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Sample records for airborne asbestos exposure

  1. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  2. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  3. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with work on asbestos fire sleeve materials.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Harbison, Stephen C; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2011-11-01

    Asbestos-containing fire sleeves have been used as a fire protection measure for aircraft fluid hoses. This investigation was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos fiber exposure experienced by mechanics who work with fire sleeve protected hoses. Duplicate testing was performed inside a small, enclosed workroom during the fabrication of hose assemblies. Personal air samples taken during this work showed detectable, but low airborne asbestos fiber exposures. Analysis of personal samples (n=9) using phrase contract microscopy (PCM) indicated task duration airborne fiber concentrations ranging from 0.017 to 0.063 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) for sampling durations of 167-198 min, and 0.022-0.14 f/ml for 30 min samples. Airborne chrysotile fibers were detected for four of these nine personal samples, and the resulting asbestos adjusted airborne fiber concentrations ranged from 0.014 to 0.025 f/ml. These results indicate that work with asbestos fire sleeve and fire sleeve protected hose assemblies, does not produce regulatory noncompliant levels of asbestos exposure for persons who handle, cut and fit these asbestos-containing materials.

  4. Exposure to airborne asbestos in thermal power plants in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Damiran, Naransukh; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Frank, Arthur L; Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Mongolia use various types of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) in thermal insulation of piping systems, furnaces, and other products. Objective: To investigate the occupational exposure of insulation workers to airborne asbestos in Mongolian power plants. Methods: Forty-seven air samples were collected from four power plants in Mongolia during the progress of insulation work. The samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The average phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fiber concentration was 0.93 f/cm3. Sixteen of the 41 personal and one of the area samples exceeded the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) short-term exposure limit of 1.0 f/cm3. If it is assumed that the short-term samples collected are representative of full-shift exposure, then the exposures are approximately 10 times higher than the US OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure limit of 0.1 f/cm3. Conclusion: Power plant insulation workers are exposed to airborne asbestos at concentrations that exceed the US OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit. Action to mitigate the risks should be taken in Mongolia. PMID:25730489

  5. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc.

  6. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure at an asbestos cement sheet and pipe factory in Iran.

    PubMed

    Marioryad, Hossein; Kakooei, Hossein; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Yunesian, Masud; Azam, Kamal

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 metric tons of asbestos per year, and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, asbestos fiber concentrations during AC sheet and pipe manufacturing were measured by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) in 98 personal air samples. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels indicated a range from 0.02 to 0.55PCM f/ml (0.02-0.69PLM f/ml). The AC workers' geometric mean asbestos exposure was 0.09 PCM f/ml (0.11 PLM f/ml), with arithmetic mean of 0.13 PCM f/ml (0.16 PLM f/ml). The observed fiber concentrations in many processes were higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. Based on these findings, the PLM values were approximately 25% higher than PCM values. The SEM data demonstrate that fibrous particles contained chrysotile. The thinnest fiber recognized by SEM had a diameter of 0.2μm. Mean exposure exceeded the TLV for asbestos in pipe molding and finishing (100%) as well as sheet molding and finishing (45.5-83.3%). In conclusion exposure control may be needed to be in compliance with the ACGIH TLV and other guidance levels. Also, with regard to PCM limitations for airborne fiber analysis, the use of microscopic methods other than PCM can be used to improve the techniques used presently.

  7. Occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from phenolic molding material (Bakelite) during sanding, drilling, and related activities.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Fionna; Bono, Michael; Lee, R J; Tamburello, Susan; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2005-10-01

    In this study, a historical phenolic (Bakelite) molding material, BMMA-5353, was tested to determine the airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers released during four different activities (sawing, sanding, drilling, and cleanup of dust generated from these activities). Each activity was performed for 30 min, often in triplicate. The primary objective for testing BMMA-5353 was to quantitatively determine the airborne concentration of asbestos fibers, if any, in the breathing zone of workers. Uses of this product typically did not include sawing or sanding, but it may have been drilled occasionally. For this reason, only small quantities were sawed, sanded, and drilled in this simulation study. Personal (n = 40), area (n = 80), and background/clearance (n = 88) air samples were collected during each activity and analyzed for total fiber concentrations using phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and, for asbestos fiber counts, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The raw PCM-total fiber concentrations were adjusted based on TEM analyses that reported the fraction of asbestos fibers, to derive a PCM-asbestos concentration that would enable calculation of an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). The estimated 8-hour TWAs ranged from 0.006 to 0.08 fibers per cubic centimeter using a variety of worker exposure scenarios. Therefore, assuming an exposure scenario in which a worker uses power tools to cut and sand products molded from BMMA-5353 and similar products in the manner evaluated in this study, airborne asbestos concentrations should not exceed current or historical occupational exposure limits.

  8. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  9. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  10. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  11. Airborne asbestos take-home exposures during handling of chrysotile-contaminated clothing following simulated full shift workplace exposures.

    PubMed

    Sahmel, Jennifer; Barlow, Christy A; Gaffney, Shannon; Avens, Heather J; Madl, Amy K; Henshaw, John; Unice, Ken; Galbraith, David; DeRose, Gretchen; Lee, Richard J; Van Orden, Drew; Sanchez, Matthew; Zock, Matthew; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    The potential for para-occupational, domestic, or take-home exposures from asbestos-contaminated work clothing has been acknowledged for decades, but historically has not been quantitatively well characterized. A simulation study was performed to measure airborne chrysotile concentrations associated with laundering of contaminated clothing worn during a full shift work day. Work clothing fitted onto mannequins was exposed for 6.5 h to an airborne concentration of 11.4 f/cc (PCME) of chrysotile asbestos, and was subsequently handled and shaken. Mean 5-min and 15-min concentrations during active clothes handling and shake-out were 3.2 f/cc and 2.9 f/cc, respectively (PCME). Mean airborne PCME concentrations decreased by 55% 15 min after clothes handling ceased, and by 85% after 30 min. PCM concentrations during clothes handling were 11-47% greater than PCME concentrations. Consistent with previously published data, daily mean 8-h TWA airborne concentrations for clothes-handling activity were approximately 1.0% of workplace concentrations. Similarly, weekly 40-h TWAs for clothes handling were approximately 0.20% of workplace concentrations. Estimated take-home cumulative exposure estimates for weekly clothes handling over 25-year working durations were below 1 f/cc-year for handling work clothes contaminated in an occupational environment with full shift airborne chrysotile concentrations of up to 9 f/cc (8-h TWA).

  12. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  13. Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from artificially weathered asphalt-based roofing products.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Patrick; Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Floyd, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Historically, asbestos-containing roof cements and coatings were widely used for patching and repairing leaks. Although fiber releases from these materials when newly applied have been studied, there are virtually no useful data on airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with the repair or removal of weathered roof coatings and cements, as most studies involve complete tear-out of old roofs, rather than only limited removal of the roof coating or cement during a repair job. This study was undertaken to estimate potential chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures specific to these types of roofing products following artificially enhanced weathering. Roof panels coated with plastic roof cement and fibered roof coating were subjected to intense solar radiation and daily simulated precipitation events for 1 year and then scraped to remove the weathered materials to assess chrysotile fiber release and potential worker exposures. Analysis of measured fiber concentrations for hand scraping of the weathered products showed 8-h time-weighted average concentrations that were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for asbestos. There was, however, visibly more dust and a few more fibers collected during the hand scraping of weathered products compared to the cured products previously tested. There was a notable difference between fibers released from weathered and cured roofing products. In weathered samples, a large fraction of chrysotile fibers contained low concentrations of or essentially no magnesium and did not meet the spectral, mineralogical, or morphological definitions of chrysotile asbestos. The extent of magnesium leaching from chrysotile fibers is of interest because several researchers have reported that magnesium-depleted chrysotile fibers are less toxic and produce fewer mesothelial tumors in animal studies than normal chrysotile fibers. PMID:20923966

  14. Exposure to airborne asbestos during removal and installation of gaskets and packings: a review of published and unpublished studies.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Clark, Katherine; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, questions have been raised about the health risks to persons who have been occupationally exposed to asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials used in pipes, valves, and machinery (pumps, autos, etc.). Up until the late 1970s, these materials were widely used throughout industrial and maritime operations, refineries, chemical plants, naval ships, and energy plants. Seven simulation studies and four work-site industrial hygiene studies of industrial and maritime settings involving the collection of more than 300 air samples were evaluated to determine the likely airborne fiber concentrations to which a worker may have been exposed while working with encapsulated asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials. Each study was evaluated for the representativeness of work practices, analytical methods, sample size, and potential for asbestos contamination (e.g., insulation on valves or pipes used in the study). Specific activities evaluated included the removal and installation of gaskets and packings, flange cleaning, and gasket formation. In all but one of the studies relating to the replacement of gaskets and packing using hand-held tools, the short-term average exposures were less than the current 30-min OSHA excursion limit of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc) and all of the long-term average exposures were less than the current 8-h permissible exposure limit time-weighted average (PEL-TWA) of 0.1 f/cc. The weight of evidence indicates that the use of hand tools and hand-operated power tools to remove or install gaskets or packing as performed by pipefitters or other tradesmen in nearly all plausible situations would not have produced airborne concentrations in excess of contemporaneous regulatory levels.

  15. Asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Choi, Sang-Jun; Kang, Daehee

    2009-01-01

    Although importation of asbestos to Korea has decreased, there are growing concerns of its hazardous effects. This paper describes the use and occupational exposure to asbestos, and the incidence and mortality of malignant mesotheliomas in Korea. Asbestos raw material imports from other countries peaked between 1990 and 1995, but importation of asbestos-containing and -processed materials has steadily increased until now. A comprehensive exposure survey was conducted in Korea between 1995 and 2006. The average airborne asbestos concentration was lower than from other countries and steadily decreased during the study period. The number of malignant mesothelioma cases in Korea was 48 in 1998, 39 in 1999, 45 in 2000, 38 in 2001, and 46 in 2002. There were 334 deaths due to malignant mesothelioma and an average of 30.4 deaths per year between 1996 and 2006. The number of deaths attributed to malignant mesothelioma ranged from 16 cases in 1999 to 57 cases in 2006. The magnitude of asbestos-related health problems in Korea has been underestimated due to under-diagnosis, incomplete reports, and shorter duration of exposure. A nationwide surveillance system for asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma should therefore be implemented.

  16. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    PubMed Central

    Cherrie, John W; Tindall, Matthew; Cowie, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from <0.06 to 0.55 fibres/ml, with no significant difference in fibre exposure between aged and unused mitts. The use of high localised ventilation to simulate convective airflows from a furnace reduced exposure levels by about a factor of five. Differences between tasks were statistically significant, with simulated "rowing" of molten glass lowest and replacement of side seals on the furnace highest. Estimated lifetime cancer risk from 20 years exposure at the upper end of the exposure range measured during the study is less than 22 per 100,000. Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low. PMID:16202137

  17. Nonpulmonary outcomes of asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be "limited." The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  18. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  19. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  20. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  1. Airborne Fiber Size Characterization in Exposure Estimation: Evaluation of a Modified Transmission Electron Microcopy Protocol for Asbestos and Potential Use for Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Dement, John M.; Kuempel, Eileen D.; Zumwalde, Ralph D.; Ristich, Anna M.; Fernback, Joseph E.; Smith, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airborne fiber size has been shown to be an important factor relative to adverse lung effects of asbestos and suggested in animal studies of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/CNF). Materials and Methods The International Standards Organization (ISO) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method for asbestos was modified to increase the statistical precision of fiber size determinations, improve efficiency, and reduce analysis costs. Comparisons of the fiber size distributions and exposure indices by laboratory and counting method were performed. Results No significant differences in size distributions by the ISO and modified ISO methods were observed. Small but statistically-significant inter-lab differences in the proportion of fibers in some size bins were found, but these differences had little impact on the summary exposure indices. The modified ISO method produced slightly more precise estimates of the long fiber fraction (>15 μm). Conclusions The modified ISO method may be useful for estimating size-specific structure exposures, including CNT/CNF, for risk assessment research. PMID:25675894

  2. Pericardial mesothelioma and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Mensi, Carolina; Giacomini, Sara; Sieno, Claudia; Consonni, Dario; Riboldi, Luciano

    2011-06-01

    Pericardial mesothelioma (PM) accounts for 0.7% of all malignant mesotheliomas. Although asbestos exposure is a recognized etiological factor for pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas, its role in the development of PM is controversial. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of PM cases occurred in Lombardy, a highly industrialized Region of Northern Italy. From the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry we selected the incident cases of PM registered in the Lombardy Region between 2000 and 2009 and we abstracted clinical characteristics and history of asbestos exposure. We identified 8 cases (6 men and 2 women), with a median age at diagnosis of 55.5 years, representing 0.3% of all mesothelioma cases (n = 3059). The age-standardized incidence rate was 0.09 per million/year. Occupational exposure to asbestos was documented in 5 of the 7 cases for which we obtained an interview. Our findings support the role of asbestos in the pathogenesis of PM.

  3. Exposures to asbestos arising from bandsawing gasket material.

    PubMed

    Fowler, D P

    2000-05-01

    A simulation of bandsawing sheet asbestos gasket material was performed as part of a retrospective exposure evaluation undertaken to assist in determining causation of a case of mesothelioma. The work was performed by bandsawing a chrysotile asbestos (80%)/neoprene gasket sheet with a conventional 16-inch woodworking bandsaw inside a chamber. Measurements of airborne asbestos were made using conventional area and personal sampling methods, with analysis of collected samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and phase contrast microscopy (PCM). These were supplemented by qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of some of the airborne particles collected on the filters. In contrast with findings from studies examining manual handling (installation and removal) of gaskets, airborne asbestos concentrations from this operation were found to be well above current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) (eight-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) and excursion limit (30-minute) standards. Although some "encapsulation" effect of the neoprene matrix was seen on the particles in the airborne dust, unencapsulated individual fiber bundles were also seen. Suggestions for the implications of the work are given. In summary, the airborne asbestos concentrations arising from this work were quite high, and point to the need for careful observation of common sense precautions when manipulation of asbestos-containing materials (even those believed to have limited emissions potential) may involved machining operations.

  4. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos.

  5. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos. PMID:22401880

  6. Evaluation of asbestos exposure during brake repair and replacement.

    PubMed

    Kakooei, Hossein; Hormozy, Maryam; Marioryad, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber of brake repair job (auto mechanics) has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos fiber concentrations in the breathing zone of auto mechanics between July 2008 and December 2008. The asbestos fiber concentrations of 60 personal air samples collected from 30 cars and trucks brake replacement and they were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The geometric means of the personal monitoring fiber concentrations were 0.92 PCM f/ml and 0.46 PCM f/ml respectively in car and passenger heavy truck auto shops. There was a significant differences in the asbestos fiber concentrations between the car and truck auto shops (p=0.006). Based on these findings, auto mechanics who worked with asbestos containing brake may have been exposed to asbestos concentrations approximately 7 times higher than the current occupational safety and health agency (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/ml. Fiber morphology and energy dispersive X-ray analysis by SEM revealed that amphibole fibers such as tremolite and actinolite existed in the brakes dust and that the vast majority (>30%) of the airborne chrysotile fibers were greater than 1 μm in diameter. It can be concluded that the imported chrysotile asbestos contains trace amounts of tremolite and actinolite fibers and they are responsible for the high airborne asbestos levels and occupational exposure to amphibole asbestos in auto mechanics job in Iran. Thus, it is to be expected that the auto mechanics will suffer negative health effects due to exposure to the serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibers.

  7. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  8. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  9. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... reasons, asbestos has been used widely in many industries. Chemically, asbestos minerals are silicate compounds, meaning they ... Since then, asbestos has been used in many industries. For example, the building and construction industries have ...

  10. Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, N

    1989-01-01

    Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan were determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) for about 100 air samples from various outdoor settings. Asbestos fibres (chrysotile) were found in almost all samples. The fibre (mass) concentrations were in the range of 4-367 fibres per litre (0.02-47.2 ng/m3) with a geometric mean of 18 f/1 (0.3 ng/m3). The mass concentrations were similar to the earlier data reported from other countries. Samples from main roads showed extremely high asbestos concentrations and short fibre lengths compared with those of the other samples. This strongly suggested that braking of vehicles was a significant emission source of airborne asbestos. Laboratory experiments using a brake testing machine demonstrated that asbestos fibres were released during braking. In addition, the present study found high levels of airborne asbestos in some highly polluted areas, such as a serpentine quarry, a town adjacent to an asbestos mine, and factories making asbestos slate-board. On the other hand, chrysotile fibres were also found in air samples from a small isolated island in the Pacific Ocean as well as in ice samples from ten thousand years ago in Antarctica. These facts suggest that chrysotile fibres have been liberated both by industrial activities and natural weathering, and have circulated around the earth. PMID:2744826

  11. Environmental exposure to asbestos and the exposure-response relationship with mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Madkour, M T; El Bokhary, M S; Awad Allah, H I; Awad, A A; Mahmoud, H F

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study was carried out in Shubra El-Kheima city, greater Cairo, of the exposure-response relationship between asbestos and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiological screening was done for 487 people occupationally exposed to asbestos, 2913 environmentally exposed to asbestos and a control group of 979 with no history of exposure. Pleural biopsy was done for suspicious cases. The airborne asbestos fibre concentrations were determined in all areas. There were 88 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed, 87 in the exposed group. The risk of mesothelioma was higher in the environmentally exposed group than other groups, and higher in females than males. The prevalence of mesothelioma increased with increased cumulative exposure to asbestos.

  12. Analysis of the asbestos permissible-exposure-level threshold standard. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.W.

    1991-06-01

    This thesis examines the reasoning of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to set stringent exposure levels for airborne asbestos in the work place. Technical recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Bureau of Mines, and the American conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists were presented to OSHA for consideration. OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set industry standards for permissible exposure levels (PEL) of airborne asbestos. Exposure to asbestos poses a health hazard to workers, their families, and consumers of asbestos products. Because it poses an unreasonable risk human life, OSHA has repeatedly lowered the Permissible Exposure Levels and the EPA will ban the manufacture, importation, processing and commercial distribution of asbestos containing products from the United States in phases by 1997. These decisions may have been made too hastily because of the long latency (15-40 years) period before cancer develops, and the added risks that smoking imposes.

  13. Cigarette smoking, asbestos exposure, and malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Muscat, J E; Wynder, E L

    1991-05-01

    In a hospital-based case-control study of 124 (105 male and 19 female) histologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma cases and age- and sex-matched controls, the role of cigarette smoking and the risk of asbestos exposure was investigated. Exposure to asbestos for at least 1 year was likely for 78% of male cases and 16% of female cases, and 90% of males were possibly exposed. Male cases worked predominantly in the ship-building industry, construction, or insulation trades. Elevated risks were found for males employed in asbestos-related industries [odds ratio (OR) 8.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.9-13.5], e.g., shipyards (OR 82.9, 95% CI 25.5-269.1), construction/maintenance (OR 8.3, 95% CI 4.6-14.8), and other asbestos-related jobs (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.2), and for males who self-reported exposure to asbestos or insulation (OR 50.9, 95% CI 21.7-119.8). A statistically significant trend was found for the risk of mesothelioma with increasing years employed in non-shipyard asbestos-related occupations. Among women, only one case worked in an asbestos-related industry and two reported domestic contact with asbestos. No association between cigarette smoking and mesothelioma was found for either men or women. We also report the occurrence of mesothelioma in occupations which have not been previously reported.

  14. Airborne concentrations of chrysotile asbestos in serpentine quarries and stone processing facilities in Valmalenco, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Andrea; Somigliana, Anna; Gemmi, Mauro; Bernabeo, Ferruccio; Savoca, Domenico; Cavallo, Domenico M; Bertazzi, Pier A

    2012-07-01

    Asbestos may be naturally present in rocks and soils. In some cases, there is the possibility of releasing asbestos fibres into the atmosphere from the rock or soil, subsequently exposing workers and the general population, which can lead to an increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases. In the present study, air contaminated with asbestos fibres released from serpentinites was investigated in occupational settings (quarries and processing factories) and in the environment close to working facilities and at urban sites. The only naturally occurrence of asbestos found in Valmalenco area was chrysotile; amphibole fibres were never detected. An experimental cut-off diameter of 0.25 μm was established for distinguishing between Valmalenco chrysotile and antigorite single fibres using selected area electron diffraction analyses. Air contamination from chrysotile fibres in the examined occupational settings was site-dependent as the degree of asbestos contamination of Valmalenco serpentinites is highly variable from place to place. Block cutting of massive serpentinites with multiple blades or discs and drilling at the quarry sites that had the highest levels of asbestos contamination generated the highest exposures to (i.e. over the occupational exposure limits) asbestos. Conversely, working activities on foliated serpentinites produced airborne chrysotile concentrations comparable with ambient levels. Environmental chrysotile concentrations were always below the Italian limit for life environments (0.002 f ml(-1)), except for one sample collected at a quarry property boundary. The present exposure assessment study should encourage the development of an effective and concordant policy for proper use of asbestos-bearing rocks and soils as well as for the protection of public health.

  15. Asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos levels in industrial buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjun; Suk, Mee-Hee; Paik, Nam Won

    2010-03-01

    Recently in Korea, the treatment of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in building has emerged as one of the most important environmental health issues. This study was conducted to identify the distribution and characteristics of ACM and airborne asbestos concentrations in industrial buildings in Korea. A total of 1285 presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) samples were collected from 80 workplaces across the nation, and 40% of the PACMs contained more than 1% of asbestos. Overall, 94% of the surveyed workplaces contained ACM. The distribution of ACM did not show a significant difference by region, employment size, or industry. The total ACM area in the buildings surveyed was 436,710 m2. Ceiling tile ACM accounted for 61% (267,093 m2) of the total ACM area, followed by roof ACM (32%), surfacing ACM (6.1%), and thermal system insulation (TSI). In terms of asbestos type, 98% of total ACM was chrysotile, while crocidolite was not detected. A comparison of building material types showed that the material with the highest priority for regular management is ceiling tile, followed by roof, TSI, and surfacing material. The average airborne concentration of asbestos sampled without disturbing in-place ACM was 0.0028 fibers/cc by PCM, with all measurements below the standard of recommendation for indoor air quality in Korea (0.01 fibers/cc).

  16. [Algorithm for assessment of exposure to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Martines, V; Fioravanti, M; Anselmi, A; Attili, F; Battaglia, D; Cerratti, D; Ciarrocca, M; D'Amelio, R; De Lorenzo, G; Ferrante, E; Gaudioso, F; Mascia, E; Rauccio, A; Siena, S; Palitti, T; Tucci, L; Vacca, D; Vigliano, R; Zelano, V; Tomei, F; Sancini, A

    2010-01-01

    There is no universally approved method in the scientific literature to identify subjects exposed to asbestos and divide them in classes according to intensity of exposure. The aim of our work is to study and develope an algorithm based on the findings of occupational anamnestical information provided by a large group of workers. The algorithm allows to discriminate, in a probabilistic way, the risk of exposure by the attribution of a code for each worker (ELSA Code--work estimated exposure to asbestos). The ELSA code has been obtained through a synthesis of information that the international scientific literature identifies as the most predictive for the onset of asbestos-related abnormalities. Four dimensions are analyzed and described: 1) present and/or past occupation; 2) type of materials and equipment used in performing working activity; 3) environment where these activities are carried out; 4) period of time when activities are performed. Although it is possible to have informations in a subjective manner, the decisional procedure is objective and is based on the systematic evaluation of asbestos exposure. From the combination of the four identified dimensions it is possible to have 108 ELSA codes divided in three typological profiles of estimated risk of exposure. The application of the algorithm offers some advantages compared to other methods used for identifying individuals exposed to asbestos: 1) it can be computed both in case of present and past exposure to asbestos; 2) the classification of workers exposed to asbestos using ELSA code is more detailed than the one we have obtained with Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) because the ELSA Code takes in account other indicators of risk besides those considered in the JEM. This algorithm was developed for a project sponsored by the Italian Armed Forces and is also adaptable to other work conditions for in which it could be necessary to assess risk for asbestos exposure.

  17. Is chrysotile asbestos exposure a significant health risk to the general population?

    PubMed

    Valić, F; Beritic-Stahuljak, D

    1993-06-01

    The main unresolved issues concerning environmental exposure to chrysotile asbestos of the general population are discussed. A review of the results of the measurement of airborne chrysotile fibres in buildings is presented showing that the results have been consistently low with the exception of buildings with damaged friable asbestos-containing material. Quantitative risk assessments are presented indicating that the lifetime risk is small compared to many other environmental risks. Possible adverse health effects of paraoccupational exposures in the case of high domestic airborne asbestos levels cannot be excluded. Both on the basis of electron microscopy analyses of asbestos exposures at locations with heavy traffic, and the very shallow slopes in the exposure-response relationships for increased lung cancer risk, the conclusion is drawn that exposure to airborne asbestos-containing friction materials has not been proven to pose a significant health risk to the general population. Reviewing animal ingestion studies published and all the available epidemiological studies related to asbestos in drinking water, the conclusion is drawn that the carcinogenic risk in the general population is low even in the case of drinking water containing elevated concentrations of chrysotile asbestos.

  18. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  19. Control of asbestos exposure during brake drum service

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehy, J.W.; Cooper, T.C.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Froehlich, P.A.

    1989-08-01

    Earlier studies of airborne asbestos exposure to mechanics during brake maintenance operations showed overexposure to asbestos fibers during brake servicing, especially brake assembly cleaning. Because an estimated 150,000 brake mechanics and garage workers in the U.S. are potentially exposed to asbestos, a known carcinogen, and the lack of information available on the effectiveness of available controls, an evaluation of these methods was initiated. Detailed field surveys were conducted at five facilities employing five methods for controlling exposure to asbestos during brake repair. These included the use of two commercial enclosure devices with ventilation provided by HEPA filter-equipped vacuum, a HEPA filter-equipped vacuum alone, a brush with recirculating cleaning solution, and cleaning solvents in aerosol cans. These controls were evaluated while servicing brakes to automobiles, pickup trucks, vans, and vehicles with a 4-wheel rear axle. Detailed evaluations of these control measures involved a program consisting of traditional air sampling methods, incorporating phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a real-time analysis of brake dust exposure. Personal and area air samples were collected during brake repair to each vehicle.

  20. Airborne concentrations of asbestos onboard maritime shipping vessels (1978-1992).

    PubMed

    Murbach, Dana M; Madl, Amy K; Unice, Ken M; Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Chapman, Pamela S; Brown, Jay L; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2008-06-01

    The exposure of shipyard workers to asbestos has been frequently investigated during the installation, repair or removal of asbestos insulation. The same level of attention, however, has not been directed to asbestos exposure of maritime seamen or sailors. In this paper, we assemble and analyze historical industrial hygiene (IH) data quantifying airborne asbestos concentrations onboard maritime shipping vessels between 1978 and 1992. Air monitoring and bulk sampling data were compiled from 52 IH surveys conducted on 84 different vessels, including oil tankers and cargo vessels, that were docked and/or at sea, but these were not collected during times when there was interaction with asbestos-containing materials (ACMs). One thousand and eighteen area air samples, 20 personal air samples and 24 air samples of unknown origin were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM); 19 area samples and six samples of unknown origin were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 13 area air samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, 482 bulk samples were collected from suspected ACMs, including insulation, ceiling panels, floor tiles, valve packing and gaskets. Fifty-three percent of all PCM and 4% of all TEM samples were above their respective detection limits. The average airborne concentration for the PCM area samples (n = 1018) was 0.008 fibers per cubic centimeter (f cc(-1)) (95th percentile of 0.040 f cc(-1)). Air concentrations in the living and recreational areas of the vessels (e.g. crew quarters, common rooms) averaged 0.004 f cc(-1) (95th percentile of 0.014 f cc(-1)), while air concentrations in the engine rooms and machine shops averaged 0.010 f cc(-1) (95th percentile of 0.068 f cc(-1)). Airborne asbestos concentrations were also classified by vessel type (cargo, tanker or Great Lakes), transport status (docked or underway on active voyage) and confirmed presence of ACM. Approximately 1.3 and 0% of the 1018 area samples

  1. Asbestos exposure in Israel: findings, issues and needs.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D

    1984-02-01

    In Israel, since the 1950s, at least several thousand workers, their wives and children, and possibly many others, have been or still may be exposed to hazardous amounts of airborne asbestos fibers. These are found both in asbestos-based industries (asbestos cement, textiles and brake linings) and trades with asbestos exposure (construction, shipyard repair, boiler maintenance, insulation work). These people are at increased risk for disability or illness, or for premature death from asbestosis, from lung cancer, from exacerbation of preexisting respiratory disease (especially if they smoke), from mesothelioma, from gastrointestinal cancer, and from other malignancies. Although there has been progress, much still has to be done in the areas of legislation, standard setting, exposure control, technology, surveillance, smoking cessation, and medical care and follow-up. Compensation is needed to care for those workers currently or previously exposed, as well as for their families and others at risk. A national policy for protecting and caring for those formerly or currently exposed is indicated by the review of the situation in Israel. PMID:6368466

  2. Mesothelioma in a wine cellar man: detailed description of working procedures and past asbestos exposure estimation.

    PubMed

    Nemo, Alessandro; Silvestri, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    A pleural mesothelioma arose in an employee of a wine farm whose work history shows an unusual occupational exposure to asbestos. The information, gathered directly from the case and from a work colleague, clarifies some aspects of the use of asbestos in the process of winemaking which has not been previously reported in such details. The man had worked as a winemaker from 1960 to 1988 in a farm, which in those years produced around 2500 hectoliters of wine per year, mostly white. The wine was filtered to remove impurities; the filter was created by dispersing in the wine asbestos fibers followed by diatomite while the wine was circulating several times and clogging a prefilter made of a dense stainless steel net. Chrysotile asbestos was the sole asbestos mineralogical variety used in these filters and exposure could occur during the phase of mixing dry fibers in the wine and during the filter replacement. A daily and annual time weighted average level of exposure and cumulative dose have been estimated in the absence of airborne asbestos fiber monitoring performed in that workplace. Since 1993, the Italian National Mesothelioma Register, an epidemiological surveillance system, has recorded eight cases with at least one work period spent as winemaker. Four of them never used asbestos filters and presented exposures during other work periods, the other four used asbestos filters but had also other exposures in other industrial divisions. For the information hitherto available, this is the first mesothelioma case with exclusive exposure in the job of winemaking.

  3. [Is one single exposure to asbestos life-threatening?].

    PubMed

    Baas, Paul; Burgers, J A Sjaak

    2014-01-01

    The media occasionally reports on possible asbestos exposure during demolition of houses in an urban setting. The risk for the development of any asbestos-related cancer in these settings is considered to be lower than for that in occupational exposure. Offermans et al. examined a Dutch cohort of 58,279 workers in the period from 1986 to 2007. They concluded that the risk of lung cancer, laryngeal cancer and mesothelioma increased with exposure to asbestos. The risk of development of lung cancer was higher for anyone with increased years of exposure to asbestos fibre combined with a smoking habit. The study was well conducted, but exact data on fibre concentration and type of asbestos are lacking. We suggest that occasional exposure to asbestos poses hardly any risk for the general population. However, rules and regulations for the removal of asbestos-containing material remain important as asbestos exposure remains a serious health risk, especially in smokers.

  4. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET. DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. The carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally cont...

  5. Asbestos in brakes: exposure and risk of disease.

    PubMed

    Lemen, Richard A

    2004-03-01

    Asbestos has been incorporated into friction products since the early 1900s. Epidemiological studies have been equivocal in their analysis of the incidence of disease among mechanics servicing brakes. Decomposition of asbestos occurs during the normal usage of the brake due to thermal decomposition into forsterite, although not all asbestos is so converted. Short fibers, below 5 microm in length, are also found in brake products. Several facts are discussed including the toxicity of the remaining asbestos fibers, short asbestos fibers, and the health implications of exposure to forsterite. Control methodologies, when used appropriately, have reduced exposure to asbestos during brake servicing, but have not been able to entirely eliminate exposure to asbestos, thus bring into question the controlled use of asbestos for friction product such as brakes. Even the so called "controlled" use of asbestos containing brakes poses a health risk to workers, users, and their families. PMID:14991849

  6. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  7. Asbestos exposure from gaskets during disassembly of a medium duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Liukonen, Larry R; Weir, Francis W

    2005-03-01

    Diesel engines have historically used asbestos-containing gaskets leading to concerns of fiber release and mechanic exposure. Other published studies regarding asbestos fiber release during gasket removal have reported on short-duration events; were conducted under simulated work conditions; or had other limitations. There are no comprehensive studies relating to diesel engine gaskets under conditions similar to those reported herein, evaluating asbestos fiber release from gaskets during all facets of a complete disassembly and cleaning of a medium duty diesel engine in a busy repair and service shop by a journeyman mechanic. Asbestos content of all gaskets was identified; all disassembly tasks were described and timed; and personal and area air monitoring was conducted for each task. Twenty seven of thirty three gaskets contained chrysotile asbestos in concentrations that ranged from 5 to 70%. All but one air monitoring sample reported results below the limit of reliable detection even though plumes of visible dust were evident during various removal, cleaning, and buffing procedures. The detection limit for airborne asbestos fibers in this investigation was influenced by the presence of other shop dust in the air. Our investigation demonstrates that using shop-standard procedures in an established repair facility, a journeyman mechanic has very little potential for exposure to airborne asbestos fibers during disassembly of an engine, approximately 10% or less than that currently considered to be acceptable by OSHA. PMID:15698534

  8. Airborne concentrations of asbestos in non-occupational environments.

    PubMed

    Corn, M

    1994-08-01

    Concentrations of asbestos in air were determined from analysis of samples collected in over 300 buildings involved in litigation. Samples were collected by certified industrial hygienists and analysed in certified laboratories by transmission electron microscopy. Building group mean concentrations of asbestos in building air inhaled by occupants were generally less than 0.0005 f ml-5 > 5 microns (90th percentile). At these concentrations the risk from asbestos exposure would be very low for building occupants. Another data set was obtained from the maintenance logs kept by owners of buildings containing asbestos fireproofing and subject to Operations and Maintenance Programmes to evaluate asbestos inhalation risk to maintenance workers. The logs were kept to document protective measures and maintenance personnel exposures during 1991-1992. Data are presented for one commercial building, which is typical of data for three additional commercial buildings and a medical centre. All samples were evaluated by the NIOSH 1400 protocol for sampling and analysis by phase contrast microscopy. Operations and maintenance precautions to reduce dust emission were modest; they included spraying of ceiling tiles with amended water, HEPA vacuuming tile edges before entry and after tile replacement, respirator usage and careful work. Negative pressure containment was not used. In this building personal exposures in electrical/plumbing work ranged from 0.000 to 0.035 f ml-1 > 5 microns in length (average work time of one job was 118 min); the 8-h TWA was 0.0149 f ml-1 > 5 microns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. A low-level asbestos exposure case-control epidemiology study

    SciTech Connect

    Ocasio-Alvarex, A.

    1988-01-01

    The potential for low levels of airborne asbestos exposure in public schools and in public and commercial buildings in the United States has generated concern due to the large population at risk and the definite human carcinogenicity of asbestos at high levels. To assist in the clarification of the risk associated with low level asbestos exposure and in the decision-making in asbestos management in schools and in other buildings, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the risk relationship between low levels of asbestos exposure and pulmonary cancer among Indiana public school teachers. A total of 236 lung cancer cases and 154 controls to be used in this case-control study were identified from a previous proportionate mortality rate study which had examined over 8,000 teachers' death certificates. The controls were selected from teachers who died of chronic bronchitis, emphysema or a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The teachers' work history and their potential for asbestos exposure, as well as the reliability of the information obtained on the presence or absence of asbestos, was determined to calculate the odds ratio.

  10. [The effects of environmental exposure to asbestos dust on health].

    PubMed

    Kotela, Ireneusz; Bednarenko, Marcin; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena; Kotela, Paweł; Wołowiec, Beata; Laskowicz, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is an extremely rare neoplasm. Its etiology is related to professional or environmental exposure to asbestos dust. In the present research, the analysis of frequency and causes of death due to asbestos-related cancers in the district polluted with asbestos in comparison with the district free of such pollution has been performed. The increase has been highlighted in the mortality rate because of pleural mesothelioma among inhabitants of the area polluted with asbestos wastes.

  11. Pulmonary fibrosis following household exposure to asbestos dust?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joachim; Brückel, Bernd; Fink, Ludger; Woitowitz, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman was dying from histologically confirmed pulmonary fibrosis without having had any asbestos exposure in the workplace. The lung dust fibre analysis showed significantly increased "asbestos bodies" (AB) (2,640 AB per gram of wet lung tissue) and asbestos fibre concentrations (8,600,000 amphibole fibres of all lengths and 540,000 amphibole fibres with a length ≥5 μm per gram of dry lung tissue). Asbestos exposure was revealed to have occurred during household contact after 27 years of washing her husband's industrial clothing that had been contaminated by asbestos at his workplace in an asbestos textile factory. Household asbestos dust exposure as a risk or co-factor in the aetiology of the fatal pulmonary fibrosis is discussed. PMID:25419224

  12. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  13. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  14. The relationship between lung cancer and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Okada, K

    1988-09-01

    This study supports the theory that asbestos exposure may be implicated in a recent upsurge of terminal lung cancer cases in Kure, Japan. The number of asbestos bodies found in the lung during autopsy of 158 subjects from 1984 to 1986 suggests that 70.4 percent of the 51 diagnosed lung cancer cases could be attributed to asbestos exposure. Of the 107 subjects in whom death was not caused by cancer, 38.4 percent had significant asbestos exposure. Types of asbestos bodies found in diagnosed lung cancer cases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray analyzer. Chrysotile was the most widely found component, but amphiboles such as crocidolite and amosite also were detected. Residents of Kure had high exposure to the inhalation of asbestos bodies, possibly related to the upsurge in lung cancer deaths. In our earlier report, asbestos exposure was implicated in the increased incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Kure, an active Japanese ship-building port since the 1920s. Our current findings indicate that asbestos exposure may be a pathogenic factor in lung cancer in world seaports where asbestos exposure has been prevalent.

  15. [Asbestos exposure in the non-asbestos textile industry: the experience of the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry].

    PubMed

    Mensi, Carolina; Macchione, Maria; Termine, Lorenzo; Canti, Zulejka; Rivolta, Giuseppe; Riboldi, Luciano; Chiappino, Gerolamo

    2007-01-01

    The Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, activated in 2000, receives more than 300 cases per year of suspected malignant mesothelioma; the standardized (age and gender) incidence rate of pleural mesothelioma is 2.4/100,000 inhabitants (CI 95% 2.0-2.7). The finding of an increasing number of cases among workers of the non-asbestos-textile industry, classified as "unknown exposure to asbestos", upheld the suspect of presence of asbestos in this compartment. Specific information about a possible asbestos exposure were collected by technicians, maintenance personnel and other experts; industrial machinery utilized in the past was thoroughly examined; direct inspections were carried out in several workplaces that had not yet undergone significant changes with respect to the past. A large amount of asbestos had been regularly used on the ceilings and also to the walls of factories in order to avoid both condensation of steam and reflection of noise. In addition, asbestos had also been widely used to insulate water and steam pipes. The braking systems of most of machines also had asbestos gaskets, and on several looms some brakes operated continuously. The population in study was composed of 119 subjects, 27 males and 92 females, median age of 72 years. Asbestos exposure was ascribed to work in 106 cases (89%). The system devised by the Lombardy Registry had brought to light an occupational hazard in a professional area previously never believed as a source of asbestos exposure. In consideration of the described experience, both environmental and clinical, it seems reasonable to consider the non-asbestos-textile as a new department at risk for asbestos exposure.

  16. [Risk of developing mesothelioma due to neighborhood exposure to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shinji; Kurumatani, Norio

    2007-05-01

    Routes of asbestos exposure consist of occupational and non-occupational exposures, and furthermore the latter is classified as para-occupational, neighborhood or true general environmental exposure. Consequently, in order to evaluate health risk caused by neighborhood exposure to asbestos, it is necessary to exclude risk due to the other exposure routes from overall risk. We reviewed epidemiological studies on the relationship between neighborhood asbestos exposure and risk of mesothelioma. In studies on a crocidolite mine in South Africa and a chrysotile mine in Canada, occupational exposure was not excluded. In studies on a crocidolite mine in Australia and an asbestos manufacturing factory in U.S.A., risk caused by non-occupational exposure was evaluated, but the risk was not classified as para-occupational and neighborhood exposures. In a study on an asbestos cement factory in Italy, first, occupational and para-occupational exposures were excluded, and next, the incidence rate of mesothelioma in neighborhood residents was calculated, so that risk caused by neighborhood exposure could be evaluated. In case-control studies in Italy, South Africa, three European countries and the U.K., risks caused by occupational, para-occupational and neighborhood exposures were evaluated separately. As a whole, relative risk (RR) of neighborhood exposure in crocidolite and amosite mines was about 10 to 30 and RR in major asbestos factories was about 5 to 20. On the other hand, statistically significant RR of neighborhood exposure was not observed in chrysotile mines and some asbestos facilities.

  17. The fate of people with pleural hyalinosis (plaques): relationship to direct and indirect asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Navrátil, M; Morávková, K; Gafronová, M; Hruska, F

    1988-01-01

    A follow-up study of persons with pleural plaques was concluded in 1984. The first cohort was made up of employees and retired workers with direct absestos exposure in an asbestos factory (AZ factory) producing heat-resistant textiles, friction engine parts and heat-resistant boards. The raw material was imported chrysotile and small amounts of crocidolite. The follow-up was started in the 1950s. Our second cohort comprised residents selected by radiographic screening in a vast area surrounding the AZ factory who had had indirect asbestos exposure by airborn asbestos fibres. The follow-up period began in the 1970s. A control group consisted of employees and retired workers of a railway repair shop, without exposure to asbestos dust and within a corresponding age bracket. At the time of assessing our results, most of the subjects assigned to all the three groups were no longer alive so we were able to analyse data regarding their life and death. Hyalinosis complicata and pleural mesothelioma (peritoneal mesothelioma in one case) were present and resulted in death only in those with direct asbestos exposure. While lung cancer was among the causes of death in both cohorts with exposure as well as in the control group, its prevalence in the group with direct exposure was significantly higher than in the control group. By contrast, "other neoplasia" was found both in the control group and in exposed persons without any specific prevalence.

  18. Automated counting of airborne asbestos fibers by a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) method.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myoung-Ock; Yoon, Seonghee; Han, Hwataik; Kim, Jung Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos causes serious health problems such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. The phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) method has been widely used for estimating airborne asbestos concentrations because it does not require complicated processes or high-priced equipment. However, the PCM method is time-consuming and laborious as it is manually performed off-site by an expert. We have developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) method that can detect fibers distinguishable from other spherical particles in a sample slide by image processing both automatically and quantitatively. A set of parameters for processing and analysis of asbestos fiber images was adjusted for standard asbestos samples with known concentrations. We analyzed sample slides containing airborne asbestos fibers collected at 11 different workplaces following PCM and HTM methods, and found a reasonably good agreement in the asbestos concentration. Image acquisition synchronized with the movement of the robotic sample stages followed by an automated batch processing of a stack of sample images enabled us to count asbestos fibers with greatly reduced time and labors. HTM should be a potential alternative to conventional PCM, moving a step closer to realization of on-site monitoring of asbestos fibers in air.

  19. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 1: SPRAY-BUFFING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to ealuate airborne asbestos concentrations during spray-uffing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing residient floor tile under three levels of floor conditions (poor, medium, and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by transmission e...

  20. Ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos in non-occupational environments in Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Meshkani, Mohsen; Azam, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations were monitored in the urban areas of Tehran, Iran during the period of 23 August to 21 September 2012. The airborne fiber concentrations of 110 air samples collected from 15 different sites in five regions of Tehran. The monitoring sites were located 2.5 m above ground nearby the main street and heavy traffic jam. The ambient air samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM). The geometric means of the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations in the outdoor living areas was 1.6 × 10-2 SEM f ml-1 (1.18 × 10-3 PCM f ml-1). This criteria is considerably higher than those reported for the levels of asbestos in outdoor living areas in the Europe and the non-occupational environment of the Korea. No clear correlation was found between asbestos fiber concentration and the relative humidity and temperature. The SEM and PLM analysis revealed that all samples examined contained only chrysotile asbestos. It can be concluded that several factor such as heavy traffic, cement sheet and pipe consumption of asbestos, and geographical conditions play an important role for the high airborne asbestos levels in the non-occupational environments.

  1. Mesothelioma incidence and community asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Berry, M

    1997-10-01

    This study evaluates the environmental, nonoccupational component of mesothelioma incidence among persons living in Manville, Somerset County, New Jersey, the location of the largest asbestos manufacturing plant in North America. Prior to removal of occupational cases, residents of Manville had an average annual (1979-1990) mesothelioma rate of 636 male cases and 96 female cases per million population, about 25 times higher than average state rates. Somerset County had 143 diagnosed mesothelioma cases reported to the population-based. New Jersey State Cancer Registry from 1979 through 1990. Cases were removed from the analysis when their "usual employment" was reported as being at the asbestos plant, as evidenced through union lists or occupational information from either the Cancer Registry or mortality records. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed for residents of Manville and Somerset County (less the Manville population) by sex. New Jersey mesothelioma rates less the Somerset County contribution, 1979-1990, were used to generate the expected number of cases. The SIRs for Manville males and females were respectively 10.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8-16.4] and 22.4 (95% CI: 9.7-44.2). Male and female Somerset County mesothelioma incidence rates were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.4-2.5) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0-3.6). This record-based approach demonstrates a strong relationship between past asbestos exposure from living in Manville and eventual development of mesothelioma. The use of methods in this study may be helpful in evaluating hazards of other known occupational carcinogens found in community settings.

