate confining pressures [˜350 MPa] and at moderate deformation rates [strain-rates up to a few thousand per second], occurring during quasi-static and Hopkinson bar experiments, brittle failure involves initiation of micro-cracks at dominant micro-flaws and pre-existing micro-cracks and their subsequent interactive growth leading to axial splitting, faulting or a mixture of brittle-ductile failure. Experimental results relating to SiC have been compared to a wing-crack array model, developed by Nemat-Nasser and Deng, which describes the influence of microstructure on the dynamic behavior of materials. Under extreme conditions of stress, attained during shock impact, ceramics pulverize into fine powder. Classical crack-growth models seem inadequate for representing the actual failure initiation and evolution. Experiments have also been conducted to study the ballistic performance and failure of ceramic tiles. It has been observed that the defeat capability can be vastly improved by restraining the impact-face of ceramic tiles with a membrane of suitable tensile strength. The comparative effect of restraint by materials such as E-glass/epoxy pre-preg, carbon-fiber/epoxy pre-preg and Ti-3%Al-2.5%V alloy has been studied. Tungsten heavy alloy was used as the projectile material. The

  11. Fiscal Restraints and the Burden of Local and State Taxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Tray, Dennis; And Others

    Researchers gathered data on all state, city, and property taxes in ten cities in three states to find whether tax limitation measures have changed the distribution of tax burdens among income classes. The ten cities--representing a range of tax rates, economic bases, income levels, demographic characteristics, and revenue systems--comprised…

  12. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    PubMed

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  13. A graphical method for analyzing distance restraints using residual dipolar couplings for structure determination of symmetric protein homo-oligomers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey W; Yan, Anthony K; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution structure determination of homo-oligomeric protein complexes remains a daunting task for NMR spectroscopists. Although isotope-filtered experiments allow separation of intermolecular NOEs from intramolecular NOEs and determination of the structure of each subunit within the oligomeric state, degenerate chemical shifts of equivalent nuclei from different subunits make it difficult to assign intermolecular NOEs to nuclei from specific pairs of subunits with certainty, hindering structural analysis of the oligomeric state. Here, we introduce a graphical method, DISCO, for the analysis of intermolecular distance restraints and structure determination of symmetric homo-oligomers using residual dipolar couplings. Based on knowledge that the symmetry axis of an oligomeric complex must be parallel to an eigenvector of the alignment tensor of residual dipolar couplings, we can represent distance restraints as annuli in a plane encoding the parameters of the symmetry axis. Oligomeric protein structures with the best restraint satisfaction correspond to regions of this plane with the greatest number of overlapping annuli. This graphical analysis yields a technique to characterize the complete set of oligomeric structures satisfying the distance restraints and to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of each distance restraint. We demonstrate our method for the trimeric E. coli diacylglycerol kinase, addressing the challenges in obtaining subunit assignments for distance restraints. We also demonstrate our method on a dimeric mutant of the immunoglobulin-binding domain B1 of streptococcal protein G to show the resilience of our method to ambiguous atom assignments. In both studies, DISCO computed oligomer structures with high accuracy despite using ambiguously assigned distance restraints. PMID:21413097

  14. The prudent parent meets old age: a high stress response in very old seabirds supports the terminal restraint hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle H; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Hatch, Scott A; Gaston, Anthony J; Hare, James F; Anderson, W Gary

