Science.gov

Sample records for airborne allergen levels

  1. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  2. Monitoring for airborne allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, H.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Monitoring for allergens can provide some information on the kinds and levels of exposure experienced by local patient populations, providing volumetric methods are used for sample collection and analysis is accurate and consistent. Such data can also be used to develop standards for the specific environment and to begin to develop predictive models. Comparing outdoor allergen aerosols between different monitoring sites requires identical collection and analysis methods and some kind of rational standard, whether arbitrary, or based on recognized health effects.32 references.

  3. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-04-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  4. Quantifying Airborne Allergen Levels Before and After Rain Events Using TRMM/GPM and Ground-Sampled Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy M.

    2006-01-01

    Allergies affect millions of Americans, increasing health risks and also increasing absenteeism and reducing productivity in the workplace. Outdoor allergens, such as airborne pollens and mold spores, commonly trigger respiratory distress symptoms, but rainfall reduces the quantity of allergens in the air (EPA, 2003). The current NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission provides accurate information related to rain events. These capabilities will be further enhanced with the future Global Precipitation Measurement mission. This report examines the effectiveness of combining these NASA resources with established ground-based allergen/spore sampling systems to better understand the benefits that rain provides in removing allergens and spores from the air.

  5. Exposure to airborne allergens: a review of sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Renström, Anne

    2002-10-01

    A number of methods are used to assess exposure to high-molecular weight allergens. In the occupational setting, airborne dust is often collected on filters using pumps, the filters are eluted and allergen content in the eluate analysed using immunoassays. Collecting inhalable dust using person-carried pumps may be considered the gold standard. Other allergen sampling methods are available. Recently, a method that collects nasally inhaled dust on adhesive surfaces within nasal samplers has been developed. Allergen content can be analysed in eluates using sensitive enzyme immunoassays, or allergen-bearing particles can be immunostained using antibodies, and studied under the microscope. Settling airborne dust can be collected in petri dishes, a cheap and simple method that has been utilised in large-scale exposure studies. Collection of reservoir dust from surfaces using vacuum cleaners with a dust collector is commonly used to measure pet or mite allergens in homes. The sampling methods differ in properties and relevance to personal allergen exposure. Since methods for all steps from sampling to analysis differ between laboratories, determining occupational exposure limits for protein allergens is today unfeasible. A general standardisation of methods is needed.

  6. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  7. Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454

  8. Airborne seafood allergens as a cause of occupational allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Lopata, Andreas L; Jeebhay, Mohamed F

    2013-06-01

    Occupational allergy and asthma is a serious adverse health outcome affecting seafood-processing workers. Allergic reactions are directed to two major seafood groups: fish and shellfish, with the latter group comprising crustaceans and molluscs. Several allergenic proteins have been identified in these different groups, but few have been characterised on a molecular level. Parvalbumin appears to be the major fish allergen, while tropomyosin the major crustacean allergen. Other IgE-binding proteins have also been identified in molluscs and other seafood-associated agents (e.g. Anisakis sp), although their molecular nature has not been characterised. Aerosolised allergens can be identified and quantified using immunological and chemical approaches, detecting levels as low as 10 ng/m(3). This contemporary review discusses interesting and recent findings in the area of occupational seafood allergy including high-risk occupations, environmental risk factors for airborne exposures, major and minor allergens implicated and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing occupational allergy and asthma associated with seafood processing.

  9. Prevalence of culturable airborne spores of selected allergenic and pathogenic fungi in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gorman, Céline M.; Fuller, Hubert T.

    2008-06-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in airborne spore concentrations of selected allergenic and pathogenic fungi were examined in Dublin, Ireland, in 2005. Air samples were taken at four outdoor locations in the city every 2 weeks, coupled with measurements of meteorological conditions. Total culturable airborne fungal spore concentrations in Dublin ranged from 30-6800 colony forming units per cubic metre of air (CFU m-3) over the 12-month period. Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria spores were constantly present in the Dublin atmosphere, representing >20% of the total culturable spore count. Concentrations of Cladosporium increased significantly in summer and reached allergenic threshold levels, peaking at over 3200 CFU m-3 in August. Penicillium spore concentrations never reached allergenic threshold levels, with average concentrations of <150 CFU m-3. Alternaria conidia formed only 0.3% of the total culturable fungal spore count and concentrations never exceeded 50 CFU m-3, attributable to the coastal position of Dublin and its low levels of arable production. The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus was present throughout the year in nominal concentrations (<10 CFU m-3), but sporadic high counts were also recorded (300-400 CFU m-3), the potential health implications of which give cause for concern. Spores of neither Cryptococcus neoformans nor Stachybotrys chartarum were detected, but airborne basidiospores of Schizophyllum commune were evidenced by the dikaryotization of monokaryon tester strains following exposure to the air. The relationships between airborne fungal spore concentrations and meteorological factors were analysed by redundancy analysis and revealed positive correlations between temperature and Cladosporium and relative humidity and Penicillium and Aspergillus.

  10. The effects of cage design on airborne allergens and endotoxin in animal rooms: high-volume measurements with an ion-charging device.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James; Custis, Natalie; Kenney, Alice; Tsay, Amy; Chapman, Martin; Feldman, Sanford; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms related to both endotoxins and animal allergens continue to be an important cause of occupational disease for animal technicians and scientists working with rodents. Better sampling methods for airborne allergens and endotoxin are needed to help standardize compliance with federal occupational health regulations. Using an ion-charging device, we sampled 20 mouse rooms and four rat rooms at the University of Virginia, along with 43 domestic living rooms in houses in the Charlottesville area with at least one cat or dog. The use of filter tops on cages corresponds to a 50-fold reduction in mean levels of both airborne allergens (P < 0.001) and endotoxin (P < 0.001). The use of vented cages with filtered exhaust ports was associated with additional reductions. However, the mean airborne endotoxin level in all rooms using filter tops without a filtered exhaust port on the cages was significantly lower (P = 0.003) than the level in domestic living rooms. Our results for maximum airborne allergens or endotoxin are comparable with previous reports. However, the sensitivity of the technique allows an accurate assessment of low-level exposure, which makes it possible to evaluate the effect of cage designs. In addition, this approach allows direct comparison with results for airborne allergen and endotoxin in domestic homes. The results could allow a more consistent approach to the application of occupational health guidelines. PMID:15773770

  11. Allergenic airborne pollen and spores in Anchorage, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1985-05-01

    Major aeroallergens in Anchorage are birch, alder, poplar, spruce, grass pollen, Cladosporium, and unspecified fungus spores. Lesser pollens are sorrel, willow, pine, juniper, sedge, lamb's-quarters, wormwood, plantain, and others. The aero-flora is discussed in terms of the frequency of allergenically significant events and within-season and year-to-year dynamics.

  12. Allergenic airborne pollen and spores in Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J H

    1985-05-01

    Major aeroallergens in Anchorage are birch, alder, poplar, spruce, grass pollen, Cladosporium, and unspecified fungus spores. Lesser pollens are sorrel, willow, pine, juniper, sedge, lamb's-quarters, wormwood, plantain, and others. The aero-flora is discussed in terms of the frequency of allergenically significant events and within-season and year-to-year dynamics.

  13. Exposure to airborne methacrylates and natural rubber latex allergens in dental clinics.

    PubMed

    Henriks-Eckerman, M L; Alanko, K; Jolanki, R; Kerosuo, H; Kanerva, L

    2001-06-01

    The exposure of dental personnel to airborne methacrylates and natural rubber latex (NRL) allergens was studied during placing of composite resin restorations in six dental clinics in Finland. Both area and personal sampling were performed, and special attention was paid to measurement of short-term emissions from the patient's mouth. Methacrylates were collected onto thermal desorption tubes filled with Tenax TA and NRL allergens onto membrane filters. The methacrylate samples were thermally desorbed and analysed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. The NRL allergen concentrations were determined by the allergen-specific IgE-ELISA-inhibition method. The median concentration of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) was 0.004 mg m-3 close to the dental nurse's work-desk and 0.003 mg m-3 in the breathing zone of the nurse with a maximum concentration of 0.033 mg m-3. Above the patient's mouth the concentration of 2-HEMA was about 0.01 mg m-3 during both working stages, i.e., during application of adhesive and composite resins and during finishing and polishing of the fillings. Maximum concentrations of 3-5 times higher than median concentrations were also measured. Triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate was released into the air mainly during the removal of old composite resin restorations (0.05 mg m-3) and only to a minor extent during finishing and polishing procedures. The median concentration of the NRL allergen was 0.12 au m-3 (au = arbitrary unit) with a maximum concentration of 1.1 au m-3. The results show that, except for short-term emissions from the patient's mouth, the exposure of dental personnel to methacrylates and NRL allergens is very low. Measures to reduce exposure are discussed, as the airborne concentrations of methacrylates should be kept as low as possible in order to reduce the risk of hypersensitivity.

  14. Reducing food allergenicity at the molecular level.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergens are a significant worldwide public health issue. Estimates for the prevalence of food allergies are around 1-2 % of the total population and up to 8 % of children; although, the prevalence may vary between populations and age groups. Peanuts are one of the most allergenic foods. The...

  15. Outdoor allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  16. Direct analysis of airborne mite allergen (Der f1) in the residential atmosphere by chemifluorescent immunoassay using bioaerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Kumiko; Suzuki, Yurika; Miki, Daisuke; Arai, Moeka; Arakawa, Takahiro; Shimomura, Hiroji; Shiba, Kiyoko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f1) is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans. Mite allergen Der f1 is usually associated with particles of high molecular weight; thus, Der f1 is generally present in settled dust. However, a small quantity of Der f1 can be aerosolized and become an airborne component. Until now, a reliable method of detecting airborne Der f1 has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a fiber-optic chemifluorescent immunoassay for the detection of airborne Der f1. In this method, the Der f1 concentration measured on the basis of the intensity of fluorescence amplified by an enzymatic reaction between the labeled enzyme by a detection antibody and a fluorescent substrate. The measured Der f1 concentration was in the range from 0.49 to 250 ng/ml and a similar range was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This method was proved to be highly sensitive to Der f1 compared with other airborne allergens. For the implementation of airborne allergen measurement in a residential environment, a bioaerosol sampler was constructed. The airborne allergen generated by a nebulizer was conveyed to a newly sampler we developed for collecting airborne Der f1. The sampler was composed of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cells for gas/liquid phases and some porous membranes which were sandwiched in between the two phases. Der f1 in air was collected by the sampler and measured using the fiber-optic immunoassay system. The concentration of Der f1 in aerosolized standards was in the range from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/m(3) and the collection rate of the device was approximately 0.2%.

  17. Relationship between airborne fungal allergens and meteorological factors in Manisa City, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncu, Fatih

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the effect of relative humidity, temperature, and wind on airborne fungal allergens in the 11 different districts of Manisa City was investigated from January 2004 to December 2005. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey to get to know the relation between wind, temperature, and relative humidity and population of allergenic fungal spores in the atmosphere. A total of 792 samples were observed by using the Merck MAS100 air sampler and 12,988 fungal colonies were counted. Fourteen fungal genera could be determined; Cladosporium that was generally found as the predominant genus followed by Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria. During the entire study, seasonal variation was found to be related to atmospheric conditions especially. The optimal conditions of meteorological factors for the fungi growth resulted in the increased number of mycoflora, qualitatively and quantitatively.

  18. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children.

  19. Predicting onset and duration of airborne allergenic pollen season in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Cai, Ting; Mi, Zhongyuan; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2015-02-01

    Allergenic pollen is one of the main triggers of Allergic Airway Disease (AAD) affecting 5%-30% of the population in industrialized countries. A modeling framework has been developed using correlation and collinearity analyses, simulated annealing, and stepwise regression based on nationwide observations of airborne pollen counts and climatic factors to predict the onsets and durations of allergenic pollen seasons of representative trees, weeds and grass in the contiguous United States. Main factors considered are monthly, seasonal and annual mean temperatures and accumulative precipitations, latitude, elevation, Growing Degree Day (GDD), Frost Free Day (FFD), Start Date (SD) and Season Length (SL) in the previous year. The estimated mean SD and SL for birch (Betula), oak (Quercus), ragweed (Ambrosia), mugwort (Artemisia) and grass (Poaceae) pollen season in 1994-2010 are mostly within 0-6 days of the corresponding observations for the majority of the National Allergy Bureau (NAB) monitoring stations across the contiguous US. The simulated spatially resolved maps for onset and duration of allergenic pollen season in the contiguous US are consistent with the long term observations.

  20. Predicting Onset and Duration of Airborne Allergenic Pollen Season in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Cai, Ting; Mi, Zhongyuan; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2014-01-01

    Allergenic pollen is one of the main triggers of Allergic Airway Disease (AAD) affecting 5% to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. A modeling framework has been developed using correlation and collinearity analyses, simulated annealing, and stepwise regression based on nationwide observations of airborne pollen counts and climatic factors to predict the onsets and durations of allergenic pollen seasons of representative trees, weeds and grass in the contiguous United States. Main factors considered are monthly, seasonal and annual mean temperatures and accumulative precipitations, latitude, elevation, Growing Degree Day (GDD), Frost Free Day (FFD), Start Date (SD) and Season Length (SL) in the previous year. The estimated mean SD and SL for birch (Betula), oak (Quercus), ragweed (Ambrosia), mugwort (Artemisia) and grass (Poaceae) pollen season in 1994–2010 are mostly within 0 to 6 days of the corresponding observations for the majority of the National Allergy Bureau (NAB) monitoring stations across the contiguous US. The simulated spatially resolved maps for onset and duration of allergenic pollen season in the contiguous US are consistent with the long term observations. PMID:25620875

  1. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  2. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change. PMID:25372614

  3. Controlling the levels of airborne pollen: can heterogeneous photocatalysis help?

    PubMed

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2013-10-15

    Airborne pollen is a worldwide problem because is a very important allergenic agent; it can be altered only by certain microorganisms and by some oxidizers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, heterogeneous photocatalysis (HPC) arose as a promising technology for reducing the level of contaminants in the air, based on their degradation by the production of ROS. In this paper, study of the feasibility of HPC to diminish the counts of pollen is undertaken. The research has been carried out at different levels, from solutions to mortar specimens with the evidence that HPC is able to reduce the amount of pollen grains. This is a major breakthrough that opens the door to a whole field of research, already full of gaps, whose implications could be quite controversial.

  4. Socioeconomic predictors of high allergen levels in homes in the greater Boston area.

    PubMed Central

    Kitch, B T; Chew, G; Burge, H A; Muilenberg, M L; Weiss, S T; Platts-Mills, T A; O'Connor, G; Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    In the United States, childhood asthma morbidity and prevalence rates are the highest in less affluent urban minority communities. More than 80% of childhood asthmatics are allergic to one or more inhalant allergens. We evaluated whether socioeconomic status was associated with a differential in the levels and types of indoor home allergens. Dust samples for an ELISA allergen assay were collected from the homes of 499 families as part of a metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, longitudinal birth cohort study of home allergens and asthma in children with a parental history of asthma or allergy. The proportion of homes with maximum home allergen levels in the highest category was 42% for dust mite allergen (> or = 10 microg/g Der p 1 or Der f 1), 13% for cockroach allergen (> or = 2 U/g Bla g 1 or Bla g 2), 26% for cat allergen (> or = 8 microg/g Fel d 1), and 20% for dog allergen (> or = 10 microg/g Can f 1). Homes in the high-poverty area (> 20% of the population below the poverty level) were more likely to have high cockroach allergen levels than homes in the low-poverty area [51 vs. 3%; OR, 33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 12-90], but less likely to have high levels of dust mite allergen (16 vs. 53%; OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1-0.4). Lower family income, less maternal education, and race/ethnicity (black or Hispanic vs. white) were also associated with a lower risk of high dust mite levels and a greater risk of high cockroach allergen levels. Within a single U.S. metropolitan area we found marked between-community differences in the types of allergens present in the home, but not necessarily in the overall burden of allergen exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753087

  5. Purification, Cloning and Immuno-Biochemical Characterization of a Fungal Aspartic Protease Allergen Rhi o 1 from the Airborne Mold Rhizopus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Pandey, Naren; Saha, Sudipto; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal allergy is considered as serious health problem worldwide and is increasing at an alarming rate in the industrialized areas. Rhizopus oyzae is a ubiquitously present airborne pathogenic mold and an important source of inhalant allergens for the atopic population of India. Here, we report the biochemical and immunological features of its 44 kDa sero-reactive aspartic protease allergen, which is given the official designation ‘Rhi o 1’. Method The natural Rhi o 1 was purified by sequential column chromatography and its amino acid sequence was determined by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Based on its amino acid sequence, the cDNA sequence was identified, cloned and expressed to produce recombinant Rhi o 1. The allergenic activity of rRhi o 1 was assessed by means of its IgE reactivity and histamine release ability. The biochemical property of Rhi o 1 was studied by enzyme assay. IgE-inhibition experiments were performed to identify its cross-reactivity with the German cockroach aspartic protease allergen Bla g 2. For precise characterization of the cross-reactive epitope, we used anti-Bla g 2 monoclonal antibodies for their antigenic specificity towards Rhi o 1. A homology based model of Rhi o 1 was built and mapping of the cross-reactive conformational epitope was done using certain in silico structural studies. Results The purified natural nRhi o 1 was identified as an endopeptidase. The full length allergen cDNA was expressed and purified as recombinant rRhi o 1. Purified rRhi o 1 displayed complete allergenicity similar to the native nRhi o 1. It was recognized by the serum IgE of the selected mold allergy patients and efficiently induced histamine release from the sensitized PBMC cells. This allergen was identified as an active aspartic protease functional in low pH. The Rhi o 1 showed cross reactivity with the cockroach allergen Bla g 2, as it can inhibit IgE binding to rBla g 2 up to certain level. The rBla g 2 was also found

  6. Direct release of the allergen tulipalin A from Alstroemeria cut flowers: a possible source of airborne contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Christensen, L P

    1999-12-01

    The allergen tulipalin A was collected by dynamic headspace technique from cut flowers of 2 Alstroemeria hybrids and quantified and identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The amounts of tulipalin A released into the air were correlated with the tulipalin A and the total allergen content (tulipalin A and tuliposides) in the plant tissue, respectively. Tulipalin A was released primarily from the wounded areas, i.e. the stems, although small amounts were also emitted from the undamaged flowers in one of the hybrids. The tulipalin A concentrations in the stems of the Alstroemeria hybrids investigated were 0.06% and 0.13% of fresh weight, respectively, and the amounts directly released from the cut flowers were 0.4 and 2.2 microg (cut flower)(-1) h(-1), respectively. The content of tulipalin A exceeded that of tuliposides in leaves and flowers of both hybrids, whereas the content of tulipalin A in stems (in % fresh weight) was slightly lower than the content of tuliposides. The possibility that airborne tulipalin A from Alstroemeria could be a source of airborne contact dermatitis is discussed.

  7. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  8. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernels as affected by processing conditions. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicators of process effectiveness. Enzymatic treatment effectively reduced Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in roasted peanut kernels by up to 100% under optimal conditions. For instance, treatment of roasted peanut kernels with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin for 1-3h significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein while reducing Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in peanut kernel extracts by 100% and 98%, respectively, based on ELISA readings. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 levels in peanut protein extracts were inversely correlated with protein solubility in roasted peanut. Blanching of kernels enhanced the effectiveness of enzyme treatment in roasted peanuts but not in raw peanuts. The optimal concentration of enzyme was determined by response surface to be in the range of 0.1-0.2%. No consistent results were obtained for raw peanut kernels since Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 increased in peanut protein extracts under some treatment conditions and decreased in others. PMID:25214091

  9. Study on the ability of a new barrier to reduce airborne mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, I E; Di Berardino, L; Lozzia, G C

    1996-03-01

    Environmental control, especially means for blocking the release into the air of mite allergens embedded in padded furniture (mattress, pillows), represents the first important step in the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. New to the market is a home hygiene spray that creates a protective barrier on padded furniture and is thereby able to contain the dispersion into the air of allergic particles. We tested the effectiveness of the spray in vitro. Since mites, especially D. Pteronyssinus, are considered the foremost allergens, we verified the ability of the invisible barrier to impede the diffusion of the allergen and the mobile forms of these mites (Der p 1, Der 2). The product under exam created a barrier that totally blocked the passage of mobile forms and almost totally prevented the passage of allergens (> 99%). PMID:8703311

  10. Characterisation of allergens and airborne fungi in low and middle-income homes of primary school children in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jafta, Nkosana; Batterman, Stuart A.; Gqaleni, Nceba; Naidoo, Rajen N.; Robins, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    The South Durban Health Study is a population-based study that examined the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory disease among school children with high prevalence of asthma who resided in two purposely-selected communities in north and south Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From these participants, a subgroup of 135 families was selected for investigation of household characteristics potentially related to respiratory health. In these households, a walkthrough investigation was conducted, and settled dust and air samples were collected for allergen and fungal measurements using standardised techniques. Asp f1 allergen was detected in all homes, and Bla g1 allergen was detected in half of the homes. House dust allergens, Der f1 and Der p1 exceeded concentrations associated with risk of sensitization and exacerbation of asthma in 3 and 13%, respectively, of the sampled homes, while Bla g1 exceeded guidance values in 13% of the homes. Although airborne fungal concentrations in sleep areas and indoors were lower than outdoor concentrations, they exceeded 1000 CFU/m3 in 29% of the homes. Multivariate analyses identified several home characteristics that were predictors of airborne fungal concentrations, including moisture, ventilation, floor type and bedding type. Airborne fungal concentrations were similar indoors and outdoors, which likely reduced the significance of housing and indoor factors as determinants of indoor concentrations. Conclusion Allergen concentrations were highly variable in homes, and a portion of the variability can be attributed to easily-recognised conditions. PMID:22674665

  11. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  12. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernel by processing conditions, such as, pretreatment with heat and proteolysis at different enzyme concentrations and treatment times. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicator...

  13. Deteriorated housing contributes to high cockroach allergen levels in inner-city households.

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A; Chew, Ginger R; Garfinkel, Robin S

    2002-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood asthma in low-income, inner-city populations is not fully understood but has been at least partly attributed to the disproportionate exposures associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. The contribution of indoor allergens to asthma is well documented, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and indoor allergen levels are not clear. We investigated levels of cockroach allergens (Bla g 2) in a sample of 132 Dominican or African American low-income households with young children in northern Manhattan in New York City (40% were receiving public assistance) to determine whether the distribution of allergens is a function of housing deterioration. Deterioration was measured by the presence and number of physical housing problems (holes in the ceilings and walls, water damage, etc.). More than 50% of the sample had two or more types of housing dilapidation, and 67% of the sample reported cockroach sightings in their homes. Samples of dust were collected from kitchen and bedroom surfaces. We hypothesized that the greater the dilapidation, the higher the allergen levels, independent of income, sociocultural factors, and pest-control methods. In addition, we hypothesized that the homes of families characterized by frequent moves (23.5%) would have higher allergen levels than more stable families. Results showed significant positive associations between housing deterioration and allergen levels in kitchens, after adjusting for income and ethnicity, with independent effects of residential stability (p< 0.05). Bedroom allergen levels were associated with housing instability (p < 0.01) and ethnicity (p< 0.01). Findings demonstrated that indoor household allergen levels are related to degree of household disrepair, after adjusting for individual family attributes, suggesting that social-structural aspects of housing may be appropriate targets for public health interventions designed to reduce allergen exposure. PMID:11929744

  14. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  15. Are Neighborhood-Level Characteristics Associated with Indoor Allergens in the Household?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L.; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well-studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York Department of City Planning. Objective We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Methods Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n=261) we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates) and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 μg/g; cat: >1 μg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 μg/g. Results Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Conclusions Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions. PMID

  16. Lead, allergen, and pesticide levels in licensed child care centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Viet, Susan Marie; Rogers, John; Marker, David; Fraser, Alexa; Friedman, Warren; Jacobs, David; Zhou, J; Tulve, Nicolle

    2013-12-01

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergen, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels were measured in settled dust; and pesticide residues were measured on indoor surfaces and in play area soil. Fourteen percent of centers had significant lead hazards, suggesting that an estimated 470,000 children under age six (approximately 10% of all children in licensed centers) attend centers with significant lead hazards. Approximately 5% of centers had levels of allergens associated with asthma and allergic conditions. Three-quarters of centers had pesticides applied (either indoors or outdoors) during the previous year. Although most centers did not appear to present risks from lead and allergens, some centers did have unsafe levels of these contaminants. These conclusions cannot be generalized to unlicensed child care arrangements. PMID:24437044

  17. Effects of an acaricide on mite allergen levels in the homes of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Chew, F T; Goh, D Y; Lee, B W

    1996-10-01

    Previous study by the current authors has shown that treating homes with D'Allergen, an acaricidal agent, can reduce bronchial hyper-reactivity in asthmatic children with house dust mite allergy. In the present study, the effects of a single D'Allergen treatment on the levels of major dust mite allergens, Der p I and Der f I was evaluated, and the duration of its effectiveness in the environment determined. Twenty randomly selected homes were treated with the acaricide and ten remained untreated. Dust samples were collected from mattresses, upholstered sofas and carpets of these homes before and 1, 2 and 4 months after treatment. The samples were then assayed for Der p I and Der f I allergens using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that D'Allergen was effective in reducing dust mite allergen levels in all three niches by 1.5-22.3 times below baseline values. This effect, however, was only present for 2 months, and the dust mite allergen levels increased to those of the baseline by the fourth month after treatment. These results indicated that repeated applications of the acaricide were required at 2-3 monthly intervals to obtain optimal effectiveness.

  18. [Airborne Japanese cedar allergens studied by immunoblotting technique using anti-Cry j I monoclonal antibody--comparison with actual pollen counts and effect of wind speed and directions].

    PubMed

    Iwaya, M; Murakami, G; Matsuno, M; Onoue, Y; Takayanagi, M; Kayahara, M; Adachi, Y; Adachi, Y; Okada, T; Kenda, S

    1995-07-01

    We collected airborne particles of Japanese cedar pollen with Burkard's sampling tape in Toyama from February to April 1992. The tape was cut into two pieces in parallel to time axis. The one of piece of the tapes was stained with glycerin-jerry and stained pollens were counted with a microscope. The other piece was treated according to the immunoblotting technique. The airborne pollen allergens, reacting with anti-Cry j I monoclonal antibody, were stained as blue spots. The spots were classified by diameter into two groups, large spots (> 50 microns) and small spots (< 50 microns). There were significant correlations found between the airborne Cry j I allergen spots (in large and small) and actual pollen counts obtained with the Burkard's sampler and the Durham's sampler (r = 0.729, 0.586 in large spots and r = 0.676, 0.489 in small spots, p < 0.001). The counts of small spots stayed in high level even in April when actual pollen counts decreased. We concluded that this discrepancy was caused by allergenic crushed cedar pollen particles staying floating longer than actual pollens. Secondly we set a gauge of wind speed and direction at the same point as the samplers. The actual pollen counts and large spots counts were significantly larger in the wind (SE wind in Toyama city) from cedar trees blooming area than other areas. However small spots counts did not differ significantly according to wind directions. Wind speed did not effect on actual pollen counts, large spots counts and small spots count.

  19. High Environmental Ozone Levels Lead to Enhanced Allergenicity of Birch Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Isabelle; Jochner, Susanne; Gilles, Stefanie; McIntyre, Mareike; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Menzel, Annette; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. Objectives To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. Methods Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. Results The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. Conclusion It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further. PMID:24278250

  20. Repetitive Immunoassay with a Surface Acoustic Wave Device and a Highly Stable Protein Monolayer for On-Site Monitoring of Airborne Dust Mite Allergens.

    PubMed

    Toma, Koji; Miki, Daisuke; Kishikawa, Chisato; Yoshimura, Naoyuki; Miyajima, Kumiko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-10-20

    This work describes a sensor to be incorporated into the on-site monitoring system of airborne house dust mite (HDM) allergens. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device was combined with self-assembled monolayers of a highly stable antibody capture protein on the SAW surface that have high resistance to pH change. A sandwich assay was used to measure a HDM allergen, Der f 1 derived from Dermatophagoides farinae. Capture antibodies were cross-linked to a protein G based capture layer (ORLA85) on the sensor surface, thereby only Der f 1 and detection antibodies were regenerated by changing pH, resulting in fast repetition of the measurement. The sensor was characterized through 10 repetitive measurements of Der f 1, which demonstrated high reproducibility of the sensor with the coefficient of variation of 5.6%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 6.1 ng·mL(-1), encompassing the standard (20 ng·mL(-1)) set by the World Health Organization. Negligible sensor outputs were observed for five different major allergens including other HDM allergens which tend to have cross-reactivity to Der f 1 and their mixtures with Der f 1. Finally, the sensor lifetime was evaluated by conducting three measurements per day, and the sensor output did not substantially change for 4 days. These characteristics make the SAW immunosensor a promising candidate for incorporation into on-site allergen monitoring systems.

  1. Airborne and allergenic fungal spores of the Karachi environment and their correlation with meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Syed M; Akhter, Tasneem; Waqar, Muhammad A

    2012-03-01

    Airborne fungal spores are well known to cause respiratory allergic diseases particularly bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, rhino-conjunctivitis and allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis in both adults and children. In order to monitor and analyze airborne fungal flora of the Karachi environment, an aeromycological study was conducted using a Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap from January to December 2010. The data recorded from the Spore Trap was further analyzed for percent catch determination, total spores concentration, seasonal periodicities and diurnal variations. Cladosporium spp (44.8%), Alternaria spp. (15.5%), Periconia spp (6.1%), Curvularia spp (2.1%), Stemphylium spp (1.3%) and Aspergillus/Penicillium type (1%) emerged to be major components constituting more than 70% of the airborne fungal flora. Cladosporium, Curvularia and Stemphylium displayed a clear seasonal trend, while there were no clear seasonal trends for other fungal spore types. Diurnal variations were observed to be mainly having daytime maxima. Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient analysis was conducted using various weather parameters. The various fungal types showed a negative correlation with heat index, dew point, wind velocity and wind chill. However, a positive correlation was found with humidity, rain and barometric pressure. In fact, Alternaria, Bipolaris and Periconia showed a negative correlation with temperature, while Cladosporium and Periconia showed a negative correlation with heat index, dew point, wind velocity and wind chill. The barometric pressure was positively correlated with Cladosporium. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that a number of fungal spores are present in the atmosphere of Karachi throughout the year, with certain atmospheric conditions influencing the release, dispersion, and sedimentation processes of some genera. It is expected that clinicians will use the identified fungal flora for diagnosis and treatment and

  2. Airborne and allergenic fungal spores of the Karachi environment and their correlation with meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Syed M; Akhter, Tasneem; Waqar, Muhammad A

    2012-03-01

    Airborne fungal spores are well known to cause respiratory allergic diseases particularly bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, rhino-conjunctivitis and allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis in both adults and children. In order to monitor and analyze airborne fungal flora of the Karachi environment, an aeromycological study was conducted using a Burkard 7-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap from January to December 2010. The data recorded from the Spore Trap was further analyzed for percent catch determination, total spores concentration, seasonal periodicities and diurnal variations. Cladosporium spp (44.8%), Alternaria spp. (15.5%), Periconia spp (6.1%), Curvularia spp (2.1%), Stemphylium spp (1.3%) and Aspergillus/Penicillium type (1%) emerged to be major components constituting more than 70% of the airborne fungal flora. Cladosporium, Curvularia and Stemphylium displayed a clear seasonal trend, while there were no clear seasonal trends for other fungal spore types. Diurnal variations were observed to be mainly having daytime maxima. Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient analysis was conducted using various weather parameters. The various fungal types showed a negative correlation with heat index, dew point, wind velocity and wind chill. However, a positive correlation was found with humidity, rain and barometric pressure. In fact, Alternaria, Bipolaris and Periconia showed a negative correlation with temperature, while Cladosporium and Periconia showed a negative correlation with heat index, dew point, wind velocity and wind chill. The barometric pressure was positively correlated with Cladosporium. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that a number of fungal spores are present in the atmosphere of Karachi throughout the year, with certain atmospheric conditions influencing the release, dispersion, and sedimentation processes of some genera. It is expected that clinicians will use the identified fungal flora for diagnosis and treatment and

  3. Animal Allergens and Their Presence in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day-care centers, and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors. Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification, and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm, and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces) using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended. PMID:24624129

  4. Dermatophagoides farinae allergen levels from two different sources within the same home: evaluation of two different collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Twiggs, J T; Gray, R L; DeJongh, S; Marx, J J

    1991-05-01

    The allergens produced by the dust mites of the Dermatophagoides genus are now recognized as one of the major allergens in house dust. Quantification of those allergens helps to evaluate the effectiveness of avoidance measures and specific treatments aimed at the reduction of the mites and their allergens. The present study was undertaken to compare the level of D. farinae allergen collected by a standard vacuum cleaner with a disposable bag and the level of allergen collected by a hand-held vacuum equipped with a special filter. Samples were obtained from the main living area of 18 homes of patients allergic to D. farinae. Using a hand-held vacuum especially equipped with a removable micropore filter, a 2-m2 area of carpet was vacuumed for two minutes and an identical sample was collected from the major upholstered piece of furniture in the room. A third sample was obtained with an upright vacuum fitted with a clean disposable bag. The dust collected was extracted in phosphate buffered saline and resultant extracts were assayed for D. farinae allergen content by microtiter plate RAST inhibition assay. Results from these assays showed a large interhome variability regardless of sampling technique, but intrahome sampling showed remarkable consistency. A linear regression analysis demonstrated all of the comparisons correlated at a probability level of P less than .05. We conclude that dust mite allergen levels collected in a disposable bag vacuum cleaner are reliable indicators of the level of house dust mites present in the homes of patients.

  5. Effect of environmental intervention on mouse allergen levels in homes of inner-city Boston children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Beth; Wood, Robert A.; Eggleston, Peyton A.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Song, Leslie; Tachdjian, Raffi; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that mouse allergen exposure and sensitization are common in urban children with asthma. The effectiveness of environmental intervention in reducing mouse allergen exposure has not been established. Objective: To evaluate whether environmental intervention of mouse extermination and cleaning results in a reduction in mouse allergen levels. Methods: Eighteen homes of children with positive mouse allergen skin test results and at least mild persistent asthma in urban Boston, MA, with evidence of mouse infestation or exposure were randomized in a 2:1 ratio (12 intervention and 6 control homes). The intervention homes received an integrated pest management intervention, which consisted of filling holes with copper mesh, vacuuming and cleaning, and using low-toxicity pesticides and traps. Dust samples were collected and analyzed for major mouse allergen (Mus m 1) and cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) at baseline and 1, 3, and 5 months after the intervention was started and compared with control homes. Results: Mouse allergen levels were significantly decreased compared with control homes by the end of the intervention period at month 5 in the kitchen and bedroom (kitchen intervention, 78.8% reduction; control, 319% increase; P = .02; bedroom intervention, 77.3% reduction; control, 358% increase; P < .01; and living room intervention, 67.6% reduction; control, 32% reduction; P = .07). Conclusions: Mouse allergen levels were significantly reduced during a 5-month period using an integrated pest management intervention. PMID:15104193

  6. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Nejat, Arsalan

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat) and Bla g1 (cockroach) allergens were found in the children's bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms.

  7. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Nejat, Arsalan

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat) and Bla g1 (cockroach) allergens were found in the children's bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms. PMID:27090366

  8. Molecular and immunological approaches in quantifying the air-borne food allergen tropomyosin in crab processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Sandip D; Thomassen, Marte R; Saptarshi, Shruti R; Nguyen, Hong M X; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Bang, Berit E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-09-01

    Tropomyosin is a cross-reactive allergenic protein present in ingested shellfish species. Exposure and sensitization to this protein via inhalation is particularly important in the crustacean processing industry where workers are continuously exposed to the aerosolized form of this allergen. The aim of this study was to develop an antibody-based immunoassay to enable the specific and sensitive quantification of aerosolized tropomyosin present in the environment of two crab processing facilities. Anti-tropomyosin antibody was generated in rabbits against tropomyosins from four different crustacean species. These antibodies were purified using recombinant tropomyosin using an immuno-affinity column. The recombinant tropomyosin was also used as an allergen standard for the sandwich ELISA. In order to quantify aerosolized tropomyosin, air collection was performed in the personal breathing zone of 80 workers during two crab processing activities, edible crab (Cancer pagurus) and king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) using polytetrafluoroethylene filters. The purified antibody was able to detect tropomyosin selectively from different crustaceans but not from vertebrate sources. The limit of detection (LOD) for the developed sandwich ELISA was 60 picogram/m(3) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) 100 picogram/m(3). Immunoassay validation was based on linearity (R(2) 0.999), matrix interference test (78.8±6.5%), intra-assay CV (9.8%) and inter-assay CV (11%). The novel immunoassay was able to successfully identify working activities, which generated low, medium or high concentrations of the aerosolized food allergen. We describe an IgG antibody-based immunoassay for quantification of the major food allergen tropomyosin, with high sensitivity and specificity. This modified immunological approach can be adapted for the detection of other aerosolized food allergens, assisting in the identification of high-risk allergen exposure areas in the food industry. PMID:24755444

  9. Molecular and immunological approaches in quantifying the air-borne food allergen tropomyosin in crab processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Sandip D; Thomassen, Marte R; Saptarshi, Shruti R; Nguyen, Hong M X; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Bang, Berit E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-09-01

    Tropomyosin is a cross-reactive allergenic protein present in ingested shellfish species. Exposure and sensitization to this protein via inhalation is particularly important in the crustacean processing industry where workers are continuously exposed to the aerosolized form of this allergen. The aim of this study was to develop an antibody-based immunoassay to enable the specific and sensitive quantification of aerosolized tropomyosin present in the environment of two crab processing facilities. Anti-tropomyosin antibody was generated in rabbits against tropomyosins from four different crustacean species. These antibodies were purified using recombinant tropomyosin using an immuno-affinity column. The recombinant tropomyosin was also used as an allergen standard for the sandwich ELISA. In order to quantify aerosolized tropomyosin, air collection was performed in the personal breathing zone of 80 workers during two crab processing activities, edible crab (Cancer pagurus) and king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) using polytetrafluoroethylene filters. The purified antibody was able to detect tropomyosin selectively from different crustaceans but not from vertebrate sources. The limit of detection (LOD) for the developed sandwich ELISA was 60 picogram/m(3) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) 100 picogram/m(3). Immunoassay validation was based on linearity (R(2) 0.999), matrix interference test (78.8±6.5%), intra-assay CV (9.8%) and inter-assay CV (11%). The novel immunoassay was able to successfully identify working activities, which generated low, medium or high concentrations of the aerosolized food allergen. We describe an IgG antibody-based immunoassay for quantification of the major food allergen tropomyosin, with high sensitivity and specificity. This modified immunological approach can be adapted for the detection of other aerosolized food allergens, assisting in the identification of high-risk allergen exposure areas in the food industry.

  10. Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European

  11. Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, N

    1989-01-01

    Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan were determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) for about 100 air samples from various outdoor settings. Asbestos fibres (chrysotile) were found in almost all samples. The fibre (mass) concentrations were in the range of 4-367 fibres per litre (0.02-47.2 ng/m3) with a geometric mean of 18 f/1 (0.3 ng/m3). The mass concentrations were similar to the earlier data reported from other countries. Samples from main roads showed extremely high asbestos concentrations and short fibre lengths compared with those of the other samples. This strongly suggested that braking of vehicles was a significant emission source of airborne asbestos. Laboratory experiments using a brake testing machine demonstrated that asbestos fibres were released during braking. In addition, the present study found high levels of airborne asbestos in some highly polluted areas, such as a serpentine quarry, a town adjacent to an asbestos mine, and factories making asbestos slate-board. On the other hand, chrysotile fibres were also found in air samples from a small isolated island in the Pacific Ocean as well as in ice samples from ten thousand years ago in Antarctica. These facts suggest that chrysotile fibres have been liberated both by industrial activities and natural weathering, and have circulated around the earth. PMID:2744826

  12. Characterization of airborne fungal levels after mold remediation.

    PubMed

    Kleinheinz, G T; Langolf, B M; Englebert, E

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to evaluate levels of airborne fungi present after a mold remediation project and determine the effectiveness of this remediation using airborne mold levels to determine the success of these projects. Andersen N6 (viable) and Air-O-Cell (non-viable) sampling techniques were utilized. Both test methodologies demonstrated that levels of mold in the successfully remediated portions of buildings were significantly different (p<0.05) from the levels found in non-complaint and outdoor samples from the same building, respectively. Conversely, levels in unsuccessful remediation projects were not significantly different (p>0.05) to non-complaint and outdoor samples. Both techniques showed high variability in the overall mold levels found between sites; however, the ratios of specific mold groups in each area tested, within the same site, were remarkably similar. The use of either viable or non-viable mold sampling techniques after mold remediation is essential for determining the success of such projects. This project demonstrates the relationship between mold levels and the success of a mold remediation projects, and will assist in the interpretation of data collected at the conclusion of a mold remediation project.

  13. Endotoxin and House Dust Mite Allergen Levels on Synthetic and Buckwheat Pillows

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Park, Choon-Sik; Crane, Julian

    2004-01-01

    Pillows are known to contain significant levels of indoor allergens and endotoxin, that are of importance to house dust mite sensitized asthmatics. Buckwheat pillows are commonly used in Korea. We studied the levels of the house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, and endotoxin on new synthetic and buckwheat pillows and their accumulation over three months. Endotoxin levels were significantly higher on new buckwheat pillows compared to synthetic pillows; geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 60,950 EU/g (30,270-122,700) and 4,887 EU/g (2,570-9,311) respectively (p<0.001). No Der f 1 was detected on the new pillows. After three months Der f 1 levels were similar on buckwheat and synthetic pillows, geometric mean levels (95% CI) were 1.16 µg/g (0.02-8.13) and 1.08 µg/g (0.19-1.68) respectively. These results indicate that buckwheat pillows are a source of very high endotoxin levels that may be of relevance to asthma severity of atopic asthmatics. PMID:15308838

  14. Rapid one-step assays for on-site monitoring of mouse and rat urinary allergens.

    PubMed

    Koets, Marjo; Renström, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Bogdanovic, Jelena; Wouters, Inge M; van Amerongen, Aart

    2011-12-01

    Allergy to rodent proteins is common among laboratory animal workers. Sensitive methods to measure exposure to these allergens have been developed. These assays are, however, expensive, time-consuming, and require a laboratory facility and methodological expertise. A simple method to screen for allergen spread, or to test whether hygiene standards are maintained, would be useful. Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are especially suited for field settings; the tests are simple and results are visible within minutes. LFIAs were developed for detection of the rodent urinary allergens Mus m 1 and Rat n 1. Pilot studies were performed in animal facilities in three countries using both extracts from airborne dust samples and samples collected by wiping surfaces. For comparison and determination of sensitivity, the concentrations of rodent urinary allergens in the samples were also measured using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The LFIAs for rat and mouse urinary allergens had a detection limit of 31 pg allergen per mL in a buffer system with purified allergen standards. Results of environmental dust extracts tested in LFIAs correlated well with levels obtained using EIAs. Spread of rodent allergens, or non-adherence to hygiene around laboratory animal facilities, may aggravate rodent allergy. Using a simple, sensitive one-step assay, allergens can be detected to prevent allergen exposure. The results reveal that the rapid assays are suited for on-site demonstration of exposure to rodent allergens, and thus, useful in occupational hygiene practice.

  15. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station. PMID:21173524

  16. Allergen nomenclature*

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The revised nomenclature for allergens is presented together with proposed nomenclatures for (a) allergen genes, mRNAs and cDNAs, and (b) recombinant and synthetic peptides of allergenic interest. PMID:7955031

  17. Focus on cat allergen (Fel d 1): immunological and aerodynamic characteristics, modality of airway sensitization and avoidance strategies.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; D'Amato, Gennaro; Russo, Maria; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; D'Amato, Luciana; De Martino, Mariano; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2003-09-01

    The increasing frequency of pet ownership (especially cats) in many industrialized countries has raised the level of exposure to the allergens produced by these animals. Moreover, it is likely that modern energy-saving systems and the wide use of upholstered furniture has resulted in closer contact between cats (and their allergens) and humans. Many different methods have been developed to quantify the main cat allergen (Fel d 1) in settled dust and in ambient air. The threshold levels of cat allergen inducing sensitization or triggering respiratory symptoms in sensitized patients have been calculated in settled dust, but airborne amounts of Fel d 1 probably represent a more reliable index of allergen exposure. Noticeably, the amount of Fel d 1 may be relatively high also in confined environments where cats have never been kept. It has been demonstrated that clothes of cat owners are the main source for dispersal of allergens in cat-free environments. This fact may be of relevance, because recent studies have shown that allergic sensitization to cats is more likely to develop in children exposed to moderate levels of this allergen than in children exposed to high amounts of Fel d 1. The ubiquity of cat allergen may justify the common observation that allergen avoidance is often insufficient to reduce the risk of developing allergic sensitization and/or symptom exacerbation in highly susceptible patients. Further efforts are needed to improve the efficacy of Fel d 1 avoidance strategies to try to reduce the risk of allergic sensitization to this allergen.