  2. Evaluation of take home (para-occupational) exposure to asbestos and disease: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Ellen P; Donovan, Brooke L; McKinley, Meg A; Cowan, Dallas M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-10-01

    The potential for para-occupational (or "take-home") exposure to a number of chemicals has been recognized for over 60 years. We conducted a literature review in order to characterize reported cases of asbestos-related disease among household contacts of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. Over 200 published articles were evaluated. Nearly 60 articles described cases of asbestos-related disease thought to be caused by para-occupational exposure. Over 65% of these cases were in persons who lived with workers classified as miners, shipyard workers, insulators, or others involved in the manufacturing of asbestos-containing products, with nearly all remaining workers identified as craftsmen. 98% of the available lung samples of the persons with diseases indicated the presence of amphibole asbestos. Eight studies provided airborne asbestos concentrations during (i) handling of clothing contaminated with asbestos during insulation work or simulated use of friction products; (ii) ambient conditions in the homes of asbestos miners; and (iii) wearing previously contaminated clothing. This review indicates that the literature is dominated by case reports, the majority of which involved household contacts of workers in industries characterized, generally, by high exposures to amphiboles or mixed mineral types. The available data do not implicate chrysotile as a significant cause of disease for household contacts. Also, our analysis indicates that there is insufficient information in the published literature that would allow one to relate airborne asbestos concentrations in a workplace to those that would be generated from subsequent handling of contact with clothing that had been contaminated in that environment. Ideally, a simulation study could be conducted in the future to better understand the relationships between the airborne concentrations in the workplace and the fiber characteristics that influence retention on fabric, as well as the concentrations that can

  3. Iron homeostasis in the lung following asbestos exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to asbestos can cause a wide variety of pulmonary diseases, including pneumoconiosis (i.e., asbestosis). This lung injury is mediated by oxidant generation which increases with the concentration of iron associated with the asbestos. Iron from host sources is comple...

  4. An exposure study of bystanders and workers during the installation and removal of asbestos gaskets and packing.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Carl; Clark, Katherine; Madl, Amy; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2006-02-01

    From 1982 until 1991, a series of studies was performed to evaluate the airborne concentration of chrysotile asbestos associated with replacing gaskets and packing materials. These studies were conducted by the senior author in response to concerns raised by a report from the Navy in 1978 on asbestos exposures associated with gasket work. A series of studies was conducted because results of those who worked with gaskets within the Navy study did not address the background concentrations of asbestos in the work areas, which may have been significant due to the presence of asbestos insulation in the ships and shipyards. The intent of the studies performed from 1982 through 1991 was to re-create the Navy's work practices in a contaminant-free environment during an 8-hour workday (so the data could be compared with the OSHA permissible exposure limit [PEL]). Samples were collected to characterize personal and area airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the formation, removal, and storage of gaskets, as well as the scraping of flanges and the replacement of valve packing. The results indicate that the 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures of pipefitters and other tradesmen who performed these activities were below the current PEL and all previous PELs. Specifically, the highest average 8-hour TWA concentration measured for workers manipulating asbestos gaskets during this study was 0.030 f/cc (during gasket removal and flange face scraping onboard a naval ship). Likewise, the 8-hour TWA breathing zone concentrations of a worker removing and replacing asbestos valve packing did not exceed 0.016 f/cc. In most cases, the concentrations were not distinguishable from ambient levels of asbestos in the ships or the general environment. These results are not surprising given that asbestos fibers in gasket materials are encapsulated within a binder.

  5. Evaluation of tremolite asbestos exposures associated with the use of commercial products.

    PubMed

    Finley, Brent L; Pierce, Jennifer S; Phelka, Amanda D; Adams, Rebecca E; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Thuett, Kerry A; Barlow, Christy A

    2012-02-01

    Tremolite is a noncommercial form of amphibole mineral that is present in some chrysotile, talc, and vermiculite deposits. Inhalation of asbestiform tremolite is suspected to have caused or contributed to an increased incidence of mesothelioma in certain mining settings; however, very little is known about the magnitude of tremolite exposure that occurred at these locations, and even less is known regarding tremolite exposures that might have occurred during consumer use of chrysotile, talc, and vermiculite containing products. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the exposure-response relationship for tremolite asbestos and mesothelioma in high exposure settings (mining) and to develop estimates of tremolite asbestos exposure for various product use scenarios. Our interpretation of the tremolite asbestos exposure metrics reported for the Thetford chrysotile mines and the Libby vermiculite deposits suggests a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for mesothelioma of 35-73 f/cc-year. Using measured and estimated airborne tremolite asbestos concentrations for simulated and actual product use, we conservatively estimated the following cumulative tremolite asbestos exposures: career auto mechanic: 0.028 f/cc-year; non-occupational use of joint compound: 0.0006 f/cc-year; non-occupational use of vermiculite-containing gardening products: 0.034 f/cc-year; home-owner removal of Zonolite insulation: 0.0002 f/cc-year. While the estimated consumer tremolite exposures are far below the tremolite LOAELs derived herein, this analysis examines only a few of the hundreds of chrysotile- and talc-containing products.

  6. Past exposure to asbestos among active railroad workers.

    PubMed

    Garshick, E; Schenker, M B; Woskie, S R; Speizer, F E

    1987-01-01

    Before the transition from steam- to diesel-powered locomotives during the 1950s certain railroad workers had the opportunity for significant occupational exposure to asbestos. Past studies have demonstrated that older workers with jobs associated with the repair of steam locomotives had the most exposure. To determine the prevalence of currently employed railroad workers with past asbestos exposure we surveyed 514 white male employees of an active US railroad by mail questionnaire. Twenty-one percent (50/242) of the workers 50 years old or greater had likely asbestos exposure compared to 3% (9/275) of the workers 49 years old or less (p less than .001). Fifteen (30%) of the 50 older workers with likely asbestos exposure had current job titles no longer suggestive of past exposure. The duration of exposure of these older active workers was short, (median = 3 years; range, 6 months to 15 years). A history of past asbestos exposure may still be obtained among active railroad workers with past railroad shop employment. PMID:3674028

  7. Past exposure to asbestos among active railroad workers

    SciTech Connect

    Garshick, E.; Schenker, M.B.; Woskie, S.R.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Before the transition from steam- to diesel-powered locomotives during the 1950s certain railroad workers had the opportunity for significant occupational exposure to asbestos. Past studies have demonstrated that older workers with jobs associated with the repair of steam locomotives had the most exposure. To determine the prevalence of currently employed railroad workers with past asbestos exposure we surveyed 514 white male employees of an active US railroad by mail questionnaire. Twenty-one percent (50/242) of the workers 50 years old or greater had likely asbestos exposure compared to 3% (9/275) of the workers 49 years old or less (p less than .001). Fifteen (30%) of the 50 older workers with likely asbestos exposure had current job titles no longer suggestive of past exposure. The duration of exposure of these older active workers was short, (median = 3 years; range, 6 months to 15 years). A history of past asbestos exposure may still be obtained among active railroad workers with past railroad shop employment.

  8. Minimal pathologic changes of the lung and asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, D.; Andrion, A.; Delsedime, L.; Mollo, F.

    1989-02-01

    A group of 199 autopsy subjects was investigated for minimal pathologic pulmonary changes possibly resulting from asbestos exposure. According to the standards proposed by the Pneumoconiosis Committee of the College of American Pathologists, features consistent with asbestosis grade 1 (AG1) include findings of bilateral pleural plaques, high concentrations of asbestos bodies (ABs) in digested lung tissue, and a history of occupational risk. Similar changes without evidence of ABs on histologic section and referred to as small airway lesions (SALs) present a less well-correlated association. In this study, SALs showed significant differences when compared with the features observed in subjects without possible asbestos-related pulmonary fibrotic changes. Minimal bronchioloalveolar fibrotic changes with concomitant presence of ABs can be considered a mild pneumoconiotic lesion (AG1), and SALs may be regarded as an additional indicator of asbestos exposure.

  9. Assessment of potential exposure to friable insulation materials containing asbestos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Kuivinen, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Asbestos and the procedures for assessing potential exposure hazards are discussed. Assessment includes testing a bulk sample of the suspected material for the presence of asbestos, and monitoring the air, if necessary. Based on field inspections and laboratory analyses, the health hazard is evaluated, and abatement measures are taken if a potential hazard exists. Throughout the assessment and abatement program, all applicable regulations are administered as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  10. A visual historical review of exposure to asbestos at puget sound naval shipyard (1962-1972).

    PubMed

    Hollins, Dana M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Clark, Katherine; Mangold, Carl A

    2009-02-01

    The study of occupational exposure to asbestos has been an ongoing activity for at least 75 years, dating back to the papers of Merewether and Price (1930). Since that time, literally tens of thousands of air samples have been collected in an attempt to characterize the concentration of asbestos associated with various activities. Many of the individuals who developed diseases from the 1970s to the current day were often exposed to very high airborne concentrations because of direct or indirect exposure to either raw asbestos fiber or insulation during the approximate 1940-1970 time period. Often, these high exposures were associated with work in shipyards during and after World War II and the Korean War, as well as with decommissioning, which continued into the mid-1970s. This study reviews the historical asbestos concentrations measured in shipyards and presents a visual illustration of typical conditions and work practices. A majority of the photographs presented in this article depict work conditions at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, circa 1940-1965, which is representative of other military shipyards of the time. PMID:19235622

  11. A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940-2006).

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Phelka, Amanda D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of the published and selected unpublished literature on historical asbestos exposures among skilled craftsmen in various nonshipyard and shipyard settings. The specific crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, maintenance workers, and abatement workers. Over 50 documents were identified and summarized. Sufficient information was available to quantitatively characterize historical asbestos exposures for the most highly exposed workers (insulators), even though data were lacking for some job tasks or time periods. Average airborne fiber concentrations collected for the duration of the task and/or the entire work shift were found to range from about 2 to 10 fibers per cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) during activities performed by insulators in various nonshipyard settings from the late 1960s and early 1970s. Higher exposure levels were observed for this craft during the 1940s to 1950s, when dust counts were converted from millions of particles per cubic foot (mppcf) to units of fibers per cubic centimeter (fibers/cc) using a 1:6 conversion factor. Similar tasks performed in U.S. shipyards yielded average fiber concentrations about two-fold greater, likely due to inadequate ventilation and confined work environments; however, excessively high exposure levels were reported in some British Naval shipyards due to the spraying of asbestos. Improved industrial hygiene practices initiated in the early to mid-1970s were found to reduce average fiber concentrations for insulator tasks approximately two- to five-fold. For most other crafts, average fiber concentrations were found to typically range from <0.01 to 1 fibers/cc (depending on the task or time period), with higher concentrations observed during the use of powered tools, the mixing or sanding of drywall cement, and the cleanup of asbestos insulation or lagging

  12. IDENTIFYING HIGH PRIORITY EXPOSURE RESEARCH SUPPORTING THE EPA ASBESTOS ACTION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Asbestos Action Plan outlines areas, including two exposure assessment areas, where research is needed to reduce uncertainties in current asbestos risk assessments. Scientists from the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) recently conducted survey and literature ...

  13. Asbestos-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, E; de Klerk, N; Musk, A W

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos continue to be relevant despite bans on the use of asbestos and improvements in safety regulations for those who are still exposed. Asbestos was mined and used extensively in Australia for over 100 years and Australia is now experiencing part of a worldwide epidemic of asbestos-related disease. This review provides insight into the history and epidemiology of asbestos-related disease in Australia and discusses relevant clinical aspects in their diagnosis and management. The past and current medico-legal aspects of asbestos as well as currently evolving areas of research and future projections are summarized.

  14. Asbestos-related disease.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, E; de Klerk, N; Musk, A W

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation of airborne asbestos fibres causes several diseases. These include asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma as well as pleural effusion, discrete (plaques) or diffuse benign pleural fibrosis and rolled atelectasis. The lag time between exposure and the development of disease may be many decades, thus the health risks of asbestos continue to be relevant despite bans on the use of asbestos and improvements in safety regulations for those who are still exposed. Asbestos was mined and used extensively in Australia for over 100 years and Australia is now experiencing part of a worldwide epidemic of asbestos-related disease. This review provides insight into the history and epidemiology of asbestos-related disease in Australia and discusses relevant clinical aspects in their diagnosis and management. The past and current medico-legal aspects of asbestos as well as currently evolving areas of research and future projections are summarized. PMID:21309996

  15. Chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos in Israel: uses, exposures and risks.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D; Berdugo, M; Laster, R; Westin, J B; Fischbein, A

    1995-01-01

    Importation of raw asbestos (90% chrysotile; 10% crocidolite) for manufacture of cement products and other uses, including friction materials and spraying, had dropped to under 3000 tons by 1993 from a peak of 10,000 tons per annum in the late 1970s. Drops in use, manufacture, persons exposed in manufacture and measured exposure levels followed heightened public concern over the carcinogenic effects of asbestos products, despite a relatively high worker exposure standard of 400,000 f/m3. The atypically low ratio of reported deaths from lung cancer compared to mesothelioma in asbestos cement workers up to 1992 (1:2.5) is suggested to be a consequence of low baseline risks for lung cancer mortality in Israel and dropping smoking levels. Exposure to asbestos use and asbestos in place remain, but total risk should drop after 2010 if imports continue to drop. These projections may be altered by trade between Israel and its neighbors following peace agreements. Reductions in risk will have resulted from reduction in exposure brought about by reductions in manufacture and use.

  16. Environmental exposure to asbestos in asbestos cement workers: a case of additional exposure from indiscriminate use of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W; Laskowicz, K

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents data on cancer risk, especially pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, among the workers of asbestos cement plant who living in the vicinity of the plant, were also environmentally exposed to asbestos. In 1959 an asbestos cement factory was founded in the rural area of south-eastern Poland. Apart from chrysotile asbestos, crocidolite was used till 1985 chiefly for the manufacture of pressure pipes. The blue asbestos made up 15% of the mean annual tonnage of the processed asbestos. It was found that soon after asbestos production had started the process wastes were made available to local community, particularly to the workers of that factory. For over twenty years asbestos wastes of all kinds, both wet (process sludge) and dry (from pipe and sheet grinding) were exploited for the hardening of roads, paths, farmyards and sports fields and as construction material components. For the evaluation of cancer risk due to occupational exposure to asbestos a cohort of 1,526 workers employed in this factory was observed till the end of 1996. The cohort availability was 95.6%. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated using the man-years method. The reference population was the general population of Poland. The results of the study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the risk of a) pleural mesothelioma--over an 80-fold excess among males and over a 200-fold one among females; b) lung cancer in females--over a 6-fold excess; c) colon cancer in males--over a 3-fold excess. In the 1990 ten new cases of pleural mesothelioma in the cohort were reported. As compared to other asbestos-cement cohorts in Poland, observed at the same time, this cohort presented a very high risk of pleural mesothelioma. The analysis of 16 cases of pleural mesothelioma found in the cohort from 1987 to 1997 revealed 4 cases with very short employment period (3.5 months-5 years) including two cases with relatively short latency period (11-12 years). In order to

  17. [Recycle of jute bags; asbestos in agriculture, exposure and pathology ].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Somigliana, A; Lombardi, S; Girelli, R; Rocco, A; Pezzotti, C; Silvestri, S

    2008-01-01

    During the last four years, a deeper examination of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases occurred within non asbestos textile industry highlighted asbestos past exposure in several textile industrial divisions. In spite of that, poor information about recycled textile bags previously containing asbestos fibres is available to the National Mesothelioma Registry, although holding a remarkable data bank on more than 3500 work histories and sources of asbestos exposures. Besides the analysis of the exposure circumstances and the registered health effects of the past exposure within the recycling activity, the aim of this research was to relate the possible involvement of the agricultural sector, where the use of recycled jute bags was very diffused. The MM cases were collected from the Mesothelioma Registry of Brescia, asbestosis, pleural plaques and lung cancer cases were collected from the Occupational Diseases Archive of the Local Public Occupational Health Service of the Province of Brescia. During the 1977-2006 period, 8 cases of MM, 4 cases of pulmonary asbestosis, 4 of isolated bilateral pleural plaques and I of lung cancer in pulmonary asbestosis, were observed among workers employed in bags recycling activity in 4 small companies, one of them still operating, employing about 50 workers. Even more, among the 65 MM cases classified by the Registry with "unknown asbestos exposure" (UAE), the most relevant frequency of working histories concerned the agriculture sector. Confirming a past signalling, the investigations underlined the cross linkage between this working activity and the diffusion of recycled bags in the agriculture sector. In the Province of Brescia, the activities of these small jute bags recycling plants were linked, even geographically, to the asbestos cement manufacture plant using a huge number of bags, roughly until mid seventies. Therefore, a large number of these recycled bags, previously containing asbestos, were generally used for harvesting

  18. Asbestos exposure: Health effects. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the health effects of exposure to asbestos in the workplace, at home, and in public sites. Exposure, during procurement of asbestos, removal of asbestos materials, manufacture of materials, and while living and working with materials containing asbestos, is considered. Mortality patterns and clinical studies of exposure, risk, and resulting diseases are presented as well as analytical techniques used to study asbestos health effects. Asbestos removal and abatement questions, and equipment used in these operations are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  20. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  1. Occupational exposure to asbestos and mortality among asbestos removal workers: a Poisson regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Frost, G; Harding, A-H; Darnton, A; McElvenny, D; Morgan, D

    2008-09-01

    The asbestos industry has shifted from manufacture to stripping/removal work. The aim of this study was to investigate early indications of mortality among removal workers. The study population consisted of 31 302 stripping/removal workers in the Great Britain Asbestos Survey, followed up to December 2005. Relative risks (RR) for causes of death with elevated standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and sufficient deaths were obtained from Poisson regression. Risk factors considered included dust suppression technique, type of respirator used, hours spent stripping, smoking status and exposure length. Deaths were elevated for all causes (SMR 123, 95% CI 119-127, n=985), all cancers including lung cancer, mesothelioma, and circulatory disease. There were no significant differences between suppression techniques and respirator types. Spending more than 40 h per week stripping rather than less than 10, increased mortality risk from all causes (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7), circulatory disease and ischaemic heart disease. Elevated mesothelioma risks were observed for those first exposed at young ages or exposed for more than 30 years. This study is a first step in assessing long-term mortality of asbestos removal workers in relation to working practices and asbestos exposure. Further follow-up will allow the impact of recent regulations to be assessed.

  2. The health impact of nonoccupational exposure to asbestos: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Luce, Danièle

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the epidemiological data that confirm the risks of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other respiratory damage associated with nonoccupational exposure to asbestos, in circumstances where exposure levels are usually lower than those found in the workplace: domestic and paraoccupational exposure to asbestos-containing material among people living with asbestos workers or near asbestos mines and manufacturing plants, environmental exposure from naturally occurring asbestos in soil, and nonoccupational exposure to asbestos-containing material in buildings. Studies concerning natural asbestos in the environment show that the exposure that begins at birth does not seem to affect the duration of the latency period, but the studies do not show whether early exposure increases susceptibility; they do not suggest that susceptibility differs according to sex. Solid evidence shows an increased risk of mesothelioma among people whose exposure comes from a paraoccupational or domestic source. The risk of mesothelioma associated with exposure as result of living near an industrial asbestos source (mines, mills, asbestos processing plants) is clearly confirmed. No solid epidemiological data currently justify any judgment about the health effects associated with passive exposure in buildings containing asbestos. Most of the studies on nonoccupational sources reported mainly amphibole exposure, but it cannot be ruled out that environmental exposure to chrysotile may also cause cancer. Nonoccupational exposure to asbestos may explain approximately 20% of the mesotheliomas in industrialized countries, but it is does not seem possible to estimate the number of lung cancers caused by these circumstances of exposure.

  3. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 2: ULTRA HIGH SPEED BURNISHING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during ultra high speed (UHS) burnishing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under two levels of floor care condition (poor and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by...

  4. Malignant mesothelioma: incidence, asbestos exposure, and reclassification of histopathology.

    PubMed

    Wright, W E; Sherwin, R P; Dickson, E A; Bernstein, L; Fromm, J B; Henderson, B E

    1984-02-01

    The Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program abstracts records on almost all cases of cancer occurring in the county. In a study of those cases of pleural and peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (MM) that occurred from 1972 to 1979 occupational histories were obtained during interviews, and histopathology of the tumours was reviewed and classified by a member of a mesothelioma reference panel who was unaware of the exposure histories. About half the cases reviewed had likely exposure to asbestos at work. The greatest proportion of cases designated as MM by the pathologist occurred among individuals likely to have had the heaviest exposure of asbestos (42%). No upward trend of incidence over time was apparent among cases designated as MM. The age adjusted incidence rates for designated MM were lower than in other studies. The well recognised interobserver variability in diagnosing MM apparently produces raised estimates of incidence and an overestimate of trends of incidence. The interobserver variability may result from different awareness of MM occurrence, a lack of precise histopathological criteria for the diagnosis, or the influence of a history of exposure to asbestos on the interpretation. A history of exposure to asbestos may bias interpretation of histopathology and should not be used to make the histological diagnosis.

  5. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group is represented by a single asbestiform variety-chrysotile. There also are five commercial asbestiform varieties of amphiboles-anthophyllite asbestos, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. Nearly all of the asbestos mined after the mid-1990s was chrysotile. Only very small amounts of actinolite, anthophyllite, and tremolite asbestos may be mined in a few countries. Asbestos was mined in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Kazakhstan, and Russia in 2010; world production was estimated to be 1.97 × 106 tons. Properties that made asbestos valuable for industrial applications were their thermal, electrical, and sound insulation properties; inflammability; matrix reinforcement (cement, plastic, and resins); adsorption capacity (filtration, liquid sterilization); wear and friction properties (friction materials such as brakes and clutches); and chemical inertia (except in acids). These properties led to the use of asbestos in about 3,000 products by the 1960s. Since about 1995, asbestos-cement products, including pipe and sheets, accounted for more than 95% of global asbestos consumption as other uses of asbestos have declined. Global consumption of asbestos was estimated to have been about 1.98 × 106 tons in 2009. The leading consuming countries in 2009 were Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand, each with more than 100,000 tons of consumption.

  6. Asbestos: The Need for and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    The monograph presents a brief summary of the problems associated with airborne asbestos. It discusses the evidence regarding the pathogenicity of asbestos in man and animals, considers the evidence of human non-occupational exposure to asbestos, evaluates the evidence regarding health risks associated with various degrees and types of exposure,…

  7. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis associated with asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, K; Ohwada, H; Ishibashi, M; Yamamoto, N; Tamiya, N; Yamaguchi, Y

    1996-01-01

    A 71 year old man was admitted for the purpose of diagnosis of a right solitary pulmonary nodule. The size of the nodule was 18 x 18 mm in diameter 2 years ago, but it has become large, 25 x 25 mm in diameter. The nodule was resected by thoracotomy. Microscopically, eosinophilic amorphous, acellular substances were surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates. It stained with Congo red stain and showed green birefringence with polarizing microscopy. Amyloid fibrils were observed electron microscopically. Asbestos bodies were observed in the lung parenchyma around the nodule. This case shows that a nodule in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis can grow gradually and suggests the possibility of asbestos fibers as one of the etiologic factors in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis. PMID:10846552

  8. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

  9. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  10. Incidence of digestive cancers and occupational exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed

    de La Provôté, S; Desoubeaux, N; Paris, C; Letourneux, M; Raffaelli, C; Galateau-Salle, F; Gignoux, M; Launoy, G

    2002-12-01

    While the role of exposure to asbestos in the development of several cancers such as mesotheliomas and bronchopulmonary cancers is now well established, the possible relationship between digestive cancers, other than peritoneal mesotheliomas, and occupational exposure to asbestos is still controversial. The great majority of the studies are based on mortality data. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between digestive cancer incidence and occupational exposure to asbestos in a population of subjects for whom precise occupational exposure data and precise incidence data were available. The population consisted of salaried and retired workers from a company using asbestos to manufacture fireproof textiles and friction materials. There were 1454 men (79.9%) and 366 women (20.1%). A cumulative exposure index and a mean exposure concentration in fibres/ml for each subject were calculated with the aid of an in-house job-exposure matrix. The number of cases of digestive cancer observed was compared with the expected and Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) was estimated. Precise occupational exposure data allowed us to study the dose-response relationship between asbestos exposure and risk of digestive cancer using Cox model. Fifty-six digestive cancers occurred in the study population over the 18-year follow-up period for 48.4 expected (SIR = 1.16 [0.87-1.50]). Comparing with incidence in the county, SIR was not significant for any of the digestive localization, but for peritoneum. However, even after taking into account the potential confounders via the Cox model, there was a significant dose-response relationship between the occurrence of digestive cancers and the mean exposure concentration, even after exclusion of peritoneum cancers. Our study provides initial evidence suggesting a relationship between occupational exposure to asbestos and the risk of digestive cancer: first, it is a study of incidence although the risk evidenced is not significant

  11. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  12. Proactive Regulation Reduces Asbestos Exposures in Lake County, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, D.; Ley, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Lake County Air Quality Management District adopted its rule for Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in 1996 with the goal of preventing impacts and exposures through education, proactive project design, and common sense. Utilizing detailed GIS mapping and streamlined mitigation measures, the District maintains an effective program to reduce the hazard of NOA in our community. Measures for NOA are also incorporated into the County Grading Ordinance, and most small projects fall under those rules. Larger projects require a Serpentine Dust Control Plan from the District that provides clear mitigation measures, with the focus primarily on dust prevention. This cooperative approach results in a comprehensive effort to minimize potential health hazards from naturally occurring asbestos. Compliance is more easily achieved when workers are informed of the hazards and potential for exposure, and the rules/mitigation measures are clear and simple. Informed individuals generally take prompt corrective action to protect themself and those around them from the potential for breathing asbestos-containing dust. This proactive program results in improved community health by preventing exposure to asbestos.

  13. Asbestos, the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  14. Environmental household exposures to asbestos and occurrence of pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Dodoli, D; Del Nevo, M; Fiumalbi, C; Iaia, T E; Cristaudo, A; Comba, P; Viti, C; Battista, G

    1992-01-01

    We reviewed the certificates of 39,650 deaths which occurred in the period 1975-1988 in Leghorn and of 45,900 in La Spezia (Italy) in the period 1958-1988. In total 262 cases have been recorded as pleural mesothelioma. The main occupational exposures occurred in the shipbuilding industry. Regarding non-occupational exposures to asbestos, 13 cases of mesothelioma were found in women who had washed the work clothes of their relatives at home; we also found other domestic uses of asbestos which were rarely or never discussed previously in the literature: six cases might be explained by the installation of fireproof or non-conductive materials in the domestic environment. These exposures probably are more frequent than realized until now.

  15. Assessment of cancer risks due to environmental exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Driece, Hermen A L; Siesling, Sabine; Swuste, Paul H J J; Burdorf, Alex

    2010-07-01

    In a rural area widespread pollution of friable and non-friable waste products was present, used to harden dirt tracks, yards, and driveways during 1935-1974. Exposure to environmental asbestos was assessed by a site approach, based on number of polluted sites within postal code areas, and by a household approach, based on number of households in the close vicinity to polluted sites within postal code areas. Based on asbestos soil investigations, 293 sites were identified with asbestos waste material at the surface, of which 77% contained crocidolite fibres as well as chrysotile fibres. The 293 sites-at-risk varied from 5 m(2) to 2722 m(2) and were surrounded by 347 households within 100 m of these sites. Distance to the plant was associated with the number of sites (r=0.36), and with the number of households (r=0.52). However, categorization of postal code areas into low, intermediate or high likelihood of exposure to asbestos showed a modest agreement between the site and household approach. In the site approach a total of 2.3 million person-years at risk were estimated with an average exposure of 1674 fibres/m(3) and an expected 1.8 cases of malignant mesothelioma each year. The household approach resulted in estimates of 1.2 million person-years at risk, and 0.9 cases of malignant mesothelioma per year, respectively. This study illustrates that asbestos waste on the surface of roads and yards in an area with over 130,000 inhabitants may result in long-term exposure to asbestos that will cause several cases of malignant mesothelioma each year. Although distance to plant, number of polluted sites and number of exposed household were associated, the modest agreement among these measures of exposure indicate that the exposure assessment strategy chosen in a particular study may result in considerable misclassification. Without detailed information on individual behaviour within the polluted area, it is difficult to show that a more individually oriented approach

  16. Pleural plaques related to “take-home” exposure to asbestos: An international case series

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Alon; Van Hee, Victor C; Kramer, Mordechai R; Pitlik, Silvio; Keifer, Matthew C

    2008-01-01

    Context: While a large number of studies indicate the risks of high-level exposures to asbestos in the workplace setting, a relatively small number of studies describe the risk of pleural disease related to “take-home” asbestos brought into the household by workers exposed to asbestos. Consequently, the risk of pleural disease in family members of asbestos-exposed workers is likely underappreciated. Case presentations: Two families of siblings, one in Israel and one in the US, were evaluated because of their significant exposures to asbestos brought into the home by family members with heavy occupational exposures. Two of the four children of an asbestos cement debagger in Petach Tikvah, Israel and two children of a pipe lagger in a naval shipyard near Seattle, Washington, manifested benign pleural disease without parenchymal disease, despite having no occupational exposure to asbestos. Discussion: These cases illustrate that “take-home” asbestos exposure may lead to pleural disease at higher rates than commonly realized. Relevance to clinical practice: Providers should recognize that due to the potential for “take-home” exposures, asbestos-related disease in a patient may be a marker for disease in household contacts. Patients with family members heavily exposed to asbestos should be strongly encouraged to quit smoking in an effort to reduce any further carcinogenic exposures. Additionally, workplace control and regulation of asbestos use should be emphasized to protect both workers and their families. PMID:20428401

  17. Treatment of airborne asbestos and asbestos-like microfiber particles using atmospheric microwave air plasma.

    PubMed

    Averroes, A; Sekiguchi, H; Sakamoto, K

    2011-11-15

    Atmospheric microwave air plasma was used to treat asbestos-like microfiber particles that had two types of ceramic fiber and one type of stainless fiber. The treated particles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experiment results showed that one type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=1:1) and the stainless fiber were spheroidized, but the other type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica=7:3) was not. The conversion of the fibers was investigated by calculating the equivalent diameter, the aspect ratio, and the fiber content ratio. The fiber content ratio in various conditions showed values near zero. The relationship between the normalized fiber vanishing rate and the energy needed to melt the particles completely per unit surface area of projected particles, which is defined as η, was examined and seen to indicate that the normalized fiber vanishing rate decreased rapidly with the increase in η. Finally, some preliminary experiments for pure asbestos were conducted, and the analysis via XRD and phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) showed the availability of the plasma treatment. PMID:21962864

  18. Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality--a cohort study in the asbestos cement industry.

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M

    1990-01-01

    A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared with those for the regional population on the basis of death certificates. Deaths from lung cancer in asbestos cement workers were higher (standard mortality ratio (SMR) 1.7), but after adjustment for age and sex specific smoking habits this was not significant (SMR 1.04). The study had a probability of greater than 92% of detecting a smoking adjusted SMR of 1.5 or more. Using the best available evidence (including necropsy records) 52 deaths were assigned to lung cancer and five to mesothelioma. Life table analyses confirmed the predominant influence of smoking on lung cancer. Mesothelioma was associated with the use of crocidolite in pipe production. From present working conditions with much lower concentrations of chrysotile and no crocidolite no more occupational cancers are expected in the asbestos cement industry. PMID:2169860

  19. Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality--a cohort study in the asbestos cement industry.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M

    1990-09-01

    A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared with those for the regional population on the basis of death certificates. Deaths from lung cancer in asbestos cement workers were higher (standard mortality ratio (SMR) 1.7), but after adjustment for age and sex specific smoking habits this was not significant (SMR 1.04). The study had a probability of greater than 92% of detecting a smoking adjusted SMR of 1.5 or more. Using the best available evidence (including necropsy records) 52 deaths were assigned to lung cancer and five to mesothelioma. Life table analyses confirmed the predominant influence of smoking on lung cancer. Mesothelioma was associated with the use of crocidolite in pipe production. From present working conditions with much lower concentrations of chrysotile and no crocidolite no more occupational cancers are expected in the asbestos cement industry.

  20. Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C; Agudo, A; González, C A; Andrion, A; Calleja, A; Chellini, E; Dalmasso, P; Escolar, A; Hernandez, S; Ivaldi, C; Mirabelli, D; Ramirez, J; Turuguet, D; Usel, M; Terracini, B

    2000-01-01

    Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case–control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and environmental exposure was based on a complete residential history, presence and use of asbestos at home, asbestos industrial activities in the surrounding area, and their distance from the dwelling. In 53 cases and 232 controls without evidence of occupational exposure to asbestos, moderate or high probability of domestic exposure was associated with an increased risk adjusted by age and sex: odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–13.1. This corresponds to three situations: cleaning asbestos-contaminated clothes, handling asbestos material and presence of asbestos material susceptible to damage. The estimated OR for high probability of environmental exposure (living within 2000 m of asbestos mines, asbestos cement plants, asbestos textiles, shipyards, or brakes factories) was 11.5 (95% CI 3.5–38.2). Living between 2000 and 5000 m from asbestos industries or within 500 m of industries using asbestos could also be associated with an increased risk. A dose–response pattern appeared with intensity of both sources of exposure. It is suggested that low-dose exposure to asbestos at home or in the general environment carries a measurable risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10883677

  1. Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Magnani, C; Agudo, A; González, C A; Andrion, A; Calleja, A; Chellini, E; Dalmasso, P; Escolar, A; Hernandez, S; Ivaldi, C; Mirabelli, D; Ramirez, J; Turuguet, D; Usel, M; Terracini, B

    2000-07-01

    Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case-control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and environmental exposure was based on a complete residential history, presence and use of asbestos at home, asbestos industrial activities in the surrounding area, and their distance from the dwelling. In 53 cases and 232 controls without evidence of occupational exposure to asbestos, moderate or high probability of domestic exposure was associated with an increased risk adjusted by age and sex: odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-13.1. This corresponds to three situations: cleaning asbestos-contaminated clothes, handling asbestos material and presence of asbestos material susceptible to damage. The estimated OR for high probability of environmental exposure (living within 2000 m of asbestos mines, asbestos cement plants, asbestos textiles, shipyards, or brakes factories) was 11.5 (95% CI 3.5-38.2). Living between 2000 and 5000 m from asbestos industries or within 500 m of industries using asbestos could also be associated with an increased risk. A dose-response pattern appeared with intensity of both sources of exposure. It is suggested that low-dose exposure to asbestos at home or in the general environment carries a measurable risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  2. [Estimation of asbestos exposure among workers repairing asbestos cement pipes used for conduits].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Nakachi, S; Kurumatani, N; Nakagiri, S; Kataoka, A

    1993-05-01

    Asbestos cement pipes (ACPs) containing 15 to 20% chrysotile or crocidolite have been used for underground conduits. Even today 16.2% of all conduits in Japan are ACPs, though the production of ACPs was suspended in 1985. When such a conduit is accidentally damaged the workers belonging to the Waterworks Bureau of a local government cut off the damaged conduit using a high-speed disk cutter and replace it with a new conduit. This operation develops a cloud of dust and the workers involved run the risk of asbestos exposure. It was the aim of the present study to estimate asbestos exposure levels among these workers. First, in the experiment, we established the typical working conditions and requested an experienced worker to cut an ACP using a high-speed disc cutter in a hole dug in the ground as he routinely does. The experiment was repeated three times. During a bout of each experiment, dust was sampled at several points both inside and outside the hole. Second, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain information from the workers regarding their working conditions in cutting ACPs. The subjects of the survey were 1,048 men belonging to conduit repair sections of the Waterworks Bureau of 119 local governments. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. 1) Each bout of cutting ACPs required about five minutes. The concentration of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns with 3:1 aspect ratio ranged from 48 to 170 fibers/ml (92 fibers/ml on an average) inside and 1.7 to 15 fibers/ml outside the hole. The concentration inside the hole exceeded the ceiling limit (10 fibers/ml) recommended for asbestos by the Japanese Association of Industrial Health. A concentration of 92 fibers/ml is equivalent to 0.96 fibers/ml as 8-h time-weighted average. 2) The number of subjects with experience of cutting ACPs was 849 (81.0%). The average length of service in conduit repair section was 14.2 yr. Based on the information obtained from each subject

  3. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... building materials (roofing shingles, ceiling and floor tiles, paper products, and asbestos cement products), friction products (automobile ... Some PDF files may be electronic conversions from paper copy or other electronic ASCII text files. This ...

  4. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the asbestos industry in 1997 is discussed. World production of asbestos in 1997 was estimated to be 2.07 Mt. Consumption in the U.S. fell 3 percent to 21 kt, and it is expected to continue to decline at a rate of 2–4 percent per year.

  5. Pleural malignant mesothelioma, genetic susceptibility and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Neri, Monica; Filiberti, Rosangela; Taioli, Emanuela; Garte, Seymour; Paracchini, Valentina; Bolognesi, Claudia; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Fontana, Vincenzo; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Verna, Anna; Bonassi, Stefano; Puntoni, Riccardo

    2005-12-30

    Pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare but extremely aggressive cancer. The limited impact of standard therapeutic treatments on survival rates makes the identification of factors that increase the individual risk a leading priority. The high proportion of cases explained by exposure to asbestos has guided intervention policies to an effective ban of this compound from our environment. However, MM cannot be solely attributed to this agent, and the role of predisposing factors and their interaction with asbestos exposure is increasingly studied. The role of mEH, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2, and CYP1A1 genotypes in modulating susceptibility to MM was examined in a case-control study of 80 subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of MM and 255 controls. Subjects with low mEH activity showed a significantly increased risk of MM (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.11-5.68). The association was stronger in the group with low asbestos exposure (OR, 7.83; 95% CI, 0.98-62.60). A significant increased risk of MM was also found in NAT2 fast acetylators (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02-2.96). The presence of synergisms between genotypes, i.e., mEH and NAT2 (LRT for heterogeneity p<0.023), mEH and GSTM1 (LRT p<0.061), and NAT2 and GSTM1 (LRT p<0.049), combined with the interaction observed with exposure to asbestos, suggests the presence of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions in the development of MM, although the size of the study group does not allow to draw clearcut conclusions. Since genetic polymorphisms can also modify the extent of genetic damage occurring in subjects exposed to carcinogens, we measured the frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a subgroup of MM cases. The limited number of cases (28) did not allow to observe significant effects. In conclusion, these results strengthen the hypothesis that individual susceptibility to MM can be modulated by the interaction between polymorphic genes involved in the metabolism and the intensity of asbestos exposure.

  6. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos in Israel.

    PubMed

    Richter, E D; Chlamtac, N; Berman, T; Laster, R

    2001-01-01

    The case for a total ban on manufacture and use of asbestos products is stated by the history of asbestos use, exposures, and risks in Israel. Manufacture and use of asbestos began in Israel in the 1950s, rising to a peak in the mid-1970s, and dropping gradually thereafter until reaching minimal levels in the 1990s. Following heightened public concern regarding the carcinogenic effects of asbestos products, there were reductions in use, manufacture, and persons exposed. Since the 1960s, asbestos-related diseases have been diagnosed in hundreds patients nationwide, including asbestos workers and users, as well as individuals living proximally to the manufacturing facilities. Exposures to asbestos in place remain, and patients with asbestos-related disease from environmental exposure are expected to appear for at least another 20-30 years. In the 1980s, an advisory committee appointed by the Ministry of Health of Israel outlined a comprehensive approach towards prevention, control, management, and compensation for health risks from asbestos exposures. As certain areas are still contaminated with asbestos waste and as environmental exposure persists, continued and improved medical monitoring and compensation programs are urgently needed in order to reduce the suffering of exposed individuals and their families. The ban on asbestos prevents risks from new exposures, but does not undo the damage from past manufacture, use, disposal, and dumping. In this paper, we review the history of Israel's import and use of asbestos, and the management of occupational and environmental exposures. We also address policy, practice, and the need to protect future victims of asbestos-related disease.

  7. Prediction of Asbestos Exposure Resulting From Asbestos Aerosolization Determined Using the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity-based sampling (ABS) used to evaluate breathing zone exposure to a contaminant present in soil resulting from various activities, involves breathing zone sampling for contaminants while that activity is performed. A probabilistic model based upon aerosol physics and flui...

  8. Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven M; Blair, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses. PMID:26039812

  9. The health impact of nonoccupational exposure to asbestos: what do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marcel; Luce, Danièle

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the epidemiologic data that confirm the risks of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer and other respiratory damage associated with non-occupational exposure to asbestos, in circumstances where exposure levels are usually lower than those found in the workplace: domestic and para-occupational exposure to asbestos-containing material (ACM) among people living with asbestos workers or near asbestos mines and manufacturing plants, environmental exposure from naturally occurring asbestos in soil, and non-occupational exposure to ACM in buildings. Data synthesis Studies concerning natural asbestos in the environment show that exposure that begins at birth does not seem to affect the duration of the latency period, but do not allow to know whether early exposure increases susceptibility; they do not suggest that susceptibility differs according to sex. Solid evidence demonstrates an increased risk of mesothelioma among people whose exposure comes from a para-occupational or domestic source. The risk of mesothelioma associated with exposure due to living near an industrial asbestos source (mines, mills, asbestos processing plants) is clearly confirmed. No solid epidemiologic data currently justify any judgment about the health effects associated with passive exposure in buildings containing asbestos. Most of the studies on non-occupational sources reported mainly amphibole exposure, but it cannot be ruled out that environmental exposure to chrysotile may also cause cancer. Conclusion Non-occupational exposure to asbestos may explain about 20% of the mesotheliomas in industrialized countries, but it is does not seem possible to estimate the number of lung cancers caused by these circumstances of exposure. PMID:19617842

  10. Asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Asbestos ; CASRN 1332 - 21 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  11. Chrysotile asbestos exposure associated with removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) by mechanics: results of a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen; Clark, Katherine; Fehling, Kurt; Lee, Terry C

    2006-03-01

    For decades, asbestos-containing gaskets were used in virtually every system that involved the transport of fluids or gases. Prior to the mid-1970s, some automobile exhaust systems contained asbestos gaskets either at flanges along the exhaust pipes or at the exhaust manifolds of the engine. A limited number of automobile mufflers were lined with asbestos paper. This paper describes a simulation study that characterized personal and bystander exposures to asbestos during the removal of automobile exhaust systems (ca. 1945-1975) containing asbestos gaskets. A total of 16 pre-1974 vehicles with old or original exhaust systems were studied. Of the 16 vehicles, 12 contained asbestos gaskets in the exhaust system and two vehicles had asbestos lining inside the muffler. A total of 82 samples (23 personal, 38 bystander, and 21 indoor background) were analyzed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and 88 samples (25 personal, 41 bystander, and 22 indoor background) by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Only seven of 25 worker samples analyzed by TEM detected asbestos fibers and 18 were below the analytical sensitivity limit (mean 0.013 f/cc, range 0.001-0.074 f/cc). Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results showed an average (1 h) adjusted PCM worker exposure of 0.018 f/cc (0.002-0.04 f/cc). The average (1 h) adjusted PCM airborne concentration for bystanders was 0.008 f/cc (range 0.0008-0.015 f/cc). Assuming a mechanic can replace four automobile single exhaust systems in 1 workday, the estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) for a mechanic performing this work was 0.01 f/cc. Under a scenario where a mechanic might repeatedly conduct exhaust work, these results suggest that exposures to asbestos from work with automobile exhaust systems during the 1950s through the 1970s containing asbestos gaskets were substantially below 0.1 f/cc, the current PEL for chrysotile asbestos, and quite often were

  12. Federal regulations relevant to asbestos pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.C.; Wilmoth, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    Health effects and epidemiological studies have established that breathing asbestos fibers can cause asbestosis, lung and other organ cancers, and mesothelioma. This has led to publication by EPA's Office of Toxic Substances of guidance for minimizing airborne asbestos exposure in buildings, establishing the School Rule, proposing a ban on use of certain asbestos-containing materials, and requiring removal of all friable asbestos prior to demolishing buildings. The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act of 1986 requires EPA to make rules in several areas related to asbestos hazards abatement which are covered by recommendations in the guidance documents. EPA is also required to study asbestos exposures in public and commercial buildings and recommend to Congress whether or not the same rules should apply to them as to schools. Responsibility for making laws and enforcing the compliance with these rules will become that of the individual State governments.

  13. Asbestos exposure: health effects. January 1985-April 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for January 1985-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the health effects of exposure to asbestos in the workplace, at home, and in public sites. Exposure during procurement of asbestos, removal of asbestos materials, manufacture of materials, and while living and working with materials containing asbestos are considered, as well as analytical techniques used to study asbestos health effects. Mortality patterns and clinical studies of exposure, risk, and resulting diseases are also presented. Asbestos removal and abatement questions and equipment used in these operations are included. (Contains 123 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  14. Construction occupations, asbestos exposure, and cancer of the colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Demers, R Y; Burns, P B; Swanson, G M

    1994-09-01

    Colorectal cancer affects more than 157,000 Americans annually. Occupational risk from exposure to asbestos dust has been implicated, leading us to explore further the possible association between colorectal cancer and asbestos. Two hundred sixty-one cases of colon and rectal cancer and 183 control cases were identified within a large, population-based case-control study conducted in southeast Michigan. Employment in occupations historically known to involve heavy exposure to asbestos was used as a surrogate for asbestos exposure. Cancers of the colon showed reduced odds ratios. Our findings differ substantially from those of the previous studies showing elevated risk. Further study is needed to address the same question, with specified asbestos exposure assessment and control for potentially significant confounders such as physical activity and diet.

