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Sample records for airborne asbestos fibers

  1. Real-time detection of airborne asbestos by light scattering from magnetically re-aligned fibers.

    PubMed

    Stopford, Christopher; Kaye, Paul H; Greenaway, Richard S; Hirst, Edwin; Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Stanley, Warren R

    2013-05-01

    Inadvertent inhalation of asbestos fibers and the subsequent development of incurable cancers is a leading cause of work-related deaths worldwide. Currently, there is no real-time in situ method for detecting airborne asbestos. We describe an optical method that seeks to address this deficiency. It is based on the use of laser light scattering patterns to determine the change in angular alignment of individual airborne fibers under the influence of an applied magnetic field. Detection sensitivity estimates are given for both crocidolite (blue) and chrysotile (white) asbestos. The method has been developed with the aim of providing a low-cost warning device to trades people and others at risk from inadvertent exposure to airborne asbestos. PMID:23669992

  2. [Measurement of airborne asbestos fibers on railroad rolling stock].

    PubMed

    Camilucci, L; Catasta, P F; Chiappino, G; Governa, M; Munafò, E; Verduchi, P; Paba, G

    2000-01-01

    In February 1995 the Italian Railways Health Department set up a special study group in order to assess the effectiveness of the measures adopted against hazards due to the presence of asbestos in rolling stock currently in use on the rail network. The group set up specific procedures for sampling and analysis, on the basis of the criteria fixed for civil buildings in Ministerial Decree of 6/9/94, which was subsequently applied to rolling stock by Ministerial Decree of 26/10/95. In accordance with these procedures the study group carried out environmental studies via test runs programmed by the Railways Technical Departments, on trains made up of different types of vehicles. Insulated, completely or partially deinsulated and originally non-insulated vehicles were studied. Samples were analysed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with elementary dispersion X spectroscopy (EDXS) carried out by highly qualified public laboratories (ISPESL--National Institute for Prevention and Work Safety, ARPA--Regional Environmental Protection Agency, CRA--Veneto Region, University Departments). Altogether, from the start of the programme up to September 1998, 1464 samples in 170 test runs on 619 rolling stock vehicles were examined. These involved 83 locomotives, 83 electric rail-cars and 453 carriages. The results showed that in over 99% of the samples the fibre concentrations were below 2 fibres/litre, which is the value fixed by law for buildings and rail vehicles in order to qualify for effective decontamination status. Values exceeding 2 fibres/litre were found in only 4 vehicles, which were withdrawn or blocked for further checks. As a precaution, 18 vehicles where concentrations over 1 but less than 2 fibres/litre were found, were also blocked and their return to service has been postponed for further checks and analyses until the results show concentrations below 1 fibre/litre. Environmental analyses carried out up to the present indicate an overall situation comparable

  3. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  4. Emission of airborne fibers from mechanically impacted asbestos-cement sheets and concentration of fibrous aerosol in the home environment in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Pastuszka, Jozef S

    2009-03-15

    The emission rate ((S)) of fibers released from asbestos-cement plates due to mechanical impact was determined experimentally. The emission rate has been defined as a number of fibers (F) emitted from a unit area (m(2)) due to the unit impact energy (J). For fiber longer than 5 microm the obtained surface emission factor for asbestos-cement slabs slightly increased with deteriorating surface, changing from 2.7 x 10(3) F/(m(2)J) for samples with a very good surface to 6.9 x 10(3) F/(m(2)J) for the sample with worn surface (in the SI system the emission rate unit should be (m(-2)J(-1))). The emission rate for short fibers (L < or = 5 microm) was little higher compared with emission of long fibers for all studied asbestos materials. The averaged emission rate for all studied samples was about 5000 and 6000 of long and short fibers, respectively, emitted per square meter (because of the impact energy equal to 1J). The dominating population of emitted fibers ranged from 2 to around 8 microm in length. The second part of this work constitutes the report on the concentration of airborne respirable fibers, and their length distribution in two different groups of homes in Upper Silesia, Poland. Mean concentration level of the respirable fibers, longer than 5 microm, was found to be 850 F/m(3) (according to the SI system the fiber concentration unit is (m(-3))) in the buildings covered with asbestos-cement sheets and 280 F/m(3) in the homes without asbestos-containing facades, located away from other asbestos sources. Although the laboratory and field measurements have been made by using the MIE Laser Fiber Monitor FM-7400 only, the obtained results indicate that the outdoor asbestos-cement building facades are significant sources of airborne fibers inside the dwellings in Upper Silesian towns. PMID:18692307

  5. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  6. EVALUATING AND OPTIMIZING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of EM methods for measuring airborne asbestos fiber concentrations and size distributions was carried out by studying a large number of variables and subprocedures in a five-phase program using elaborate statistically designed experiments. Observations were analyzed by...