  18. Airborne Interferometry using GNSS Reflections for Surface Level Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Beyerle, Georg; Schön, Steffen; Stosius, Ralf; Gerber, Thomas; Beckheinrich, Jamila; Markgraf, Markus; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The interferometric use of GNSS reflections for ocean altimetry can fill the gap in coverage of ocean observations. Today radar altimeters are used for large scale ocean observations to monitor e.g. global sea level change or circulation processes like El Niño. Spacial and temporal resolution of a single radar altimeter, however, is insufficient to observe mesoscale ocean phenomena like large oceanic eddies that are important indicators of climate change. The high coverage expected for a spaceborne altimeter based on GNSS reflections stimulated investigations on according interferometric methods. Several airborne experiments have been conducted using code observations. Carrier observations have a better precision but are severely affected by noise and have mostly been used in ground-based experiments. A new interferometric approach is presented using carrier observations for airborne application. Implementing a spectral retrieval noise reduction is achieved. A flight experiment was conducted with a Zeppelin airship on 2010/10/12 over Lake Constance at the border between Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The lake surface with an area of 536km2 is suitable for altimetric study as its decimeter range Geoid undulations are well-known. Three GNSS receiver were installed on the airship. A Javad Delta receiver recording direct signals for navigation. The DLR G-REX receiver recording reflected signals for scatterometry and the GORS (GNSS Occultation Reflectometry Scatterometry) receiver recording direct and reflected signals for interferometry. The airship's trajectory is determined from navigation data with a precision better than 10cm using regional augmentation. This presentation focuses on the interferometric analysis of GORS observations. Ray tracing calculations are used to model the difference of direct and reflected signals' path. Spectral retrieval is applied to determine Doppler residuals of modelled path difference and interferometric observations. Lake level

  19. Allergenic pollen season variations in the past two decades under changing climate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Mi, Zhongyuan; Cai, Ting; Robock, Alan; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2015-04-01

    Many diseases are linked with climate trends and variations. In particular, climate change is expected to alter the spatiotemporal dynamics of allergenic airborne pollen and potentially increase occurrence of allergic airway disease. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of changes in pollen season timing and levels is thus important in assessing climate impacts on aerobiology and allergy caused by allergenic airborne pollen. Here, we describe the spatiotemporal patterns of changes in the seasonal timing and levels of allergenic airborne pollen for multiple taxa in different climate regions at a continental scale. The allergenic pollen seasons of representative trees, weeds and grass during the past decade (2001-2010) across the contiguous United States have been observed to start 3.0 [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.1-4.9] days earlier on average than in the 1990s (1994-2000). The average peak value and annual total of daily counted airborne pollen have increased by 42.4% (95% CI, 21.9-62.9%) and 46.0% (95% CI, 21.5-70.5%), respectively. Changes of pollen season timing and airborne levels depend on latitude, and are associated with changes of growing degree days, frost free days, and precipitation. These changes are likely due to recent climate change and particularly the enhanced warming and precipitation at higher latitudes in the contiguous United States.

  20. Allergen sensitization of asthmatic and nonasthmatic schoolchildren in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, M; Gutierrez, I; Calvo, N; Araya, C; Karlberg, J; Hanson, L A; Belin, L

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in Costa Rica is very high -- at the level of 20-30% -- and the reason is still unknown. A group of children from our previous epidemiologic study was randomly selected in order to establish the relation between asthma symptoms and allergy sensitization to common allergens. Serum samples from children with and without asthma were analyzed for the presence of IgE antibodies to 36 different allergens, for the presence of IgE antibodies to a pool of 10 common allergens, and for total serum IgE. The most prevalent IgE antibodies were those to mite, cockroach, dog, and house-dust allergens with MAST pipettes for the serologic measurements. Positive reactions to house dust, mite, cat, and the two molds (Alternaria and Cladosporium), and food allergens such as egg white, peanut, and shellfish were significantly more prevalent among the asthmatics than the nonasthmatics. Sensitization was equally prevalent at different ages, but the house-dust, mite, cat, dog, cockroach, Alternaria, and egg-white allergens had sensitized boys more often than girls (P < 0.01). The result of the analysis of IgE antibodies to a pool of 10 common allergens by Phadiatop supported the MAST pipette results, showing allergen sensitization in 57.7% of the asthmatic children and 42.3% in the nonasthmatic group. The concentration of IgE was significantly higher among the asthmatic children (372.2 kU/l) than among the nonasthmatic children (249.1 kU/l) (P < 0.00001). Parasitic infestations were not examined in this study, but in most of Costa Rica these have largely been eliminated and could not explain the high total IgE levels. Our data indicate that the very high prevalence of bronchial asthma in Costa Rican schoolchildren can be related to sensitization, especially to airborne indoor allergens such as those of mites, cockroaches, and dogs.

  1. Environmental Effects on Allergen Levels in Commercially Grown Non-Genetically Modified Soybeans: Assessing Variation Across North America

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Severin E.; Woods, Carlotta A.; Hong, Bonnie; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Thelen, Jay J.; Ladics, Gregory S.

    2012-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a hugely valuable soft commodity that generates tens of billions of dollars annually. This value is due in part to the balanced composition of the seed which is roughly 1:2:2 oil, starch, and protein by weight. In turn, the seeds have many uses with various derivatives appearing broadly in processed food products. As is true with many edible seeds, soybeans contain proteins that are anti-nutritional factors and allergens. Soybean, along with milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, and wheat, elicit a majority of food allergy reactions in the United States. Soybean seed composition can be affected by breeding, and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, moisture, insect/pathogen load, and/or soil nutrient levels). The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and environment on allergen and anti-nutritional proteins in soybean. To address genetic and environmental effects, four varieties of non-GM soybeans were grown in six geographically distinct regions of North America (Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Ontario, and Pennsylvania). Absolute quantification of proteins by mass spectrometry can be achieved with a technique called multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), during which signals from an endogenous protein are compared to those from a synthetic heavy-labeled internal standard. Using MRM, eight allergens were absolutely quantified for each variety in each environment. Statistical analyses show that for most allergens, the effects of environment far outweigh the differences between varieties brought about by breeding. PMID:22969785

  2. Environmental effects on allergen levels in commercially grown non-genetically modified soybeans: assessing variation across north america.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Severin E; Woods, Carlotta A; Hong, Bonnie; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Thelen, Jay J; Ladics, Gregory S

    2012-01-01

    Soybean (Glycinemax) is a hugely valuable soft commodity that generates tens of billions of dollars annually. This value is due in part to the balanced composition of the seed which is roughly 1:2:2 oil, starch, and protein by weight. In turn, the seeds have many uses with various derivatives appearing broadly in processed food products. As is true with many edible seeds, soybeans contain proteins that are anti-nutritional factors and allergens. Soybean, along with milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, and wheat, elicit a majority of food allergy reactions in the United States. Soybean seed composition can be affected by breeding, and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, moisture, insect/pathogen load, and/or soil nutrient levels). The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and environment on allergen and anti-nutritional proteins in soybean. To address genetic and environmental effects, four varieties of non-GM soybeans were grown in six geographically distinct regions of North America (Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Ontario, and Pennsylvania). Absolute quantification of proteins by mass spectrometry can be achieved with a technique called multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), during which signals from an endogenous protein are compared to those from a synthetic heavy-labeled internal standard. Using MRM, eight allergens were absolutely quantified for each variety in each environment. Statistical analyses show that for most allergens, the effects of environment far outweigh the differences between varieties brought about by breeding.

  3. [Allergen analysis].

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental requirement when testing for and ensuring compliance with legally required labelling regulations is the reliable analysis of food allergens. This can be carried out by means of either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or protein detection. Protein detection has the advantage of directly detecting the allergenic component and can currently be carried out using immunological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA])/lateral flow devices [LFD]) or mass spectrometry-based techniques. DNA detection is indirect, but allows the presence of food allergens to be validated through the use of another marker. Each method has its pros and cons, which have to be considered on a case-by-case basis. ELISA is quantitative, quick and easy to carry out and has high sensitivity. LFD testing is ideal for industrial applications, as the tests can be carried out on-site. Both antibody-based tests may have problems with processed foods and false positive results. Mass-spectrometric techniques show a lot of promise, but are currently still time-consuming and complex to carry out. They also run into problems with processed foods and their degree of sensitivity is matrix and parameter dependent. For these reasons, this technique is only occasionally used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides the highest specificity and, depending on the target sequence, a very good to good level of sensitivity. Despite the high stability of DNA, PCR is still subject to the influence of processing and matrix related factors. Due to natural variation and production-related changes in the structures relevant in the process of detection, all methods exhibit a relatively high level of uncertainty of measurement. At present, there is no method which provides the absolute correct quantification. However, by means of laboratory-based analyses it is possible to calibrate for the allergen in question and thus be able to make reliable measurements using methods that are already available. PMID

  4. Vacuum cleaning decreases the levels of mite allergens in house dust.

    PubMed

    Munir, A K; Einarsson, R; Dreborg, S K

    1993-08-01

    To investigate the capacity of chemical treatment of surfaces and the difference in capacity among common vacuum cleaners to reduce mite allergen content in house dust, we recruited 52 families with allergic children. Ten families used their central vacuum cleaners. Forty-two families were randomly divided into four groups with 10 or 11 families in each. These families used either new vacuum cleaners with either HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) or micro-filters, or their own vacuum cleaners with either tannic acid or placebo. Dust samples were collected from carpets and upholstered furniture in the living rooms and from the mattresses of the children at Days 0, 7, 21, and 35. Der pI and Der fI allergens were determined by sandwich ELISA. After one week, tannic acid reduced the concentration of mite allergens/g of dust and the total amount/sampling area by 30% and 34%, respectively (p < 0.05), but there was no significant decrease in relation to placebo. After 5 weeks, central, HEPA- and micro-filter vacuum cleaners decreased the mite allergen concentration by 10-50% (p < 0.05) and the total amount of mite allergen from the investigated areas by 50-85% (p < 0.01). In relation to the placebo group the decrease was significant for HEPA- and micro-filter vacuums (p < 0.05). The total amount of mite allergens/sampling area was more significantly (p < 0.05) reduced than the concentration/g of dust. We conclude, that tannic acid reduces mite allergen concentrations in dust and total amount/sampling area for a short period of time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Diversity and relative levels of actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like allergens in 15 varieties of kiwifruit (Actinidia).

    PubMed

    Maddumage, Ratnasiri; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Bulley, Sean M; Cooney, Janine M; Green, Sol A; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-01-23

    In the last 30 years the incidence of kiwifruit allergy has increased with the three major allergenic proteins being identified as actinidin, kiwellin, and thaumatin-like protein (TLP). We report wide variation in the levels of actinidin and TLP in 15 kiwifruit varieties from the four most widely cultivated Actinidia species. Acidic and basic isoforms of actinidin were identified in Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' and Actinidia arguta 'Hortgem Tahi', while only a basic isoform of actinidin was identified in Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'. One isoform each of kiwellin and TLP were identified in ripe fruit. The cysteine protease activity of actinidin correlated with protein levels in all species except A. arguta. Protein modeling suggested that modifications to the S2 binding pocket influenced substrate specificity of the A. arguta enzyme. Our results indicate that care is necessary when extrapolating allergenicity results from single varieties to others within the same and between different Actinidia species.

  6. Evaluation of HEPA vacuum cleaning and dry steam cleaning in reducing levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and house dust mite allergens in carpets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Tina Fan, Zhi-Hua; Rhoads, George G

    2009-01-01

    Dry steam cleaning, which has gained recent attention as an effective method to reduce house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentration and loading in carpets, was evaluated in this study for its efficacy in lowering levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as HDM allergens. Fifty urban homes with wall-to-wall carpets, mostly low-income and with known lead contamination, were studied in 2003 and 2004. Two carpet-cleaning interventions were compared: Repeated HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air filtered) vacuuming alone and repeated HEPA vacuuming supplemented with dry steam cleaning. Vacuum samples were collected to measure carpet loading of dust and contaminants immediately before and after cleaning. Paired comparisons were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning protocols in reducing the levels of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets. The results indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens as well as dust in carpets (p < 0.0001). The reductions in loading of dust (64.4%), PAHs (69.1%), and HDM allergens (85.5%), by dry steam cleaning plus repetitive HEPA vacuuming were larger than the reductions by regular HEPA vacuuming alone: dust (55.5%), PAHs (58.6%), and HDM allergens (80.8%), although the difference was statistically significant only for dust and PAHs. We conclude that intensive HEPA vacuum cleaning substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets in these urban homes and that dry steam cleaning added modestly to cleaning effectiveness. PMID:19137159

  7. Efficacy of an In-home Test Kit in Reducing Dust Mite Allergen Levels: Results of a Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Amber K.; Salo, Päivi M.; Klein, Cynthia; Sever, Michelle L.; Harris, Shawn F.; Johndrow, David; Crockett, Patrick W.; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dust mite allergens can induce allergic sensitization and exacerbate asthma symptoms. Although dust mite reduction and control strategies exist, few asthmatics employ them. Objectives We examined whether an in-home test kit, which quantifies dust mite allergen levels, resulted in behavioral changes in implementation and maintenance of mite reduction strategies and helped reduce allergen levels in homes of dust mite-sensitive children. Methods We enrolled 60 households of children aged 5-15 with parent-reported dust mite allergy into a randomized controlled trial. Intervention homes (N=30) received educational material about reducing dust mites and test kits at 1,2,5, and 8 months. Control homes (N=30) received only educational material. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, study staff visited all homes, collected dust samples from 3 locations and obtained information about parents’ mite reduction behaviors by questionnaire. Allergen concentrations (Der f 2/Der p2) in dust were assessed by immunoassays. After adjusting for visit and location, allergen concentrations in intervention and control homes were compared using mixed effects model analysis. Results In the intervention homes, allergen concentrations in the child's bedroom and living room floors were significantly reduced over time compared to control homes. Although not all location-specific differences in allergen concentrations were statistically significant, combining data across locations, there was a differential reduction in allergen concentrations in the intervention group versus the control group (p =0.02). Conclusion The use of in-home test kits along with education may beneficially influence behaviors and attitudes towards dust mite reduction strategies and help reduce residential dust mite allergen levels. PMID:26308287

  8. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations and at different soil sulfur levels.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Manju; Chu, Ye; Maleki, Soheila J; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-02-18

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi) showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across three generations (T3, T4, and T5) under field conditions. Different soil sulfur levels (0.012, 0.3, and 3.0 mM) differentially impacted sulfur-rich (Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6) versus sulfur-poor (Ara h 1) proteins in non-transgenic versus transgenic peanut. The sulfur level had no effect on Ara h 1, whereas low sulfur led to a significant reduction of Ara h 3 in transgenic and non-transgenic seeds and Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in non-transgenic but not in transgenic peanuts because these proteins already were reduced by gene silencing. These results demonstrate stability of transgene expression and the potential utility of RNAi in allergen manipulation. PMID:25616282

  9. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations and at different soil sulfur levels.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Manju; Chu, Ye; Maleki, Soheila J; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-02-18

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi) showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across three generations (T3, T4, and T5) under field conditions. Different soil sulfur levels (0.012, 0.3, and 3.0 mM) differentially impacted sulfur-rich (Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6) versus sulfur-poor (Ara h 1) proteins in non-transgenic versus transgenic peanut. The sulfur level had no effect on Ara h 1, whereas low sulfur led to a significant reduction of Ara h 3 in transgenic and non-transgenic seeds and Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in non-transgenic but not in transgenic peanuts because these proteins already were reduced by gene silencing. These results demonstrate stability of transgene expression and the potential utility of RNAi in allergen manipulation.

  10. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    PubMed

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens.

  11. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    PubMed

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens. PMID:26022406

  12. Computational detection of allergenic proteins attains a new level of accuracy with in silico variable-length peptide extraction and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Soeria-Atmadja, D; Lundell, T; Gustafsson, M G; Hammerling, U

    2006-01-01

    The placing of novel or new-in-the-context proteins on the market, appearing in genetically modified foods, certain bio-pharmaceuticals and some household products leads to human exposure to proteins that may elicit allergic responses. Accurate methods to detect allergens are therefore necessary to ensure consumer/patient safety. We demonstrate that it is possible to reach a new level of accuracy in computational detection of allergenic proteins by presenting a novel detector, Detection based on Filtered Length-adjusted Allergen Peptides (DFLAP). The DFLAP algorithm extracts variable length allergen sequence fragments and employs modern machine learning techniques in the form of a support vector machine. In particular, this new detector shows hitherto unmatched specificity when challenged to the Swiss-Prot repository without appreciable loss of sensitivity. DFLAP is also the first reported detector that successfully discriminates between allergens and non-allergens occurring in protein families known to hold both categories. Allergenicity assessment for specific protein sequences of interest using DFLAP is possible via ulfh@slv.se.

  13. Lipocalins as allergens.

    PubMed

    Mäntyjärvi, R; Rautiainen, J; Virtanen, T

    2000-10-18

    The term allergy refers to clinical conditions caused by an inappropriate immune response to innocuous proteins in genetically predisposed persons. Allergens of animal origin are responsible for a significant proportion of allergies. In recent years, it has become evident that practically all respiratory animal allergens characterized at the molecular level belong to the lipocalin family of proteins. The current list comprises the major allergens of horse, cow, dog, mouse, rat and cockroach as well as beta-lactoglobulin of cow's milk. While the molecular structure of all these allergens is known, far less information is available regarding their immunological characteristics. Knowing the way the immune system recognizes these allergens and reacts to them might, however, be the key for discovering the common denominator of the allergenicity of lipocalins. The human body contains numerous endogenous lipocalins, and the immune system has to adapt to their presence. We have proposed that under these conditions the immune response against the lipocalin allergens which are structurally related to endogenous lipocalins might be the pathway to allergy in genetically predisposed persons. The same might well apply also to other allergens with homologous endogenous counterparts. PMID:11058771

  14. Quantitation of latex allergens.

    PubMed

    Palosuo, Timo; Alenius, Harri; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2002-05-01

    Minimizing allergen concentration in latex goods to prevent sensitization to natural rubber latex (NRL) and thereby the development of clinical allergy is acknowledged as of mutual interest for rubber manufacturers and regulatory health authorities. However, measuring total protein, the principal currently available method, cannot be deemed a satisfactory regulatory measure to control allergen content. Specific methods based on human IgE-containing reagents, such as radioallergosorbent test (RAST) inhibition, have been available in certain laboratories for demonstrating NRL allergens in rubber products but the methods lack standardization. Currently, one commercial test has become available for measuring individual NRL allergens by capture ELISA-based assays using monoclonal antibodies and purified or recombinant allergens. Such methods are specific, they can be properly standardized, and they are of sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Results from medical gloves collected in two national market surveys in Finland in 1995 and 1999, respectively, show that Hev b 6.02 and Hev b 5, the two major allergens for NRL-allergic adults, are the most abundant allergens regularly detectable in high- and moderate-allergen gloves. In addition, Hev b 3 and Hev b 1, the two major allergens for children with spina bifida, are also commonly found. In general, when the sum of the four allergens exceeded 1 microg/g, most NRL-allergic patients showed positive skin prick test reactions against them. Using these new methods assessment of threshold levels that could in due course become guidelines for the rubber industry and regulatory health authorities is becoming possible. Eventually, this progress is expected to lead to a declining incidence of latex allergy. PMID:12079417

  15. [Food allergens].

    PubMed

    Bonneau, J C

    1997-07-01

    Perhaps more than any other kind of allergen, search for a food allergen seems to be difficult. There should be no bias about the usual allergens found in our food, that are a source of pathology that is less spectacular than shocks or giant urticaria that are provoked by easily recognised causes. Crossed allergies must be recognised in their overall features. This may give decisive aid in the etiological approach by facilitating understanding of the symptoms and the discovery of potential triggering allergens which are systematically sought.

  16. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    PubMed

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-08-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  17. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    PubMed

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-08-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  18. Allergenic characteristics of a modified peanut allergen.

    PubMed

    King, Nina; Helm, Ricki; Stanley, J Steven; Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, Dirk; Hatahet, Lina; Sampson, Hugh; Pons, Laurent; Burks, Wesley; Bannon, Gary A

    2005-10-01

    Attempts to treat peanut allergy using traditional methods of allergen desensitization are accompanied by a high risk of anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine if modifications to the IgE-binding epitopes of a major peanut allergen would result in a safer immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of peanut-allergic patients. IgE-binding epitopes on the Ara h 2 allergen were modified, and modified Ara h 2 (mAra h 2) protein was produced. Wild-type (wAra h 2) and mAra h 2 proteins were analyzed for their ability to interact with T-cells, their ability to bind IgE, and their ability to release mediators from a passively sensitized RBL-2H3 cell line. Multiple T-cell epitopes were identified on the major peanut allergen, Ara h 2. Ara h 2 amino acid regions 11-35, 86-125, and 121-155 contained the majority of peptides that interact with T-cells from most patients. The wAra h 2 and mAra h 2 proteins stimulated proliferation of T-cells from peanut-allergic patients to similar levels. In contrast, the mAra h 2 protein exhibited greatly reduced IgE-binding capacity compared to the wild-type allergen. In addition, the modified allergen released significantly lower amounts of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker for IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 degranulation, compared to the wild-type allergen.

  19. Quantitative PCR analysis of fungal DNA in Swedish day care centers and comparison with building characteristics and allergen levels.

    PubMed

    Cai, G-H; Bröms, K; Mälarstig, B; Zhao, Z-H; Kim, J L; Svärdsudd, K; Janson, C; Norbäck, D

    2009-10-01

    Abstract Sweden has had allergen-avoidance day care centers (AADCs) since 1979. The aim of this study was to measure fungal DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a new method, in AADCs and ordinary day care centers (ODCs) and examine associations between allergen levels and building characteristics. Dust samples were collected by swabbing doorframes, vacuum-cleaning, and using Petri dishes. In total, 11 AADCs and 11 ODCs were studied (70 rooms). Total fungal DNA, measured by qPCR in the swab dust, was detected in 89%, Aspergillus or Penicillium (Asp/Pen) DNA in 34%, and Stachybotrys chartarum DNA in 6% of the rooms. Total fungal DNA was significantly higher in rooms with linoleum floor (P = 0.02), textile carpets (P = 0.03), reported dampness/molds (P = 0.02) and reported odor (P < 0.001) in the buildings, and significantly lower in wooden facade buildings (P = 0.003). Reported odor was related to the amount of sieved fine dust, reported dampness/molds and type of building construction. Total fungal DNA was related to cat, dog, horse and total allergen levels (P = 0.003) in the day care centers. In conclusion, total fungal DNA is related to reported dampness/molds, reported odor, and type of wall construction. The association between fungal and allergen contamination indicated a general 'hygiene factor' related to biological contaminants. Practical Implications The associations between fungal DNA, reported dampness/molds, and odor support the view that buildings with odor problems should be investigated for possible hidden fungal growth. There is a need to measure fungal biomass in different types of building constructions by monitoring fungal DNA. Analysis of fungal DNA with quantitative PCR can be a fast and practical way to study indoor fungal contamination. Swabbing dust from the doorframe of the main entrance to the room can be a convenient method of sampling dust for fungal DNA analysis. The high prevalence of reported dampness/molds and the

  20. Indirect contact with pets can confound the effect of cleaning procedures for reduction of animal allergen levels in house dust.

    PubMed

    Munir, A K; Einarsson, R; Dreborg, S K

    1994-02-01

    To investigate the capacity of common vacuum cleaners and chemical treatment to reduce cat (Fel d I) and dog (Can f I) allergen content in house dust, 52 families with allergic children and no pets at home were recruited. Five groups of 10-11 families used their central vacuum cleaners (n = 10), their own old vacuum cleaners plus either tannic acid (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) applied to carpets and upholstry after the first sample was collected on Day 0 or new vacuum cleaners equipped with either HEPA (high efficiency particulate air)- (n = 11) or microfilters (n = 10). Dust samples were collected from carpets and upholstered furniture in the living rooms and from the mattresses of the children on Days 0, 7, 21, and 35. Fel d I and Can f I allergens were determined by sandwich ELISA methods. Central, micro-filter and HEPA-filter vacuum cleaners did not reduce the concentrations nor the total amount/sampling area of Fel d I or Can f I. Tannic acid initially reduced (p < 0.05) both the concentration and the total amount of Fel d I by 30% and Can f I by 10%, but only for one week. The levels increased to base-line after 21-35 days. The concentrations of Fel d I increased 10-30 times in homes visited by cats or cat owners. We conclude, that tannic acid treatment reduced pet allergen concentrations and total amounts in dust for one week only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Food allergens.

    PubMed

    Burks, W; Helm, R; Stanley, S; Bannon, G A

    2001-06-01

    A number of advances in the scientific knowledge concerning adverse food reactions have been made in the past few years. Understanding about the nature of the food allergen itself, the molecular characterization of the epitopes on these allergens, the pathophysiology of the clinical reaction, and the diagnostic methods have all been significantly enhanced.

  2. Allergen databases and allergen semantics.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    The efficacy of any specific bioinformatic analysis of the potential allergenicity of new food proteins depends directly on the nature and content of the databases that are used in the analysis. A number of different allergen-related databases have been developed, each designed to meet a different need. These databases differ in content, organization, and accessibility. These differences create barriers for users and prevent data sharing and integration. The development and application of appropriate semantic web technologies, (for example, a food allergen ontology) could help to overcome these barriers and promote the development of more advanced analytic capabilities.

  3. Predicting Airborne Particle Levels Aboard Washington State School Buses.

    PubMed

    Adar, Sara D; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Liu, L-J Sally

    2008-10-01

    School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission-reducing retrofits.To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM(2.5) data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least square regression models for PM(2.5) onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM(2.5) levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics.Concentrations aboard school buses (21 mug/m(3)) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM(2.5) levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 mug/m(3) originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM(2.5), bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust.These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics.

  4. Stability of transgene expression in reduced allergen peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) across multiple generations, and at different soil sulfur levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) containing a gene designed for RNA interference (RNAi), showed stable complete silencing of Ara h 2 and partial silencing of Ara h 6, two potent peanut allergens/proteins, along with minimal collateral changes to other allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, across th...

  5. Predicting Airborne Particle Levels Aboard Washington State School Buses

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Sara D.; Davey, Mark; Sullivan, James R.; Compher, Michael; Szpiro, Adam; Liu, L.-J. Sally

    2008-01-01

    School buses contribute substantially to childhood air pollution exposures yet they are rarely quantified in epidemiology studies. This paper characterizes fine particulate matter (PM2.5) aboard school buses as part of a larger study examining the respiratory health impacts of emission-reducing retrofits. To assess onboard concentrations, continuous PM2.5 data were collected during 85 trips aboard 43 school buses during normal driving routines, and aboard hybrid lead vehicles traveling in front of the monitored buses during 46 trips. Ordinary and partial least square regression models for PM2.5 onboard buses were created with and without control for roadway concentrations, which were also modeled. Predictors examined included ambient PM2.5 levels, ambient weather, and bus and route characteristics. Concentrations aboard school buses (21 μg/m3) were four and two-times higher than ambient and roadway levels, respectively. Differences in PM2.5 levels between the buses and lead vehicles indicated an average of 7 μg/m3 originating from the bus's own emission sources. While roadway concentrations were dominated by ambient PM2.5, bus concentrations were influenced by bus age, diesel oxidative catalysts, and roadway concentrations. Cross validation confirmed the roadway models but the bus models were less robust. These results confirm that children are exposed to air pollution from the bus and other roadway traffic while riding school buses. In-cabin air pollution is higher than roadway concentrations and is likely influenced by bus characteristics. PMID:18985175

  6. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals. PMID:24041755

  7. Mammalian-derived respiratory allergens - implications for diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to furry animals.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ola B; van Hage, Marianne; Grönlund, Hans

    2014-03-01

    Furry animals cause respiratory allergies in a significant proportion of the population. A majority of all mammalian allergens are spread as airborne particles, and several have been detected in environments where furry animals are not normally kept. The repertoire of allergens from each source belongs to a restricted number of allergen families. Classification of allergen families is particularly important for the characterization of allergenicity and cross-reactivity of allergens. In fact, major mammalian allergens are taken from only three protein families, i.e. the secretoglobin, lipocalin and kallikrein families. In particular, the lipocalin superfamily harbours major allergens in all important mammalian allergen sources, and cross-reactivity between lipocalin allergens may explain cross-species sensitization between mammals. The identification of single allergen components is of importance to improve diagnosis and therapy of allergic patients using component-resolved diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) respectively. Major disadvantages with crude allergen extracts for these applications emphasize the benefits of careful characterization of individual allergens. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of the characteristics of an allergen is crucial to formulate attenuated allergy vaccines, e.g. hypoallergens. The diverse repertoires of individual allergens from different mammalian species influence the diagnostic potential and clinical efficacy of ASIT to furry animals. As such, detailed knowledge of individual allergens is essential for adequate clinical evaluation. This review compiles current knowledge of the allergen families of mammalian species, and discusses how this information may be used for improved diagnosis and therapy of individuals allergic to mammals.

  8. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  9. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1 > 0.12 µg/g and Can f 1>1.2 µg/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1 > 0.10 µg/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 µg/g (by 32%). Conclusion Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. PMID:22863552

  10. Allergen Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rael, Efren

    2016-09-01

    Allergies affect a large proportion of the population. Allergies can adversely affect productivity, sleep, and quality of life and can lead to life-threatening reactions. Allergies can spread to affect multiple organ systems. Allergen immunotherapy is the only therapy that can change the natural history of allergic disease. PMID:27545737

  11. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy.

  12. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy. PMID:26447559

  13. Peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The earliest known evidence of peanut farming dates back 7,600 years. With a prevalence of roughly 1%, peanut allergy is a diagnostic and treatment challenge, but is also a very good model for studying all aspects of food allergy, including its molecular basis and pathomechanisms. Therefore, the very starting point for elucidating all these aspects is the identification of peanut allergens with subsequent clearing of their structure and their preparation as pure recombinant and/or natural allergens. This is the basis for in vitro diagnostic tests as well as the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. With regard to class I food allergy, peanut allergy affects by far the largest group of patients. In peanuts, 12 allergens have been identified and their molecular characteristics are described herein. Ara h 1, Ara h 3.01 and Ara h 3.02 (the former Ara h 4) belong to the cupin superfamily. The conglutins Ara h 2, Ara h 6 and Ara h 7, and the non-specific lipid transfer protein Ara h 9 belong to the prolamin superfamily. Ara h 5 (profilin) and Ara h 8 (Bet v 1-homologous protein) cause class II food allergies and are associated with inhalation allergy to pollen via the sequential and/or conformational similarity of molecules. Two peanut oleosins are listed as Ara h 10 and Ara h 11 and two defensins as Ara h 12 and Ara h 13 by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The effect of the above-specified allergens has to be considered in the context of their matrix, which is influenced by processing factors and the individual's immune system. PMID:24925406

  14. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-03-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen.

  15. Concentration and determinants of molds and allergens in indoor air and house dust of French dwellings.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Arnaud; Le Cann, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Chevrier, Cécile; Costet, Nathalie; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blanchard, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Molds and allergens are common indoor biocontaminants. The aims of this study were to assess the concentrations of common molds in indoor air and floor dust and the concentrations of house dust mite, cat and dog allergens in mattress dust in French dwellings, and to assess predictors of these concentrations. A sample of 150 houses in Brittany (western France) was investigated. Airborne Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in more than 90% of the dwellings, Aspergillus in 46% and Alternaria in only 6% of the housings. Regarding floor dust samples, Cladosporium and Penicillium were detected in 92 and 80% of the housings respectively, Aspergillus in 49% and Alternaria in 14%. House dust mite allergens Der p1 and Der f1 were detected in 90% and 77% of the mattress dust samples respectively and Can f1 and Fel d1 in 37% and 89% of the homes. Airborne and dustborne mold concentrations, although not statistically correlated (except for Aspergillus) shared most of their predictors. Multivariate linear models for mold levels, explaining up to 62% of the variability, showed an influence of the season, of the age of the dwelling, of aeration habits, presence of pets, smoking, signals of dampness, temperature and relative humidity. Allergens in the dust of the mattress were strongly related to the presence of pets and cleaning practices of bedsheets, these factors accounting for 60% of the variability. This study highlights ubiquitous contamination by molds and underlines complex interaction between outdoor and indoor sources and factors. PMID:26094801

  16. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  17. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem.

  18. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem. PMID:24555390

  19. Variability of Offending Allergens of Allergic Rhinitis According to Age: Optimization of Skin Prick Test Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Ahn, Jae-Chul; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Jung-Whun; Cho, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates offending allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) according to age that establish a minimal panel for skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify if a patient is sensitized. Methods We retrospectively analyzed SPT results according to age to determine the minimum test battery panel necessary to screen at least 93%-95% of AR patients. Allergic skin tests (common airborne indoor and outdoor allergens) were performed on 7,182 patients from January 2007 to June 2011. All patients were classified into 9 groups according to age; subsequently, we investigated offending allergens by age group. Results A total of 5,032 (70.1%) patients were found sensitized to at least one of the 55 aeroallergen extracts tested. The annual ranking of offending allergens was not significantly different from each other over the past 5 years. House dust mites (HDM) were the most prevalent allergens ranked from first to third for all 5 years. The allergens in the minimum test panel differed slightly among all age groups; in addition, the types of sensitized allergen sources were more diverse in the older versus younger age group. HDM covered a larger proportion of the sensitized allergens in the younger age group versus the older age group. Testing with 5 allergens (Dermatophagoides farinae, Tetranychus urticae, oak, mugwort and cockroach) adequately identified over 90% of the sensitized patients. Conclusions A SPT with around 5-7 allergens adequately detected most of the sensitization in the majority of the age groups in Korea. However, this study suggests that physicians perform the SPT with appropriately selected allergens in each age category for the screening of AR. PMID:24404393

  20. Identification of Der p 23, a peritrophin-like protein, as a new major Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen associated with the peritrophic matrix of mite fecal pellets.

    PubMed

    Weghofer, Margit; Grote, Monika; Resch, Yvonne; Casset, Anne; Kneidinger, Michael; Kopec, Jolanta; Thomas, Wayne R; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Kabesch, Michael; Ferrara, Rosetta; Mari, Adriano; Purohit, Ashok; Pauli, Gabrielle; Horak, Friedrich; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is one of most important allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma. We screened a D. pteronyssinus expression cDNA library with IgE Abs from HDM allergic patients. A cDNA coding for a new major allergen was isolated, which showed sequence homology to peritrophins, which contain chitin-binding domains and are part of the peritrophic matrix lining the gut of arthropods. The mature Der p 23 allergen was expressed in Escherichia coli as an 8-kDa protein without its hydrophobic leader sequence and purified to homogeneity. It reacted with IgE Abs from 74% of D. pteronyssinus allergic patients (n = 347) at levels comparable to the two major HDM allergens, Der p 1 and Der p 2. Thus, Der p 23 represents a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen. Furthermore, rDer p 23 exhibited high allergenic activity as demonstrated by upregulation of CD203c expression on basophils from D. pteronyssinus allergic patients. Immunogold electron microscopy localized the allergen in the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut of D. pteronyssinus as well as on the surface of the fecal pellets. Thus, we identified a new major D. pteronyssinus allergen as peritrophin-like protein. The high allergenic activity of Der p 23 and its frequent recognition as respiratory allergen may be explained by the fact that it becomes airborne and respirable through its association with mite feces. Der p 23 may be an essential component for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy. PMID:23460742

  1. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the results with previous observation data. The concentrations were compared with the currently used air quality standards. Results Evaporation was found to be 10- to 1,000-fold higher than the emissions produced from a surrounding industrial complex. The modeled concentrations for benzene failed to meet current labor environmental standards, and the concentration of benzene, toluene, ortho- meta- para-xylene were higher than the values specified by air quality standards and guideline values on the ocean. The concentrations of total VOCs were much higher than indoor environmental criteria for the entire Taean area for a few days. Conclusions The extent of airborne exposure was clearly not the same as that for normal conditions. PMID:22468262

  2. Assessment of the allergenic potential of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins, the major sensitizing allergen in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-5 gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which omega-5 gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interfe...

  3. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, L F; Wildfire, J; Lichtveld, M; Kennedy, S; El-Dahr, J M; Chulada, P C; Cohn, R; Mitchell, H; Thornton, E; Mvula, M; Sterling, Y; Martin, W; Stephens, K; White, L

    2012-01-01

    Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4-12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) observational study. Dust (indoor) and air (indoor and outdoor) samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat). Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold), sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions. PMID:23304171

  4. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley, L. F.; Wildfire, J.; Lichtveld, M.; Kennedy, S.; El-Dahr, J. M.; Chulada, P. C.; Cohn, R.; Mitchell, H.; Thornton, E.; Mvula, M.; Sterling, Y.; Martin, W.; Stephens, K.; White, L.

    2012-01-01

    Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4–12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) observational study. Dust (indoor) and air (indoor and outdoor) samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat). Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold), sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions. PMID:23304171

  5. Harvesting tree biomass at the stand level to assess the accuracy of field and airborne biomass estimation in savannas.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Matthew S; Asner, Gregory P; Swemmer, Tony

    2013-07-01

    Tree biomass is an integrated measure of net growth and is critical for understanding, monitoring, and modeling ecosystem functions. Despite the importance of accurately measuring tree biomass, several fundamental barriers preclude direct measurement at large spatial scales, including the facts that trees must be felled to be weighed and that even modestly sized trees are challenging to maneuver once felled. Allometric methods allow for estimation of tree mass using structural characteristics, such as trunk diameter. Savanna trees present additional challenges, including limited available allometry and a prevalence of multiple stems per individual. Here we collected airborne lidar data over a semiarid savanna adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and then harvested and weighed woody plant biomass at the plot scale to provide a standard against which field and airborne estimation methods could be compared. For an existing airborne lidar method, we found that half of the total error was due to averaging canopy height at the plot scale. This error was eliminated by instead measuring maximum height and crown area of individual trees from lidar data using an object-based method to identify individual tree crowns and estimate their biomass. The best object-based model approached the accuracy of field allometry at both the tree and plot levels, and it more than doubled the accuracy compared to existing airborne methods (17% vs. 44% deviation from harvested biomass). Allometric error accounted for less than one-third of the total residual error in airborne biomass estimates at the plot scale when using allometry with low bias. Airborne methods also gave more accurate predictions at the plot level than did field methods based on diameter-only allometry. These results provide a novel comparison of field and airborne biomass estimates using harvested plots and advance the role of lidar remote sensing in savanna ecosystems.

  6. Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenxing, Li; Hong, Lin; Limin, Cao

    2006-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  7. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, M.Y.; Hueske, K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940`s by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown.

  8. High levels of airborne ultrafine and fine particulate matter in indoor ice arenas.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W

    2003-03-01

    The high prevalence of airway dysfunction among ice arena athletes may be related to rink air exposure; in particular, high concentrations of ultrafine and fine particulate matter (0.02-1.0 micro m diameter, PM(1)) from ice resurfacing machines may enhance airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. The purpose of this study was to identify levels of PM(1) emitted from ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas, and to compare [PM(1)] pre- and post-resurfacing to each other and to outdoor [PM(1)]. Multiple one Hz measurements were recorded on 28 different days as 15-s mean of PM(1).cm(-3) for 2 min at 1-1.5 m "above ice" in 10 rinks pre- and post-resurfacing, with measured airborne PM(1) outside each rink to be used individual rink references. Rink PM(1).cm(-3) was approximately 30 times greater than PM(1).cm(-3) outside the respective rinks (p <.05). Rink values were 104.2 +/- 59.3 x 10(3) PM(1).cm(-3) during prime usage, compared to outdoor values of 3.8 +/- 2.5 x 10(3) PM(1).cm(-3). Ice resurfacing increased PM(1).cm(-3) 4-fold (p <.05). No difference in PM(1) emissions between gasoline and propane powered resurfacing machines was identified. The rate of PM(1) dissipation after resurfacing was highly variable between rinks and probably dependent upon rink ventilation and resurfacing machine engine efficiency. Gas-powered edging increased PM(1).cm(-3) 18-fold and 158-fold versus pre-edging rink and outdoor values, respectively. We conclude that the primary source of airborne indoor rink PM(1) is internal combustion ice-resurfacing machines and that this poor air quality may be causal to the unique and high prevalence of airway dysfunction in ice arena athletes.

  9. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  10. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  11. Recombinant expression systems for allergen vaccines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2006-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy of future is likely to be based on allergy vaccines that contain engineered allergens modified to abolish or substantially reduce their IgE-binding activity in order to remove the risk of unwanted anaphylactic responses. The development of efficient systems for the production of recombinant allergens in sufficient quantities is requirement for establishing use of engineered allergens as components of allergy vaccines. This review outlines relative advantages and disadvantages of various heterologous systems for production of recombinant allergens. Microbial systems are most convenient and cost effective platforms for the production of recombinant allergens. However, lack of post-translational processing implies that some allergens have to be expressed in eukaryotic systems for proper folding and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. Yeast systems can yield high levels of recombinant allergens but often are associated with hyper- glycosylation problems. Mammalian cell culture systems offer suitable post -translational modifications but are nearly hundred fold more expensive than microbial systems. The use of plants as bio-factories for production of recombinant allergens is emerging as a very attractive option as plants-based production system offer several advantages over other expression systems such as post translational processing of proteins, low production costs, scale up ability and enhanced safety due to absence of animal or human pathogens.

  12. Temporal Variability of the Bioaerosol Background at a Subway Station: Concentration Level, Size Distribution, and Diversity of Airborne Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 103 CFU m−3 and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents. PMID:24162566

  13. Investigating the spatial distribution of water levels in the Mackenzie Delta using airborne LiDAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkinson, C.; Crasto, N.; Marsh, P.; Forbes, D.; Lesack, L.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data were used to map water level (WL) and hydraulic gradients (??H/??x) in the Mackenzie Delta. The LiDAR WL data were validated against eight independent hydrometric gauge measurements and demonstrated mean offsets from - 0??22 to + 0??04 m (??< 0??11). LiDAR-based WL gradients could be estimated with confidence over channel lengths exceeding 5-10 km where the WL change exceeded local noise levels in the LiDAR data. For the entire Delta, the LiDAR sample coverage indicated a rate of change in longitudinal gradient (??2H/??x) of 5??5 ?? 10-10 m m-2; therefore offering a potential means to estimate average flood stage hydraulic gradient for areas of the Delta not sampled or monitored. In the Outer Delta, within-channel and terrain gradient measurements all returned a consistent estimate of - 1 ?? 10-5 m m-1, suggesting that this is a typical hydraulic gradient for the downstream end of the Delta. For short reaches (<10 km) of the Peel and Middle Channels in the middle of the Delta, significant and consistent hydraulic gradient estimates of - 5 ?? 10-5 m m-1 were observed. Evidence that hydraulic gradients can vary over short distances, however, was observed in the Peel Channel immediately upstream of Aklavik. A positive elevation anomaly (bulge) of > 0??1 m was observed at a channel constriction entering a meander bend, suggesting a localized modification of the channel hydraulics. Furthermore, water levels in the anabranch channels of the Peel River were almost 1 m higher than in Middle Channel of the Mackenzie River. This suggests: (i) the channels are elevated and have shallower bank heights in this part of the delta, leading to increased cross-delta and along-channel hydraulic gradients; and/or (ii) a proportion of the Peel River flow is lost to Middle Channel due to drainage across the delta through anastamosing channels. This study has demonstrated that airborne LiDAR data contain valuable information describing

  14. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L; Sly, Peter D; London, Stephanie J; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  15. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sever, Michelle L.; Sly, Peter D.; London, Stephanie J.; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning. PMID:25715241

  16. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked. PMID:23385294

  17. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked.

  18. Allergen structures and epitopes.

    PubMed

    Meno, K H

    2011-07-01

    Human type 1 hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis are characterized by allergen-specific IgE antibodies produced in allergic individuals after allergen exposure. IgE antibodies bound to receptors on the surface of effector cells trigger an allergic response by interacting with three-dimensional (conformational) epitopes on the allergen surface. Crystal structures are available for complexes of antibody specifically bound to five allergens, from birch pollen, bee venom, cockroach, cow's milk and timothy grass pollen. The details of the antibody-allergen interaction extending all the way to atomic resolution are available from such complexes. In vitro investigations using recombinant monoclonal antibodies and human basophils show that binding affinity is a key to triggering the allergic response. Continued molecular characterization of antibody-allergen interactions is paving the way for the use of recombinant allergens in allergen-specific diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:21668845

  19. Exposure to Allergen Causes Changes in NTS Neural Activities after Intratracheal Capsaicin Application, in Endocannabinoid Levels and in the Glia Morphology of NTS.