  15. Malignant mesothelioma and duration of asbestos exposure: correlation with tissue mineral fibre content.

    PubMed

    Roggli, V L

    1995-06-01

    Among 441 cases of malignant mesothelioma in the author's files, there were 324 for whom reliable information was available regarding the duration of exposure to asbestos. Included were 298 pleural and 26 peritoneal mesotheliomas. The mean duration of exposure to asbestos was 23 +/- 14 years for all cases, and was not different for the pleural and peritoneal groups. Lung tissue was available for analysis of mineral fibre content in 94 cases. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between duration of exposure and asbestos bodies per gramme of wet lung as determined by light microscopy, and between duration of exposure and total uncoated fibres (5 microns or greater in length) as well as commercial amphibole fibres per gramme as determined by scanning electron microscopy (P < 0.05). Individuals with direct exposures had on average higher asbestos contents than patients with indirect exposures. Furthermore, for each duration of exposure, shipyard workers had on average higher asbestos contents than non-shipyard workers (P < 0.05). Mesotheliomas are associated with a wide range of durations of exposure to asbestos and pulmonary asbestos burdens, and there is a rough correlation between duration of exposure and pulmonary commercial amphibole content.

  16. National survey of malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in Japan.

    PubMed

    Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Kato, Katsuya; Aoe, Keisuke; Takeshima, Yukio; Inai, Kouki; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases in Japan were investigated retrospectively. We extracted records for 6030 cases of death due to MM between 2003 and 2008 to clarify the clinical features of MM, including its association with asbestos exposure (AE). Of all these cases, a clinical diagnosis of MM was confirmed for 929. The origin of MM included the pleura in 794 cases (85.5%), the peritoneum in 123 cases (13.2%), the pericardium in seven cases (0.8%), and the testicular tunica vaginalis in five cases (0.5%). The histological subtypes of MM included 396 epithelioid (55.9%), 154 sarcomatoid (21.7%), 126 biphasic (17.8%), and 33 cases (4.7%) classified as "other types". Of all the MM cases, AE was indicated in 76.8% and pleural plaques were detected in 34.2%. The number of asbestos particles was determined in 103 cases of MM. More than 1000 asbestos particles per gram dried lung tissue were detected in 74.8% of cases and more than 5000 particles were detected in 43.7% of cases. We compared patient characteristics and the diagnostic procedures for MM before and after the "Kubota shock". Compared with the early phase of this study (2003-2005), the median age at diagnosis of MM was higher, the number of cases without definite diagnosis of MM was lower, the proportion of cases diagnosed by thoracoscopy was higher, and the percentage of cases in which the occupational history was described in the medical records was significantly higher in the later phase (2006-2008). Our study confirmed that more than 70% of MM cases in Japan are associated with AE. The "Kubota shock" may affect some features pertaining to MM.

  17. Analysis of occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality using the g formula.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Richardson, David B; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I

    2013-05-01

    We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92).

  18. [Occupational lung diseases caused by exposure to chrysotile asbestos dust and the preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Pliukhin, A E; Burmistrova, T B

    2014-01-01

    To reveal major principles in system of occupational lung diseases prevention among workers engaged into extraction and usage of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified main criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to chrysotile dust, with identification of risk groups for occupational diseases development. The authors formulated main principles of prevention and rehabilitation for workers with asbestos-related pulmonary diseases. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed at prevention and liquidation of occupational asbestos-related diseases.

  19. Histopathological data of iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Elisa; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Pascolo, Lorella; Pascotto, Ernesto; Casarsa, Claudia; Lucattelli, Monica; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cavarra, Eleonora; Bartalesi, Barbara; Zweyer, Marina; Borelli, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, “Synchrotron X-ray microscopy reveals early calcium and iron interaction with crocidolite fibers in the lung of exposed mice” [1]. Asbestos fibers disrupt iron homeostasis in the human and mouse lung, leading to the deposition of iron (Fe) onto longer asbestos fibers which forms asbestos bodies (AB) [2]. Similar to Fe, calcium (Ca) is also deposited in the coats of the AB. This article presents data on iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure detected by histochemical evaluation. PMID:26909387

  20. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, R. P.; Langer, A. M.; Wilson, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals—grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)—have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner’s exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

  1. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine.

    PubMed

    Nolan, R P; Langer, A M; Wilson, R

    1999-03-30

    The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals-grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)-have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner's exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

  2. Evaluation of bystander exposures to asbestos in occupational settings: a review of the literature and application of a simple eddy diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Ellen P; Donovan, Brooke L; Sahmel, Jennifer; Scott, Paul K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the publicly available information as it relates to airborne asbestos concentrations at varying distances from a source in an occupational environment. Personal and area samples collected 5-75 feet from the primary worker from workplace surveys conducted in the 1970s and area samples collected 5-50 feet from the primary worker during more recent simulation studies were identified, compiled, and analyzed. As expected, airborne asbestos concentrations generally decreased with distance from the worker who performed a given task. Based on this review, however, the authors found that no systematic research to quantitatively relate fiber concentration with distance from the source (including consideration of fiber length, dilution ventilation, and initial momentum of the particle) has been conducted to date. A simple mathematical model was therefore used, and the results were considered, along with available published data comparing exposure data for both workers and persons/areas near workers. From this analysis, the authors offer guidance for estimating airborne asbestos concentrations at distance from a source. Based on the available data and our modeling results, the authors propose the following approach as a rule of thumb: for persons 1-5 feet from the source, airborne asbestos concentrations can be roughly approximated at 50% of the source concentration; 35% at >5-10 feet, 10% for >10-30 feet, and less than 1% at distances greater than 30 feet. This approach should be helpful for bracketing the range of likely exposures to bystanders being evaluated in asbestos-related dose-reconstruction analyses.

  3. Role of stopping exposure and recent exposure to asbestos in the risk of mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-05-01

    The model of asbestos-related mesothelioma implies that the time since first exposure (latency) is the key determinant of subsequent risk. The role of recent exposure or stopping asbestos exposure, if any, is, however, open to discussion. A literature review was conducted to the end of 2010. In a cohort of 1966 Italian textile workers, the standardized mortality ratio, on the basis of 68 deaths from mesothelioma, was 6627 for workers employed only under the age of 30 years, 8019 for those employed both under the age of 30 years and at the age of 30-39 years, and 5891 for those employed both under the age of 30 years and at the age of 40 years or more. In a cohort of Italian asbestos cement workers, including 135 deaths from pleural cancer, compared with workers who had stopped exposure for 3-15 years, the relative risk (RR) was similar for those still employed (RR=0.67) and for those who had stopped for 30 years or more (RR=0.65). In a British case-control study, including 622 cases of mesothelioma and 1420 population controls, the RR substantially increased with increasing duration of exposure under the age of 30 years, but not with exposure at the age of more than 30 years. In the Great Britain Asbestos Workers Survey, including 649 deaths from mesothelioma compared with workers who were still employed and or had stopped for less than 10 years, the multivariate RRs were 0.90 10-20 years after stopping exposure and 0.99 both 20-30 and more than 30 years after stopping. There is consistent evidence showing that, for workers exposed in the distant past, the risk of mesothelioma is not appreciably modified by subsequent exposures, and that stopping exposure does not materially modify the subsequent risk of mesothelioma.

  4. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in parts of Japan in relationship to asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takumi; Ozaki, Shinji; Kato, Katsuya; Nishi, Hideyuki; Genba, Kenichi

    2004-10-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is induced by asbestos exposure. Many reports have described this situation in America and European countries, but a few have been published in Japan. In this study malignant pleural mesothelioma cases in hospitals located in an area facing the Seto Inland Sea were evaluated. A total of 106 patients were examined with 100 patients having had occupational exposure to asbestos and 6 patients without such histories of asbestos exposure. Ninety seven were male and 9 were female. Ages ranged from 41 to 87 yr with mean of 64.8+/-5.3 yr. Thirty seven cases showed epithelial type of tumor, 25 biphasic type and 15 showed sarcomatous. The remaining 23 cases had insufficient evidence for typing the tumor. The mean survival rate for all cases was 9.2+/-11.6 months. Fifty-one patients had occupational histories of shipyard work, 16 patients worked in asbestos cement piping, and the remainder were employed in miscellaneous jobs related asbestos exposure. The duration of asbestos exposure ranged up to 20 yr or longer with the mean of 17.2+/-8.9 yr and the average latent period for the occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma was more than 31 yr with the mean of 37.0+/-13.3 yr. Quantification of asbestos bodies in the lungs indicated a high concentration in most patients and the major types of asbestos fibers were crocidolite and amosite. Six cases appeared after exposure to chrysotile. These results indicated that ninety four percent of malignant pleural mesothelioma appeared due to the exposure to asbestos including crocidolite and amosite. The remainder may be blamed on exposure to chrysotile.

  5. Historical ambient airborne asbestos concentrations in the United States - an analysis of published and unpublished literature (1960s-2000s).

    PubMed

    Abelmann, Anders; Glynn, Meghan E; Pierce, Jennifer S; Scott, Paul K; Serrano, Samantha; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor concentrations of airborne asbestos have been measured throughout the US over time. However, a thorough review and analysis of these data has not been conducted. The purpose of this study is to characterize asbestos concentrations in ambient air by environment type (urban, rural) and by decade, using measurements collected in the absence of known asbestos emission sources. A total of 17 published and unpublished studies and datasets were identified that reported the results of 2058 samples collected from the 1960s through the 2000s across the US. Most studies did not report asbestos fiber type, and data based on different analytical methods (e.g. Phase Contrast Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, etc.) were combined in the dataset; however, only fibers ≥5 μm in length were considered. For a small subset of the measurements (n = 186, 9.0%), a conversion factor was used to convert mass-based data (e.g. ng/m(3)) to count-based values (i.e. f/cc ≥5 μm). The estimated overall mean and median ambient asbestos concentrations for the 1960s through 2000s were 0.00093 f/cc and 0.00022 f/cc, respectively. Concentrations generally increased from the 1960s through the early 1980s, after which they declined considerably. While asbestos use decreased throughout the 1970s, these results indicate that ambient concentrations peaked during the early 1980s, which suggests the possible contribution of abatement or demolition activities. Lastly, ambient asbestos concentrations were higher in urban than rural settings, which is consistent with the greater use of asbestos-containing materials in more densely populated areas.

  6. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    KAKOOEI, Hossein; NORMOHAMMADI, Mohhammad

    2013-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02–0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers. PMID:24292876

  7. Occupational exposure to asbestos and cardiovascular related diseases: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Yi; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Cui, Xiuqing; Liu, Yuewei; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos has become one of the leading causes of death among occupational workers in the world. The association between asbestos and cardiovascular disease is less reported. We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the association between asbestos exposure and the mortality of cardiovascular related diseases. We performed a systematic review in the PubMed database before December 2014. All cohort studies citing the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of cardiovascular related diseases in workers exposed to asbestos were collected. We then calculated the pooled standardized mortality ratios of such diseases. Sixteen studies were included. The combined results from all studies indicated the pooled SMR estimate for cardiovascular related diseases was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.01–1.22). This meta-analysis showed that asbestos exposure significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular related diseases in exposed workers. PMID:26844169

  8. Quantification of short and long asbestos fibers to assess asbestos exposure: a review of fiber size toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, the current regulations focalise on long asbestos fibers (LAF) (Length: L ≥ 5 μm, Diameter: D < 3 μm and L/D ratio > 3). However air samples contain short asbestos fibers (SAF) (L < 5 μm). In a recent study we found that several air samples collected in buildings with asbestos containing materials (ACM) were composed only of SAF, sometimes in a concentration of ≥10 fibers.L−1. This exhaustive review focuses on available information from peer-review publications on the size-dependent pathogenetic effects of asbestos fibers reported in experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. In the literature, the findings that SAF are less pathogenic than LAF are based on experiments where a cut-off of 5 μm was generally made to differentiate short from long asbestos fibers. Nevertheless, the value of 5 μm as the limit for length is not based on scientific evidence, but is a limit for comparative analyses. From this review, it is clear that the pathogenicity of SAF cannot be completely ruled out, especially in high exposure situations. Therefore, the presence of SAF in air samples appears as an indicator of the degradation of ACM and inclusion of their systematic search should be considered in the regulation. Measurement of these fibers in air samples will then make it possible to identify pollution and anticipate health risk. PMID:25043725

  9. Routes of asbestos exposure and the development of mesothelioma in an English region.

    PubMed Central

    Howel, D; Arblaster, L; Swinburne, L; Schweiger, M; Renvoize, E; Hatton, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of exposure to asbestos through different routes in the development of mesothelioma. METHODS: Case-control study. 185 confirmed cases of mesothelioma and 160 controls were identified, when death had occurred between 1979 and 1991 in four health districts in Yorkshire. The surviving relatives were interviewed to ascertain lifetime exposure to asbestos. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of exposure to asbestos (through occupational, paraoccupational, and residential routes) were calculated for cases and were compared with controls. RESULTS: Likely or possible occupational exposure to asbestos was more common in cases than in controls (OR 5.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.1 to 10.1). After excluding those with likely or possible occupational exposure, likely or possible paraoccupational exposure was more common in cases than controls (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 19.2). Only six cases of mesothelioma were identified as being solely exposed to asbestos through their residence, compared with nine controls. The OR for residential exposure to asbestos varied between 1.5 and 6.6, depending on which potential industrial sources were included, but the 95% CIs were so wide that slightly reduced or greatly increased odds comparing cases with controls could not be excluded. CONCLUSION: Study results support previous evidence that occupational and paraoccupational exposure to asbestos is associated with developing mesothelioma. Despite a rigorous search, purely residential exposure seemed to account for only 3% of identified cases. No firm conclusion can be drawn about the risks from residential exposure alone, as many of the study subjects could also have been occupationally or paraoccupationally exposed to asbestos. PMID:9245946

  10. Efficiency of Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media: Implications for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    To measure airborne asbestos and other fibers, an air sample must represent the actual number and size of fibers. Typically, mixed cellulose ester (MCE, 0.45 or 0.8 µm pore size) and to a much lesser extent, capillary-pore polycarbonate (PC, 0.4 µm pore size) membrane filters are...

  11. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  12. Diffuse Pleural Mesothelioma and Asbestos Exposure in the North Western Cape Province

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J. C.; Sleggs, C. A.; Marchand, Paul

    1960-01-01

    Primary malignant tumours of the pleura are uncommon. Thirty-three cases (22 males, 11 females, ages 31 to 68) of diffuse pleural mesothelioma are described; all but one have a probable exposure to crocidolite asbestos (Cape blue). In a majority this exposure was in the Asbestos Hills which lie to the west of Kimberley in the north west of Cape Province. The tumour is rarely seen elsewhere in South Africa. Images PMID:13782506

  13. Exposure to tremolite asbestos and respiratory health in Swedish dolomite workers

    PubMed Central

    Selden, A; Berg, N; Lundgren, E; Hillerdal, G; Wik, N; Ohlson, C; Bodin, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Deposits of carbonate rock like limestone and dolomite may contain tremolite asbestos. This study assessed the exposure to tremolite asbestos and the respiratory health of Swedish dolomite workers.
METHODS—95% of 137 eligible workers at two dolomite producing companies completed a self administered questionnaire that included questions on respiratory symptoms and were examined with spirometry as well as chest radiography. Total exposure to dust was gravimetrically measured and the tremolite asbestos content of the dust was assessed with polarisation and phase contrast microscopy.
RESULTS—Dolomite dust concentrations were moderate (median 2.8 mg/m3) and tremolite asbestos concentrations were generally below the limit of detection (<0.03 fibres/ml). Somewhat higher values, around 0.1 fibres/ml, were obtained in manual stone sorting and bagging. Respiratory symptoms suggestive of chronic bronchitis were more related to smoking than to estimates of individual exposure to dust. The mean vital capacity was 0.2 l lower than expected after adjustment for sex, age, height, and smoking but the decline in lung function was not associated with current or cumulative exposure to dust in a clear cut way. Two definite cases of pleural plaques and one possible case of simple pneumoconiosis were noted, but the plaques could not be attributed exclusively to exposure to tremolite asbestos.
CONCLUSIONS—Dolomite mining and milling may indeed entail low levels of exposure to tremolite asbestos, but this exposure was not a strong determinant of respiratory symptoms, lung function, or pneumoconiosis in exposed Swedish workers. This was true also for dolomite dust. The hazards of exposure to tremolite asbestos may vary across deposits, however, and additional studies at other sites of carbonate rock exploitation are warranted.


Keywords: asbestos tremolite; dolomite; lung function PMID:11555689

  14. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  15. The significance of asbestos exposure in the diagnosis of mesothelioma: a 28-year experience from a major urban hospital.

    PubMed

    Hasan, F M; Nash, G; Kazemi, H

    1977-05-01

    A continued increase in the incidence of diffuse mesothelioma has been attributed to greater industrial use of asbestos but is also due in part to wider acceptance of this tumor by pathologists. In this retrospective study, the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathology of asbestos and non-asbestos-related mesothelioma from a major urban hospital were reviewed. Of the 36 cases of mesothelioma on file, 19 were not associated with exposure to asbestos. Although a retrospective study raises the possibility of inadequate occupational histories, the lack of history of asbestos exposure correlated with postmortem histology by light microscopy. When postmortem material was reviewed, evidence of asbestos exposure was present in all cases of mesothelioma with history of exposure to asbestos, and in no cases in which the patient denied history of asbestos exposure. Using strict histologic and histochemical criteria, the diagnosis of mesothelioma was confirmed in 8 of 9 patients with asbestos-related mesothelioma but in only 4 of 13 cases of non-asbestos-related mesothelioma. The diagnosis of diffuse methelioma is often difficult to make even wtih complete autopsy examinations. It should be entertained only with adherence to strict clinical and pathologic criteria, especially in women with no history to exposure to asbestos dust.

  16. Malignant mesothelioma after environmental exposure to blue asbestos.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J; de Klerk, N H; Eccles, J L; Musk, A W; Hobbs, M S

    1993-06-19

    To determine the magnitude of the population at risk from non-occupational exposure to crocidolite at Wittenoom, Western Australia (WA), a cohort of 4,890 residents who never worked for the mining company Australian Blue Asbestos (ABA) has been assembled from all 18,553 available records: the local school register, hospital attendances, the WA electoral roll, birth certificates, workers who answered a mailed questionnaire in 1979, participants in a cancer-prevention programme using vitamin-A dietary supplements, and other sources. The majority of subjects were relatives and friends of ABA employees, and nearly half the cohort were either born at Wittenoom or first went there as children under 10 years of age. As most residents were at Wittenoom when the mine and mill were in operation during the period 1943 to 1966, 82% were first exposed to crocidolite 20 or more years ago. The proportion of other workers (i.e., not employed by ABA) and their families increased once the mining operations ceased. To date, 24 cases of mesothelioma have been reported in this cohort: 9 males and 15 females. Time from first exposure to diagnosis ranged from 23 to 44 years and residence in Wittenoom ranged from 6 weeks to 11 years.

  17. Temporal patterns of occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Lacourt, Aude; Leffondré, Karen; Gramond, Céline; Ducamp, Stéphane; Rolland, Patrick; Gilg Soit Ilg, Anabelle; Houot, Marie; Imbernon, Ellen; Févotte, Joëlle; Goldberg, Marcel; Brochard, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos is the primary cause of pleural mesothelioma (PM). The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of different temporal patterns of occupational asbestos exposure on the risk of PM using case-control data in male subjects. Cases were selected from a French case-control study conducted in 1987-1993 and the French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program in 1998-2006. Population controls were frequency matched to cases by year of birth. Occupational asbestos exposure was evaluated with a job-exposure matrix. The dose-response relationships were estimated using restricted cubic spline functions in logistic regression models. A total of 2,466 ever-asbestos-exposed males (1,041 cases and 1,425 controls) were used. After adjustment for intensity and total duration of occupational asbestos exposure, the risk of PM was lower for subjects first exposed after the age of 20 yrs and continued to increase until 30 yrs after cessation of exposure. The effect of total duration of exposure decreased when age at first exposure and time since last exposure increased. These results, based on a large population-based case-control study, underline the need to take into account the temporal pattern of exposure on risk assessment.

  18. Pleural malignant mesothelioma in Tuscany, Italy (1970-1988): II. Identification of occupational exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Chellini, E; Fornaciai, G; Merler, E; Paci, E; Costantini, A S; Silvestri, S; Zappa, M; Buiatti, E

    1992-01-01

    Following the finding of an unexpected cluster of mesotheliomas in textile workers, a surveillance system of malignant mesotheliomas was implemented in the region of Tuscany, Italy. This article reports on the investigation of 124 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed and reviewed by the Institutes of Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology at the Universities of Florence, Pisa, and Siena between 1970 and 1988. A complete occupational and asbestos exposure history was assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire directly administered to resident cases of Tuscany or, if deceased, to their closest living relatives, for a total of 100 interviews. The hypothesis of past occupational asbestos exposure was verified and documented. Seventy-two cases have been classified as occupationally exposed to asbestos; four were classified in the category of "possible domestic" exposure to asbestos. For two others, the role of other risk factors was stressed, and for 22 cases, either no asbestos exposure was found or the available data were not adequate to define it. The present study allowed identification of some unknown or scarcely known occupational asbestos exposures in the study area.

  19. Cancer Attributable to Asbestos Exposure in Shipbreaking Workers: A Matched-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Te; Lin, Yu-Jen; Li, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Long-term follow-up studies of asbestos-related cancer in shipbreaking workers are lacking. This study examines the relationship between cancer incidence and asbestos exposure among former Taiwan shipbreaking workers. Methods A total of 4,427 shipbreaking workers and 22,135 population-based matched controls were successfully followed in this study. The study cohort was linked to the Taiwan Cancer Registry for new cancer cases. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for cancer was calculated for the shipbreaking workers with Total Exposure Potential Scores (TEP) for asbestos. Results Follow-up generated 109,932 person-years, with 940 deaths and 436 cancer cases, among 4,427 shipbreaking workers from 1985 to 2008. The high asbestos exposure group also had a statistically significant increase in the risk of overall cancer (aHR= 1.71; 95% CI: 1.42-2.05), esophagus cancer (aHR= 2.31; 95% CI: 1.00-5.41), liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (aHR= 1.60; 95% CI: 1.08-2.36), and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer (aHR= 3.08; 95% CI: 1.80-5.25). Mesothelioma cases were found in the high asbestos exposure group. Moreover, overall cancer, esophagus cancer, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer were seen in a dose-dependent relationship with asbestos exposure. Conclusions This study presented the elevated trend of asbestos exposure with cancer incidence for overall cancer, esophagus cancer, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer among shipbreaking workers. Those workers previously exposed to asbestos should receive persistent monitoring in order to early detect adverse health outcomes. PMID:26192180

  20. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Motor Exhaust and Lung Cancer: A Dose-Response Relationship Hidden by Asbestos Exposure Adjustment? The ICARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Cénée, Sylvie; Févotte, Joelle; Carton, Matthieu; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Bara, Simona; Velten, Michel; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle; The Icare Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Background. In a French large population-based case-control study we investigated the dose-response relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME), taking into account asbestos exposure. Methods. Exposure to DME was assessed by questionnaire. Asbestos was taken into account through a global indicator of exposure to occupational carcinogens or by a specific JEM. Results. We found a crude dose response relationship with most of the indicators of DME exposure, including with the cumulative exposure index. All results were affected by adjustment for asbestos exposure. The dose response relationships between DME and lung cancer were observed among subjects never exposed to asbestos. Conclusions. Exposure to DME and to asbestos is frequently found among the same subjects, which may explain why dose-response relationships in previous studies that adjusted for asbestos exposure were inconsistent. PMID:26425123

  1. Malignant mesothelioma and occupational exposure to asbestos: a clinicopathological correlation of 1445 cases.

    PubMed

    Roggli, Victor L; Sharma, Anupama; Butnor, Kelly J; Sporn, Thomas; Vollmer, Robin T

    2002-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is indisputably associated with development of mesothelioma. However, relatively few studies have evaluated the type of occupational exposure in correlation with asbestos fiber content and type. This study reports findings in 1445 cases of mesothelioma with known exposure history; 268 of these also had fiber burden analysis. The 1445 cases of mesothelioma were subclassified into 23 predominant occupational or exposure categories. Asbestos body counts per gram of wet lung tissue were determined by light microscopy. Asbestos fiber content and type were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Results were compared with a control group of 19 lung tissue samples. Ninety-four percent of the cases occurred among 19 exposure categories. Median asbestos body counts and levels of commercial and noncommercial amphibole fibers showed elevated levels for each of these 19 categories. Chrysotile fibers were detectable in 36 of 268 cases. All but 2 of these also had above-background levels of commercial amphiboles. When compared to commercial amphiboles, the median values for noncommercial amphibole fibers were higher in 4 of the 19 exposure groups. Most mesotheliomas in the United States fall into a limited number of exposure categories. Although a predominant occupation was ascertained for each of these cases, there was a substantial overlap in exposure types. All but 1 of the occupational categories analyzed had above-background levels of commercial amphiboles. Commercial amphiboles are responsible for most of the mesothelioma cases observed in the United States.

  2. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  3. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE RESEARCH - AIR, SOIL AND BULK MATERIAL SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently, asbestos and other mineral fibers are monitored in the workplace and in the environment using several basic analytical techniques, based primarily upon observing the fiber by either optical or electron microscopy. EPA is conducting research to determine which sampling ...

  4. Chronic occupational exposure to asbestos: more than medical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lebovits, A.H.; Byrne, M.; Bernstein, J.; Strain, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine workers chronically exposed to asbestos were interviewed regarding their perceived health status and concerns, their health behaviors, particularly their smoking behavior, and their psychologic well-being. In contrast to a non-exposed comparison group of postal workers, asbestos workers exhibited significantly elevated levels of somatic concern (P less than .03), and significantly lower levels of mental health functioning only when experiencing high levels of stress (P less than .01). Despite feeling significantly more susceptible to developing cancer (P less than .0001), 34% of asbestos workers were cigarette smokers (compared to 32% of the postal group) and long-term mask usage was minimal. Asbestos workers' increased sensitivity to stress and changes in health status along with the lack of adaptation of health-promotive behaviors indicate the need for interventions to attend to the psychologic effects of increased risk status.

  5. Radiographic Evidence of Nonoccupational Asbestos Exposure from Processing Libby Vermiculite in Minneapolis, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Raleigh, Katherine K.; Johnson, Jean; Mandel, Jeffrey H.; Adgate, John L.; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Messing, Rita B.; Eshenaur, Tannie; Williams, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Community exposure to asbestos from contaminated vermiculite ore from Libby, Montana, occurred in many processing sites in the United States, including a densely populated urban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Objective: We examined exposed community residents who never worked at the plant or never lived with a plant worker for radiographic evidence of lung changes consistent with asbestos exposure. Methods: We obtained posteroanterior chest radiographs to identify the prevalence of pleural abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis, as determined by consensus of two National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health–certified B-reader radiologists. We estimated cumulative asbestos exposure (fibers per cubic centimeters × months) with air dispersion model data and activity-based modeled exposure estimates for vermiculite processing waste contact. We modeled associations between pleural abnormalities and asbestos exposure using multiple logistic regression to adjust for year of birth, sex, and potential occupational asbestos exposure. Results: Radiographs were obtained for 461 participants. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities by B-reader consensus was 10.8%. A history of direct contact with the waste and ever playing in the waste piles was associated with pleural abnormalities {odds ratio [OR] 2.78 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 6.10] and 2.17 (95% CI: 0.99, 4.78), respectively, when adjusted for background exposure}. The regression coefficients for log-transformed measures (fibers per cubic centimeters × months) of background exposure and activity-based exposure were 0.322 (95% CI: 0.078, 0.567) and 0.063 (95% CI: –0.013, 0.139), respectively, when adjusted for each other, and 0.283 (95% CI: 0.104, 0.463) for cumulative exposure from all sources. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that community exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite originating from Libby, Montana, is associated with

  6. [Asbestos exposure on board ships: a study of the environmental situation on 2 classes of ferryboats].

    PubMed

    Turi, E; Tidei, F; Paoletti, L

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the results of a study on contamination by airborne asbestos fibres on board a number of ships belonging to fleets operating from Civitavecchia, a port on the coast of central Italy. Asbestos was widely used throughout the ships as fire- and soundproofing insulation. Samples taken before, during and after removal of the insulation in areas of the ship outside the asbestos removal worksite gave concentration levels that were similar to those observed in other indoor environments (building), varying according to the sample location and the condition of the insulation material. The results are discussed taking into consideration the fact that a ship is also a living environment for crew and passengers. PMID:8366832

  7. Mortality rates in the Federal Republic of Germany following previous occupational exposure to asbestos dust.

    PubMed

    Woitowitz, H J; Lange, H J; Beierl, L; Rathgeb, M; Schmidt, K; Ulm, K; Giesen, T; Woitowitz, R H; Pache, L; Rödelsperger, K

    1986-01-01

    In 1972, a procedure was introduced by the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes (Berufsgenossenschaften) of the Federal Republic of Germany, which is to be used by the special occupational health service for employees exposed to asbestos dust. Since 1 January 1972, occupational health examinations are performed when exposure to asbestos dust has been of at least 3 years' duration. On 1 January 1977, a prospective cohort study was started with employees formerly exposed to asbestos dust whilst working for companies manufacturing or using asbestos. Data on these persons are collected in the Central Register of Employees Exposed to Asbestos Dust of the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes. A total of 3,070 male and female employees in whom asbestos exposure terminated after 1 January 1972 formed subcohort I of the study. For comparison, 665 persons whose exposure terminated before 1 January 1972 served as subcohort II. In addition to several other inclusion criteria, each individual's permission was required before personal data could be evaluated. Of the subjects in the two subcohorts, 185 and 71, respectively, had died by 31 December 1982. Tumours were more frequently than this cause of death is expected in the general population. In addition to a high incidence of mesothelioma, the standard mortality rate was especially increased for lung cancer. The proportional mortality rates of about 40% for tumours of all sites (with about 17% lung cancer and 8% mesothelioma) especially in subcohort II, seemed to be comparable to the international figures for epidemiological mortality.

  8. Screening of Miners and Millers at Decreasing Levels of Asbestos Exposure: Comparison of Chest Radiography and Thin-Section Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Terra-Filho, Mario; Bagatin, Ericson; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Nápolis, Lara Maris; Neder, José Alberto; de Souza Portes Meirelles, Gustavo; Silva, C. Isabela; Muller, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chest radiography (CXR) is inferior to Thin-section computed tomography in the detection of asbestos related interstitial and pleural abnormalities. It remains unclear, however, whether these limitations are large enough to impair CXR´s ability in detecting the expected reduction in the frequency of these asbestos-related abnormalities (ARA) as exposure decreases. Methods Clinical evaluation, CXR, Thin-section CT and spirometry were obtained in 1418 miners and millers who were exposed to progressively lower airborne concentrations of asbestos. They were separated into four groups according to the type, period and measurements of exposure and/or procedures for controlling exposure: Group I (1940–1966/tremolite and chrysotile, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group II (1967–1976/chrysotile only, without measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure); Group III (1977–1980/chrysotile only, initiated measurements of exposure and procedures for controlling exposure) and Group IV (after 1981/chrysotile only, implemented measurements of exposure and a comprehensive procedures for controlling exposure). Results In all groups, CXR suggested more frequently interstitial abnormalities and less frequently pleural plaques than observed on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). The odds for asbestosis in groups of decreasing exposure diminished to greater extent at Thin-section CT than on CXR. Lung function was reduced in subjects who had pleural plaques evident only on Thin-section CT (p<0.050). In a longitudinal evaluation of 301 subjects without interstitial and pleural abnormalities on CXR and Thin-section CT in a previous evaluation, only Thin-section CT indicated that these ARA reduced as exposure decreased. Conclusions CXR compared to Thin-section CT was associated with false-positives for interstitial abnormalities and false-negatives for pleural plaques, regardless of the intensity of asbestos exposure

  9. Asbestos publications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    NIOSH publications and testimony on the health effects of exposure to asbestos were included in this compilation as full text articles or abstracts. Additional NIOSH publications on asbestos were listed in a bibliography. The information in this report included occupational safety and health guidelines for asbestos from NIOSH; respiratory diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma); work related lung disease surveillance report; and the NIOSH analytical methods for fibers, asbestos fibers, chrysotile asbestos, and bulk asbestos. Also contained in this report was NIOSH's testimony of January 24, 1991 on OSHA's proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite; and NIOSH's statement of April 26, 1990 before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances, Environmental Oversight, Research and Development, Committee on Environment and Public Works.

  10. Information about occupational exposure to asbestos given to cases in an etiological study: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, A E; González, C; Agudo, A; Calleja, A; Beltrán, M; González-Moya, J; Hernandez, S; Panades, R; Ramirez, J; Turuguet, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to consider some ethical aspects of the provision of information, to the cases or their families, about the assessment of occupational asbestos exposure obtained in a case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. An informative letter with the result of the evaluation of their occupational exposure to asbestos was sent to the participating cases (and/or their family). Those whose exposure was classified as certain/probable were also informed of the legislation regarding occupational diseases. Of the 132 cases, 32.6% of subjects and/or their families made telephone calls expressing interest in the content of the informative letter. Among the 63 cases classified as certain/probable exposure, this proportion was 47.6%. Out of 43 cases in which the age at diagnosis was < or = 65 years and the exposure to asbestos was certain/probable, only two (4.6%) were signed off work owing to occupational disease. Only one of the mesothelioma cases was recognized by the Spanish National Institute for Social Security (INSS) as having an occupational disease. The process of communication of the results of an epidemiological research should include the provision of information on the exposure data to each one of the subjects, and/or their families. There is a great disparity between the number of cases of certain/probable exposure to asbestos identified in our study, and the number registered as an occupational disease by the INSS.

  11. Electricians' chrysotile asbestos exposure from electrical products and risks of mesothelioma and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Peterson, Michael K; Bailey, Lisa A; Kerper, Laura E; Dodge, David G

    2014-02-01

    Both mechanistic and epidemiology studies indicate chrysotile asbestos has a threshold below which it does not cause mesothelioma or lung cancer. We conducted a critical review to determine whether electricians are at increased risk for these cancers and, if so, whether their exposure to chrysotile in electrical products could be responsible. We found that most, but not all, epidemiology studies indicate electricians are at increased risk for both cancers. Studies that evaluated electricians' exposure to asbestos during normal work tasks have generally reported low concentrations in air; an experimental study showed that grinding or drilling products containing encapsulated chrysotile resulted in exposures to chrysotile fibers far below the OSHA permissible exposure limit and the cancer no observed adverse effect level. Studies of other craftsmen who often work in the vicinity of electricians, such as insulators, reported asbestos (including amphibole) exposures that were relatively high. Overall, the evidence does not indicate that exposure to chrysotile in electrical products causes mesothelioma or lung cancer in electricians. Rather, the most likely cause of lung cancer in electricians is smoking, and the most likely cause of mesothelioma is exposure to amphibole asbestos as a result of renovation/demolition work or working in the proximity of other skilled craftsmen.

  12. The assessment of the malignant mesothelioma cases and environmental asbestos exposure in Sivas province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berk, Serdar; Yalcin, Huseyin; Dogan, Omer Tamer; Epozturk, Kursat; Akkurt, Ibrahim; Seyfikli, Zehra

    2014-02-01

    One of the most significant diseases related to environmental asbestos exposure is malignant mesothelioma (MM). Sivas province is located in the Central Anatolia where asbestos exposure is common. We aimed to study clinical, demographical and epidemiologic features of the patients with MM in Sivas, along with the history of asbestos exposure. In total, 219 patients with MM who were diagnosed in our hospital between 1993 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed in terms of demographical and clinical features. Rock, soil and house plaster samples were taken from the habitats of those patients and were evaluated with optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The age of the patients ranged between 18 and 85 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. Most of the patients confirmed an asbestos exposure history. The most frequent symptoms of the patients were chest pain (60 %) and dyspnea (50 %). The gap between the start of first symptoms and the diagnosis date was approximately 4 months in average. The plaster materials used in most of the houses were made up of mainly carbonate and silicate minerals and some chrysotile. Ophiolitic units contained fibrous minerals such as serpentine (clino + orthochrysotile) chiefly and pectolite, brucite, hydrotalcite and tremolite/actinolite in smaller amounts. MM is not primarily related to occupational asbestos exposure in our region, and hence, environmental asbestos exposure may be indicted. Yet, single or combined roles and/or interactions of other fibrous and non-fibrous minerals in the etiology of MM are not yet fully understood and remain to be investigated.

  13. Differential Susceptibility of Human Pleural and Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells to Asbestos Exposure.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Julie; Thompson, Joyce; MacPherson, Maximilian; Shukla, Arti

    2015-08-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of mesothelial cells of pleural and peritoneal cavities. In 85% of cases both pleural and peritoneal MM is caused by asbestos exposure. Although both are asbestos-induced cancers, the incidence of pleural MM is significantly higher (85%) than peritoneal MM (15%). It has been proposed that carcinogenesis is a result of asbestos-induced inflammation but it is not clear what contributes to the differences observed between incidences of these two cancers. We hypothesize that the observed differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM are the result of differences in the direct response of these cell types to asbestos rather than to differences mediated by the in vivo microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we characterized cellular responses to asbestos in a controlled environment. We found significantly greater changes in genome-wide expression in response to asbestos exposure in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. In particular, a greater response in many common genes (IL-8, ATF3, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL-6, GOS2) was seen in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. Unique genes expressed in pleural mesothelial cells were mainly pro-inflammatory (G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1α, GREM1) and have previously been shown to be involved in development of MM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM upon exposure to asbestos are the result of differences in mesothelial cell physiology that lead to differences in the inflammatory response, which leads to cancer.

  14. Differential susceptibility of human pleural and peritoneal mesothelial cells to asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dragon, Julie; Thompson, Joyce; MacPherson, Maximilian; Shukla, Arti

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of mesothelial cells of pleural and peritoneal cavities. In 85% of cases both pleural and peritoneal MM is caused by asbestos exposure. Although both are asbestos-induced cancers, the incidence of pleural MM is significantly higher (85%) than peritoneal MM (15%). It has been proposed that carcinogenesis is a result of asbestos-induced inflammation but it is not clear what contributes to the differences observed between incidences of these two cancers. We hypothesize that the observed differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM are the result of differences in the direct response of these cell types to asbestos rather than to differences mediated by the in vivo microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we characterized cellular responses to asbestos in a controlled environment. We found significantly greater changes in genome-wide expression in response to asbestos exposure in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. In particular, a greater response in many common genes (IL-8, ATF3, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL-6, GOS2) was seen in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. Unique genes expressed in pleural mesothelial cells were mainly pro-inflammatory (G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1α, GREM1) and have previously been shown to be involved in development of MM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM upon exposure to asbestos are the result of differences in mesothelial cell physiology that lead to differences in the inflammatory response, which leads to cancer. PMID:25757056

  15. Determination of environmental exposure to asbestos (tremolite) and mesothelioma risks in the southeastern region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Senyigit, Abdurrahman; Dalgic, Abdurrahman; Kavak, Orhan; Tanrikulu, Abdullah Cetin

    2004-12-01

    In this study, the authors examined the concentrations and mineralogical analyses of asbestos, and investigated mesothelioma risk in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. They used a gravimetric dust sampler to collect samples from 2 villages and 2 asbestos mines (1 active). Samples were then evaluated by an X-ray diffractometer and an electron microscope. The authors found high concentrations of asbestos in an active mine (4.9 fibers[f]/cm3) and at a house that was plastered with asbestos (1.24 f/cm3) and had a very active population. They found a low concentration (0.0042 f/cm3) in indoor measurements taken in Armutova village, and an even lower concentration (0.000081 f/cm3) in the inactive mine environment. Outdoor measurements included a low concentration of 0.007 f/cm3 in the village environment, and a high concentration of 1.17 f/cm3 on the mine road during the passing of a sheep herd. The people in the region are continuously exposed to asbestos during normal activities. This cumulative exposure to asbestos carries sufficient risks for mesothelioma development.

  16. Asbestos exposure in malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: a survey of 557 cases.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Brollo, A; Ramani, L; Bianchi, T; Giarelli, L

    2001-04-01

    A series of 557 malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura diagnosed in the Trieste-Monfalcone area, Italy, in the period 1968-2000 were reviewed. The series included 492 men and 65 women, aged between 32 and 93 years (median age 69 years). Necropsy findings were available in 456 cases (82%). Occupational histories were obtained from the patients themselves or from their relatives by personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 442 cases. In 109 cases isolation and counting of asbestos bodies were performed. A majority of people had histories of working in the shipyards. Asbestos bodies were observed in lung sections in 67% of the cases. Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between 20 bodies and about 10 millions of bodies/g dried tissue. Latency periods (time intervals between first exposure to asbestos and death) ranged between 14 and 75 years (mean 48.8 years, median 51.0). Latency periods among insulators and dock workers were shorter than among the other categories. High asbestos consumption occurred in many countries in the 1960s and in the 1970s. The data on latency periods obtained in the present study suggest that a world mesothelioma epidemic has to be expected in the coming decades.

  17. An unusual case of mixed-dust exposure involving a "noncommercial" asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, R F; Levin, J L

    2001-01-01

    Our health center evaluated an individual for suspected pneumoconiosis, which had resulted from exposures in a foundry/metal reclamation facility. Appropriate consent forms were obtained for the procedures. Historically, individuals who work in foundries have been exposed to various types of dusts. The clinical findings in this case were consistent with silicosis with a suspicion of asbestos-induced changes as well. A sample from this individual, analyzed by electron microscopy, showed both classical and atypical ferruginous bodies. The uncoated fiber burden in this individual indicated an appreciable number of anthophyllite asbestos fibers. This finding, coupled with analysis of cores from ferruginous bodies and the presence of ferruginous bodies in areas of interstitial fibrosis, pathologically supported the diagnosis of asbestos-related disease. The unique factor associated with this case is that unlike in some settings in Finland where anthophyllite was mined and used commercially, this mineral fiber is not commonly found in commercially used asbestos products in the United States. Although the actual source of the asbestos exposure in this case is still being sought, it should be recognized that anthophyllite is a contaminant of many other minerals used in workplace environments, including foundries. The fiber burden indicates a unique type of exposure, differing from that usually construed as typical in occupational settings in the United States. PMID:11266334

  18. An unusual case of mixed-dust exposure involving a "noncommercial" asbestos.

    PubMed

    Dodson, R F; Levin, J L

    2001-02-01

    Our health center evaluated an individual for suspected pneumoconiosis, which had resulted from exposures in a foundry/metal reclamation facility. Appropriate consent forms were obtained for the procedures. Historically, individuals who work in foundries have been exposed to various types of dusts. The clinical findings in this case were consistent with silicosis with a suspicion of asbestos-induced changes as well. A sample from this individual, analyzed by electron microscopy, showed both classical and atypical ferruginous bodies. The uncoated fiber burden in this individual indicated an appreciable number of anthophyllite asbestos fibers. This finding, coupled with analysis of cores from ferruginous bodies and the presence of ferruginous bodies in areas of interstitial fibrosis, pathologically supported the diagnosis of asbestos-related disease. The unique factor associated with this case is that unlike in some settings in Finland where anthophyllite was mined and used commercially, this mineral fiber is not commonly found in commercially used asbestos products in the United States. Although the actual source of the asbestos exposure in this case is still being sought, it should be recognized that anthophyllite is a contaminant of many other minerals used in workplace environments, including foundries. The fiber burden indicates a unique type of exposure, differing from that usually construed as typical in occupational settings in the United States. PMID:11266334

  19. Lung diseases due to environmental exposures to erionite and asbestos in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Emri, Salih; Demir, Ahmet; Dogan, Meral; Akay, Hadi; Bozkurt, Bülent; Carbone, Michele; Baris, Izzettin

    2002-02-28

    Asbestos deposits have been used locally by the rural inhabitants of Central and Southeastern Anatolia for domestic purposes for many years. Mineralogical analysis revealed that tremolite is the most prominent asbestos type found in the region. There is in addition another mineral fiber found particularly in three villages located in the Cappadocian region of Central Anatolia (zeolite villages). This is a non-asbestos mineral, which has been identified as the fibrous zeolite, erionite. This fiber is present in the volcanic tuffs, which are used as building stone. Hence, exposure to erionite fibers is always possible in the houses, annexes, and streets of the villages. It has been demonstrated that both asbestos and erionite cause a variety of benign and malignant chest diseases. Among the diseases, calcified pleural plaques (CPP) are the most frequently seen and may be used as an indicator of mineral fiber exposure. Asbestos and erionite exposure are the main causes of malignant mesotheliomas in Turkey. In zeolite villages malignant mesothelioma is responsible for more than 50% of the total deaths. A recent study showed that simian virus 40 is not a cofactor in the pathogenesis of environmental malignant mesothelioma in Turkey. An additional recent genetic-epidemiological study showed that there are some families, which are genetically predisposed to mesothelioma.

  20. Guide to respiratory protection for the asbestos-abatement industry (revised). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, G.P.; Linn, H.I.; Reed, L.D.

    1986-09-01

    This guide provides practical guidance for selection and use of respiratory protection to persons who work in asbestos abatement operations or other activities, such as maintenance or repair, where exposure or the potential for exposure to asbestos exists. The guide recommends controlling exposures to the lowest level possible as determined by the most sensitive and reliable monitoring methods. The guide has five parts. Part I is an introduction to the hazards associated with airborne asbestos and to the issues involving respiratory protection against asbestos. Part II presents a model respiratory protection program for the asbestos industry which both satisfies current Federal regulations and incorporates the most current information on appropriate respirators for use against airborne asbestos fibers. Part III contains a checklist for developing or evaluating a respiratory protection program. Part IV presents information on breathing air systems for supplied-air respirators. Part V lists sources of help for problems involving respirator use.

  1. Mesotheliomas following exposure to asbestos used in railroads: 130 Italian cases.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Carnuccio, R; Valenti, D; Lodi, P; Amaducci, E

    1995-01-01

    The available knowledge on the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the groups at risk due to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads were briefly reviewed. The available data on the pathological effects of such exposure, and particularly on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, were also summarized. One hundred and thirty cases of mesothelioma (122 pleural, 1 pericardial, 6 peritoneal and 1 pleuro-peritoneal), related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads, observed in various Italian regions, were reported. Fifty-three of these cases (among which 49 reported in the Emilia Romagna Region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Seventy-seven cases of mesothelioma occurred among occupationally exposed FS workers, in particular machinists; 45 cases occurred among rolling-stock machinists and workers engaged in the repair and demolition of the rails of workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock, not belonging to the FS; and 5 cases were found in family members (1 daughter, 3 wives and 1 sister) of railroad workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in railroads, and indicates its gravity. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the promotion of systematic epidemiological investigations, the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, and the automatic compensation for tumours following the exposure to the asbestos used in railroads.