    2014-11-01

    The reproductive success of wild animals usually increases with age before declining at the end of life, but the proximate mechanisms underlying those patterns remain elusive. Young animals are expected to invest less in current reproduction due to high prospects for future reproduction (the "restraint" hypothesis). The oldest animals may also show restraint when conditions are sub-optimal where even a small increase in reproductive investment may lead to death ("terminal restraint"). Alternatively, reproduction may be constrained by lack of experience and senescence (the "constraint" hypothesis). In two species of breeding seabirds, behavioural (time to return the offspring, calmness during restraint) and physiological (metabolism, glucose and corticosterone) parameters responded similarly to stress with advancing age, implying a generalized stress response. Across those parameters, birds were "shy" (high stress response) when young or old, and "bold" (low stress response) when middle-aged. Specifically, free corticosterone, the principal avian glucocorticoid responsible for directing energy away from reproduction and towards immediate survival following stress, was highest in both young and very old stressed birds. All age groups had a similar adrenal capacity to produce corticosterone, implying that middle-aged birds were showing restraint. Because the stress response, was highest at ages when the probability of current reproduction was lowest rather than at ages when the probability of future reproduction was highest we concluded that birds restrained reproductive investment based on current conditions rather than potential future opportunities. In particular, old birds showed terminal restraint when stressed. Hormonal cues promoted investment in adult survival over reproductive output at both the start and end of life consistent with the restraint hypothesis. PMID:25448533

  15. Astronauts Meade tests SAFER system during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Carl J. Meade tests the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles above Earth. The end of the Remote Manipulator System's (RMS) robot arm, with an unoccupied foot restraint attached, is at frame's edge.

  16. Cognitive effects of acute restraint stress in male albino rats and the impact of pretreatment with quetiapine versus ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; Gamal, Sarah Mahmoud; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr; Aziz, Tarek Mohamed Abdel; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Stress is any condition that seriously affects the balance of the organism physiologically and psychologically. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) releasing glucocorticoid hormones that produce generalized effects on different body systems including the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute restraint stress (ARS) on cognitive performance by measuring spatial working memory in Y-maze, behavior (anxiety and exploratory behavior) in open field test, expression of synaptophysin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry, dopaminergic receptors (D2) in the basal ganglia by gene expression and comparing the effect of ghrelin and quetiapine on the previous parameters. 36 adult male albino rats constituted the animal model of this work and have been divided into six groups: control group, control group exposed to ARS, quetiapine group, quetiapine group exposed to ARS, ghrelin group and ghrelin group exposed to ARS. We demonstrated more neuroprotective effect for quetiapine compared to ghrelin on stress response, anxiety behavior and working spatial memory impairment due to ARS. PMID:25391717

  17. Plasma Chamber Restraints in Ignitor and Relevant Disruption Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparotto, M.; Cucchiaro, A.; Capriccioli, A.; Celentano, G.; Rita, C.; Roccella, M.; Macco, B.; Micheli, I.; Ferrari, G.; Orlandi, S.; Coppi, B.

    2000-10-01

    The plasmas chamber (PC) of Ignitor is made of 12 D-shaped toroidal sectors of Inconel 625 welded together by automatic remote equipment. The thickness of the inboard wall is 17 mm while the middle and outboard walls are 26 mm thick. The PC is supported through the ports by the C-Clamp structure of the toroidal magnet. The main function of the PC supports is to resist the vertical and radial electromagnetic loads and to allow for free movement under thermal loads while providing electrical insulation from the C-Clamps and cryostat. The largest estimated loads are due to a Vertical Displacement Event (VDE) disruption that is followed by a thermal quench and then by the current quench. The vertical supports involve a connection of each radial port to the C-Clamp structure by a link system that withstands the calculated loads. The radial supports resist, with high stiffness, the centripetal and centrifugal forces. The end flange of each radial port is connected to the C-Clamp structure by a clamping sleeve device. The clamping sleeves are hydraulically operated to provide locking during discharge. The clamping sleeves of the radial support system have been validated by an appropriate series of tests.

  18. Maxillofacial and ocular injuries in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Christopher Noel

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injuries from motor vehicle crashes constitute a leading cause of death in the young and a high degree of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Facial trauma has been consistently shown to be the single most common injury to the occupants of vehicles involved in crashes. This has been confirmed by more recent studies which have demonstrated a continuing high incidence of facial fractures amongst belted drivers. Airbags have been advocated as a supplemental restraint system. However, their deployment can cause injury particularly if the driver is of short stature, unrestrained or out of position within the vehicle. METHODS: The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) project aims to correlate the injuries received by occupants in vehicle crashes with the biomechanics of vehicle deformation. All cases of facial injury which presented to the University of Michigan Medical Center, USA in 1999 were retrospectively evaluated with reference to the methods of occupant restraint and to the correlation between the injuries sustained and vehicle deformation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The case analysis confirmed the value of airbags to the safety of vehicle occupants but reinforced the conclusion that they must still be considered supplemental restraint systems. New generation airbags will minimise the risk of injury even to small stature or out of position occupants as they will prevent deployment in situations where they may have an adverse effect. PMID:15140296