    PubMed

    Spaziano, Giuseppe; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Petrosino, Stefania; Matteis, Maria; Palazzo, Enza; Sullo, Nikol; de Novellis, Vito; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Rossi, Francesco; Maione, Sabatino; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Allergen exposure may induce changes in the brainstem secondary neurons, with neural sensitization of the nucleus solitary tract (NTS), which in turn can be considered one of the causes of the airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. We evaluated neurofunctional, morphological, and biochemical changes in the NTS of naive or sensitized rats. To evaluate the cell firing activity of NTS, in vivo electrophysiological experiments were performed before and after capsaicin challenge in sensitized or naive rats. Immunohistochemical studies, endocannabinoid, and palmitoylethanolamide quantification in the NTS were also performed. This study provides evidence that allergen sensitization in the NTS induced: (1) increase in the neural firing response to intratracheal capsaicin application, (2) increase of endocannabinoid anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide, a reduction of 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in the NTS, (3) glial cell activation, and (4) prevention by a Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activation of neural firing response to intratracheal application of capsaicin in both naïve and sensitized rats. Therefore, normalization of ovalbumin-induced NTS neural sensitization could open up the prospect of new treatments based on the recovery of specific brain nuclei function and for extensive studies on acute or long-term efficacy of selective mGlu ligand, in models of bronchial hyperreactivity.

  20. Exposure to Allergen Causes Changes in NTS Neural Activities after Intratracheal Capsaicin Application, in Endocannabinoid Levels and in the Glia Morphology of NTS

    PubMed Central

    Spaziano, Giuseppe; Petrosino, Stefania; Matteis, Maria; Palazzo, Enza; Sullo, Nikol; de Novellis, Vito; Rossi, Francesco; Maione, Sabatino; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Allergen exposure may induce changes in the brainstem secondary neurons, with neural sensitization of the nucleus solitary tract (NTS), which in turn can be considered one of the causes of the airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. We evaluated neurofunctional, morphological, and biochemical changes in the NTS of naive or sensitized rats. To evaluate the cell firing activity of NTS, in vivo electrophysiological experiments were performed before and after capsaicin challenge in sensitized or naive rats. Immunohistochemical studies, endocannabinoid, and palmitoylethanolamide quantification in the NTS were also performed. This study provides evidence that allergen sensitization in the NTS induced: (1) increase in the neural firing response to intratracheal capsaicin application, (2) increase of endocannabinoid anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide, a reduction of 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in the NTS, (3) glial cell activation, and (4) prevention by a Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activation of neural firing response to intratracheal application of capsaicin in both naïve and sensitized rats. Therefore, normalization of ovalbumin-induced NTS neural sensitization could open up the prospect of new treatments based on the recovery of specific brain nuclei function and for extensive studies on acute or long-term efficacy of selective mGlu ligand, in models of bronchial hyperreactivity. PMID:25866824

  1. Airborne microbial allergens: Impact and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, W.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Despite their evolution in more natural niches, a variety of microorganisms have also successfully colonized man-made interiors. Such adaptable agents require fairly simple carbon and nitrogen sources, in limited amounts, and find these on surfaces and in fluid collections. Available moisture is also a critical permissive factor. Survival and growth indoors are fostered by the presence of stored biogenic materials and by soiling of surfaces with organic films derived from foodstuffs, soaps, volatile hydrocarbons and organic dusts. Commonly, predators such as protozoa, mites, insects and nematodes graze on a variety of established early invaders so that complex mixed populations are common. At the least, bacteria, fungi and their extracellular products regularly coexist on even marginal substrates.

  2. New tree nut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  3. Indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F

    2009-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations.

  4. Indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F

    2009-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations. PMID:19585331

  5. Peanut allergens: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and, especially, the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always renewed. This article reviews the information currently available on peanut allergens and on the techniques used for their chemical characterization. Moreover, a general overview on the current biotechnological approaches used to reduce or eliminate peanut allergens is also provided. PMID:23638932

  6. Allergens in veterinary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. S.; Janda, J.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.; Rhyner, C.; Marti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. PMID:26280544

  7. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  8. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  9. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James D.; Tuttle, Steven C.; Nelson, Morgan C.; Bradshaw, Rebecca K.; Hoybjerg, Taylor G.; Johnson, Julene B.; Kruman, Bryce A.; Orton, Taylor S.; Cook, Ryan B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Weber, K. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan–Apr) and summer (July–Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  10. Early Exposure to Respiratory Allergens by Placental Transfer and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Macchiaverni, Patricia; Ynoue, Leandro H.; Arslanian, Christina; Verhasselt, Valérie; Condino-Neto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between allergen exposure and the onset of or protection from allergic diseases remains unclear. Many factors could be related to immunological responses, such as the age when the exposure occurs, type of allergen, timing, dose, and allergen route. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to respiratory allergens could occur in pregnancy or early life. In particular, we assessed whether Der p 1 and Blo t 5, as well as specific antibodies against these allergens, could be detected in 90 paired cord blood and colostrum samples. Der p 1 was detected in 58.6% of colostrum and 29% of cord blood samples, whereas Blot 5 was positive in 41.3% and 9.6% of the samples, respectively. Similar to specific IgA, which could be detected in all samples for both mites, specific IgG was found in a high number of colostrum samples, 93.5% and 94.8% for Dp and Bt, respectively. Although allergens were not detected in all cord blood samples, a high percentage of them (≥95%) were positive for specific IgM to both mites in cord blood samples, suggesting that neonates can be exposed and sensitized to airborne allergens during pregnancy. Many studies have attempted to correlate allergen exposure or its prevention in early infancy with the onset of or protection from allergic diseases. However, conflicting and inconsistent data do not show a clear correlation with or suggest a way to prevent allergen sensitization. Nevertheless, these unconvincing results could be better understood if the relationship with many aspects of allergen exposure after pregnancy could be clarified. Thus, it is necessary to address basic issues related to allergen exposure, including the development of reproducible, standardized and reliable methods, and to determine how and where the exposure occurs. PMID:26398234

  11. Sensitization rates of causative allergens for dogs with atopic dermatitis: detection of canine allergen-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Ha-Jung; Jang, Hye-Jin; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-12-01

    Allergen-specific IgE serology tests became commercially available in the 1980s. Since then these tests have been widely used to diagnose and treat allergic skin diseases. However, the relationship between a positive reaction and disease occurrence has been controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate allergens using a serologic allergy test in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). Dogs clinically diagnosed with AD (n = 101) were tested using an allergen-specific IgE immunoassay. Among the total 92 environmental and food allergens, house dust and house dust mites were the most common. Several allergens including airborne pollens and molds produced positive reactions, and which was considered increasing allergens relating to the climate changes. The presence of antibodies against staphylococci and Malassezia in cases of canine AD was warranted in this study. Additionally, strong (chicken, turkey, brown rice, brewer's yeast, and soybean) and weakly (rabbit, vension, duck, and tuna) positive reactions to food allergens could be used for avoidance and limited-allergen trials. PMID:24962408

  12. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination. PMID:26656510

  13. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination.

  14. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. PMID:26725152

  15. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group.

  16. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  17. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future.

  18. Allergen-specific immunotherapy provides immediate, long-term and preventive clinical effects in children and adults: the effects of immunotherapy can be categorised by level of benefit -the centenary of allergen specific subcutaneous immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Allergen Specific Immunotherapy (SIT) for respiratory allergic diseases is able to significantly improve symptoms as well as reduce the need for symptomatic medication, but SIT also has the capacity for long-term clinical effects and plays a protective role against the development of further allergies and symptoms. The treatment acts on basic immunological mechanisms, and has the potential to change the pathological allergic immune response. In this paper we discuss some of the most important achievements in the documentation of the benefits of immunotherapy, over the last 2 decades, which have marked a period of extensive research on the clinical effects and immunological background of the mechanisms involved. The outcome of immunotherapy is described as different levels of benefit from early reduction in symptoms over progressive clinical effects during treatment to long-term effects after discontinuation of the treatment and prevention of asthma. The efficacy of SIT increases the longer it is continued and immunological changes lead to potential long-term benefits. SIT alone and not the symptomatic treatment nor other avoidance measures has so far been documented as the therapy with long-term or preventive potential. The allergic condition is driven by a subset of T-helper lymphocytes (Th2), which are characterised by the production of cytokines like IL-4, and IL-5. Immunological changes following SIT lead to potential curative effects. One mechanism whereby immunotherapy suppresses the allergic response is through increased production of IgG4 antibodies. Induction of specific IgG4 is able to influence the allergic response in different ways and is related to immunological effector mechanisms, also responsible for the reduced late phase hyperreactivity and ongoing allergic inflammation. SIT is the only treatment which interferes with the basic pathophysiological mechanisms of the allergic disease, thereby creating the potential for changes in the long

  19. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  20. Effects of phytic acid on peanut allergens and allergenic properties of extracts.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Champagne, Elaine T

    2007-10-31

    Phytic acid would form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. Our objective was to determine if phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with major peanut allergens, and if such reaction results in a peanut extract with a lower level of soluble allergens and allergenic property. Extracts from raw and roasted peanuts were treated with and without phytic acid at various pH values and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA). The ciELISA measured IgE binding using a pooled serum from peanut-allergic individuals. Results showed that phytic acid formed complexes with the major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2), which were insoluble in acidic and neutral conditions. Succinylation of the allergens inhibited complex formation, indicating that lysine residues were involved. A 6-fold reduction in IgE binding or allergenic potency of the extract was observed after treatment with phytic acid. It was concluded that phytic acid formed insoluble complexes with the major peanut allergens, and resulted in a peanut extract with reduced allergenic potency. Application of phytic acid to a peanut butter slurry presented a similar result, indicating that phytic acid may find use in the development of hypoallergenic peanut-based products.

  1. Use of the selective agar medium CREAD for monitoring the level of airborne spoilage moulds in cheese production.

    PubMed

    Kure, Cathrine Finne; Borch, Elisabeth; Karlsson, Ingela; Homleid, Jens Petter; Langsrud, Solveig

    2008-02-29

    It was investigated if a selective medium for common cheese spoiling moulds (CREAD) could give more relevant information than a general mould medium in hygienic air-sampling in cheese factories. A total of 126 air-samples were taken in six Nordic cheese factories using the general mould medium DG18 and CREAD. The level and genera of air-borne mould was determined. Identification to species-level was performed for a selection of samples. In five cheese factories the mycobiota was dominated by Penicillium spp. and in one cheese factory by Cladosporium spp. The concentration of air-borne moulds varied between the cheese factories ranging from 1 to 270 cfu/m3 on DG18 with a median value of 17. The number of mould colonies was in general lower at CREAD. Identification indicated that CREAD supported growth of common spoilage moulds for cheese, such as Penicillium palitans and P. commune. The mycobiota on DG18 also consisted of moulds not commonly associated with spoilage of cheese, such as Cladosporium spp., P. brevicompactum and P. chrysogenum. Contamination of cheese with mould is periodically a problem in production of semi-hard cheese and the level of air-borne mould is therefore routinely monitored in cheese factories. A clear correlation between the total number of moulds in air and mould growth on products is not always found. The conclusion from the investigation is that it is recommended to use a selective medium for cheese spoilage moulds, such as CREAD in hygienic monitoring.

  2. Environmental releases from fuel cycle facility: part 1: radionuclide resuspension vs. stack releases on ambient airborne uranium and thorium levels.

    PubMed

    Masson, Olivier; Pourcelot, Laurent; Boulet, Béatrice; Cagnat, Xavier; Videau, Gérard

    2015-03-01

    Airborne activity levels of uranium and thorium series were measured in the vicinity (1.1 km) of a uranium (UF4) processing plant, located in Malvési, south of France. Regarding its impact on the environment, this facility is characterized by its routine atmospheric releases of uranium and by the emission of radionuclide-labelled particles from a storage pond filled with waste water or that contain dried sludge characterized by traces of plutonium and thorium ((230)Th). This study was performed during a whole year (November 2009-November 2010) and based on weekly aerosol sampling. Thanks to ICP-MS results, it was possible to perform investigations of uranium and thorium decay product concentration in the air. The number of aerosol filters sampled (50) was sufficient to establish a relationship between airborne radionuclide variations and the wind conditions. As expected, the more the time spent in the plume, the higher the ambient levels. The respective contributions of atmospheric releases and resuspension from local soil and waste ponds on ambient dust load and uranium-bearing aerosols were estimated. Two shutdown periods dedicated to facility servicing made it possible to estimate the resuspension contribution and to specify its origin (local or regional) according to the wind direction and remote background concentration. Airborne uranium mainly comes from the emission stack and, to a minor extent (∼20%), from wind resuspension of soil particles from the surrounding fields and areas devoted to waste storage. Moreover, weighed activity levels were clearly higher during operational periods than for shutdown periods.

  3. Environmental releases from fuel cycle facility: part 1: radionuclide resuspension vs. stack releases on ambient airborne uranium and thorium levels.

    PubMed

    Masson, Olivier; Pourcelot, Laurent; Boulet, Béatrice; Cagnat, Xavier; Videau, Gérard

    2015-03-01

    Airborne activity levels of uranium and thorium series were measured in the vicinity (1.1 km) of a uranium (UF4) processing plant, located in Malvési, south of France. Regarding its impact on the environment, this facility is characterized by its routine atmospheric releases of uranium and by the emission of radionuclide-labelled particles from a storage pond filled with waste water or that contain dried sludge characterized by traces of plutonium and thorium ((230)Th). This study was performed during a whole year (November 2009-November 2010) and based on weekly aerosol sampling. Thanks to ICP-MS results, it was possible to perform investigations of uranium and thorium decay product concentration in the air. The number of aerosol filters sampled (50) was sufficient to establish a relationship between airborne radionuclide variations and the wind conditions. As expected, the more the time spent in the plume, the higher the ambient levels. The respective contributions of atmospheric releases and resuspension from local soil and waste ponds on ambient dust load and uranium-bearing aerosols were estimated. Two shutdown periods dedicated to facility servicing made it possible to estimate the resuspension contribution and to specify its origin (local or regional) according to the wind direction and remote background concentration. Airborne uranium mainly comes from the emission stack and, to a minor extent (∼20%), from wind resuspension of soil particles from the surrounding fields and areas devoted to waste storage. Moreover, weighed activity levels were clearly higher during operational periods than for shutdown periods. PMID:25613358

  4. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    PubMed

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum

  5. Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Bonini, S; Nunes, C; Annesi-Maesano, I; Behrendt, H; Liccardi, G; Popov, T; van Cauwenberge, P

    2007-09-01

    The allergenic content of the atmosphere varies according to climate, geography and vegetation. Data on the presence and prevalence of allergenic airborne pollens, obtained from both aerobiological studies and allergological investigations, make it possible to design pollen calendars with the approximate flowering period of the plants in the sampling area. In this way, even though pollen production and dispersal from year to year depend on the patterns of preseason weather and on the conditions prevailing at the time of anthesis, it is usually possible to forecast the chances of encountering high atmospheric allergenic pollen concentrations in different areas. Aerobiological and allergological studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (for example, importation of plants such as birch and cypress for urban parklands), greater international travel (e.g. colonization by ragweed in France, northern Italy, Austria, Hungary etc.) and climate change. In this regard, the higher frequency of weather extremes, like thunderstorms, and increasing episodes of long range transport of allergenic pollen represent new challenges for researchers. Furthermore, in the last few years, experimental data on pollen and subpollen-particles structure, the pathogenetic role of pollen and the interaction between pollen and air pollutants, gave new insights into the mechanisms of respiratory allergic diseases. PMID:17521313

  6. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  7. Asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos levels in industrial buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjun; Suk, Mee-Hee; Paik, Nam Won

    2010-03-01

    Recently in Korea, the treatment of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in building has emerged as one of the most important environmental health issues. This study was conducted to identify the distribution and characteristics of ACM and airborne asbestos concentrations in industrial buildings in Korea. A total of 1285 presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) samples were collected from 80 workplaces across the nation, and 40% of the PACMs contained more than 1% of asbestos. Overall, 94% of the surveyed workplaces contained ACM. The distribution of ACM did not show a significant difference by region, employment size, or industry. The total ACM area in the buildings surveyed was 436,710 m2. Ceiling tile ACM accounted for 61% (267,093 m2) of the total ACM area, followed by roof ACM (32%), surfacing ACM (6.1%), and thermal system insulation (TSI). In terms of asbestos type, 98% of total ACM was chrysotile, while crocidolite was not detected. A comparison of building material types showed that the material with the highest priority for regular management is ceiling tile, followed by roof, TSI, and surfacing material. The average airborne concentration of asbestos sampled without disturbing in-place ACM was 0.0028 fibers/cc by PCM, with all measurements below the standard of recommendation for indoor air quality in Korea (0.01 fibers/cc).

  8. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

  9. Dimerization of lipocalin allergens

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Merja H.; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja; Miettinen, Ilja; Jänis, Janne; Virtanen, Tuomas; Rouvinen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Lipocalins are one of the most important groups of inhalant animal allergens. The analysis of structural features of these proteins is important to get insights into their allergenicity. We have determined two different dimeric crystal structures for bovine dander lipocalin Bos d 2, which was earlier described as a monomeric allergen. The crystal structure analysis of all other determined lipocalin allergens also revealed oligomeric structures which broadly utilize inherent structural features of the β-sheet in dimer formation. According to the moderate size of monomer-monomer interfaces, most of these dimers would be transient in solution. Native mass spectrometry was employed to characterize quantitatively transient dimerization of two lipocalin allergens, Bos d 2 and Bos d 5, in solution. PMID:26346541

  10. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. PMID:12915766

  11. Contact dermatitis caused by airborne agents. A review and case reports.

    PubMed

    Dooms-Goossens, A E; Debusschere, K M; Gevers, D M; Dupré, K M; Degreef, H J; Loncke, J P; Snauwaert, J E

    1986-07-01

    A general review is given of airborne-induced contact dermatoses, particularly of the irritant and allergenic types. Because the reports in the literature often omit the term airborne, 12 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (January 1975-July 1985) were screened, and the cases cited were classified in function of the anamnesis, lesion locations, causative irritants and allergens, and other factors. The present article also discusses differential diagnoses, in particular with regard to contact dermatitis of the face, ears, and neck. Finally, seven case reports of occupational and nonoccupational contact dermatitis problems caused by airborne agents are presented. In some of the cases the allergens have not been mentioned in published literature previously.

  12. Protocol for simultaneous isolation of three important banana allergens.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Jasna; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanovic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-07-01

    Banana fruit (Musa acuminata) has become an important food allergen source in recent years. So far, 5 IgE reactive banana proteins have been identified, and the major allergens are: Mus a 2 (a class I chitinase, 31kDa), Mus a 4 (thaumatin-like protein, 21kDa), and Mus a 5 (β-1,3-glucanase, 33kDa). Due to variations in allergen expression levels, diagnostic reagents for food allergy can be improved by using individual allergen components instead of banana allergen extracts. The purpose of this study was to optimize the purification protocol of the three major allergens present in banana fruit: Mus a 2, Mus a 4 and Mus a 5. By employing a three-step purification protocol (a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography) three important banana allergens were obtained in sufficient yield and high purity. Characterization of the purified proteins was performed by both biochemical (2-D PAGE, mass fingerprint and N-terminal sequencing) and immunochemical (immunoblot) methods. IgE reactivity to the purified allergens was tested by employing sera of five allergic patients. The purified allergens displayed higher sensitivity in IgE detection than the routinely used extracts. The three purified allergens are good candidates for reagents in component-based diagnosis of banana allergy.

  13. [Occurrence of allergens on hospital premises].

    PubMed

    Andersen, U M; Osterballe, O

    2000-01-24

    The occurrence of allergens from the house-dust mites Der p 1, Der f 1 and Der m, and from dogs (Can f 1) and cats (Fel d 1) was assessed in Viborg Hospital. Three hundred samples collected in a standardized manner were analysed for allergens by ELISA technique. In only one dust sample was the total occurrence of mite allergens marginally above the sensitization threshold level of 2,000 ng mite allergens/g dust. For Fel d 1 a threshold level for sensitization or symptoms of 8,000 ng Fel d 1/g dust has been proposed; none of the dust samples contained this concentration. A low occurrence of Can f 1 was found. One dust sample contained 8,902 ng Can f 1, while the remainder exhibited lower concentrations. Efficient cleaning and adequate ventilation can reduce allergens in public buildings, but it is impossible to remove all allergens from upholstered furniture. Avoidance of such furniture in wards and outpatient departments which receive allergic patients might be considered.

  14. Airborne and surface-level in situ observations of wintertime clouds in the Southern Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsi, Samuel Winchester

    The phase of cloud water has important impacts on cloud radiative properties, cloud lifetime, and the formation of precipitation. Mixed-phase clouds, or those in which liquid droplets, ice particle and water vapor co-exist, are of particular importance in the Southern Rockies of the United States, where these clouds enhance wintertime mountain precipitation mass and annual water storage in the snowpack. The interaction between multiple water phases within a cloud presents challenges for in situ observation. I describe the existing in situ cloud microphysical instrumentation, and introduce a new instrument for the in situ measurement of total water concentration: the second-generation University of Colorado closed-path tunable-diode laser hygrometer (CLH-2). This compact instrument can be flown within a scientific aircraft under-wing canister and is designed for operation in diverse environmental conditions. During the winter 2010-2011, the CLH-2 was installed on a wind vane at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) in the Park Range of Colorado as a part of the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) campaign. I apply a new method for determining the bulk mass-dimensional relationship of ice particles from ground-based observations. Despite important difference between airborne and ground-based particle measurements, my parameterization yields particle masses close to those from recent airborne studies that take into account the effect of ice particle shattering on observed number concentrations. Variations in particle density over the course of a storm are suggested by time variations between the observed and parameterized ice water concentrations. Using observations from the Wyoming King Air research aircraft collected during the Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS) in winter 2010-2011, cloud water phase is identified using in situ microphysical measurements. While mixed-phase clouds are identified throughout the study area, the

  15. Application of infrared radiometers for airborne detection of clear air turbulence and low level wind shear, airborne infrared low level wind shear detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of infrared optical techniques for the advance detection and avoidance of low level wind shear (LLWS) or low altitude wind shear hazardous to aircraft operations was investigated. A primary feasibility research effort was conducted with infrared detectors and instrumentation aboard the NASA Ames Research Center Learjet. The main field effort was flown on the NASA-Ames Dryden B57B aircraft. The original approach visualized a forward-looking, infrared transmitting (KRS-5) window through which signals would reach the detector. The present concept of a one inch diameter light pipe with a 45 deg angled mirror enables a much simpler installation virtually anywhere on the aircraft coupled with the possibility of horizontal scanning via rotation of the forward directed mirror. Present infrared detectors and filters would certainly permit ranging and horizontal scanning in a variety of methods. CRT display technology could provide a contoured picture with possible shear intensity levels from the infrared detection system on the weather radar or a small adjunct display. This procedure shoud be further developed and pilot evaluated in a light aircraft such as a Cessna 207 or equivalent.

  16. Airborne Soil Moisture determination at regional level: A data fusion mission approach for Catalan territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Francisco; Corbera, Jordi; Marchan, Juan Fernando; Camps, Adriano

    2010-05-01

    During the last years the importance of water management has grown considerably. Average temperatures exhibit an increasing pattern (0.77 °C during the last 20 years) that is expected to continue in the next years. These results in a decrease in the hydrical resources (15% during the last 20 years for the Catalan territori) being the expectative not very optimist. A tangible consequence was the drought episode that suffers Catalonia. It is within this scenario that the ‘Programa Català d'Observació de la Terra' (PCOT) as a unit of the official mapping agency of Catalonia, the ‘Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya' (ICC) has detected the need to develop new tools to improve the management of water resources. The knowledge of soil moisture across a given region can help to efficiently manage the limited water resources. Present Earth Observations missions such as ESA's SMOS, or the future NASA's SMAP focus considerably their efforts in the estimation of soil moisture. The main drawbacks are the resolutions obtained (40 km for SMOS, 10 km for SMAP), which are not adequate for regional scale and territorial availability such as the case of Catalonia where a spatial resolution in a range between 20-30m. and 100-150m. is desired both for local actuations and to deteminate hidric soil patterns In this scenario, PCOT is carrying out an airborne soil moisture mission for the Catalan territory, taking advantage of the availability of ICC aircrafts and of more than 20 years of experience in making aircraft campaigns and operating hyperspectral airborne sensors such as CASI (0.75-1.4 µm) and TASI (8-11.5 µm) to respond to environmental and cartographic end users needs of geoinformation data, products and services. This mission will generate soil moisture maps over the Catalan region that will improve the water management, and will also be used for the study of the hydrological patterns of Catalonia. Soil moisture determination will be achieved by means of L

  17. Allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    It was only in the late 19th century that specific allergens, pollen, animal antigens and, later, house dust mite, were identified to cause upper and lower airway disease. Early allergen challenge studies, crudely monitored before measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s became widespread in the 1950s, focused on the immediate effects but noted in passing prolonged and/or recurrent asthma symptoms. The late asthmatic response, recurrent bronchoconstriction after spontaneous resolution of the early responses occurring 3 h to 8 h or more postchallenge, has been identified and well characterized over the past 50 years. The associated allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (1977) and allergen-induced airway inflammation (1985) indicate that these late sequelae are important in the mechanism of allergen-induced asthma. Allergens are now recognized to be the most important cause of asthma. A standardized allergen inhalation challenge model has been developed and is proving to be a valuable research tool in the investigation of asthma pathophysiology and of potential new pharmacological agents for the treatment of asthma. PMID:24791256

  18. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area. PMID:25072718

  19. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  20. A brief report of gram-negative bacterial endotoxin levels in airborne and settled dusts in animal confinement buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thedell, T.D.; Mull, J.C.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, implicated in adverse worker health responses, were found in settled and airborne dust samples obtained from poultry and swine confinement units. Results of the Limulus amebocyte lysate gel test found endotoxin levels in dust samples ranged from 4.5 to 47.7 micrograms of FDA Klebsiella endotoxin equivalents/gm. Differences in endotoxin levels between dust samples may have been due to variables in time, geographic locations, confined animals, confinement buildings and equipment, and methods of sample collection. Animal confinement workers are potentially exposed to large amounts of gram-negative bacterial endotoxins; however, the respiratory health effects of such exposures to animal confinement workers have yet to be determined.

  1. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut. PMID:26593515

  2. Allergen composition analysis and allergenicity assessment of Chinese peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Zhou, Ningling; Xiong, Faqian; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Tang, Ronghua; Chen, Hongbing

    2016-04-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is among the eight major food allergens in the world. Several attempts have been made to decrease or eliminate the allergenicity of peanut. Systemic screening of thousands of peanut cultivars may identify peanut with low allergenicity. In this study, the allergen compositions of 53 Chinese peanut cultivars were characterized, and their allergenicity to sera IgE of Chinese patients and in a mouse model was assessed. Contents of total protein and allergens were quantified by SDS-PAGE and densitometry analysis on gel. Although the contents of allergens broadly varied among cultivars, they were related to one another. The IgE binding capacity of cultivars was tested by ELISA, and their allergenicity was further evaluated in a mouse model by oral sensitization. Results showed that the allergenicity of peanut was affected by allergen composition rather than a single allergen. Peanut cultivars with low allergenicity may contain more Ara h 3/4 (24 kDa), Ara h 2 and less Ara h 3/4 (43, 38, and 36 kDa), Ara h 6. Screening based on allergen composition would facilitate the identification of low-allergenic peanut.

  3. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  4. Allergens in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    Points out the health and legal implications related to laboratory substances that could cause allergic reactions. Presents a list of potential cosmetic allergens and irritants. Includes precautionary measures dealing with allergy situations. (ML)

  5. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria. PMID:19671382

  6. Allergens and thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Shuaib M; Pulimood, Thomas B

    2009-09-01

    Thunderstorm-related asthma is increasingly recognized in many parts of the world. This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms. From our observations, we have proposed that the prerequisites for this phenomenon are as follows: 1) a sensitized, atopic, asthmatic individual; 2) prior airway hyperresponsiveness before a sudden, large allergen exposure; 3) a large-scale thunderstorm with cold outflow occurring at a time and location during an allergen season in which large numbers of asthmatics are outdoors; and 4) sudden release of large amounts of respirable allergenic fragments, particularly fungal spores such as Alternaria.

  7. Allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Harold S; Norman, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy was introduced for the treatment of grass pollen-induced hay fever in 1911. The treatment was soon extended to other pollens as well as perennial allergens, and to the treatment of bronchial asthma. Definitive studies of its efficacy for both rhinitis and asthma came only many decades later. Understanding gradually emerged of the underlying immunologic mechanisms that include the generation of regulatory T lymphocytes, immune deviation from allergen-specific Th2 to Th1 responses, and a shift in allergen-specific antibody production from immunoglobulin (Ig) E to IgG4. Along with understanding of the immune basis came an appreciation that immunotherapy modifies allergic disease expression, producing protection against disease progression and symptomatic improvement that persists for years after the treatment is discontinued. Recent new directions for immunotherapy include sublingual administration of inhalant allergens and use of the oral route to treat food allergy.

  8. Prevalence and airborne spore levels of Stachybotrys spp. in 200 houses with water incursions in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Ryan C; Trimble, Mingyi W; Hofer, Vasanthi; Lee, Michael; Nassof, Russell S

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred homes with a history of water incursion were sampled for fungi to determine the prevalence and airborne spore levels of Stachybotrys spp. Sampling methods included room air, surface, and wall cavity air sampling. Stachybotrys spp. were detected with at least one of the methods in 58.5% of the houses tested, but only 9.6% of the room air samples contained Stachybotrys spores. Aerosolization of Stachybotrys spores was correlated with both wall cavity and surface contamination. However, after adjustment for the surface effect, Stachybotrys spores detected in wall cavities were not a significant factor contributing to spores detected in room air samples. We conclude that Stachybotrys spp. are commonly found on water-damaged building materials. In addition, the observations made in this study suggest that the impact on the living space air is low if the fungal spores are contained within a wall cavity.

  9. Allerdictor: fast allergen prediction using text classification techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Ha X.; Lawrence, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Accurately identifying and eliminating allergens from biotechnology-derived products are important for human health. From a biomedical research perspective, it is also important to identify allergens in sequenced genomes. Many allergen prediction tools have been developed during the past years. Although these tools have achieved certain levels of specificity, when applied to large-scale allergen discovery (e.g. at a whole-genome scale), they still yield many false positives and thus low precision (even at low recall) due to the extreme skewness of the data (allergens are rare). Moreover, the most accurate tools are relatively slow because they use protein sequence alignment to build feature vectors for allergen classifiers. Additionally, only web server implementations of the current allergen prediction tools are publicly available and are without the capability of large batch submission. These weaknesses make large-scale allergen discovery ineffective and inefficient in the public domain. Results: We developed Allerdictor, a fast and accurate sequence-based allergen prediction tool that models protein sequences as text documents and uses support vector machine in text classification for allergen prediction. Test results on multiple highly skewed datasets demonstrated that Allerdictor predicted allergens with high precision over high recall at fast speed. For example, Allerdictor only took ∼6 min on a single core PC to scan a whole Swiss-Prot database of ∼540 000 sequences and identified <1% of them as allergens. Availability and implementation: Allerdictor is implemented in Python and available as standalone and web server versions at http://allerdictor.vbi.vt.edu. Contact: lawrence@vbi.vt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24403538

  10. Lyral: a fragrance allergen.

    PubMed

    Militello, Giuseppe; James, William

    2005-03-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of contact dermatitis and account for a large percentage of reactions to cosmetic products. Novel fragrance compounds that may not be detected by the common fragrance screening agents (including balsam of Peru and fragrance mix) are continually being produced. Lyral is one of those allergens found in many cosmetic and household products. This review will discuss the recent literature and the significance of this allergen to allergic contact dermatitis.

  11. [Allergen management in the food industry].

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Due to the lack of causative immunotherapies, individuals with food allergies have to rely on correct labelling for even minute amounts of allergenic constituents. It is not relevant to the allergic whether the source of the culprit food is an ingredient or an allergen that entered the food unintentionally, as is the case with so-called cross-contacts or hidden allergens.Efficient allergen management is the manufacturer's prerequisite for coping with allergenic foods in the food production environment and handling them in a way that avoids cross-contact. If it is technically not feasible to eliminate cross-contacts entirely, it must be ensured that these cross-contacts do not enter the final product without being detected.This article discusses measures that should be considered in allergen management. Examples include recording all relevant allergens in the production facility, staff sensitization and training, and taking into account all areas of production from incoming raw materials to outgoing goods.For the evaluation of unavoidable cross-contacts, it is possible today to draw on data from clinical trials for many of the substances that are subject to labelling. This data can be used to assess the risk of the final product.However, the data from threshold studies is not legally binding, so it is left to the manufacturer to assess the level up to which the food is safe for the allergic. In particular the non-harmonized approach of the EU member countries' food safety authorities currently represents a major obstacle, as this can lead to food recalls even though existing levels were evaluated as being safe according to the risk assessments performed. PMID:27299344

  12. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness. PMID:25923543

  13. Solutions for extracting file level spatial metadata from airborne mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, M. J.; Stanley, M.; Pals, J.; Brodzik, M.; Fowler, C.; Icebridge Engineering/Spatial Metadata

    2011-12-01

    Authors: Michael Stanley Mark Schwab Jon Pals Mary J. Brodzik Cathy Fowler Collaboration: Raytheon EED and NSIDC Raytheon / EED 5700 Rivertech Court Riverdale, MD 20737 NSIDC University of Colorado UCB 449 Boulder, CO 80309-0449 Data sets acquired from satellites and aircraft may differ in many ways. We will focus on the differences in spatial coverage between the two platforms. Satellite data sets over a given period typically cover large geographic regions. These data are collected in a consistent, predictable and well understood manner due to the uniformity of satellite orbits. Since satellite data collection paths are typically smooth and uniform the data from satellite instruments can usually be described with simple spatial metadata. Subsequently, these spatial metadata can be stored and searched easily and efficiently. Conversely, aircraft have significantly more freedom to change paths, circle, overlap, and vary altitude all of which add complexity to the spatial metadata. Aircraft are also subject to wind and other elements that result in even more complicated and unpredictable spatial coverage areas. This unpredictability and complexity makes it more difficult to extract usable spatial metadata from data sets collected on aircraft missions. It is not feasible to use all of the location data from aircraft mission data sets for use as spatial metadata. The number of data points in typical data sets poses serious performance problems for spatial searching. In order to provide efficient spatial searching of the large number of files cataloged in our systems, we need to extract approximate spatial descriptions as geo-polygons from a small number of vertices (fewer than two hundred). We present some of the challenges and solutions for creating airborne mission-derived spatial metadata. We are implementing these methods to create the spatial metadata for insertion of IceBridge mission data into ECS for public access through NSIDC and ECHO but, they are

  14. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.

  15. Tropical forest structure characterization using airborne lidar data: an individual tree level approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, A.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Fine scale tropical forest structure characterization has been performed by means of field measurements techniques that record both the specie and the diameter at the breast height (dbh) for every tree within a given area. Due to dense and complex vegetation, additional important ecological variables (e.g. the tree height and crown size) are usually not measured because they are hardly recognized from the ground. The poor knowledge on the 3D tropical forest structure has been a major limitation for the understanding of different ecological issues such as the spatial distribution of carbon stocks, regeneration and competition dynamics and light penetration gradient assessments. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an active remote sensing technique that provides georeferenced distance measurements between the aircraft and the surface. It provides an unstructured 3D point cloud that is a high-resolution model of the forest. This study presents the first approach for tropical forest characterization at a fine scale using remote sensing data. The multi-modal lidar point cloud is decomposed into 3D clusters that correspond to single trees by means of a technique called Adaptive Mean Shift Segmentation (AMS3D). The ability of the corresponding individual tree metrics (tree height, crown area and crown volume) for the estimation of above ground biomass (agb) over the 50 ha CTFS plot in Barro Colorado Island is here assessed. We conclude that our approach is able to map the agb spatial distribution with an error of nearly 12% (RMSE=28 Mg ha-1) compared with field-based estimates over 1ha plots.

  16. Recombinant allergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy: 10 years anniversary of immunotherapy with recombinant allergens.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Linhart, B; Swoboda, I; Niederberger, V

    2011-06-01

    The broad applicability of allergen-specific immunotherapy for the treatment and eventually prevention of IgE-mediated allergy is limited by the poor quality and allergenic activity of natural allergen extracts that are used for the production of current allergy vaccines. Today, the genetic code of the most important allergens has been deciphered; recombinant allergens equalling their natural counterparts have been produced for diagnosis and immunotherapy, and a large panel of genetically modified allergens with reduced allergenic activity has been characterized to improve safety of immunotherapy and explore allergen-specific prevention strategies. Successful immunotherapy studies have been performed with recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and will lead to the registration of the first recombinant allergen-based vaccines in the near future. There is no doubt that recombinant allergen-based vaccination strategies will be generally applicable to most allergen sources, including respiratory, food and venom allergens and allow to produce safe allergy vaccines for the treatment of the most common forms of IgE-mediated allergies.

  17. Domestic airborne black carbon levels and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate among children in New York City☆

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria Jose; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Acosta, Luis M.; Divjan, Adnan; Jacobson, Judith S.; Miller, Rachel L.; Goldstein, Inge F.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne black carbon (BC) has been associated with asthma development, respiratory symptoms and decrements in lung function. However, the mechanism through which BC may lead to respiratory symptoms has not been completely elucidated. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a potential mechanism through which BC might lead to adverse health outcomes. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) allows for the non-invasive collection of airway lining fluid containing biomarkers of oxidative stress like 8-isoprostane, a stable by-product of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we sought to characterize the association between domestic airborne BC concentrations and 8-isoprostane in EBC. Materials and methods Seven- and eight-year-old children participated in an asthma case–control study in New York City. During home visits, air samples and EBC were collected. Seven day averages of domestic levels of particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), BC and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were measured. Urea and 8-isoprostane were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in EBC. Results In univariate models, PM2.5 and BC, but not ETS, were significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane in the EBC (β = 0.006 and β = 0.106 respectively, p < 0.05 for both). These associations remained statistically significant for both PM2.5 and BC after adjustment for covariates. In a co-pollutant model including PM2.5, BC and ETS, only BC remained a statistically significant predictor of 8-isoprostane (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest the BC fraction of PM might contain exposure relevant to increased oxidative stress in the airways. PMID:25262082

  18. Long term outcome of soybean epidemic asthma after an allergen reduction intervention

    PubMed Central

    Anto, J.; Soriano, J.; Sunyer, J.; Rodrigo, M.; Morell, F.; Roca, J.; Rodriguez-Roisin, R.; Swanson, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Asthma outbreaks due to the inhalation of soybean dust released from handling of soybean in the city harbour occurred in Barcelona, Spain from 1981 to 1987. The installation of bag filters in the responsible silo was followed by a substantial reduction of airborne soybean dust released into the atmosphere and the disappearance of asthma outbreaks. A study was undertaken to assess the relevant outcomes in asthma patients affected by soybean epidemic asthma eight years after this environmental intervention.
METHODS—A repeat case-control study was performed in 1995 on a population of subjects with epidemic and non-epidemic asthma previously assessed in 1989. The same protocol was used in both surveys to collect data from patients via a questionnaire and respiratory function, skin and laboratory tests were performed under blinded conditions with regard to epidemic and non-epidemic status. Environmental soybean allergen in pollution filters was measured by means of a RAST inhibition technique.
RESULTS—During 1995 and 1996 the 24 hour mean airborne levels of soybean allergen on a sample of 39 unloading days (range 31-269 U/m3) were systematically below the lowest level ever detected during an epidemic day (1500 U/m3). Measurable levels of serum IgE antibodies against soybean were still present in 55% of patients with epidemic asthma compared with 6.0% of those with non-epidemic asthma (p<0.05). These proportions were almost identical to those observed in 1989. The proportion of patients with soybean asthma with symptoms in 1989 who reported the absence of symptoms in 1995 was similar to the control subjects, so most of the relative risks (RRs) of improvement were near to 1. The only statistically significant differences between the two groups were a smaller proportion of patients with epidemic asthma showing improvement in terms of being woken up by attacks of coughing (RR improvement 0.47; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.99) and the need for treatment at the

  19. [Current aspects in risk assessment of allergen traces in foodstuffs].

    PubMed

    Richter, K; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    In contrast to usual ingredients in processed packaged foodstuffs, there are no suitable and binding regulations for the labeling of unintentional allergen traces in these foods as yet. This situation is unsatisfactory in regard to the fact that even traces of undeclared "hidden" allergens can constitute a considerable health risk for food allergic consumers. Furthermore, the unintentional cross-contact (cross-contamination) of allergens is also an issue in regard to food manufacturer product liability and due diligence. Therefore, stakeholders consider imperative need for the scientific determination of maximum tolerable levels of allergen traces in order to establish thresholds for legally binding food labeling. In addition to conventional toxicological risk assessments, the risk assessment of allergen traces that would be necessary in this context nowadays also incorporates modern approaches such as benchmark procedures and probabilistic modeling and methods. The scientific debate concerning the establishment of safe threshold levels continues, and a consensus must still be reached.

  20. The influence of coal physical and mechanical properties and mining energy consumption factor on airborne respirable dust level

    SciTech Connect

    Koziel, A.; Malec, M.; Wardas, E.

    1999-07-01

    The fact that there are not any explicitly defined relationships describing the influence of physical and mechanical properties of coal and of energy consumption factor on dust level prompted Polish and American investigators to carry out a joint research project within the framework of the US-Poland Maria Sklodowska-Curie Joint Fund II. The paper presents methods used to perform tests under laboratory conditions at the Pittsburgh Research Laboratory as well as under real conditions in the course of coal cutting in Polish coal mines. Measuring systems and results of the tests are described. The analysis carried out has provided a basis for determining the influence of specified operational parameters, i.e., coal compression strength R{sub c}, coal cuttability factor A, energy consumption factor of mining E{sub uc}, load of cutting drums as well as of laboratory parameters, i.e., grindability, coal breakage characteristics (product size distribution), moisture content, volatile and fixed carbon content, specific energy of crushing on a level of generated dust (total dust, specific dust and airborne respirable dust). The effect of technical parameters, i.e., face height, airflow velocity in a face, amount and pressure of water in spraying systems of longwall shearers, depth of cut taken by a cutting drum and application of powered cowls on dust level under operating conditions are also presented. Results of the tests made it possible to work out guidelines relating to methods and technology for effective reduction of dust emission on longwall faces.

  1. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport.

  2. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport

  3. Positive reaction to allergen (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  4. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools: the HITEA school study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J H; Krop, E J M; Borras-Santos, A; Zock, J-P; Taubel, M; Hyvarinnen, A; Pekkanen, J; Doekes, G; Heederik, D J J

    2014-04-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with different climates. Our aim was to characterize endotoxin levels in primary schools and evaluate associations with potential determinants. Endotoxin levels were repeatedly assessed in 23 schools in Spain (n = 7), the Netherlands (n = 10), and Finland (n = 6) using electrostatic dustfall collectors. In total, 645 measurements were taken in 237 classrooms. Endotoxin levels differed significantly between countries; Dutch schools had the highest levels, while Finnish schools showed the lowest levels. In each country, differences in endotoxin levels were observed between schools and over the sampling periods. Estimates improved after adjustment for sampling period. Factors affecting endotoxin levels in a school differed per country. In general, endotoxin levels were higher in lower grades and in classrooms with higher occupancy. School endotoxin levels may contribute significantly to total endotoxin exposure in children and teachers. As the correlation between the repeated measurements is reasonable, single endotoxin measurements form a reasonable basis for estimating annual endotoxin levels in schools.

  5. Investigation of endogenous soybean food allergens by using a 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach.