  2. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentration shall be determined by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... limit. When PCM results indicate a potential exposure exceeding the 0.1 f/cc full-shift limit or the 1...

  3. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration shall be determined by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... limit. When PCM results indicate a potential exposure exceeding the 0.1 f/cc full-shift limit or the 1...

  4. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentration shall be determined by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... limit. When PCM results indicate a potential exposure exceeding the 0.1 f/cc full-shift limit or the 1...

  5. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  6. Malignant mesothelioma, airborne asbestos, and the need for accuracy in chrysotile risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Meisenkothen, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    A man diagnosed with pleural mesothelioma sought legal representation with the author's law firm. He worked 33 years in a wire and cable factory in the northeastern United States (Connecticut) that exclusively used chrysotile asbestos in its manufacturing process. This is the first report of mesothelioma arising from employees of this factory. This report provides additional support for the proposition that chrysotile asbestos can cause malignant mesothelioma in humans. If chrysotile risk assessments are to be accurate, then the literature should contain an accurate accounting of all mesotheliomas alleged to be caused by chrysotile asbestos. This is important not just for public health professionals but also for individuals and companies involved in litigation over asbestos-related diseases. If reports such as these remain unknown, it is probable that cases of mesothelioma among chrysotile-exposed cohorts would go unrecognized and chrysotile-using factories would be incorrectly cited as having no mesotheliomas among their employees.

  7. [Dynamic studies of the leukocyte phagocytic activity after exposure of rats to asbestos and basalt fibers].

    PubMed

    Hurbánková, M

    1993-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the dynamic one-year follow-up of the phagocytic activity of Wistar-rats peripheral blood leukocytes following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibres (Man-Made Mineral Fibres--MMMF). We investigated the phagocytic activity of leukocytes in peripheral blood following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibres to rats 2, 24, 48 h as well as 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks and 6 and 12 months after dosing. We investigated the time dependent of the changes of relative granulocytes count, percentage of phagocytizing cells from leukocytes, percentage of phagocytizing granulocytes and percentage of phagocytizing monocytes. The results of our experiment showed that asbestos and basalt fibres differed in their effects on the parameters studied. Granulocyte count as well as the phagocytic activity of leukocytes during the one-year dynamic follow-up in both dust--exposed groups of animals were found to change in two phases, characterised by the initial stimulation of the acute phase (I), followed by the suppression of the parameters in the chronic phase (II). Exposure to asbestos and basalt fibres led, in phase II, to impairment of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes. Asbestos fibres at the same time significantly decreased also the phagocytic activity of monocytes. Exposure to basalt fibres did not affect the phagocytic activity of monocytes in phase II. It follows from the results of the experiment, that the monocytic component of leukocytes probably plays an important role in the development of diseases caused by exposure to fibrous dusts and basalt fibres have smaller biological effects compared with asbestos fibres.

  8. The influence of occupational and environmental asbestos exposure on the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Lewinsohn, H C; Meigs, J W; Teta, M J; Flannery, J T

    1980-01-01

    Medical, occupational and demographic data were collected for 229 cases of malignant mesothelioma and 38 other pleural tumours, their spouses, and 605 controls. Methods were developed for classifying subjects into probable asbestos exposure categories. Although disease incidence rates exhibited a rapid increase from 1955 to 1977, there remains a serious question of diagnostic reliability. A case review is being undertaken.

  9. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  10. Evaluation of take-home exposure and risk associated with the handling of clothing contaminated with chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Sahmel, J; Barlow, C A; Simmons, B; Gaffney, S H; Avens, H J; Madl, A K; Henshaw, J; Lee, R J; Van Orden, D; Sanchez, M; Zock, M; Paustenbach, D J

    2014-08-01

    The potential for para-occupational (or take-home) exposures from contaminated clothing has been recognized for the past 60 years. To better characterize the take-home asbestos exposure pathway, a study was performed to measure the relationship between airborne chrysotile concentrations in the workplace, the contamination of work clothing, and take-home exposures and risks. The study included air sampling during two activities: (1) contamination of work clothing by airborne chrysotile (i.e., loading the clothing), and (2) handling and shaking out of the clothes. The clothes were contaminated at three different target airborne chrysotile concentrations (0-0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter [f/cc], 1-2 f/cc, and 2-4 f/cc; two events each for 31-43 minutes; six events total). Arithmetic mean concentrations for the three target loading levels were 0.01 f/cc, 1.65 f/cc, and 2.84 f/cc (National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety [NIOSH] 7402). Following the loading events, six matched 30-minute clothes-handling and shake-out events were conducted, each including 15 minutes of active handling (15-minute means; 0.014-0.097 f/cc) and 15 additional minutes of no handling (30-minute means; 0.006-0.063 f/cc). Percentages of personal clothes-handling TWAs relative to clothes-loading TWAs were calculated for event pairs to characterize exposure potential during daily versus weekly clothes-handling activity. Airborne concentrations for the clothes handler were 0.2-1.4% (eight-hour TWA or daily ratio) and 0.03-0.27% (40-hour TWA or weekly ratio) of loading TWAs. Cumulative chrysotile doses for clothes handling at airborne concentrations tested were estimated to be consistent with lifetime cumulative chrysotile doses associated with ambient air exposure (range for take-home or ambient doses: 0.00044-0.105 f/cc year).

  11. Incidence of mesothelioma in Lombardy, Italy: exposure to asbestos, time patterns and future projections

    PubMed Central

    Mensi, Carolina; De Matteis, Sara; Dallari, Barbara; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Consonni, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Italy, asbestos has been extensively used from 1945 to 1992. We evaluated the impact of exposure to asbestos on occurrence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in the Lombardy Region, Northwest Italy, the most populated and industrialised Italian region. Methods From the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, we selected all incident cases of MM diagnosed between 2000 and 2012. We described sources of exposure to asbestos and examined time trends of MM rates. Using Poisson age-cohort models, we derived projections of burden of MM in the Lombardy population for the period 2013–2029. Results In 2000–2012, we recorded 4442 cases of MM (2850 men, 1592 women). Occupational exposure to asbestos was more frequent in men (73.6%) than in women (38.2%). Non-occupational exposure was found for 13.6% of women and 3.6% of men. The average number of cases of MM per year was still increasing (+3.6% in men, +3.3% in women). Incidence rates were still increasing in individuals aged 65+ years and declining in younger people. A maximum of 417 cases of MM (267 men, 150 women) are expected in 2019. We forecast there will be 6832 more cases (4397 in men, 2435 in women) in the period 2013–2029, for a total of 11 274 cases of MM (7247 in men, 4027 in women) in 30 years. Conclusions This study documented a high burden of MM in both genders in the Lombardy Region, reflecting extensive occupational (mainly in men) and non-occupational (mainly in women) exposure to asbestos in the past. Incidence rates are still increasing; a downturn in occurrence of MM is expected to occur after 2019. PMID:27312399

  12. Exposure to asbestos during brake maintenance of automotive vehicles by different methods.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, T; Korhonen, K

    1987-05-01

    Asbestos concentrations were measured during the different operations of brake maintenance of passenger cars, trucks and buses in 24 Finnish workplaces. The estimated average asbestos exposure during the workday (8-hr time-weighted average) was 0.1-0.2 fibers/cm3 during brake repair of trucks or buses, and under 0.05 f/cm3 during repair of passenger car brakes when the background concentration was not included in the calculations. The background concentration was estimated to be less than 0.1 f/cm3. During brake maintenance of buses and trucks, heavy exposure, 0.3-125 (mean 56) f/cm3, was observed during machine grinding of new brake linings if local exhaust was not in use. Other short-term operations during which the concentration exceeded 1 f/cm3 were the cleaning of brakes with a brush, wet cloth or compressed air jet. During brake servicing of passenger cars, the concentration of asbestos exceeded 1 f/cm3 only during compressed air blowing without local exhaust. The different methods of decreasing the exposure and the risk of asbestos-related diseases among car mechanics are discussed.

  13. Environmental exposure to asbestos and risk of pleural mesothelioma: review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bourdès, V; Boffetta, P; Pisani, P

    2000-05-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have addressed the risk of pleural mesothelioma from environmental (household and neighborhood) exposure to asbestos, but no overall risk estimate is available. We reviewed the epidemiological studies on risk of pleural mesothelioma and household or neighborhood exposure to asbestos. We identified eight relevant studies; most were conducted in populations with relatively high exposure levels. We combined the risk estimates in a meta-analysis based on the random-effects model. The relative risks (RRs) of pleural mesothelioma for household exposure ranged between 4.0 and 23.7, and the summary risk estimate was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3-12). For neighborhood exposure, RRs ranged between 5.1 and 9.3 (with a single RR of 0.2) and the summary estimate was 7.0 (95% CI: 4.7-11). This review suggests a substantial increase in risk of pleural mesothelioma following high environmental exposure to asbestos; however, the available data are insufficient to estimate the magnitude of the excess risk at the levels of environmental exposure commonly encountered by the general population in industrial countries.

  14. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  15. Functional Alteration of Natural Killer Cells and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes upon Asbestos Exposure and in Malignant Mesothelioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Maeda, Megumi; Kishimoto, Takumi; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Nakano, Takashi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos, which is known to have carcinogenic effects. However, the development of mesothelioma takes a long period and results from a low or intermediate dose of exposure. These findings have motivated us to investigate the immunological effects of asbestos exposure and analyze immune functions of patients with mesothelioma and pleural plaque, a sign of exposure to asbestos. Here, we review our knowledge concerning natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). NK cells showed impaired cytotoxicity with altered expression of activating receptors upon exposure to asbestos, while induction of granzyme+ cells in CD8+ lymphocytes was suppressed by asbestos exposure. It is interesting that a decrease in NKp46, a representative activating receptor, is common between NK cells in PBMC culture with asbestos and those of mesothelioma patients. Moreover, it was observed that CD8+ lymphocytes may be stimulated by some kind of “nonself” cells in plaque-positive individuals and in mesothelioma patients, whereas CTL in mesothelioma is impaired by poststimulation maintenance of cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that analysis of immunological parameters might contribute to the evaluation of health conditions of asbestos-exposed individuals and to a greater understanding of the pathology of malignant mesothelioma. PMID:26161391

  16. Mesotheliomas following exposure to asbestos used in railroads: the Italian cases.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

    1991-01-01

    The available knowledge on the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the groups at risk due to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads were briefly reviewed. The available data on the pathological effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, were also summarized. Eighty-five cases of mesothelioma (80 pleural, 4 peritoneal, and 1 pericardial), related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads, observed in various Italian regions, were then reported. Twenty-eight of these cases (among which 27 reported in the Emilia-Romagna Region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Fifty cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 30 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; and 2 cases were found in family members (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence of an actually health risk due to asbestos used in railroads, and indicates its gravity. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiological investigations, and, finally, more emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors, to be used for reducing the effect of exposure, and therefore for contrasting the onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although healthy, are potentially at high risk.

  17. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  18. Asbestos in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  19. [Analysis of occupational exposure to asbestos in cases of mesothelioma registered in Romagna (1986-1998)].

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and major correlates of occupational exposure to asbestos among the 125 cases of mesothelioma of the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium registered in the Romagna Region of Italy between 1986 and 1998. Adequate occupational information was obtained for 122 (98%) cases. Among these, the male:female ratio was 81:41 (2.0), the median age was 68 years (range, 25-92), and the pleural location accounted for 96 (79%) cases. According to job history, 61 (50%) cases had had definite (23), probable (12), and possible (26) occupational exposure to asbestos. The probability (multiple logistic regression estimate) was greater for males (odds ratio, 10.8) but decreased for cases with mesothelioma of the peritoneum and pericardium (0.21) as well as those above the median age (0.38). Time period, residence, mode of diagnosis (histology, cytology, other), source of information (patient, wife/husband, others), and smoking habits exerted no independent effect. For 35 (57%) cases, occupational exposure was related to asbestos pollution of the workplace and not to the specific work task. Cases with definite, probable, and possible occupational exposure showed no significant difference in the distribution (Kruskal-Wallis test) by year of initial employment at risk, duration of exposure, and latency (median, 36 years). Occupational exposure occurred in a total of 22 workplaces. Three of these accounted for 21 (34%) cases. Multiple (> or = 2) cases (total 27 or 44%) were observed in six workplaces.

  20. The risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma after cessation of asbestos exposure: a prospective cohort study of shipyard workers.

    PubMed

    Sandén, A; Järvholm, B; Larsson, S; Thiringer, G

    1992-03-01

    A prospective cohort study of 3,893 shipyard workers, mainly exposed to chrysotile, indicated no increased risk of lung cancer 7-15 yrs after exposure to asbestos had ceased. The shipyard workers, however, had an increased risk of pleural mesotheliomas with 11 observed cases versus 1.5 expected. An explanation for these observations may be that asbestos may have different carcinogenic mechanisms in causing lung cancer and mesothelioma. A non-increased risk of lung cancer some years after exposure to asbestos has stopped is in accordance with asbestos acting as a promotor. The high risk of mesothelioma, on the other hand, may indicate that asbestos acts as a complete carcinogen in developing this disease.

  1. Mesotheliomas following exposure to asbestos used in sugar refineries: report of 12 Italian cases.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Valenti, D; Carnuccio, R; Amaducci, E; Minardi, F

    1995-01-01

    Twelve Italian cases of mesothelioma (all the cases but one from the Emilia Romagna Region), following exposure to asbestos used in sugar refinery plants, are reported. Eleven cases arose in workers occupationally exposed, and one in the daughter of an exposed worker, following family contact. Eleven of the cases were pleural and one peritoneal. In the 11 cases following occupational exposure the average latency time was 36.0 (range 23-48) years, and the average age at onset was 63.4 years. In the case which followed family contact, the latency time and the age of the onset were 37 years. This represents the largest series of cases of mesothelioma due to the asbestos present in sugar refinery plants reported to date in the scientific literature. While these cases demonstrate the risk of asbestos mesothelioma in the sugar refinery industry, they in no way give the dimension of the pathological effects of asbestos (and man-made mineral fibres) used in this industry. To assess this risk further research is suggested.

  2. Exposure to asbestos and lung and pleural cancer mortality among pulp and paper industry workers.

    PubMed

    Carel, Rafael; Boffetta, Paolo; Kauppinen, Timo; Teschke, Kay; Andersen, Aage; Jäppinen, Paavo; Pearce, Neil; Rix, Bo Andreassen; Bergeret, Alain; Coggon, David; Persson, Bodil; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Kielkowski, Danuta; Henneberger, Paul; Kishi, Reiko; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Sala, Maria; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2002-06-01

    We studied the mortality from lung and pleural cancers in a cohort of 62,937 male workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 13 countries during 1945 to 1996. Mill departments were classified according to probability and level of exposure to asbestos on the basis of available dust measurements and mill-specific information on exposure circumstances. Thirty-six percent of workers were classified as ever exposed to asbestos. Standardized mortality ratios of lung cancer were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.08) among unexposed and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.11) among ever exposed workers. The number of pleural cancer deaths among unexposed workers was 10; that among exposed workers was 14, most of which occurred among maintenance workers. In internal analyses, a trend in mortality from either neoplasm was suggested for estimated cumulative exposure to asbestos, weighted for the individual probability of exposure within the department and for duration of exposure (relative risk for lung cancer for 0.78+ f/cc-years, as compared with < or = 0.01 f/cc-years: 1.44; 95% CI, 0.85 to 2.45; corresponding relative risk for pleural cancer: 2.43; 95% CI, 0.43 to 13.63). Despite a possible nondifferential misclassification of exposure and outcome, this study suggests that the carcinogenic effect of asbestos can be detected among workers employed in industries such as the pulp and paper industry, in which it is not considered to be a major hazard.

  3. Pulmonary Toxicity and Modifications in Iron Homeostasis Following Libby Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) develop iron dysregulation which may influence pulmonary toxicity and injury upon exposure to asbestos. We hypothesized spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats woul...

  4. Exposure versus internal dose: Respiratory tract deposition modeling of inhaled asbestos fibers in rats and humans (Presentation Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to asbestos is associated with respiratory diseases, including asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Internal fiber dose depends on fiber inhalability and orientation, fiber density, length and width, and various deposition mechanisms (DM). Species-specific param...

  5. Airborne exposures and risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sjödahl, Krister; Jansson, Catarina; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Adami, Johanna; Boffetta, Paolo; Lagergren, Jesper

    2007-05-01

    There is an unexplained male predominance among patients with gastric cancer, and many carcinogens are found in male-dominated dusty occupations. However, the relation between occupational exposures and risk of gastric cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether airborne occupational exposures might influence the risk of noncardia gastric cancer, we used a large, prospective cohort study of male Swedish construction workers. These workers were, during the period 1971-1993, regularly invited to health examinations by a nationwide occupational health service organization. Data on job titles and other variables were collected through self-administered questionnaires and forms completed by the health organization's staff. Industrial hygienists assessed 12 specific airborne occupational exposures for 200 job titles. Gastric cancer, death or emigration occurring during follow-up in 1971-2002 were identified by linkage to the Swedish registers of Cancer, Causes of Death and Total Population, respectively. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for attained age, tobacco smoking, calendar period and body mass, were derived from Cox regression. Among 256,357 cohort members, contributing 5,378,012 person-years at risk, 948 noncardia gastric cancers were identified. Increased risk of this tumor was found among workers exposed to cement dust (IRR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), quartz dust (IRR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]) and diesel exhaust (IRR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.9]). Dose-response relations were observed for these exposures. No consistent positive associations were found regarding exposure to asbestos, asphalt fumes, concrete dust, epoxy resins, isocyanates, metal fumes, mineral fibers, organic solvents or wood dust. In conclusion, this study provides some support to the hypothesis that specific airborne exposures increase the risk of noncardia gastric cancer. PMID:17266028

  6. Airborne exposures and risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sjödahl, Krister; Jansson, Catarina; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Adami, Johanna; Boffetta, Paolo; Lagergren, Jesper

    2007-05-01

    There is an unexplained male predominance among patients with gastric cancer, and many carcinogens are found in male-dominated dusty occupations. However, the relation between occupational exposures and risk of gastric cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether airborne occupational exposures might influence the risk of noncardia gastric cancer, we used a large, prospective cohort study of male Swedish construction workers. These workers were, during the period 1971-1993, regularly invited to health examinations by a nationwide occupational health service organization. Data on job titles and other variables were collected through self-administered questionnaires and forms completed by the health organization's staff. Industrial hygienists assessed 12 specific airborne occupational exposures for 200 job titles. Gastric cancer, death or emigration occurring during follow-up in 1971-2002 were identified by linkage to the Swedish registers of Cancer, Causes of Death and Total Population, respectively. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for attained age, tobacco smoking, calendar period and body mass, were derived from Cox regression. Among 256,357 cohort members, contributing 5,378,012 person-years at risk, 948 noncardia gastric cancers were identified. Increased risk of this tumor was found among workers exposed to cement dust (IRR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), quartz dust (IRR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]) and diesel exhaust (IRR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.9]). Dose-response relations were observed for these exposures. No consistent positive associations were found regarding exposure to asbestos, asphalt fumes, concrete dust, epoxy resins, isocyanates, metal fumes, mineral fibers, organic solvents or wood dust. In conclusion, this study provides some support to the hypothesis that specific airborne exposures increase the risk of noncardia gastric cancer.

  7. Cumulative asbestos exposure for US automobile mechanics involved in brake repair (circa 1950s-2000).

    PubMed

    Finley, Brent L; Richter, Richard O; Mowat, Fionna S; Mlynarek, Steve; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Warmerdam, John M; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2007-11-01

    We analyzed cumulative lifetime exposure to chrysotile asbestos experienced by brake mechanics in the US during the period 1950-2000. Using Monte Carlo methods, cumulative exposures were calculated using the distribution of 8-h time-weighted average exposure concentrations for brake mechanics and the distribution of job tenure data for automobile mechanics. The median estimated cumulative exposures for these mechanics, as predicted by three probabilistic models, ranged from 0.16 to 0.41 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cm(3)) year for facilities with no dust-control procedures (1970s), and from 0.010 to 0.012 f/cm(3) year for those employing engineering controls (1980s). Upper-bound (95%) estimates for the 1970s and 1980s were 1.96 to 2.79 and 0.07-0.10 f/cm(3) year, respectively. These estimates for US brake mechanics are consistent with, but generally slightly lower than, those reported for European mechanics. The values are all substantially lower than the cumulative exposure of 4.5 f/cm(3) year associated with occupational exposure to 0.1 f/cm(3) of asbestos for 45 years that is currently permitted under the current occupational exposure limits in the US. Cumulative exposures were usually about 100- to 1,000-fold less than those of other occupational groups with asbestos exposure for similar time periods. The cumulative lifetime exposure estimates presented here, combined with the negative epidemiology data for brake mechanics, could be used to refine the risk assessments for chrysotile-exposed populations.

  8. Past exposure to asbestos and combustion products and incidence of cancer among Finnish locomotive drivers.

    PubMed

    Nokso-Koivisto, P; Pukkala, E

    1994-05-01

    Locomotive drivers in the steam engine era were exposed to asbestos during their vocational training for two years while training in workshops. Later in their career they had exposure to coal and diesel combustion products. To assess the level of earlier exposure historical working conditions were reconstructed and hygienic conditions were measured. The average exposure to asbestos (mainly anthophylline) fibres > 5 microns was 5.0 fibres/cm3. Incidence of cancer in a cohort of 8391 members of the Finnish Locomotive Drivers' Association, 1953-91, was analysed. The incidence of lung cancer and also total cancer was below the national average, probably due to the low prevalence of smoking among the drivers in the steam engine era. A four-fold risk of mesothelioma was found, most likely caused by exposure to asbestos. Also the observed 1.5-fold incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and 1.7-fold risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx may be related to occupation. PMID:8199683

  9. Past exposure to asbestos and combustion products and incidence of cancer among Finnish locomotive drivers.

    PubMed Central

    Nokso-Koivisto, P; Pukkala, E

    1994-01-01

    Locomotive drivers in the steam engine era were exposed to asbestos during their vocational training for two years while training in workshops. Later in their career they had exposure to coal and diesel combustion products. To assess the level of earlier exposure historical working conditions were reconstructed and hygienic conditions were measured. The average exposure to asbestos (mainly anthophylline) fibres > 5 microns was 5.0 fibres/cm3. Incidence of cancer in a cohort of 8391 members of the Finnish Locomotive Drivers' Association, 1953-91, was analysed. The incidence of lung cancer and also total cancer was below the national average, probably due to the low prevalence of smoking among the drivers in the steam engine era. A four-fold risk of mesothelioma was found, most likely caused by exposure to asbestos. Also the observed 1.5-fold incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and 1.7-fold risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx may be related to occupation. PMID:8199683

  10. Past exposure to asbestos and combustion products and incidence of cancer among Finnish locomotive drivers.

    PubMed

    Nokso-Koivisto, P; Pukkala, E

    1994-05-01

    Locomotive drivers in the steam engine era were exposed to asbestos during their vocational training for two years while training in workshops. Later in their career they had exposure to coal and diesel combustion products. To assess the level of earlier exposure historical working conditions were reconstructed and hygienic conditions were measured. The average exposure to asbestos (mainly anthophylline) fibres > 5 microns was 5.0 fibres/cm3. Incidence of cancer in a cohort of 8391 members of the Finnish Locomotive Drivers' Association, 1953-91, was analysed. The incidence of lung cancer and also total cancer was below the national average, probably due to the low prevalence of smoking among the drivers in the steam engine era. A four-fold risk of mesothelioma was found, most likely caused by exposure to asbestos. Also the observed 1.5-fold incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and 1.7-fold risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx may be related to occupation.

  11. Liquid-phase sample preparation method for real-time monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers by dual-mode high-throughput microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myoung-Ock; Kim, Jung Kyung; Han, Hwataik; Lee, Jeonghoon

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos that had been used widely as a construction material is a first-level carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organization. It can be accumulated in body by inhalation causing virulent respiratory diseases including lung cancer. In our previous study, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) system that can minimize human intervention accompanied by the conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) through automated counting of fibrous materials and thus significantly reduce analysis time and labor. Also, we attempted selective detection of chrysotile using DksA protein extracted from Escherichia coli through a recombinant protein production technique, and developed a dual-mode HTM (DM-HTM) by upgrading the HTM device. We demonstrated that fluorescently-labeled chrysotile asbestos fibers can be identified and enumerated automatically among other types of asbestos fibers or non-asbestos particles in a high-throughput manner through a newly modified HTM system for both reflection and fluorescence imaging. However there is a limitation to apply DM-HTM to airborne sample with current air collecting method due to the difficulty of applying the protein to dried asbestos sample. Here, we developed a technique for preparing liquid-phase asbestos sample using an impinger normally used to collect odor molecules in the air. It would be possible to improve the feasibility of the dual-mode HTM by integrating a sample preparation unit for making collected asbestos sample dispersed in a solution. The new technique developed for highly sensitive and automated asbestos detection can be a potential alternative to the conventional manual counting method, and it may be applied on site as a fast and reliable environmental monitoring tool.

  12. Alteration of cytoskeletal molecules in a human T cell line caused by continuous exposure to chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Megumi; Chen, Ying; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Hiratsuka, Jun-Ichi; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Otsuki, Takemi

    2013-09-01

    Among the various biological effects of asbestos such as fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis, we have been focusing on the immunological effects becausesilica (SiO(2)) and asbestos chemically is a mineral silicate of silica. Observations of the effects of asbestos on CD4+ T cells showed reduction of CXCR3 chemokine receptor and reduced capacity of interferon γ production. In particular, use of theHTLV-1 immortalized human T cell line, MT-2, and cDNA array analysis have helped to identify the modification of CXCR3. We investigated alteration of protein expression among MT-2 original cells that had no contact with asbestos, and six chrysotile-continuously exposed independent sublines using ProteinChip and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) assays. Further confirmation of the changes in protein expression due to asbestos exposure was obtained after the 2DGE method indicated protein modification of β-actin. β-actin was upregulated in mRNA, as were the levels of protein expression and phosphorylation. Moreover, a binding assay between cells and chrysotile showed that various molecules related to the cytoskeleton such as vimentin, myosin-9 and tubulin-β2, as well as β-actin, exhibited enhanced bindings in asbestos-exposed cells. The overall findings indicate that the cell surface cytoskeleton may play an important role in inducing the cellular changes caused by asbestos in immune cells, since fibers are not incorporated to the cells and how the alterations of cytoskeleton determined cell destiny to cause the reduction of tumor immunity is important to consider the biological effects of asbestos. Further studies to target several cytoskeleton-related molecules associated with the effects of asbestos will result in a better understanding of the immunological effects of asbestos and support the development of chemo-prevention to recover anti-tumor immunity in asbestos-exposed patients.

  13. Mortality rates in a female cohort following asbestos exposure in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rösler, J A; Woitowitz, H J; Lange, H J; Woitowitz, R H; Ulm, K; Rödelsperger, K

    1994-08-01

    A cohort study was conducted of 616 German female workers with a history of exposure to asbestos. Standardized proportionate mortality analysis was done except for mesothelioma, for which proportionate mortality was computed based on best evident cause of death. Mortality from lung cancer was increased three times over expected value. Death rates due to mesothelioma were 340 times higher than in the general population. Female mortality rates surpassed those observed in men twofold for lung cancer and fourfold for mesothelioma. In comparison with published data from international cohort studies, the observed mortality for mesothelioma in our female cohort appeared higher than that previously reported. German women with a history of asbestos exposure are considered a high-risk group for developing mesothelioma and lung cancer. They should be a target group for intervention strategies (eg, chemoprevention, smoking cessation, early cancer detection).

  14. [Environmental and indoor air exposure to asbestos fiber dust as a risk and causal factor of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Rödelsperger, K; Pohlabeln, H; Woitowitz, H J

    1996-11-01

    In an interdisciplinary, multicentre case control study of the causal factors of the diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) standardised histories where taken from n = 324 Patients suffering from DMM, n = 315 hospital control patients (KK) and n = 182 population controls (PK). For 66 DMM, 149 KK and 107 PK a risk from asbestos fibre dust at the workplace was not detectable. For latter persons indoor and outdoor asbestos exposure outside of the workplace were investigated. The following factors were examined: neighbourhood exposure from companies using asbestos, living in big cities and nearby main traffic roads, building materials containing asbestos, electric storage heaters and household contacts. For using electric storage heaters a statistically significant increased odds ratio (OR) was observed for DMM as well in comparison with KK (OR = 2.42; 95%-CI: 1.01-5.72) and in comparison for PK (OR = 2.91; 95%-CI: 1.08-7.80). Only outside of Hamburg an increased OR compared to KK was observed for people living in the neighbourhood of asbestos factories (OR = 16.3; 95%-CI: 1.35-196.8) and also, but only in Hamburg, compared to PK living nearby main traffic roads. There is only a trend for a mesothelioma-risk for household-contacts based on a few cases. In one DMM-patient without an occupational asbestos exposure the lung dust fibre analysis yielded 2.912 FB and 1.459 x 10(3) crocydolithe fibres per gram dried lung tissue. As a child he lived in the immediate vicinity of the blue asbestos mine in Wittenoom, Australia. Therefore in special cases a para-occupational asbestos or a neighbourhood asbestos exposure can be demonstrated as a risk factor of diffuse malignant mesothelioma.

  15. Asbestos exposure: Legislation, liability, and litigation. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning asbestos exposure resulting in legislation and lawsuits. Personal and corporate litigation cases are cited. Economic problems arising from lawsuits are presented. Monitoring for the determination of standards for legislation is also covered. Recent changes in Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Asbestos exposure from the overhaul of a Pratt & Whitney R2800 engine.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the asbestos exposures of airplane piston engine mechanics while performing overhaul work on a Pratt & Whitney R2800 radial engine, with tools and practices in use since the time these engines were manufactured. Approximately 40% of the bulk samples collected during this test were found to contain chrysotile. Air samples were collected during the overhaul and were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average worker exposure during disassembly was 0.0272f/ml (PCM) and ranged from 0.0013 to 0.1240f/ml (PCM) during an average sample collection time of 188min. The average worker exposure during reassembly was 0.0198f/ml (PCM) and ranged from 0.0055 to 0.0913f/ml (PCM) during an average sample collection time of 222min. Only one worker sample (during reassembly) was found to contain asbestos at a concentration of 0.0012f/ml (PCME). Similar results should be found in other aircraft piston engines that use metal clad and non-friable asbestos gaskets, which are the current standard in aircraft piston engines.

  17. Airborne asbestos fibers detection in microscope images using re-initialization free active contours.

    PubMed

    Theodosiou, Zenonas; Tsapatsoulis, Nicolas; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Breathing in asbestos fibers can lead to a number of diseases, the fibers become trapped in the lung and cannot be removed by either coughing or the person's immune system. Atmospheric concentrations of carcinogenic asbestos fibers, have traditionally been measured visually using phase contrast microscopy. However, because this measurement method requires great skill, and has poor reproducibility and objectivity, the development of automatic counting methods has been long anticipated. In this paper we proposed an automated fibers detection method based on a variational formulation of geometric active contours that forces the level set function to be close to signed distance function and therefore completely eliminates the need of the costly re-initialization procedure. The method was evaluated using a ground truth of 29 manually annotated images. The results were encouraging for the further development of the proposed method.

  18. A one-generation cluster of malignant mesothelioma within a family reveals exposure to asbestos-contaminated jute bags in Naples, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, V; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F; Efrati, C; Menegozzo, M

    2003-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports the role of asbestos in malignant mesothelioma. Clustering for this malignancy among relatives not only suggests genetic susceptibility as a relevant component but also provides a clue to investigate non-occupational sources of exposure. We identified five cases of malignant mesothelioma within one family with exposure to asbestos experienced during childhood, as 'next door' residents of a workshop recycling asbestos-contaminated jute sacks in Naples, Italy. This cluster discloses the health risk in the reuse of bags that previously had contained asbestos. Furthermore, it emphasizes the role of asbestos in the genetic-environmental interaction issue of malignant mesothelioma.

  19. An evaluation of short-term exposures of brake mechanics to asbestos during automotive and truck brake cleaning and machining activities.

    PubMed

    Richter, Richard O; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Williams, Pamela R D; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Historically, the greatest contributions to airborne asbestos concentrations during brake repair work were likely due to specific, short-duration, dust-generating activities. In this paper, the available short-term asbestos air sampling data for mechanics collected during the cleaning and machining of vehicle brakes are evaluated to determine their impact on both short-term and daily exposures. The high degree of variability and lack of transparency for most of the short-term samples limit their use in reconstructing past asbestos exposures for brake mechanics. However, the data are useful in evaluating how reducing short-term, dust-generating activities reduced long-term exposures, especially for auto brake mechanics. Using the short-term dose data for grinding brake linings from these same studies, in combination with existing time-weighted average (TWA) data collected in decades after grinding was commonplace in rebuilding brake shoes, an average 8-h TWA of approximately 0.10 f/cc was estimated for auto brake mechanics that performed arc grinding of linings during automobile brake repair (in the 1960s or earlier). In the 1970s and early 1980s, a decline in machining activities led to a decrease in the 8-h TWA to approximately 0.063 f/cc. Improved cleaning methods in the late 1980s further reduced the 8-h TWA for most brake mechanics to about 0.0021 f/cc. It is noteworthy that when compared with the original OSHA excursion level, only 15 of the more than 300 short-term concentrations for brake mechanics measured during the 1970s and 1980s possibly exceeded the standard. Considering exposure duration, none of the short-term exposures were above the current OSHA excursion level.

  20. Asbestos in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Schreier, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book consists of six chapters which cover asbestos types and health effects; asbestos properties, mineralogy, distribution, and analysis; asbestos in the aquatic environment; asbestos in the soil environment; asbestos and plant growth; and other environmental concerns. The book is useful and is recommended for those interested in asbestos in soil and water and in a general review of asbestos sources. The book is not recommended for those interested in asbestos sampling and analysis or in a critical review of human health effects resulting from asbestos exposure. 400 refs.

  1. Gastrointestinal cancer mortality of workers in occupations with high asbestos exposures.

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Burnett, C A; Freund, E; Walker, J; Lalich, N; Sestito, J

    1997-06-01

    Asbestos, which is a well-known risk factor for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma, has also been suggested as a gastrointestinal (GI) carcinogen. This study was conducted to assess the relationship between high asbestos exposure occupations and the occurrence of G1 cancer. Death certificate data were analyzed from 4,943,566 decedents with information on occupation and industry from 28 states from 1979 through 1990. Elevated proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for mesothelioma were used to identify occupations potentially having many workers exposed to asbestos. All PMRs were age-adjusted and sex- and race-specific. The PMRs for GI cancers in white males were then calculated for these occupations after excluding mesothelioma, lung cancer, and non-malignant respiratory disease from all deaths. We identified 15,524 cases of GI cancer in the 12 occupations with elevated PMRs for mesothelioma. When these occupations were combined, the PMRs for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer were significantly elevated at 108 (95% confidence interval = 107-110), 110 (106-113), and 109 (107-110), respectively. Esophageal cancer was elevated in sheet metal workers and mechanical workers. Gastric cancer was elevated in supervisors in production and managers. Colorectal cancer was elevated in mechanical and electrical and electronic engineers. However, high exposure occupations like insulation, construction painter supervisors, plumbers, furnace operators, and construction electricians showed no elevations of GI cancers. In conclusion, this death certificate study supports an association between asbestos exposure and some GI cancer, however the magnitude of this effect is very small.

  2. Cohort study of occupational asbestos-exposure related neoplasms in Texas Gulf Coast area

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeii, G.R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cohort study was conducted in Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area on individual workers who have been exposed to asbestos for 15 years or more. Most of these workers were employed in petrochemical industries. Of the 15,742 subjects initially selected for the cohort study, 3258 had positive chest x-ray findings believed to be related to prolonged asbestos exposure. These subjects were further investigated. Their work out included detailed medical and occupational history, laboratory tests and spirometry. One thousand eight-hundred and three cases with positive chest x-ray findings whose data files were considered complete at the end of May 1986 were analyzed and their findings included in this report. The prevalence of lung cancer and cancer of the following sights: skin, stomach, oropharyngeal, pancreas and kidneys were significantly increased when compared to data from Connecticut Tumor Registry. The prevalence of other chronic conditions such as hypertension, emphysema, heart disease and peptic ulcer was also significantly high when compared to data for the US and general population furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics. In most instances the occurrence of cancer and the chronic ailment previously mentioned appeared to follow 15-25 years of exposure to asbestos.

  3. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Straif, Kurt; Reina, Margarita; Al-Alem, Umaima; Demers, Paul A.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is sufficient evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and ovarian cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Data sources: Searches of PubMed and unpublished data yielded a total of 18 cohort studies of women occupationally exposed to asbestos. Data extraction: Two authors independently abstracted data; any disagreement was resolved by consulting a third reviewer. Data synthesis: All but one study reported standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing observed numbers of deaths with expected numbers for the general population; the exception was a study that reported standardized incidence ratios. For simplicity, we refer to all effect estimates as SMRs. The overall pooled SMR estimate for ovarian cancer was 1.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.37–2.28), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 35.3%, p = 0.061). Effect estimates were stronger for cohorts compensated for asbestosis, cohorts with estimated lung cancer SMRs > 2.0, and studies conducted in Europe compared with other geographic regions. Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without pathologic confirmation, and we found no evidence of publication bias (Egger’s test p-value = 0.162). Conclusions: Our study supports the IARC conclusion that exposure to asbestos is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:21642044

  4. Stomach cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: a meta-analysis of occupational cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, L; Rushton, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and stomach cancer. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Random effects models were used to summarise the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Results: We identified 40 mortality cohort studies from 37 separate papers, and cancer incidence data were extracted for 15 separate cohorts from 14 papers. The overall meta-SMR for stomach cancer for total cohort was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.27), with heterogeneous results across studies. Statistically significant excesses were observed in North America and Australia but not in Europe, and for generic asbestos workers and insulators. Meta-SMRs were larger for cohorts reporting a SMR for lung cancer above 2 and cohort sizes below 1000. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion by IARC that exposure to asbestos is associated with a moderate increased risk of stomach cancer. PMID:25928706

  5. Asbestos in buildings: what standards are needed

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, W.; Lieff, M.

    1985-06-01

    The reaction of school jurisdictions over the known hazards of airborne asbestos inhalation points out the need for better standards and inspection requirements. A National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) report emphasizes the need for standards in several areas, and a Canadian study concurred on the need for standards even though it found the risk from exposure to asbestos in buildings was not significant. The author notes other laboratory tests and efforts to develop a standard for friable asbestos containing materials and encapsulants for asbestos building materials when a hazard is identified. Consensus standards will provide uniform and coherent procedures for controlling the problem to replace the emotion, confusion, and unnecessary costs of the affected interests.

  6. The consequences of exposure to asbestos dust in a wartime gas-mask factory.

    PubMed

    Jones, J S; Smith, P G; Pooley, F D; Berry, G; Sawle, G W; Madeley, R J; Wignall, B K; Aggarwal, A

    1980-01-01

    This further study of wartime gas-mask workers who were exposed to asbestos dust has shown that among those who worked with crocidolite there is a considerable excess of cases of mesothelioma, a more modest excess of bronchial carcinoma, but no excess of any other type of malignant disease. A dose-response relationship is established in the mesothelioma and bronchial carcinoma patients. It is not possible to base any conclusions on the limited data available for the small number of people exposed to chrysotile for a maximum period of five months. We believe that the identification and measurement of fibres in autoptic lung tissue from patients with accurately known occupational histories of asbestos dust exposure is useful, and a similar study on a population exclusively exposed to chrysotile would be of considerable interest.

  7. An overview of the risk of lung cancer in relation to exposure to asbestos and of taconite miners.

    PubMed

    Berry, Geoffrey; Gibbs, Graham W

    2008-10-01

    Exposure-response relationships between the relative risk of lung cancer and quantitative measures of exposure to asbestos are available from a number of epidemiological studies. Meta-analyses of these relationships have been published by Lash et al. (1997) [Lash, T.L., Crouch, E.A.C., Green, L.C., 1997. A meta-analysis of the relation between cumulative exposure to asbestos and relative risk of lung cancer. Occup. Environ. Med. 54, 254-263] and Hodgson and Darnton (2000) [Hodgson, J.T., Darnton, A., 2000. The quantitative risks of mesothelioma and lung cancer in relation to asbestos exposure. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 44, 565-601]. In this paper, the risks derived in these meta-analyses have been compared. Lash et al., concentrated on process and found that the risk of lung cancer increased as the asbestos is refined by processing. Hodgson and Darnton concentrated on fibre type and found that the risk was highest for exposure to amphibole asbestos (crocidolite and amosite), lowest for chrysotile and intermediate for mixed exposure. Some of the differences between the conclusions from the two meta-analyses are a consequence of the choice of studies included. The range of asbestos types included in the studies in the analysis of Hodgson and Darnton was wider than that in Lash et al., enabling differences between fibre types to be analyzed more readily. There are situations where occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos has shown no detectable increase in risk of lung cancer. Taconite miners have shown no increased risk of mortality due to lung cancer.

  8. Radiographic abnormalities and exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite in the community of Libby, Montana, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Peipins, Lucy A; Lewin, Michael; Campolucci, Sharon; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Miller, Aubrey; Middleton, Dan; Weis, Christopher; Spence, Michael; Black, Brad; Kapil, Vikas

    2003-01-01

    Mining, handling, processing, and personal or commercial use of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite have led to widespread contamination of the Libby, Montana, area. We initiated a medical testing program in response to reports of respiratory illness in the community. The purpose of this analysis was to identify and quantify asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities among persons exposed to vermiculite in Libby and to examine associations between these outcomes and participants' self-reported exposures. A cross-sectional interview and medical testing were conducted in Libby from July through November 2000 and from July through September 2001. A total of 7,307 persons who had lived, worked, or played in Libby for at least 6 months before 31 December 1990 completed the interview. Of those, 6,668 participants > or = 18 years of age received chest radiographs to assess the prevalence of pleural and interstitial abnormalities. We observed pleural abnormalities in 17.8% of participants and interstitial abnormalities in < 1% of participants undergoing chest radiography. We examined 29 occupational, recreational, household, and other exposure pathways in the analysis. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities increased with increasing number of exposure pathways, ranging from 6.7% for those who reported no apparent exposures to 34.6% for those who reported > or = 12 pathways. The factors most strongly associated with pleural abnormalities were being a former W.R. Grace worker, being older, having been a household contact of a W.R. Grace worker, and being a male. In addition to being a former W.R. Grace worker, environmental exposures and other nonoccupational risk factors were also important predictors of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities. PMID:14594627

  9. Chronic effects of dietary exposure to amosite asbestos and tremolite in F344 rats.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, E E; Rutter, H A; Ulland, B M; Moore, J A

    1983-01-01

    Carcinogenesis bioassays of blocky (nonfibrous) tremolite and amosite asbestos alone or in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Fischer 344 rats. The minerals were administered at a concentration of 1% in pelleted diet for the entire lifetime of the rats starting with the dams of the test animals. One group of amosite rats also received chrysotile asbestos via gavage during lactation. Group sizes varied from 100 to 250 animals. The offspring from mothers exposed to tremolite or amosite asbestos were smaller at weaning than those from untreated mothers and remained smaller throughout their life. The administration of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) did not affect body weight gain, either in amosite-exposed or nonexposed animals. Survival was comparable in the tremolite and control groups. The amosite-exposed rats showed enhanced survival compared to the untreated controls. DMH exposure reduced survival by approximately one year, although the amosite plus DMH groups survived slightly better than the DMH alone groups. No toxicity or increase in neoplasia was observed in the tremolite-exposed rats compared to the controls. Significant increases (p less than 0.05) in the rates of C-cell carcinomas of the thyroid and monocytic (mononuclear cell) leukemia in male rats were observed in amosite-exposed groups. However, the biological significance of the C-cell carcinomas in relation to amosite asbestos exposure is discounted because of a lack of significance when C-cell adenomas and carcinomas were combined and the positive effect was not observed in the amosite plus preweaning gavage group. The biological significance of an increased incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia is questionable, because of a lack of statistical significance in the amosite group when evaluated using life table analysis, lack of significance when compared to the tremolite control group, and the fact that no toxic or

  10. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies.