  19. Vehicle child restraint usage for Pacific children aged 6 weeks to 4 years: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Philip J; Paterson, Janis

    2010-11-01

    Child restraint systems (CRSs) for vehicles are designed to provide protection and prevent or reduce child mortality and morbidity in road traffic accidents. Overall, 90% of children under 5 years of age in New Zealand currently use CRSs. There is considerable regional variability in CRS usage, but little information exists on its ethnic variations or determinants. "Increasing the level of restraint use" is explicitly stated as one of the 13 priorities within the New Zealand Ministry of Transport's new road safety strategy. As such, understanding CRS prevalence, patterns and associates within different communities is essential in realising this priority. Utilising a large birth cohort of Pacific children (n=1376 mothers), this study aimed to report the prevalence of maternal self-reported car seat usage at the 6 weeks, 1-year, and 2 years postpartum measurement waves; car/booster seat usage at the 4 years postpartum measurement wave; and to identify important associates using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. Car seats were not used by 161 (11.8%) Pacific children at the 6 weeks measurement wave, 71 (5.8%) at 1-year, and 44 (3.8%) at 2 years, while car/booster seats were not used by 139 (13.3%) at the 4 years wave. Multivariable GEE model results revealed that mothers with no formal education, high parity, who smoked tobacco, lower household income, who lacked English language proficiency, and had multiple births were all at higher odds of failing to use car seat/booster seats. Despite differential attrition being noted in mothers over time, a sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation methods yielded similar findings. Targeted initiatives and education programs focusing on these higher risk groups, in particular, is needed to increase uptake and use of CRS thereby decreasing Pacific children's exposure to injury risk. As New Zealand has a large and increasing proportion of Pacific, Maori and Asian people, there is a continuing need to understand

  20. 17β-Oestradiol Modulates Glucocorticoid, Neural and Behavioural Adaptations to Repeated Restraint Stress in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lunga, P.; Herbert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Sex steroids have a role in modulating responses that extends beyond reproduction. The current study investigated the influence of the sex steroid 17β-oestradiol on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioural responses to acute or repeated restraint stress. Ovariectomized rats treated with 17β-oestradiol or peanut oil via a subcutaneous silastic capsule were subjected to daily handling (non stressed), acute (single, 1 h) or daily (10 days, 1 h/day) restraint stress. Blood collected at the end of stress revealed that 17β-oestradiol treatment augmented the corticosterone response to acute restraint. After daily exposure to restraint, the corticosterone response was noticeably diminished in untreated females but 17β-oestradiol-treated rats still showed an exaggerated response compared to castrated, untreated females. Brain tissue collected 3 h after the end of restraint was probed using isotopic in situ hybridization for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. 17β-oestradiol treatment at the higher dose (120 μg/ml) decreased basal CRF mRNA. Stress caused an increase in CRF mRNA expression in 17β-oestradiol-treated rats but not in the vehicle group. Repeated restraint stress caused an increase in PVN parvocellular vasopressin gene expression, which was more pronounced in 17β-oestradiol-replaced rats. Animals were exposed to the elevated plus maze for 5 min as a test for anxiety. Non-stressed control rats with or without 17β-oestradiol replacement spent the same percentage amount of time exploring the open arms of the maze. Previous exposure to acute restraint stress caused a marked reduction in the time spent exploring the open arms, indicating an increase in anxiety levels in these rats; this effect was observed in both vehicle and 17β-oestradiol-treated rats. After repeated restraint stress, 17β-oestradiol-replaced rats spent as much time exploring the open arms