    PubMed

    Rouquié, David; Capt, Annabelle; Eby, William H; Sekar, Vaithilingam; Hérouet-Guicheney, Corinne

    2010-12-01

    As part of the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) soybean, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses were performed with the isoxaflutole and glyphosate tolerant soybean FG72, its non-GM near-isogenic counterpart (Jack) and three commercial non-GM soybean lines. The objective was to compare the known endogenous human food allergens in seeds in the five different soybean lines in order to evaluate any potential unintended effect(s) of the genetic modification. In total, 37 protein spots representing five well known soybean food allergen groups were quantified in each genotype. Qualitatively, all the allergenic proteins were detected in the different genetic backgrounds. Quantitatively, among 37 protein spots, the levels of accumulation of three allergens were slightly lower in the GM soybean than in the non-GM counterparts. Specifically, while the levels of two of these three allergens fell within the normal range of variation observed in the four non-GM varieties, the level of the third allergen was slightly below the normal range. Overall, there was no significant increase in the level of allergens in FG72 soybean seeds. Therefore, the FG72 soybean can be considered as safe as its non-GM counterpart with regards to endogenous allergenicity. Additional research is needed to evaluate the biological variability in the levels of endogenous soybean allergens and the correlation between level of allergens and allergenic potential in order to improve the interpretation of these data in the safety assessment of GM soybean context.

  6. [Current contact allergens].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W; Lessmann, H; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    Ever-changing exposure to contact allergens, partly due to statutory directives (e.g. nickel, chromate, methyldibromo glutaronitrile) or recommendations from industrial associations (e.g. hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde), requires on-going epidemiologic surveillance of contact allergy. In this paper, the current state with special focus in fragrances and preservatives is described on the basis of data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) of the year 2010. In 2010, 12,574 patients were patch tested in the dermatology departments belonging to the IVDK. Nickel is still the most frequent contact allergen. However the continuously improved EU nickel directive already has some beneficial effect; sensitization frequency in young women is dropping. In Germany, chromate-reduced cement has been in use now for several years, leading to a decline in chromate sensitization in brick-layers. Two fragrance mixes are part of the German baseline series; they are still relevant. The most important fragrances in these mixes still are oak moss absolute and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. However, in relation to these leading allergens, sensitization frequency to other fragrances contained in the mixes seems to be increasing. Among the preservatives, MCI/MI has not lost its importance as contact allergen, in contrast to MDBGN. Sources of MCI/MI sensitization obviously are increasingly found in occupational context. Methylisothiazolinone is a significant allergen in occupational settings, and less frequently in body care products.

  7. Mismatch in aeroallergens and airborne grass pollen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Galán, C.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the allergen concentration in the atmosphere is essential for allergy sufferers. The major cause of pollinosis all over Europe is due to grass pollen and Phl p 5 has the highest rates of sensitization (>50%) in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy. However, recent research has shown that airborne pollen does not always offer a clear indicator of exposure to aeroallergens. This study aims to evaluate relations between airborne grass pollen and Phl p 5 concentrations in Córdoba (southern Spain) and to study how meteorological parameters influence these atmospheric records. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Hirst-type volumetric spore trap was used for pollen collection, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA). Aeroallergen sampling was performed using a low-volume cyclone sampler, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Besides, the influence of main meteorological factors on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was surveyed. A significant correlation was observed between grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations during the pollen season, but with some sporadic discrepancy episodes. The cumulative annual Pollen Index also varied considerably. A significant correlation has been obtained between airborne pollen and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation, during the three studied years. However, there is no clear relationship between allergens and weather variables. Our findings suggest that the correlation between grass pollen and aeroallergen Phl p 5 concentrations varies from year-to-year probably related to a complex interplay of meteorological variables.

  8. [Allergenicity of lupin flour].

    PubMed

    Leduc, V; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guérin, L

    2002-06-01

    Lupin flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour when tested by TPO-DA. Cases of isolated allergy to lupin flour without pre-existence of peanut allergy as well as workplace asthma by inhalation are also rarely seen. The specific allergens of lupin and those that participate in crosses with peanut have been studied by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. The diversity of allergens contained in different lupin flour has also been studied. Further, the detection of lupin flour in a "pizza" flour which induced a strong allergic reaction exposed its eventual implication as a masked allergen.

  9. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  10. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    PubMed

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments.

  11. [Building Change Detection Based on Multi-Level Rules Classification with Airborne LiDAR Data and Aerial Images].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi-long; Yan, Li

    2015-05-01

    The present paper proposes a new building change detection method combining Lidar point cloud with aerial image, using multi-level rules classification algorithm, to solve building change detection problem between these two kinds of heterogeneous data. Then, a morphological post-processing method combined with area threshold is proposed. Thus, a complete building change detection processing flow that can be applied to actual production is proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the building change detection method is evaluated, processing the 2010 airborne LiDAR point cloud data and 2009 high resolution aerial image of Changchun City, Jilin province, China; in addition, compared with the object-oriented building change detection method based on support vector machine (SVM) classification, more analysis and evaluation of the suggested method is given. Experiment results show that the performance of the proposed building change detection method is ideal. Its Kappa index is 0. 90, and correctness is 0. 87, which is higher than the object-oriented building change detection method based on SVM classification.

  12. [Shrimp as an allergen source].

    PubMed

    Múnera, Marlon; Gómez, Luis; Puerta, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to shellfish is one of the most prevalent food allergies in several countries, especially the one induced by consuming or having contact with shrimp. Several shrimp species are known to induce allergy diseases. However, the whole spectrum of allergens they contain is unknown and few of them have been completely characterized. This study was done in order to know the recent advances in the characterization of shrimp allergens and its relationship with allergens from other arthropods of importance in allergic diseases. We emphasize the species Litopenaeus vannamei , the most consumed shrimp in Colombia. Well characterized shrimp allergens are named following an official classification; nevertheless, they are better known according to the biological function associated with them. Tropomiosin, the main and most studied allergen in different shrimp species, is involved in crossreactivity among shrimp and other arthropods like domestic mites. The other characterized allergens seem to have a minor participation in this cross-reactivity. The allergenic potential of L. vannamei is not well known and few of its allergens have been characterized, whilst others that were recently identified such as the hemocyanin and the fatty acid binding proteins are beginning to be studied. Preliminary results suggest that these allergens are involved in the cross-reactivity between shrimp and domestic mites, which deserves further evaluation. The molecular and immunological characterization of all allergens present in shrimp would help understanding its allergenic role.

  13. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  14. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  15. Allergens are not pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Richard; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against infectious diseases has been one of the major breakthroughs in human medical history, saving the lives of millions of people each year. More recently, prophylactic vaccination against non-infectious diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and type I allergy is being investigated. Particularly in case of IgE-driven allergic disorders, which afflict almost a quarter of the population in highly developed countries, preventative measures would represent a major improvement for patients’ health as well as an economic relief for public health services. As an alternative to allergen-specific immunotherapy, prophylactic vaccination against type I allergic diseases could slow down or even stop the progress of the allergy pandemic. Allergen-encoding gene-based vaccines, i.e., plasmid DNA and mRNA vaccines, provide the advantage of purity over crude allergen extracts, which involve the risk of de novo sensitizations. Furthermore, these formulations have been demonstrated to induce T helper 1 as well as T regulatory immune responses—a pre-requisite for prophylactic intervention against allergies. However, prophylactic vaccines against environmental allergens strikingly differ from conventional vaccines against infectious diseases or therapeutic approaches concerning the underlying immunological mechanisms. PMID:24280693

  16. Airborne manganese as dust vs. fume determining blood levels in workers at a manganese alloy production plant.

    PubMed

    Park, Robert M; Baldwin, Mary; Bouchard, Maryse F; Mergler, Donna

    2014-12-01

    The appropriate exposure metrics for characterizing manganese (Mn) exposure associated with neurobehavioral effects have not been established. Blood levels of Mn (B-Mn) provide a potentially important intermediate marker of Mn airborne exposures. Using data from a study of a population of silicon- and ferro-manganese alloy production workers employed between 1973 and 1991, B-Mn levels were modeled in relation to prior Mn exposure using detailed work histories and estimated respirable Mn concentrations from air-sampling records. Despite wide variation in exposure levels estimated for individual jobs, duration of employment (exposure) was itself a strong predictor of B-Mn levels and strongest when an 80-day half-life was applied to contributions over time (t=6.95, 7.44, respectively; p<10(-5)). Partitioning exposure concentrations based on process origin into two categories: (1) "large" respirable particulate (Mn-LRP) derived mainly from mechanically generated dust, and (2) "small" respirable particulate (Mn-SRP) primarily electric furnace condensation fume, revealed that B-Mn levels largely track the small, fume exposures. With a half-life of 65 days applied in a model with cumulative exposure terms for both Mn-LRP (t=-0.16, p=0.87) and Mn-SRP (t=6.45, p<10(-5)), the contribution of the large-size fraction contribution was negligible. Constructing metrics based on the square root of SRP exposure concentrations produced a better model fit (t=7.87 vs. 7.44, R(2)=0.2333 vs. 0.2157). In a model containing both duration (t=0.79, p=0.43) and (square root) fume (t=2.47, p=0.01) metrics, the duration term was a weak contributor. Furnace-derived, small respirable Mn particulate appears to be the primary contributor to B-Mn levels, with a dose-rate dependence in a population chronically exposed to Mn, with air-concentrations declining in recent years. These observations may reflect the presence of homeostatic control of Mn levels in the blood and other body tissues and be

  17. Aerobiological and allergenic analysis of cupressaceae pollen in Granada (Southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Diaz de la Guardia, C; Alba, F; de Linares, C; Nieto-Lugilde, D; López Caballero, J

    2006-01-01

    Cupressaceae pollen has been cited in recent years as one of the major airborne allergens of the Mediterranean region, prompting us to conduct an exhaustive analysis on the aerobiological behaviour of this pollen in the Iberian Peninsula and the repercussion that it has had on the atopic population. The aerobiological study, performed from 1996 to 2003 in the city of Granada (S. Spain), used a volumetric Hirst collector. The results indicate that this pollen is present in the air most of the year, registering a high incidence during the winter months. This type of pollen behaved irregularly in the air, fluctuating yearly, seasonally, and within the same day. Temperature and humidity were the parameters that most directly influence the variability of this allergen, while rainfall prior to flowering increased pollen production. The predictive models used estimated a high percentage of the levels reached over the short term by this pollen in the atmosphere of Granada. The clinical study performed with atopic patients showed that some 30% of the population with pollinosis are sensitive to Cupressaceae pollen, affecting people of both genders equally. On the other hand, the most sensitive age group was 21-40 years of age, while children and the elderly registered almost negligible values. Most of the sensitive subjects resided within the city or in the metropolitan area, where environmental pollution reached high levels, while the pathology was found to be less frequent in rural zones. The most frequent symptoms were upper-respiratory ailments and an asthmatic profile.

  18. Direct and airborne contact dermatitis in a beekeeper from the Małopolska region.

    PubMed

    Basista, Katarzyna

    2012-09-01

    The paper describes an atypical case of simultaneous airborne and direct contact dermatitis in a beekeeper from the Małopolska region. This is the third such case described in a beekeeper in the world and the first in Poland. I suggest that propolis should be regarded as both a direct and airborne contact allergen in beekeepers.

  19. A real time sorbent based air monitoring system for determining low level airborne exposure levels to Lewisite

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, F.G.; Paul, D.G.; Jakubowski, E.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Real Time Analytical Platform (RTAP) is designed to provide mobile, real-time monitoring support to ensure protection of worker safety in areas where military unique compounds are used and stored, and at disposal sites. Quantitative analysis of low-level vapor concentrations in air is accomplished through sorbent-based collection with subsequent thermal desorption into a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a variety of detectors. The monitoring system is characterized by its sensitivity (ability to measure at low concentrations), selectivity (ability to filter out interferences), dynamic range and linearity, real time mode (versus methods requiring extensive sample preparation procedures), and ability to interface with complimentary GC detectors. This presentation describes an RTAP analytical method for analyzing lewisite, an arsenical compound, that consists of a GC screening technique with an Electron Capture Detector (ECD), and a confirmation technique using an Atomic Emission Detector (AED). Included in the presentation is a description of quality assurance objectives in the monitoring system, and an assessment of method accuracy, precision and detection levels.

  20. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  1. Contact allergens for armpits--allergenic fragrances specified on deodorants.

    PubMed

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2012-11-01

    According to the so-called "26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention. The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women? I tested the implementation of the "26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the "26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors. It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the "26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the "26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the "26 allergens" is concerned. The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed

  2. New strategies for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carnés, Jerónimo; Robinson, Douglas S

    2008-06-01

    Specific allergen immunotherapy, consisting in the administration of increasing amounts of offending allergens into sensitive patients was first used nearly one hundred years ago and remains in use worldwide for treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. It has been recognised as the only effective treatment for type I allergic diseases when the appropriate quantities of allergens are used. The immunological mechanisms by which specific immunotherapy is effective include the modulation of T cells and the response of B-cells and is accompanied by significant decreases of specific IgE and increases in allergen specific IgG antibodies, mainly IgG4. While specific allergen injection immunotherapy is highly effective and the most common way of administration other routes such as oral or intranasal ways have been considered as and alternative to subcutaneous injections. During the last century, allergenic vaccines have been prepared using individual allergens adsorbed to different adjuvant substances. These vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and good results in different clinical trials. However, many novel approaches to allergen immunotherapy have been developed in the last years in order to increase the safety and efficacy of allergenic vaccines. In that way, different and modern vaccines have been prepared including more purified products such as depigmented allergen extracts; allergoids, consisting on big molecules of thousands of kDa, which contain all the individual allergens and show a significant decrease in severe adverse reactions; peptides or small aminoacid sequences; recombinant allergens; hypoallergenic vaccines where the IgE binding sites have been modified; or allergen-CpG fusion molecules. New presentations are under study and new treatments will be developed in the near future with the objective that the prevention of allergic disease may become a reality. The review article also discuss recent patent related to the field. PMID:19075996

  3. Allergens of weed pollen: an overview on recombinant and natural molecules.

    PubMed

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima

    2014-03-01

    Weeds represent a botanically unrelated group of plants that usually lack commercial or aesthetical value. Pollen of allergenic weeds are able to trigger type I reactions in allergic patients and can be found in the plant families of Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Plantaginaceae, Urticaceae, and Euphorbiaceae. To date, 34 weed pollen allergens are listed in the IUIS allergen nomenclature database, which were physicochemically and immunologically characterized to varying degrees. Relevant allergens of weeds belong to the pectate lyase family, defensin-like family, Ole e 1-like family, non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 family and the pan-allergens profilin and polcalcins. This review provides an overview on weed pollen allergens primarily focusing on the molecular level. In particular, the characteristics and properties of purified recombinant allergens and hypoallergenic derivatives are described and their potential use in diagnosis and therapy of weed pollen allergy is discussed.

  4. Prophylaxis and therapy of allergy by mucosal tolerance induction with recombinant allergens or allergen constructs.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Ursula

    2005-10-01

    The mucosal immune system, present along the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, has to discriminate between harmful pathogens and innocuous antigens, such as food, airborne antigens or the commensal bacterial flora. Therefore the mucosal immune system has acquired two opposing immunological functions, i.e. the induction of immunity and defence of mucosal pathogens, and the induction and maintenance of tolerance to environmental antigens and bacterial flora. As described for autoimmunity a breakdown or failure of tolerance induction is believed to lead also to allergies and food enteropathies. Based on the physiological role to prevent hypersensitivity reactions, tolerance induction via the mucosa has been proposed as a treatment strategy against inflammatory diseases, such as allergies. The aim of our research is to develop mucosal allergy vaccines based on the induction of mucosal tolerance and/or the induction of counter-regulatory immune responses with or without the use of certain mucosal antigen delivery systems, such as lactic acid bacteria. The use of recombinant allergens instead of allergen extracts with varying allergen content and composition may be essential for improvement of the treatment efficacy. In the present review we give examples of different animal models of type I allergy/asthma. Using these models we demonstrate that recombinant allergens or hypoallergenic variants thereof can be successfully used to induce mucosal tolerance in a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic treatment regime. That the concept of mucosal tolerance induction/mucosal vaccine delivery may in principal also function in humans is supported by recent clinical trials with locally (sublingual) applied immunotherapy.

  5. New treatments for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Mübeccel

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents the only curative and specific way for the treatment of allergic diseases, which have reached a pandemic dimension in industrial countries affecting up to 20-30% of the population. Although applied for 100 years to cure allergy, SIT still faces several problems related to side effects and limited efficacy. Currently, allergen-SIT is performed with vaccines based on allergen extracts that can cause severe, often life threatening, anaphylactic reactions as well as new IgE sensitization to other allergens present in the extract. Low patient adherence and high costs due to long duration (3 to 5 years) of treatment have been commonly reported. Several strategies have been developed to tackle these issues and it became possible to produce recombinant allergen-SIT vaccines with reduced allergenic activity.

  6. New treatments for allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents the only curative and specific way for the treatment of allergic diseases, which have reached a pandemic dimension in industrial countries affecting up to 20-30% of the population. Although applied for 100 years to cure allergy, SIT still faces several problems related to side effects and limited efficacy. Currently, allergen-SIT is performed with vaccines based on allergen extracts that can cause severe, often life threatening, anaphylactic reactions as well as new IgE sensitization to other allergens present in the extract. Low patient adherence and high costs due to long duration (3 to 5 years) of treatment have been commonly reported. Several strategies have been developed to tackle these issues and it became possible to produce recombinant allergen-SIT vaccines with reduced allergenic activity. PMID:25258656

  7. Walnut allergens: molecular characterization, detection and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Costa, J; Carrapatoso, I; Oliveira, M B P P; Mafra, I

    2014-03-01

    Food-induced allergies have been regarded as an emergent problem of public health. Classified as important allergenic ingredients, the presence of walnut and other nuts as hidden allergens in processed foods constitutes a risk for sensitized individuals, being a real problem of allergen management. Attending to the increasing importance dedicated to walnut allergy, this review intends to provide the relevant and up-to-date information on main issues such as the prevalence of walnut allergy, the clinical threshold levels, the molecular characterization of walnut allergens and their clinical relevance, as well as the methodologies for walnut allergen detection in foods. As the walnut used in human diet comes from Juglans regia and Juglans nigra, the molecular characterization of the allergens from both species included in the prolamins (Jug r 1, Jug n 1 and Jug r 3), cupins (Jug r 2, Jug n 2 and Jug r 4) and profilins (Jug r 5), together with respective clinical relevance, were compiled in this review. The most recent progresses on walnut allergen detection techniques (protein- and DNA-based) are described and critically compared, including the emergent multitarget approaches.

  8. Immunological aspects of the immune response induced by mosquito allergens.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, José Fernando; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Allergies caused by mosquito bites may produce local or systemic reactions. The inhalation of mosquito allergens may also cause asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized individuals. The mechanisms implicated in the development of these immune responses involve IgE antibodies, different subtypes of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines as well as basophils, eosinophils and mast cells. Several allergenic components have been identified in the saliva and bodies of mosquitoes and some of these are present in different mosquito species. The most common species implicated in allergic reactions belong to the genera Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Several Aedes aegypti allergens have been cloned and sequenced. The recombinant molecules show IgE reactivity similar to that of the native allergens, making them good candidates for the diagnosis of mosquito allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with mosquito extracts induces a protective response characterized by a decreased production of IgE antibodies, increased IgG levels, a reduction in the severity of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms and the need for medication. The aims of this review are to summarize the progress made in the characterization of mosquito allergens and discuss the types of immune responses induced by mosquito bites and the inhalation of mosquito allergens in atopic individuals.

  9. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma. PMID:10931782

  11. Relative immunogenicity of commonly allergenic foods versus rarely allergenic and nonallergenic foods in mice.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Neil; Thanesvorakul, Sirinart; Gangur, Venu

    2002-12-01

    Food allergies affect 6 to 8% of children and 2% of adults in the United States. For reasons that are not clear, eight types of food account for a vast majority (approximately 90%) of food-induced hypersensitivity reactions. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were used to test the hypothesis that commonly allergenic foods are intrinsically more immunogenic than rarely allergenic or nonallergenic foods in allergy-susceptible hosts. Groups of mice (n = 4 to 5) were injected intraperitoneally with the protein extracts (plus alum as an adjuvant) from chicken eggs, peanuts, almonds, filberts-hazelnuts, walnuts, soybeans, and wheat (commonly allergenic foods) and coffee, sweet potatoes, carrots, white potatoes, cherries, lettuce, and spinach (rarely allergenic and nonallergenic foods). Primary and secondary immune responses (as measured by specific IgG1 antibody serum levels) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proteins from peanuts, almonds, filberts, sweet potatoes, cherries, and spinach elicited robust primary and/or secondary immune responses. Proteins from eggs, walnuts, and lettuce elicited poor primary responses but significant secondary responses. In contrast, wheat, soybeans, coffee, carrots, and white potatoes elicited barely detectable to poor primary and secondary immune responses. The order of the immunogenicity levels of these foods in mice is as follows: almonds = filberts > spinach (Rubisco) > peanuts > or = sweet potatoes > cherries > lettuce > walnuts > chicken eggs > carrots > or = white potatoes > wheat = coffee = soybeans. In summary, these data demonstrate for the first time that: (i) foods vary widely with regard to their relative immunogenicity in allergy-susceptible hosts and (ii) intrinsic immunogenicity in mice does not distinguish commonly allergenic foods from rarely allergenic or nonallergenic foods.

  12. Inactivation of allergens and toxins.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Piero

    2010-11-30

    Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content. The capacity, offered by genetic engineering, of turning off (inactivating) specific genes has opened up the possibility of altering the plant content in a far more precise manner than previously available. Different levels of intervention (genes coding for toxins/allergens or for enzymes, transporters or regulators involved in their metabolism) are possible and there are several tools for inactivating genes, both direct (using chemical and physical mutagens, insertion of transposons and other genetic elements) and indirect (antisense RNA, RNA interference, microRNA, eventually leading to gene silencing). Each level/strategy has specific advantages and disadvantages (speed, costs, selectivity, stability, reversibility, frequency of desired genotype and regulatory regime). Paradigmatic examples from classical and transgenic approaches are discussed to emphasize the need to revise the present regulatory process. Reducing the content of natural toxins is a trade-off process: the lesser the content of natural toxins, the higher the susceptibility of a plant to pests and therefore the stronger the need to protect plants. As a consequence, more specific pesticides like Bt are needed to substitute for general pesticides.

  13. Variation in airborne 137Cs peak levels with altitude from high-altitude locations across Europe after the arrival of Fukushima-labeled air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; Bieringer, Jacqueline; Dalheimer, Axel; Estier, Sybille; Evrard, Olivier; Penev, Ilia; Ringer, Wolfgang; Schlosser, Clemens; Steinkopff, Thomas; Tositti, Laura; de Vismes-Ott, Anne

    2015-04-01

    During the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, a dozen of high-altitude aerosol sampling stations, located between 850 and 3,454 m above sea level (a.s.l.), provided airborne activity levels across Europe (Fig. 1). This represents at most 5% of the total number of aerosol sampling locations that delivered airborne activity levels (at least one result) in Europe, in connection with this nuclear accident. High altitude stations are typically equipped with a high volume sampler that collects aerosols on filters. The Fukushima-labeled air mass arrival and the peak of airborne cesium-137 (137Cs) activity levels were registered in Europe at different dates depending on the location, with differences up to a factor of six on a regional scale. Besides this statement related to lowland areas, we have compared the maximum airborne levels registered at high-altitude European locations (850 m < altitudes < 3450 m) with what was observed at the closest lowland location. The vertical distribution of 137Cs peak level was not uniform even after a long travel time/distance from Japan. This being true at least in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere. Moreover the relation '137Csmax vs. altitude' shows a decreasing trend (Fig. 2). Results and discussion : Comparison of 137Cs and 7Be levels shows simultaneous increases at least when the 137Cs airborne level rose for the first time (Fig. 3). Zugspitze and Jungfraujoch stations attest of a time shift between 7Be and 137Cs peak that can be due to the particular dynamic of air movements at such high altitudes. After the 137Cs peak value, the plume concentration decreased whatever the 7Be level. Due to the cosmogenic origin of 7Be, its increase in the ground-level air is usually associated with downwind air movements, i.e. stratospheric air intrusions or at least air from high-tropospheric levels, into lower atmospheric layers. This means that Fukushima-labeled air masses registered at ground

  14. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible.

  15. Stability of patch test allergens.

    PubMed

    Joy, Nicole Marie; Rice, Kristen R; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is widely used in evaluating suspected contact dermatitis. One major component of a quality patch test result is a dependable, predictable allergen supply. The allergen needs to be present at a sufficient concentration to elicit a reaction in an allergic patient. To better understand the stability of patch-test allergens, we completed a systematic review of the literature. We found that there is variability in stability among patch-test allergens and that although a few have been shown to be stable, many degrade when in storage. In most cases, expiration dates should be honored. In addition, allergen panels should be prepared as close to the time of patch test application as is possible. PMID:24030367

  16. Allergen-free probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mogna, Giovanni; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Mogna, Luca

    2008-09-01

    Food sensitivities are constantly increasing in "westernized" countries and may pose serious health risks to sensitized individuals. Severe allergy episodes have also been reported after the intake of probiotic products containing milk protein residues, especially in children. The need for safe and effective probiotic strains and food supplements, which contain them, is now emerging clearly. The present work describes the way of achieving this aim by the avoidance of any kind of raw materials at risk, both in probiotic strain industrial manufacturing and finished product formulation. Allergen-free probiotics represent, without any doubt, an innovative and safe tool for human health.

  17. Endogenous allergens in the regulatory assessment of genetically engineered crops.

    PubMed

    Graf, Lynda; Hayder, Hikmat; Mueller, Utz

    2014-11-01

    A scientific approach to the assessment of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) crops is critical to maintaining objectivity and public confidence in regulatory decisions. Principles developed at the international level support regulators and enable robust and transparent safety assessments. A comparison of key constituents in the GE crop with a suitable comparator is an important element of an assessment. In Europe, endogenous allergens would be included in the comparative analysis, however this approach has been hindered by technical limitations on the ability to accurately measure identified allergenic proteins. Over recent years, improved proteomic methods have enabled researchers to focus on major allergenic proteins in conventional food crops, as information on natural variability is largely lacking. Emerging data for soybean indicate that variability in levels of major allergens already in the food supply is broad. This raises questions about the biological interpretation of differences between a GE plant and its conventional counterpart, in particular, whether any conclusions about altered allergenicity could be inferred. This paper discusses the scientific justification for requiring proteomic analysis of endogenous allergens as part of the evaluation. Ongoing scientific review and corresponding international discussion are integral to ensuring that data requirements address legitimate risk assessment questions.

  18. Allergens in school settings: results of environmental assessments in 3 city school systems.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Stuart L; Turner-Henson, Anne; Anderson, Lise; Hemstreet, Mary P; Bartholomew, L Kay; Joseph, Christine L M; Tang, Shenghui; Tyrrell, Shellie; Clark, Noreen M; Ownby, Dennis

    2006-08-01

    Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children's greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters. The purpose of this article is to describe schoolroom allergen levels from 3 different geographic sites obtained from dust samples collected in the fall and in spring. Environmental dust samples were collected from elementary schools in Birmingham (AL), Detroit (MI), and Houston (TX), from 4 room locations, including the cafeteria, library, upper grades, and lower grades. Samples were assayed for dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae), cat (Felis domesticus), and cockroach (Blatella germanica 2) allergen levels. Allergen levels varied by geographic location and type of schoolroom. Schoolroom settings differed by the type of flooring (hard and carpet), room characteristics and use (food service, library shelves with books, and general classroom with multiple types of materials [individual desks and different types of furniture]), and the average age of the schoolroom dwellers (younger vs. older children). Dust mite, cat, and cockroach allergens were present in all schoolrooms and all sites at varying levels by season and by type of room. Schools may be important sources of direct allergen exposure and reservoirs that could potentially contribute to allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation in children. Further studies are needed to carefully examine the environmental allergen load in schools and its effect on children.

  19. [Comparative immunological characteristics of Daphnia allergens].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, V M; Mochalov, A A; Sipitsyna, N E; Petrova, N S; Kanchurin, A Kh

    1986-08-01

    Materials on the study of Daphnia allergens are presented. Daphnia allergens have been shown to possess considerable sensitizing properties. The optimum method for the preparation of the allergen has been selected. The method of measuring the electrophoretic mobility of cells with a view to the evaluation of the specific activity of Daphnia allergen is proposed. PMID:2429484

  20. Retrieval of effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area density (LAD) profile at individual tree level using high density multi-return airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    As an important canopy structure indicator, leaf area index (LAI) proved to be of considerable implications for forest ecosystem and ecological studies, and efficient techniques for accurate LAI acquisitions have long been highlighted. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), often termed as airborne laser scanning (ALS), once was extensively investigated for this task but showed limited performance due to its low sampling density. Now, ALS systems exhibit more competing capacities such as high density and multi-return sampling, and hence, people began to ask the questions like-"can ALS now work better on the task of LAI prediction?" As a re-examination, this study investigated the feasibility of LAI retrievals at the individual tree level based on high density and multi-return ALS, by directly considering the vertical distributions of laser points lying within each tree crown instead of by proposing feature variables such as quantiles involving laser point distribution modes at the plot level. The examination was operated in the case of four tree species (i.e. Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula and Quercus robur) in a mixed forest, with their LAI-related reference data collected by using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). In light of the differences between ALS- and TLS-based LAI characterizations, the methods of voxelization of 3D scattered laser points, effective LAI (LAIe) that does not distinguish branches from canopies and unified cumulative LAI (ucLAI) that is often used to characterize the vertical profiles of crown leaf area densities (LADs) was used; then, the relationships between the ALS- and TLS-derived LAIes were determined, and so did ucLAIs. Tests indicated that the tree-level LAIes for the four tree species can be estimated based on the used airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.07, 0.26, 0.43 and 0.21, respectively) and their ucLAIs can also be derived. Overall, this study has validated the usage of the contemporary high density multi

  1. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  2. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  3. Does cutting of mugwort stands affect airborne pollen concentrations?

    PubMed

    Rantio-Lehtimäki, A; Helander, M L; Karhu, K

    1992-08-01

    Pollen of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) is the most important allergenic pollen in urban areas of south and central Finland in late summer. The purpose of this study was to investigate, experimentally, whether the cutting of mugwort stands affects its airborne pollen concentrations. Experimental plots were either cut (4 plots) or uncut (4 plots) in 2 previous seasons: 4 of them were small (less than 0.5 hectare) and 4 large (greater than 5 hectares). Finally, the plots were divided randomly into 2 groups according to a third variable, cutting in the study season, 1989. Samples were taken on 2 rainless mornings at the peak mugwort flowering time. Two rotorod type samplers were used at heights of 1 and 2 m from ground level, simulating the inhalation heights of children and adults, respectively. The results indicate that cutting mugwort stands significantly reduces airborne pollen concentrations, but the treated areas have to be large, since in the town area there are plenty of mugwort pollen sources. The pollen concentrations at the 2 heights tested did not differ significantly.

  4. Japan food allergen labeling regulation--history and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Imai, Takanori; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    According to a national survey of food allergy cases, the food-labeling system for specific allergenic ingredients (i.e., egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, and peanut) in Japan was mandated under law on April 1, 2002. By Japanese law, labeling of allergens is designated as mandatory or recommended based on the number of cases of actual illness and the degree of seriousness. Mandatory labeling is enforced by the ministerial ordinance, and the ministerial notification recommends that foods containing walnut and soybean be labeled with subspecific allergenic ingredients. Additional labeling of shrimp/prawn and crab has also become mandatory since 2008. To monitor the validity of the labeling system, the Japanese government announced the official methods for detection of allergens in a November 2002 ministry notification. These official methods, including two kinds of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for screening, Western blotting analyses for egg and milk, and polymerase chain reaction analyses for wheat, buckwheat, peanut, shrimp/prawn and crab as confirmation tests, have provided a means to monitor the labeling system. To standardize the official methods, the Japanese government described the validation protocol criteria in the 2006 official guidelines. The guidelines stipulate that any food containing allergen proteins at greater than 10mg/kg must be labeled under the Law. This review covers the selection of the specific allergenic ingredients by the Japanese government, the implementation of regulatory action levels and the detection methods to support them, and the assessment of the effectiveness of this approach.

  5. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:26184309

  6. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens.

    PubMed

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-07-09

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  7. Tyrophagus putrescentiae: an allergenically important mite.

    PubMed

    Green, W F; Woolcock, A J

    1978-03-01

    The incidence of positive skin tests to the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae was measured and compared with skin reactions to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and other allergens in Australian and New Guinean populations, and mite counts were determined in Sydney and New Guinea houses. Positive reactions to T. putrescentiae were as frequent as those for D. pteronyssinus in asthmatics in Sydney and were the commonest positive reactions in the normal New Guinea population. T. putrescentiae-specific serum IgE levels were determined and some IgG cross-reactions of D. pteronyssinus and T. putrescentiae antigens were demonstrated. It is suggested that T. putrescentiae is an important source of allergen and should be considered whenever D. pteronyssinus is thought to be a problem. A convenient method for culturing and isolating T. putrescentiae is described. PMID:647897

  8. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  9. Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) from house-dust mites may cause covariation of sensitization to allergens from other invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Inam, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) have been assumed to be a major cause of cross-reactivity between house-dust mites (HDMs) and other invertebrates. Despite all of the published data regarding the epidemiology, percent IgE binding and level of sensitization in the population, the role of tropomyosin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients with multiple allergy syndrome still remains to be elucidated. Homology between amino acid sequences reported in allergen databases of selected invertebrate tropomyosins was determined with Der f 10 as the reference allergen. The 66.9 and 54.4% identities were found with selected crustacean and insect species, respectively, whereas only 20.4% identity was seen with mollusks. A similar analysis was performed using reported B-cell IgE-binding epitopes from Met e1 (shrimp allergen) and Bla g7 (cockroach allergen) with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The percent identity in linear sequences was higher than 35% in mites, crustaceans, and cockroaches. The polar and hydrophobic regions in these groups were highly conserved. These findings suggest that tropomyosin may be a major cause of covariation of sensitization between HDMs, crustaceans, and some species of insects and mollusks. PMID:23342293

  10. Absolute quantification of allergens from complex mixtures: a new sensitive tool for standardization of allergen extracts for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Ulla; Dauly, Claire; Robinson, Sarah; Hornshaw, Martin; Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Ipsen, Henrik

    2011-04-01

    Products for specific diagnosis and immunotherapy of IgE-mediated allergies are currently based on natural extracts. Quantification of major allergen content is an important aspect of standardization as important allergens particularly impact vaccine potency. The aim of the study was to develop a mass spectrometry (MS) based assay for absolute quantification of Timothy (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 in P. pratense extract. High-resolution and accurate mass (HRAM) MS was selected for its ability to detect peptides with high selectivity and mass accuracy (<3 ppm). Isotope labeled heavy peptides were used for absolute quantification of specific isoallergens of Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 at low femtomole level in P. pratense extract. Robustness and linearity of the method was demonstrated with intra day precision ≤ 5% (n = 3). Phl p 1b was shown to be 5 times less abundant than its variant Phl p 1a and Phl p 5b was shown to be 9 times more abundant than the Phl p 5a. The present study shows that allergen, and/or isoallergen specific, surrogate signature peptides analyzed with HRAM MS is a sensitive and accurate tool for identification and quantification of allergens from complex allergen sources.

  11. Contact dermatitis caused by airborne agents. A review and case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Dooms-Goossens, A.E.; Debusschere, K.M.; Gevers, D.M.; Dupre, K.M.; Degreef, H.J.; Loncke, J.P.; Snauwaert, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    A general review is given of airborne-induced contact dermatoses, particularly of the irritant and allergenic types. Because the reports in the literature often omit the term airborne, 12 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (January 1975-July 1985) were screened, and the cases cited were classified in function of the anamnesis, lesion locations, causative irritants and allergens, and other factors. The present article also discusses differential diagnoses, in particular with regard to contact dermatitis of the face, ears, and neck. Finally, seven case reports of occupational and nonoccupational contact dermatitis problems caused by airborne agents are presented. In some of the cases the allergens have not been mentioned in published literature previously. 84 references.

  12. The allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Bos, J D; van der Meeren, H L; van Joost, T; Jagtman, B A; Weyland, J W

    1988-10-01

    The ingredients responsible for allergy to cosmetics were determined in 119 patients suffering from cosmetic-related contact dermatitis. Most reactions (56.3%) were caused by skin care products, followed by nail cosmetics (13.4%), perfumes (8.4%), and hair cosmetics (5.9%). Preservatives were most frequently implicated (32.0%), followed by fragrances (26.5%) and emulsifiers (14.3%). By far the most important cosmetic allergen was Kathon CG, (a preservative system containing, as active ingredients, a mixture of methylisothiazolinone and methyl chloroisothiazolinone) reacting in 33 patients (27.7%). Other frequent causes of cosmetic-related contact allergic reactions were toluenesulfonamide/formaldehyde resin in nail hardener and/or nail lacquer (15 patients [12.6%]), and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine, an emulsifier in baby body lotion (13 patients [10.9%]).

  13. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa; Hayward, Barbara J.

    1962-01-01

    Cocksfoot and Timothy pollen extracts are each found to contain at least fifteen components antigenic in rabbits. Most of these can also be allergens for man, but only a few are regularly so. These `principal' allergens have now been isolated in highly purified form. Procedures are given for a simple method of preparing extracts for clinical purposes and for the partial separation, concentration and purification of the allergens by means of differential extractions of the pollens and by means of ultrafiltration, isoelectric precipitation and salt fractionations (at acid and neutral pH) of the extracts. Isoelectric precipitations gave highly pigmented acid complexes, two of which moved as single sharp peaks at pH 7.4 in free electrophoresis, but proved to be hardly active by skin tests. Acid NaCl fractionation of the remainder resulted for Cocksfoot and Timothy in the isolation of a nearly white powder (T21.111121112 = T21B) which was weight for weight 1000–10,000 times as active as the pollen from which it had been derived. The powders have retained their activity for 7 years. By gel diffusion tests, they were found to contain two antigens (one in each preparation) which were immunologically partially related, but the Timothy preparation contained in addition the `innermost' `twin' antigens specific for Timothy that we had discovered previously in the crude extracts by gel diffusion methods. Skin reactions could be elicited in hay-fever subjects by prick tests with concentrations of 10-9–10-8 g./ml., which is equivalent to intradermal injections of 10-11–10-10 mg. and represents a 300-fold purification with respect to the concentrates of crude pollen extracts prepared by ultrafiltration and dialysis. Fractionation on DEAE-cellulose of one of the highly purified Timothy preparations (T21.11112112 = T21A) and other, crude Timothy and Cocksfoot extracts resulted in considerable and reproducible separation of the various antigens, with no indication of the

  14. Mechanisms and characteristics of airway sensitization to indoor allergens.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Cazzola, M; Russo, M; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2001-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases, and particularly of bronchial asthma, has been linked to changes induced by human activities in outdoor and indoor environments. People living in industrialized countries spend most of their time indoors: in private homes, offices and means of transport. Indoor environments are not a refuge from outdoor air pollution. Modern systems for energy saving such as insulated windows and doors reduce the indoor natural ventilation and consequently increase the rate of indoor humidity. These conditions may determine an increase in the level of indoor pollutants (tobacco smoke, gases produced by cooling processes etc.) and of allergens derived from mites, domestic animals and cockroaches. Upholstered furniture, wall-to-wall carpets, central heating systems and/or humidifiers may also contribute to the growth of mite populations. The increasing levels of exposure to pollutants and allergens in indoor environments represents a risk factor for the development of airway sensitization, especially if these materials are inhaled early in life. The major cat allergen Fel d 1 is considered an ubiquitous allergen, since it has been found in many indoor environments where a cat has never been kept. The clothing of cat owners seems to help spread Fel d 1 in cat-free environments. Sensitization to cockroach allergens is very common in patients living in urban areas where unhygenic conditions may favour the growth of cockroach populations. Monitoring of the levels of allergens and strategies of allergen and pollutant avoidance in indoor environments are the main ways to reduce the prevalence of respiratory allergies induced by these materials.

  15. Levels and risk assessment for humans and ecosystems of platinum-group elements in the airborne particles and road dust of some European cities.

    PubMed

    Gómez, B; Palacios, M A; Gómez, M; Sanchez, J L; Morrison, G; Rauch, S; McLeod, C; Ma, R; Caroli, S; Alimonti, A; Petrucci, E; Bocca, B; Schramel, P; Zischka, M; Petterson, C; Wass, U

    2002-11-01

    Traffic is the main source of platinum-group element (PGE) contamination in populated urban areas. There is increasing concern about the hazardous effects of these new pollutants for people and for other living organisms in these areas. Airborne and road dusts, as well as tree bark and grass samples were collected at locations in the European cities of Göteborg (Sweden), Madrid (Spain), Rome (Italy), Munich (Germany), Sheffield and London (UK). Today, in spite of the large number of parameters that can influence the airborne PGE content, the results obtained so far indicate significantly higher PGE levels at traffic sites compared with the rural or non-polluted zones that have been investigated (background levels). The average Pt content in airborne particles found in downtown Madrid, Göteborg and Rome is in the range 7.3-13.1 pg m(-3). The ring roads of these cities have values in the range 4.1-17.7 pg m(-3). In Munich, a lower Pt content was found in airborne particles (4.1 pg m(-3)). The same tendency has been noted for downtown Rh, with contents in the range 2.2-2.8 pg m(-3), and in the range 0.8-3.0 and 0.3 pg m(-3) for motorway margins in Munich. The combined results obtained using a wide-range airborne classifier (WRAC) collector and a PM-10 or virtual impactor show that Pt is associated with particles for a wide range of diameters. The smaller the particle size, the lower the Pt concentration. However, in particles levels for which adverse

  16. Pollen Allergens for Molecular Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Isabel; Wildner, Sabrina; Asam, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Pollen allergens are one of the main causes of type I allergies affecting up to 30% of the population in industrialized countries. Climatic changes affect the duration and intensity of pollen seasons and may together with pollution contribute to increased incidences of respiratory allergy and asthma. Allergenic grasses, trees, and weeds often present similar habitats and flowering periods compromising clinical anamnesis. Molecule-based approaches enable distinction between genuine sensitization and clinically mostly irrelevant IgE cross-reactivity due to, e. g., panallergens or carbohydrate determinants. In addition, sensitivity as well as specificity can be improved and lead to identification of the primary sensitizing source which is particularly beneficial regarding polysensitized patients. This review gives an overview on relevant pollen allergens and their usefulness in daily practice. Appropriate allergy diagnosis is directly influencing decisions for therapeutic interventions, and thus, reliable biomarkers are pivotal when considering allergen immunotherapy in the context of precision medicine.

  17. Are specific allergen sensitivities inherited?

    PubMed

    Misiak, Rana Tawil; Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward

    2010-09-01

    A family history of an allergic condition is a well-accepted risk factor for the development of an allergic condition in an individual, particularly for allergic disorders such as asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis. However, the question of whether specific allergen sensitization is inherited requires a complicated answer, as environmental exposure plays an important role in the development of allergen-specific IgE. This article summarizes the findings of recent studies in the literature regarding what is known about the inheritance of specific allergens. Overall, properly collected and analyzed data appear to both support and refute the hypothesis that specific allergen sensitization is inherited, even when attempting to account for the complexities of varying study methodologies and the evaluation of diverse populations and communities. PMID:20574668

  18. In silico allergenicity prediction of several lipid transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are common allergens and they are particularly widespread within the plant kingdom. They have a highly conserved three-dimensional structure that generate a strong cross-reactivity among the members of this family. In the last years several web tools for the prediction of allergenicity of new molecules based on their homology with known allergens have been released, and guidelines to assess potential allergenicity of proteins through bioinformatics have been established. Even if such tools are only partially reliable yet, they can provide important indications when other kinds of molecular characterization are lacking. The potential allergenicity of 28 amino acid sequences of LTPs homologs, either retrieved from the UniProt database or in silico deduced from the corresponding EST coding sequence, was predicted using 7 publicly available web tools. Moreover, their similarity degree to their closest known LTP allergens was calculated, in order to evaluate their potential cross-reactivity. Finally, all sequences were studied for their identity degree with the peach allergen Pru p 3, considering the regions involved in the formation of its known conformational IgE-binding epitope. Most of the analyzed sequences displayed a high probability to be allergenic according to all the software employed. The analyzed LTPs from bell pepper, cassava, mango, mungbean and soybean showed high homology (>70%) with some known allergenic LTPs, suggesting a potential risk of cross-reactivity for sensitized individuals. Other LTPs, like for example those from canola, cassava, mango, mungbean, papaya or persimmon, displayed a high degree of identity with Pru p 3 within the consensus sequence responsible for the formation, at three-dimensional level, of its major conformational epitope. Since recent studies highlighted how in patients mono-sensitized to peach LTP the levels of IgE seem directly proportional to the chance of developing cross

  19. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  20. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  1. Markers of tolerance development to food allergens.