  11. Assessment of Airborne Exposures and Health in Flooded Homes Undergoing Renovation

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Kimberly A.; Metwali, Nervana; Perry, Sarah Spencer; Hart, Tom; Kostle, Pamela A.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2008, the Cedar River crested flooding more than 5,000 Cedar Rapids homes. Residents whose homes were flooded were invited to participate in this study. Household assessments and resident interviews were conducted between November 2008 and April 2009. We characterized exposures and symptoms experienced by individuals inhabiting 73 flood-damaged homes. Active air sampling and passive electrostatic dust collectors were used to assess exposures to: culturable mold, culturable bacteria, fungal spores, inhalable particulate matter (iPM), endotoxin, glucans, allergens, lead, asbestos, radon, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Wall moisture levels and relative humidity were also measured. Exposures and questionnaire-based health assessments were compared at two levels of remediation, in-progress and completed. Homes with remediation in-progress (n=24), as compared to the completed homes (n=49), had significantly higher airborne concentrations of mold, bacteria, iPM, endotoxin and glucan. Residents of in-progress homes had a significantly higher prevalence of doctor diagnosed allergies (adjusted OR=3.08; 95%CI: 1.05–9.02) and all residents had elevated prevalence of self-reported wheeze (adjusted OR=3.77; 95%CI: 2.06–6.92) and prescription medication use for breathing problems (adjusted OR=1.38; 95%CI: 1.01–1.88) after the flood as compared to before. Proper post-flood remediation led to improved air quality and lower exposures among residents living in flooded homes. PMID:22519834

  12. The quantitative risks of mesothelioma and lung cancer in relation to asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J T; Darnton, A

    2000-12-01

    Mortality reports on asbestos exposed cohorts which gave information on exposure levels from which (as a minimum) a cohort average cumulative exposure could be estimated were reviewed. At exposure levels seen in occupational cohorts it is concluded that the exposure specific risk of mesothelioma from the three principal commercial asbestos types is broadly in the ratio 1:100:500 for chrysotile, amosite and crocidolite respectively. For lung cancer the conclusions are less clear cut. Cohorts exposed only to crocidolite or amosite record similar exposure specific risk levels (around 5% excess lung cancer per f/ml.yr); but chrysotile exposed cohorts show a less consistent picture, with a clear discrepancy between the mortality experience of a cohort of xhrysotile textile workers in Carolina and the Quebec miners cohort. Taking account of the excess risk recorded by cohorts with mixed fibre exposures (generally<1%), the Carolina experience looks uptypically high. It is suggested that a best estimate lung cancer risk for chrysotile alone would be 0.1%, with a highest reasonable estimate of 0.5%. The risk differential between chrysotile and the two amphibole fibres for lunc cancer is thus between 1:10 and 1:50. Examination of the inter-study dose response relationship for the amphibole fibres suggests a non-linear relationship for all three cancer endpoints (pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas, and lung cancer). The peritoneal mesothelioma risk is proportional to the square of cumulative exposure, lung cancer risk lies between a linear and square relationship and pleural mesothelioma seems to rise less than linearly with cumulative dose. Although these non-linear relationships provide a best fit ot the data, statistical and other uncertainties mean that a linear relationship remains arguable for pleural and lung tumours (but not or peritoneal tumours). Based on these considerations, and a discussion fo the associated uncertainties, a series of quantified risk summary

  13. Occupational asbestos exposure is associated with pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in men from the greater Boston area

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Scott M.; O’Sullivan, Mattie H.; Valerio, Jennifer L.; Pawlita, Michael; Applebaum, Katie M.; Eliot, Melissa; McClean, Michael D.; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Asbestos describes a group of naturally occurring silicate mineral fibers that were widely used in industry during the 20th century due to their desirable physical properties. Although use in the United States has fallen over the last three decades, significant exposure in the developing world continues and the burden of disease is considerable. Asbestos is a known risk factor for several malignant diseases, including lung cancer and mesothelioma, and has more recently been implicated in pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. However, studies of asbestos and cancers of the larynx or pharynx with adequate sample-size that control for major head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) risk factors remain relatively sparse. Methods We report findings from a case-control study of 674 incident male HNSCC cases from the greater Boston region and 857 population-based male controls, matched on age (+/− 3 years), sex, and town or neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational asbestos exposure and HNSCC by primary tumor site. Results A total of 190 cases (28.2%) and 203 controls (23.7%) reported an occupational exposure to asbestos. Occupational asbestos exposure was associated with an elevated risk of pharyngeal carcinoma in men (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01–1.97), adjusted for age, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, income, and HPV16 serology, with borderline increasing risk for each decade at the exposed occupation (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.99–1.23). Conclusion These observations are consistent with the mounting evidence that asbestos is a risk factor for pharyngeal cancer. PMID:24142981

  14. Continuous Exposure to Chrysotile Asbestos Can Cause Transformation of Human Mesothelial Cells via HMGB1 and TNF-α Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Fang; Okimoto, Gordon; Jube, Sandro; Napolitano, Andrea; Pass, Harvey I.; Laczko, Rozalia; DeMay, Richard M.; Khan, Ghazal; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Rinaudo, Caterina; Croce, Alessandro; Yang, Haining; Gaudino, Giovanni; Carbone, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Among asbestos fibers, crocidolite is considered the most and chrysotile the least oncogenic. Chrysotile accounts for more than 90% of the asbestos used worldwide, but its capacity to induce malignant mesothelioma is still debated. We found that chrysotile and crocidolite exposures have similar effects on human mesothelial cells. Morphological and molecular alterations suggestive of epithelial–mesenchymal transition, such as E-cadherin down-regulation and β-catenin phosphorylation followed by nuclear translocation, were induced by both chrysotile and crocidolite. Gene expression profiling revealed high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) as a key regulator of the transcriptional alterations induced by both types of asbestos. Crocidolite and chrysotile induced differential expression of 438 out of 28,869 genes interrogated by oligonucleotide microarrays. Out of these 438 genes, 57 were associated with inflammatory and immune response and cancer, and 14 were HMGB1 targeted genes. Crocidolite-induced gene alterations were sustained, whereas chrysotile-induced gene alterations returned to background levels within 5 weeks. Similarly, HMGB1 release in vivo progressively increased for 10 or more weeks after crocidolite exposure, but returned to background levels within 8 weeks after chrysotile exposure. Continuous administration of chrysotile was required for sustained high serum levels of HMGB1. These data support the hypothesis that differences in biopersistence influence the biological activities of these two asbestos fibers. PMID:24160326

  15. Continuous exposure to chrysotile asbestos can cause transformation of human mesothelial cells via HMGB1 and TNF-α signaling.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fang; Okimoto, Gordon; Jube, Sandro; Napolitano, Andrea; Pass, Harvey I; Laczko, Rozalia; Demay, Richard M; Khan, Ghazal; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Rinaudo, Caterina; Croce, Alessandro; Yang, Haining; Gaudino, Giovanni; Carbone, Michele

    2013-11-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Among asbestos fibers, crocidolite is considered the most and chrysotile the least oncogenic. Chrysotile accounts for more than 90% of the asbestos used worldwide, but its capacity to induce malignant mesothelioma is still debated. We found that chrysotile and crocidolite exposures have similar effects on human mesothelial cells. Morphological and molecular alterations suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, such as E-cadherin down-regulation and β-catenin phosphorylation followed by nuclear translocation, were induced by both chrysotile and crocidolite. Gene expression profiling revealed high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) as a key regulator of the transcriptional alterations induced by both types of asbestos. Crocidolite and chrysotile induced differential expression of 438 out of 28,869 genes interrogated by oligonucleotide microarrays. Out of these 438 genes, 57 were associated with inflammatory and immune response and cancer, and 14 were HMGB1 targeted genes. Crocidolite-induced gene alterations were sustained, whereas chrysotile-induced gene alterations returned to background levels within 5 weeks. Similarly, HMGB1 release in vivo progressively increased for 10 or more weeks after crocidolite exposure, but returned to background levels within 8 weeks after chrysotile exposure. Continuous administration of chrysotile was required for sustained high serum levels of HMGB1. These data support the hypothesis that differences in biopersistence influence the biological activities of these two asbestos fibers.

  16. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates

    PubMed Central

    Roggli, Victor L.; Boelter, Fred W.; Rasmuson, Eric J.; Redinger, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Context A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. Objective (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. Methods A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff’s answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff’s discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Results Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed

  17. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  18. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  19. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  20. Psychosocial Health Status of Persons Seeking Treatment for Exposure to Libby Amphibole Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Clarann; Hill, Wade G.; Winters, Charlene A.; Kuntz, Sandra W.; Rowse, Kimberly; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, Brad; Cudney, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted to describe the psychosocial health status of persons seeking health care for exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Health indicators including depression, stress, acceptance of illness, and satisfaction with access and financial aspects of care were obtained via electronic and paper-pencil survey. The exposure pathway and demographic data were gleaned from the health record. Of the 386 participants, more than one-third (34.5%) demonstrated significant levels of psychological distress. The oldest group of women had the lowest levels of depression and stress and the highest acceptance of illness. Gender, age, and satisfaction with financial resources were significantly related to depression, stress, and acceptance of illness. Satisfaction with access to care was significant only for stress. No differences in depression, stress, and acceptance of illness were found based on residence, exposure pathway, or insurance status. PMID:22007326

  1. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  2. Asbestos exposure and psychic injury--a review of 48 claims.

    PubMed

    Perr, I N

    1992-01-01

    Asbestos exposure has been a common occupational risk resulting in much litigation. Where pulmonary dysfunction has been minimal or even absent, psychic injury has been made an element in claimed damages. Analysis of psychiatric and psychologic claims in 48 cases reveals that diagnoses often do not conform to professional standards, are based on insufficient data sampling, lack adequate overall history as well as medical history, and do not comport with the standard of probability usually required for litigation. The group studied was elderly (mean age--62.6), mostly retired (71%), with some significant medical illnesses (18% on medical retirement). None were retired for pulmonary reasons. As expected, conflict in opinion between the opposing professional medical participants was frequent. Commonly the patients did not substantiate the complaints reported in the medico-legal reports; some ridiculed statements made on their behalf. Many psychological reports reflected simplistic or erroneous concepts of medicine or ignored relevant medical data. This study indicates that in this group claims of psychic injury due to asbestos exposure have little justification and supports the view that the current system of utilization of expert opinions is not reliable or in conformity with reasonable professional standards. Correspondingly, these claims did not result in augmented awards.

  3. p53, p21 and metallothionein immunoreactivities in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma: correlations with the epidemiological features and prognosis of mesotheliomas with environmental asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Isik, R; Metintas, M; Gibbs, A R; Metintas, S; Jasani, B; Oner, U; Harmanci, E; Demircan, S; Işiksoy, S

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate immunoreactivity for p53, p21 and metallothionein in diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma (DMPM) and to determine the relationships between the age, sex, asbestos exposure time, survival of DMPM patients with environmental asbestos exposure and immunoreactivity to p53, p21 and metallothionein. Sixty-seven histopathologically-confirmed DMPMs, 38 of whom had environmental and 29 had occupational asbestos exposure, were included. The tumour tissue samples were immunostained with antibodies against p53, p21 and metallothionein. Epidemiological data and the survival times for the DMPM patients with environmental asbestos exposures were obtained from hospital records. Thirty-three per cent of the DMPMs were positive for p53, 35% for p21 and 52% for metallothionein. There was no statistical difference between the histological subtypes of DMPM in terms of immunoreactivity for p53, p21 and metallothionein. For p21 and metallothionein there was a statistically significant difference between the exposure characteristics: patients with environmental asbestos exposure had shown more immunopositivity. There were statistically significant differences between age groups and between asbestos exposure times for metallothionein, and between asbestos exposure times and p21. The patients with positive immunostaining had longer exposure times and were older than those having negative immunostaining. The differences between survival of the patients were not statistically significant in terms of the immunohistochemical results for p53, p21 and metallothionein.

  4. Effects on health of non-occupational exposure to airborne mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M J; Saracci, R

    1989-01-01

    The most prominent potential marker of disease-related non-occupational exposure to mineral fibres is mesothelioma. Although many cases of mesothelioma have resulted from occupational exposure to asbestos, some have been associated with para-occupational domestic and/or neighbourhood exposure and have been reported in case series, case-control studies and a cohort study among non-occupationally exposed subjects. However, little information is available on mesothelioma as a direct consequence of general environmental asbestos exposure. Such cases of mesothelioma related to non-occupational exposure to asbestos as have occurred to date are likely to have resulted from past exposures much higher than those prevailing at the present time (in the developed countries); numbers will therefore probably decrease in the future. Very high rates of mesothelioma have been reported as a result of exposure to erionite. No studies are available on the effects of non-occupational exposure to man-made mineral fibres but, among occupationally exposed workers, a risk of mesothelioma is not apparent. There are suggestions of raised lung cancer rates among household contacts of asbestos workers and among individuals exposed to erionite. Non-malignant parenchymal and pleural abnormalities have been observed in subjects exposed non-occupationally to asbestos and erionite, but these are not necessarily associated with malignant lesions. Quantitative risk estimates of adverse effects on health have not been derived from these studies, essentially because of the absence of fibre exposure measurements.

  5. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well.

  6. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  7. Enhancement of regulatory T cell-like suppressive function in MT-2 by long-term and low-dose exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chen; Maeda, Megumi; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Yoshitome, Kei; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-12-01

    Asbestos exposure causes lung fibrosis and various malignant tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. The effects of asbestos on immune cells have not been thoroughly investigated, although our previous reports showed that asbestos exposure reduced anti-tumor immunity. The effects of continuous exposure of regulatory T cells (Treg) to asbestos were examined using the HTLV-1 immortalized human T cell line MT-2, which possesses a suppressive function and expresses the Treg marker protein, Foxp3. Sublines were generated by the continuous exposure to low doses of asbestos fibers for more than one year. The sublines exposed to asbestos showed enhanced suppressive Treg function via cell-cell contact, and increased production of soluble factors such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. These results also indicated that asbestos exposure induced the reduction of anti-tumor immunity, and efforts to develop substances to reverse this reduction may be helpful in preventing the occurrence of asbestos-induced tumors.

  8. Assessing human exposure to airborne pollutants: Advances and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J. )

    1991-08-01

    A committee which was convened by the National Research Council, recently completed an analysis of new methods and technologies for assessing exposure to air pollutants. The committee identified three major ways of determining human exposure to airborne pollutants. Monitoring the air around an individual with a portable personal air sampler is, of course, the most comprehensive and most accurate. It is also the costliest and most time consuming. The second method is more indirect and involves techniques such as measuring the amount of a contaminant with a stationary monitor and extrapolating exposure by means of personal activity records or mathematical models. Exposure to carbon monoxide inside a car, for example, might be roughly calculated from the amount of time spent in the car and the quantity of carbon monoxide in the car under typical operating conditions. The third method involves biological markers as a measure of the integrated dose within the body and of past contact with pollutants. For example, a marker for airborne lead exposure can be elevated lead levels in the blood. However, this must be weighed against contributions from other media. A final and major point made in the report is the need to have accurate and realistic assessments to ensure optimal reduction of human exposure. To accomplish this, exposure assessment research should be supported by government programs. Although not stated, such research should also be supported by other sectors, including the regulated community.

  9. Asbestos related diseases from environmental exposure to crocidolite in Da-yao, China. I. Review of exposure and epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, S; Liu, X; Mu, S; Tsai, S; Wen, C; Wong, O.

    2003-01-01

    one of five cancer deaths (22%) was from mesothelioma. The ratio of lung cancer to mesothelioma deaths was low for all three studies (1.3, 3.0, and 1.2, respectively). Conclusions: The observation of numerous mesothelioma cases at Da-yao was a unique finding, due mainly to their lifetime exposure to crocidolite asbestos. The finding of cases dying at a younger age and the relatively high ratio of mesothelioma cases to lung cancer could also be another unique result of lifetime environmental exposure to crocidolite asbestos. Although the commercial use of crocidolite has been officially banned since 1984, the incidence of mesothelioma has continued to show a steady increase, particularly among peasants. Since the latency of mesothelioma is approximately 30–40 years, the ban had little effect in the 1990s. The increased awareness and changes in diagnosis over time may also contribute to the increase. Furthermore, exposure to asbestos stoves and walls continued. The government implemented reduction of these exposures. However, from a public health standpoint, the most important issue is the complete avoidance of further exposure to asbestos. PMID:12499455

  10. [Occupational exposure to asbestos and recognition of pleural mesothelioma as occupational disease in the province of Genoa].

    PubMed

    Montanaro, F; Vitto, V; Lagattolla, N; Lazzarotto, A; Bianchelli, M; Puntoni, R; Gennaro, V

    2001-01-01

    The present study compares the data of pleural mesothelioma (PM) patients resident in the province of Genoa (Italy) who, in the period 1994-1996, applied to the Italian National Insurance Institute for Work Accident (INAIL), for workers' compensation for asbestos-related diseases due to occupational exposure, with the dataset of PM patients collected by the Mesothelioma Registry of Liguria (REM) in the same period and in the same area. As PM is a malignant tumor of a prevalently occupational origin, it is recognized and acknowledged as such by INAIL when clinical and etiological characteristics are matched. Objectives of this study were to describe observed PM cases, to evaluate completeness of collected data and differences between those who requested compensation and those who did not. The REM describes the incidence of PM among Ligurian residents, proposing patients with a specific questionnaire to assess occupational, environmental and indoor asbestos exposures. The REM collected 199 new cases of PM among the residents of both the city of Genoa (1994-96) and the province of Genoa (1995-96). In the same period, INAIL received 48 (24%) applications for compensation. Among these, 43 subjects were included in a subgroup of 98 patients registered in the REM as cases with definite diagnosis and ascertained asbestos exposure; 32 were awarded compensation, while 11 are under evaluation. The data collected by REM do not show proven asbestos exposure and/or PM diagnosis for five other subjects (two compensated and three under judgment). This study reveals that: a) only a 24% of the patients with a diagnosis of PM and asbestos exposure apply for compensation; b) an exchange of information among institutions involved in primary prevention, in the evaluation of occupational exposures to carcinogens and in insurance compensation is useful.

  11. Impact of an asbestos cement factory on mesothelioma incidence: global assessment of effects of occupational, familial, and environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Mensi, Carolina; Riboldi, Luciano; De Matteis, Sara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Consonni, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) associated with distinct sources of asbestos exposure (occupational, familial, or environmental). We assessed the impact of asbestos exposure-global and by source-on the incidence of MM in Broni, an Italian town in which an asbestos cement factory once operated (1932-1993). Based on data collected by the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, we calculated the number of observed and expected MM cases among workers, their cohabitants, and people living in the area in 2000-2011. We identified 147 MM cases (17.45 expected), 138 pleural and nine peritoneal, attributable to exposure to asbestos from the factory. Thirty-eight cases had past occupational exposure at the factory (2.33 expected), numbering 32 men (26 pleural, six peritoneal) and six women (four pleural, two peritoneal). In the families of the workers, there were 37 MM cases (4.23 expected), numbering five men (all pleural) and 32 women (31 pleural, one peritoneal). Among residents in Broni or in the adjacent/surrounding towns, there were 72 cases of pleural MM (10.89 expected), numbering 23 men and 49 women. The largest MM excess was found in the towns of Broni (48 observed, 3.68 expected) and Stradella (16 observed, 1.85 expected). This study documents the large impact of the asbestos cement factory, with about 130 excess MM cases in a 12-year period. The largest MM burden was among women, from non-occupational exposure. Almost half of the MM cases were attributable to environmental exposure.

  12. Coalescent pleural malignant mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma of the lung, involving only minor asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Ninomiya, Hironori; Natori, Yuji; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2008-07-01

    Coexistence of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and pleural malignant mesothelioma is extremely rare, although both are asbestos-related. Herein is presented a rare case of coalescent lung tumor made up of a malignant mesothelioma and a pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a 62-year-old Japanese man, a high-school teacher with only minor asbestos exposure. Preoperative diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was made on transbronchial biopsy. At surgery, multiple small white nodules were observed on the parietal pleural surface, opposite to the lung tumor. They were confirmed to be malignant mesothelioma on histopathology of paraffin section. The pulmonary tumor mass itself consisted of two distinct portions. The major part contained papillary proliferation of hobnail and columnar cells. Peripherally, neoplastic cells grew in a lepidic fashion and micropapillary growth was also detected. The other component featured tubular structures. The former was positive for adenocarcinoma markers such as CEA, Ber-EP4, PE-10, thyroid transcription factor-1 and Napsin A, and negative for mesothelial markers including calretinin, D2-40, WT-1 and HBME, while the latter was the opposite, resulting in a diagnosis of coalescing malignant mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. The panel of antibodies used for immunohistochemistry was useful to distinguish the two different components in the one tumor.

  13. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Peters, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary, central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual’s exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-hour monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  14. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  15. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  16. Summary of retrospective asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates for a nuclear naval shipyard and their correlation with radiation exposure estimates.

    PubMed

    Zaebst, D D; Seel, E A; Yiin, J H; Nowlin, S J; Chen, P

    2009-07-01

    In support of a nested case-control study at a U.S. naval shipyard, the results of the reconstruction of historical exposures were summarized, and an analysis was undertaken to determine the impact of historical exposures to potential chemical confounders. The nested case-control study (N = 4388) primarily assessed the relationship between lung cancer and external ionizing radiation. Chemical confounders considered important were asbestos and welding fume (as iron oxide fume), and the chromium and nickel content of welding fume. Exposures to the potential confounders were estimated by an expert panel based on a set of quantitatively defined categories of exposure. Distributions of the estimated exposures and trends in exposures over time were examined for the study population. Scatter plots and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to assess the degree of association between the estimates of exposure to asbestos, welding fume, and ionizing radiation. Correlation coefficients were calculated separately for 0-, 15-, 20-, and 25-year time-lagged cumulative exposures, total radiation dose (which included medical X-ray dose) and occupational radiation dose. Exposed workers' estimated cumulative exposures to asbestos ranged from 0.01 fiber-days/cm(3) to just under 20,000 fiber-days/cm(3), with a median of 29.0 fiber-days/cm(3). Estimated cumulative exposures to welding fume ranged from 0.16 mg-days/m(3) to just over 30,000 mg-days/m(3), with a median of 603 mg-days/m(3). Spearman correlation coefficients between cumulative radiation dose and cumulative asbestos exposures ranged from 0.09 (occupational dose) to 0.47 (total radiation dose), and those between radiation and welding fume from 0.14 to 0.47. The estimates of relative risk for ionizing radiation and lung cancer were unchanged when lowest and highest estimates of asbestos and welding fume were considered. These results suggest a fairly large proportion of study population workers were exposed to

  17. The risk of lung cancer from asbestos among Swedish construction workers: self-reported exposure and a job exposure matrix compared.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, A C; Engholm, G; Englund, A

    1993-01-01

    A total of 719 lung cancers were identified in a follow-up of 135,000 Swedish construction workers interviewed during 1971-1974 by occupational health nurses as part of a routine health check-up. These were analysed in a matched case-control study nested within this cohort, to compare different methods of characterizing exposure to asbestos. Self-reported exposure was contrasted with a job exposure matrix (JEM) of five levels of exposure intensity, applied to the job at the time of health check-up. Smoking adjusted odds ratios were computed and the JEM performed better than self-reported exposure, in being able to discriminate high risk subgroups. The same pattern was evident in a parallel analysis of 41 mesotheliomas. However both measures appeared subject to misclassification, and the question put seemed to pick up the use of asbestos cement products more effectively than asbestos insulation products. It is concluded that a simple JEM can be more reliable than a simple question, but that both should be much more detailed, to take account of different types of asbestos exposure and their variation over time.

  18. Effect of asbestos exposure on differentiation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mixed lymphocyte reaction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Maeda, Megumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2013-07-01

    Asbestos fibers are associated with tumorigenicity, and are thought to cause mesothelioma. However, their effect on immune response remains unclear. We examined the effect of asbestos exposure on differentiation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon exposure to chrysotile B (CB) or crocidolite (CR) asbestos at 5 μg/ml for 7 days. Exposure to CB during MLR suppressed increases in the percentage and number of CD8⁺ T cells in response to allogenic cells. The cytotoxicity for allogenic targets decreased in PBMCs exposed to CB, but not CR, when compared with PBMCs without any exposure during MLR. Exposure to CB during MLR resulted in suppression of increases in granzyme B⁺ cells and IFN-γ⁺ cells. CB exposure also resulted in suppression of increases in CD45RO⁺ effector/memory cells and CD25⁺-activated cells in CD8⁺ lymphocytes, and a decrease in CD45RA⁺ cells. CB exposure suppressed the proliferation of CD8⁺ lymphocytes without an increase in annexin V⁺ apoptotic cells in CD8⁺ lymphocytes. Moreover, the production of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, but not IL-2, decreased in the presence of CB. These results suggest that exposure to asbestos potentially suppresses the differentiation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte, accompanied by decreases in IFN-γ and TNF-α.

  19. Persistent increases in inflammatory cytokines, Akt, and MAPK/ERK pathways after inhalation exposure of rats to Libby amphibole (LA) or amosite: comparison to effects after intratracheal exposure to LA or naturally occurring asbestos.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to LA and other mined or processed asbestos increases risk of lung inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Health risks from exposure to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are not as well-understood. Mechanisms of long-term toxicity were compared in male F344 rats expo...

  20. Asbestos-related malignancy.

    PubMed

    Talcott, J A; Antman, K H

    1988-01-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. A description of the processes through which compensation claims for asbestos-associated malignancies are evaluated illustrates for physicians the legal system's approach to possible injury from toxic substances. The differences between scientific and legal reasoning about the causes of diseases with long latency

  1. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  2. Different measures of asbestos exposure in estimating risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Kari; Pukkala, Eero; Martikainen, Rami; Reijula, Kari; Karjalainen, Antti

    2002-12-01

    To analyze occupation, expert-evaluated cumulative exposure, and radiographic abnormalities as indicators of asbestos-related cancer risk we followed 16,696 male construction workers for cancer in 1990-2000. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) in comparison to the Finnish population and relative risks (RR) in a multivariate analysis in comparison to the internal low-exposure category of each indicator. Overall, the risk was increased for mesothelioma (SIR 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0-3.3), but not for lung cancer (SIR 1.1, 95% CI = 0.9-1.2). Radiographic lung fibrosis indicated a 2-fold and a high value of the exposure index a 3-fold RR of lung cancer, while there was no risk among those with pleural plaques. The risk of lung cancer was the highest in insulators (RR 3.7, 95% CI = 1.4-9.9). Occupation, expert-evaluated cumulative exposure, and lung fibrosis are useful indicators of lung cancer risk among construction workers.

  3. Exposure to airborne allergens: a review of sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Renström, Anne

    2002-10-01

    A number of methods are used to assess exposure to high-molecular weight allergens. In the occupational setting, airborne dust is often collected on filters using pumps, the filters are eluted and allergen content in the eluate analysed using immunoassays. Collecting inhalable dust using person-carried pumps may be considered the gold standard. Other allergen sampling methods are available. Recently, a method that collects nasally inhaled dust on adhesive surfaces within nasal samplers has been developed. Allergen content can be analysed in eluates using sensitive enzyme immunoassays, or allergen-bearing particles can be immunostained using antibodies, and studied under the microscope. Settling airborne dust can be collected in petri dishes, a cheap and simple method that has been utilised in large-scale exposure studies. Collection of reservoir dust from surfaces using vacuum cleaners with a dust collector is commonly used to measure pet or mite allergens in homes. The sampling methods differ in properties and relevance to personal allergen exposure. Since methods for all steps from sampling to analysis differ between laboratories, determining occupational exposure limits for protein allergens is today unfeasible. A general standardisation of methods is needed.

  4. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment.

  5. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment. PMID:27220109

  6. [Malignant mesothelioma and asbestos].

    PubMed

    Rüttner, J R

    1983-03-12

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare neoplasm of rapidly lethal course arising primarily in the pleura and less often in the peritoneum. In the majority of cases the disease is closely related to occupational exposure to asbestos. The latency period, calculated from the first contact with asbestos to the appearance of mesothelioma, is generally in the order of 20 years or more irrespective of the duration of exposure. A causal relationship can be established with certainty only by a careful history and positive tissue analysis for the presence of asbestos. The author's own series of 48 pleural mesotheliomas comprises 39 cases involving occupational exposure to asbestos, 6 others with asbestos demonstrable in pulmonary tissue but no discernible source in the history, and 3 where no relation to asbestos could be established at all. Although a dose-response relation may be assumed for asbestos as for all other carcinogens, the lack of data on asbestos dust concentrations at former places of work rendered determination of the minimal noxious dose difficult or impossible. It also remains unclear whether the various asbestos types, such as chrysotile and amphiboles, differ in pathogenic effect. It is hoped that careful registration and continuing study of mesotheliomas will shed further light on their relationship to asbestos and on the possible hazards of the mineral to the general population.

  7. Occupational exposure to asbestos and man‐made vitreous fibres and risk of lung cancer: a multicentre case‐control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Carel, Rafael; Olsson, Ann C; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia‐Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Mannetje, Andrea ‘t; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of occupational exposure to asbestos and man‐made vitreous fibres (MMVF) to lung cancer in high‐risk populations in Europe. Methods A multicentre case‐control study was conducted in six Central and Eastern European countries and the UK, during the period 1998–2002. Comprehensive occupational and sociodemographic information was collected from 2205 newly diagnosed male lung cancer cases and 2305 frequency matched controls. Odds ratios (OR) of lung cancer were calculated after adjusting for other relevant occupational exposures and tobacco smoking. Results The OR for asbestos exposure was 0.92 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.15) in Central and Eastern Europe and 1.85 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.21) in the UK. Similar ORs were found for exposure to amphibole asbestos. The OR for MMVF exposure was 1.23 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.71) with no evidence of heterogeneity by country. No synergistic effect either between asbestos and MMVF or between any of them and smoking was found. Conclusion In this large community‐based study occupational exposure to asbestos and MMVF does not appear to contribute to the lung cancer burden in men in Central and Eastern Europe. In contrast, in the UK the authors found an increased risk of lung cancer following exposure to asbestos. Differences in fibre type and circumstances of exposure may explain these results. PMID:17053017

  8. Chronic inhalation of short asbestos: lung fiber burdens and histopathology for monkeys maintained for 11.5 years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Lloyd E; Sharpnack, Douglas D; Krieg, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    In an earlier report, Platek et al. (1985) presented the results of an 18-month inhalation exposure of rats and monkeys to short chrysotile asbestos. The mean chamber exposure level was 1.0 mg/m(3) with an average of 0.79 fibers/ml > 5 microm in length. Gross and histopathological examination of exposed and control rats indicated no treatment-related lesions. Asbestos bodies adjacent to the terminal bronchioles, but no fibrosis, were found in lung biopsy tissue taken from the exposed monkeys at 10 months post-exposure. Fifteen monkeys (9 exposed and 6 controls) from this study were maintained for 11.5 years following exposure. Lung fiber burdens were determined by transmission electron microscopy. The mean lung burden (+/- standard deviation) for 59 samples from exposed monkeys was 63 +/- 30 x 10(6) fibers/g dry lung (range, 18-139 x 10(6)). The geometric mean fiber length was 3.5 microm with 35% of the fibers being > 5 microm in length. These data indicate some chrysotile fibers are durable in vivo for a significant period of time. Lungs were examined grossly and microscopically. No lesions attributable to the inhalation exposure were noted. Asbestos bodies were seen in the lungs of treated monkeys, primarily in the interstitium near bronchioles or small pulmonary blood vessels (which also may have been near to bronchioles just out of the plane of section).

  9. Occupational exposure to asbestos as evaluated from work histories and analysis of lung tissues from patients with mesothelioma.

    PubMed Central

    Tuomi, T; Huuskonen, M S; Tammilehto, L; Vanhala, E; Virtamo, M

    1991-01-01

    The past occupational exposure to asbestos of 23 patients with mesothelioma (21 men and two women) has been evaluated by a personal interview of their work history and by determination of the fibre burden in their lung tissue with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x ray microanalysis. According to the work history, nine patients (39%) had definitely been or probably been exposed to asbestos, six patients (26%) had had possible exposures, and eight patients (35%) unlikely or unknown exposure to asbestos. The two female patients were in the unknown exposure category. The fibre concentrations in the patients' lung tissue ranged from less than 0.1 million to 370 million fibres (f) per g dry tissue. Concentrations of over one million f per g dry tissue were found in 15 patients (65%). The lung fibre concentrations of all nine male office workers analysed for reference were less than one million f per g dry tissue. Seventy eight per cent of the patients with mesothelioma had at least possible exposure according to their history of work or concentrations of more than one million f per g dry tissue. PMID:1993160

  10. A Biopersistence Study following Exposure to Chrysotile Asbestos Alone or in Combination with Fine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, D. M.; Donaldson, K.; Decker, U.; Gaering, S.; Kunzendorf, P.; Chevalier, J.; Holm, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    In designing a study to evaluate the inhalation biopersistence of a chrysotile asbestos that was used as a component of a joint-compound, a feasibility study was initiated to evaluate the short-term biopersistence of the chrysotile alone and of the chrysotile in combination witht the sanded reformulated joint-compound. Two groups of Wistar rats were exposed to either 7RF3 chrysotile (Group 2) or to 7RF3 chrysotile combined with aerosolized sanded joint-compound (Group 3). In addition, a control group was exposed to flltered-air. The chrysotile used in the Ready Mix joint compound is rapidly removed from the lung. The chrysotile alone exposure group had a clearance half-time of fibers L > 20 μm of 2.2 days; in the chrysotile plus sanded exposure group the clearance half-time of fibers L > 20 μm was 2.8 days. However, across all size ranges there was approximately an order of magnitude decrease in the mean number of fibers remaining in the lungs of Group 3 as compared to Group 2 despite similiar aerosol exposures. Histopathological examination showed that the chrysotile exposed lungs had the same appearance as the flltered-air controls. This study uniquely illustrates that additional concurrent exposure to an aerosol of the sanded joint-compound, with large numbers of fine-particles depositing in the lungs, accelerates the recruitment of macrophages, resulting in a tenfold decrease in the number of fibers remaining in the lung. The increased number of macrophages in the chrysotile/sanded joint exposure group was confirmed histologically, with this being the only exposure-related histological finding reported. PMID:18788018

  11. 30 CFR 57.5005 - Control of exposure to airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and use shall meet the following minimum requirements: (a) Respirators approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of exposure to airborne contaminants... Underground § 57.5005 Control of exposure to airborne contaminants. Control of employee exposure to...

  12. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  13. The four most pernicious myths in asbestos litigation: Part II: safe thresholds for exposure and Tyndall lighting as junk science.

    PubMed

    Meisenkothen, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Part I of this survey confronted the first two Most Pernicious Myths in Asbestos Litigation: the supposed harmlessness of chrysotile asbestos; and so-called idiopathic mesothelioma. Part II discusses the pernicious notions of safe exposure thresholds for asbestos and the unreliability of Tyndall lighting. Defendants' attempts to preclude plaintiffs' experts from testifying about these generally accepted scientific facts are a disservice to the legal system and to plaintiffs who have been harmed by asbestos. These defense tactics attempt to deny reality and to spin scientific facts in order to keep them from the jurors' eyes and ears. This undermines the legal system and harms the integrity of the scientific enterprise. Defendants' efforts to manufacture "controversy" over previously uncontroversial facts are bald attempts to infect the legal process with junk "doubt science." The role of this type of "doubt science" is being steadily exposed as legitimate researchers resist the degradation of their disciplines and the scientific literature by unprincipled purveyors of this insidious brand of junk science.

  14. Chronic effects of dietary exposure to amosite and chrysotile asbestos in Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, E E; Shefner, A M; Rust, J H; Moore, J A

    1983-01-01

    Bioassays of amosite, short-range (SR), intermediate-range (IR) or intermediate-range chrysotile asbestos in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted with male and female Syrian golden hamsters. Amosite and both forms of chrysotile asbestos were administered at a concentration of 1% in pelleted diet for the entire lifetime of the hamsters starting with mothers of the test animals. Group sizes varied from 125-254. There was no adverse effect on body weight gain or survival by either type of asbestos or by IR chrysotile asbestos in combination with DMH. A significant increase (p less than 0.05) in adrenal cortical tumors was observed in male hamsters exposed to SR and IR chrysotile asbestos and in females treated with IR chrysotile asbestos when compared to the pooled control groups. However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was lost when these dosed groups were compared with temporal control groups. Neither of the male or female amosite asbestos groups showed increased neoplasia in any tissue or organ compared to the control groups. The cocarcinogen studies using IR chrysotile asbestos and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride were considered inadequate because there was no increase in intestinal neoplasia in the DMH group. PMID:6319115

  15. Amphibole asbestos in tree bark--a review of findings for this inhalational exposure source in Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Webber, James S; Elashheb, Mohamed I

    2012-01-01

    In June 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated the town of Libby, Montana, a public health emergency--the first and only time the EPA has made such a determination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). From about 1920 until 1990, the leading source of vermiculite ore for the United States and the world was from a mine near Libby. This vermiculite ore was contaminated with fibrous and asbestiform amphibole in veins throughout the deposit. Today, areas surrounding the abandoned vermiculite processing/mining facilities and much of the town of Libby are contaminated with these asbestos fibers, contributing to an outbreak of asbestos-related diseases in the Libby population. Trees in Libby and in forested areas surrounding the abandoned mine have accumulated amphibole asbestos fibers on their bark surface, providing for inhalational exposures. Several studies have been conducted to further understand this exposure pathway. To address exposures to the public, Libby amphibole (LA) was measured in personal breathing zone and Tyvek surface wipe samples collected during firewood harvesting simulations, as well as in the ash and emissions of woodstoves when amphibole-contaminated firewood was combusted. Occupational studies simulating wildland firefighting and routine U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service activities have also been conducted in the forested areas surrounding the abandoned mine, demonstrating the potential for inhalational exposures during common regional workplace activities. We present a review of the findings of this emerging environmental health concern impacting not only the residents of Libby but applicable to other populations living near asbestos-contaminated areas. PMID:22577793

  16. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Alzate, Oscar; Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  17. Airborne occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, C; Plato, N; Johansson, A L V; Nyrén, O; Lagergren, J

    2006-01-01

    Background The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. Methods In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. Conclusions Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or

  18. In vitro and in vivo response after exposure to man-made mineral and asbestos insulation fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrill, J.A.; Hill, J.O.; Carpenter, R.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Rebar, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The relative in vitro and in vivo toxicity of several types of manufactured fibrous glass insulation and crocidolite asbestos was investigated to aid in selection of a suitable glass fiber for subsequent use in inhalation exposures. The in vitro cytotoxicity to pulmonary alveolar macrophages of small glass fibers from microfiber insulation (count median diameter (CMD) approx. 0.1-0.2 ..mu..m) was greater than that of the larger fibers from household insulation (CMD approx. 2.4 ..mu..m). To screen for in vivo pulmonary toxicity, 2-21 mg of glass or asbestos fibers were administered in divided doses to male Syrian hamsters by intratracheal instillation. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3.5 and 11 months following initial administration of material. One type of glass microfiber count median diameter (CMD) approx. 0.1 ..mu..m caused deaths from pulmonary edema at early times after instillation. High levels of asbestos, a second glass microfiber (CMD approx. 0.2 ..mu..m) and one type of household insulation fiber (CMD 2.3 ..mu..m) all resulted in increases in total collagen and mild pulmonary fibrosis at later times after instillation, although microfiber insulation produced a greater response than household insulation. Asbestos insulation produced the greatest response. A five-day inhalation exposure to a high level of glass microfibers deposited in lung <10 percent of the lowest instilled amount which elicited indications of lung injury. This amount did not produce significant biological changes at 1 to 12 months after exposure. 20 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... further analyzed using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method...

  20. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... further analyzed using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method...

  1. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... further analyzed using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method...

  2. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... further analyzed using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method...

  3. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... further analyzed using transmission electron microscopy according to NIOSH Method 7402 or a method...

  4. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  5. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

  6. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  7. Asbestos-related disease: A community epidemic in the making

    SciTech Connect

    Lemen, R.A.; Selikoff, I.J.; Hurst, G.A.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of epidemiological assessments in tracing the development of disease among workers was demonstrated in the report concerning the exposure of workers to asbestos (1332214) particles. A field survey made at a thermal pipe insulation facility in the southwestern portion of the United States measured airborne asbestos concentrations of 15 to 20 times the current standard. A significant number of workers employed for less than 10 years at this site demonstrated symptoms and signs consistent with asbestos-related diseases. Potential for community exposure was also great. Prior to the opening of this facility in the southwest, its predecessor was operating in the northeastern United States from the early 1940s through 1954. A study of a 900 member cohort of former employees at this earlier site was completed and demonstrated a highly significant excess of asbestos related diseases, malignant and nonmalignant in nature. A study of family members living with the worker at the time of employment, indicated that 50% of these family members had x-ray abnormalities consistent with asbestos-related disease. Other reports indicating that asbestos-related diseases were not limited to the worker were cited as well.

  8. Exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne hazardous substances

    PubMed Central

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Oury, Véronique; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne irritants. This study describes exposure levels of apprentices to chemical products used in hairdressing salons in relation with their activity. Methods Following a two stages study design, a group of 300 students completed a questionnaire on their work activities and environment. Among these, a group of 28 subjects volunteered to undergo personal exposure and workplace concentrations measurements over a work shift, during a cold and a hot season, with the agreement of the salon owners. Three chemical substances were studied (ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and persulfates) because they are respiratory tract irritants and because their concentrations could be quantified within a 5 to 8 hour shift period. Results Personal exposure values for H2O2and NH3 (averages [standard deviations] are 0.05 [0.04] and 0.90 [0.76] mg.m-3, respectively) were greater than workplace ambient air concentrations (corresponding values of 0.04 [0.03] and 0.68 [0.42] mg.m-3) for H2O2 and NH3, with no significant seasonal variation. By contrast, workplace concentrations of persulfates (0.019 [0.018] mg.m-3) were greater than personal exposure (0.016 [0.021] mg.m-3, a finding that is consistent with the fact that bleaching is more often undertaken by senior hairdressers. However, all exposure values were lower than the current TLV TWA values. This study also shows that over half of technical spaces where chemical substances used for dying, permanenting or bleaching are manipulated, have no ventilation system, and not even a door or a window opening outside. Conclusion The study hairdressing salons, on average, were small, the most probable reason why occupational hygiene measures such as appropriate ventilation were too seldom implemented. As a consequence, young apprentices and senior hairdressers experience substantial exposure to known airways irritants. PMID:16893447

  9. Fiber burden and patterns of asbestos-related disease in workers with heavy mixed amosite and chrysotile exposure.

    PubMed

    Churg, A; Vedal, S

    1994-09-01

    To attempt to determine the mineralogic factors that relate to the appearance of specific types of asbestos-related disease in workers with heavy mixed exposure to amphiboles and chrysotile, we analyzed the pulmonary asbestos fiber burden in a series of 144 shipyard workers and insulators from the Pacific Northwest. Amosite was found in all lungs, and tremolite and chrysotile in most lungs, but the vast majority of fibers were amosite. Tremolite and chrysotile concentrations were significantly correlated, indicating that the tremolite originated from chrysotile products, but no correlation was found between tremolite or chrysotile concentration and amosite concentration. Time since last exposure was correlated with decreasing amosite concentration and the calculated clearance half time was about 20 yr. In a multiple regression analysis that accounted for the presence of more than one disease in many subjects, a high concentration of amosite fibers was correlated with the presence of airway fibrosis and asbestosis, whereas subjects with mesothelioma, lung cancer, pleural plaques, or no asbestos-related disease had about the same, much lower, amosite concentration. No relationship was found between the concentration of chrysotile or tremolite and any disease. Analysis of fiber size measures (length, width, aspect ratio, surface, mass) showed that pleural plaques were strongly associated with high aspect ratio amosite fibers and suggested that mesotheliomas were associated with low aspect ratio amosite fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. 30 CFR 56.5005 - Control of exposure to airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (a) Respirators approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 which are applicable and suitable for the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of exposure to airborne contaminants... Air Quality and Physical Agents Air Quality § 56.5005 Control of exposure to airborne...

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS IN AIRBORNE FINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal and ambient exposures to airborne fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and genotoxic activity has been studied in populations in the US, Japan, China, and the Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors used to collect fine particles were extracted f...

  12. Radiographic evidence of asbestos effects in American marine engineers.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N; Diem, J E; Ziskand, M M; Rodriguez, M; Weill, H

    1984-04-01

    Marine engineers undergoing routine annual chest roentgenography showed an unusual prevalence of pleural abnormalities including plaques suggestive of past asbestos exposure. A pilot survey, and a subsequent comprehensive study of the films of more than 5,000 men, showed an overall prevalence of 12% with pleural abnormality (typical calcification or plaque, or diffuse thickening). Prevalence of films classifiable for pneumoconiotic small opacities was negligible--1.2% in the pilot study. Prevalences of pleural abnormality were significantly higher among men with longer union membership, after controlling for age. Older merchant ships contain substantial amounts of asbestos-containing thermal insulation. Marine engineers often remove and reapply insulation, operations known to produce high airborne fiber concentrations. These roentgenographic survey results indicate significant past asbestos exposures of ships' engineering department personnel. PMID:6716195

  13. Aspects of exposure measurement error in epidemiologic cohort analyses using the Libby amphibole asbestos worker cohort. Influence of changes in exposure assessment quality over time on exposure-response estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A meta-analysis by Lenters et al. (2011) has shown that the percentage of work histories covered by measured exposures is an important predictor of summary effect measures for lung cancer mortality associated with asbestos exposure. We studied lung cancers associated ...

  14. Accounting for Outcome Misclassification in Estimates of the Effect of Occupational Asbestos Exposure on Lung Cancer Death

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jessie K.; Cole, Stephen R.; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F.; Richardson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and modified maximum likelihood produced similar results when we assumed that the specificity of outcome classification was 0.98. With sensitivity assumed to be 0.80 and specificity assumed to be 0.95, estimated rate ratios were further from the null and less precise (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.98). In the present context, standard estimates for the effect of asbestos on lung cancer death were similar to estimates accounting for the limited misclassification. However, sensitivity analysis using modified maximum likelihood was needed to verify the robustness of standard estimates, and this approach will provide unbiased estimates in settings with more misclassification. PMID:24352593

  15. Accounting for outcome misclassification in estimates of the effect of occupational asbestos exposure on lung cancer death.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessie K; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao; Olshan, Andrew F; Richardson, David B

    2014-03-01

    In studies of the health effects of asbestos, lung cancer death is subject to misclassification. We used modified maximum likelihood to explore the effects of outcome misclassification on the rate ratio of lung cancer death per 100 fiber-years per milliliter of cumulative asbestos exposure in a cohort study of textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, followed from 1940 to 2001. The standard covariate-adjusted estimate of the rate ratio was 1.94 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.44), and modified maximum likelihood produced similar results when we assumed that the specificity of outcome classification was 0.98. With sensitivity assumed to be 0.80 and specificity assumed to be 0.95, estimated rate ratios were further from the null and less precise (rate ratio = 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.59, 2.98). In the present context, standard estimates for the effect of asbestos on lung cancer death were similar to estimates accounting for the limited misclassification. However, sensitivity analysis using modified maximum likelihood was needed to verify the robustness of standard estimates, and this approach will provide unbiased estimates in settings with more misclassification.