    PubMed

    Ponce, M; Diesner, S C; Szépfalusi, Z; Eiwegger, T

    2016-10-01

    IgE-mediated reactions to food allergens are the most common cause of anaphylaxis in childhood. Although allergies to cow's milk, egg, or soy proteins, in contrast to peanut and tree nut allergens, resolve within the first 6 years of life in up to 60% due to natural tolerance development, this process is not well understood. At present, there is no cure or treatment for food allergy that would result in an induction of tolerance to the symptom-eliciting food. Avoidance, providing an emergency plan and education, is the standard of treatment. Oral immunotherapeutic approaches have been proven reasonable efficacy; however, they are associated with high rates of side-effects and low numbers of patients achieving tolerance. Nevertheless, mechanisms that take place during oral immunotherapy may help to understand tolerance development. On the basis of these therapeutic interventions, events like loss of basophil activation and induction of regulatory lymphocyte subsets and of blocking antibodies have been described. Their functional importance at a clinical level, however, remains to be investigated in detail. Consequently, there is eminent need to understand the process of tolerance development to food allergens and define biomarkers to develop and monitor new treatment strategies for food allergy. PMID:27286276

  2. Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Gunnar D.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been established, where nearly all workers may be exposed without adverse health effects, which are required for setting OELs. Our aim is to analyse prerequisites for setting OELs for the allergenic protein-containing aerosols. Opposite to the key effect of toxicological reactions, two thresholds, one for the sensitization phase and one for elicitation of IgE-mediated symptoms in sensitized individuals, are used in the OEL settings. For example, this was the case for flour dust, where OELs were based on dust levels due to linearity between flour dust and its allergen levels. The critical effects for flour and grain dust OELs were different, which indicates that conclusion by analogy (read-across) must be scientifically well founded. Except for subtilisins, no OEL have been set for other industrial enzymes, where many of which are high volume chemicals. For several of these, OELs have been proposed in the scientific literature during the last two decades. It is apparent that the scientific methodology is available for setting OELs for proteins and protein-containing aerosols where the critical effect is IgE sensitization and IgE-mediated airway diseases. PMID:22843406

  3. Fungi: the neglected allergenic sources.

    PubMed

    Crameri, R; Garbani, M; Rhyner, C; Huitema, C

    2014-02-01

    Allergic diseases are considered the epidemics of the twentieth century estimated to affect more than 30% of the population in industrialized countries with a still increasing incidence. During the past two decades, the application of molecular biology allowed cloning, production and characterization of hundreds of recombinant allergens. In turn, knowledge about molecular, chemical and biologically relevant allergens contributed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reactions. It has been largely demonstrated that fungi are potent sources of allergenic molecules covering a vast variety of molecular structures including enzymes, toxins, cell wall components and phylogenetically highly conserved cross-reactive proteins. Despite the large knowledge accumulated and the compelling evidence for an involvement of fungal allergens in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, fungi as a prominent source of allergens are still largely neglected in basic research as well as in clinical practice. This review aims to highlight the impact of fungal allergens with focus on asthma and atopic dermatitis.

  4. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  5. Characterisation of the airborne pollen spectrum in Guadalajara (central Spain) and estimation of the potential allergy risk.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Sabariego, Silvia; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Aerobiological research into airborne pollen diversity and seasonal variations in pollen counts has become increasingly important over recent decades due to the growing incidence of asthma, rhinitis and other pollen-related allergic conditions. Airborne pollen in Guadalajara (Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) was studied over a 6-year period (2008-2013) using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The highest pollen concentrations were recorded from February to June, coinciding with the pollen season of the pollen types that most contribute to the local airborne pollen spectrum: Cupressaceae (32.2%), Quercus (15.1%), Platanus (13.2%), Olea (8.3%), Populus (7.8%) and Poaceae (7.2%). These are therefore critical months for allergy sufferers. The pollen calendar was typically Mediterranean and comprised 25 pollen types. Between January and March, Cupressaceae pollen concentrations exceeded allergy risk thresholds on 38 days. Other woody species such as Olea and Platanus have a shorter pollen season, and airborne concentrations exceeded allergy risk thresholds on around 13 days in each case. Poaceae pollen concentrations attained allergy risk levels on 26 days between May and July. Other highly allergenic pollen types included Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, though these are less abundant than other pollen types in Guadalajara and did not exceed risk thresholds on more than 3 and 5 days, respectively.

  6. AIRBORNE-CONTACT DERMATITIS OF NON-PLANT ORIGIN: AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Airborne-contact dermatitis (ABCD) represents a unique type of contact dermatitis originating from dust, sprays, pollens or volatile chemicals by airborne fumes or particles without directly touching the allergen. ABCD in Indian patients has been attributed exclusively by pollens of the plants like Parthenium hysterophorus, etc., but in recent years the above scenario has been changing rapidly in urban and semiurban perspective especially in developing countries. ABCD has been reported worldwide due to various type of nonplant allergens and their clinical feature are sometimes distinctive. Preventive aspect has been attempted by introduction of different chemicals of less allergic potential. PMID:22345776

  7. Proteomic analysis of peanut seed storage proteins and genetic variation in a potential peanut allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. One effort to alleviate this problem is to identify peanut germplasm with lower levels of allergens which could be used in conventional breeding to produce a less allergenic peanut cultivar. In this study, we identified one peanut line, GT-C9,...

  8. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  9. Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853

  10. Changes in Atmospheric CO2 Influence the Allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang-Yona, N.; Levin, Y.; Dannemoller, K. C.; Yarden, O.; Peccia, J.; Rudich, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Increased allergic susceptibility has been documented without a comprehensive understanding for its causes. Therefore understanding trends and mechanisms of allergy inducing agents is essential. In this study we investigated whether elevated atmospheric CO2 levels can affect the allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus, a common allergenic fungal species. Both direct exposure to changing CO2 levels during fungal growth, and indirect exposure through changes in the C:N ratios in the growth media were inspected. We determined the allergenicity of the spores through two types of immunoassays, accompanied with genes expression analysis, and proteins relative quantification. We show that fungi grown under present day CO2 levels (392 ppm) exhibit 8.5 and 3.5 fold higher allergenicity compared to fungi grown at preindustrial (280 ppm) and double (560 ppm) CO2 levels, respectively. A corresponding trend is observed in the expression of genes encoding for known allergenic proteins and in the major allergen Asp f1 concentrations, possibly due to physiological changes such as respiration rates and the nitrogen content of the fungus, influenced by the CO2 concentrations. Increased carbon and nitrogen levels in the growth medium also lead to a significant increase in the allergenicity, for which we propose two different biological mechanisms. We suggest that climatic changes such as increasing atmospheric CO2 levels and changes in the fungal growth medium may impact the ability of allergenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus to induce allergies. The effect of changing CO2 concentrations on the total allergenicity per 10^7 spores of A. fumigatus (A), the major allergen Asp f1 concentration in ng per 10^7 spores (B), and the gene expression by RT-PCR (C). The error bars represent the standard error of the mean.

  11. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations. PMID:27443456

  12. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  13. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  14. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    PubMed

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  15. Recombinant allergens: what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Marth, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Neubauer, Angela; Niederberger, Verena

    2011-04-01

    This year we are celebrating not only the centenary of allergen-specific immunotherapy but also the 10-year anniversary of the first administration of recombinant allergen-based vaccines to allergic patients. By using recombinant DNA technology, defined and safe allergy vaccines can be produced that allow us to overcome many, if not all, of the problems associated with the use of natural allergen extracts, such as insufficient quality, allergenic activity, and poor immunogenicity. Here we provide an update of clinical studies with recombinant allergen-based vaccines, showing that some of these vaccines have undergone successful clinical evaluation up to phase III studies. Furthermore, we introduce a strategy for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity, which holds the promise of being free of side effects and eventually being useful for prophylactic vaccination.

  16. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  17. Investigating cockroach allergens: aiming to improve diagnosis and treatment of cockroach allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Pomés, Anna; Arruda, L. Karla

    2013-01-01

    Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy. PMID:23916425

  18. Airborne contact dermatitis: common causes in the USA.

    PubMed

    Schloemer, Julie A; Zirwas, Matthew J; Burkhart, Craig G

    2015-03-01

    Airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD) is an inflammatory reaction involving the skin upon exposure to allergenic agents or irritants suspended in air. In allergic ABCD, the hypersensitivity is classified as a type IV reaction. Substances responsible for such reactions can be of plant or non-plant origin. Commonly reported plants include those of the Compositae family, which includes ragweed, goldenrod, and sunflowers. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is critical for preventing exposure and improving symptoms in patients. Obtaining a detailed history and performing a physical examination to determine the sites of involvement, as well as patch testing to establish the causative allergen, are the main methods of arriving at the correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves avoidance of the allergens or irritants when possible and may also include the application of topical barrier creams or systemic therapy in more severe cases. This article reviews the topic of ABCD and highlights its most common etiologies in the USA. PMID:24981079

  19. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Peanut Allergens in Food Ingredients Used for Oral Food Challenges.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip E; Sayers, Rebekah L; Gethings, Lee A; Balasundaram, Anuradha; Marsh, Justin T; Langridge, James I; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-06-01

    Profiling allergens in complex food ingredients used in oral food challenges and immunotherapy is crucial for regulatory acceptance. Mass spectrometry based analysis employing data-independent acquisition coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DIA-IM-MS) was used to investigate the allergen composition of raw peanuts and roasted peanut flour ingredients used in challenge meals. This comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis using label-free approaches identified and quantified 123 unique protein accessions. Semiquantitative analysis indicated that allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 were the most abundant proteins and present in approximately equal amounts and were extracted in reduced amounts from roasted peanut flours. The clinically significant allergens Ara h 2 and 6 were less abundant, but relative quantification was unaffected by roasting. Ara h 5 was undetectable in any peanut sample, while the Bet v 1 homologue Ara h 8 and the lipid transfer protein allergen, Ara h 9, were detected in low abundance. The oleosin allergens, Ara h 10 and 11, were moderately abundant in the raw peanuts but were 100-fold less abundant in the defatted roasted peanut flour than the major allergens Ara h 1, 3, 2, and 6. Certain isoforms of the major allergens dominated the profile. The relative quantitation of the major peanut allergens showed little variation between different batches of roasted peanut flour. These data will support future development of targeted approaches for absolute quantification of peanut allergens which can be applied to both food ingredients used in clinical studies and extracts used for skin testing and to identify trace levels of allergens in foods. PMID:27064171

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Peanut Allergens in Food Ingredients Used for Oral Food Challenges.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip E; Sayers, Rebekah L; Gethings, Lee A; Balasundaram, Anuradha; Marsh, Justin T; Langridge, James I; Mills, E N Clare

    2016-06-01

    Profiling allergens in complex food ingredients used in oral food challenges and immunotherapy is crucial for regulatory acceptance. Mass spectrometry based analysis employing data-independent acquisition coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DIA-IM-MS) was used to investigate the allergen composition of raw peanuts and roasted peanut flour ingredients used in challenge meals. This comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis using label-free approaches identified and quantified 123 unique protein accessions. Semiquantitative analysis indicated that allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 were the most abundant proteins and present in approximately equal amounts and were extracted in reduced amounts from roasted peanut flours. The clinically significant allergens Ara h 2 and 6 were less abundant, but relative quantification was unaffected by roasting. Ara h 5 was undetectable in any peanut sample, while the Bet v 1 homologue Ara h 8 and the lipid transfer protein allergen, Ara h 9, were detected in low abundance. The oleosin allergens, Ara h 10 and 11, were moderately abundant in the raw peanuts but were 100-fold less abundant in the defatted roasted peanut flour than the major allergens Ara h 1, 3, 2, and 6. Certain isoforms of the major allergens dominated the profile. The relative quantitation of the major peanut allergens showed little variation between different batches of roasted peanut flour. These data will support future development of targeted approaches for absolute quantification of peanut allergens which can be applied to both food ingredients used in clinical studies and extracts used for skin testing and to identify trace levels of allergens in foods.

  1. Association of House Dust Allergen Concentrations With Residential Conditions in City and in Rural Houses

    PubMed Central

    Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Pełka, Jolanta; Korzon, Leszek; Kaczała, Magdalena; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Gwardys, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between house dust mite, cat and dog allergen levels with household characteristics in the houses of children living in urban and rural areas in central Poland. Methods Dust samples were collected from 141 urban and 191 rural houses. Der f1 + Der p1, Can f 1, and Fel d1 levels were measured and associated with residential conditions and atopy-related health outcomes assessed by clinical examination and skin prick testing. Results Concentrations of mite allergens were lower, and cat and dog allergen levels were higher in urban houses. Fel d1 and Can f1 levels depended on the presence of a respective animal in the house. In urban houses, Der p1 + Der f1 concentration was lower in households with central heating, whereas Can f1 concentration was related to building age. Multivariate analyses revealed that the concentrations of house dust mite and dog allergens were associated with relative humidity, number of people in the household, and the presence of a dog at home. There was no significant association between allergen level and sensitization or atopic diseases. Conclusions Concentrations of indoor allergens in urban and rural houses differ significantly, and residential conditions associated with allergen levels seem to be different in both environments. PMID:23268467

  2. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannic acid (TA) is known to bind and form insoluble complexes with proteins, including peanut allergens; however, whether such complexes would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (i.e., gastric and intestinal pH) is not clear. Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorpt...

  3. Biology of weed pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Dedic, Azra; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Frank, Susanne; Himly, Martin; Ferreira, Fatima

    2004-09-01

    Weeds represent a heterogeneous group of plants, usually defined by no commercial or aesthetic value. Important allergenic weeds belong to the plant families Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Plantaginaceae. Major allergens from ragweed, mugwort, feverfew, pellitory, goosefoot, Russian thistle, plantain, and Mercurialis pollen have been characterized to varying degrees. Four major families of proteins seem to be the major cause of allergic reactions to weed pollen: the ragweed Amb a 1 family of pectate lyases; the defensin-like Art v 1 family from mugwort, feverfew, and probably also from sunflower; the Ole e 1-like allergens Pla l 1 from plantain and Che a 1 from goosefoot; and the nonspecific lipid transfer proteins Par j 1 and Par j 2 from pellitory. As described for other pollens, weed pollen also contains the panallergens profilin and calcium-binding proteins, which are responsible for extensive cross-reactivity among pollen-sensitized patients.

  4. Fish Allergens at a Glance: Variable Allergenicity of Parvalbumins, the Major Fish Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Annette; Swoboda, Ines; Arumugam, Karthik; Hilger, Christiane; Hentges, François

    2014-01-01

    Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1) isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens. New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings were useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis and also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients. PMID:24795722

  5. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis." PMID:25404363

  6. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L.; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, though the clinically-related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in helminth-infected population, we performed Immunocap™ tests in filarial-infected and non-infected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins and IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologues were performed. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and non-homologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of Immunocap™ identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologues in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologues in helminths. Mice infected with helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologues in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and brings a new perspective to the Hygiene Hypothesis. PMID:25404363

  7. Expression, purification, and characterization of almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen Pru du 4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Du, Wen-Xian; Fregevu, Cécile; Kothary, Mahendra H; Harden, Leslie; McHugh, Tara H

    2014-12-31

    Biochemical characterizations of food allergens are required for understanding the allergenicity of food allergens. Such studies require a relatively large amount of highly purified allergens. The level of Pru du 4 in almond is low, and its expression in a soluble form in Escherichia coli required an expression tag. An MBP tag was used to enhance its expression and solubility. Sumo was used for the first time as a peptidase recognition site. The expression tag was removed with a sumo protease, and the resulting wild-type Pru du 4 was purified chromatographically. The stability of the allergen was investigated with chemical denaturation. The Gibbs free energy of Pru du 4 folding-unfolding transition was determined to be 5.4 ± 0.7 kcal/mol.

  8. Molecular characterization of major allergens Ara h 1, 2, 3 in peanut seed.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Songhua; Sun, Yujun; Zhou, Zhengyi; Wang, Guiqin

    2011-06-01

    Peanut is among the most commonly used dietary seeds, but peanut allergens, especially Ara h 1 (Arachis hypogaea allergy 1), 2 and 3, can cause severe IgE-mediated reactions. In this study, the molecular characterization and expression pattern of three allergens in peanut LUHUA 8, the representative of the cultivated lines in China, are reported. In situ hybridization and real time PCR analysis revealed high expression levels and different tissue expression patterns of the three allergens, which might be connected with many aspects, such as the strong conservation of intron phase of the allergen genes, the low energy of the mRNA's regions, and the complicated post-translational modifications. Furthermore, the different sequences between the cloned allergens and the reported sequences previously involved the charged amino acids especially in IgE epitopes, which might alter specific physicochemical and physiological properties, and thus influence the immunity of the allergens. The identification of the specific features of the allergen genes would be of considerable importance to the basic understanding of the specific characteristics of peanut seed allergens.

  9. Allergenicity study of EGFP-transgenic chicken meat by serological and 2D-DIGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Rika; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakano, Mikiharu; Arisawa, Kenjiro; Ezaki, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods must be tested for safety, including by allergenicity tests to ensure that they do not contain new allergens or higher concentrations of known allergens than the same non-GM foods. In this study experimentally developed EGFP-transgenic chickens were used and evaluated the allergenicity of meat from the chicken based on a serological and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis. For the serological analysis, a Western blotting with allergen-specific antibodies and a proteomic analysis of chicken meat allergens with patients' sera, a so-called allergenome analysis, were used. The allergenome analysis allowed us to identify five IgE-binding proteins in chicken meat, including a known allergen, chicken serum albumin, and no qualitative difference in their expressions between the GM and non-GM chicken meat was found. Results of the 2D-DIGE analysis showed that none of the IgE-binding proteins in chicken meat were significantly changed in expression levels between non-GM and GM chicken, and only 3 of the 1500 soluble protein spots including green fluorescence protein were markedly different as a result of gene transfer. These above results showed that the combination of serological and 2D-DIGE analysis is a valid method of evaluating quality and quantity of allergens in GM foods.

  10. Analysis to support allergen risk management: Which way to go?

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2013-06-19

    Food allergy represents an important food safety issue because of the potential lethal effects; the only effective treatment is the complete removal of the allergen involved from the diet. However, due to the growing complexity of food formulations and food processing, foods may be unintentionally contaminated via allergen-containing ingredients or cross-contamination. This affects not only consumers' well-being but also food producers and competent authorities involved in inspecting and auditing food companies. To address these issues, the food industry and control agencies rely on available analytical methods to quantify the amount of a particular allergic commodity in a food and thus to decide upon its safety. However, no "gold standard methods" exist for the quantitative detection of food allergens. Nowadays mostly receptor-based methods and in particular commercial kits are used in routine analysis. However, upon evaluation of their performances, commercial assays proved often to be unreliable in processed foods, attributed to the chemical changes in proteins that affect the molecular recognition with the receptor used. Unfortunately, the analytical outcome of other methods, among which are chromatographic combined with mass spectrometric techniques as well as DNA-based methods, seem to be affected in a comparable way by food processing. Several strategies can be employed to improve the quantitative analysis of allergens in foods. Nevertheless, issues related to extractability and matrix effects remain a permanent challenge. In view of the presented results, it is clear that the food industry needs to continue to make extra efforts to provide accurate labeling and to reduce the contamination with allergens to an acceptable level through the use of allergen risk management on a company level, which needs to be supported inevitably by a tailor-validated extraction and detection method.

  11. Effect of deployment time on endotoxin and allergen exposure assessment using electrostatic dust collectors.

    PubMed

    Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatic dust collector (EDC) is a passive dust sampling device for exposure assessment of airborne endotoxin and possibly allergens. EDCs consist of a non-conducting plastic folder holding two or four electrostatic cloths of defined area. The sampling time needed to achieve detectable and reproducible loading for bioaerosols has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, in 15 Iowa farm homes EDCs were deployed for 7-, 14-, and 28-day sampling periods to determine if endotoxin and allergens could be quantified and if loading rates were uniform over time, i.e. if loads doubled from 7 to 14 days or 14 to 28 days and quadrupled from 7 to 28 days. Loadings between left and right paired EDC cloths were not significantly different and were highly correlated for endotoxin, total protein, and cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1), and mouse (Mus m1) allergens (P < 0.001). EDCs performed especially well for endotoxin sampling with close agreement between paired samples (Pearson r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Endotoxin loading of the EDCs doubled from 7- to 14-day deployments as hypothesized although the loading rate decreased from 14 to 28 days of sampling with only a 1.38-fold increase. Allergen exposure assessment using EDCs was overall less satisfactory. Although there was reasonable agreement between paired samples, only exposures to cat, dog, and mouse allergens were reliable and these only at the longer deployment times.

  12. The distribution of dust mite allergen in the houses of patients with asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tovey, E.R.; Chapman, M.D.; Wells, C.W.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1981-11-01

    Using an inhibition radioimmunoassay for the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (antigen P1), we studied the distribution of this dust allergen in the houses of patients with asthma. Both bed and floor dust samples contained a wide range of antigen P1, 100 to 100,000 ng/g of fine dust, and this concentration correlated well with the number of mite bodies (r . 0.81, p less than 0.001). We were unable to detect antigen P1 in the air of undisturbed rooms. However, during domestic activity, between 1 and 30 ng were collected on a filter than sampled air for 45 min at 17 L/min. Using a cascade impactor it was shown that greater than 80% of the airborne antigen P1 was associated with particles greater than 10 mu in diameter. Some of the particles containing allergen could be identified because they formed precipitin rings when impacted onto agarose containing rabbit antimite antiserum. These particles had the physical appearance of mite feces, which are the major source of antigen P1 in mite cultures. The results suggested that natural exposure to this dust allergen allows occasional fecal particles to enter the lungs and that these particles contain very concentrated allergen.

  13. Effect of Deployment Time on Endotoxin and Allergen Exposure Assessment Using Electrostatic Dust Collectors

    PubMed Central

    Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatic dust collector (EDC) is a passive dust sampling device for exposure assessment of airborne endotoxin and possibly allergens. EDCs consist of a non-conducting plastic folder holding two or four electrostatic cloths of defined area. The sampling time needed to achieve detectable and reproducible loading for bioaerosols has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, in 15 Iowa farm homes EDCs were deployed for 7-, 14-, and 28-day sampling periods to determine if endotoxin and allergens could be quantified and if loading rates were uniform over time, i.e. if loads doubled from 7 to 14 days or 14 to 28 days and quadrupled from 7 to 28 days. Loadings between left and right paired EDC cloths were not significantly different and were highly correlated for endotoxin, total protein, and cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1), and mouse (Mus m1) allergens (P < 0.001). EDCs performed especially well for endotoxin sampling with close agreement between paired samples (Pearson r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Endotoxin loading of the EDCs doubled from 7- to 14-day deployments as hypothesized although the loading rate decreased from 14 to 28 days of sampling with only a 1.38-fold increase. Allergen exposure assessment using EDCs was overall less satisfactory. Although there was reasonable agreement between paired samples, only exposures to cat, dog, and mouse allergens were reliable and these only at the longer deployment times. PMID:25187036

  14. Antisense-mediated silencing of a gene encoding a major ryegrass pollen allergen.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, P L; Swoboda, I; Singh, M B

    1999-09-28

    Type 1 allergic reactions, such as hay fever and allergic asthma, triggered by grass pollen allergens are a global health problem that affects approximately 20% of the population in cool, temperate climates. Ryegrass is the dominant source of allergens because of its prodigious production of airborne pollen. Lol p 5 is the major allergenic protein of ryegrass pollen, judging from the fact that almost all of the individuals allergic to grass pollen show presence of serum IgE antibodies against this protein. Moreover, nearly two-thirds of the IgE reactivity of ryegrass pollen has been attributed to this protein. Therefore, it can be expected that down-regulation of Lol p 5 production can significantly reduce the allergic potential of ryegrass pollen. Here, we report down-regulation of Lol p 5 with an antisense construct targeted to the Lol p 5 gene in ryegrass. The expression of antisense RNA was regulated by a pollen-specific promoter. Immunoblot analysis of proteins with allergen-specific antibodies did not detect Lol p 5 in the transgenic pollen. The transgenic pollen showed remarkably reduced allergenicity as reflected by low IgE-binding capacity of pollen extract as compared with that of control pollen. The transgenic ryegrass plants in which Lol p 5 gene expression is perturbed showed normal fertile pollen development, indicating that genetic engineering of hypoallergenic grass plants is possible.

  15. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

  16. Importance of indoor allergens in the induction of allergy and elicitation of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Simpson, A; Woodcock, A

    1998-01-01

    During the last few decades, many countries have experienced an increase in the prevalence and severity of asthma. Over the same period, the population in the developed world has retreated indoors, and homes have become better insulated and more energy efficient, resulting in a warm and humid environment with low ventilation rates, ideally suited to house-dust-mite population growth throughout the year. Increasing exposure and increasing sensitivity to indoor allergens represent a progressively higher risk factor for the development of asthma. The development of sensitivity to indoor allergens and the symptoms and severity of asthma in later childhood are directly related to the exposure to allergens in infancy. It was relatively straightforward to demonstrate a quantitative linear dose-response relationship between exposure to house-dust-mite allergens and subsequent sensitization. However, showing the same for exposure and asthma severity has been more difficult, as the relationship between exposure and asthma symptoms in already sensitized individuals is much more complex than in the case of exposure and sensitization. Nevertheless, sensitized individuals are likely to have more severe asthma if exposed to high allergen levels than if their level of exposure is low. Sensitization to house-dust mites is a major independent risk factor for asthma in all areas where climate is conducive to mite population growth. The relevance of allergens other that mite is not consistent between different areas, and depends on the climate, habits, and socio-economic features of the local community. It would appear that presence of mite allergens in homes "overshadows" other allergens (e.g., cat, dog, or cockroach) as a risk factor for sensitization and subsequent development of allergic disease. It is possible that this is the consequence of the difference in inherent potency between allergen sources, and the question of why mite allergens are so potent in inducing sensitization

  17. Assessment of allergenicity to fungal allergens of Rohtak city, Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Kochar, Sanjeeta; Ahlawat, Manisha; Chaudhary, Dhruva

    2014-01-01

    Fungal spores are known as one of the important bioparticles causing allergic manifestation in human beings. Hence, knowledge of season and prevalence of the airborne allergens to which the patients are exposed is a prerequisite for proper diagnosis and treatment of allergic disorders in hypersensitive individuals. Keeping this in view, aerial survey was performed in the atmosphere of Rohtak city for 2 consecutive years (March 2008–February 2010), using a volumetric petri plate sampler. A total of 45 fungal spore types were recorded during the survey period. In the present study, February–April and July–November were identified as the peak seasons for Rohtak city. Cladosporium was the main contributor to the total fungal load with 25.14% followed by Alternaria (18.05%), Aspergillus niger (7.66%), Curvularia (5.31%), and Epicoccum (5.29%). Fifteen dominant viable fungal spore types were represented in the form of a fungal calendar. An attempt has also been made to assess the allergenicity of some of the fungal types recorded from the atmosphere of Rohtak city. The magnitude of variations observed in markedly positive skin reactions (2+ and above) varied from 17.3 to 2.3%. Penicillium oxalicum showed a markedly positive reaction in maximum number of patients (26; 17.3%) followed by Rhizopus nigricans (23; 15.3%). ELISA was performed with the sera of patients showing markedly positive skin reactions and the sera were classified into four groups based on percent binding. The majority of the sera showed 0–15% binding to different antigenic extracts, while sera showing >60% binding were least in number. Greater than 30% binding was observed against antigens of Rhizopus nigricans, Epicoccum purpurascens, Penicillium oxalicum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Neurospora sitophila. The concordance between positive skin reaction and serum-specific IgE antibodies ranged from 16.7 to 69.2%. PMID:24988378

  18. [Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic germplasm enhancement].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Zhu, You-Lin; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2006-08-01

    Food allergy is a public sanitary problem which has received attention worldwide. It is becoming an increasingly interesting problem to decrease the concentration of allergens for improvement of the food security. Soybean allergens in seeds are composing of storage proteins, structure proteins, and disease-related proteins. Among them, Gly m Bd 28K, Gly m Bd 30K and Gly m Bd 60K are the major allergens located in 7S conglycinin fragments. By recognizing allergens' physicochemical property, hypersensitivity and gene structure, certain progresses had been made to reduce the concentration of allergens in soybean through food processing, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. The paper reviewed the sorts and characters of soybean allergens, the physicochemical property of the three immunodominant allergens and their gene structures. Progress in developing hypoallergenic cultivars was also discussed.

  19. Allergen and irritant control: importance and implementation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H S

    1998-01-01

    The Expert Panel Report 2. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (1) begins its section on controlling factors that precipitate or worsen asthma with the statement: "For successful long-term asthma management, it is essential to identify and reduce exposures to relevant allergens and irritants and to control other factors that have been shown to increase asthma symptoms and/or precipitate asthma exacerbations." The presence of allergy to indoor allergens and certain seasonal fungal spores has been found to be a risk factor for asthma in epidemiologic studies around the world. Generally between 70% and 85% of asthmatic populations studied have been reported to have positive skin-prick tests. Exposure of allergic patients to inhalant allergens increases airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, asthma symptoms, need for medication, severe attacks, and even death due to asthma. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure has been shown to increase the prevalence of childhood asthma and to increase asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness while reducing pulmonary function in children chronically exposed. Exposure to other indoor irritants, largely products of unvented combustion, has also been found to increase asthma symptoms. Outdoor air pollution increases asthma symptoms; levels of specific pollutants correlate with emergency room visits and hospitalization for asthma. Rhinitis/sinusitis and gastroesophageal reflux are commonly associated with asthma, and treatment of these conditions has been shown to improve asthma. In patients sensitive to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or metabisulfites, exposure to these agents can precipitate severe attacks of asthma. Viral infections are common causes for exacerbations of asthma. Infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae contribute to acute exacerbations and perhaps to long-term morbidity, as well. This chapter will discuss preventive and therapeutic measures

  20. Crab allergen exposures aboard five crab-processing vessels.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Nancy; Brodkin, C Andrew; Stover, Bert; Daroowalla, Feroza; Flack, Joy; Doherty, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Aerosolized crab allergens are suspected etiologic agents for asthma among crab-processing workers. The objectives of this study were to characterize crab allergen concentrations and respiratory symptom prevalence among processing workers aboard crab-processing vessels. A cross-sectional survey of five crab-processing vessels was conducted near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Crab allergen concentrations were quantified during specific work activities with 25 personal air samples collected on polytetrafluoroethylene filters and analyzed by a competitive IgE immunoassay technique. Two standardized respiratory questionnaires were used to assess respiratory symptoms suggestive of bronchitis or asthma in 82 workers. Aerosolized crab allergen concentrations ranged from 79 ng/m3 to 21,093 ng/m3 (mean = 2797 ng/m3, SD = 4576 ng/m3). The highest concentrations were measured at butchering/degilling work stations, which were combined on the smallest vessel. A significant percentage of workers reported development of respiratory symptoms during the crab-processing season. Cough developed in 28% of workers, phlegm in 11% of workers, and wheeze and other asthma-like symptoms developed in 4% of workers. Despite variations in crab allergen levels, respiratory symptom prevalence was similar across all job categories. Substantial concentrations of crab allergen exposure were measured, as well as the potential for wide variability in exposure during crab processing aboard vessels. The high prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms across all job categories suggests potential adverse respiratory effects that should be further characterized by prospective studies using pulmonary function and serology testing, and rigorous exposure characterization.

  1. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  2. Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants in homes of asthmatic children in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Siebers, Robert; Chang, Chin-Fu; Hsieh, Shu-Wen; Wu, Mei-Wen; Chen, Chi-Ying; Pierse, Nevil; Crane, Julian

    2009-09-01

    Indoor allergens and microbial bio-contaminants play a significant role in asthma symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine levels of house dust mite allergens, bacterial endotoxin, and fungal beta-glucan in homes of 120 asthmatic children in central Taiwan. Dust samples from 120 mattresses (67 double-sided) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, and Blo t 5), endotoxin, and beta-glucan. Pillows (n = 118) were analyzed for house dust mite allergens only. Kitchen dust samples were analyzed for the cockroach allergen, Bla g 1. Blo t 5 was detected in 9.3% pillows and 82.2% mattresses, Der p 1 in 95.8% pillows and 93.2% mattresses, and Der f 1 in 82.2% pillows and 83.1% mattresses. Geometric mean levels (95% confidence interval) of endotoxin and beta-glucan in mattresses were 108.4 Eu/mg (81.4-144.2) and 25.2 microg/g (22.7-28.0), respectively. House dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels were significantly lower on the bamboo side of 67 mattresses, compared to the inner sprung mattress side. Geometric mean of kitchen Bla g 1 was 0.61 U/g (95% CI: 0.43-0.85). Given the presence of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in central Taiwan, it is advised to measure allergens of all three house dust mite species to obtain a true index of allergen exposure. Bamboo sides of mattresses had significantly lower house dust mite allergens and endotoxin levels. PMID:19728217

  3. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J.

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  4. Determination of sound types and source levels of airborne vocalizations by California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, in rehabilitation at the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, Afton Leigh

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are a highly popular and easily recognized marine mammal in zoos, aquariums, circuses, and often seen by ocean visitors. They are highly vocal and gregarious on land. Surprisingly, little research has been performed on the vocalization types, source levels, acoustic properties, and functions of airborne sounds used by California sea lions. This research on airborne vocalizations of California sea lions will advance the understanding of this aspect of California sea lions communication, as well as examine the relationship between health condition and acoustic behavior. Using a PhillipsRTM digital recorder with attached microphone and a calibrated RadioShackRTM sound pressure level meter, acoustical data were recorded opportunistically on California sea lions during rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, CA. Vocalizations were analyzed using frequency, time, and amplitude variables with Raven Pro: Interactive Sound Analysis Software Version 1.4 (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY). Five frequency, three time, and four amplitude variables were analyzed for each vocalization. Differences in frequency, time, and amplitude variables were not significant by sex. The older California sea lion group produced vocalizations that were significantly lower in four frequency variables, significantly longer in two time variables, significantly higher in calibrated maximum and minimum amplitude variables, and significantly lower in frequency at maximum and minimum amplitude compared with pups. Six call types were identified: bark, goat, growl/grumble, bark/grumble, bark/growl, and grumble/moan. The growl/grumble call was higher in dominant beginning, ending, and minimum frequency, as well as in the frequency at maximum amplitude compared with the bark, goat, bark/grumble calls in the first versus last vocalization sample. The goat call was significantly higher in first harmonic interval than any other call type

  5. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  6. Exposure matrices of endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, fungi, and dust mite allergens in flood-affected homes of New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Lewis, Jocelyn Suzanne; Reponen, Tiina; Degrasse, Enjoli C; Grimsley, L Faye; Chew, Ginger L; Iossifova, Yulia; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2010-10-15

    This study examined: (i) biocontaminant levels in flooded homes of New Orleans two years after the flooding; (ii) seasonal changes in biocontaminant levels, and (iii) correlations between biocontaminant levels obtained by different environmental monitoring methods. Endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, fungal spores, and dust mite allergens were measured in 35 homes during summer and winter. A combination of dust sampling, aerosolization-based microbial source assessment, and long-term inhalable bioaerosol sampling aided in understanding exposure matrices. On average, endotoxin found in the aerosolized fraction accounted for <2% of that measured in the floor dust, suggesting that vacuuming could overestimate inhalation exposures. In contrast, the (1→3)-β-d-glucan levels in the floor dust and aerosolized fractions were mostly comparable, and 25% of the homes showed aerosolizable levels even higher than the dust-borne levels. The seasonal patterns for endotoxin in dust and the aerosolizable fraction were different from those found for (1→3)-β-d-glucan, reflecting the temperature and humidity effects on bacterial and fungal contamination. While the concentration of airborne endotoxin followed the same seasonal trend as endotoxin aerosolized from surfaces, no significant seasonal difference was identified for the concentrations of airborne (1→3)-β-d-glucan and fungal spores. This was attributed to the difference in the particle size; smaller endotoxin-containing particles can remain airborne for longer time than larger fungal spores or (1→3)-β-d-glucan-containing particles. It is also possible that fungal aerosolization in home environments did not reach its full potential. Detectable dust mite allergens were found only in dust samples, and more commonly in occupied homes. Levels of endotoxin, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, and fungi in air had decreased during the two-year period following the flooding as compared to immediate measurements; however, the dust

  7. Impact of thermal processing on legume allergens.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-12-01

    Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.

  8. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A) locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42) located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7). UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8). In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P < 0.01) while for rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01), which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes. PMID:12927090

  9. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    PubMed Central

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. Methods A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. Results HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. Conclusions In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect. PMID:27126724

  10. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

  11. Bioinformatic analysis for allergenicity assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins expressed in insect-resistant food crops.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Grover, Monendra

    2011-02-01

    The novel proteins introduced into the genetically modified (GM) crops need to be evaluated for the potential allergenicity before their introduction into the food chain to address the safety concerns of consumers. At present, there is no single definitive test that can be relied upon to predict allergic response in humans to a new protein; hence a composite approach to allergic response prediction is described in this study. The present study reports on the evaluation of the Cry proteins, encoded by cry1Ac, cry1Ab, cry2Ab, cry1Ca, cry1Fa/cry1Ca hybrid, being expressed in Bt food crops that are under field trials in India, for potential allergenic cross-reactivity using bioinformatics search tools. The sequence identity of amino acids was analyzed using FASTA3 of AllergenOnline version 10.0 and BLASTX of NCBI Entrez to identify any potential sequence matches to allergen proteins. As a step further in the detection of allergens, an independent database of domains in the allergens available in the AllergenOnline database was also developed. The results indicated no significant alignment and similarity of Cry proteins at domain level with any of the known allergens revealing that there is no potential risk of allergenic cross-reactivity.

  12. A hypoallergenic hybrid molecule with increased immunogenicity consisting of derivatives of the major grass pollen allergens, Phl p 2 and Phl p 6.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Vrtala, Susanne; Kneidinger, Michael; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2008-07-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently based on the administration of allergen extracts containing natural allergens. However, its broad application is limited by the poor quality of these extracts. Based on recombinant allergens, well-defined allergy vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy can be produced. Furthermore, they can be modified to reduce their allergenic activity and to avoid IgE-mediated side effects. Here, we demonstrate that the immunogenicity of two grass pollen-derived hypoallergenic allergen derivatives could be increased by engineering them as a single hybrid molecule. We used a hypoallergenic Phl p 2 mosaic, generated by fragmentation of the Phl p 2 sequence and reassembly of the resulting peptides in an altered order, and a truncated Phl p 6 allergen, to produce a hybrid protein. The hybrid retained the reduction of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of its components as shown by ELISA and basophil activation assays. Immunization with the hybrid molecule demonstrated the increased immunogenicity of this molecule, leading to higher levels of allergen-specific IgG antibodies compared to the single components. These antibodies could inhibit patients' IgE binding to the wild-type allergens. Thus, the described strategy allows the development of safer and more efficacious vaccines for the treatment of grass pollen allergy.

  13. Seafood allergy and allergens: a review.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Ayuso, R; Reese, G

    2003-01-01

    Seafoods are composed of diverse sea organisms and humans are allergic to many of them. Tropomyosin is a major allergen in many shellfish, especially crustacea and mollusks. Interestingly, tropomyosin has also been identified as an important allergen in other invertebrates including dust mites and cockroaches, and it has been proposed by some to be an invertebrate pan allergen. Different regions of shrimp tropomyosin bind IgE; 5 major IgE-binding regions have been identified in shrimp tropomyosin containing 8 epitopes. Mutations of these shrimp allergenic epitopes can reduce seafood allergenicity; methods utilizing such mutations will provide safer vaccines for more effective treatment of seafood-allergic patients, and in the future less-allergenic seafood products for consumption.

  14. Food allergens: molecular and immunological aspects, allergen databases and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Anne-Regine; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The currently known food allergens are assigned to a relatively small number of protein families. Food allergens grouped into protein families share common functional and structural features that can be attributed to the allergenic potency and potential cross-reactivity of certain proteins. Molecular data, in terms of structural information, biochemical characteristics and clinical relevance for each known allergen, including isoforms and variants, are mainly compiled into four open-access databases. Allergens are designated according to defined criteria by the World Health Organization and the International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature Sub-committee. Food allergies are caused by primary sensitisation to the disease-eliciting food allergens (class I food allergen), or they can be elicited as a consequence of a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens and subsequent IgE cross-reaction to homologous proteins in food (class II food allergens). Class I and class II allergens display different clinical significance in children and adults and are characterised by different molecular features. In line with this, high stability when exposed to gastrointestinal digestion and heat treatment is attributed to many class I food allergens that frequently induce severe reactions. The stability of a food allergen is determined by its molecular characteristics and can be influenced by structural (chemical) modifications due to thermal processing. Moreover, the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food allergens further depends on specific T cell and B cell epitopes. Although the T cell epitope pattern can be highly diverse for individual patients, several immuno-prominent T cell epitopes have been identified. Such conserved T cell epitopes and IgE cross-reactive B cell epitopes contribute to cross-reactivity between food allergens of the same family and to clinical cross-reactivity, similar to the birch pollen-food syndrome. PMID:26022861

  15. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

  16. Detection of castor allergens in castor wax.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Müller, D J; Salvaggio, J E

    1980-01-01

    The presence of castor bean allergens in castor wax products was determined by in vivo and in vitro analysis of castor wax extracts. Allergens were detected in one extract of castor wax by the PCA reaction in mice, the RAST inhibition reaction, and skin prick test in castor bean sensitive individuals. However, these allergens in the wax were of much lower potency than those in the bean, and were not detectable in a deodorant product utilizing castor wax.

  17. Safety evaluation of standardized allergen extract of Japanese cedar pollen for sublingual immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mitobe, Yuko; Yokomoto, Yasuki; Ohashi-Doi, Katsuyo

    2015-04-01

    Japanese cedar (JC) pollinosis is caused by Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) and most common seasonal allergic disease in Japan. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with allergen extract of JCP (JCP-allergen extract) is well established for JC pollinosis treatment with improvement of symptoms. However, major drawbacks for SCIT are repeated painful injections, frequent hospital visits and anaphylactic risk. Currently, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has received much attention as an advanced alternative application with lower incidence of systemic reactions because the liquid or tablet form of allergen is placed under the tongue. The aim of this study was safety evaluation of standardized JCP-allergen extract currently developed for SLIT in JC pollinosis. JCP-allergen extract showed no potential genotoxicity. No systemic effects were observed in rats administered JCP-allergen extract orally for 26 weeks followed by 4-week recovery period. Mild local reactions such as hyperplasia and increased globule leukocytes resulting from vehicle (glycerin)-induced irritation were observed in stomach. No-observed-adverse-effect level was greater than 10,000 JAU/kg/day for systemic toxicity, equivalent to 300-fold the human dose. No local irritation was found in rabbits oral mucosae by 7-day sublingual administration. These results demonstrate the safe profile of standardized JCP-allergen extract, suggesting it is suitable for SLIT in JC pollinosis.

  18. Glycoproteomic analysis of seven major allergenic proteins reveals novel post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C; Madsen, Caroline Benedicte; Brand, Stephanie; Møller, Svenning Rune; Olsen, Carl Erik; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Brimnes, Jens; Wurtzen, Peter Adler; Ipsen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent L; Wandall, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is still limited. Here, we present a detailed PTM(1) characterization of a series of the main and clinically relevant allergens used in allergy tests and vaccines. We employ Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry with complementary fragmentation techniques (HCD/ETD) for site-specific PTM characterization by bottom-up analysis. In addition, top-down mass spectrometry is utilized for targeted analysis of individual proteins, revealing hitherto unknown PTMs of HDM allergens. We demonstrate the presence of lysine-linked polyhexose glycans and asparagine-linked N-acetylhexosamine glycans on HDM allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines.

  19. Glycoproteomic Analysis of Seven Major Allergenic Proteins Reveals Novel Post-translational Modifications*

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C.; Madsen, Caroline Benedicte; Brand, Stephanie; Møller, Svenning Rune; Olsen, Carl Erik; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Brimnes, Jens; Wurtzen, Peter Adler; Ipsen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent L.; Wandall, Hans H.