  16. Exposure to nitrosamines, carbon black, asbestos, and talc and mortality from stomach, lung, and laryngeal cancer in a cohort of rubber workers.

    PubMed

    Straif, K; Keil, U; Taeger, D; Holthenrich, D; Sun, Y; Bungers, M; Weiland, S K

    2000-08-15

    There is sufficient evidence for an excess occurrence of stomach and lung cancer among rubber workers. However, evidence for causal associations with specific exposures is still limited. A cohort of 8,933 male German rubber workers was followed for mortality from January 1, 1981 through December 31, 1991. Work histories were reconstructed using routinely documented cost center codes. For each cost center code, calendar time-and plant-specific levels of exposure to nitrosamines, asbestos, talc (low, medium (m), and high (h)), and carbon black (two levels) were estimated by industrial hygienists. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models, with the lowest exposure level used as the reference category. Exposure was lagged 10 years to account for latency. Exposure-response relations between exposure to asbestos and lung cancer mortality (RRm = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; RRh = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.9, 4.1) and between exposure to dust (talc and asbestos combined) and stomach cancer mortality (RRm = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.8; RRh = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.1) were observed. Exposure to nitrosamines was not associated with mortality from stomach or lung cancer. These results suggest that the increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer among rubber workers is associated with exposure to asbestos and dust, respectively.

  17. Increased risk of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura after residential or domestic exposure to asbestos: a case-control study in Casale Monferrato, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C; Dalmasso, P; Biggeri, A; Ivaldi, C; Mirabelli, D; Terracini, B

    2001-01-01

    The association of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and nonoccupational asbestos exposure is currently debated. Our study investigates environmental and domestic asbestos exposure in the city where the largest Italian asbestos cement (AC) factory was located. This population-based case-control study included pleural MM (histologically diagnosed) incidents in the area in 1987-1993, matched by age and sex to two controls (four if younger than 60). Diagnoses were confirmed by a panel of five pathologists. We interviewed 102 cases and 273 controls in 1993-1995, out of 116 and 330 eligible subjects. Information was checked and completed on the basis of factory and Town Office files. We adjusted analyses for occupational exposure in the AC industry. In the town there were no other relevant industrial sources of asbestos exposure. Twenty-three cases and 20 controls lived with an AC worker [odds ratio (OR) = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-11.1)]. The risk was higher for the offspring of AC workers (OR = 7.4; 95% CI, 1.9-28.1). Subjects attending grammar school in Casale also showed an increased risk (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4-7.7). Living in Casale was associated with a very high risk (after selecting out AC workers: OR = 20.6; 95% CI, 6.2-68.6), with spatial trend with increasing distance from the AC factory. The present work confirms the association of environmental asbestos exposure and pleural MM, controlling for other sources of asbestos exposure, and suggests that environmental exposure caused a greater risk than domestic exposure. PMID:11673120

  18. Increased risk of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura after residential or domestic exposure to asbestos: a case-control study in Casale Monferrato, Italy.

    PubMed

    Magnani, C; Dalmasso, P; Biggeri, A; Ivaldi, C; Mirabelli, D; Terracini, B

    2001-09-01

    The association of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and nonoccupational asbestos exposure is currently debated. Our study investigates environmental and domestic asbestos exposure in the city where the largest Italian asbestos cement (AC) factory was located. This population-based case-control study included pleural MM (histologically diagnosed) incidents in the area in 1987-1993, matched by age and sex to two controls (four if younger than 60). Diagnoses were confirmed by a panel of five pathologists. We interviewed 102 cases and 273 controls in 1993-1995, out of 116 and 330 eligible subjects. Information was checked and completed on the basis of factory and Town Office files. We adjusted analyses for occupational exposure in the AC industry. In the town there were no other relevant industrial sources of asbestos exposure. Twenty-three cases and 20 controls lived with an AC worker [odds ratio (OR) = 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-11.1)]. The risk was higher for the offspring of AC workers (OR = 7.4; 95% CI, 1.9-28.1). Subjects attending grammar school in Casale also showed an increased risk (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4-7.7). Living in Casale was associated with a very high risk (after selecting out AC workers: OR = 20.6; 95% CI, 6.2-68.6), with spatial trend with increasing distance from the AC factory. The present work confirms the association of environmental asbestos exposure and pleural MM, controlling for other sources of asbestos exposure, and suggests that environmental exposure caused a greater risk than domestic exposure.

  19. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station. PMID:21173524

  20. Occupational exposure to airborne contaminants during offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Niels E; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ulvestad, Bente; Woldbæk, Torill; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to study exposure to airborne contaminants in oil drillers during ordinary work. Personal samples were collected among 65 drill floor workers on four stationary and six moveable rigs in the Norwegian offshore sector. Air concentrations of drilling mud were determined based on measurements of the non-volatile mud components Ca and Fe. The median air concentration of mud was 140 μg m(-3). Median air concentrations of oil mist (180 μg m(-3)), oil vapour (14 mg m(-3)) and organic carbon (46 μg m(-3)) were also measured. All contaminants were detected in all work areas (drill floor, shaker area, mud pits, pump room, other areas). The highest air concentrations were measured in the shaker area, but the differences in air concentrations between working areas were moderate. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were statistically higher on moveable rigs than on stationary rigs, but after adjusting for differences in mud temperature the differences between rig types were no longer of statistical significance. Statistically significant positive associations were found between mud temperature and the concentrations of oil mist (Spearman's R = 0.46) and oil vapour (0.39), and between viscosity of base oil and oil mist concentrations. Use of pressure washers was associated with higher air concentrations of mud. A series of 18 parallel stationary samples showed a high and statistically significant association between concentrations of organic carbon and oil mist (r = 0.98). This study shows that workers are exposed to airborne non-volatilized mud components. Air concentrations of volatile mud components like oil mist and oil vapour were low, but were present in all the studied working areas.

  1. Occupational exposure to airborne contaminants during offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Niels E; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ulvestad, Bente; Woldbæk, Torill; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to study exposure to airborne contaminants in oil drillers during ordinary work. Personal samples were collected among 65 drill floor workers on four stationary and six moveable rigs in the Norwegian offshore sector. Air concentrations of drilling mud were determined based on measurements of the non-volatile mud components Ca and Fe. The median air concentration of mud was 140 μg m(-3). Median air concentrations of oil mist (180 μg m(-3)), oil vapour (14 mg m(-3)) and organic carbon (46 μg m(-3)) were also measured. All contaminants were detected in all work areas (drill floor, shaker area, mud pits, pump room, other areas). The highest air concentrations were measured in the shaker area, but the differences in air concentrations between working areas were moderate. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were statistically higher on moveable rigs than on stationary rigs, but after adjusting for differences in mud temperature the differences between rig types were no longer of statistical significance. Statistically significant positive associations were found between mud temperature and the concentrations of oil mist (Spearman's R = 0.46) and oil vapour (0.39), and between viscosity of base oil and oil mist concentrations. Use of pressure washers was associated with higher air concentrations of mud. A series of 18 parallel stationary samples showed a high and statistically significant association between concentrations of organic carbon and oil mist (r = 0.98). This study shows that workers are exposed to airborne non-volatilized mud components. Air concentrations of volatile mud components like oil mist and oil vapour were low, but were present in all the studied working areas. PMID:26020723

  2. A Meta-analysis of Asbestos and Lung Cancer: Is Better Quality Exposure Assessment Associated with Steeper Slopes of the Exposure–Response Relationships?

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Vermeulen, Roel; Dogger, Sies; Stayner, Leslie; Portengen, Lützen; Burdorf, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asbestos is a well-recognized cause of lung cancer, but there is considerable between-study heterogeneity in the slope of the exposure–response relationship. Objective: We considered the role of quality of the exposure assessment to potentially explain heterogeneity in exposure–response slope estimates. Data sources: We searched PubMed MEDLINE (1950–2009) for studies with quantitative estimates of cumulative asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality and identified 19 original epidemiological studies. One was a population-based case–control study, and the others were industry-based cohort studies. Data extraction: Cumulative exposure categories and corresponding risks were abstracted. Exposure–response slopes [KL (lung cancer potency factor of asbestos)] were calculated using linear relative risk regression models. Data synthesis: We assessed the quality of five exposure assessment aspects of each study and conducted random effects univariate and multivariate meta-regressions. Heterogeneity in exposure–response relationships was greater than expected by chance (I2 = 64%). Stratification by exposure assessment characteristics revealed that studies with well-documented exposure assessment, larger contrast in exposure, greater coverage of the exposure history by exposure measurement data, and more complete job histories had higher meta-KL values than did studies without these characteristics. The latter two covariates were most strongly associated with the KL value. Meta-KL values increased when we incrementally restricted analyses to higher-quality studies. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that studies with higher-quality asbestos exposure assessment yield higher meta-estimates of the lung cancer risk per unit of exposure. Potency differences for predominantly chrysotile versus amphibole asbestos-exposed cohorts become difficult to ascertain when meta-analyses are restricted to studies with fewer exposure assessment limitations. PMID

  3. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentration shall be determined by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in.../cc excursion limit, samples shall be further analyzed using transmission electron...

  4. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration shall be determined by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in.../cc excursion limit, samples shall be further analyzed using transmission electron...

  5. EPA/ORD/RTP (Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park) asbestos program support for the OTS (Office of Toxic Substances) asbestos-in-schools program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    An overview of the EPA/ORD/RTP Asbestos program support for the OTS Asbestos-in-Schools Program is given. The program includes (1) a bulk sample asbestos analysis audit program, (2) an intercomparison of three measurement methods for airborne asbestos, (3) the development of audit materials for airborne asbestos measurement methods, and (4) the development of guidance for post-abatement asbestos air monitoring.

  6. [The incidence of malignant mesothelioma (1977-1996) and asbestos exposure in the population of an area neighboring Lake Iseo, northern Italy].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Migliori, M; Merler, E

    1999-01-01

    The study was stimulated by the occurrence of malignant mesotheliomas among the workers of two adjacent factories located in Sarnico, near Lake Iseo (province of Brescia, northern Italy), one of which manufactured crocidolite and chrysotile ropes and gaskets until 1993. The aim of the study was: identification of malignant mesotheliomas occurring between 1977 and 1996 among the residents of 11 villages, which constituted the recruitment area of the work-force; estimation of the incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma; collection of working histories of all cases to evaluate previous exposure to asbestos and radiation therapy. 21 cases of mesothelioma were detected (20 pleural, 1 peritoneal; 9 among males), and 20 were supported by histopathologic diagnosis. The incidence (x 100,000 person-years, standard: European population) was 2.5 (0.7-4.2) and 2.8 (1.2-4.3) among males and females, respectively, corresponding to a three-fold increase among males and a more than ten fold increase among women in comparison with the incidence reported by the Lombardy Cancer Registry. No cases had been exposed to radiation therapy, whereas all cases had been occupationally exposed to asbestos. Occupational exposure to asbestos had occurred in work on the production of crocidolite and chrysotile ropes and gaskets (6 males); in work in a textile factory producing cotton garments that was adjacent to and polluted by the former, where, in addition, chrysotile blankets were used for fireproofing in the weaving area and pipes were insulated using amosite-containing materials (10 cases, 6 among females); 5 cases occurred among women working in silk factories, where asbestos exposure was possible because of the presence of pipes insulated with asbestos and because women were handling temperature-controlled trays insulted with asbestos. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the occurrence of mesothelioma was higher among females than males in the study area and that all cases of

  7. [Health surveillance of workers with prior exposure to asbestos. Application in the metallurgy/metal mechanical field].

    PubMed

    Rivolta, G; Della Foglia, M; Donelli, S; Riboldi, L

    2006-01-01

    To improve the health surveillance program for workers with a known previous exposure to asbestos in a big metallurgic-mechanical industry from Lombardy, the sources of risk and the different exposure levels hare been reconstructed based on specific jobs. The eligibility criteria and a specific work program including information and organization supports hare been established by a work group composed by health physicians, workers and industrial hygienists. The major goals of the program were: to listen and support each worker who perceives worries about his health status; to prevent, if possible, diseases, especially cancer, resulting from exposure; to document the existing injuries for legal compensation. The resulting actions consist of counselling; indication to follow an adequate life and work style; indication, based on specific request of worker, of sanitary checks of first or eventually second level.

  8. Pleural malignant mesothelioma and environmental asbestos exposure in Casale Monferrato, Piedmont. Preliminary analysis of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Magnani, C; Ivaldi, C; Botta, M; Terracini, B

    1997-01-01

    A case-control study on pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM) was conducted in Casale Monferrato, where the largest Italian asbestos cement (AC) factory had been operating from 1907 to 1985. In a previous study we observed a five to seven-fold increase in the incidence of MM among people living in that city and never employed in the factory mentioned. The present study includes cases of MM with histological diagnosis over the period 1.1.1987-30.6.1993 among residents in the Local Health Unit (LHU) of Casale Monferrato. Population controls were randomly extracted from the list of the residents in the LHU, matched to cases on sex, date of birth, vital status and date of death. Cases and controls (or their closest relative) were interviewed with a standardised questionnaire focusing on asbestos exposure in the (life-long) residential and occupational histories and in leisure time activities as well as on occupational asbestos exposure of relatives and cohabitants, smoking and chest or occupational diseases. The interview was blind in respect to case or control status. For the analyses the addresses were coded on map grids with a 500 m. mesh size. Statistical analyses were conducted with conditional logistic regression in order to keep the matching between cases and controls. Eighty-eight cases and 244 controls were interviewed (95.6% of cases and 80.1% of controls): 26 and 11 respectively reported an activity in the AC industry. Seven cases and 7 controls were also exposed because of parental occupation. The main analyses are based on the conditional regression model including both occupational and residential exposure. The different modes of exposure are included on an ordinal scale: each subject is classified according to their highest level. Domestic exposure is included as an independent factor. Odds Ratios (OR) are estimated with reference to subjects without either occupational or residential exposure. The OR is 39.3 among subjects reporting occupational exposure

  9. Cytotoxicity induced by exposure to natural and synthetic tremolite asbestos: an in vitro pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Armanda; Giantomassi, Federica; Lucarini, Guendalina; Capella, Silvana; Bloise, Andrea; Di Primio, Roberto; Belluso, Elena

    2013-03-01

    Mineral fibers are potential carcinogens to humans. In order to help clarify the etiology of the pathological effects of asbestos, cellular reactions to natural and synthetic asbestos fibers were compared using a lung alveolar cancer cell line (A549 epithelial cells), considered the first target of inhaled micro-environmental contaminants. Natural asbestos tremolite (NAT) fibers were collected from rocks in NW Italy. Synthetic asbestos tremolite (SAT) was iron-free and therefore considered as standard tremolite. Both fibers, subjected to mineralogical characterization by X-ray powder diffractometry, electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry, fell within the definition of respirable and potentially carcinogenic fibers. Several signs of functional and structural cell damage were found after treatment with both fibers, documented by viability, motility, and morphological perturbations. Phalloidin labeling showed irregular distribution of cytoskeletal F-actin, whereas immunohistochemical investigations showed abnormal expression of VEGF, Cdc42, β-catenin, assessed as risks indicators for cancer development. Both fibers caused significant loss of viability, even compared to UICC crocidolite, but, while SAT fibers exerted a more direct cytotoxic effect, survival of damaged cells expressing high VEGF levels was detected after NAT contact. This in vitro pilot study outlines potential health risks of NAT fibers in vivo related to their iron content, which could trigger signaling networks connected with cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation. PMID:22578742

  10. The exposure-response relationship for mesothelioma among asbestos-cement factory workers.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M M

    1990-12-01

    Forty-five deaths from mesothelioma have occurred among production workers in an asbestos-cement factory. This analysis examines the fit of the cubic residence time model to the incidence of mesothelioma using a case-control method proposed by de Klerk and colleagues. The cubic residence time model was found to provide a good description of the data.

  11. Journal Article: Low Levels of Exposure to Libby Amphibole Asbestos and Localized Pleural Thickening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Libby Amphibole asbestos (LAA) is a mixture of amphibole fibers present in ore from the vermiculite mine near Libby, MT (1). Workers and community residents were exposed to LAA at the mining operations in Libby, MT (2, 3), as well as at vermiculite processing facilities in Marys...

  12. Pulmonary Endpoints (Lung Carcinomas and Asbestosis) Following Inhalation Exposure to Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Brooke T.; Lippmann, Morton; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Bonner, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Lung carcinomas and pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) occur in asbestos workers. Understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases is complicated because of potential confounding factors, such as smoking, which is not a risk factor in mesothelioma. The modes of action (MOA) of various types of asbestos in the development of lung cancers, asbestosis, and mesotheliomas appear to be different. Moreover, asbestos fibers may act differentially at various stages of these diseases, and have different potencies as compared to other naturally occurring and synthetic fibers. This literature review describes patterns of deposition and retention of various types of asbestos and other fibers after inhalation, methods of translocation within the lung, and dissolution of various fiber types in lung compartments and cells in vitro. Comprehensive dose-response studies at fiber concentrations inhaled by humans as well as bivariate size distributions (lengths and widths), types, and sources of fibers are rarely defined in published studies and are needed. Species-specific responses may occur. Mechanistic studies have some of these limitations, but have suggested that changes in gene expression (either fiber-catalyzed directly or by cell elaboration of oxidants), epigenetic changes, and receptor-mediated or other intracellular signaling cascades may play roles in various stages of the development of lung cancers or asbestosis. PMID:21534086

  13. One-year follow-up of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes after exposure of rats to asbestos and basalt fibers.

    PubMed

    Hurbánková, M

    1994-10-01

    The phagocytic activity of leukocytes in peripheral blood was investigated after 2, 24, and 48 hr; 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks; and 6 and 12 months following intraperitoneal administration of asbestos and basalt fibers to Wistar rats. Asbestos and basalt fibers differed in their effects on the parameters studied. Both granulocyte count and phagocytic activity of leukocytes during the 1-year dynamic follow-up in both dust-exposed groups of animals changed in two phases, characterized by the initial stimulation of the acute phase I, followed by the suppression of the parameters in the chronic phase II. Exposure to asbestos and basalt fibers led, in phase II, to impairment of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes. Asbestos fibers also significantly decreased phagocytic activity of monocytes. Exposure to basalt fibers did not affect the phagocytic activity of monocytes in phase II. Results suggest that the monocytic component of leukocytes plays an important role in the development of diseases caused by exposure to fibrous dusts, but basalt fibers have lesser biological effects than asbestos fibers.

  14. Pleural mesothelioma: dose-response relation at low levels of asbestos exposure in a French population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Iwatsubo, Y; Pairon, J C; Boutin, C; Ménard, O; Massin, N; Caillaud, D; Orlowski, E; Galateau-Salle, F; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1998-07-15

    A hospital-based case-control study of the association between past occupational exposure to asbestos and pleural mesothelioma was carried out in five regions of France. Between 1987 and 1993, 405 cases and 387 controls were interviewed. The job histories of these subjects were evaluated by a group of experts for exposure to asbestos fibers according to probability, intensity, and frequency. A cumulative exposure index was calculated as the product of these three parameters and the duration of the exposed job, summed over the entire working life. Among men, the odds ratio increased with the probability of exposure and was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-1.9) for possible exposure and 3.6 (95% CI 2.4-5.3) for definite exposure. A dose-response relation was observed with the cumulative exposure index: The odds ratio increased from 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.8) for the lowest exposure category to 8.7 (95% CI 4.1-18.5) for the highest. Among women, the odds ratio for possible or definite exposure was 18.8 (95% CI 4.1-86.2). We found a clear dose-response relation between cumulative asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma in a population-based case-control study with retrospective assessment of exposure. A significant excess of mesothelioma was observed for levels of cumulative exposure that were probably far below the limits adopted in most industrial countries during the 1980s.

  15. Asbestos-Induced Gastrointestinal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Jo; Williams, David; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases, such as malignancies and asbestosis, remain a significant occupational and public health concern. Asbestos is still widely used in many developing countries despite being a recognized carcinogen that has been banned over 50 countries. The prevalence and mortality from asbestos-related diseases continue to pose challenges worldwide. Many countries are now experiencing an epidemic of asbestos-related disease that is the legacy of occupational exposure during the 20th century because of the long latency period (up to 40 years) between initial asbestos exposure and exhibition of disease. However, the gastrointestinal (GI) cancers resulting from asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review, we summarize some of the recent epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and then focus on the evidence implicating asbestos in causing GI malignancies. We also briefly review the important new pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years that may account for asbestos-related gastrointestinal cancers. All types of asbestos fibers have been implicated in the mortality and morbidity from GI malignancies but the collective evidence to date is mixed. Although the molecular basis of GI cancers arising from asbestos exposure is unclear, there have been significant advances in our understanding of mesothelioma and asbestosis that may contribute to the pathophysiology underlying asbestos-induced GI cancers. The emerging new evidence into the pathogenesis of asbestos toxicity is providing insights into the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related diseases in future management. PMID:27158561

  16. Drinking-Water Criteria Document for Asbestos (final draft), March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sonich-Mullin, C.; Patel, Y.; Bayard, S.; Mossman, B.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Asbestos. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Asbestos; Toxicokinetics and human exposure to Asbestos; Health Effects of Asbestos in humans and animals; Mechanisms of toxicity of Asbestos; Quantification of toxicological effects of Asbestos.

  17. Asbestos-fiber reentrainment during dry vacuuming and wet cleaning of asbestos-contaminated carpet. Report for January 1988-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for asbestos fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet contaminated with asbestos. Two types of carpet cleaning equipment were evaluated at two carpet contamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations were determined before and during carpet cleaning. Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet cleaning activity. The level of asbestos contamination and the type of cleaning method used had no statistically significant effect on the relative increase of airborne asbestos concentrations during carpet cleaning.

  18. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health.

  19. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health. PMID:14998741

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis on Countermeasures for Health Risk by Exposure to Asbestos in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinaga, Aiichiro; Hihara, Hidemi; Tatsuno, Makoto

    This study examines asbestos mitigation countermeasures by predicting air concentrations of asbestos, and then cost-benefit analyses is performed. A comparative study was conducted on three cases as follows; case one, demolition by machine & landfill, case two, demolition by hand & landfill, and case three demolition by hand & vitrification treatment. The results showed that if demolition by machine is continued, the risk is greater than 10-4 of upper acceptable risk for 2020. However, if demolition is conducted by hand, the risk is under 10-4 for 2010. And also, the risk will be less than 10-5 of the safety level for environmental standards until 2030. The results show that vitrification deletes the risk on future management at a landfill site, however at a higher cost.

  1. Evaluation of asbestos levels in two schools before and after asbestos removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karaffa, M.A.; Chesson, J.; Russell, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requirements and recent EPA guidelines, the study evaluates these historical data by standard statistical methods to determine if abated work areas meet proposed clearance criteria. The objectives of this statistical analysis were to compare (1) airborne asbestos levels indoors after removal with levels outdoors, (2) airborne asbestos levels before and after removal of asbestos, and (3) static sampling and aggressive sampling of airborne asbestos. The results of this evaluation indicated the following: the effect of asbestos removal on indoor air quality is unpredictable; the variability in fiber concentrations among different sampling sites within the same building indicates the need to treat different sites as separate areas for the purpose of clearance; and aggressive sampling is appropriate for clearance testing because it captures more entrainable asbestos structures. Aggressive sampling lowers the chance of declaring a worksite clean when entrainable asbestos is still present.

  2. Chrysotile asbestos in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Rimoldi, Bianca

    2013-07-01

    The Valmalenco serpentinite (Central Alps, Northern Italy) is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, from the XIX century until 1975. Asbestos is a well-known carcinogen, and there is the possibility of releasing fibres during quarrying, subsequently exposing workers. From 2004 to 2011, extensive sampling and monitoring of quarry fronts, asbestos veins, commercial stones and airborne asbestos was carried out. Massive rock and vein samples were analyzed by a combined use of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM). Asbestos is concentrated almost exclusively in discrete horizons, that coincide with the main discontinuities of the rock mass. Commercial stones without fractures and veins are practically asbestos free, whereas there is a slight contamination (sometimes exceeding the 1000 ppm threshold) close to hydrothermal selvages. Quarry floors were always quite contaminated by chrysotile "beards" detached from the surface of the blocks. The airborne asbestos concentrations (PCM and SEM) were distributed over a wide range, mostly below the occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Concentrations at the quarry property border or at the closest villages were always below the environmental exposure limit of 0.002 f ml(-1). The extreme thinness of chrysotile fibrils produced during quarrying activities, and the abundance of pseudo-fibrous antigorite cleavage fragments proved the SEM-EDS analytical procedure to be the most suitable. It is of crucial importance to avoid the interception of veins during quarrying and to remove all visible asbestos from the extracted blocks, before any further processing. PMID:23770928

  3. Chrysotile asbestos in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Rimoldi, Bianca

    2013-07-01

    The Valmalenco serpentinite (Central Alps, Northern Italy) is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, from the XIX century until 1975. Asbestos is a well-known carcinogen, and there is the possibility of releasing fibres during quarrying, subsequently exposing workers. From 2004 to 2011, extensive sampling and monitoring of quarry fronts, asbestos veins, commercial stones and airborne asbestos was carried out. Massive rock and vein samples were analyzed by a combined use of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM). Asbestos is concentrated almost exclusively in discrete horizons, that coincide with the main discontinuities of the rock mass. Commercial stones without fractures and veins are practically asbestos free, whereas there is a slight contamination (sometimes exceeding the 1000 ppm threshold) close to hydrothermal selvages. Quarry floors were always quite contaminated by chrysotile "beards" detached from the surface of the blocks. The airborne asbestos concentrations (PCM and SEM) were distributed over a wide range, mostly below the occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Concentrations at the quarry property border or at the closest villages were always below the environmental exposure limit of 0.002 f ml(-1). The extreme thinness of chrysotile fibrils produced during quarrying activities, and the abundance of pseudo-fibrous antigorite cleavage fragments proved the SEM-EDS analytical procedure to be the most suitable. It is of crucial importance to avoid the interception of veins during quarrying and to remove all visible asbestos from the extracted blocks, before any further processing.

  4. Correlation between airborne U exposure and U urinalysis results at Bear Creek Uranium.

    PubMed

    Chase, G R

    1989-02-01

    Inhalation exposure history and U urinalysis data collected at Union Pacific Resources Company's Bear Creek Uranium milling operation, located in the Powder River Basin area of Wyoming, were studied to determine if a correlation could be made between airborne U exposure and U urinalysis results. It was observed from these data that U urinalysis results correlate with airborne U exposure levels when averaged over a period of time. The urinary U excretion rate, empirically derived from these data, was 1.8 X 10(-1) micrograms U in urine d-1 per micrograms U inhaled d-1 for samples collected after 2.9 d of no exposure.

  5. beta-(1,3)-Glucan exposure assessment by passive airborne dust sampling and new sensitive immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Noss, Ilka; Wouters, Inge M; Bezemer, Gillina; Metwali, Nervana; Sander, Ingrid; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Heederik, Dick J J; Thorne, Peter S; Doekes, Gert

    2010-02-01

    Associations between house dust-associated beta-(1,3)-glucan exposure and airway inflammatory reactions have been reported, while such exposures in early childhood have been suggested to protect against asthma and wheezing. Most epidemiological studies have used reservoir dust samples and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for beta-(1,3)-glucan exposure assessment. The objective of this study was to develop inexpensive but highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays to measure airborne beta-(1,3)-glucans in low-exposure environments, like homes. Specificities of available anti-beta-(1,3)-glucan antibodies were defined by direct and inhibition experiments. Three suitable antibody combinations were selected for sandwich EIAs. beta-(1,3)-Glucans in passive airborne dust collected with an electrostatic dust fall collector (EDC) and floor dust from seven homes were measured with the three EIAs. Floor dust samples were additionally analyzed in the inhibition EIA. The sandwich EIAs were sensitive enough for airborne glucan measurement and showed different specificities for commercial glucans, while the beta-(1,3)-glucan levels in house dust samples correlated strongly. The feasibility of measuring glucans in airborne dust with the recently introduced EDC method was further investigated by selecting the most suitable of the three EIAs to measure and compare beta-(1,3)-glucan levels in the EDC and in floor and actively collected airborne dust samples of the previously performed EDC validation study. The EDC beta-(1,3)-glucan levels correlated moderately with beta-(1,3)-glucans in actively collected airborne dust and floor dust samples, while the glucan levels in the airborne dust and floor dust samples did not correlate. The combination of the newly developed beta-(1,3)-glucan sandwich EIA with EDC sampling now allows assessment in large-scale population studies of exposure to airborne beta-(1,3)-glucans in homes or other low-exposure environments.

  6. Social Support Functions During a Slowly-Evolving Environmental Disaster: The Case of Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Child, Jeffrey T; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Previous research concluded that victims of rapid-onset natural disasters (e.g., hurricanes) receive and provide high levels of instrumental support. However, different kinds of disasters (natural or human caused [technological, environmental, intentional/terrorism], rapid or slow onset, short or long duration) may create different stressors and thus influence the types of social support most needed and provided. We explored social support functions during an ongoing "slowly-evolving environmental disaster" in Libby, Montana due to widespread exposure to amphibole asbestos. Analyses of focus groups and in-depth interviews focused on the relative salience of support functions (emotional, informational, instrumental, and spiritual) identified as needed or provided. Dominant themes emerged around each function. Results indicated that informational support is particularly salient in this type of disaster. Although not all community members had experienced the disaster's health consequences (asbestos-related disease [ARD]), all had been affected by the disaster and had informational needs. The nature of those informational needs (e.g., medical vs. financial) varied based on experience with ARD. Experience with ARD was associated with awareness of disaster-related emotional and instrumental support needed or provided. Results have implications for future research on slowly-evolving environmental disasters and institutional and community responses to them.

  7. Risk assessment of lung cancer and mesothelioma in people living near asbestos-related factories in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, H Y; Chen, C R; Wang, J D

    1999-01-01

    Estimates from environmental risk assessments are criticized by professionals who indicate that inaccuracies occur in exposure assessment, model selection, and determination of the population at risk. In the current study, we tackled the aforementioned issues and estimated the risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma caused by airborne asbestos among individuals who lived near asbestos factories in Taiwan. We conducted 8-h full-period samplings upwind and downwind from each factory, and we used transmission-electronic microscopy (10,000x) and phase-contrast microscopy to determine asbestos concentrations in and around each factory. We estimated the numbers of residents who lived in concentric circles of 200-m, 400-m, and 600-m diameters around each factory. A dose-response model for asbestos-induced lung cancer was adopted from a summary of seven epidemiological studies. The asbestos-mesothelioma models were patterned after the first-exposure-effect models developed by Peto and Finkelstein. The data obtained from phase-contrast microscopy significantly overestimated the risk, compared with transmission-electronic microscopy. The estimates we calculated from adopting the arithmetic mean were approximately 2-fold higher than those we calculated with the geometric mean. There were relatively low concentrations of asbestos in the study areas, thus causing an absence of a significant difference in risk estimates between different models for mesothelioma. Among the more than 20,000 residents who lived near 41 asbestos factories in Taiwan, we found that the numbers of expected excess deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma were 5 and less than 1, respectively. We concluded that in future risk assessments for ambient asbestos exposure, investigators should adopt transmission-electronic microscopy and the geometric mean estimate. Moreover, Taiwan should enhance asbestos-control programs to assure the safety of residents who live near asbestos factories.

  8. [Asbestos exposure in the petrochemical industry and interaction with other occupational risk factors: analysis of the last ten years INAIL data].

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, Mariano; Saldutti, Elisa; Bindi, Luciano; Di Giacobbe, Andrea; Mercadante, Lucina; Innocenzi, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the trend of occupational diseases, in particular those asbestos-related, in the petrochemical industry from 2002 to 2011, taking into account the number of diseases claimed to and compensated by the National Institute for Insurance of Workplace Accidents and Occupational Diseases (INAIL), assessing risk factors and possible interactions. To identify the research areas, we selected INAIL cost codes, related to the petrochemical industry. In the last five years, over the total claims submitted by industrial workers, 54% of claims for asbestosis, 76.7% of claims for neoplastic diseases, and 78.6% of claims for pleural plaques have been compensated. In the petrochemical industry, such percentages are respectively 59.2%, 81.6% and 82.7%. These data suggest possible interactions between asbestos and other risk factors, particularly significant in the petrochemical industry, although difficult to identify, as well as an initial underestimation of asbestos exposure in this industry.

  9. [Reporting and compensation of mesothelioma caused by occupational exposure to asbestos in Romagna (1986-1994). Work Group for Surveillance of Mesothelioma in Romagna].

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    A working group for the surveillance of mesothelioma was established in the Romagna Region of Italy. For the present report of the early data on compensation, 94 cases notified to the Romagna Cancer Registry between 1986 and 1994 (mean age, 66.7 years; male: female ratio, 1.8; frequency of pleural location, 76%; frequency of cyto-histologic confirmation, 79%) were considered. Information on asbestos exposure, occupational history, and compensation status was obtained from the patients or their relatives, the general practitioners, the local occupational health services, the National Institute of Social Insurance, the National Board for Insurance against Industrial Accidents (INAIL), and the Trade Unions. Asbestos exposure was associated with 42/94 cases (45%). Of these, 11 (26%) had been reported to INAIL. All such cases had cyto-histological confirmation. The greater frequency of reporting was found among cases known to the occupational health service (7/7) as well as those with definite, documented asbestos exposure (9/13). Only two cases had been reported by hospital physicians. Seven cases were compensated. In addition to cyto-histological confirmation, also the male sex, patient's age under the mean of 66, pleural location, and documented asbestos exposure were found to be prerequisites for compensation. Not only in these subgroups but also among cases known to the occupational health service as well as those diagnosed in 1990-94, most cases reported were compensated. These early data suggest that a more accurate diagnostic process as associated with prompt notification to the occupational health service for thorough assessment of asbestos exposure may improve the compensation process.

  10. Asbestos-fiber reentrainment during vacuuming and wet cleaning of carpet at a captive research site

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freybery, R.W.; Cain, W.C.; Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.

    1989-03-31

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of alternative carpet-cleaning techniques and to evaluate the potential for asbestos-fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet contaminated with asbestos. The equipment was evaluated at two carpet contamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations were determined before and during carpet cleaning. Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet-cleaning activity. The level of asbestos contamination and the type of cleaning method had no statistically significant effect on the relative increase of airborne asbestos concentrations during carpet cleaning.

  11. AMI cautions against attacks on asbestos replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The asbestos industry claims that alternative materials pose risks comparable to asbestos are not only unfounded, they have users of substitutes by limiting the options available if asbestos is banned. EPA will determine if the millions of tons of asbestos still imported into the US each year represents an unreasonable risk. Risk involves issues of toxicity and exposure. There are no data indicating that alternatives are comparable to asbestos. Rather, the information we do have shows that alternative materials are safe substitutes for asbestos.

  12. [Epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma cases in Italy: incidence and asbestos exposure figures by the Italian mesothelioma registry (ReNaM)].

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Binazzi, Alessandra; Cauzillo, Gabriella; Chellini, Elisabetta; De Zotti, Renata; Gennaro, Valerio; Menegozzo, Massimo; Mensi, Carolina; Merler, Enzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Musti, Marina; Pannelli, Franco; Romanelli, Antonio; Scarselli, Alberto; Tosi, Sergio; Tumino, Rosario; Nesti, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The Study describes the epidemiological surveillance of mesothelioma cases carried out by the Italian mesothelioma register (ReNaM). A Regional Operating Centre (COR) is present in nearly all Italian regions (17 out of 20) and it collects malignant mesothelioma cases and investigate the modalities of asbestos exposure by using a structured questionnaire. The register produces malignant mesothelioma incidence measures and analyses of the modalities of the asbestos exposure. The standardized incidence rate of malignant mesothelioma in 2001 was 2.98 (in 100,000 inhabitants) among men and 0.98 among women; a professional (certain, probable, possible) exposure has been detected in 67.4% of defined cases. In addition to the conventional sectors (shipbuilding, railways repair and demolition, asbestos-cement production), also textile, building, transport, chemical and glass industries, petroleum and sugar refineries, electricity production and distribution plants are getting involved. Despite the absence of some regions completing the national coverage and the non homogeneity in collecting and coding data, the epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma carried out by ReNaM is an important tool for the scientific knowledge and the prevention of asbestos-related diseases.

  13. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  14. Analysis of workplace compliance measurements of asbestos by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1984-2011).

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Cheng, Thales J; Ground, Matthew; Sahmel, Jennifer; Varughese, Allysha; Madl, Amy K

    2015-08-01

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) maintains the Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD) and the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) databases, which contain quantitative and qualitative data resulting from compliance inspections conducted from 1984 to 2011. This analysis aimed to evaluate trends in workplace asbestos concentrations over time and across industries by combining the samples from these two databases. From 1984 to 2011, personal air samples ranged from 0.001 to 175 f/cc. Asbestos compliance sampling data associated with the construction, automotive repair, manufacturing, and chemical/petroleum/rubber industries included measurements in excess of 10 f/cc, and were above the permissible exposure limit from 2001 to 2011. The utility of combining the databases was limited by the completeness and accuracy of the data recorded. In this analysis, 40% of the data overlapped between the two databases. Other limitations included sampling bias associated with compliance sampling and errors occurring from user-entered data. A clear decreasing trend in both airborne fiber concentrations and the numbers of asbestos samples collected parallels historically decreasing trends in the consumption of asbestos, and declining mesothelioma incidence rates. Although air sampling data indicated that airborne fiber exposure potential was high (>10 f/cc for short and long-term samples) in some industries (e.g., construction, manufacturing), airborne concentrations have significantly declined over the past 30 years. Recommendations for improving the existing exposure OSHA databases are provided.

  15. Analysis of workplace compliance measurements of asbestos by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1984-2011).

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Cheng, Thales J; Ground, Matthew; Sahmel, Jennifer; Varughese, Allysha; Madl, Amy K

    2015-08-01

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) maintains the Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD) and the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) databases, which contain quantitative and qualitative data resulting from compliance inspections conducted from 1984 to 2011. This analysis aimed to evaluate trends in workplace asbestos concentrations over time and across industries by combining the samples from these two databases. From 1984 to 2011, personal air samples ranged from 0.001 to 175 f/cc. Asbestos compliance sampling data associated with the construction, automotive repair, manufacturing, and chemical/petroleum/rubber industries included measurements in excess of 10 f/cc, and were above the permissible exposure limit from 2001 to 2011. The utility of combining the databases was limited by the completeness and accuracy of the data recorded. In this analysis, 40% of the data overlapped between the two databases. Other limitations included sampling bias associated with compliance sampling and errors occurring from user-entered data. A clear decreasing trend in both airborne fiber concentrations and the numbers of asbestos samples collected parallels historically decreasing trends in the consumption of asbestos, and declining mesothelioma incidence rates. Although air sampling data indicated that airborne fiber exposure potential was high (>10 f/cc for short and long-term samples) in some industries (e.g., construction, manufacturing), airborne concentrations have significantly declined over the past 30 years. Recommendations for improving the existing exposure OSHA databases are provided. PMID:25985714

  16. Asbestos: Rationale Behind a Proposed Air Quality Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    This article proposes an asbestos air quality standard for Connecticut lower than proposed Federal regulation. Data are given relating mesothelioma incidence to occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure. New standards lower asbestos emissions from manufacturing operations thus reducing possible asbestos-related fatalities. Rebuttals and…

  17. Evaluation of the Webler-Brown model for estimating tetrachloroethylene exposure from vinyl-lined asbestos-cement pipes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Lisa A; Aschengrau, Ann; Gallagher, Lisa E; Webster, Thomas F; Heeren, Timothy C; Ozonoff, David M

    2008-01-01

    Background From May 1968 through March 1980, vinyl-lined asbestos-cement (VL/AC) water distribution pipes were installed in New England to avoid taste and odor problems associated with asbestos-cement pipes. The vinyl resin was applied to the inner pipe surface in a solution of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE). Substantial amounts of PCE remained in the liner and subsequently leached into public drinking water supplies. Methods Once aware of the leaching problem and prior to remediation (April-November 1980), Massachusetts regulators collected drinking water samples from VL/AC pipes to determine the extent and severity of the PCE contamination. This study compares newly obtained historical records of PCE concentrations in water samples (n = 88) with concentrations estimated using an exposure model employed in epidemiologic studies on the cancer risk associated with PCE-contaminated drinking water. The exposure model was developed by Webler and Brown to estimate the mass of PCE delivered to subjects' residences. Results The mean and median measured PCE concentrations in the water samples were 66 and 0.5 μg/L, respectively, and the range extended from non-detectable to 2432 μg/L. The model-generated concentration estimates and water sample concentrations were moderately correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.48, p < 0.0001). Correlations were higher in samples taken at taps and spigots vs. hydrants (ρ = 0.84 vs. 0.34), in areas with simple vs. complex geometry (ρ = 0.51 vs. 0.38), and near pipes installed in 1973–1976 vs. other years (ρ = 0.56 vs. 0.42 for 1968–1972 and 0.37 for 1977–1980). Overall, 24% of the variance in measured PCE concentrations was explained by the model-generated concentration estimates (p < 0.0001). Almost half of the water samples had undetectable concentrations of PCE. Undetectable levels were more common in areas with the earliest installed VL/AC pipes, at the beginning and middle of VL/AC pipes, at

  18. A study of airborne chrysotile concentrations associated with handling, unpacking, and repacking boxes of automobile clutch discs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, George C T; Madl, Amy K; Ingmundson, Kelsey J; Murbach, Dana M; Fehling, Kurt A; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L

    2008-06-01

    Although automotive friction products (brakes and manual clutches) historically contained chrysotile asbestos, industrial hygiene surveys and epidemiologic studies of auto mechanics have consistently shown that these workers are not at an increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases. Airborne asbestos levels during brake repair and brake parts handling have been well-characterized, but the potential exposure to airborne asbestos fibers during the handling of clutch parts has not been examined. In this study, breathing zone samples on the lapel of a volunteer worker (n=100) and area samples at bystander (n=50), remote area (n=25), and ambient (n=9) locations collected during the stacking, unpacking, and repacking of boxes of asbestos-containing clutches, and the subsequent cleanup and clothes handling, were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, fiber morphology and size distribution was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, and ISO analytical methods. It was observed that the (1) airborne asbestos concentrations increased with the number of boxes unpacked and repacked, (2) repetitive stacking of unopened boxes of clutches resulted in higher asbestos concentrations than unpacking and repacking the boxes of clutches, (3) cleanup and clothes handling tasks yielded very low asbestos concentrations. Fiber size and morphology analyses showed that amphibole fibers were not detected in the clutches and that the vast majority (>95%) of the airborne chrysotile fibers were less than 20 microm in length. Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results, it was found that 30-min average airborne chrysotile concentrations (PCM adjusted) were 0.026+/-0.004 f/cc or 0.100+/-0.017 f/cc for a worker unpacking and repacking 1 or 2 boxes of clutches, respectively. The 30-min PCM adjusted average airborne asbestos

  19. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  20. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  1. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  2. Determination of Micro-Quantities of Chrysotile Asbestos by Dye Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, M. Clare; Wosczyna, Karen

    1976-01-01

    Airborne asbestos is analyzed by differential dye adsorption. Quantities can be estimated down to 100 mg. For industrial use, asbestos samples must be separated from interfering minerals by density flotation. (Author/BT)

  3. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  4. Inter-rater agreement for a retrospective exposure assessment of asbestos, chromium, nickel and welding fumes in a study of lung cancer and ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Seel, E A; Zaebst, D D; Hein, M J; Liu, J; Nowlin, S J; Chen, P

    2007-10-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment of asbestos, welding fumes, chromium and nickel (in welding fumes) was conducted at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for a nested case-control study of lung cancer risk from external ionizing radiation. These four contaminants were included because of their potential to confound or modify the effect of a lung cancer-radiation relationship. The exposure assessment included three experienced industrial hygienists from the shipyard who independently assessed exposures for 3519 shop/job/time period combinations. A consensus process was used to resolve estimates with large differences. Final exposure estimates were linked to employment histories of the 4388 study subjects to calculate their cumulative exposures. Inter-rater agreement analyses were performed on the original estimates to better understand the estimation process. Although concordance was good to excellent (78-99%) for intensity estimates and excellent (96-99%) for frequency estimates, overall simple kappa statistics indicated only slight agreement beyond chance (kappa < 0.2). Unbalanced distributions of exposure estimates partly contributed to the weak observed overall inter-rater agreement. Pairwise weighted kappa statistics revealed better agreement between two of the three panelists (kappa = 0.19-0.65). The final consensus estimates were similar to the estimates made by these same two panelists. Overall welding fume exposures were fairly stable across time at the shipyard while asbestos exposures were higher in the early years and fell in the mid-1970s. Mean cumulative exposure for all study subjects was 520 fiber-days cc(-1) for asbestos and 1000 mg-days m(-3) for welding fumes. Mean exposure was much lower for nickel (140 microg-days m(-3)) and chromium (45 microg-days m(-3)). Asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates were positively associated with lung cancer in the nested case-control study. The radiation-lung cancer relationship was attenuated by the inclusion

  5. Pathogenic effects of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Kannerstein, M; Churg, J; McCaughey, E; Selikoff, I J

    1977-12-01

    The enormous increase in the use of asbestos during this century has necessitated the intensive study of its pathogenic effects. The occurrence of pulmonary parenchymal and pleural fibrosis and an increased prevalence of pulmonary and gastrointestinal carcinoma and of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma have been established. A relationship, also, to laryngeal carcinoma is probable. Mesothelioma has been associated with indirect occupational, domestic, and neighborhood exposure, and the possibility of a similar correlation of pulmonary carcinoma with low exposure has been suggested. Pulmonary fibrosis and pleural plaques have been demonstrated under these circumstances. The physical characteristics of the asbestos fiber appear to be the principal factors in its carcinogenic action. The ability of fine, short fibers, especially fragmented chrysotile, to reach the pleura would appear to account for many of the pathogenetic and anatomical features of asbestos-related disease.