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is still limited. Here, we present a detailed PTM1 characterization of a series of the main and clinically relevant allergens used in allergy tests and vaccines. We employ Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry with complementary fragmentation techniques (HCD/ETD) for site-specific PTM characterization by bottom-up analysis. In addition, top-down mass spectrometry is utilized for targeted analysis of individual proteins, revealing hitherto unknown PTMs of HDM allergens. We demonstrate the presence of lysine-linked polyhexose glycans and asparagine-linked N-acetylhexosamine glycans on HDM allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines. PMID:25389185

  20. Evidence of a novel allergenic protein Narcin in the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Mau; Singh, Amar; Shokeen, Akshita; Sharma, Pradeep; Kaushik, Sanket; Mitra, Dipendra K; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2013-01-01

    Several plant-derived allergens have been identified which result in the formation of immunoglobulin E antibodies. Primarily, these allergens belong to the protein families including seed storage proteins, structural proteins and pathogenesis-related proteins. Several allergens are also reported from flower bulbs which cause contact dermatitis. Such symptoms are highly common with the bulb growers handling different species of Narcissus. Narcissus toxicity is also reported if the bulbs are consumed accidentally. The present study aimed to characterize the protein from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta responsible for its allergenic response. A 13 kDa novel allergenic protein, Narcin was isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The protein was further purified by anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation. The allergenicity of the protein was measured by cytokine production using flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Further estimation of total IgE was performed by ELISA method. This novel protein was found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus induce allergy by elevating total IgE level. The novel protein, Narcin isolated from Narcissus tazetta was found to exhibit allergenic properties. PMID:23936740

  1. Influence of 5 Different Caging Types and the Use of Cage-Changing Stations on Mouse Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Feistenauer, Susan; Sander, Ingrid; Schmidt, Jörg; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika; Brielmeier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Animal allergens constitute a serious health risk in laboratory animal facilities. To assess possibilities for allergen reduction by technical and organizational measures, we studied personnel exposure to mouse urinary aeroallergens in an animal facility with a holding capacity of 30,000 cages. Short-term (2 h) and intermediate-term (12 h) stationary samples (n = 107) and short-term (2 h) personnel samples (n = 119) were collected on polytetrafluorethylene filters by using air pumps. Long-term (14 d) stationary dust samples containing airborne allergens (n = 165) were collected with electrostatic dust fall collectors (EDC). Mouse allergens were quantified by ELISA. Personnel samples were collected during bedding disposal and refilling of clean cages as well as during cage changing with and without use of cage-changing station. Animal rooms were equipped with either open cages, cages with a soft filter top, cages with a rigid filter top (static microisolation caging), or with individually ventilated cages (IVC) with either a sealed or nonsealed lid, each in positive- or negative-pressure mode. Highest personnel allergen exposure was detected during cage change and emptying of soiled cages. Allergen concentrations were lowest in rooms with sealed IVC under positive or negative pressure, with unsealed IVC under negative pressure, and with static microisolation caging. The use of cage-changing stations and a vacuum bedding-disposal system reduced median personnel exposures 14- to 25-fold, respectively. Using sealed IVC and changing stations minimized allergen exposure, indicating that state-of-the-art equipment reduces exposure to mouse allergens and decreases health risks among animal facility personnel. PMID:25199090

  2. Influence of 5 different caging types and the use of cage-changing stations on mouse allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Feistenauer, Susan; Sander, Ingrid; Schmidt, Jörg; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika; Brielmeier, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Animal allergens constitute a serious health risk in laboratory animal facilities. To assess possibilities for allergen reduction by technical and organizational measures, we studied personnel exposure to mouse urinary aeroallergens in an animal facility with a holding capacity of 30,000 cages. Short-term (2 h) and intermediate-term (12 h) stationary samples (n = 107) and short-term (2 h) personnel samples (n = 119) were collected on polytetrafluorethylene filters by using air pumps. Long-term (14 d) stationary dust samples containing airborne allergens (n = 165) were collected with electrostatic dust fall collectors (EDC). Mouse allergens were quantified by ELISA. Personnel samples were collected during bedding disposal and refilling of clean cages as well as during cage changing with and without use of cage-changing station. Animal rooms were equipped with either open cages, cages with a soft filter top, cages with a rigid filter top (static microisolation caging), or with individually ventilated cages (IVC) with either a sealed or nonsealed lid, each in positive- or negative-pressure mode. Highest personnel allergen exposure was detected during cage change and emptying of soiled cages. Allergen concentrations were lowest in rooms with sealed IVC under positive or negative pressure, with unsealed IVC under negative pressure, and with static microisolation caging. The use of cage-changing stations and a vacuum bedding-disposal system reduced median personnel exposures 14- to 25-fold, respectively. Using sealed IVC and changing stations minimized allergen exposure, indicating that state-of-the-art equipment reduces exposure to mouse allergens and decreases health risks among animal facility personnel. PMID:25199090

  3. Considerations About Pollen Used for the Production of Allergen Extracts.

    PubMed

    Codina, Rosa; Crenshaw, Rodger C; Lockey, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a biological product obtained to manufacture tree, weed, and grass allergen extracts, used to diagnose and treat allergies. Genetic and environmental factors affect the composition of pollen, e.g., the plant varieties from which pollen are obtained, weather, and levels of air pollution during plant growth. Therefore, appropriate guidelines and training of personnel to perform the activities associated with pollen are essential to produce appropriate allergen extracts. Various regulatory institutions, which vary in different countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, control how such products should be produced. For example, the FDA regulates the manufacturing of pollen extracts but not the quality of the pollen used to prepare them, relying on each manufacturer to set its own standards to do so. To the contrary, European regulatory agencies, including the European Medicines Agency, control both the quality of the pollen and the manufacturing process to produce pollen extracts. Regulatory agencies, allergen manufacturers, scientific institutions, and pollen collection entities should collaborate to develop and implement guidelines appropriate for worldwide use for both the collection and processing of pollen raw materials. This article provides an overview of the subject of pollen for use in allergen extracts.

  4. Considerations About Pollen Used for the Production of Allergen Extracts.

    PubMed

    Codina, Rosa; Crenshaw, Rodger C; Lockey, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a biological product obtained to manufacture tree, weed, and grass allergen extracts, used to diagnose and treat allergies. Genetic and environmental factors affect the composition of pollen, e.g., the plant varieties from which pollen are obtained, weather, and levels of air pollution during plant growth. Therefore, appropriate guidelines and training of personnel to perform the activities associated with pollen are essential to produce appropriate allergen extracts. Various regulatory institutions, which vary in different countries, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, control how such products should be produced. For example, the FDA regulates the manufacturing of pollen extracts but not the quality of the pollen used to prepare them, relying on each manufacturer to set its own standards to do so. To the contrary, European regulatory agencies, including the European Medicines Agency, control both the quality of the pollen and the manufacturing process to produce pollen extracts. Regulatory agencies, allergen manufacturers, scientific institutions, and pollen collection entities should collaborate to develop and implement guidelines appropriate for worldwide use for both the collection and processing of pollen raw materials. This article provides an overview of the subject of pollen for use in allergen extracts. PMID:26004305

  5. Variability of Corylus avellana, L. CorA and profilin pollen allergens expression.

    PubMed

    Ražná, Katarína; Bežo, Milan; Nikolaieva, Natalia; Garkava, Katerina; Brindza, Ján; Ziarovská, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Corylus avellana is the source of inhalant allergies induced by hazel pollen as well as food allergies induced after ingestion of hazelnuts. In this study, real-time PCR approach was used to analyse expression of hazel pollen allergens on the molecular level. Relative quantity of hazelnut allergens Corylus avellana, L. CorA and Corylus avellana, L. pollen profiling in samples from different Ukraine areas were determining and comparing. Differences among the levels of both analysed allergen transcripts were found for hazel CorA and profillin. In both cases, the expression within the urbanized growth conditions was higher when compared to the sample from village area. The average expression for CorA was 0.84 times higher than for profilin and the results are very variable depending on the place of growth. Expression levels here were within the range of 2.957 up to the 52.936. Profilin expression was the highest in the sample from the polluted place of growth-cement plant area with the value of 52 times higher when compared to the sample from the village area. In this study, comparison of expression levels of hazel CorA and profiling pollen allergens was performed for the first time. Real-time PCR assay developed in this study proved the sensitivity for detection of the changes of the hazel pollen allergens expression levels and could benefit labs by fast and reproducible detection method of these allergens.

  6. Fraxinus pollen and allergen concentrations in Ourense (South-western Europe).

    PubMed

    Vara, A; Fernández-González, M; Aira, M J; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J

    2016-05-01

    In temperate zones of North-Central Europe the sensitization to ash pollen is a recognized problem, also extended to the Northern areas of the Mediterranean basin. Some observations in Switzerland suggest that ash pollen season could be as important as birch pollen period. The allergenic significance of this pollen has been poorly studied in Southern Europe as the amounts of ash pollen are low. Due to the high degree of family relationship with the olive pollen major allergen (backed by a sequence identity of 88%), the Fraxinus pollen could be a significant cause of early respiratory allergy in sensitized people to olive pollen as consequence of cross-reactivity processes. Ash tree flowers in the Northwestern Spain during the winter months. The atmospheric presence of Ole e 1-like proteins (which could be related with the Fra a 1 presence) can be accurately detected using Ole e 1 antibodies. The correlation analysis showed high Spearman correlation coefficients between pollen content and rainfall (R(2)=-0.333, p<0.01) or allergen concentration and maximum temperature (R(2)=-0.271, p<0.01). In addiction CCA analysis showed not significant differences (p<0.05) between the component 1 and 2 variables. PCFA analysis plots showed that the allergen concentrations are related to the presence of the Fraxinus pollen in the air, facilitating the wind speed its submicronic allergen proteins dispersion. In order to forecast the Fraxinus allergy risk periods, two regression equations were developed with Adjusted R(2) values around 0.48-0.49. The t-test for dependent samples shows no significant differences between the observed data and the estimated by the equations. The combination of the airborne pollen content and the allergen quantification must be assessed in the epidemiologic study of allergic respiratory diseases.

  7. Fraxinus pollen and allergen concentrations in Ourense (South-western Europe).

    PubMed

    Vara, A; Fernández-González, M; Aira, M J; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J

    2016-05-01

    In temperate zones of North-Central Europe the sensitization to ash pollen is a recognized problem, also extended to the Northern areas of the Mediterranean basin. Some observations in Switzerland suggest that ash pollen season could be as important as birch pollen period. The allergenic significance of this pollen has been poorly studied in Southern Europe as the amounts of ash pollen are low. Due to the high degree of family relationship with the olive pollen major allergen (backed by a sequence identity of 88%), the Fraxinus pollen could be a significant cause of early respiratory allergy in sensitized people to olive pollen as consequence of cross-reactivity processes. Ash tree flowers in the Northwestern Spain during the winter months. The atmospheric presence of Ole e 1-like proteins (which could be related with the Fra a 1 presence) can be accurately detected using Ole e 1 antibodies. The correlation analysis showed high Spearman correlation coefficients between pollen content and rainfall (R(2)=-0.333, p<0.01) or allergen concentration and maximum temperature (R(2)=-0.271, p<0.01). In addiction CCA analysis showed not significant differences (p<0.05) between the component 1 and 2 variables. PCFA analysis plots showed that the allergen concentrations are related to the presence of the Fraxinus pollen in the air, facilitating the wind speed its submicronic allergen proteins dispersion. In order to forecast the Fraxinus allergy risk periods, two regression equations were developed with Adjusted R(2) values around 0.48-0.49. The t-test for dependent samples shows no significant differences between the observed data and the estimated by the equations. The combination of the airborne pollen content and the allergen quantification must be assessed in the epidemiologic study of allergic respiratory diseases. PMID:26901381

  8. Quantitative methods for food allergens: a review.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Stéphanie; Fourdrilis, Séverine; Dobson, Rowan; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; De Pauw, Edwin

    2009-09-01

    The quantitative detection of allergens in the food chain is a strategic health objective as the prevalence of allergy continues to rise. Food allergenicity is caused by proteins either in their native form or in forms resulting from food processing. Progress in mass spectrometry greatly opened up the field of proteomics. These advances are now available for the detection and the quantification of traces of allergenic proteins in complex mixtures, and complete the set of biological tests used until now, such as ELISA or PCR. We review methods classified according to their ability to simultaneously quantify and identify allergenic proteins and underline major advances in the mass-spectrometric methods.

  9. Extraction and analysis of coffee bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; Karr, R M; Salvaggio, J E

    1978-05-01

    Workers in the coffee industry can develop occupational allergic disease upon exposure to dust associated with coffee manufacturing. Since controversy exists as to the source or chemical nature of these allergens, the mouse model of reaginic antibody production was used to assess the potential sources of allergens in samples obtained from a local coffee manufacturing plant. Mice were immunized with extracts of coffee dust and beans and the resulting reaginic antibody response determined by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Cross-reacting allergens were detected in samples of coffee dust, cleaner can debris and green coffee beans, but not in chaff or roasted coffee beans. None of the allergens detected in coffee samples cross-reacted with extract of castor beans, although these extracts contained the potent castor bean allergen. Green coffee bean allergens partially purified by gel filtration were heterogeneous with respect to molecular size, although quite similar in their reactivity with reaginic antiserum. These results suggest that the green coffee bean is the major source of allergen in coffee manufacturing plants. This allergen is heterogeneous with respect to size and heat lability, and is immunochemically different from the castor bean allergen.

  10. Protein digestibility and relevance to allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Gary; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kimber, Ian; Hinton, Dennis M

    2003-06-01

    In January 2001 a Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Consultation Committee on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology published a report outlining in detail an approach for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins. One component of this decision tree is a determination of whether the protein of interest is resistant to proteolytic digestion. Although these (Italic)in vitro(/Italic) methodologies have been useful, the correlation between resistance to proteolysis and allergenic activity is not absolute. Two views and highlights of supporting research regarding the relationship of resistance to digestion and allergenicity are presented in this article.

  11. Exploring the relationship between a ground-based network and airborne CCN spectra observed at the cloud level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, C.; Roberts, G. C.; Ritchie, J.; Creamean, J.; White, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are aerosol particles that participate in the formation of clouds, and consequently, play a significant role in the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on atmospheric processes and climate change. Ultimately, the CCN of the most interest occupy the part of the atmosphere where cloud processes are occurring. A question arises as to whether in-cloud CCN are properly represented by the measurements of CCN at the ground level. While different locations may result in different answers depending upon local meteorology, the data set collected during CalWater 2011 may allow us to answer to what degree the ground-based observations of CCN are sufficient for evaluating cloud micro-physics over California's Central Valley and the lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. During CalWater 2011, ground observations were performed at three different altitudes to assess the evolution of cloud-active aerosols as they were transported from sources in California's Central Valley to the lower slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. CCN spectra were collected over a supersaturation range of 0.08 to 0.80%. Results from these data sets show a diurnal cycle with aerosol concentrations increasing during the afternoon and retreating during the night. In addition, a CCN instrument was placed aboard aircraft for several flights and was able to collect vertical profiles that encompassed the altitudes of the ground sites. The flight data shows a large drop in CCN concentration above the boundary layer and suggests the highest altitude ground site at China Wall ( 1540 masl)was sometimes above the Central Valley boundary layer. By using estimates of boundary layer heights over the mid-altitude site at Sugar Pine Dam (1060 masl), the events when the China Wall site is near or above the boundary layer are identified. During these events, the CCN measurements at China Wall best represent in-cloud CCN behavior. The results of this analysis may be applied towards a

  12. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers

  13. An analytical program for determination and confirmation of airborne levels of chemical agent in the event of a suspected release

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, D.G.; Jakubowski, E.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Monitoring Branch Laboratory of the US Army Operations Directorate, Chemical Support Division is uniquely outfitted to respond quickly when the need arises to identify and measure atmospheric contamination levels of military unique compounds. Samples collected with a vacuum pump on solid sorbent tubes are initially screened using gas chromatography (GC) and a sulfur/phosphorus specific detector to determine and quantify the presence or absence of contaminants. Positive samples from the first stage of testing are subjected to subsequent analysis with different detectors to confirm genuine positives and eliminate false positives. Subsequent testing provides information during follow-up and site remediation activities through screening of soil and other environmental samples. Monitoring Branch uses Depot Area Air Monitoring Systems (DAAMS) technology in which a sample is collected onto a solid sorbent tube, and subsequently analyzed through thermal desorption of the sample into a gas chromatograph equipped with a simultaneous dual Flame Photometric Detector (FPD) for sulfur and phosphorus detection. Confirmation is accomplished using the same solid sorbent/thermal desorption/GC instrumentation with Atomic Emission Detection to confirm through elemental analysis and Mass Spectrophotometric Detection for structural confirmation. Soil and other environmental samples such as building debris are extracted manually using an organic solvent and analyzed using DAAMS technology and the same variety of detectors.

  14. Physical protection against airborne pathogens and pollutants by a novel animal isolator in a level 3 containment laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Wathes, C. M.; Johnson, H. E.

    1991-01-01

    A containment laboratory unit for research with aerosols of group 2 pathogenic microorganisms is described. The design criteria are based on current UK guidelines, which imply containment at group 3 level during aerosol production, storage, exposure of animals and sampling. Within the aerosol laboratory, primary containment is provided by a Henderson apparatus operating at a negative pressure to the external environment. Flexible film isolators under negative pressure are used for all hazardous microbiological work, e.g. tissue homogenization, and for housing infected laboratory rodents. A novel feature of the animal isolator is the separate ventilation of each cage, which minimizes the risk of cross-infection by aerosol transmission and ensures a similar environment within each cage. The results of an intentional release of a cloud of non-pathogenic microorganisms are presented to show the effectiveness of the containment barriers. Recommendations are given for the safe operation of a containment unit based upon practical experience. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1908783

  15. House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the

  16. Food allergen detection methods: a coordinated approach.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Philip R

    2004-01-01

    The levels (1-2%) and increasing severity of allergic responses to food in the adult population are well documented, as is the phenomenon of even higher (3-8%) and apparently increasing incidence in children, albeit that susceptibility decreases with age. Problematic foods include peanut, milk, eggs, tree nuts, and sesame, but the list is growing as awareness continues to rise. The amounts of such foods that can cause allergic reactions is difficult to gauge; however, the general consensus is that ingestion of low parts per million is sufficient to cause severe reactions in badly affected individuals. Symptoms can rapidly-within minutes-progress from minor discomfort to severe, even life-threatening anaphylactic shock in those worst affected. Given the combination of high incidence of atopy, potential severity of response, and apparently widespread instances of "hidden" allergens in the food supply, it is not surprising that this issue is increasingly subject to legislative and regulatory scrutiny. In order to assist in the control of allergen levels in foods to acceptable levels, analysts require a combination of test methods, each designed to produce accurate, timely, and cost-effective analytical information. Such information contributes significantly to Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs to determine food manufacturers' risk and improves the accuracy of monitoring and surveillance by food industry, commercial, and enforcement laboratories. Analysis thereby facilitates improvements in compliance with labeling laws with concomitant reductions in risks to atopic consumers. This article describes a combination of analytical approaches to fulfill the various needs of these 3 analytical communities.

  17. Looking through the haze: evaluating the CALIPSO level 2 aerosol optical depth using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Young, S. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Harper, D. B.; Cook, A. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2014-06-01

    error contribute to both positive and negative errors in the CALIOP column AOD, including multiple layers in the column of different aerosol types, lidar ratio errors, cloud misclassification, and undetected aerosol layers. The undetected layers were further investigated and we found that the layer detection algorithm works well at night, although undetected aerosols in the free troposphere introduce a mean underestimate of 0.02 in the column AOD in the dataset examined. The decreased SNR during the daytime led to poorer performance of the layer detection. This caused the daytime CALIOP column AOD to be less accurate than during the nighttime because CALIOP frequently does not detect optically thin aerosol layers with AOD < 0.1. Given that the median vertical extent of aerosol detected within any column was 1.6 km during the nighttime and 1.5 km during the daytime we can estimate the minimum extinction detection threshold to be 0.012 km-1 at night and 0.067 km-1 during the daytime in a layer median sense. This extensive validation of level 2 CALIOP aerosol layer optical depth products extends previous validation studies to nighttime lighting conditions and provides independent measurements of the lidar ratio, thus allowing the assessment of the effect on the CALIOP AOD of using inappropriate lidar ratio values in the extinction retrieval.

  18. Looking through the haze: evaluating the CALIPSO level 2 aerosol optical depth using airborne high spectral resolution lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Young, S. A.; Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Harper, D. B.; Cook, A. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    error contribute to both positive and negative errors in the CALIOP column AOD, including multiple layers in the column of different aerosol types, lidar ratio errors, cloud misclassification, and undetected aerosol layers. The undetected layers were further investigated and we found that the layer detection algorithm works well at night, although undetected aerosols in the free troposphere introduce a mean underestimate of 0.02 in the column AOD in the data set examined. The decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) during the daytime led to poorer performance of the layer detection. This caused the daytime CALIOP column AOD to be less accurate than during the nighttime, because CALIOP frequently does not detect optically thin aerosol layers with AOD < 0.1. Given that the median vertical extent of aerosol detected within any column was 1.6 km during the nighttime and 1.5 km during the daytime, we can estimate the minimum extinction detection threshold to be 0.012 km-1 at night and 0.067 km-1 during the daytime in a layer median sense. This extensive validation of level 2 CALIOP AOD products extends previous validation studies to nighttime lighting conditions and provides independent measurements of the lidar ratio; thus, allowing the assessment of the effect on the CALIOP AOD of using inappropriate lidar ratio values in the extinction retrieval.

  19. Efficient and sensitive identification and quantification of airborne pollen using next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; de Weger, Letty A; Ventayol García, Marina; Buermans, Henk; Frank, Jeroen; Hiemstra, Pieter S; den Dunnen, Johan T

    2015-01-01

    Pollen monitoring is an important and widely used tool in allergy research and creation of awareness in pollen-allergic patients. Current pollen monitoring methods are microscope-based, labour intensive and cannot identify pollen to the genus level in some relevant allergenic plant groups. Therefore, a more efficient, cost-effective and sensitive method is needed. Here, we present a method for identification and quantification of airborne pollen using DNA sequencing. Pollen is collected from ambient air using standard techniques. DNA is extracted from the collected pollen, and a fragment of the chloroplast gene trnL is amplified using PCR. The PCR product is subsequently sequenced on a next-generation sequencing platform (Ion Torrent). Amplicon molecules are sequenced individually, allowing identification of different sequences from a mixed sample. We show that this method provides an accurate qualitative and quantitative view of the species composition of samples of airborne pollen grains. We also show that it correctly identifies the individual grass genera present in a mixed sample of grass pollen, which cannot be achieved using microscopic pollen identification. We conclude that our method is more efficient and sensitive than current pollen monitoring techniques and therefore has the potential to increase the throughput of pollen monitoring.

  20. Airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium species and relationship with meteorological conditions in Eskisehir City, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Asan, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Veysel; Pehlivan, Sevil; Okten, Suzan Sarica

    2008-09-01

    Alternaria and Cladosporium, known as the most allergenic spores were first collected by means of Durham gravimetric sampler from Eskisehir atmosphere from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. The daily, monthly and annual variations in spores/cm(2) of Cladosporium and Alternaria were recorded. During this period, a total of 10.231 spores belonging to Cladosporium and Alternaria genera were recorded. Of these spores, 5,103 were identified in 2000 and 5,128 in 2001. While 63.09% of the total spores were those of Cladosporium, 36.91% were of Alternaria. Relationships between airborne fungal spore presence and meteorological conditions were statistically investigated. A Shapiro-Wilk test revealed that the airborne Cladosporium and Alternaria spores differed from a normal distribution. Thus, a Friedmann test was performed followed by a Pearson Correlation Analysis. The effects of rainfall, temperature and wind speed on Cladosporium and Alternaria numbers were non-significant according to the sites and months (p > 0.05), but the effects of relative humidity on Cladosporium and Alternaria numbers were significant (p < 0.01). Spore concentrations reached to their highest levels in May 2001.

  1. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    PubMed Central

    Zuiker, Rob G.J.A.; Tribouley, Catherine; Diamant, Zuzana; Boot, J. Diderik; Cohen, Adam F.; Van Dyck, K.; De Lepeleire, I.; Rivas, Veronica M.; Malkov, Vladislav A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Ruddy, Marcella K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects. Objectives To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints measured in this study. Methods Thirteen non-smoking, allergic subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 2-period cross-over study following a single-blind placebo run-in period. Each period consisted of three consecutive days, separated by a wash-out period of at least 3 weeks. Subjects randomly received inhaled fluticasone ((FP) MDI; 500 mcg BID×5 doses in total) or placebo. On day 2, house dust mite extract was inhaled and airway response was measured by FEV1 at predefined time points until 7 h post-allergen. Sputum was induced by NaCl 4.5%, processed and analysed at 24 h pre-allergen and 7 and 24 h post-allergen. RNA was isolated from eligible sputum cell pellets (<80% squamous of 500 cells), amplified according to NuGEN technology, and profiled on Affymetrix arrays. Gene expression changes from baseline and fluticasone treatment effects were evaluated using a mixed effects ANCOVA model at 7 and at 24 h post-allergen challenge. Results Inhaled allergen-induced statistically significant gene expression changes in sputum, which were effectively blunted by fluticasone (adjusted p<0.025). Forty-seven RNA signatures were selected from these responses for correlation analyses and further validation. This included Th2 mRNA levels for cytokines, chemokines, high-affinity IgE receptor FCER1A, histamine receptor HRH4, and enzymes and receptors in the arachidonic pathway. Individual messengers from the 47 RNA signatures correlated significantly

  2. A mechanistic modeling system for estimating large scale emissions and transport of pollen and co-allergens.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, Christos; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2011-04-01

    Allergic airway diseases represent a complex health problem which can be exacerbated by the synergistic action of pollen particles and air pollutants such as ozone. Understanding human exposures to aeroallergens requires accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of airborne pollen levels as well as of various air pollutants at different times. However, currently there are no established methods for estimating allergenic pollen emissions and concentrations over large geographic areas such as the United States. A mechanistic modeling system for describing pollen emissions and transport over extensive domains has been developed by adapting components of existing regional scale air quality models and vegetation databases. First, components of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) were adapted to predict pollen emission patterns. Subsequently, the transport module of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system was modified to incorporate description of pollen transport. The combined model, CMAQ-pollen, allows for simultaneous prediction of multiple air pollutants and pollen levels in a single model simulation, and uses consistent assumptions related to the transport of multiple chemicals and pollen species. Application case studies for evaluating the combined modeling system included the simulation of birch and ragweed pollen levels for the year 2002, during their corresponding peak pollination periods (April for birch and September for ragweed). The model simulations were driven by previously evaluated meteorological model outputs and emissions inventories for the eastern United States for the simulation period. A semi-quantitative evaluation of CMAQ-pollen was performed using tree and ragweed pollen counts in Newark, NJ for the same time periods. The peak birch pollen concentrations were predicted to occur within two days of the peak measurements, while the temporal patterns closely followed the measured profiles of overall tree pollen

  3. Biochemical and molecular biological aspects of silverfish allergens.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Bianca; Di Felice, Gabriella; Pini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Insects and insect-derived materials have been implicated as a risk factor for sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic rhinitis and allergic bronchial asthma. During the last decades, insects other than those known as allergenic, were investigated for their potential role in inducing and triggering an IgE immune response. Among these, the silverfish, an insect belonging to the Thysanura order, appeared to be of particular interest. Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is the most primitive living insect, and represents a descendent of the ancestral wingless insects. They are 3-12 mm long, have three tail feelers and are covered with shiny scales. They shun light and need a humid environment and their diet consists of carbohydrate materials such as paper and book-binding glue, crumbs of bread and flour. Because of these features, silverfish finds an optimal habitat both in dwellings and workplaces and in spite of its antiquity, silverfish has succeeded in exploiting the new opportunity created by man. Although its importance significantly increased when it has been demonstrated that house dust contains significant silverfish levels even in houses where the inhabitants were unaware of its presence, no silverfish extract for diagnosis of allergic diseases is commercially available yet. Identification of optimal extraction conditions and characterization of allergenic extracts are the first steps to obtain an effective allergen preparation suitable for diagnosis and therapy, and will be useful as a reference preparation for assessing silverfish exposure in different indoor environments. It has been cloned and characterized a silverfish tropomyosin, named Lep s 1, which represents the first allergen identified in silverfish extract and can be regarded as a molecule cross-reactive among inhalant and edible invertebrates allergenic sources. rLep s 1 displayed biological activity, suggesting that it could be regarded as a useful tool to study the role of silverfish

  4. Food allergen detection with biosensor immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Yman, Ingrid Malmheden; Eriksson, Anders; Johansson, M Annette; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    An optical biosensor was used to develop both direct and sandwich immunoassays for the detection of proteins from milk, egg, hazelnut, peanut, shellfish, and sesame in food samples. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies raised against the proteins were immobilized on the biosensor chip. Food samples were injected and the proteins that bound to the antibodies on the surface were detected by a shift in the resonance angle. By adding a second antibody in a sandwich assay, matrix effects could be overcome and the sensitivity and selectivity enhanced. Detection of allergen levels down to 1-12.5 microg/g in food samples was demonstrated for the various assays. Good agreement of results was also obtained from parallel analysis with alternative immunoassays, including rocket immunoelectrophoresis, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoblotting. The present study demonstrates that the sensitivity of the described biosensor technique is comparable to the most sensitive enzymed-linked immunosorbent assays.

  5. Guilt by intimate association: what makes an allergen an allergen?

    PubMed

    Karp, Christopher L

    2010-05-01

    Why specific, ubiquitous, otherwise innocuous environmental proteins tend to provoke maladaptive, T(H)2-polarized immune responses in susceptible hosts is a fundamental mechanistic question for those interested in the pathogenesis, therapy, and prevention of allergic disease. The current renaissance in the study of innate immunity has provided important insights into this question. The theme emerging from recent studies is that direct (dys)functional interactions with pathways of innate immune activation that evolved to signal the presence of microbial infection are central to the molecular basis for allergenicity. This article reviews these data.

  6. Advances in allergen immunotherapy: aiming for complete tolerance to allergens.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-03-25

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for more than 100 years as a tolerance-inducing therapy for allergic diseases and represents a potentially curative method of treatment. AIT functions through multiple mechanisms, including regulating T and B cell responses, changing antibody isotypes, and decreasing mediator release and migration of eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells to affected tissues. Despite the relative success of AIT, attempts are being made to improve this therapy in order to overcome problems in standardization, efficacy, safety, long duration of treatment, and costs. These have led to the development of biotechnological products with successful clinical results.

  7. Airway uric acid is a sensor of inhaled protease allergens and initiates type 2 immune responses in respiratory mucosa1

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Kenichiro; Iijima, Koji; Elias, Martha K.; Seno, Satoshi; Tojima, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M.; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    While type 2 immune responses to environmental antigens are thought to play pivotal roles in asthma and allergic airway diseases, the immunological mechanisms that initiate the responses are largely unknown. Many allergens have biologic activities, including enzymatic activities and abilities to engage innate pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR4. Here we report that IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were produced quickly in the lungs of naïve mice exposed to cysteine proteases, such as bromelain and papain, as a model for allergens. IL-33 and TSLP sensitized naïve animals to an innocuous airway antigen OVA, which resulted in production of type 2 cytokines and IgE antibody and eosinophilic airway inflammation when mice were challenged with the same antigen. Importantly, upon exposure to proteases, uric acid (UA) was rapidly released into the airway lumen, and removal of this endogenous UA by uricase prevented type 2 immune responses. UA promoted secretion of IL-33 by airway epithelial cells in vitro, and administration of UA into the airways of naïve animals induced extracellular release of IL-33, followed by both innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses in vivo. Finally, a potent UA synthesis inhibitor, febuxostat, mitigated asthma phenotypes that were caused by repeated exposure to natural airborne allergens. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the development of type 2 immunity to airborne allergens and recognize airway UA as a key player that regulates the process in respiratory mucosa. PMID:24663677

  8. Evaluating variability of allergens in commodity crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops with significant food allergen issues, include legumes, peanut and soybean, cereal grains, such as wheat and maize, and tree nuts (walnut, Brazil nut, among other phylogenetically diverse species) (Teuber et al. 2006). Officially recognized allergenic proteins may include one or multiple prot...

  9. Recombinant allergen-based provocation testing☆

    PubMed Central

    Niederberger, Verena; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Pauli, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, recombinant allergens from all important allergen sources have been cloned and are now available as recombinant proteins. These molecules can be produced in practically unlimited amounts without biological or batch-to-batch variability. It has been shown in provocation tests that recombinant allergens have similar clinical effects as their natural counterparts. With the help of these tools it is possible to reveal the precise reactivity profiles of patients and to uncover and differentiate cross-reactivity from genuine sensitization to an allergen source. Although it has been shown some time ago that it would be possible to replace crude allergen extracts with recombinant allergens for skin prick testing, and even though the use of allergen components can improve routine diagnosis, these tools are still not available for clinical routine applications. The use of provocation tests is a crucial step in the development of new, hypoallergenic vaccines for therapy of allergic disease. Here we describe important provocation methods (skin prick test, intradermal test, atopy patch test, nasal provocation, colonoscopic provocation test) and give an overview of the clinical provocation studies which have been performed with recombinant allergens so far. PMID:23920475

  10. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  11. Vacuolar Serine Protease Is a Major Allergen of Fusarium proliferatum and an IgE-Cross Reactive Pan-Fungal Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chang-Ching; Tai, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Hong; Wu, Keh-Gong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fusarium species are among prevalent airborne fungi and causative agents of human respiratory atopic disorders. We previously identified a 36.5-kDa F. proliferatum component recognized by IgE antibodies in 9 (53%) of the 17 F. proliferatum-sensitized atopic serum samples. The purpose of this study is to characterize the 36.5-kDa allergen of F. proliferatum. Methods Characterization of allergens and determination of IgE cross-reactivity were performed by cDNA cloning/expression and immunoblot inhibition studies. Results Based on the finding that the 36.5-kDa IgE-binding component reacted with the mouse monoclonal antibody FUM20 against fungal vacuolar serine protease allergens, the cDNA of F. proliferatum vacuolar serine protease (Fus p 9.0101) was subsequently cloned. Nine serum samples from respiratory atopic patients with IgE binding to the vacuolar serine protease allergen of Penicillium chrysogenum (Pen ch 18) also showed IgE-immunoblot reactivity to rFus p 9.0101. The purified rFus p 9.0101 can inhibit IgE and FUM20 binding to the 36.5-kDa component of F. proliferatum. Thus, a novel and important Fus p 9.0101 was identified. The rPen ch 18 can inhibit IgE binding to Fus p 9.0101. It indicates that IgE cross-reactivity between Fus p 9.0101 and Pen ch 18 also exists. Furthermore, neither rFus p 9.0101 K88A nor rPen ch 18 K89A mutants inhibited IgE binding to rFus p 9.0101. Lys88 was considered a critical core amino acid in IgE binding to r Fus p 9.0101 and a residue responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between Fus p 9.0101 and Pen ch 18 allergens. Conclusions Results obtained from this study indicate that vacuolar serine protease may be a major allergen of F. proliferatum and an important IgE cross-reactive pan-fungal allergen, and provide important bases for clinical diagnosis of fungal allergy. PMID:27334782

  12. Changes in the antigenicity and allergenicity of ovalbumin in chicken egg white by N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Yoon, Taek Joon; Kim, Ha Hyung; Han, Young Shin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2017-02-15

    Ovalbumin (OVA), an (hen) egg allergen, is one of the most abundant glycoprotein allergens associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity through the T-helper type 2 immune response. The effect of deglycosylation of the N-terminal glycan in OVA on allergenicity and antigenicity after N-acetylglucosaminidase treatment was studied. N-acetylglucosaminidase-treated OVA (N-OVA) evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. N-OVA significantly (p<0.05) OVA-specific IgE and histamine levels. In addition, N-OVA decreased the antigenicity of OVA 1000-fold. These results suggest that the degree of allergenicity and antigenicity reduced with deglycosylation of N-terminal glycan in OVA. PMID:27664643

  13. Changes in the antigenicity and allergenicity of ovalbumin in chicken egg white by N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Yoon, Taek Joon; Kim, Ha Hyung; Han, Young Shin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2017-02-15

    Ovalbumin (OVA), an (hen) egg allergen, is one of the most abundant glycoprotein allergens associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity through the T-helper type 2 immune response. The effect of deglycosylation of the N-terminal glycan in OVA on allergenicity and antigenicity after N-acetylglucosaminidase treatment was studied. N-acetylglucosaminidase-treated OVA (N-OVA) evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. N-OVA significantly (p<0.05) OVA-specific IgE and histamine levels. In addition, N-OVA decreased the antigenicity of OVA 1000-fold. These results suggest that the degree of allergenicity and antigenicity reduced with deglycosylation of N-terminal glycan in OVA.

  14. Expression and characterization of Pen b 26 allergen of Penicillium brevicompactum in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, M Serdal; Kumar, Veena; Abebe, Makonnen; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Vincent, Renaud; Vijay, Hari M

    2009-05-01

    Pen b 26 is one of the allergens produced by Penicillium brevicompactum which is one of the most prevalent in door airborne fungi and a major source of respiratory problems, including asthma. Pen b 26 wa scloned and expressed as an N-terminal as well as a C-terminal His6 tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. This allergen was purified by immobilized Ni2+-affinity chromatography. The purified Pen b 26 was characterized by immunological, biochemical and biophysical methods. C-His6 tagged Pen b 26 produced several fold greater yield than N-His6 tagged Pen b 26. The affinity of C-His6 tagged Pen b 26 for the specific antibody was also 2.75 times higher than N-His6 tagged Pen b 26

  15. Expression and characterization of Pen b 26 allergen of Penicillium brevicompactum in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, M Serdal; Kumar, Veena; Abebe, Makonnen; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Vincent, Renaud; Vijay, Hari M

    2009-05-01

    Pen b 26 is one of the allergens produced by Penicillium brevicompactum which is one of the most prevalent in door airborne fungi and a major source of respiratory problems, including asthma. Pen b 26 wa scloned and expressed as an N-terminal as well as a C-terminal His6 tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. This allergen was purified by immobilized Ni2+-affinity chromatography. The purified Pen b 26 was characterized by immunological, biochemical and biophysical methods. C-His6 tagged Pen b 26 produced several fold greater yield than N-His6 tagged Pen b 26. The affinity of C-His6 tagged Pen b 26 for the specific antibody was also 2.75 times higher than N-His6 tagged Pen b 26 PMID:19248220

  16. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs.

  17. From allergen genes to allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Valenta, Rudolf; Ferreira, Fatima; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Linhart, Birgit; Niederberger, Verena; Swoboda, Ines; Vrtala, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. The structures of the most common allergens have been revealed through molecular cloning technology in the past two decades. On the basis of this knowledge of the sequences and three-dimensional structures of culprit allergens, investigators can now analyze the immune recognition of allergens and the mechanisms of allergic inflammation in allergic patients. Allergy vaccines have been constructed that are able to selectively target the aberrant immune responses in allergic patients via different pathways of the immune system. Here we review various types of allergy vaccines that have been developed based on allergen structures, results from their clinical application in allergic patients, and future strategies for allergen-specific immunotherapy and allergy prophylaxis.

  18. Molecular and immunological characterization of shellfish allergens.

    PubMed

    Leung, P S; Chu, K H

    1998-03-15

    Shellfish (crustaceans and mollusks) have long been known as a common cause of allergic reactions to food. Like other food allergies, the allergic reactions to shellfish involve IgE-mediated Type I hypersensitivity. Biochemical and molecular studies have documented the major shrimp allergen is the muscle protein tropomyosin. Subsequent molecular cloning studies on lobsters and crabs have characterized this protein as the common allergen in crustaceans. There has also been strong immunological evidence that tropomyosin is a cross-reactive allergen among crustaceans and mollusks. This is further confirmed by recent studies on the identification of allergens in squid and abalone. The advances in the characterization of shellfish allergens will not only enhance our understanding on the physiological basis of shellfish allergy but also lay the groundwork for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic design in food allergies.

  19. Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-18

    Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) Wednesday, October 26, 2016 Join us on ... based on high-level parameter groups, mission, platform and flight data ranges are available. Registration is now open.  Access the full ...

  20. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F.; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beckett, William S.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  1. Food allergen sensitization pattern in adults in relation to severity of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on the frequency of IgE mediated food sensitization and food allergy (FA) in adults with atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective We investigated the pattern of food sensitization in adults with AD in relation to AD severity using multiplexed allergen microarray. Methods 211 adult patients referred between January 2010-July 2011 for evaluation of AD were unselectively included. Severity of AD was determined by therapy intensity, SASSAD-skin-score and sTARC levels. Allergen specific sIgE levels were measured by ImmunoCAP ISAC® microarray. FA was defined as convincing history taken by physician and sensitization to the corresponding allergen. Results Sensitization to food was found in 74.4% of the AD patients, 54% had a positive history of FA and 20.4% asymptomatic sensitization. There was no association between severity of AD and frequency of food sensitization or history of FA. Sensitization to PR-10 related food allergens occurred most frequently (63.5%) and was independent from AD severity. Correspondingly, pollen-food syndrome accounted for most of the FA, being also independent from AD severity. Of all plant food allergens only sensitization to nAra h 1 was significantly more frequent in patients with severe AD. In the total group 75 (35.5%) patients with AD showed sensitization to any animal food allergen. The percentage was significantly higher in patients with severe AD (51.4%) compared to patients with mild/moderate AD (27.7%). Sensitization to cow’s milk allergens, in particular to nBos d lactoferrin, was more frequent in severe AD patients. Conclusion AD was frequently associated with food sensitization. The percentage of sensitization to animal food allergens was significantly higher in severe AD patients. PMID:24679244

  2. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  3. Latex protein: a hidden "food" allergen?

    PubMed

    Beezhold, D H; Reschke, J E; Allen, J H; Kostyal, D A; Sussman, G L

    2000-01-01

    Avoidance of latex allergens is the primary method to prevent adverse reactions. Natural rubber latex is found in many different products in both the health care industry and in modern society, and consequently results in unexpected exposures of sensitized individuals. The use of latex gloves by food handlers provides one potential route for inadvertent exposure to latex allergens. In this study we have used two immunological methods to determine whether latex proteins are transferred to foods following contact with latex gloves. Direct transfer of latex protein to cheese was visualized using a modified immunoblot method. Sliced cheese was touched with a gloved finger. A nitrocellulose membrane was applied to lift the potential fingerprints and a rabbit anti-latex antiserum was used to visualize the transfer of any latex finger-prints. After handling lettuce with gloves, transferred protein was recovered by extracting the lettuce and quantified using an inhibition ELISA for latex proteins. Fingerprints of latex protein were readily detectable on cheese after contact with powdered latex gloves, but not with vinyl gloves. Furthermore, powdered latex glove use resulted in measurable amounts of latex protein on lettuce with an exposure-dependent increase in the latex protein levels. Lettuce alone or lettuce handled with vinyl gloves was negative for latex protein. The use of latex gloves by food handlers is the source of an indirect food additive in the form of latex proteins. It is recommended that food handlers avoid the use of latex gloves to eliminate inadvertent exposure of latex-sensitive individuals. PMID:11061040

  4. Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

  5. Effects of NO2 and Ozone on Pollen Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Ulrike; Ernst, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes the available data of the air pollutants NO2 and ozone on allergenic pollen from different plant species, focusing on potentially allergenic components of the pollen, such as allergen content, protein release, IgE-binding, or protein modification. Various in vivo and in vitro studies on allergenic pollen are shown and discussed. PMID:26870080

  6. Environmental exposure to cockroach allergens: analysis with monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Pollart, S M; Smith, T F; Morris, E C; Gelber, L E; Platts-Mills, T A; Chapman, M D

    1991-02-01

    Quantitative two-site monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based enzyme-linked immunoassays for two cockroach (CR) allergens, Bla g I and Bla g II, have been developed and used to measure allergen levels in house-dust samples. Dust collected from the CR-infested homes of two patients with asthma from Charlottesville, Va., demonstrated wide variation in the levels of Bla g I, depending on the location of dust collection. Dust from kitchen floors and cabinets contained 50-fold more allergen (mean, 10,755 U/gm of dust) than dust from bedrooms and upholstered furniture (mean, 204 U/gm). One hundred forty-five dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and living rooms of 22 children with asthma and 16 control subjects without asthma living in Atlanta, Ga. Twenty-seven of the 38 homes (17/22 children with asthma; 10/16 control subjects) had detectable Bla g I (4 to 1340 U/gm of dust). Bla g II levels were assayed in 40 kitchen, bedroom, and living room samples from homes in Wilmington, Del. Highest levels of Bla g II were detected in kitchen-floor dust (300 U/gm of dust). Additionally, approximately 20% of homes with no visual evidence of CR infestation had significant levels of Bla g II in at least one dust sample (greater than 4 U/gm of dust). Our results demonstrate that CR may be an occult allergen in homes. The kitchen appears to be the primary site of CR-allergen accumulation, but significant CR-allergen levels can also be found at other sites in the home. The MAb-based assays can be used for quantitation of environmental exposure to CR allergens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Food proteins from different allergen families sensitize Balb/c mice to family-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Sun, Na; Zhou, Cui; Zhou, Xin; Lu, Jing; Wang, Cuiyan; Che, Huilian

    2014-01-01

    The classification of food allergens based on the structure and function of proteins contributes to the study of the relationship between bioinformatics and potential allergenicity of allergens. Food allergens always share sequence similarity with the allergens in the same allergen families. For that reason, food proteins from different allergen families may induce different patterns of immune responses in animal models. Female Balb/c mice (3-4-weeks-old) were sensitized with food proteins once per week for 4 weeks, and then challenged 2 weeks later (on Day 42 of study). Blood was collected (to obtain serum levels of histamine and protein-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies) and measures of vascular permeability were performed 20 min after the challenge. Five food proteins (11S globulin, OVA [ovalbumin], HAS [human serum albumin] and LRP [lysine-responsive storage protein] of different allergen families, and Cry 1Ab/Ac [crystal protein]) were used to assess patterns of immune responses for each allergen family and then bioinformatics and digestive stability in simulated gastric fluid were employed to assess the overall utility of the Balb/c. The assay results indicated that, in this model, histamine and protein-specific IgE antibody levels and vascular permeability could be used to identify allergenicity of 11S globulin, OVA, and PAP (potato acid phosphatase) only. However, the results of the protein-specific IgG1 measures could only distinguish allergic food proteins with negative control. Based on bioinformatic analyses, the five different food proteins clearly induced distinct patterns of immune responses in the Balb/c model.