  6. [Mesothelioma incidence decreases parallel to asbestos exposure decrement or interruption: a confirmation of a dose-response relationship, with implications in public health].

    PubMed

    Merler, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the available evidence, several groups of experts and investigators identified a dose-response relationship between exposure to commercial types of asbestos fibres and mesothelioma risk. The first mathematical model was proposed by Peto et al. It was derived from a conceptualisation of the multistage theory of cancer and provides an interpretation of the risk for the occurrence of mesothelioma in cohorts of exposed workers. In the study described in this paper, the author reviewed the data suggesting a decrease in mesotheliomas rate follosing reduction or interruption of exposure. Descriptive analyses and the few available long-term cohort studies indicate a decrease in risk. This is supported also by the fact that even the most biopersistent asbestos fibres are eliminated from the lungs. Indeed, a slow but effective reduction of risk has been demonstrated in the cohort of Wittenoom workers in Australia, previously exposed to crocidolite.

  7. AIHA position statement on the removal of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) from buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The health risks associated with asbestos exposure for building occupants has been demonstrated to be very low. The decision to remove asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in undamaged, intact condition that are not readily accessible to occupants should be made only after assessing all other options. Both technical and financial issues should be fully explored by a team of trained specialists, including industrial hygienists, architects, and engineers. The optimal solution will vary from building to building, based on factors unique to each situation. One important consideration is the use of a well-designed air-monitoring program to identify changes in airborne levels of asbestos. Special training and maintenance programs are needed to ensure the safety and health of building and contract workers who may encounter asbestos or who may disturb it during routine or nonroutine activities. Each building owner who has ACM in a building should identify an in-house asbestos manager, and it is also necessary to provide appropriate resources, including professional consultants, to develop and manage a responsible and effective in-place management program throughout the life of a building containing asbestos.

  8. Environmental and occupational health hazards associated with the presence of asbestos in brake linings and pads (1900 to present): a "state-of-the-art" review.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L; Lu, Elizabeth T; Brorby, Gregory P; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the history of automobile development, chrysotile asbestos has been an essential component of vehicle brake linings and pads. Acceptable alternatives were not fully developed until the 1980s, and these were installed in vehicles produced over the past decade. This article presents a "state-of-the-art" analysis of what was known over time about the potential environmental and occupational health hazards associated with the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brake linings and pads. As part of this analysis, the evolution of automobile brakes and brake friction materials, beginning with the early 1900s, is described. Initial concerns regarding exposures to asbestos among workers involved in the manufacture of friction products were raised as early as 1930. Between 1930 and 1959, eight studies were conducted for which friction product manufacturing workers were part of the population assessed. These studies provided evidence of asbestosis among highly exposed workers, but provided little information on the magnitude of exposure. The U.S. Public Health Service proposed the first occupational guideline for asbestos exposure in 1938. The causal relationship between asbestos exposure and lung cancer was confirmed in 1955 in asbestos textile workers in the United Kingdom, and later, in 1960, in South Africa, mesothelioma was attributed to asbestos exposure to even relatively low airborne concentrations of crocidolite. Between 1960 and 1974, five epidemiology studies of friction product manufacturing workers were conducted. During this same time period, the initial studies of brake lining wear (dust or debris) emissions were conducted showing that automobile braking was not a substantial contributor of asbestos fibers greater than 5 microm in length to ambient air. The first exposure surveys, as well as preliminary health effects studies, for brake mechanics were also conducted during this period. In 1971, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  9. Characterizing and Communicating Risk with Exposure Reconstruction and Bayesian Analysis: Historical Locomotive Maintenance/Repair Associated with Asbestos Woven Tape Pipe Lagging.

    PubMed

    Boelter, Fred W; Persky, Jacob D; Podraza, Daniel M; Bullock, William H

    2016-02-01

    Our reconstructed historical work scenarios incorporating a vintage 1950s locomotive can assist in better understanding the historical asbestos exposures associated with past maintenance and repairs and fill a literature data gap. Air sampling data collected during the exposure scenarios and analyzed by NIOSH 7400 (PCM) and 7402 (PCME) methodologies show personal breathing zone asbestiform fiber exposures were below the current OSHA exposure limits for the eight-hour TWA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc (range <0.007-0.064 PCME f/cc) and the 30-minute short-term excursion limit (EL) of 1.0 f/cc (range <0.045-0.32 PCME f/cc) and orders of magnitude below historic OSHA PEL and ACGIH TLVs. Bayesian decision analysis (BDA) results demonstrate that the 95th percentile point estimate falls into an AIHA exposure category 3 or 4 as compared to the current PEL and category 1 when compared to the historic PEL. BDA results demonstrate that bystander exposures would be classified as category 0. Our findings were also significantly below the published calcium magnesium insulations exposure range of 2.5 to 7.5 f/cc reported for historic work activities of pipefitters, mechanics, and boilermakers. Diesel-electric locomotive pipe systems were typically insulated with a woven tape lagging that may have been chrysotile asbestos and handled, removed, and reinstalled during repair and maintenance activities. We reconstructed historical work scenarios containing asbestos woven tape pipe lagging that have not been characterized in the published literature. The historical work scenarios were conducted by a retired railroad pipefitter with 37 years of experience working with materials and locomotives. PMID:26255644

  10. Assessment of airborne exposure and dermal contact to acrylamide during chemical grouting operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, J.M.

    1987-07-22

    Acrylamide exposure may occur by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption; acrylamide is a neurotoxin and an irritant. The report details the results of field studies to assess airborne exposure and dermal contact to acrylamide during chemical grouting operations. Occupational exposures to acrylamide were characterized for sewer mainline, lateral line, and manhole maintenance operations. The objective of the study was to collect exposure data based on observations and measurements to be used as an integral part of a quantitative risk assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances.

  11. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens, causing malignant mesothelioma and a host of other types of cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk; there is no safe threshold of exposure to asbestos. When evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos became incontrovertible, a worldwide ban was called for on asbestos use, mining, and manufacturing. Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products; many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos still permit the use of chrysotile asbestos. This exemption has no basis in medical science, but reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos industry. To protect the health of all people, the Collegium Ramazzini calls again on all countries of the world to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed. PMID:20662427

  12. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31–2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38–9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8–13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26–1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63–1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00–1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31–0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits. PMID:26274395

  13. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31-2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38-9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8-13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26-1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63-1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00-1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31-0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits.

  14. Circulating immune complexes in asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Zone, J.J.; Rom, W.N.

    1985-08-01

    Circulating immune complexes, rheumatoid factor, and antinuclear antibodies were evaluated in 25 asbestos insulation workers and 32 brick mason controls. There were 10 asbestos workers with radiographic parenchymal or pleural changes, consistent with their asbestos exposure. There were no differences in antinuclear antibodies or rheumatoid factor between asbestos workers and controls. The asbestos workers had significantly increased levels of IgG and IgA circulating immune complexes. There was a significant correlation between IgA circulating immune complexes and radiographic changes.

  15. Neuropsychological Motor Outcomes in Adults from Airborne Manganese Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The literature on manganese (Mn) is dominated by occupational exposures of adults exposed often to high levels without protection. Neuropsychological adverse health effects are similar to Parkinson’s Disease with psychomotor slowing, tremor, cognitive and mood ...

  16. SUBCHRONIC INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) is associated with significant increases in asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. To support biological potency assessment and dosimetry model development, a subchronic nose-only inhalation exposure study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted...

  17. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S; Kline, Joel N; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Dosman, James A; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A

    2007-02-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  18. Health Effects of Airborne Exposures from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S.; Kline, Joel N.; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Dosman, James A.; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  19. Airborne acidity: estimates of exposure and human health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M

    1985-01-01

    Human health effects have resulted from the inhalation of ambient acidic aerosols, and there is suggestive evidence that current North American levels of exposure are producing excesses in respiratory morbidity. Annual mean mortality rates have been correlated with ambient aerosol concentration indices, with SO4(2-), FP, IP, and TSP having a descending order as predictive coefficients. These pollutant indices also contain H+ in descending mass ratios, and may all be surrogates for H+ as an active agent. Controlled exposure studies in humans and animals provide evidence that acidic aerosols produce greater changes in respiratory mechanical function and rates of particle clearance than other constituents of ambient particulate matter. The strong acid content of the ambient aerosol has not been measured in any of the population based pollutant effects studies in which it is a likely causal factor. The absence of direct measurement data on acidic aerosol in these studies, and their reliance on surrogate indices such as SO2 and SO4(2-), precludes firm conclusions about exposure-response relationships. High priority areas for further investigation include systematic investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of population exposures; extension and refinement of population response studies in relation to acid aerosol exposures; responses of normal healthy and asthmatic human volunteers to mixtures of acidic aerosols and oxidant vapors under controlled conditions of exposure and exercise intensity; and progression of changes in lung epithelia during repetitive daily exposures of experimental animals to acidic aerosols, oxidants, and their mixtures, with concurrent measurements of particle clearance and respiratory function. PMID:4076095

  20. Comparative Risks of Cancer from Drywall Finishing Based on Stochastic Modeling of Cumulative Exposures to Respirable Dusts and Chrysotile Asbestos Fibers.

    PubMed

    Boelter, Fred W; Xia, Yulin; Dell, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Sanding joint compounds is a dusty activity and exposures are not well characterized. Until the mid 1970s, asbestos-containing joint compounds were used by some people such that sanding could emit dust and asbestos fibers. We estimated the distribution of 8-h TWA concentrations and cumulative exposures to respirable dusts and chrysotile asbestos fibers for four worker groups: (1) drywall specialists, (2) generalists, (3) tradespersons who are bystanders to drywall finishing, and (4) do-it-yourselfers (DIYers). Data collected through a survey of experienced contractors, direct field observations, and literature were used to develop prototypical exposure scenarios for each worker group. To these exposure scenarios, we applied a previously developed semi-empirical mathematical model that predicts area as well as personal breathing zone respirable dust concentrations. An empirical factor was used to estimate chrysotile fiber concentrations from respirable dust concentrations. On a task basis, we found mean 8-h TWA concentrations of respirable dust and chrysotile fibers are numerically highest for specialists, followed by generalists, DIYers, and bystander tradespersons; these concentrations are estimated to be in excess of the respective current but not historical Threshold Limit Values. Due to differences in frequency of activities, annual cumulative exposures are highest for specialists, followed by generalists, bystander tradespersons, and DIYers. Cumulative exposure estimates for chrysotile fibers from drywall finishing are expected to result in few, if any, mesothelioma or excess lung cancer deaths according to recently published risk assessments. Given the dustiness of drywall finishing, we recommend diligence in the use of readily available source controls.

  1. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. PMID:24411572

  2. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons.

  3. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  4. Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Acute Exposures to Airborne Particulates in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, M. S.; Schlegel, T. T.; Knapp, C. F.; Patwardhan, A. R.; Jenkins, R. A.; Ilgner, R. H.; Evans, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate cardiac autonomic changes associated with acute exposures to airborne particulates. Methods: High fidelity 12-lead ECG (CardioSoft, Houston, TX) was acquired from 19 (10 male / 9 female) non-smoking volunteers (age 33.6 +/- 6.6 yrs) during 10 minutes pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), cooking oil fumes, wood smoke and sham (water vapor). To control exposure levels, noise, subject activity, and temperature, all studies were conducted inside an environmental chamber. Results: The short-term fractal scaling exponent (Alpha-1) and the ratio of low frequency to high frequency Heart Rate Variability (HRV) powers (LF/HF, a purported sympathetic index) were both higher in males (p<0.017 and p<0.05, respectively) whereas approximate entropy (ApEn) and HF/(LF+HF) (a purported parasympathetic index) were both lower in males (p<0.036, and p<0.044, respectively). Compared to pre-exposure (p<0.0002) and sham exposure (p<0.047), male heart rates were elevated during early ETS post-exposure. Our data suggest that, in addition to tonic HRV gender differences, cardiac responses to some acute airborne particulates are gender related.

  5. Potential Mode of Action for Non-Cancer Effects following Exposure to Libby Amphibole Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence from different types of studies (in vitro assays, laboratory animal and occupational and epidemiological studies) and across multiple species point to fibrosis, autoimmunity and cardiovascular toxicity as possible non-cancer disease outcomes of interest after exposure to...

  6. Acute Phase Response, Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers of Libby Asbestos Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. Objective: We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help ...

  7. Acute Phase Response and Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers of Libby Asbestos Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the disease diagnosis and environmental health risk assessment. Exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that rats exposed to LA would present a unique serum proteomic pro...

  8. Estimation of Chronic Personal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Zdeb, Michael; Perera, Frederica; Spengler, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure from solid fuel burning represents an important public health issue for the majority of the global population. Yet, understanding of individual-level exposures remains limited. Objectives To develop regionally adaptable chronic personal exposure model to pro-carcinogenic PAH (c-PAH) for the population in Kraków, Poland. Methods We checked the assumption of spatial uniformity in eight c-PAH using the coefficients of divergence (COD), a marker of absolute concentration differences. Upon successful validation, we developed personal exposure models for eight pro-carcinogenic PAH by integrating individual-level data with area-level meteorological or pollutant data. We checked the resulting model for accuracy and precision against home outdoor monitoring data. Results During winter, COD of 0.1 for Kraków suggest overall spatial uniformity in the ambient concentration of the eight c-PAH. The three models that we developed were associated with index of agreement approximately equal to 0.9, root mean square error < 2.6 ng/m3, and 90th percentile of absolute difference ≤ 4 ng/m3 for the predicted and the observed concentrations for eight pro-carcinogenic PAH. Conclusions Inexpensive and logistically feasible information could be used to estimate chronic personal exposure to PAH profiles, in lieu of costly and labor-intensive personal air monitoring at wide scale. At the same time, thorough validation through direct personal monitoring and assumption checking are critical for successful model development. PMID:25965038

  9. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system.

  10. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  11. Optimization of an air–liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air–liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm–2) at cell‐free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min–1) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm–2) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26935862

  12. Asbestos Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denver, Colorado) Tremolite Asbestos. Close Up of Vermiculite Insulation in an Attic (Photo courtesy of EPA) Different ... Vermiculite (Photo courtesy of EPA) Attic Containing Vermiculite Insulation (Photo courtesy of EPA) Top of Page Text ...

  13. Human health effects of exposure to airborne acid.

    PubMed

    Folinsbee, L J

    1989-02-01

    This paper summarizes and critiques a series of reports on the health effects of acid aerosol exposure, presented at the Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols and compares these data to selected previous studies. The role of the two major defenses against acid aerosols, the conversion of acid to the ammonium salts by respiratory ammonia and buffering of acid by airway surface liquid are discussed in relation to airway acid burdens expected from typical inhalation exposures. The roles of particle size and hygroscopicity on airway deposition of aerosol are also included. The major health effects studied were the effects of acid aerosol on mucociliary clearance in healthy individuals and changes in lung function in asthmatics, an important sensitive subpopulation. The broad range of response in asthmatics suggests the need for further study.

  14. Real-world exposure of airborne particulate matter triggers oxidative stress in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guohui; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between air pollution and the increase of cardio-pulmonary mortality and morbidity. In particular, inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure is closely associated with the pathogenesis of air pollution-induced systemic diseases. In this study, we exposed C57BIV6 mice to environmentally relevant PM in fine and ultra fine ranges (diameter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) using a “real-world” airborne PM exposure system. We investigated the pathophysiologic impact of PM2.5 exposure in the animal model and in cultured primary pulmonary macrophages. We demonstrated that PM2.5 exposure increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood vessels in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro PM2.5 exposure experiment suggested that PM2.5 could trigger oxidative stress response, reflected by an increased expression of the anti-oxidative stress enzymes superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), in mouse primary macrophages. Together, the results obtained through our “real-world” PM exposure approach demonstrated the pathophysiologic effect of ambient PM2.5 exposure on triggering oxidative stress in the specialized organ and cell type of an animal model. Our results and approach will be informative for the research in air pollution-associated physiology and pathology. PMID:21383899

  15. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, G D; Harrison, R M; Lynam, D R

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half of the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM2.5, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rais, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear. PMID:10535124

  16. Safe human exposure limits for airborne linear siloxanes during spaceflight

    PubMed Central

    García, Hector D.; McMullin, Tami S.; Tobin, Joseph M.; James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low molecular weight siloxanes are used in industrial processes and consumer products, and their vapors have been detected in the atmospheres of the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for siloxane vapors to protect astronaut health. Since publication of these original SMACs, new studies and new risk assessment approaches have been published that warrant re-examination of the SMACs. Objective To reevaluate SMACs published for octamethyltrisiloxane (L3) for exposures ranging from 1 hour to 180 days, to develop a 1000-day SMAC, and to expand the applicability of those values to the family of linear siloxanes. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify studies conducted since the SMACs for L3 were set in 1994. The updated data were reviewed to determine the sensitive toxicity endpoints, and current risk assessment approaches and methods for dosimetric adjustments were evaluated. Results Recent data were used to update the original 1-hour, 24-hour, 30-day, and 180-day SMACs for L3, and a 1000-day SMAC was developed to protect crewmembers during future exploration beyond Earth orbit. Group SMACs for the linear siloxane family, including hexamethyldisiloxane (L2), L3, decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4), and dodecamethylpentasiloxane (L5), were set for exposures of 1-hour to 1000 days. Conclusion New SMACs, based on acute pulmonary and neurotoxicity at high doses only achievable with L2 and potential liver effects following longer-term exposures to L2 and L3, were established to protect crewmembers from the adverse effects of exposure to linear siloxanes. PMID:24255951

  17. Asbestos and cancer in Finland.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, M S; Karjalainen, A; Tossavainen, A; Rantanen, J

    1995-01-01

    Primary prevention carried out today can reduce the disease incidence in the future decades. The present disease panorama is the consequence of past asbestos exposure mainly before the 1970s. The peak incidence of asbestos-induced diseases will be reached around 2010 in Finland. The number of asbestos-related premature deaths is at present annually about 150 which exceeds the figure of fatal work accidents. Asbestos-related cancer will increase still for 15-20 years and reach its maximum, about 300 cases, in 2010, and will start to decrease after that. More than 20,000 asbestos-exposed workers have participated in the medical screening and follow-up. The termination of exposure, antismoking campaigns, improved diagnostics and careful attention to compensation issues, as well as other potentials for prevention, were the central issue of the Asbestos Program of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. An important objective of research work is to improve early diagnostics, and thereby treatment prospects, in case of asbestos-induced cancers.

  18. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 1 and 3 Months Post Exposure**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation exposure study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rat...

  19. Development of the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment for intermittent, low-level exposure to asbestos requires personal breathing concentration data. Currently, activity-based sampling (ABS) is the preferred approach to measurement of a person’s inhalation exposure; i.e., asbestos structures per cubic centimeter ...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  5. Exposure data from multi-application, multi-industry maintenance of surfaces and joints sealed with asbestos-containing gaskets and packing.

    PubMed

    Boelter, Fred; Simmons, Catherine; Hewett, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Fluid sealing devices (gaskets and packing) containing asbestos are manufactured and blended with binders such that the asbestos fibers are locked in a matrix that limits the potential for fiber release. Occasionally, fluid sealing devices fail and need to be replaced or are removed during preventive maintenance activities. This is the first study known to pool over a decade's worth of exposure assessments involving fluid sealing devices used in a variety of applications. Twenty-one assessments of work activities and air monitoring were performed under conditions with no mechanical ventilation and work scenarios described as "worst-case" conditions. Frequently, the work was conducted using aggressive techniques, along with dry removal practices. Personal and area samples were collected and analyzed in accordance with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Methods 7400 and 7402. A total of 782 samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy, and 499 samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The statistical data analysis focused on the overall data sets which were personal full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures, personal 30-min exposures, and area full-shift TWA values. Each data set contains three estimates of exposure: (1) total fibers; (2) asbestos fibers only but substituting a value of 0.0035 f/cc for censored data; and (3) asbestos fibers only but substituting the limit of quantification value for censored data. Censored data in the various data sets ranged from 7% to just over 95%. Because all the data sets were censored, the geometric mean and geometric standard deviation were estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation method. Nonparametric, Kaplan-Meier, and lognormal statistics were applied and found to be consistent and reinforcing. All three sets of statistics suggest that the mean and median exposures were less than 25% of 0.1 f/cc 8-hr TWA sample or 1.0 f/cc 30-min samples, and that there is at

  6. Effects of Libby amphibole asbestos exposure on two rat models of rheumatoid arthritis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological data suggests that occupational exposure to the amphibole-containing vermiculite in Libby, MT was associated with increased risk for developing autoimmune diseases and had an odds ratio of 3.23 for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our goal was to determine wh...

  7. TWO-WEEK INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE (LA) AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative potency of LA compared to UICC amosite was assessed in a subacute inhalation study designed to set exposure levels for a future subchronic study. Male F344 rats (n=7/group) were exposed nose-only to air (control), 3 concentrations of LA, or I concentration of amosite...

  8. Integrating Public Data Sets for Analysis of Maternal Airborne Environmental Exposures and Stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; Connolly, Natalia; Jones, David E.; DeFranco, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to study relationships between maternal airborne pollutant exposures and poor pregnancy outcomes have been frustrated by data limitations. Our objective was to report the proportion of Ohio women in 2006–2010 experiencing stillbirth whose pregnancy exposure to six criteria airborne pollutants could be approximated by applying a geospatial approach to vital records and Environmental Protection Agency air monitoring data. In addition, we characterized clinical and socio-demographic differences among women who lived within 10 km of monitoring stations compared to women who did not live within proximity of monitoring stations. For women who experienced stillbirth, 10.8% listed a residence within 10 km of each type of monitoring station. Maternal race, education, and marital status were significantly different (p<0.0001) comparing those within proximity to monitoring stations to those outside of monitoring range. No significant differences were identified in maternal age, ethnicity, smoking status, hypertension, or diabetes between groups. PMID:25954365

  9. Indoor Pollutant Exposures Modify the Effect of Airborne Endotoxin on Asthma in Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; Aloe, Charles; Schiltz, Allison M.; Peng, Roger D.; Rabinovitch, Nathan; Ong, Mary Jane; Williams, D’Ann L.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Diette, Gregory B.; Liu, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The effect of endotoxin on asthma morbidity in urban populations is unclear. Objectives: To determine if indoor pollutant exposure modifies the relationships between indoor airborne endotoxin and asthma health and morbidity. Methods: One hundred forty-six children and adolescents with persistent asthma underwent repeated clinical assessments at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Home visits were conducted at the same time points for assessment of airborne nicotine, endotoxin, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The effect of concomitant pollutant exposure on relationships between endotoxin and asthma outcomes were examined in stratified analyses and statistical models with interaction terms. Measurements and Main Results: Both air nicotine and NO2 concentrations modified the relationships between airborne endotoxin and asthma outcomes. Among children living in homes with no detectable air nicotine, higher endotoxin was inversely associated with acute visits and oral corticosteroid bursts, whereas among those in homes with detectable air nicotine, endotoxin was positively associated with these outcomes (interaction P value = 0.004 and 0.07, respectively). Among children living in homes with lower NO2 concentrations (<20 ppb), higher endotoxin was positively associated with acute visits, whereas among those living in homes with higher NO2 concentrations, endotoxin was negatively associated with acute visit (interaction P value = 0.05). NO2 also modified the effect of endotoxin on asthma symptom outcomes in a similar manner. Conclusions: The effects of household airborne endotoxin exposure on asthma are modified by coexposure to air nicotine and NO2, and these pollutants have opposite effects on the relationships between endotoxin and asthma-related outcomes. PMID:24066676

  10. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed. PMID:16878394

  11. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 18 Months Post Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rats were ex...

  12. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 18 Months Post Exposure###

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rats were ex...

  13. Subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to Libby amphibole and amosite asbestos: Effects at 1 and 3 months post exposure#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident in humans after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Ra...

  14. ENGINEERING CONTROL PRACTICES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS DURING DRILLING OF ASBESTOS-CONTAINING FLOORING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the implementation and testing of control measures to reduce airborne asbestos generated by the drilling of asbestos-containing flooring materials, an OSHA Class III asbestos maintenance activity. Bosch 11224 and 11222 rotary drills were fitted with shrouds ...

  15. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler and a Breathing Zone Model for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for asbestos structures to become airborne when the source is disturbed. The source can be naturally occurring asbestos in soil, mine tailings in the soil at brownfield sites, vermiculite attic insulation in indoor envi...

  16. Case report: peritoneal mesothelioma from asbestos in hairdryers

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, James; Talbott, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos is well established. As a result, the use of asbestos in buildings, construction sites, and mines, as well as the implications of disease for the workers has received considerable attention. However, asbestos was also used in household equipment and consumer products, including hairdryers. Purpose: To examine one case of peritoneal mesothelioma in a hairdresser and review the relevant literature on asbestos exposure from hairdryers. Methods: The subject’s medical and occupational records were obtained and reviewed and a physical examination was performed. Results: The results indicate that the subject developed peritoneal mesothelioma from her occupational exposure to asbestos containing hairdryers in accordance with the literature. Conclusion: Hairdryers are possible sources of asbestos exposure in patients with mesothelioma, and the asbestos exposure risk is higher for those who use hairdryers occupationally. PMID:25633928

  17. [Occupational exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria in a household recycled container sorting plant ].

    PubMed

    Solans, Xavier; Alonso, Rosa María; Constans, Angelina; Mansilla, Alfonso

    2007-06-01

    Several studies have showed an association between the work in waste treatment plants and occupational health problems such as irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal problems and symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). These symptoms have been related to bioaerosol exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational exposure to biological agents in a plant sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) household waste. Airborne samples were collected with M Air T Millipore sampler. The concentration of total fungi and bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were determined and the most abundant genera were identified. The results shown that the predominant airborne microorganisms were fungi, with counts greater than 12,000 cfu/m(3) and gram-negative bacteria, with a environmental concentration between 1,395 and 5,280 cfu/m(3). In both cases, these concentrations were higher than levels obtained outside of the sorting plant. Among the fungi, the predominant genera were Penicillium and Cladosporium, whereas the predominant genera of gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Serratia. The present study shows that the workers at sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) domestic waste plant may be exposed to airborne biological agents, especially fungi and gram-negative bacteria.

  18. [Occupational exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria in a household recycled container sorting plant ].

    PubMed

    Solans, Xavier; Alonso, Rosa María; Constans, Angelina; Mansilla, Alfonso

    2007-06-01

    Several studies have showed an association between the work in waste treatment plants and occupational health problems such as irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal problems and symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). These symptoms have been related to bioaerosol exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational exposure to biological agents in a plant sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) household waste. Airborne samples were collected with M Air T Millipore sampler. The concentration of total fungi and bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were determined and the most abundant genera were identified. The results shown that the predominant airborne microorganisms were fungi, with counts greater than 12,000 cfu/m(3) and gram-negative bacteria, with a environmental concentration between 1,395 and 5,280 cfu/m(3). In both cases, these concentrations were higher than levels obtained outside of the sorting plant. Among the fungi, the predominant genera were Penicillium and Cladosporium, whereas the predominant genera of gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Serratia. The present study shows that the workers at sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) domestic waste plant may be exposed to airborne biological agents, especially fungi and gram-negative bacteria. PMID:17604432

  19. Use of asbestos in the Israeli Defense Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Schlezinger, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have adopted the current standards for asbestos in the workplace (1 fiber/ml). Although average daily exposure to asbestos is relatively limited, nevertheless, the army personnel concerned are defined as asbestos workers. Four main areas of asbestos use were monitored, and medical examinations of susceptible personnel were performed. Recommendations were suggested for improving conditions. The IDF is now in the process of eliminating the use of materials containing asbestos, with the aim of eliminating asbestos use in the IDF within a three-to five-year period.

  20. Exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria while commuting in passenger cars and public buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    The present study examined airborne microbe levels inside and outside passenger cars and public buses during two seasons (winter and summer). The prevalence level of individual fungal genera depended on the fungi and agar type, whereas a constant higher prevalence (>90%) was found for the total bacteria and total fungi. The four most prevalent fungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria in a descending order. The major parameters associated with the airborne microbe measurements included agar type, vehicle type, and seasonal variation. When compared to the malt extract agar (MEA), the dichloran glycerol 18 agar (DG-18) was found to produce better counts for the target fungi. The summer in-vehicle bacterial concentrations were significantly higher for public buses than for the passenger cars, whereas the reverse was true for summer in-vehicle total fungal concentrations. This pattern was also consistent with summer outdoor results. In contrast, the winter in-vehicle and outdoor airborne microbe levels were similar for cars and buses. Meanwhile, summer was generally found to have higher in-vehicle fungal concentrations than winter. The current in-vehicle airborne microbe concentrations were found to be similar to residential indoor values from other reports, such as bacterial values between 10 and 10 3 CFU m -3 and total fungal aerosol concentrations ranging from 10 to 10 3 CFU m -3. It was suggested that motor vehicles in which many individuals spend a certain percentage of their day or week for travel are also a potential microenvironment for individual exposure to airborne microbes.

  1. Standard test method for airborne asbestos concentration in ambient and indoor atmospheres as determined by transmission electron microscopy direct transfer (TEM). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-22 on Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.07 on Asbestos. Current edition approved Jul. 10, 1998. Published October 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  2. Nephropathy in cadmium workers: assessment of risk from airborne occupational exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Thun, M J; Osorio, A M; Schober, S; Hannon, W H; Lewis, B; Halperin, W

    1989-01-01

    To assess the quantitative relation between exposure to airborne cadmium and various markers of renal tubular and glomerular function, 45 male workers employed at a plant that recovers cadmium from industrial waste and 32 male hospital workers of similar age and geographical location were examined. Cumulative external exposure to airborne cadmium (dose) was estimated from historical air sampling data, adjusted for respirator use. Increasing cadmium dose was associated with multiple renal tubular functional abnormalities, including reduced reabsorption of beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2), retinol binding protein (RBP), calcium, and phosphate. Serum creatinine concentration also increased with cadmium dose, suggesting impaired glomerular function. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in the cadmium workers than in the unexposed (134 v 120 mm Hg and 80 v 73 mm Hg respectively), but only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with cadmium dose in multivariate analyses. Cadmium dose remained the most important predictor of serum creatinine concentration after controlling for age, blood pressure, body size, and other extraneous factors. Logistic regression to model the probability (prevalence) of various renal abnormalities with increasing dose of cadmium was used. The probability of multiple tubular abnormalities and raised serum creatinine concentration increased sharply at cumulative cadmium exposures exceeding 300 mg/m3 days, corresponding to working for 4.3 years at the current permissible United States exposure limit for cadmium dust. PMID:2818957

  3. Asbestos fibre release by corroded and weathered asbestos-cement products.

    PubMed

    Spurny, K R

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of portable equipment and a method of sampling and measuring asbestos fibre emissions from solid plane surfaces of asbestos-cement products (roofs and facades). Asbestos-cement products, e.g., roof tiles, contain as much as 11-12% of chrysotile asbestos. As a result of continuing exposure to the weather and to acid rain, the surface of asbestos-cement products becomes corroded and weathered. Cement particles, asbestos fibres and agglomerates of particles and fibres are therefore released from the surface and dispersed in air and water. The method described has been used to measure asbestos fibre emissions and ambient air concentrations in the Federal Republic of Germany over the period 1984-1986.

  4. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  5. [Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax].

    PubMed

    Hieckel, H-G; Hering, K G

    2010-07-01

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. PMID:20521020

  6. Asbestos case and its current implications for global health.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Comba, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach.

  7. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  8. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-05-12

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning.

  9. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  10. Airborne benzene exposures from cleaning metal surfaces with small volumes of petroleum solvents.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Dana M; Kerger, Brent D; Unice, Kenneth M; Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Madl, Amy K; Sahmel, Jennifer E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2013-06-01

    Airborne benzene concentrations were measured in a room with controlled air exchange during surface cleaning with two petroleum-based solvents (a paint thinner and an engine degreaser). The solvents were spiked with benzene to obtain target concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1% by volume in the liquid. Personal samples on the worker and area samples up to 1.8m away were collected over 12 events (n=84 samples) designed to examine variation in exposure with solvent type, cleaning method (rag wipe or spatula scrape), surface area cleaned, air exchange rate, solvent volume applied, and distance from the cleaned surface. Average task breathing zone concentrations of benzene represented by 18-32 min time-weighted averages were 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 0.27 ppm, when the solvents contained approximately 0.003, 0.008, and 0.07% benzene. Solvent benzene concentration, volume applied, and distance from the handling activities had the greatest effect on airborne concentrations. The studied solvent products containing 0.07% benzene (spiked) did not exceed the current OSHA permissible exposure limit of 1 ppm (averaged over 8h) or the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value of 0.5 ppm, in any of the tested short-term exposure scenarios. These data suggest that, under these solvent use scenarios, petroleum-based solvent products produced in the United States after 1978 likely did not produce airborne benzene concentrations above those measured if the concentration was less than 0.1% benzene. PMID:23088855

  11. Characterizing exposures to airborne metals and nanoparticle emissions in a refinery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur; Drake, Pamela L; Hintz, Patrick; Habjan, Matt

    2010-07-01

    An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m(-3) even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of

  12. Airborne benzene exposures from cleaning metal surfaces with small volumes of petroleum solvents.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Dana M; Kerger, Brent D; Unice, Kenneth M; Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Madl, Amy K; Sahmel, Jennifer E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2013-06-01

    Airborne benzene concentrations were measured in a room with controlled air exchange during surface cleaning with two petroleum-based solvents (a paint thinner and an engine degreaser). The solvents were spiked with benzene to obtain target concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1% by volume in the liquid. Personal samples on the worker and area samples up to 1.8m away were collected over 12 events (n=84 samples) designed to examine variation in exposure with solvent type, cleaning method (rag wipe or spatula scrape), surface area cleaned, air exchange rate, solvent volume applied, and distance from the cleaned surface. Average task breathing zone concentrations of benzene represented by 18-32 min time-weighted averages were 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 0.27 ppm, when the solvents contained approximately 0.003, 0.008, and 0.07% benzene. Solvent benzene concentration, volume applied, and distance from the handling activities had the greatest effect on airborne concentrations. The studied solvent products containing 0.07% benzene (spiked) did not exceed the current OSHA permissible exposure limit of 1 ppm (averaged over 8h) or the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value of 0.5 ppm, in any of the tested short-term exposure scenarios. These data suggest that, under these solvent use scenarios, petroleum-based solvent products produced in the United States after 1978 likely did not produce airborne benzene concentrations above those measured if the concentration was less than 0.1% benzene.

  13. Sensory and other neurogenic effects of exposures to airborne office dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Attermann, J.

    This Danish Office Dust Experiment investigated the response of 24 healthy non-sensitive adult subjects to exposure to normal office dust in the air (7 μg m -3 clean air, 136 and 390 μg m -3 TSP). The dust had no major identifiable specific reactive components. The exposure duration was 5 1/4 h and was arranged in a climate chamber in controlled atmospheric conditions. Measurements were made acutely at exposure onset, subacutely at exposure end and next day (late). As secondary aims the time course and threshold of any observed effect of the exposures, and the characteristics of any hyperresponding subgroup were investigated. In a questionnaire with 36 questions the dust exposures caused increased acute, subacute and late perceptions of reduced air quality, acute and subacute increased odor intensity, acute eye irritation, acute and late heavy head, subacute feeling of perspiration, and subacute general irritation. Cough increased subacutely during exposures. In addition, a performance test showed effects of dust exposures which also affected "Mood Scale" ratings. No effect was seen on an addition test for distraction, and objective measurements of skin humidity. The overall conclusion of the study is that healthy subjects without hypersensitivity reactions seem to respond to airborne house dust. The responses are both subjective sensory reactions and other neurogenic effects even at exposure levels within the range found in normal buildings. Some of the effects appeared acutely and decreased through adaptation while others increased during prolonged exposure and remained for more than 17 h after the exposure ended. The findings may indicate for this type of dust a threshold level for the dose-response relationships below 140 μg m -3.

  14. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  15. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    cultivating peppermint are exposed during processing of this herb to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. The exposure to bioaerosols during processing of chamomile is lower; nevertheless, peak values create a respiratory risk for exposed farmers. PMID:16457486

  16. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.M.; Rogers, R.A.; Sepulveda, R.; Kunzendorf, P.; Bellmann, B.; Ernst, H.; Creutzenberg, O.; Phillips, J.I.

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  17. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part V--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter "Oil" (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968.

  18. Asbestos remediation, removal, and containment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the cleanup of asbestos pollution and asbestos construction remediation. Articles discuss cleanup of asbestos-polluted water, removal of asbestos insulation from public and private buildings, and control of air pollution during removal. Asbestos containment by impervious coatings, exposure control in industrial workplaces, and removal from drinking water are also covered. Analysis, monitoring, and control techniques for asbestos abatement are included. Toxicity and effects on health from asbestos exposure are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

  20. Factors Affecting Vegetable Growers’ Exposure to Fungal Bioaerosols and Airborne Dust

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Vinni M.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    We have quantified vegetable growers’ exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1→3)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers’ exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust. Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers’ exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants. Also removing strings in cucumber greenhouses caused a lower exposure to bioaerosols than harvest of cucumbers while removal of old plants caused the highest exposure. In general, the exposure was higher in greenhouses than in open fields. The exposures to β-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m−3) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers’ exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked, the investigated work tasks, and the vegetable crop. PMID:22003240

  1. DEFINITION FOR ASBESTOS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; Kuntze, Richard A.; Clifton, Robert A.; ,

    1984-01-01

    A definition of asbestos is proposed. Under this definition, the term asbestos applies to six naturally occurring minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, which are in part derived from their asbestiform habit. The six minerals are the serpentine mineral chrysotile and the amphibole minerals grunerite asbestos (also referred to as amosite), riebeckite asbestos (also referred to as crocidolite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Individual mineral particles, however processed and regardless of their mineral name, are not demonstrated to be asbestos if the length-to-width ratio is less than 20:1.

  2. Relationship Between Birth Weight and Exposure to Airborne Fine Particulate Potassium and Titanium During Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Belanger, Kathleen; Ebisu, Keita; Gent, Janneane F.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne particles are linked to numerous health impacts, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies of particles examined total mass, although the chemical structure of particles varies widely. We investigated whether mother’s exposure to potassium (K) and titanium (Ti) components of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy was associated with birth weight or risk of low birth weight (<2500 gm) for term infants. The study population was 76,788 infants born in four counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts, US, for August 2000-February 2004. Both K and Ti were associated with birth weight. An interquartile range (IQR) increase K was associated with an 8.75% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–16.8%) increase in risk of low birth weight. An IQR increase in Ti was associated with a 12.1% (95% CI: 3.55–21.4%) increase in risk of low birth weight, with an estimate of 6.41% (95% CI: −5.80–20.2%) for males and 16.4% (95% CI: 5.13–28.9%) for females. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis of first births only, but not adjustment by co-pollutants. Disentangling the effects of various chemical components is challenging because of the covariance among some components due to similar sources. Central effect estimates for infants of African-American mothers were higher than those of white mothers, although the confidence intervals overlapped. Our results indicate that exposure to airborne potassium and titanium during pregnancy is associated with lower birth weight. Associations may relate to chemical components of sources producing K and Ti. PMID:22705336

  3. Relationship between birth weight and exposure to airborne fine particulate potassium and titanium during gestation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Belanger, Kathleen; Ebisu, Keita; Gent, Janneane F; Leaderer, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    Airborne particles are linked to numerous health impacts, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies of particles examined total mass, although the chemical structure of particles varies widely. We investigated whether mother's exposure to potassium (K) and titanium (Ti) components of airborne fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) during pregnancy was associated with birth weight or risk of low birth weight (<2500 g) for term infants. The study population was 76,788 infants born in four counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts, US, for August 2000-February 2004. Both K and Ti were associated with birth weight. An interquartile range (IQR) increase K was associated with an 8.75% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-16.8%) increase in risk of low birth weight. An IQR increase in Ti was associated with a 12.1% (95% CI: 3.55-21.4%) increase in risk of low birth weight, with an estimate of 6.41% (95% CI: -5.80-20.2%) for males and 16.4% (95% CI: 5.13-28.9%) for females. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis of first births only, but not adjustment by co-pollutants. Disentangling the effects of various chemical components is challenging because of the covariance among some components due to similar sources. Central effect estimates for infants of African-American mothers were higher than those of white mothers, although the confidence intervals overlapped. Our results indicate that exposure to airborne potassium and titanium during pregnancy is associated with lower birth weight. Associations may relate to chemical components of sources producing K and Ti.

  4. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, D M; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Kunzendorf, P; Bellmann, B; Ernst, H; Creutzenberg, O; Phillips, J I

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation.

  5. Inventory of PCBs in Chicago and Opportunities for Reduction in Airborne Emissions and Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Caitlin E; Spak, Scott N; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are important regional sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and population-scale airborne exposure, yet a comprehensive bottom-up source inventory of PCB emissions has never been quantified at urban scales in the United States. Here we report a comprehensive parcel level inventory of PCB stocks and emissions for Chicago, Illinois, developed with a transferable method from publicly available data. Chicago's legacy stocks hold 276 ± 147 tonnes ∑PCBs, with 0.2 tonnes added annually. Transformers and building sealants represent the largest legacy categories at 250 and 20 tonnes, respectively. From these stocks, annual emissions rates of 203 kg for ∑PCBs and 3 kg for PCB 11 explain observed concentrations in Chicago air. Sewage sludge drying contributes 25% to emissions, soils 31%, and transformers 21%. Known contaminated sites account for <1% of stocks and 17% of emissions to air. Paint is responsible for 0.00001% of stocks but up to 7% of ∑PCBs emissions. Stocks and emissions are highly concentrated and not correlated with population density or demographics at the neighborhood scale. Results suggest that strategies to further reduce exposure and ecosystem deposition must focus on the largest emissions sources rather than the most contaminated sites or the largest closed source legacy stocks.

  6. Risk assessment of exposure to waterborne and airborne radon-222 in Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1987-12-01

    This study analyzed epidemiological and experimental animal studies in order to develop exposure-response relationships for radon-induced cancer. These relationships were used to estimate lifetime risks and annual excess cases based on the available waterborne and airborne data for Illinois. Exceedances of the USEPA action level of 4pCi/l occurred in 13% of 303 first-floor measurements and 43% of 1094 basement measurements. For waterborne radon, the highest lifetime risk of cancer mortality associated with an Illinois groundwater-based drinking water system was estimated to be 4 x 104. The number of excess cases of fatal cancer generated per year in Illinois was estimated to be about six. For airborne radon, a tentative value of 0.9 pCi/l (for first floors), derived from the limited existing data, was used to estimate the average lifetime lung-cancer mortality risk and the number of excess cases of fatal lung cancer generated per year. The average lifetime lung-cancer mortality risk was estimated to be 0.0048, and the annual number of excess cases of fatal lung cancer was estimated to be 784. Due to the nature of the underlying exposure-response relationships for radon-induced cancer, the values presented most likely represent upper-bound estimates.

  7. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the results with previous observation data. The concentrations were compared with the currently used air quality standards. Results Evaporation was found to be 10- to 1,000-fold higher than the emissions produced from a surrounding industrial complex. The modeled concentrations for benzene failed to meet current labor environmental standards, and the concentration of benzene, toluene, ortho- meta- para-xylene were higher than the values specified by air quality standards and guideline values on the ocean. The concentrations of total VOCs were much higher than indoor environmental criteria for the entire Taean area for a few days. Conclusions The extent of airborne exposure was clearly not the same as that for normal conditions. PMID:22468262

  8. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  9. Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (≤2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: β = −3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: β = −3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children’s IQ adversely. PMID:19620194

  10. Asbestos and peritoneal mesothelioma among college-educated men.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura S; Acherman, Yair I Z; Haile, Elizabeth; Sokas, Rosemary K; Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2005-01-01

    The proportion of peritoneal mesotheliomas among all mesotheliomas has been decreasing, leading some to suggest that peritoneal mesothelioma occurs only after high levels of exposure to asbestos. To investigate the relationship between asbestos exposure and the development of peritoneal mesothelioma, a case-control study examined 40 cases of primary peritoneal mesothelioma from a single institution. This series differed from previous reports in that 75% of the cases and controls had attended college. Results show an odds ratio of 6.6 for asbestos exposure among this group of primary peritoneal mesothelioma cases with relatively slight asbestos exposures.