  8. New routes for allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M.; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873

  9. Specific immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis--Four-year treatment in different age and airborne allergy type subgroups.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory disease involving the skin and frequently other organs and systems such as respiratory system. The recently recognized atopic nature of the skin inflammation in AD has raised a growing interest in the treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). In this study, the efficacy of SIT was evaluated in a group of 37 AD patients aged 5-44 years: 14 allergic to house dust mites (HDM), 17 to grass pollen allergens, and 6 allergic to grass and mugwort pollen allergens. IgE-mediated airborne allergy was well documented in all cases. SIT was performed with Novo Helisen Depot allergy vaccines of appropriate composition. Control group included 29 patients with AD and confirmed IgE-mediated airborne allergy to analogous allergens: HDM, 14 patients; grass pollen allergens, 11 patients; and grass and mugwort pollen allergens, 4 patients. Conventional methods of AD treatment were used in the control group. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed with W-AZS index after 12, 24, 36 and 48 months of therapy. SIT was found to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment for selected patients with AD and IgE-mediated airborne allergy. The efficacy of this therapeutic method was significantly higher than that recorded by conventional methods used in the control group in all 3 age subgroups and all 3 types of airborne allergy (HDM, grass pollen, and grass and mugwort pollen). It is concluded that SIT may be highly promising method of controlling skin inflammation in AD with the potential to prevent the development of AD into respiratory allergy.

  10. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  11. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  12. Purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of 26kDa protein, a major allergen from Cicer arietinum.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Kriti; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2016-06-01

    Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE). Purification of CP 26kDa protein was done using a combination of fractionation and anion exchange chromatography. This protein was further characterized as "Chain A, crystal structure of a plant albumin" from Cicer arietinum with Mol wt 25.8kDa by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Further, allergenic potential of purified 25.8kDa protein was assessed using in vivo and in vitro model. Purified protein showed IgE-binding capacity with sensitized BALB/c mice and CP allergic patient's sera. Enhanced levels of specific and total IgE, MCP-1, MCPT-1, myeloperoxidase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and cysteinyl leukotriene were found in sera of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. Further, expressions of Th2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), transcription factors (i.e. GATA-3, STAT-6, SOCS-3) and mast cell signaling proteins (Lyn, cFgr, Syk, PLC-γ2, PI-3K, PKC) were also found increased at mRNA and protein levels in the intestines of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. In addition, enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene and prostaglandin D2 were observed in RBL2H3 cell line when treated (125μg) with CP 26kDa protein. Conclusively, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed the allergenic potential of purified CP 26kDa protein. Being a potential allergen, plant albumin may play a pivotal role in CP induced allergenicity. Current study will be helpful for better development of therapeutic approaches to

  13. Allergenic tropomyosins and their cross-reactivities.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Hong, Chein-Soo; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2006-01-01

    The ingestion or inhalation of some proteins may lead to adverse immune reactions. Allergens may trigger allergic reactions in genetically predisposed individuals when they are absorbed through the skin or make contact with mucous membranes. An allergic disease often deteriorates the quality of life and may sometimes be life-threatening due to anaphylactic shock. A number of allergens have been characterized from various multicellular organisms to date. It is thought to be reasonable to pay a special attention to the substance which is highly cross-reactive and which causes adverse responses in the molecules that are not sensitized but similar to the sensitized allergen. Tropomyosin has been described as an important food allergen in shrimp, lobster, crab, oysters, squid, and other invertebrates. Allergic reactions to shellfish and mollusks are often cross-reactive, which may be explained by the highly conserved amino acid sequences of tropomyosins among invertebrates, but vertebrate tropomyosins are not known to be allergenic. Several tropomyosins from domestic arthropods have been reported to be allergenic. Recently, it was suggested that an infection of helminthic parasites might lead to sensitization to tropomyosin and elicit allergic reactions to other invertebrates. Much effort has been made to characterize these allergenic tropomyosins from various sources. We will discuss the physicochemical characteristics and the potential application of tropomyosin for the diagnosis and therapeutics of allergic disorders.

  14. Variable Expression of Pathogenesis-Related Protein Allergen in Mountain Cedar (Juniperus ashei) Pollen1

    PubMed Central

    Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Goldblum, Randall M.; Kurosky, Alexander; Wood, Thomas G.; Brooks, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Allergic diseases have been increasing in industrialized countries. The environment is thought to have both direct and indirect modulatory effects on disease pathogenesis, including alterating on the allergenicity of pollens. Certain plant proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins appear to be up-regulated by certain environmental conditions, including pollutants, and some have emerged as important allergens. Thus, the prospect of environmentally regulated expression of plant-derived allergens becomes yet another potential environmental influence on allergic disease. We have identified a novel pathogenesis-related protein allergen, Jun a 3, from mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen. The serum IgE from patients with hypersensitivity to either mountain cedar or Japanese cedar were shown to bind to native and recombinant Jun a 3 in Western blot analysis and ELISA. Jun a 3 is homologous to members of the thaumatin-like pathogenesis-related (PR-5) plant protein family. The amounts of Jun a 3 extracted from mountain cedar pollen varied up to 5-fold in lots of pollen collected from the same region in different years and between different regions during the same year. Thus, Jun a 3 may contribute not only to the overall allergenicity of mountain cedar pollen, but variable levels of Jun a 3 may alter the allergenic potency of pollens produced under different environmental conditions. PMID:10657673

  15. Allergenicity assessment of the papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic rainbow papaya.

    PubMed

    Fermín, Gustavo; Keith, Ronald C; Suzuki, Jon Y; Ferreira, Stephen A; Gaskill, Douglas A; Pitz, Karen Y; Manshardt, Richard M; Gonsalves, Dennis; Tripathi, Savarni

    2011-09-28

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland United States and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These papaya are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry the coat protein (CP) gene of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The PRSV CP was evaluated for potential allergenicity, an important component in assessing the safety of food derived from transgenic plants. The transgene PRSV CP sequence of Rainbow papaya did not exhibit greater than 35% amino acid sequence homology to known allergens, nor did it have a stretch of eight amino acids found in known allergens which are known common bioinformatic methods used for assessing similarity to allergen proteins. PRSV CP was also tested for stability in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid and under various heat treatments. The results showed that PRSV CP was degraded under conditions for which allergenic proteins relative to nonallergens are purported to be stable. The potential human intake of transgene-derived PRSV CP was assessed by measuring CP levels in Rainbow and SunUp along with estimating the fruit consumption rates and was compared to potential intake estimates of PRSV CP from naturally infected nontransgenic papaya. Following accepted allergenicity assessment criteria, our results show that the transgene-derived PRSV CP does not pose a risk of food allergy.

  16. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    DunnGalvin, A; Chan, C-H; Crevel, R; Grimshaw, K; Poms, R; Schnadt, S; Taylor, S L; Turner, P; Allen, K J; Austin, M; Baka, A; Baumert, J L; Baumgartner, S; Beyer, K; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M; Grinter, K; Houben, G F; Hourihane, J; Kenna, F; Kruizinga, A G; Lack, G; Madsen, C B; Clare Mills, E N; Papadopoulos, N G; Alldrick, A; Regent, L; Sherlock, R; Wal, J-M; Roberts, G

    2015-09-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices. The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated clearly to all stakeholders. The use of PAL should indicate the possible, unintended presence of an allergen in a consumed portion of a food product at or above any proposed action level. This will require combined work by all stakeholders to ensure everyone understands the approach and its limitations. Consumers with food allergy then need to be educated to undertake individualized risk assessments in relation to any PAL present. PMID:25808296

  17. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    DunnGalvin, A; Chan, C-H; Crevel, R; Grimshaw, K; Poms, R; Schnadt, S; Taylor, S L; Turner, P; Allen, K J; Austin, M; Baka, A; Baumert, J L; Baumgartner, S; Beyer, K; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M; Grinter, K; Houben, G F; Hourihane, J; Kenna, F; Kruizinga, A G; Lack, G; Madsen, C B; Clare Mills, E N; Papadopoulos, N G; Alldrick, A; Regent, L; Sherlock, R; Wal, J-M; Roberts, G

    2015-09-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices. The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated clearly to all stakeholders. The use of PAL should indicate the possible, unintended presence of an allergen in a consumed portion of a food product at or above any proposed action level. This will require combined work by all stakeholders to ensure everyone understands the approach and its limitations. Consumers with food allergy then need to be educated to undertake individualized risk assessments in relation to any PAL present.

  18. Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy are very common during the course of immunotherapy. These local reactions are not bothersome to patients. Local reactions from immunotherapy also do not predict future local or systemic reactions. This review discusses the studies that show that local reactions are not predictive of future reactions and that dose adjustments for local reactions from allergen immunotherapy are unnecessary. The article also focuses on factors that lead to patient noncompliance with immunotherapy and evaluates methods to prevent local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy. PMID:24283844

  19. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  20. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  1. Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coop, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy are very common during the course of immunotherapy. These local reactions are not bothersome to patients. Local reactions from immunotherapy also do not predict future local or systemic reactions. This review discusses the studies that show that local reactions are not predictive of future reactions and that dose adjustments for local reactions from allergen immunotherapy are unnecessary. The article also focuses on factors that lead to patient noncompliance with immunotherapy and evaluates methods to prevent local reactions from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

  2. House dust mite and cat allergen in different indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Taggart, S C; Woodcock, A

    1994-12-01

    Allergy to house dust mites (HDM) and domestic pets is a major cause of asthma. People in developed countries spend more than 90% of their time indoors. We have measured levels of HDM allergen Der pI and cat allergen Fel dI in public buildings and public transport. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming a 1 m2 area for 2 min from five schools, six hotels, four cinemas, six pubs, three buses, two trains and 12 domestic households without a cat. Der pI and Fel dI were assayed with monoclonal antibodies in a two-site immunometric ELISA. Der pI concentration was significantly higher in the private homes than in comparable sites in public places except for cinema seats (where high values were found) compared with domestic sofas. Der pI > 2000 ng/g of fine dust was found in 30% of the upholstered seats, 9% having a concentration > 10,000 ng/g. Fel dI levels were significantly higher in the dust from upholstered seats (geometric mean 14.88 micrograms/g) than in carpeted floors (geometric mean 0.73 micrograms/g), and in public places than in private homes. Fel dI > 8 micrograms/g was found in 79% of the upholstered seats or furniture sampled in public buildings or public transport. In conclusion, upholstered seats from public buildings and public transport constitute an allergen reservoir for continuous contamination of the indoor environment which could compromise the effects of allergen avoidance employed at home.

  3. Characterization of the allergenic potential of proteins: an assessment of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin.

    PubMed

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Beresford, Lorna; Foster, Emily S; McClain, Scott; Kimber, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of the potential allergenicity (IgE-inducing properties) of novel proteins is an important challenge in the overall safety assessment of foods. Resistance to digestion with pepsin is commonly measured to characterize allergenicity, although the association is not absolute. We have previously shown that specific IgE antibody production induced by systemic [intraperitoneal (i.p.)] exposure of BALB/c strain mice to a range of proteins correlates with allergenic potential for known allergens. The purpose of the present study was to explore further the utility of these approaches using the food allergen, actinidin. Recently, kiwifruit has become an important allergenic foodstuff, coincident with its increased consumption, particularly as a weaning food. The ability of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin to stimulate antibody responses has been compared with the reference allergen ovalbumin, and with the non-allergen bovine haemoglobin. Haemoglobin was rapidly digested by pepsin whereas actinidin was resistant unless subjected to prior chemical reduction (reflecting intracellular digestion conditions). Haemoglobin stimulated detectable IgG antibody production at relatively high doses (10%), but failed to provoke detectable IgE. In contrast, actinidin was both immunogenic and allergenic at relatively low doses (0.25% to 1%). Vigorous IgG and IgG1 antibody and high titre IgE antibody responses were recorded, similar to those provoked by ovalbumin. Thus, actinidin displays a marked ability to provoke IgE, consistent with allergenic potential. These data provide further encouragement that in tandem with analysis of pepsin stability, the induction of IgE after systemic exposure of BALB/c strain mice provides a useful approach for the prospective identification of protein allergens.

  4. Allergenic fragments of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen Lol p IV.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T

    1989-01-01

    To facilitate studies on establishing the nature of structure/function relationships of allergens, ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p IV, was cleaved into smaller fragments by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) and the resulting peptides were further digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 reverse phase column. The allergenic activity of the HPLC fractions was evaluated in terms of their ability to inhibit the binding of 125I-Lol p IV to serum IgE antibodies of a grass-allergic patient. Many of these fractions inhibited the binding between the native allergen and IgE antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitions were specific, i.e., the fractions did not inhibit the binding between 125I-Lol p I (a group-I ryegrass pollen allergen) and the IgE antibodies present in the allergic human serum. The possibility that the allergenic peptide fractions were contaminated by the native undegraded allergen, which might have accounted for the observed inhibition, was ruled out by the fact that the native allergen could not be detected by SDS-PAGE and the elution profiles of allergenically active peptides did not coincide with that of native allergen. One of the allergenic sites recognized by monoclonal antibody (Mab) 90, i.e., site A, was located in HPLC fractions 90-100 while another allergenic site B (recognized by Mab 12) appeared to be lost following the sequential digestion of Lol p IV with CNBr and trypsin.

  5. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Yvonne; Blatt, Katharina; Malkus, Ursula; Fercher, Christian; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Seiberler, Susanne; Mittermann, Irene; Lupinek, Christian; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Azahara; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Keller, Walter; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated. Objective To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level. Methods Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects). IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98) and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments. Results Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients. Conclusion Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy. PMID:27548813

  6. [Governmental batch sample testing of allergen products].

    PubMed

    Bartel, D; Führer, F; Vieths, S

    2012-03-01

    Allergen products for specific immunotherapy of type I allergies were first authorized for the German market in the 1970s. In addition to finished products manufactured in advance and in batches, so-called named patient products have recently been defined as Medicinal Products by the German Medicinal Products Act ("Arzneimittelgesetz", AMG 14th Revision 2005). Some allergen products previously marketed as named patient products are now required to obtain marketing authorization according to the German ordinance for therapy allergens. Products have to be batch released by the competent German Federal Agency, the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI). Samples of product batches are delivered to the PEI in order to perform experimental quality controls. With regard to named patient products, PEI tests batch samples of the bulk extract preparations used for manufacturing of the respective, named patient products. The institute releases approximately 2,800 allergen product batches annually.

  7. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  8. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  9. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  10. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  11. 21 CFR 680.1 - Allergenic Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use of the mold as a source material for Allergenic Products, in accordance with 21 CFR 601.2, the... capable of determining the good health of the animals. (iii) Immunization against tetanus. Animals of...

  12. Identification of crustacea allergens by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L; Salvaggio, J E

    1985-01-01

    Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) detected 18 precipitating antigens in extracts of shrimp. Of these antigens, crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis (CLIE) of shrimp extract demonstrated that 5 cross-reacted with crayfish, 3 with lobster and 1 with crab extract. Allergens present in the shrimp CIE plates were identified by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) using sera from 6 study subjects who were skin-test and RAST positive to shrimp extract. Of the 7 allergens detected, 3 (precipitins 1, 3 and 6) reacted with most of the 6 sera tested from shrimp-sensitive subjects. Precipitins 1 and 6 appear to be common crustacea allergens (present in shrimp, crayfish, lobster and crab) whereas precipitin 3 may be a specific allergen since it is present only in shrimp.

  13. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of valerian roots on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during various stages of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) roots processing by herb farmers and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 15 farms owned by valerian cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air showed a marked variability and were within a range of 0.95-7,966.6 x 10(3) cfu/m (3). Though median was relatively low (10.75 x 10(3) cfu/m (3)), on 4 farms the concentrations exceeded the level of 10(5) cfu/m (3) and on 1 farm the level of 10(6) cfu/m (3). During the processing of valerian roots, distinct changes could be observed in the composition of airborne microflora. In the first stages of processing, the freshly dug and washed roots until shaking in the drying room, the most numerous were Gram-negative bacteria of the family Pseudomonadaceae (mostly Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens). After drying, the dominant organisms were thermo-resistant endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and fungi, among which prevailed Aspergillus fumigatus. Altogether, 29 species or genera of bacteria and 19 species or genera of fungi were identified in the farm air during valerian processing, of these, 10 and 12 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin on the examined farms were very large and ranged from 10.0-776.7 mg/m (3), and from 0.15-24,448.2 microg/m (3), respectively (medians 198.3 mg/m (3) and 40.48 microg/m (3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating valerian could be exposed during processing of valerian roots to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work

  14. Carbohydrate modified ultrafine ceramic nanoparticles for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Sahu, Satish; Sudheesh, M S; Madan, Jitender; Kumar, Manoj; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2011-08-01

    The uses of drug-delivery systems in allergen specific immunotherapy appear to be a promising approach due to their ability to act as adjuvants, transport the allergens to immune-competent cells and tissues and reduce the number of administrations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the carbohydrate modified ultrafine ceramic core based nanoparticles (aquasomes) as adjuvant/delivery vehicle in specific immunotherapy using ovalbumin (OVA) as an allergen model. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized for size, shape, zeta potential, antigen integrity, surface adsorption efficiency and in vitro release. The humoral and cellular-induced immune responses generated by OVA adsorbed aquasomes were studied by two intradermal immunizations in BALB/c mice. OVA sensitized mice were treated with OVA adsorbed aquasomes and OVA adsorbed aluminum hydroxide following established protocol. Fifteen days after therapy, animals were challenged with OVA and different signs of anaphylactic shock were evaluated. Developed aquasomes possessed a negative zeta potential (-11.3 mV) and an average size of 47 nm with OVA adsorption efficiency of ~60.2 μg mg(-1) of hydroxyapatite core. In vivo immune response after two intradermal injections with OVA adsorbed aquasomes resulted in a mixed Th1/Th2-type immune response. OVA-sensitized mice model, treatment with OVA adsorbed aquasomes elicited lower levels of IgE (p<0.05), serum histamine and higher survival rate in comparison with alum adsorbed OVA. Symptoms of anaphylactic shock in OVA aquasome-treated mice were weaker than the one induced in the alum adsorbed OVA group. Results from this study demonstrate the valuable use of aquasomes in allergen immunotherapy. PMID:21333772

  15. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  16. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Libby A.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens. Recent findings Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity. Summary Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma. PMID:22081090

  17. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines. PMID:26644466

  18. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Darsow, Ulf; Forer, Ingeborg; Ring, Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Aeroallergens are relevant eliciting factors of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma but also of atopic eczema. The use of allergen-specific immunotherapy as in respiratory atopic diseases is controversial in patients with atopic eczema, but refined diagnostic methods to characterize subgroups of patients with relevant allergies and the results of smaller controlled studies give rise to new approaches in this field. This article reviews the theoretical problems and practical results associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in atopic eczema. PMID:21461718

  19. The Macroecology of Airborne Pollen in Australian and New Zealand Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Haberle, Simon G.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Johnston, Fay H.; Beggs, Paul J.; Buters, Jeroen; Campbell, Bradley; Erbas, Bircan; Godwin, Ian; Green, Brett J.; Huete, Alfredo; Jaggard, Alison K.; Medek, Danielle; Murray, Frank; Newbigin, Ed; Thibaudon, Michel; Vicendese, Don; Williamson, Grant J.; Davies, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden. PMID:24874807

  20. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question.

  1. Removing peanut allergens by tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2012-10-01

    Tannic acid (TA) forms insoluble complexes with proteins. The aims here were to remove major peanut allergens as insoluble TA complexes and determine if they would dissociate and release the allergens at pH 2 and 8 (gut pH). Release of the allergens in the gut could lead to absorption and consequently an allergic reaction. TA (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml) was added to a peanut butter extract (5 mg/ml; pH 7.2), stirred, and centrifuged. The precipitates were then suspended in buffer at pH 2, centrifuged, re-suspended at pH 8, and centrifuged. Supernatants from each step were analysed by SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and Western blots. The effect of NaCl (1M) on complexes was also determined. Results showed that complexes formed at a TA concentration >0.5 mg/ml did not release major peanut allergens at pH 2 and 8, regardless of 1M NaCl being present or not. IgE binding of the extracts was reduced substantially, especially at a TA concentration of 1-2 mg/ml. Animal or clinical studies are still needed before TA can find an application in the development of low-allergen peanut products/beverages or the removal of peanut allergens due to accidental ingestion. PMID:25005968

  2. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question. PMID:26921497

  3. Cross-reactivity of peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are distributed among profilins, Bet v 1-like proteins, oleosins, and defensins. Clinical observations frequently report an association of peanut allergy with allergies to legumes, tree nuts, seeds, fruits and pollen. Molecular cross-reactivity has been described between members of the Bet v 1-like proteins, the non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and the profilins. This review also addresses the less well-studied cross-reactivity between cupin and prolamin allergens of peanuts and of other plant food sources and the recently discovered cross-reactivity between peanut allergens of unrelated protein families. PMID:24554241

  4. High pressure effects on allergen food proteins.

    PubMed

    Somkuti, Judit; Smeller, László

    2013-12-15

    There are several proteins, which can cause allergic reaction if they are inhaled or ingested. Our everyday food can also contain such proteins. Food allergy is an IgE-mediated immune disorder, a growing health problem of great public concern. High pressure is known to affect the structure of proteins; typically few hundred MPa pressure can lead to denaturation. That is why several trials have been performed to alter the structure of the allergen proteins by high pressure, in order to reduce its allergenicity. Studies have been performed both on simple protein solutions and on complex food systems. Here we review those allergens which have been investigated under or after high pressure treatment by methods capable of detecting changes in the secondary and tertiary structure of the proteins. We focus on those allergenic proteins, whose structural changes were investigated by spectroscopic methods under pressure in correlation with the observed allergenicity (IgE binding) changes. According to this criterion we selected the following allergen proteins: Mal d 1 and Mal d 3 (apple), Bos d 5 (milk), Dau c 1 (carrot), Gal d 2 (egg), Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 (peanut), and Gad m 1 (cod).

  5. Development of sandwich ELISA for detection and quantification of invertebrate major allergen tropomyosin by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Lu, Ying; Ushio, Hideki; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Muscle protein tropomyosins of invertebrates are major allergens responsible for wide spread allergic reactions against invertebrates such as shellfish and insects. In order to develop a sandwich enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) for detection and quantification of the invertebrate pan-allergen tropomyosin, a specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), CE7B2, was produced. We have successfully established a sandwich ELISA for measuring invertebrate tropomyosin concentrations in food and food materials. The sandwich ELISA system using the MAb CE7B2 is a useful tool to detect and quantify levels of tropomyosin in food. The method is also helpful to detect mite and cockroach tropomyosins, the important indoor allergens.

  6. Quantitative analysis of the 26 allergens for cosmetic labeling in fragrance raw materials and perfume oils.

    PubMed

    Leijs, Hans; Broekhans, Joost; van Pelt, Leon; Mussinan, Cynthia

    2005-07-13

    The adoption of the 7th amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC requires any cosmetic product containing any of 26 raw materials identified by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers as likely to cause a contact allergy when present above certain trigger levels to be declared on the package label. Of these 26, 24 are volatile and can be analyzed by GC. This paper describes a method for the quantitative analysis of these volatile raw materials in perfume ingredients as well as complex perfume compositions. The method uses sequential dual-column GC-MS analysis. The full-scan data acquired minimize the false-positive and false-negative identifications that can be observed with alternate methods based on data acquired in the SIM mode. For each sample, allergen levels are determined on both columns sequentially, leading to two numerical results for each allergen. Quantification limits for each allergen in a perfume mixture based on the analysis of a standard are <4 mg/kg. This is well below the level that would trigger label declaration on the consumer good. Calibration curves for all allergens are linear (r > 0.999) and stable for multiple days. Studies on perfumes spiked with multiple allergens at 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg show recoveries close to nominal values.

  7. The effect of multiple allergen immunotherapy on exhaled nitric oxide in adults with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of objective measures of the clinical efficacy of allergen immunotherapy which relies on patients’ perception about the effect of this treatment. We studied whether the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide is affected by multiple allergen immunotherapy in polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis. We also looked for associations between exhaled nitric oxide and subjects’ demographics, symptom scores, and pulmonary function tests. Methods Twenty adult, polysensitized subjects with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis who chose to undergo allergen immunotherapy were enrolled. They were evaluated at baseline, and 4, 8, 12, 24, and 52 weeks later. Exhaled nitric oxide was reported as the mean of triplicate determinations. Findings Our results indicate that multiple allergen immunotherapy did not affect exhaled nitric oxide levels and such levels did not correlate with subjects’ demographics and pulmonary function tests. However, exhaled nitric oxide was associated with rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma symptom scores at the end of the study. Conclusions In polysensitized adult subjects with allergic rhinitis, exhaled nitric oxide levels are unaffected by multiple allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23958488

  8. Exposure to allergen and diesel exhaust particles potentiates secondary allergen-specific memory responses promoting asthma susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Acciani, Thomas H.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Ruff, Brandy; LeMasters, Grace K.; Bernstein, David I.; Lockey, James; LeCras, Timothy D.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to traffic pollution particulate matter, predominantly diesel exhaust particles (DEP), increases risk for asthma and asthma exacerbation, however the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Objective To examine the impact of DEP exposure on the generation and persistence of allergen-specific memory T-cells in asthma and translate these findings by determining the impact of early DEP exposure on the prevalence of allergic asthma in children. Methods The impact of DEP on HDM-specific memory responses was determined using an asthma model. Data from children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort were analyzed to determine the impact of the DEP exposure on asthma outcomes. Results DEP co-exposure with HDM resulted in persistent Th2/Th17 CD127+ effector/memory cells in the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes of adult and neonatal mice. After 7 weeks of rest, a single exposure to HDM resulted in airway hyperresponsiveness and increased levels of Th2 cytokines in only mice that had been previously exposed to both HDM and DEP versus HDM alone. Based on these data, we examined whether DEP exposure was similarly associated increased asthma prevalence in children in the presence or absence of allergen exposure/sensitization in the CCAAPS birth cohort. Early life exposure to high DEP was associated with significantly increased asthma prevalence among allergic children, but not among non-allergic children. Conclusion These findings suggest that DEP exposure results in accumulation of allergen specific Th2/Th17 cells in the lungs, potentiating secondary allergen recall responses and promoting the development of allergic asthma. PMID:25748065

  9. Endotoxins in baled cottons and airborne dusts in textile mills in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed Central

    Olenchock, S A; Christiani, D C; Mull, J C; Ye, T T; Lu, P L

    1983-01-01

    Bulk cotton samples and airborne vertical elutriated cotton dusts were obtained from textile mills in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Analysis of endotoxin contents revealed that baled cottons which were grown in different countries varied in endotoxin contamination. The two textile mills, which operated at similar overall airborne dust levels, differed markedly in the levels of airborne endotoxins. The data suggest that the biological activity or "toxicity" of airborne cotton dusts may not be correlated directly with gravimetric dust levels. PMID:6639029

  10. Monitoring and assessment of airborne Cladosporium Link and Alternaria Nées spores in Sivrihisar (Eskisehir), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Ilhan, Semra; Oner, Setenay

    2009-01-01

    The spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp., commonly described as the most allergenic spores, were collected by means of Durham gravimetric sampler from the Sivrihisar (Eskisehir) atmosphere throughout 2005 to 2006. The weekly variations in spores/cm(2) of Cladosporium and Alternaria were recorded. During this period, a total of 6,198 spores belonging to Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. were recorded. Of these spores, 2,969 were identified in 2005 and 3,229 in 2006. While 69.55% of the total spores were those of Cladosporium spp., 30.45% were Alternaria spp. Relationships between airborne fungal spore presence and weather conditions were examined statistically. A Shapiro-Wilk test revealed that the airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. had a normal distribution. Following this, Chi-square test, t test and Pearson correlation analysis were performed. The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the spore numbers of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. were significant according to the month in which they were collected (p < 0.01). The spore concentrations of each species reached to their highest levels in June 2006.

  11. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  12. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): allergenicity and molecular characterization of pollen after plant exposure to elevated NO2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Elkelish, Amr; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian; Winkler, J Barbro; Ruёff, Franziska; Behrendt, Heidrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Holzinger, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Braun, Paula; von Toerne, Christine; Hauck, Stefanie M; Ernst, Dieter; Frank, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Ragweed pollen is the main cause of allergenic diseases in Northern America, and the weed has become a spreading neophyte in Europe. Climate change and air pollution are speculated to affect the allergenic potential of pollen. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NO2 , a major air pollutant, under controlled conditions, on the allergenicity of ragweed pollen. Ragweed was exposed to different levels of NO2 throughout the entire growing season, and its pollen further analysed. Spectroscopic analysis showed increased outer cell wall polymers and decreased amounts of pectin. Proteome studies using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated increased amounts of several Amb a 1 isoforms and of another allergen with great homology to enolase Hev b 9 from rubber tree. Analysis of protein S-nitrosylation identified nitrosylated proteins in pollen from both conditions, including Amb a 1 isoforms. However, elevated NO2 significantly enhanced the overall nitrosylation. Finally, we demonstrated increased overall pollen allergenicity by immunoblotting using ragweed antisera, showing a significantly higher allergenicity for Amb a 1. The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an increased risk for human health.

  13. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): allergenicity and molecular characterization of pollen after plant exposure to elevated NO2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Elkelish, Amr; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian; Winkler, J Barbro; Ruёff, Franziska; Behrendt, Heidrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Holzinger, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Braun, Paula; von Toerne, Christine; Hauck, Stefanie M; Ernst, Dieter; Frank, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Ragweed pollen is the main cause of allergenic diseases in Northern America, and the weed has become a spreading neophyte in Europe. Climate change and air pollution are speculated to affect the allergenic potential of pollen. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NO2 , a major air pollutant, under controlled conditions, on the allergenicity of ragweed pollen. Ragweed was exposed to different levels of NO2 throughout the entire growing season, and its pollen further analysed. Spectroscopic analysis showed increased outer cell wall polymers and decreased amounts of pectin. Proteome studies using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated increased amounts of several Amb a 1 isoforms and of another allergen with great homology to enolase Hev b 9 from rubber tree. Analysis of protein S-nitrosylation identified nitrosylated proteins in pollen from both conditions, including Amb a 1 isoforms. However, elevated NO2 significantly enhanced the overall nitrosylation. Finally, we demonstrated increased overall pollen allergenicity by immunoblotting using ragweed antisera, showing a significantly higher allergenicity for Amb a 1. The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an increased risk for human health. PMID:26177592

  14. Evaluation of the potential allergenicity of the enzyme microbial transglutaminase using the 2001 FAO/WHO Decision Tree.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mona H; Hansen, Tine K; Sten, Eva; Seguro, Katsuya; Ohtsuka, Tomoko; Morita, Akiko; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    All novel proteins must be assessed for their potential allergenicity before they are introduced into the food market. One method to achieve this is the 2001 FAO/WHO Decision Tree recommended for evaluation of proteins from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It was the aim of this study to investigate the allergenicity of microbial transglutaminase (m-TG) from Streptoverticillium mobaraense. Amino acid sequence similarity to known allergens, pepsin resistance, and detection of protein binding to specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) (RAST) have been evaluated as recommended by the decision tree. Allergenicity in the source material was thought unlikely, since no IgE-mediated allergy to any bacteria has been reported. m-TG is fully degraded after 5 min of pepsin treatment. A database search showed that the enzyme has no homology with known allergens, down to a match of six contiguous amino acids, which meets the requirements of the decision tree. However, there is a match at the five contiguous amino acid level to the major codfish allergen Gad c1. The potential cross reactivity between m-TG and Gad c1 was investigated in RAST using sera from 25 documented cod-allergic patients and an extract of raw codfish. No binding between patient IgE and m-TG was observed. It can be concluded that no safety concerns with regard to the allergenic potential of m-TG were identified.

  15. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away. PMID:25138294

  16. Air pollution and allergy: experimental studies on modulation of allergen release from pollen by air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, H; Becker, W M; Fritzsche, C; Sliwa-Tomczok, W; Tomczok, J; Friedrichs, K H; Ring, J

    1997-01-01

    The fact that allergic diseases increase in prevalence is a generally accepted and worldwide phenomenon. The causes for this increase are not known: only hypothetical concepts exist. Epidemiological studies comparing Eastern and Western European populations have shown a striking difference in the prevalence of respiratory atopic diseases, which is lower in the East. At the same time, different patterns of air pollution have been described, namely 'classical' type I, characterized by SO2 and dust prevailing in the East, and 'modern' type II, characterized by organic compounds, fine particles and ozone, which is more prominent in the West. Type II was associated in multivariate regression analysis with increased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy. Pollen grains collected from industrial regions with high polyaromatic hydrocarbon load in West Germany, but not in East Germany, were shown to be agglomerated with airborne particles. In vitro exposure of pollen to particles indicated morphological changes and increased allergen release from the pollen. In vitro exposure of pollen to gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) under different conditions of humidity resulted in SO2-induced, but not NO2-induced reduction of allergen release from pollen. It is concluded that the bioavailability of grass pollen allergens may be modulated by air pollutants, supporting the concept of an interaction between pollen and pollutants in the atmosphere outside the organism which in turn may affect allergy-relevant phenomena.

  17. Assessment of the Olea pollen and its major allergen Ole e 1 concentrations in the bioearosol of two biogeographical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Grau, S.; Aira, M. J.; Elvira-Rendueles, B.; Fernández-González, M.; Fernández-González, D.; García-Sánchez, A.; Martínez-García, M. J.; Moreno, J. M.; Negral, L.; Vara, A.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Olea pollen is currently an important allergy source. In some regions of Southern Spain, olive pollen is the main cause of allergic sensitization exceeding 40% of the sensitized individuals. Due to the scarce presence of olive trees in Northern Spain, limited to some cultivated fields in the South of the Galicia region where they also grow wild, only 8% of the sensitized individuals showed positive results for Olea pollen. The aim of the paper was to assess the behaviour pattern of the Olea pollen and its aeroallergens in the atmosphere, as this information could help us to improve the understanding and prevention of clinical symptoms. Airborne Olea pollen and Ole e 1 allergens were quantified in Cartagena (South-eastern Spain) and Ourense (North-western Spain). A volumetric pollen trap and a Burkard Cyclone sampler were used for pollen and allergen quantification. The Olea flowering took place in April or May in both biometeorological sampling areas. The higher concentrations were registered in the Southern area of Spain, for both pollen and Ole e 1, with values 8 times higher for pollen concentrations and 40 times higher for allergens. An alternate bearing pattern could be observed, characterized by years with high pollen values and low allergen concentrations and vice versa. Moreover, during some flowering seasons the allergen concentrations did not correspond to the atmospheric pollen values. Variations in weather conditions or Long Distance Transport (LDT) processes could explain the discordance. The back trajectory analysis shows that the most important contributions of pollen and allergens in the atmosphere are coincident with air masses passing through potential source areas. The exposure to olive pollen may not be synonym of antigen exposure.

  18. Is high pressure treatment able to modify the allergenicity of the largemouth bass allergens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Tao, Sha; Liu, Rong; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Xue, Wen-Tong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of high pressure treatment on the structural changes and allergenicity of largemouth bass. We treated the allergens at 100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa for 15 min and at 300 MPa for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min at 20 °C. The treated samples from largemouth bass were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. In summary, we can determine that the greatest structure changes were found for samples treated by 400 MPa for 15 min. High pressure treatment did change the structure, subunit composition and molecular weight of largemouth bass allergens, but it did not change the allergenicity of the allergens.

  19. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured.

  20. Bioanalytical methods for food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection and new allergen discovery.

    PubMed

    Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    For effective monitoring and prevention of the food allergy, one of the emerging health problems nowadays, existing diagnostic procedures and allergen detection techniques are constantly improved. Meanwhile, new methods are also developed, and more and more putative allergens are discovered. This review describes traditional methods and summarizes recent advances in the fast evolving field of the in vitro food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection in food products and discovery of the new allergenic molecules. A special attention is paid to the new diagnostic methods under laboratory development like various immuno- and aptamer-based assays, including immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis. The latter technique shows the importance of MS application not only for the allergen detection but also for the allergy diagnosis.

  1. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinae-derived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen.

  2. Allergenicity assessment of genetically-modified tobacco expressing salt tolerance cbl gene.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Tuteja, Narendra; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-09-01

    It is mandatory to assess the allergenic potential of genetically modified (GM) crops before their commercialization. Recently, a transgene [Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein] has been introduced into tobacco plant to make the crop salt resistance. Therefore, it was felt necessary to assess the allergenic potential of the cbl gene product, which was introduced and expressed in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) plant and compared the allergenic effects with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that there was no significant sequence homology with known allergens. Also, no difference between the protein digestibility profiles of GM and WT tobacco was found. Rapid digestion of CBL protein (Mol Wt 35 kDa) by simulated gastric fluid (SGF) indicated reduced chances of this protein to induce allergenicity. In addition, BALB/c mice sensitized by intraperitoneal administration of WT and GM tobacco protein showed comparable levels of clinical score, specific IgE, IgG1, histamine level, similar effect on different organs as well as IgE binding proteins. These findings indicate that insertion of cbl gene in tobacco did not cause any additional allergic risk to consumer and the GM and native tobacco proteins behave similarly in both in vitro and in vivo situations even after genetic modification.

  3. Expression, purification, and characterization of almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen Pru du 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical characterizations of food allergens are required for understanding the allergenicity of food allergens. Such studies require a relatively large amount of highly purified allergens. Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as almond (Prunus...

  4. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Pro J 1: A New Allergen of Prosopis Juliflora Pollen.

    PubMed

    Dousti, Fatemeh; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Morakabati, Payam; Khosravi, Gholam Reza; Akbari, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    Pollen from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) is one of the important causes of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The aim of present study is to produce and purify the recombinant form of allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this allergenic tree. Immunological and cross-inhibition assays were performed for the evaluation of IgE-binding capacity of purified recombinant protein. For molecular cloning, the coding sequence of the mesquite Ole e 1-like protein was inserted into pTZ57R/T vector and expressed in Escherichia coli using the vector pET-21b(+). After purification of the recombinant protein, its immunoreactivity was analysed by in vitro assays using sera from twenty one patients with an allergy to mesquite pollen. The purified recombinant allergen was a member of Ole e 1-like protein family and consisted of 150 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 16.5 kDa and a calculated isoelectric point (pI) of 4.75. Twelve patients (57.14%) had significant specific IgE levels for this recombinant allergen. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that the purified recombinant allergen might be the same as that in the crude extract. Herein, we introduce an important new allergen from P. juliflora pollen (Pro j 1), which is a member of the Ole e 1-like protein family and exhibits significant identity and similarity to other allergenic members of this family.

  5. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Yeast surface display is a technique, where the proteins of interest are expressed as fusions with yeast surface proteins and thus remain attached to the yeast cell wall after expression. Our purpose was to study whether allergens expressed on the cell surface of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae preserve their native allergenic properties and whether the yeast native surface glycoproteins interfere with IgE binding. We chose to use the major allergens from the common wasp Vespula vulgaris venom: phospholipase A1, hyaluronidase and antigen 5 as the model. Results The proteins were expressed on the surface as fusions with a-agglutinin complex protein AGA2. The expression was confirmed by fluorescent cytometry (FACS) after staining the cells with antibody against a C-tag attached to the C-terminal end of the allergens. Phospholipase A1 and hyaluronidase retained their enzymatic activities. Phospholipase A1 severely inhibited the growth of the yeast cells. Antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells bound IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patient sera but not from control sera as demonstrated by FACS. Moreover, antigen 5 - expressing yeast cells were capable of mediating allergen-specific histamine release from human basophils. Conclusions All the three major wasp venom allergens were expressed on the yeast surface. A high-level expression, which was observed only for antigen 5, was needed for detection of IgE binding by FACS and for induction of histamine release. The non-modified S. cerevisiae cells did not cause any unspecific reaction in FACS or histamine release assay despite the expression of high-mannose oligosaccharides. In perspective the yeast surface display may be used for allergen discovery from cDNA libraries and possibly for sublingual immunotherapy as the cells can serve as good adjuvant and can be produced in large amounts at a low price. PMID:20868475

  6. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Hong; Cao, Li-Min; Jameel, Khalid

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound’s effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp. PMID:16532525

  7. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Greg S; Huang, Shih-Wen; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase) treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa) was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana. PMID:15644142

  8. Personal Exposure to Inhalable Dust and the Specific Latex Aero-Allergen, Hev b6.02, in Latex Glove Manufacturing in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sanguanchaiyakrit, Nuthchyawach; Povey, Andrew C.; de Vocht, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Latex product manufacturing is an important industry in south-east Asia but has the potential for considerable occupational exposure of workers to latex allergens. Although exposure to latex allergens can result in adverse health reactions, few studies to characterize this exposure have been conducted to date. This study therefore aimed to characterize current airborne inhalable dust and the specific allergen, Hev b 6.02, exposures in this industry in Thailand. Methods: Workers were recruited from three factories in the southern part of Thailand. Full-shift inhalable dust personal air sampling was conducted using IOM sampling heads equipped with polytetrafluoroethylene filters at a 2.0 l min−1 flowrate. After weighing to determine inhalable dust levels, filters were extracted and analysed for Hev b 6.02 using an enzyme immunometric assay. Results: Two hundred and seventy-five workers agreed to participate, resulting in a total of 292 measurements. Geometric mean (GM) personal exposure to inhalable dust was 0.88mg m–3, but individual exposures up to 12.34mg m–3 were measured. The pattern of exposure was similar across factories, with highest exposures in the stripping (GM 2.08–4.05mg m–3 for the 3 factories) and tumbling departments (1.11–2.17mg m–3). Within-worker (day-to-day) variability contributed 92% to total variability. The Hev b 6.02 exposure pattern was similar with time-weighted average GM exposure levels in the oldest factory ranging from 8.7mg m–3 in the laboratory to 30.2mg m–3 in the stripping department. In contrast to inhalable dust exposure, total exposure variability was primary driven by variability between workers (67%). Conclusions: Workers in these latex product factories get routinely exposed to measurable Hev b 6.02 levels, which may give rise to increased incidence of allergic symptoms and occupational asthma. Also, in this measurement campaign a 10mg m–3, but not 15mg m–3, occupational exposure limit for

  9. Characterisation of particulate matter on airborne pollen grains.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helena; Guimarães, Fernanda; Duque, Laura; Noronha, Fernando; Abreu, Ilda

    2015-11-01

    A characterization of the physical-chemical composition of the atmospheric PM adsorbed to airborne pollen was performed. Airborne pollen was sampled using a Hirst-type volumetric spore sampler and observed using a Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalyser for PM analysis. A secondary electron image was taken of each pollen grain and EDS spectra were obtained for individually adsorbed particles. All images were analysed and the size parameters of the particles adsorbed to pollen was determined. The measured particles' equivalent diameter varied between 0.1 and 25.8 μm, mostly in the fine fraction. The dominant particulates identified were Si-rich, Organic-rich, SO-rich, Metals & Oxides and Cl-rich. Significant daily differences were observed in the physical-chemical characteristics of particles adsorbed to the airborne pollen wall. These differences were correlated with weather parameters and atmospheric PM concentration. Airborne pollen has the ability to adsorb fine particles that may enhance its allergenicity.