  11. Studies on the inhalation toxicology of two fiberglasses and amosite asbestos in the Syrian golden hamster. Part II. Results of chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    McConnell, E E; Axten, C; Hesterberg, T W; Chevalier, J; Miiller, W C; Everitt, J; Oberdörster, G; Chase, G R; Thevenaz, P; Kotin, P

    1999-09-01

    Fiberglass (FG) is the largest category of man-made mineral fibers (MMVFs). Many types of FG are manufactured for specific uses building insulation, air handling, filtration, and sound absorption. In the United States, > 95% of FG produced is for building insulation. Several inhalation studies in rodents of FG building insulation have shown no indication of pulmonary fibrosis or carcinogenic activity. However, because of increasing use and potential for widespread human exposure, a chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity inhalation study of a typical building insulation FG (MMVF 10a) was conducted in hamsters, which were shown to be highly sensitive to the induction of mesotheliomas with another MMVF. A special-application FG (MMVF 33) and amosite asbestos were used for comparative purposes. Groups of 140 weanling male Syrian golden hamsters were exposed via nose-only inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 78 wk to either filtered air (chamber controls) or MMVF 10a, MMVF 33, or amosite asbestos at 250-300 WHO fibers/cm(3) with two additional amosite asbestos groups at 25 and 125 WHO fibers/cm(3). They were then held unexposed for 6 wk until approximately 10-20% survival. After 13, 26, 52, and 78 wk, various pulmonary parameters and lung fiber burdens were evaluated. Groups hamsters were removed from exposure at 13 and 52 wk and were held until 78 wk (recovery groups). Initial lung deposition of long fibers (>20 microm in length) after a single 6-h exposure was similar for all 3 fibers exposed to 250-300 fibers/cm(3). MMVF 10a lungs showed inflammation (which regressed in recovery hamsters) but no pulmonary or pleural fibrosis or neoplasms. MMVF 33 induced more severe inflammation and mild interstitial and pleural fibrosis by 26 wk that progressed in severity until 52 wk, after which it plateaued. While the inflammatory lesions regressed in the recovery animals, pulmonary or pleural fibrosis did not. A single multicentric mesothelioma was observed at 32 wk. No neoplasms

  12. Effects of electrostatic charge on the pathogenicity of chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Bolton, R E; Douglas, A N; Jones, A D; Smith, T

    1988-05-01

    Two groups of 48 rats of the AF/HAN strain were exposed for one year to respirable dust clouds of UICC chrysotile asbestos at a dose level of 10 mg/m3. One group was treated with dust carrying the normal electrostatic charge produced during dust generation, whereas the other was exposed to dust discharged by exposure to ionising radiation from a thallium-204 source. After dusting most animals were retained for their full life span. At the end of the dusting period those animals treated with normally charged dust had significantly more chrysotile retained in their lungs than animals exposed to discharged dust. Subsequently, animals treated with normally charged dust developed more pulmonary fibrosis and more pulmonary tumours. These findings suggest that the charge carried by airborne fibres should be taken into account when considering the health risks from exposure to chrysotile. Highly charged fibres are more likely to be deposited in lung tissue and thus constitute a greater hazard.

  13. Analysing the health effects of simultaneous exposure to physical and chemical properties of airborne particles

    PubMed Central

    Pirani, Monica; Best, Nicky; Blangiardo, Marta; Liverani, Silvia; Atkinson, Richard W.; Fuller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airborne particles are a complex mix of organic and inorganic compounds, with a range of physical and chemical properties. Estimation of how simultaneous exposure to air particles affects the risk of adverse health response represents a challenge for scientific research and air quality management. In this paper, we present a Bayesian approach that can tackle this problem within the framework of time series analysis. Methods We used Dirichlet process mixture models to cluster time points with similar multipollutant and response profiles, while adjusting for seasonal cycles, trends and temporal components. Inference was carried out via Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. We illustrated our approach using daily data of a range of particle metrics and respiratory mortality for London (UK) 2002–2005. To better quantify the average health impact of these particles, we measured the same set of metrics in 2012, and we computed and compared the posterior predictive distributions of mortality under the exposure scenario in 2012 vs 2005. Results The model resulted in a partition of the days into three clusters. We found a relative risk of 1.02 (95% credible intervals (CI): 1.00, 1.04) for respiratory mortality associated with days characterised by high posterior estimates of non-primary particles, especially nitrate and sulphate. We found a consistent reduction in the airborne particles in 2012 vs 2005 and the analysis of the posterior predictive distributions of respiratory mortality suggested an average annual decrease of − 3.5% (95% CI: − 0.12%, − 5.74%). Conclusions We proposed an effective approach that enabled the better understanding of hidden structures in multipollutant health effects within time series analysis. It allowed the identification of exposure metrics associated with respiratory mortality and provided a tool to assess the changes in health effects from various policies to control the ambient particle matter mixtures. PMID:25795926

  14. An analysis of historical exposures of pressmen to airborne benzene (1938-2006).

    PubMed

    Novick, Rachel M; Keenan, James J; Gross, Sherilyn A; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2013-07-01

    Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that, with sufficient cumulative lifetime doses, can cause acute myelogenous leukemia. Because of its volatility and solvent properties, it was used in the printing industry in inks, ink solvents, and cleaning agents from the 1930s to the 1970s. This analysis represents the first known attempt to gather and synthesize the available data on historical airborne benzene concentrations in printing facilities and exposures to pressmen. The sources of fugitive benzene vapors from printing operations have been identified as evaporation from ink fountains, exposed sections of the printing cylinder, the paper web, the paper post exit, and spilled ink. In addition, specific activities that could lead to benzene exposure, such as filling the fountains, using solvents to clean the press, and using solvents as personal cleaning agents, potentially occurred multiple times per work period. Eighteen studies were identified that reported workplace airborne concentrations in printing facilities between 1938 and 2006. Typical benzene air concentrations, considering both personal and area samples of various durations, were as high as 200 p.p.m. in the 1930s through the 1950s, 3-35 p.p.m. in the 1960s, 1.3-16 p.p.m. in the 1970s, 0.013-1 in the 1980s, and far less than 1 p.p.m. in the 1990s and 2000s. The decrease in benzene air concentrations by the late 1970s was likely to be linked to the decreased benzene content of printing materials, increased engineering controls, and to more stringent occupational exposure limits.

  15. Exposure to airborne methacrylates and natural rubber latex allergens in dental clinics.

    PubMed

    Henriks-Eckerman, M L; Alanko, K; Jolanki, R; Kerosuo, H; Kanerva, L

    2001-06-01

    The exposure of dental personnel to airborne methacrylates and natural rubber latex (NRL) allergens was studied during placing of composite resin restorations in six dental clinics in Finland. Both area and personal sampling were performed, and special attention was paid to measurement of short-term emissions from the patient's mouth. Methacrylates were collected onto thermal desorption tubes filled with Tenax TA and NRL allergens onto membrane filters. The methacrylate samples were thermally desorbed and analysed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. The NRL allergen concentrations were determined by the allergen-specific IgE-ELISA-inhibition method. The median concentration of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) was 0.004 mg m-3 close to the dental nurse's work-desk and 0.003 mg m-3 in the breathing zone of the nurse with a maximum concentration of 0.033 mg m-3. Above the patient's mouth the concentration of 2-HEMA was about 0.01 mg m-3 during both working stages, i.e., during application of adhesive and composite resins and during finishing and polishing of the fillings. Maximum concentrations of 3-5 times higher than median concentrations were also measured. Triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate was released into the air mainly during the removal of old composite resin restorations (0.05 mg m-3) and only to a minor extent during finishing and polishing procedures. The median concentration of the NRL allergen was 0.12 au m-3 (au = arbitrary unit) with a maximum concentration of 1.1 au m-3. The results show that, except for short-term emissions from the patient's mouth, the exposure of dental personnel to methacrylates and NRL allergens is very low. Measures to reduce exposure are discussed, as the airborne concentrations of methacrylates should be kept as low as possible in order to reduce the risk of hypersensitivity.

  16. Spatial Patterns of Airborne Exposures of Tungsten and Cobalt in Fallon, Nevada, From Lichens and Surface Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, P. R.; Speakman, R. J.; Ridenour, G.; Glascock, M. D.; Farris, C.; Witten, M. L.

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes spatial patterns of airborne exposures of heavy metals in Fallon, Nevada, where a cluster of childhood leukemia has been on-going since 1997. Lichen chemistry, the measurement and interpretation of element concentrations in lichens, and surface sediment chemistry were used. Lichens were collected from within as well as from well outside of Fallon. Surface sediments were collected in a gridded spatial pattern, also within and outside of Fallon. Both the lichen and the surface sediment samples were measured chemically for a large suite of metals and other elements. Lichens indicate that Fallon itself has a high dual airborne exposure of tungsten and cobalt relative to sites well away from the town. Surface sediments samples also show high peaks of tungsten and cobalt within Fallon with nothing more than background contents away from the town. The tungsten and cobalt peaks coincide spatially with one another, with the highest values located right at a "hard-metal" facility that processes these metals. This present research confirms earlier research on total suspended particulates showing that Fallon is distinct in Nevada for its high dual exposure of airborne tungsten and cobalt and that the source of these two metals can be pinpointed to the hard-metal industry that exists just north of Highway 50 and west of Highway 95. While it is still not possible to conclude that high airborne exposure of tungsten and/or cobalt causes childhood leukemia, it can now be concluded beyond reasonable doubt that Fallon is unique environmentally due to its high airborne concentrations of tungsten and cobalt. Given that Fallon's cluster of childhood leukemia is the "most convincing cluster ever reported," it stands to reason that additional biomedical research should directly test the leukogenecity of combined airborne exposures of tungsten and cobalt.

  17. Point-of-sale glass bottle recycling: indoor airborne exposures and symptoms among employees

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S; Copes, R; Bartlett, K; Brauer, M

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the impact of newly introduced point-of-sale glass bottle recycling on indoor air quality and employee health. Methods: Airborne exposures and both chronic and acute respiratory and somatic symptoms were surveyed among 226 employees at 36 randomly selected liquor stores with bottle recycling and in-house glass breaking. Each store was visited twice; between visits glass breaking was discontinued for one month in half the stores (selected at random), although bottles were still collected and stored on site. Rates of chronic symptoms were compared to an external, unexposed control population. Results: Geometric mean exposure levels were 0.18 mg/m3 for inhalable particulate matter and 3.6 EU/m3 for endotoxin (270 personal samples); 1064 CFU/m3 for viable fungi (648 area samples). Fungal levels were associated with visibly mouldy bottles being broken, outdoor fungal counts, and uncovered glass bins. Exposures were not altered by the intervention of shutting down glass breaking machinery. Compared to controls, employees reported more work related chronic chest tightness and chronic nasal symptoms. Acute chest symptoms were associated with breaking visibly mouldy bottles, but not with measured fungal counts. Inhalable particulate matter levels >0.2 mg/m3 were associated with acute upper airway irritation. Somatic symptoms were associated with measures of psychosocial job strain. Conclusion: Results suggest that this type of recycling programme may generate fungal exposures sufficient to elicit upper airway and chest symptoms. PMID:15208380

  18. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lemen, R A; Dement, J M; Wagoner, J K

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and is restricted to primarily occupational exposure studies. However, some mention of nonoccupational exposures are made because of their direct relationship to a worker or to a secondary occupational source. Over 100 epidemiological studies are reviewed, dating back to the first case of asbestos-associated disease reported by Montague Murray in 1906. The studies are divided by specific fiber type and by specific disease outcomes and the interaction of asbestos and cigarette smoking is discussed in great detail. PMID:6993197

  19. Asbestos is still with us: repeat call for a universal ban.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    All forms of asbestos are proven human carcinogens. All forms of asbestos cause malignant mesothelioma, lung, and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk, and there is no safe threshold of exposure to asbestos. Asbestos cancer victims die painful lingering deaths. These deaths are almost entirely preventable. When evidence of the carcinogenicity of asbestos became incontrovertible, the concerned parties, including the Collegium Ramazzini, called for a universal ban on the mining, manufacture and use of asbestos in all countries around the world. Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries, and safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with asbestos. Nonetheless, a large number of countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products. And in many countries that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called "controlled use" of chrysotile asbestos continues to be permitted, an exemption that has no basis in medical science but rather reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. To protect the health of all people in the world--industrial workers, construction workers, women and children, now and in future generations--the Collegium Ramazzini calls again today on all countries of the world, as we have repeatedly in the past, to join in the international endeavor to ban all forms of asbestos. An international ban on asbestos is urgently needed. PMID:20682491

  20. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Erin N.; Chen, Aimin; Ryan, Patrick; Succop, Paul; Wright, John; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  1. Human exposure to airborne aniline and formation of methemoglobin: a contribution to occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Broding, Horst Christoph; Bünger, Jürgen; Jettkant, Birger; Koslitz, Stephan; Lehnert, Martin; Marek, Eike Maximilian; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Monsé, Christian; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Aniline is an important starting material in the manufacture of polyurethane-based plastic materials. Aniline-derived methemoglobinemia (Met-Hb) is well described in exposed workers although information on the dose-response association is limited. We used an experimental design to study the association between aniline in air with the formation of Met-Hb in blood and the elimination of aniline in urine. A 6-h exposure of 2 ppm aniline in 19 non-smoking volunteers resulted in a time-dependent increase in Met-Hb in blood and aniline in urine. The maximum Met-Hb level in blood (mean 1.21 ± 0.29 %, range 0.80-2.07 %) and aniline excretion in urine (mean 168.0 ± 51.8 µg/L, range 79.5-418.3 µg/L) were observed at the end of exposure, with both parameters rapidly decreasing after the end of exposure. After 24 h, the mean level of Met-Hb (0.65 ± 0.18 %) returned to the basal level observed prior to the exposure (0.72 ± 0.19 %); whereas, slightly elevated levels of aniline were still present in urine (means 17.0 ± 17.1 vs. 5.7 ± 3.8 µg/L). No differences between males and females as well as between slow and fast acetylators were found. The results obtained after 6-h exposure were also comparable to those observed in four non-smoking volunteers after 8-h exposure. Maximum levels of Met-Hb and aniline in urine were 1.57 % and 305.6 µg/L, respectively. Overall, our results contribute to the risk assessment of aniline and as a result, the protection of workers from aniline-derived adverse health effects at the workplace.

  2. Human exposure to airborne aniline and formation of methemoglobin: a contribution to occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Broding, Horst Christoph; Bünger, Jürgen; Jettkant, Birger; Koslitz, Stephan; Lehnert, Martin; Marek, Eike Maximilian; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Monsé, Christian; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Aniline is an important starting material in the manufacture of polyurethane-based plastic materials. Aniline-derived methemoglobinemia (Met-Hb) is well described in exposed workers although information on the dose-response association is limited. We used an experimental design to study the association between aniline in air with the formation of Met-Hb in blood and the elimination of aniline in urine. A 6-h exposure of 2 ppm aniline in 19 non-smoking volunteers resulted in a time-dependent increase in Met-Hb in blood and aniline in urine. The maximum Met-Hb level in blood (mean 1.21 ± 0.29 %, range 0.80-2.07 %) and aniline excretion in urine (mean 168.0 ± 51.8 µg/L, range 79.5-418.3 µg/L) were observed at the end of exposure, with both parameters rapidly decreasing after the end of exposure. After 24 h, the mean level of Met-Hb (0.65 ± 0.18 %) returned to the basal level observed prior to the exposure (0.72 ± 0.19 %); whereas, slightly elevated levels of aniline were still present in urine (means 17.0 ± 17.1 vs. 5.7 ± 3.8 µg/L). No differences between males and females as well as between slow and fast acetylators were found. The results obtained after 6-h exposure were also comparable to those observed in four non-smoking volunteers after 8-h exposure. Maximum levels of Met-Hb and aniline in urine were 1.57 % and 305.6 µg/L, respectively. Overall, our results contribute to the risk assessment of aniline and as a result, the protection of workers from aniline-derived adverse health effects at the workplace. PMID:24899222

  3. Past occupational exposure to airborne manganese in a manganese alloy plant.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary; Bouchard, Maryse; Larribe, Fabrice; Mergler, Donna

    2008-07-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment of a group of manganese (Mn) alloy workers was performed in conjunction with a 2004 follow-up study, 14 years after cessation of exposure, to evaluate the long-term effects of occupational Mn exposure on neurobehavioral functions. The ferro- and silico-Mn alloy plant opened in 1973 and closed in 1991. The airborne total Mn (TMn) exposures for job groupings were established using personal sampling data from a 1991 industrial hygiene survey. Historical short-term total dust (TDust) data were used to estimate past TDust exposure for job groupings and plant areas. Relationships between Mn content and TDust from the 1991 survey, supported by sparse historical data, were used to estimate TMn content in the historical TDust data. Results showed past personal TDust exposure levels much higher than those found in 1991. Changes in TDust levels and corresponding TMn levels were a function of changes in ventilation, work practices, and operations, not of product (ferro- or silico-Mn). Relationships between TMn and respirable Mn (RMn) from area sampling in 1991 were used to estimate RMn exposure for the job groups. Work histories for 112 workers were developed from payroll records, questionnaires, and interviews and combined with Mn exposure estimates to develop cumulative exposure indices (CEIs). The TMn CEI ranged from 0.27 mg/m(3)x years to 100.24 mg/m(3)x years, with an AM of 24.40 mg/m(3)x years and a GM of 14.06 mg/m(3)x years. The RMn CEI had an AM of 2.95 mg/m(3)x years and a GM of 1.78 mg/m(3)x years with a range of 0.05-12.03 mg/m(3)x years. Overall average TMn exposure intensity, the TMn CEI divided by time worked in years for each worker, had an AM of 1.6 mg Mn/m(3), a GM of 1.0 mg Mn/m(3), range 0.02-6.2 6 mg Mn/m(3). The results of the 2004 follow-up study showed several concentration-response relationships between TMn CEI and neurobehavioral outcomes, which suggest that increase in cumulative TMn exposure level has long

  4. Past occupational exposure to airborne manganese in a manganese alloy plant.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary; Bouchard, Maryse; Larribe, Fabrice; Mergler, Donna

    2008-07-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment of a group of manganese (Mn) alloy workers was performed in conjunction with a 2004 follow-up study, 14 years after cessation of exposure, to evaluate the long-term effects of occupational Mn exposure on neurobehavioral functions. The ferro- and silico-Mn alloy plant opened in 1973 and closed in 1991. The airborne total Mn (TMn) exposures for job groupings were established using personal sampling data from a 1991 industrial hygiene survey. Historical short-term total dust (TDust) data were used to estimate past TDust exposure for job groupings and plant areas. Relationships between Mn content and TDust from the 1991 survey, supported by sparse historical data, were used to estimate TMn content in the historical TDust data. Results showed past personal TDust exposure levels much higher than those found in 1991. Changes in TDust levels and corresponding TMn levels were a function of changes in ventilation, work practices, and operations, not of product (ferro- or silico-Mn). Relationships between TMn and respirable Mn (RMn) from area sampling in 1991 were used to estimate RMn exposure for the job groups. Work histories for 112 workers were developed from payroll records, questionnaires, and interviews and combined with Mn exposure estimates to develop cumulative exposure indices (CEIs). The TMn CEI ranged from 0.27 mg/m(3)x years to 100.24 mg/m(3)x years, with an AM of 24.40 mg/m(3)x years and a GM of 14.06 mg/m(3)x years. The RMn CEI had an AM of 2.95 mg/m(3)x years and a GM of 1.78 mg/m(3)x years with a range of 0.05-12.03 mg/m(3)x years. Overall average TMn exposure intensity, the TMn CEI divided by time worked in years for each worker, had an AM of 1.6 mg Mn/m(3), a GM of 1.0 mg Mn/m(3), range 0.02-6.2 6 mg Mn/m(3). The results of the 2004 follow-up study showed several concentration-response relationships between TMn CEI and neurobehavioral outcomes, which suggest that increase in cumulative TMn exposure level has long

  5. Asbestos-related diseases in Thailand and review literature.

    PubMed

    Subhannachart, Ponglada; Dumavibhat, Narongpon; Siriruttanapruk, Somkiat

    2012-08-01

    Asbestos is a harmful substance that can cause both malignancy and non-malignancy in humans. Although it has been used in Thailand for several years, few cases of asbestos-related diseases were reported. Concerning about high consumption and long exposure of asbestos in the country, the incurable but preventable diseases caused by asbestos will be the health problem in the near future. The authors presented 2 cases with asbestos-related diseases, one diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma and the other as asbestosis.

  6. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  7. Saran-Chloropel plastic suit worker dose rates from airborne tritium exposure - first exposure hour

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.

    1993-04-20

    Radiological Engineering was requested to develop Tritium Stay Time Chart dose rates for the 9 mil Saran-Chloropel (CPE) plastic suit for a period of one hour or less. Assumptions utilized in previous calculations were revised to better address the first hour of exposure in the suit for emergency situations.

  8. Review of carcinogenicity of asbestos and proposal of approval standards of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sanghyuk; Youn, Kan-Woo; Shin, Donghee; Lee, Myeoung-Jun; Choi, Sang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenicity of asbestos has been well established for decades and it has similar approval standards in most advanced countries based on a number of studies and international meetings. However, Korea has been lagging behind such international standards. In this study, we proposed the approval standards of an occupational cancer due to asbestos through intensive review on the Helsinki Criteria, post-Helsinki studies, job exposure matrix (JEM) based on the analysis of domestic reports and recognized occupational lung cancer cases in Korea. The main contents of proposed approval standards are as follows; ① In recognizing an asbestos-induced lung cancer, diagnosis of asbestosis should be based on CT. In addition, initial findings of asbestosis on CT should be considered. ② High Exposure industries and occupations to asbestos should be also taken into account in Korea ③ An expert's determination is warranted in case of a worker who has been concurrently exposed to other carcinogens, even if the asbestos exposure duration is less than 10 years. ④ Determination of a larynx cancer due to asbestos exposure has the same approval standards with an asbestos-induced lung cancer. However, for an ovarian cancer, an expert's judgment is necessary even if asbestosis, pleural plaque or pleural thickening and high concentration asbestos exposure are confirmed. ⑤ Cigarette smoking status or the extent should not affect determination of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos as smoking and asbestos have a synergistic effect in causing a lung cancer and they are involved in carcinogenesis in a complicated manner.

  9. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sharon; McLaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

    2002-12-01

    We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC; metam sodium breakdown product), molinate, propargite, and simazine. Risks were estimated for the median and 75th and 95th percentiles of probability (50, 25, and 5% of the exposed populations). Exposure estimates greater than or equal to noncancer reference values occurred for 50% of the exposed populations (adults and children) for MITC subchronic and chronic exposures, methyl bromide subchronic exposures (year 2000 monitoring), and 1,3-dichloropropene subchronic exposures (1990 monitoring). Short-term chlorpyrifos exposure estimates exceeded the acute reference value for 50% of children (not adults) in the exposed population. Noncancer risks were uniformly higher for children due to a proportionately greater inhalation rate-to-body weight ratio compared to adults and other factors. Target health effects of potential concern for these exposures include neurologic effects (methyl bromide and chlorpyrifos) and respiratory effects (1,3-dichloropropene and MITC). The lowest noncancer risks occurred for simazine and chlorothalonil. Lifetime cancer risks of one-in-a-million or greater were estimated for 50% of the exposed population for 1,3-dichloropropene (1990 monitoring) and 25% of the exposed populations for methidathion and molinate. Pesticide vapor pressure was found to be a better predictor of inhalation risk compared to other methods of ranking pesticides as potential toxic air contaminants. PMID:12460795

  10. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sharon; McLaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC; metam sodium breakdown product), molinate, propargite, and simazine. Risks were estimated for the median and 75th and 95th percentiles of probability (50, 25, and 5% of the exposed populations). Exposure estimates greater than or equal to noncancer reference values occurred for 50% of the exposed populations (adults and children) for MITC subchronic and chronic exposures, methyl bromide subchronic exposures (year 2000 monitoring), and 1,3-dichloropropene subchronic exposures (1990 monitoring). Short-term chlorpyrifos exposure estimates exceeded the acute reference value for 50% of children (not adults) in the exposed population. Noncancer risks were uniformly higher for children due to a proportionately greater inhalation rate-to-body weight ratio compared to adults and other factors. Target health effects of potential concern for these exposures include neurologic effects (methyl bromide and chlorpyrifos) and respiratory effects (1,3-dichloropropene and MITC). The lowest noncancer risks occurred for simazine and chlorothalonil. Lifetime cancer risks of one-in-a-million or greater were estimated for 50% of the exposed population for 1,3-dichloropropene (1990 monitoring) and 25% of the exposed populations for methidathion and molinate. Pesticide vapor pressure was found to be a better predictor of inhalation risk compared to other methods of ranking pesticides as potential toxic air contaminants. PMID:12460795

  11. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned.

  12. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  13. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  14. No meeting of the minds on asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The debate on the health hazards of asbestos has become so polarized that researchers from one camp no longer go to the other camp's meetings. One view suggests that a spate of asbestos-triggered diseases would strike thousands of construction workers, firemen, custodians, and other people exposed to microscopic asbestos fibers that crumble from building and pipe insulation, brake pads, and hundreds of other sources. Other researchers believe that chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type in the US, poses relatively little health risk to the general public at the levels of exposure generally encountered, and that expensive removal of properly maintained asbestos-containing materials such as insulation and cement is not warranted.

  15. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles.

    PubMed

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Gonçalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-09-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which we attribute to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, we showed that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, we noticed a delayed type of irritation after 72 hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is, as far as we know, the first time that a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil in tent-cloth is described. PMID:17680869

  16. Airborne isocyanate exposures in the collision repair industry and a comparison to occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ceballos, Diana M; Weiland, Elisa C; Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2012-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m(3) for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m(3) for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UK-HSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OR-OSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  17. Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  18. Monitoring Natural Occurring Asbestos in ophiolite sequences and derived soils: implication with human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Bloise, Andrea; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on soils that developed on serpentinite-metabasite bedrocks, which could potentially be rich in asbestos minerals and, as a consequence, have a negative impact on agricultural activity and on environmental quality. In order to investigate the natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) on the surface of the soil formed from serpentinites and metabasite, we selected a study area located in Sila Piccola (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy), where previous studies highlighted the presence of asbestiform minerals within the large ophiolitic sequences that crop out (Punturo et al., 2015; Bloise et al., 2015). Agricultural soil samples have been collected mainly close to urban centres and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (TEM-EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Results pointed out as all the collected soil samples contain serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile), asbestos amphiboles, clays, chlorite, muscovite, plagioclase and iron oxides in various amounts. Electron microscope images of the soils show that their contain a variety of aggregating agents such as organic matter and clay in which individual fibres of chrysotile and tremolite-actinolite are trapped. The investigation showed that both serpentinite and metabasite rocks act as a perennial source of contamination for the agriculture lands because of the high amount of tremolite-actinolite found in the studied soil samples developed on such lithotypes. Even if asbestiform minerals usually occur in aggregates which cannot be suspended in the air, agricultural activities such as plowing can destroy these soil aggregates with the creation of dust containing inhalable asbestos fibres that evolve into airborne increasing the exposure of population to them. Since the dispersion of fibres could be associated with

  19. Anxiety affecting parkinsonian outcome and motor efficiency in adults of an Ohio community with environmental airborne manganese exposure.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient and neurotoxicant sometimes associated with mood, motor and neurological effects. Reports of health effects from occupational exposure to Mn are well known, but the reported links to environmental airborne Mn (Mn-Air) are less conclusive. Marietta, OH...

  20. Characterization of Exposures to Airborne Nanoscale Particles During Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E.; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; Mccarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M. Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 μm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 μm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM2.5 concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 μm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at ∼30 and ∼550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at ∼4.0 × 105 particles cm−3, whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm−3, depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10–100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) μg m−3; the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may exist, especially in larger scale industrial

  1. Characterization of exposures to airborne nanoscale particles during friction stir welding of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; McCarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-07-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 microm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 microm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM(2.5) concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 microm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at approximately 30 and approximately 550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at approximately 4.0 x 10(5) particles cm(-3), whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm(-3), depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10-100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) microg m(-3); the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may

  2. Chronic disease and early exposure to air-borne mixtures. 2. Exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    James Argo

    2007-10-15

    This work is part of a larger study of the impact of early exposure to releases from industry on the etiology of cancer. Releases from all kraft and sulfite mills, coke ovens, oil refineries, copper, nickel, and lead/zinc smelters operating in Canada during the exposure period of 1967-1970 have been determined. All plumes have been expressed in g BaP eq/d using the RASH methodology. The releases have been divided into process, boiler fuel, dioxin, and SO{sub 2} emissions. Combustion sources have been defined with FIREv6.23. Dioxin congenors are expected in all source types when the boiler fuel is heavy fuel oil, wood or wood bark, or coal. All about 90 communities examined have an inverted sex ratio. 53 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Essential Components of a Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan and Worker Protection Program at Sites Involving the Excavation of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdeb, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    Preparing a Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan that provides the essential information and methods of evaluation needed to assure that the health of the surrounding community is adequately protected and adapting currently existing Cal/OSHA regulations to be relevant to the protection of workers at sites involving the excavation of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) is oftentimes challenging in California. Current guidelines regarding what constitutes an effective air monitoring program are often lacking in details regarding what should be sampled and analyzed to characterize a site and what evaluation techniques should be applied to process the results of monitoring, and the current Cal/OSHA asbestos related regulations regarding worker protection are for the most part largely pertinent to the abatement of asbestos in buildings. An overview of the essential components of an effective Baseline and Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan will be presented that includes a brief discussion of the various asbestos types and fiber sizes that may need to be considered, possible approachs for evaluating temporal and spatial variability, review of selected site boundary target concentrations, and consideration of the potential for airborne dust and soil containing asbestos (and other contaminants) to migrate and accumulate offsite eventually contributing to "background creep" --the incremental increase of overall airborne asbestos concentrations in the areas surrounding the site due to the re-entrainment of asbestos from the settled dust and/or transported soil. In addition to the above, the current Cal/OSHA asbestos regulations related to worker protection will be briefly discussed with respect to their relevancy at NOA sites with an overview of the adaptations to the regulations that were developed as a result of some fairly lengthy discussions with representatives of Cal/OSHA. These adaptations include, among other things, defining how regulated areas (asbestos concentrations over 1

  4. Arsenic relative bioavailability from diet and airborne exposures: Implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yager, Janice W; Greene, Tracy; Schoof, Rosalind A

    2015-12-01

    Major human environmental health concern has been associated with inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water in which dissolved iAs is highly bioavailable. More recently health concerns have been raised regarding the extent of iAs exposure via food and other potential sources. Arsenic relative bioavailability (RBA) in soil is known to be variable; the extent and role of iAs bioavailability in food are not well characterized. iAs in coal fly ash and bottom ash are other potential exposure media for which RBA has not been well characterized. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to support evaluation of the contribution of food and coal fly ash to iAs exposure. Few studies were found that investigated bioavailability associated with As-containing coal ash or airborne As-containing particles; estimated bioavailability in these studies ranged from 11% to 50%. The implications and potential usefulness of iAs bioavailability associated with inhalation exposure to human health risk assessment remain unknown at this time. Main sources of dietary iAs intake in the U.S. include rice and other grains, vegetables, and fruits. Due to low concentrations of iAs, seafood is not a primary contributor to dietary iAs intake. Three general kinds of food studies were identified: studies of As bioaccessibility in composites, As bioavailability and bioaccessibility in specific foods, and As consumption and urinary excretion in human volunteers. One in vivo study was identified that examined As bioavailability in food. A variety of experimental in vitro gastro-intestinal protocols have been used, however, few studies have included As speciation before and after the in vitro extraction. Current data suggest that the bioaccessibility of iAs in rice is quite high, typically 70% or more indicating that iAs in rice is highly bioavailable. Adjusting for RBA may not have a meaningful impact on iAs exposure estimates for rice-based foods. PMID:26225742

  5. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review the experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.

  6. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  7. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  8. Heavy incense burning in temples promotes exposure risk from airborne PMs and carcinogenic PAHs.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kuo-Chih; Liao, Chung-Min

    2006-12-15

    We present the mechanistic-based exposure and risk models, appraised with reported empirical data, to assess how the human exposure to airborne particulate matters (PMs) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during heavy incense burning episodes in temples. The models integrate size-dependent PM levels inside a temple from a published exploratory study associated with a human expiratory tract (HRT) model taking into account the personal exposure levels and size distributions in the HRT. The probabilistic exposure profiles of total-PAH levels inside a temple and internal PAHs doses are characterized by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with the reconstructed dose-response relationships based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model, describing PAHs toxicity for DNA adducts formation and lung tumor incidence responses in human white blood cells and lung. Results show that the alveolar-interstitial (AI) region has a lower mass median diameter (0.29 microm) than that in extrathoracic (ET(1), 0.37 microm), brochial (BB, 0.36 microm) and bronchiolar (bb, 0.32 microm) regions. The 50% probability (risk=0.5) of exceeding the DNA adducts frequency (DA(f)) ratio of 1.28 (95% CI: 0.55-2.40) and 1.78 (95% CI: 0.84-2.95) for external exposure of B[a]P and B[a]P(eq), respectively. The 10% (risk=0.1) probability or more of human affected by lung tumor is approximately 7.62x10(-5)% (95% CI: 3.39x10(-5)-1.71x10(-4)%) and 3.87x10(-4)% (95% CI: 1.72x10(-4)-8.69x10(-4)%) for internal exposure of B[a]P and B[a]P(eq), respectively. Our results implicate that exposure to smoke emitted from heavy incense burning may promote lung cancer risk. Our study provides a quantitative basis for objective risk prediction of heavy incense burning exposure in temples and for evaluating the effectiveness of management.

  9. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  10. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods. PMID:19933309

  11. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Airborne Chemical Contaminants Among Professional Ski Waxers

    PubMed Central

    Freberg, Baard Ingegerdsson; Olsen, Raymond; Daae, Hanne Line; Hersson, Merete; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Molander, Paal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ski waxes are applied onto the skis to improve the performance. They contain different chemical substances, e.g. perfluoro-n-alkanes. Due to evaporation and sublimation processes as well as mechanically generated dust, vapours, fumes, and particulates can contaminate the workroom atmosphere. The number of professional ski waxers is increasing, but occupational exposure assessments among professional ski waxers are lacking. Objectives: The aim was to assess exposure to airborne chemical contaminants among professional ski waxers. It was also a goal to construct a ventilation system designed for ski waxing work operations. Methods: Forty-five professional ski waxers were included. Personal measurements of the inhalable and the respirable aerosol mass fractions were executed in 36 different waxing cabins using Conical Inhalable Sampler cassettes equipped with 37-mm PVC filters (5 µm) and Casella respirable cyclones equipped with 37-mm PVC filters (0.8 µm), respectively. Volatile organic components were collected using Anasorb CSC charcoal tubes. To examine time trends in exposure patterns, stationary real-time measurements of the aerosol mass fractions were conducted using a direct-reading Respicon® sampler. Results: Mean aerosol particle mass concentrations of 3.1 mg·m−3 (range: 0.2–12.0) and 6.2 mg·m−3 (range: 0.4–26.2) were measured in the respirable and inhalable aerosol mass fractions, respectively. Real-time aerosol sampling showed large variations in particle concentrations, with peak exposures of ~10 and 30 mg·m−3 in the respirable and the inhalable aerosol particle mass fractions, respectively. The custom-made ventilation system reduced the concentration of all aerosol mass fractions by more than 90%. PMID:24607772

  12. A Monte Carlo program to calculate the exposure rate from airborne radioactive gases inside a nuclear reactor containment building.

    PubMed

    Sherbini, S; Tamasanis, D; Sykes, J; Porter, S W

    1986-12-01

    A program was developed to calculate the exposure rate resulting from airborne gases inside a reactor containment building. The calculations were performed at the location of a wall-mounted area radiation monitor. The program uses Monte Carlo techniques and accounts for both the direct and scattered components of the radiation field at the detector. The scattered component was found to contribute about 30% of the total exposure rate at 50 keV and dropped to about 7% at 2000 keV. The results of the calculations were normalized to unit activity per unit volume of air in the containment. This allows the exposure rate readings of the area monitor to be used to estimate the airborne activity in containment in the early phases of an accident. Such estimates, coupled with containment leak rates, provide a method to obtain a release rate for use in offsite dose projection calculations.

  13. Airborne exposure limits for chemical and biological warfare agents: is everything set and clear?

    PubMed

    Sabelnikov, Alex; Zhukov, Vladimir; Kempf, C Ruth

    2006-08-01

    Emergency response strategies (guidelines) for biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological terrorist events should be based on scientifically established exposure limits for all the agents or materials involved. In the case of a radiological terrorist event, emergency response guidelines (ERG) have been worked out. In the case of a terrorist event with the use of chemical warfare (CW) agents the situation is not that clear, though the new guidelines and clean-up values are being generated based on re-evaluation of toxicological and risk data. For biological warfare (BW) agents, such guidelines do not yet exist. In this paper the current status of airborne exposure limits (AELs) for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on BW agents that lack such data. An efficient, temporary solution to bridge the gap in experimental infectious data and to set provisional AELs for BW agents is suggested. It is based on mathematically generated risks of infection for BW agents grouped by their alleged ID50 values in three categories: with low, intermediate and high ID50 values.

  14. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked. PMID:23385294

  15. Occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in an aviation base.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Bernabei, Manuele; Avino, Pasquale; Stabile, Luca

    2012-11-01

    The occupational exposure to airborne particles and other pollutants in a high performance jet engine airport was investigated. Three spatial scales were considered: i) a downwind receptor site, ii) close to the airstrip, iii) personal monitoring. Particle number, surface area, mass concentrations and distributions were measured as well as inorganic and organic fractions, ionic fractions and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Particle number distribution measured at a receptor site presents a mode of 80 nm and an average total concentration of 6.5 × 10(3) part. cm(-3); the chemical analysis shows that all the elements may be attributed to long-range transport from the sea. Particle number concentrations in the proximity of the airstrip show short term peaks during the working day mainly related to takeoff, landing and pre-flight operations of jet engines. Personal exposure of workers highlights a median number concentration of 2.5 × 10(4) part. cm(-3) and 1.7 × 10(4) part. cm(-3) for crew chief and hangar operator. PMID:22771354

  16. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  17. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked.

  18. Asbestos and cancer: An overview of current trends in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M; Magnani, C; Krstev, S; Rapiti, E; Shefer, I

    1999-01-01

    This review assesses the contribution of occupational asbestos exposure to the occurrence of mesothelioma and lung cancer in Europe. Available information on national asbestos consumption, proportions of the population exposed, and exposure levels is summarized. Population-based studies from various European regions on occupational asbestos exposure, mesothelioma, and lung cancer are reviewed. Asbestos consumption in 1994 ranged, per capita, between 0. 004 kg in northern Europe and 2.4 kg in the former Soviet Union. Population surveys from northern Europe indicate that 15 to 30% of the male (and a few percent of the female) population has ever had occupational exposure to asbestos, mainly in construction (75% in Finland) or in shipyards. Studies on mesothelioma combining occupational history with biologic exposure indices indicate occupational asbestos exposure in 62 to 85% of the cases. Population attributable risks for lung cancer among males range between 2 and 50% for definite asbestos exposure. After exclusion of the most extreme values because of methodologic aspects, most of the remaining estimates are within the range of 10 to 20%. Estimates of women are lower. Extrapolation of the results to national figures would decrease the estimates. Norwegian estimates indicate that one-third of expected asbestos-related lung cancers might be avoided if former asbestos workers quit smoking. The combination of a current high asbestos consumption per capita, high exposure levels, and high underlying lung cancer rates in Central Europe and the former Soviet Union suggests that the lung cancers will arise from the smoking-asbestos interaction should be a major concern. PMID:10350513

  19. Asbestos-related benign pleural disease.

    PubMed

    Peacock, C; Copley, S J; Hansell, D M

    2000-06-01

    Benign pleural disease is the commonest manifestation of asbestos exposure encountered by radiologists. Benign pleural thickening can appear as circumscribed parietal pleural plaques or as more diffuse thickening of the visceral pleura. Benign-asbestos induced pleural effusions are a significant and under-recognized manifestation of asbestos exposure with important sequelae, such as diffuse pleural thickening which may be associated with functional impairment and for which compensation may be sought. This review concentrates on the strengths and weaknesses of chest radiography and computed tomography for the detection and characterization of benign asbestos-related pleural disease and the relevance of imaging abnormalities to compensation and functional impairment.Peacock, C. (2000). Clinical Radiology55, 422-432. PMID:10873686

  20. Indications for distinct pathogenic mechanisms of asbestos and silica through gene expression profiling of the response of lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Timothy N.; Peeters, Paul M.; Shukla, Arti; Arijs, Ingrid; Dragon, Julie; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Reynaert, Niki L.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposures to airborne asbestos and silica are associated with the development of lung fibrosis in the forms of asbestosis and silicosis, respectively. However, both diseases display distinct pathologic presentations, likely associated with differences in gene expression induced by different mineral structures, composition and bio-persistent properties. We hypothesized that effects of mineral exposure in the airway epithelium may dictate deviating molecular events that may explain the different pathologies of asbestosis versus silicosis. Using robust gene expression-profiling in conjunction with in-depth pathway analysis, we assessed early (24 h) alterations in gene expression associated with crocidolite asbestos or cristobalite silica exposures in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs). Observations were confirmed in an immortalized line (BEAS-2B) by QRT-PCR and protein assays. Utilization of overall gene expression, unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis and integrated pathway analysis revealed gene alterations that were common to both minerals or unique to either mineral. Our findings reveal that both minerals had potent effects on genes governing cell adhesion/migration, inflammation, and cellular stress, key features of fibrosis. Asbestos exposure was most specifically associated with aberrant cell proliferation and carcinogenesis, whereas silica exposure was highly associated with additional inflammatory responses, as well as pattern recognition, and fibrogenesis. These findings illustrate the use of gene-profiling as a means to determine early molecular events that may dictate pathological processes induced by exogenous cellular insults. In addition, it is a useful approach for predicting the pathogenicity of potentially harmful materials. PMID:25351596

  1. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present.

  2. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present. PMID:25725196

  3. Grand Rounds: Asbestos-Related Pericarditis in a Boiler Operator

    PubMed Central

    Abejie, Belayneh A.; Chung, Eugene H.; Nesto, Richard W.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2008-01-01

    Context Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos remain a public health problem even in developed countries. Because of the long latency in asbestos-related pathology, past asbestos exposure continues to contribute to incident disease. Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos-related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. Although the pleurae and pericardium share certain histologic characteristics, asbestos-related pericarditis is rarely reported. Case presentation We present a 59-year-old man who worked around boilers for almost 30 years and was eventually determined to have calcific, constrictive pericarditis. He initially presented with an infectious exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chest radiographs demonstrated pleural and pericardial calcifications. Further evaluation with cardiac catheterization showed a hemodynamic picture consistent with constrictive pericarditis. A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. Discussion Based on the patient’s occupational history, the presence of pleural pathology consistent with asbestos, previous evidence that asbestos can affect the pericardium, and absence of other likely explanations, we concluded that his pericarditis was asbestos-related. Relevance to clinical practice Similar to pleural thickening and plaque formation, asbestos may cause progressive fibrosis of the pericardium. PMID:18197304

  4. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health Asbestos Program 1987-1992.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, M S; Koskinen, K; Tossavainen, A; Karjalainen, A; Rinne, J P; Rantanen, J

    1995-07-01

    In 1987-1992, the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) implemented a nationwide asbestos program aimed at preventing asbestos-related risks in good cooperation with governmental authorities, industry, trade unions, the health care and insurance systems, and mass media. The goals were to minimize all exposure to asbestos, identify people exposed at work, and improve the diagnostics of asbestos diseases, especially cancers. The program entailed several concrete actions and extensive dissemination of information, training, services, and scientific research. As proposed by the State Asbestos Committee, new use of asbestos products was banned and strict regulations were applied to renovation and inspection of old buildings. The screening study of asbestos-induced diseases included 18,943 current and retired workers from house building, shipyard, and asbestos industries. Pleural and parenchymal changes were found in 4,133 persons (22%), who were referred to further clinical examinations as suspected cases of an occupational disease. It was estimated that past exposure of asbestos among the Finnish population of 5 million causes > 150 mesotheliomas and lung cancers annually, totalling > 2,000 asbestos-induced cancer deaths by the year 2010. Although several major control actions were made or started during the program, the bulk of the preventive work still lies ahead.

  5. Geltape method for measurement of work related surface contamination with cobalt containing dust: correlation between surface contamination and airborne exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, O M; Olsen, E; Christensen, J M; Vinzent, P; Petersen, O H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The geltape method is a new method for optical measurement of total amount of dust on surfaces. The objectives were to study the potential applicability of this method to measurements of work related cobalt exposure during painting of plates with cobalt dye. METHODS--Consecutive series of work related geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside and outside the ventilation cabins of two plate painters during two full working days. The amount of dust picked up by the geltapes was measured optically with a field monitor. Also, personal air samples were collected on filters at the different work processes. In the laboratory the contents of cobalt on the geltape prints and the filters were measured with inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. RESULTS--The key results were: (a) when the geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside the cabins the optically measured area of the geltapes covered with total dust (area (%)) correlated well with the chemically measured amount of cobalt present on the geltapes. Linear correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.91 for geltape prints taken on the floor and 0.94 for prints taken on the ceiling; (b) the cumulative airborne cobalt exposure, calculated from data on work related exposure by personal sampling, correlated with the area (%) of geltape prints taken from the ceiling of the cabin (R2 = 0.98); (c) the geltape method could be used to distinguish both between work processes with different levels of cobalt exposure, and between plate painters subjected to significant differences in airborne cobalt exposure. CONCLUSION--The geltape method could produce measures of the work related exposures as well as whole day exposure for cobalt. The geltape results correlated with measurements of personal airborne cobalt exposure. In this industry the profile of exposure is well-defined in time, and it seems reasonable to apply this fast and low cost method in routine exposure surveillance to obtain a more detailed

  6. Occupational characteristics of respiratory cancer patients exposed to asbestos in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everatt, R. Petrauskaitdot e.; Smolianskiedot n, G.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicdot enas, S.; Jankauskas, R.

    2009-02-01

    Objective: To assess characteristics of asbestos exposure in respiratory cancer patients in Lithuania. Methods. Information on occupational exposure to asbestos was collected by personal interviews and occupational characteristics were evaluated among 183 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients with cumulative asbestos exposure >=0.01 fibre years hospitalized at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius. Additionally, some results of workplace air measurements were reviewed. Results. Cases with estimated cumulative exposure >=5 fibre years had worked mainly in the construction industry (49%), installation and maintenance (13%), foundry and metal products manufacturing (6%), heating trades and boilerhouses (6%) as fitters/maintenance technicians, construction workers, welders, electricians or foremen. Typical asbestos materials used by the patients were asbestos powder, asbestos cement sheets and pipes, asbestos cord, brake and clutch linings. Patients were exposed to asbestos when insulating boilers, furnaces, pipes in power stations, industrial facilities, ships, locomotives, buildings, while covering and repairing roofs, at the asbestos cement plant or unloading asbestos products. Most patients with estimated cumulative exposure of >=0.01-4.9 fibre years worked as lorry, bus or tractor drivers and mo