  10. 78 FR 66011 - Allergenic Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ..., perennial rye, Timothy, and Kentucky bluegrass mixed pollens allergen extract tablet for sublingual use... recommendations on the safety and efficacy of Grastek, a Timothy grass pollen allergen extract tablet...

  11. Update in the Mechanisms of Allergen-Specific Immunotheraphy

    PubMed Central

    Akkoc, Tunc; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2011-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a complex innate and adoptive immune response to natural environmental allergens with Th2-type T cells and allergen-specific IgE predominance. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the most effective therapeutic approach for disregulated immune response towards allergens by enhancing immune tolerance mechanisms. The main aim of immunotherapy is the generation of allergen nonresponsive or tolerant T cells in sensitized patients and downregulation of predominant T cell- and IgE-mediated immune responses. During allergen-specific immunotherapy, T regulatory cells are generated, which secrete IL-10 and induce allergen-specific B cells for the production of IgG4 antibodies. These mechanisms induce tolerance to antigens that reduces allergic symptoms. Although current knowledge highlights the role of T regulatory cell-mediated immunetolerance, definite mechanisms that lead to a successful clinical outcomes of allergen-specific immunotherapy still remains an open area of research. PMID:21217920

  12. Targeting dendritic cells in allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Novak, Natalija

    2006-05-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a well-established strategy for treating allergic diseases with the goal of inducing allergen-specific tolerance. Identified mechanisms contributing to the therapeutic effect of immunotherapy include a shift of T helper 2 (Th2)-type immune responses to a modified Th2 immune response, a change of the balance of IgE-producing B cells to the production of IgG subtypes, in addition to increased IL-10 and TGF-beta secretion and activation of the suppressive functions of regulatory T-cells. Dendritic cells (DCs), which as outposts of the immune system are capable of T-cell priming through efficient allergen uptake by IgE receptors expressed on their cell surface. Most of the hypotheses concerning the function of DCs as facilitators of allergen-specific tolerance in allergen immunotherapy remain speculative. Therefore, studies must focus on the functional changes of DCs under immunotherapy to close the gap of knowledge about their exact role. These experimental data should help confirm the hypothesis of DCs as efficient silencers and potential target cells and take advantage of the bivalent character and tolerogenic properties of DCs. PMID:16701146

  13. Pollensomes as Natural Vehicles for Pollen Allergens.

    PubMed

    Prado, Noela; De Linares, Concepción; Sanz, María L; Gamboa, Pedro; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Olive (Olea europaea) pollen constitutes one of the most important allergen sources in the Mediterranean countries and some areas of the United States, South Africa, and Australia. Recently, we provided evidence that olive pollen releases nanovesicles of respirable size, named generically pollensomes, during in vitro germination. Olive pollensomes contain allergens, such as Ole e 1, Ole e 11, and Ole e 12, suggesting a possible role in allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of pollensomes to the allergic reaction. We show that pollensomes exhibit allergenic activity in terms of patients' IgE-binding capacity, human basophil activation, and positive skin reaction in sensitized patients. Furthermore, allergen-containing pollensomes have been isolated from three clinically relevant nonphylogenetically related species: birch (Betula verrucosa), pine (Pinus sylvestris), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Most interesting, pollensomes were isolated from aerobiological samples collected with an eight-stage cascade impactor collector, indicating that pollensomes secretion is a naturally occurring phenomenon. Our findings indicate that pollensomes may represent widespread vehicles for pollen allergens, with potential implications in the allergic reaction.

  14. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT) is a potentially curative treatment approach in allergic diseases. It has been used for almost 100 years as a desensitizing therapy. The induction of peripheral T cell tolerance and promotion of the formation of regulatory T-cells are key mechanisms in allergen-SIT. Both FOXP3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and inducible IL-10- and TGF-β-producing type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells may prevent the development of allergic diseases and play a role in successful allergen-SIT and healthy immune response via several mechanisms. The mechanisms of suppression of different pro-inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and the development of allergen tolerance also directly or indirectly involves Treg cells. Furthermore, the formation of non-inflammatory antibodies particularly IgG4 is induced by IL-10. Knowledge of these molecular basis is crucial in the understanding the regulation of immune responses and their possible therapeutic targets in allergic diseases. PMID:22409879

  15. Effect of processing on recovery and variability associated with immunochemical analytical methods for multiple allergens in a single matrix: sugar cookies.

    PubMed

    Khuda, Sefat; Slate, Andrew; Pereira, Marion; Al-Taher, Fadwa; Jackson, Lauren; Diaz-Amigo, Carmen; Bigley, Elmer C; Whitaker, Thomas; Williams, Kristina M

    2012-05-01

    Among the major food allergies, peanut, egg, and milk are the most common. The immunochemical detection of food allergens depends on various factors, such as the food matrix and processing method, which can affect allergen conformation and extractability. This study aimed to (1) develop matrix-specific incurred reference materials for allergen testing, (2) determine whether multiple allergens in the same model food can be simultaneously detected, and (3) establish the effect of processing on reference material stability and allergen detection. Defatted peanut flour, whole egg powder, and spray-dried milk were added to cookie dough at seven incurred levels before baking. Allergens were measured using five commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. All kits showed decreased recovery of all allergens after baking. Analytical coefficients of variation for most kits increased with baking time, but decreased with incurred allergen level. Thus, food processing negatively affects the recovery and variability of peanut, egg, and milk detection in a sugar cookie matrix when using immunochemical methods.

  16. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  17. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  18. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2013-09-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  19. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Devis, Deborah; Shi, Jianxin; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-09-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. PMID:27436829

  20. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  1. Mass spectrometric investigation of molecular variability of grass pollen group 1 allergens.

    PubMed

    Fenaille, François; Nony, Emmanuel; Chabre, Henri; Lautrette, Aurélie; Couret, Marie-Noëlle; Batard, Thierry; Moingeon, Philippe; Ezan, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Natural grass pollen allergens exhibit a wide variety of isoforms. Precise characterization of such microheterogeneity is essential to improve diagnosis and design appropriate immunotherapies. Moreover, standardization of allergen vaccine production is a prerequisite for product safety and efficiency. Both qualitative and quantitative analytical methods are thus required to monitor and control the huge natural variability of pollens, as well as final product quality. A proteomic approach has been set up to investigate in depth the structural variability of five group 1 allergens originating from distinct grass species (Ant o 1, Dac g 1, Lol p 1, Phl p 1, and Poa p 1). Whereas group 1 is the most conserved grass pollen allergen, great variations were shown between the various isoforms found in these five species using mass spectrometry, with many amino acid exchanges, as well as variations in proline hydroxylation level and in main N-glycan motifs. The presence of O-linked pentose residues was also demonstrated, with up to three consecutive units on the first hydroxyproline of Ant o 1. In addition, species-specific peptides were identified that might be used for product authentication or individual allergen quantification. Lastly, natural or process-induced modifications (deamidation, oxidation, glycation) were evidenced, which might constitute useful indicators of product degradation. PMID:19572759

  2. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  3. Assessment of Airborne Exposures and Health in Flooded Homes Undergoing Renovation

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Kimberly A.; Metwali, Nervana; Perry, Sarah Spencer; Hart, Tom; Kostle, Pamela A.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2008, the Cedar River crested flooding more than 5,000 Cedar Rapids homes. Residents whose homes were flooded were invited to participate in this study. Household assessments and resident interviews were conducted between November 2008 and April 2009. We characterized exposures and symptoms experienced by individuals inhabiting 73 flood-damaged homes. Active air sampling and passive electrostatic dust collectors were used to assess exposures to: culturable mold, culturable bacteria, fungal spores, inhalable particulate matter (iPM), endotoxin, glucans, allergens, lead, asbestos, radon, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Wall moisture levels and relative humidity were also measured. Exposures and questionnaire-based health assessments were compared at two levels of remediation, in-progress and completed. Homes with remediation in-progress (n=24), as compared to the completed homes (n=49), had significantly higher airborne concentrations of mold, bacteria, iPM, endotoxin and glucan. Residents of in-progress homes had a significantly higher prevalence of doctor diagnosed allergies (adjusted OR=3.08; 95%CI: 1.05–9.02) and all residents had elevated prevalence of self-reported wheeze (adjusted OR=3.77; 95%CI: 2.06–6.92) and prescription medication use for breathing problems (adjusted OR=1.38; 95%CI: 1.01–1.88) after the flood as compared to before. Proper post-flood remediation led to improved air quality and lower exposures among residents living in flooded homes. PMID:22519834

  4. Cardiac urticaria caused by eucleid allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Wu, Qianwen

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common allergic diseases, which involve respiratory and digestive system being suffered in some population. Yet, relatively little research has been done on the adverse effect on the heart. We did this research to examine the correlation between the abnormality of ECG in the patients with acute allergic urticaria and the antigen of eucleid. The antigen (allergen of eucleid and other allergens) was used to test the patients with acute allergic urticaria by skin prick test and electrocardiogram was employed to examine the patients with strong positive (moth & caterpillar) eucleid antigen. Strong positive eucleid antigen was identified in 84 cases with abnormal electrocardiographic pattern of diversity. So, the acute allergic skin urticaria caused by eucleid allergen may impose strong effect on the heart and thus lead to allergic cardiac urticaria. PMID:26885121

  5. Cardiac urticaria caused by eucleid allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Wu, Qianwen

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a common allergic diseases, which involve respiratory and digestive system being suffered in some population. Yet, relatively little research has been done on the adverse effect on the heart. We did this research to examine the correlation between the abnormality of ECG in the patients with acute allergic urticaria and the antigen of eucleid. The antigen (allergen of eucleid and other allergens) was used to test the patients with acute allergic urticaria by skin prick test and electrocardiogram was employed to examine the patients with strong positive (moth & caterpillar) eucleid antigen. Strong positive eucleid antigen was identified in 84 cases with abnormal electrocardiographic pattern of diversity. So, the acute allergic skin urticaria caused by eucleid allergen may impose strong effect on the heart and thus lead to allergic cardiac urticaria. PMID:26885121

  6. Indoor Allergens in School and Daycare Environments

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Sever, Michelle L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies that have examined exposure to indoor allergens have focused on home environments. However, allergen exposures can be encountered in environments other than the home. For example, many children spend a large part of their time in schools and daycare facilities. Over the past two decades, a large number of studies have been conducted in school and daycare environments. However, the role of indoor exposures in allergy and asthma development or morbidity in these settings is not well characterized. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the importance of indoor allergen exposures in school and daycare settings. We summarize the key findings from recent scientific literature, describe exposure characteristics, discuss the role of these exposures in relation to asthma and allergy symptoms, and provide information on the effectiveness of published interventions. PMID:19577284

  7. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools. Methodology Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry. Results Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease. Conclusion Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level

  8. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.

  9. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  10. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available. PMID

  11. Prokaryotic expression and allergenicity assessment of hygromycin B phosphotransferase protein derived from genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Xu, W; Kang, A; Luo, Y; Guo, F; Yang, R; Zhang, J; Huang, K

    2007-09-01

    The hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hpt) has been widely used in the process of plant genetic engineering to produce plants that can secrete the HPT protein. As part of a safety assessment, sufficient quantities of the protein were produced in Escherichia coli to conduct in vitro digestibility and animal studies. Western blotting analysis showed that the HPT protein was digested by simulated gastric fluid within 40 s. ELISA demonstrated that the protein did not induce detectable levels of specific IgE antibodies or histamine in test animals. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of HPT with those of known allergens did not produce evidence of sequence similarities between these allergens and the HPT protein. We conclude that HPT has a low probability to induce allergenicity.

  12. Common environmental contact allergens in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, S K

    1990-12-01

    Contact allergens produce three types of reactions. The commonest reaction is allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The commonest contactants in Singapore causing ACD are, in decreasing order of importance, nickel, fragrances, neomycin, lanolin, colophony, flavine, rubber chemicals, paraphenylenediamine, clioquinol and chromates. Another type of allergic contact reaction is immunologic contact urticaria (ICU). ICU is an IgE mediated mechanisms. Contact allergens causing ICU in Singapore are proteinaceous foodstuffs and rubber latex products. Photoallergic contact dermatitis is occasionally seen in Singapore. The commonest agent is Musk Ambrette, a perfume fixature found in male colognes.

  13. Pattern of sensitization to common environmental allergens amongst atopic Singapore children in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J; Shek, L P; Shek, L; Khor, E S; Wang, D Y; Lee, B W

    2001-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the sensitization pattern to a range of common allergens in young Singaporean children. A cross-sectional study involving 75 children aged below 3 years was carried out. They presented between December 1995 and April 2000 with symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Their levels of allergen-specific serum IgE to a panel of foods (egg white, milk, soy protein, shrimp, wheat and peanut), pet dander, dust mites and cockroaches were measured with Pharmacia CAP System radioallergosorbent test kits. Serum IgE levels greater than 0.35 kU/l represented a positive result. Four children could not be tested with the complete panel because of insufficient serum. The prevalence of sensitization was highest for cow's milk (45.9%) followed by egg white (38.7%), dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (31.4%) and Blomia tropicalis (25.5%). Sensitization to ingested allergens was significantly more prevalent in children aged 1 year or younger than in the older children (70.4% of those below 1 year, and 50% of those aged 1-3 years; p < 0.02). Sensitization to inhaled allergens, such as dust mites, was more likely to manifest as respiratory symptoms (allergic rhinitis and asthma), while ingested allergens were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and eczema (p < 0.001). It was concluded that infants and young children are at high risk of sensitization to common environmental substances. Allergen avoidance is therefore important even in the very young. The prevalence of sensitization to food allergens is higher compared to inhalant allergens in young children. PMID:12009071

  14. Advances in allergen-microarray technology for diagnosis and monitoring of allergy: the MeDALL allergen-chip.

    PubMed

    Lupinek, Christian; Wollmann, Eva; Baar, Alexandra; Banerjee, Srinita; Breiteneder, Heimo; Broecker, Barbara M; Bublin, Merima; Curin, Mirela; Flicker, Sabine; Garmatiuk, Tetiana; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Mittermann, Irene; Pahr, Sandra; Resch, Yvonne; Roux, Kenneth H; Srinivasan, Bharani; Stentzel, Sebastian; Vrtala, Susanne; Willison, Leanna N; Wickman, Magnus; Lødrup-Carlsen, Karin C; Antó, Josep Maria; Bousquet, Jean; Bachert, Claus; Ebner, Daniel; Schlederer, Thomas; Harwanegg, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Allergy diagnosis based on purified allergen molecules provides detailed information regarding the individual sensitization profile of allergic patients, allows monitoring of the development of allergic disease and of the effect of therapies on the immune response to individual allergen molecules. Allergen microarrays contain a large variety of allergen molecules and thus allow the simultaneous detection of allergic patients' antibody reactivity profiles towards each of the allergen molecules with only minute amounts of serum. In this article we summarize recent progress in the field of allergen microarray technology and introduce the MeDALL allergen-chip which has been developed for the specific and sensitive monitoring of IgE and IgG reactivity profiles towards more than 170 allergen molecules in sera collected in European birth cohorts. MeDALL is a European research program in which allergen microarray technology is used for the monitoring of the development of allergic disease in childhood, to draw a geographic map of the recognition of clinically relevant allergens in different populations and to establish reactivity profiles which are associated with and predict certain disease manifestations. We describe technical advances of the MeDALL allergen-chip regarding specificity, sensitivity and its ability to deliver test results which are close to in vivo reactivity. In addition, the usefulness and numerous advantages of allergen microarrays for allergy research, refined allergy diagnosis, monitoring of disease, of the effects of therapies, for improving the prescription of specific immunotherapy and for prevention are discussed.

  15. Allergens Induce the Release of Lactoferrin by Neutrophils from Asthmatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Inmaculada; Chamorro, Cristina; Aroca, Rocío; Prados, Manuel; Bobadilla, Pedro; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Monteseirín, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the evidence that Lactoferrin (Lf) is involved in allergic asthma processes, it is unknown whether neutrophils can be one of the main cellular sources of this key inflammatory mediator directly in response of an IgE mediated stimulus. The present study was undertaken to analyze this question. Methods Neutrophils from healthy subjects (n = 34) and neutrophils from allergic asthmatic patients (n = 102) were challenged in vitro with specific allergens to which the patients were sensitized, PAF, or agonist mAbs against IgE-receptors, and the levels of Lf were measured in the culture supernatant. The levels of serum IgE together with the severity of symptoms were also analyzed. Results Lf was released into the culture supernatant of neutrophils from allergic asthmatic patients in response to allergens and PAF. This response was highly allergen-specific, and did not happen in neutrophils from healthy donors. Allergen effect was mimicked by Abs against FcεRI and galectin-3 but not by FcεRII. The levels of released Lf correlated well with the levels of serum specific IgE and severity of asthma symptoms. These observations represent a novel view of neutrophils as an important source of Lf in allergic asthma. Importantly, the levels of released Lf by neutrophils could therefore be used to evaluate disease severity in allergic asthmatic patients. PMID:26488881

  16. Seasonal variation of birch and grass pollen loads and allergen release at two sites in the German Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Susanne; Lüpke, Marvin; Laube, Julia; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Menzel, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Less vegetated mountainous areas may provide better conditions for allergy sufferers. However, atmospheric transport can result in medically relevant pollen loads in such regions. The majority of investigations has focused on the pollen load, expressed as daily averages of pollen per cubic meter of air (pollen grains/m³); however, the severity of allergic symptoms is also determined by the actual allergen content of this pollen, its pollen potency, which may differ between high and low altitudes. We analysed airborne birch and grass pollen concentrations along with allergen content (birch: Bet v 1, grass: Phl p 5) at two different altitudes (734 and 2650 m a.s.l.) in the Zugspitze region (2009-2010). Back-trajectories were calculated for the high altitude site and for specific days with abrupt increases in pollen potency. We observed several days with medically relevant pollen concentrations at the highest site. In addition, a few days with pollen were not associated with allergens and vice versa. The calculated seasonal mean allergen release per pollen grain was 1.8-3.3 pg Bet v 1 and 5.7 pg Phl p 5 in the valley and 1.1-3.7 pg Bet v 1 and 0.7-1.5 pg Phl p 5 at the high altitude site. Back-trajectories revealed that high pollen potency at the higher site was generally associated with south-westerly to south-easterly (birch), or northerly (grass) wind directions. By investigating days with sudden increases in pollen potency, however, it was difficult to draw definitive conclusions on long- or short-range transport. Our findings suggest that people allergic to pollen might suffer less at higher altitudes and further indicate that a risk assessment relying on the actual concentration of airborne pollen does not necessarily reflect the actual allergy exposure of individuals.

  17. Giant magnetoresistive sensor array for sensitive and specific multiplexed food allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine; Nadeau, Kari C; Wang, Shan X

    2016-06-15

    Current common allergen detection methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and dip-stick methods, do not provide adequate levels of sensitivity and specificity for at-risk allergic patients. A method for performing highly sensitive and specific detection of multiple food allergens is thus imperative as food allergies are becoming increasingly recognized as a major healthcare concern, affecting an estimated 4% of the total population. We demonstrate first instance of sensitive and specific multiplexed detection of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, and wheat allergen Gliadin using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor arrays. Commercialized ELISA kits for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 report limits of detection (LODs) at 31.5 ng/mL and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, the 96-well-based ELISA developed in-house for Gliadin was found to have a LOD of 40 ng/mL. Our multiplexed GMR-based assay demonstrates the ability to perform all three assays on the same chip specifically and with sensitivities at LODs about an order of magnitude lower than those of 96-well-based ELISAs. LODs of GMR-based assays developed for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Gliadin were 7.0 ng/mL, 0.2 ng/mL, and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little to no cross-reactivity. These LODs are clinically important as some patients could react strongly against such low allergen levels. Given the limitations of current industrial detection technology, multiplexed GMR-based assays provide a method for highly sensitive and specific simultaneous detection of any combination of food-product allergens, thus protecting allergic patients from life-threatening events, including anaphylaxis, by unintentional consumption.

  18. Relationship of CD86 surface marker expression and cytotoxicity on dendritic cells exposed to chemical allergen

    SciTech Connect

    Hulette, Ben C.; Ryan, Cindy A.; Gildea, Lucy A.; Gerberick, G. Frank . E-mail: gerberick.gf@pg.com

    2005-12-01

    Human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DC) respond to a variety of chemical allergens by up-regulating expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. It has been postulated that this measure might provide the basis for an in vitro alternative approach for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals. We recently reported that DC, exposed in culture to the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of various chemical allergens, displayed marginal up-regulation of membrane CD86 expression; the interpretation being that such changes were insufficiently sensitive for the purposes of hazard identification. For the work presented here, immature DC were derived from human monocytes and treated with the chemical allergens 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}), p-phenylenediamine (PPD), Bandrowski's base (BB), hydroquinone (HQ) and propyl gallate (PG) for 48 h at concentrations which induced both no to slight to moderate cytotoxicity. For comparison, DC were treated with the irritants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), benzoic acid (BA), and benzalkonium chloride (BZC) at concentrations resulting in comparable levels of cytotoxicity. CD86 expression, as measured by flow cytometry, was consistently up-regulated (ranging from 162 to 386% control) on DC treated with concentrations of chemical allergens that induced approximately 10-15% cytotoxicity. The irritants BA and BZC did not induce up-regulation of CD86 expression when tested at concentrations that induced similar levels of cytotoxicity. SDS, however, up-regulated CD86 expression to 125-138% of control in 2/4 preparations when tested at concentrations which induced similar toxicity. Our results confirm that chemical allergens up-regulate CD86 expression on blood-derived DC and illustrate further that up-regulation of CD86 surface marker expression is more robust when DC are treated with concentrations of chemical allergen that induce slight to moderate cytotoxicity.

  19. Giant magnetoresistive sensor array for sensitive and specific multiplexed food allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine; Nadeau, Kari C; Wang, Shan X

    2016-06-15

    Current common allergen detection methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and dip-stick methods, do not provide adequate levels of sensitivity and specificity for at-risk allergic patients. A method for performing highly sensitive and specific detection of multiple food allergens is thus imperative as food allergies are becoming increasingly recognized as a major healthcare concern, affecting an estimated 4% of the total population. We demonstrate first instance of sensitive and specific multiplexed detection of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, and wheat allergen Gliadin using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor arrays. Commercialized ELISA kits for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 report limits of detection (LODs) at 31.5 ng/mL and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. In addition, the 96-well-based ELISA developed in-house for Gliadin was found to have a LOD of 40 ng/mL. Our multiplexed GMR-based assay demonstrates the ability to perform all three assays on the same chip specifically and with sensitivities at LODs about an order of magnitude lower than those of 96-well-based ELISAs. LODs of GMR-based assays developed for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Gliadin were 7.0 ng/mL, 0.2 ng/mL, and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little to no cross-reactivity. These LODs are clinically important as some patients could react strongly against such low allergen levels. Given the limitations of current industrial detection technology, multiplexed GMR-based assays provide a method for highly sensitive and specific simultaneous detection of any combination of food-product allergens, thus protecting allergic patients from life-threatening events, including anaphylaxis, by unintentional consumption. PMID:26859787

  20. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  1. Analysis of the allergenic proteins in black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) and characterization of the major allergen tropomyosin using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Rahman, Anas M Abdel; Kamath, Sandip; Lopata, Andreas L; Helleur, Robert J

    2010-08-30

    Crustaceans are the third most prevalent cause of food-induced anaphylaxis after peanuts and tree nuts. The severity of the allergenic proteins depends mainly on the amino acid sequence that induces production of IgE antibodies. In black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), the crude protein extract was profiled and its allergenic potency was examined against patient's sera. Proteins having strong immunoreactivity with patient's IgE were characterized using peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). Tropomyosin (TM) (33 kDa), myosin light chain (20 kDa), and arginine kinase (40 kDa) were identified as allergenic proteins. Tropomyosin, the most abundant and potent allergen, was purified using ion-exchange chromatography for de novo sequencing experiments. Using bottom up tandem mass spectrometry, the full amino acid sequence was achieved by a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (QqToF). Myosin light chain and arginine kinase were also characterized, and their related peptides were de novo sequenced using the same approach. The immunological reactivity of the crude prawn extracts and purified TM samples were analyzed using a large number of patients' sera. A signature peptide was assigned for the TM protein for future quantification work of black tiger prawn TM levels in different matrices (i.e. water, air, food) in the seafood industry. PMID:20658686

  2. Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy and immune tolerance to allergens.

    PubMed

    Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation and chronic infections has led to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for allergic diseases and represents the potentially curative and specific way of treatment. The mechanisms by which allergen-AIT has its mechanisms of action include the very early desensitization effects, modulation of T- and B-cell responses and related antibody isotypes as well as inhibition of migration of eosinophils, basophils and mast cells to tissues and release of their mediators. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been identified as key regulators of immunological processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens. Skewing of allergen-specific effector T cells to a regulatory phenotype appears as a key event in the development of healthy immune response to allergens and successful outcome in AIT. Naturally occurring FoxP3(+) CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and inducible type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells contribute to the control of allergen-specific immune responses in several major ways, which can be summarized as suppression of dendritic cells that support the generation of effector T cells; suppression of effector Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells; suppression of allergen-specific IgE, and induction of IgG4; suppression of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils and suppression of effector T cell migration to tissues. New strategies for immune intervention will likely include targeting of the molecular mechanisms of allergen tolerance and reciprocal regulation of effector and regulatory T cell subsets.

  3. Multiple independent IgE epitopes on the highly allergenic grass pollen allergen Phl p 5

    PubMed Central

    Levin, M; Rotthus, S; Wendel, S; Najafi, N; Källström, E; Focke-Tejkl, M; Valenta, R; Flicker, S; Ohlin, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Group 5 allergens are small proteins that consist of two domains. They belong to the most potent respiratory allergens. Objective To determine the binding sites and to study allergic patients' IgE recognition of the group 5 allergen (Phl p 5) from timothy grass pollen using human monoclonal IgE antibodies that have been isolated from grass pollen allergic patients. Methods Using recombinant isoallergens, fragments, mutants and synthetic peptides of Phl p 5, as well as peptide-specific antibodies, the interaction of recombinant human monoclonal IgE and Phl p 5 was studied using direct binding and blocking assays. Cross-reactivity of monoclonal IgE with group 5 allergens in several grasses was studied and inhibition experiments with patients' polyclonal IgE were performed. Results Monoclonal human IgE showed extensive cross-reactivity with group 5 allergens in several grasses. Despite its small size of 29 kDa, four independent epitope clusters on isoallergen Phl p 5.0101, two in each domain, were recognized by human IgE. Isoallergen Phl p 5.0201 carried two of these epitopes. Inhibition studies with allergic patients' polyclonal IgE suggest the presence of additional IgE epitopes on Phl p 5. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance Our results reveal the presence of a large number of independent IgE epitopes on the Phl p 5 allergen explaining the high allergenic activity of this protein and its ability to induce severe allergic symptoms. High-density IgE recognition may be a general feature of many potent allergens and form a basis for the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic disease. PMID:25262820

  4. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  5. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  6. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  7. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  8. Developments in allergen-specific immunotherapy: from allergen extracts to allergy vaccines bypassing allergen-specific immunoglobulin E and T cell reactivity.

    PubMed

    Focke, M; Swoboda, I; Marth, K; Valenta, R

    2010-03-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only specific and disease-modifying approach for the treatment of allergy but several disadvantages have limited its broad applicability. We argue that the majority of the possible disadvantages of SIT such as unwanted effects, poor efficacy and specificity as well as inconvenient application are related to the poor quality of natural allergen extracts, which are the active ingredients of all currently available allergy vaccines. Because of the progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization, new allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergens, recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives and allergen-derived T cell peptides have entered clinical testing and hold promise to reduce the side-effects and to increase the specificity as well as the efficacy of SIT. Here, we present a refined immunotherapy concept, which is based on the use of peptides derived from allergen surfaces that exhibit reduced, allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell reactivity. These peptides when fused to non-allergenic carriers give rise to allergen-specific protective IgG responses with T cell help from a non-allergenic carrier molecule. We summarize the experimental data demonstrating that such peptide vaccines can bypass allergen-specific IgE as well as T cell activation and may be administered at high doses without IgE- and T cell-mediated side-effects. Should these peptide vaccines prove efficacious and safe in clinical trials, it may become possible to develop convenient, safe and broadly applicable forms of SIT as true alternatives to symptomatic, drug-based allergy treatment.

  9. Spontaneous and induced variability of allergens in commodity crops: Ara h 2 in peanut as a case study.

    PubMed

    Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Ramos, M Laura; Faustinelli, Paola; Chu, Ye; Maleki, Soheila; Thelen, Jay J; Huntley, James; Arias, Katherine; Jordana, Manel

    2009-08-01

    Many commodity crops are grown for human consumption, and the resulting food products usually contain proteins, some of which may be allergenic. The legumes, peanut and soybean, as well as tree nuts and some cereal grains are well recognized sources of food allergens. In peanut, there are 11 documented allergenic proteins, although the major allergens are considered to be Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, both of which are seed storage proteins. Methods to reduce or eliminate these proteins from seeds are available and allow the feasibility of this approach to be tested. Greatly reduced amounts of Ara h 2 can be achieved by RNA silencing in transgenic peanut; however, mutagenesis is a more viable and socially acceptable approach to allergen elimination. Although the techniques for mutagenesis are not new, methods for mutant detection at the molecular level have recently been developed. However, these methods are dependent on genome sequence. These methods will facilitate discovery of spontaneous and induced mutations that may be useful over the long term to eliminate certain allergens from peanut.

  10. Specific immunotherapy modifies allergen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in an epitope-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wambre, Erik; DeLong, Jonathan H.; James, Eddie A.; Torres-Chinn, Nadia; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Möbs, Christian; Durham, Stephen R.; Till, Stephen J.; Robinson, David; Kwok, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system induces and controls allergic inflammation at the T cell epitope level is critical for the design of new allergy vaccine strategies. Objective To characterize allergen-specific T cell responses linked with allergy or peripheral tolerance and to determine how CD4+ T cell responses to individual allergen-derived epitopes change over allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Methods Timothy grass pollen (TGP) allergy was used as a model for studying grass pollen allergies. The breadth, magnitude, epitope hierarchy and phenotype of the DR04:01-restricted TGP-specific T cell responses in ten grass pollen allergic, five non-atopic and six allergy vaccine-treated individuals was determined using an ex vivo pMHCII-tetramer approach. Results CD4+ T cells in allergic individuals are directed to a broad range of TGP epitopes characterized by defined immunodominance hierarchy patterns and with distinct functional profiles that depend on the epitope recognized. Epitopes that are restricted specifically to either TH2 or TH1/TR1 responses were identified. ASIT was associated with preferential deletion of allergen-specific TH2 cells and without significant change in frequency of TH1/TR1 cells. Conclusions Preferential allergen-specific TH2-cells deletion after repeated high doses antigen stimulation can be another independent mechanism to restore tolerance to allergen during immunotherapy. PMID:24373351

  11. Use of a 3-D dispersion model for calculation of distribution of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities.

    PubMed

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-04-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m³). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority--80%-90%--detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.

  12. Prevention of Birch Pollen-Related Food Allergy by Mucosal Treatment with Multi-Allergen-Chimers in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Hufnagl, Karin; Schabussova, Irma; Jasinska, Joanna; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bohle, Barbara; Maizels, Rick M.; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Background Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery) or Dau c 1 (carrot), termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy. Methodology BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization. Results Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer. Conclusion Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:22768077

  13. Reactivity of IgE to the allergen hyaluronidase from Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) venom.

    PubMed

    Justo Jacomini, Débora Laís; Gomes Moreira, Susana Margarida; Campos Pereira, Franco Dani; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto Braga, Márcia Regina

    2014-05-01

    To date, there are no allergenic extracts or components available in Brazil to diagnosis and treatment of patients with venom allergy from social wasp (Vespidae Family; Polistinae Subfamily) despite of the great number of existing species. We evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Hyal recombinant protein (Pp-Hyal-rec) which was expressed in an insoluble form in comparison with the allergenic native protein (Pp-Hyal-nat) for recognition of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the serum of allergic patients to venom of the endemic social wasp Polybia paulista from São Paulo State, Brazil. Hyal cDNA from the venom of the social wasp P. paulista (Pp-Hyal) (GI: 302201582) was cloned into the expression vector pET-28a in Escherichia coli DE3 (BL21) cells. Solubilization and purification of Pp-Hyal-rec from inclusion bodies were performed using Ni(2+) affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA-Agarose) under denaturing conditions. Both the native (Pp-Hyal-nat) and the recombinant (Pp-Hyal-rec) purified allergens were used for Western blotting to assess the levels of Pp-Hyal-IgE specific in the serum of 10 patients exclusively reactive to the venom of the social wasp P. paulista. The immune sera specifically recognized the band corresponding to the Pp-Hyal-rec protein (40 kDa) at a higher intensity than the native allergen (39 kDa). The sera recognized other proteins in P. paulista crude venom extract to a lesser extent, likely corresponding to other venom allergens such as phospholipase (34 kDa), Antigen 5 (25 kDa), and proteases. The recognition pattern of the immune sera to the Pp-Hyal-rec allergen strongly suggests that this recombinant antigen could be used for developing a diagnostic allergy test as well as for specific immunotherapy (IT).

  14. Determinants of Allergen Concentrations in Apartments of Asthmatic Children Living in Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Rogers, Christine A.; Burge, Harriet A.; Spengler, John D.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence linking poor housing conditions and respiratory diseases, including asthma. The association between housing conditions and asthma in the inner city has been attributed in part to cockroach and mouse infestation and the resulting allergen exposures. Multiple social and behavioral factors can influence environmental exposures and health conditions, necessitating a thorough examination of such factors. As part of the Healthy Public Housing Initiative, we evaluated the association between physical and household characteristics and pest-related allergen levels in three public housing developments in Boston, MA. We detected cockroach allergens (Bla g 1 and Bla g 2) in bedroom air, bed, and especially high concentrations in kitchen samples. In multivariate Tobit regressions controlling for development and season, clutter and lack of cleanliness in the apartment were associated with a tenfold increase in Bla g 1 concentration in the air, a sevenfold increase in Bla g 1 and an eightfold increase in Bla g 2 concentrations in the bed, and an 11-fold increase in Bla g 2 in the kitchen (p<0.05 for all). Holes in the wall/ceiling were associated with a six- to 11-fold increase in kitchen cockroach allergen concentrations (p<0.05). Occupancy in an apartment unit of 2 years or more was also associated with increased cockroach allergen concentrations. In contrast, there were low concentrations of mouse urinary protein in this population. In conclusion, these results suggest that interventions in these homes should focus on reducing cockroach allergen concentrations and that building-wide interventions should be supplemented with targeted efforts focused on high-risk units. PMID:17216349

  15. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  16. Developing a preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity using recombinant allergens: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Hamza, Eman; Janda, Jozef; Rhyner, Claudio; Meinke, Andreas; Marti, Eliane; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2015-07-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of midges (Culicoides spp.). IgE-mediated reactions are often involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. IBH does not occur in Iceland due to the absence of Culicoides, but it occurs with a high frequency in Icelandic horses exported to mainland Europe, where Culicoides are present. We hypothesize that immunization with the Culicoides allergens before export could reduce the incidence of IBH in exported Icelandic horses. The aim of the present study was therefore to compare intradermal and intralymphatic vaccination using four purified recombinant allergens, in combination with a Th1 focusing adjuvant. Twelve horses were vaccinated three times with 10μg of each of the four recombinant Culicoides nubeculosus allergens. Six horses were injected intralymphatically, three with and three without IC31(®), and six were injected intradermally, in the presence or absence of IC31(®). Antibody responses were measured by immunoblots and ELISA, potential sensitization in a sulfidoleukotriene release test and an intradermal test, cytokine and FoxP3 expression with real time PCR following in vitro stimulation of PBMC. Immunization with the r-allergens induced a significant increase in levels of r-allergen-specific IgG1, IgG1/3, IgG4/7, IgG5 and IgG(T). Application of the r-allergens in IC31(®) adjuvant resulted in a significantly higher IgG1, IgG1/3, IgG4/7 allergen-specific response. Intralymphatic injection was slightly more efficient than intradermal injection, but the difference did not reach significance. Testing of the blocking activity of the sera from the horses immunized intralymphatically with IC31(®) showed that the generated IgG antibodies were able to partly block binding of serum IgE from an IBH-affected horse to these r-allergens. Furthermore, IgG antibodies bound to protein bands on blots of C. nubeculosus salivary gland extract. No allergen-specific IgE was induced and

  17. Assessment of airborne microorganisms by real-time PCR: optimistic findings and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Oppliger, Anne; Masclaux, Frederic G; Niculita-Hirzel, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Most airborne microorganisms are natural components of our ecosystem. Soil, vegetation and animals, including humans, are sources for aerial release of these living or dead cells. In the past, assessment of airborne microorganisms was mainly restricted to occupational health concerns. Indeed, in several occupations, exposure to very high concentrations of non-infectious airborne bacteria and fungi, result in allergenic, toxic or irritant reactions. Recently, the threat of bioterrorism and pandemics have highlighted the urgent need to increase knowledge of bioaerosol ecology. More fundamentally, airborne bacterial and fungal communities begin to draw much more consideration from environmental microbiologists, who have neglected this area for a long time. This increased interest of scientists is to a great part due to the development and use of real-time PCR techniques to identify and quantify airborne microorganisms. Even if the advantages of the PCR technology are obvious, researchers are confronted with new problems. This review describes the methodological state of the art in bioaerosols field and emphasizes the future challenges and perspectives of the real-time PCR-based methods for airborne microorganism studies. PMID:21196388

  18. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  19. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  20. Polysensitisation to pollen due to profilin and calcium-binding protein: distribution of IgE antibodies to marker allergens in grass and birch pollen allergic rhinitis patients in southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Muehlmeier, G; Maier, H

    2014-04-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy for grass pollen allergy has been reported to be effective in up to 85% of patients. Sensitisation to profilin and calcium-binding protein (CBP) can possibly influence treatment results and may thus be a reason for treatment failures. During a study period of 3 years, the distribution patterns of antibodies to marker allergens were continuously investigated in all blood serum samples with a level of immunoglobulin E antibodies to timothy and birch pollen higher than 0.7 kUA/l (n = 556). Sensitisation to timothy grass pollen alone was found in 33% of the cases, to birch pollen alone in 19%, and to both in 48%. The group of polysensitised patients showed an inhomogenous distribution of antibodies to marker allergens. IgE against minor allergens was detected in 40%. Sensitisation to major allergens, especially to the major birch allergen, was not present in 13% of the polysensitised patients. Of the patients who were sensitised to minor allergens, 82% were sensitised to profilin, 11% to CBP, and 8% to both profilin and CBP. Profilin and CBP frequently cause polysensitisations to pollen. The data obtained justify the measurement of serum levels of antibodies to marker allergens in patients who are sensitised to more than one group of allergens.

  1. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  2. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  3. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  4. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  5. Domestic airborne black carbon and exhaled nitric oxide in children in NYC.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Alexandra G; Chillrud, Steven N; Mellins, Robert B; Acosta, Luis M; Miller, Rachel L; Quinn, James W; Yan, Beizhan; Divjan, Adnan; Olmedo, Omar E; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Kinney, Patrick L; Perera, Frederica P; Jacobson, Judith S; Goldstein, Inge F; Rundle, Andrew G; Perzanowski, Matthew S

    2012-01-01

    Differential exposure to combustion by-products and allergens may partially explain the marked disparity in asthma prevalence (3-18%) among New York City neighborhoods. Subclinical changes in airway inflammation can be measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). FeNO could be used to test independent effects of these environmental exposures on airway inflammation. Seven- and eight-year-old children from neighborhoods with lower (range 3-9%, n=119) and higher (range 11-18%, n=121) asthma prevalence participated in an asthma case-control study. During home visits, FeNO was measured, and samples of bed dust (allergens) and air (black carbon; BC) were collected. Neighborhood built-environment characteristics were assessed for the 500 m surrounding participants' homes. Airborne BC concentrations in homes correlated with neighborhood asthma prevalence (P<0.001) and neighborhood densities of truck routes (P<0.001) and buildings burning residual oil (P<0.001). FeNO concentrations were higher among asthmatics with than in those without frequent wheeze (≥4 times/year) (P=0.002). FeNO concentrations correlated with domestic BC among children without seroatopy (P=0.012) and with dust mite allergen among children with seroatopy (P=0.020). The association between airborne BC in homes and both neighborhood asthma prevalence and FeNO suggest that further public health interventions on truck emissions standards and residual oil use are warranted. PMID:22377682

  6. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-04-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  7. Tree pollen allergens-an update from a molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Asam, C; Hofer, H; Wolf, M; Aglas, L; Wallner, M

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that pollen allergies affect approximately 40% of allergic individuals. In general, tree pollen allergies are mainly elicited by allergenic trees belonging to the orders Fagales, Lamiales, Proteales, and Pinales. Over 25 years ago, the gene encoding the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was the first such gene to be cloned and its product characterized. Since that time, 53 tree pollen allergens have been identified and acknowledged by the WHO/IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee. Molecule-based profiling of allergic sensitization has helped to elucidate the immunological connections of allergen cross-reactivity, whereas advances in biochemistry have revealed structural and functional aspects of allergenic proteins. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge of the molecular aspects of tree pollen allergens. We analyze the geographic distribution of allergenic trees, discuss factors pivotal for allergic sensitization, and describe the role of tree pollen panallergens. Novel allergenic tree species as well as tree pollen allergens are continually being identified, making research in this field highly competitive and instrumental for clinical applications.

  8. Cat allergen sampling by a new personal collector (Partrap FA 52).

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Russo, M; Barber, D; Califano, C; Parmiani, S; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies carried out by us and others have demonstrated that Fel d 1, the main cat allergen, may be passively transferred by human clothing in cat-free environments. Consequently, the monitoring of the Fel d 1 levels either in indoor environments or on allergen-contaminated clothes of sensitized cat owners should be considered an important tool in prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a personal air sampler (Partrap FA 52) in capturing cat allergen from wool fabrics. Seven identical wool webs (80 x 100 cm) were put in the baskets of seven male cats for 1 week. In our laboratory each web was divided into two parts (80 x 50 cm), the first of which was then divided in two parts (40 x 50 cm) and each was vacuumed directly by one collector. The second part was dry-cleaned at a professional cleaners, divided in two parts and then vacuumed. For the dust collection from wool webs we used a fixed high volume air sampler (CF/20 Gelaire Flow Labs, Milan, Italy) and a personal collector (Partrap FA 52, Coppa Biella, Italy). Fel d 1 content was determined using a two site ELISA (ALK-Abelló Group, Madrid, Spain). Both air samplers collected cat allergens from cat-exposed wool fabrics before and after dry cleaning. There were significant differences between the levels of Fel d 1 before and after dry cleaning by using either CF/20 or Partrap FA52 and between the levels of Fel d 1 before dry cleaning using CF/20 and Partrap FA 52. The results of our study suggest that Partrap FA 52, although its air flow is half that of the CF/20, is able to collect even residual amounts of cat allergen from wool webs after dry cleaning and consequently may constitute a simple and effective means of monitoring the levels of Fel d 1 on the clothes of cat owners.

  9. Specific IgG for cat allergens in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Miyama, Anri; Mimura, Tatsuya; Noma, Hidetaka; Goto, Mari; Kamei, Yuko; Kondo, Aki; Saito, Yusuke; Okuma, Hiroko; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are involved in type II and type III hypersensitivity. We evaluated the relation between perennial allergic conjunctivitis and serum levels of specific IgG for cat allergens. A prospective study was conducted in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (seasonal group, n = 10), patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (perennial group, n = 10), and healthy control subjects (control group, n = 10). Serum levels of specific IgE and IgG for cat allergens and total tear IgE were measured, and a skin prick test was also performed. In addition, a severity score associated with allergic conjunctivitis was calculated (0-30). The positive rates and scores of for total tear IgE, serum cat-specific IgE, and serum cat-specific IgG were all higher in the seasonal and perennial groups than in the control group (all p < 0.05). Serum cat-specific IgG levels were higher in the perennial group than in the seasonal group (p = 0.0156), but there was no significant difference in the grade of cat-specific IgE between the two groups (p = 0.3008). On multivariate analysis, the mean wheal diameter for cat allergen was associated with the serum level of cat-specific IgG (not IgE) in all patients [odds ratio (OR) = 31.979, p < 0.0001]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the total objective score was strongly associated with serum cat-specific IgG (OR = 23.015, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that specific IgG antibodies may be involved in perennial allergic symptoms caused by indoor allergens such as cat allergens.

  10. Specific allergen immunotherapy attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a rat model of Alstonia scholaris pollen induced airway allergy.