  7. Plasma vitrification of asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Asbestos is a mineral in the form of long, thread-like fibers. Asbestos fibers have been among the best insulators of pipes, boilers, ducts, tanks, etc., in buildings, ships, and industrial furnaces. Over 150,000 metric tons of asbestos were consumed in the United States in 1984. The Environmental Protection Agency has declared asbestos fibers a known human carcinogen. And today, asbestos insulators are being replaced by manmade non-hazardous fibers. Millions of tons of replaced asbestos fiber insulators are in storage, awaiting the demonstration of effective alternative disposal technologies. Plasma vitrification has been demonstrated during May, June and July 1995 as a viable, cost-effective, safe technology for asbestos fiber disposal. A low-mass plasma arc heater is submerged under the waste asbestos insulating materials, and the intense heat of the plasma flame heats and melts the fibers. The by-product is dark, non-hazardous glass pellets. The vitrification process renders the asbestos waste safe for use as road construction aggregates or other fill materials. This paper will describe the results of start-up of a 1 ton-per-hour Plasma Mobile Asbestos Vitrification (MAV) Plant at a DOD Site in Port Clinton, Ohio. The Plasma MAV Plant is being demonstrated for the on-site disposal of 1.5 million pounds of Amosite asbestos fibers.

  8. Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an asbestos cement sheet manufacturing industry in Iran.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Davood; Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein; Mehrdad, Ramin; Golhosseini, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 tons of Chrysotile asbestos per year and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, airborne asbestos concentrations during AC sheet manufacturing were measured. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Airborne total fiber concentrations of 45 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy. The results have highlighted that 15.5% of samples exceed the threshold limit value (TLV) established the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, which is 0.1 fiber per milliliter (f/ml). Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.16 ± 0.03 f/ml. The geometrical mean was 0.05 ± 1.36 f/ml, which is considerably lower than the TLV. SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of Chrysotile (55.89%) and amphiboles (44.11%). We conclude that the industrial consumption of imported Chrysotile asbestos is responsible for the high airborne amphibole asbestos levels in the AC sheet industry. More research is needed to improve characterization of occupational exposures by fiber size and concentration in a variety of industries. PMID:20852930

  9. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment. PMID:27220109

  10. Airborne Fiber Size Characterization in Exposure Estimation: Evaluation of a Modified Transmission Electron Microcopy Protocol for Asbestos and Potential Use for Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Dement, John M.; Kuempel, Eileen D.; Zumwalde, Ralph D.; Ristich, Anna M.; Fernback, Joseph E.; Smith, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airborne fiber size has been shown to be an important factor relative to adverse lung effects of asbestos and suggested in animal studies of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/CNF). Materials and Methods The International Standards Organization (ISO) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method for asbestos was modified to increase the statistical precision of fiber size determinations, improve efficiency, and reduce analysis costs. Comparisons of the fiber size distributions and exposure indices by laboratory and counting method were performed. Results No significant differences in size distributions by the ISO and modified ISO methods were observed. Small but statistically-significant inter-lab differences in the proportion of fibers in some size bins were found, but these differences had little impact on the summary exposure indices. The modified ISO method produced slightly more precise estimates of the long fiber fraction (>15 μm). Conclusions The modified ISO method may be useful for estimating size-specific structure exposures, including CNT/CNF, for risk assessment research. PMID:25675894

  11. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although asbestos-containing resilient floor tiles are considered nonfriable, the frictional forces exerted on the tile during routine maintenance operations can generate asbestos-containing structures. tudy was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos concentrations...

  12. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS HEALTH ASSESSMENT UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent data from population studies strengthened the association of asbestos with disease. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most important asbestos-related causes of death. The data suggest that the excess risk of lung cancer from asbestos exposure is proportional to cumulati...

  13. Asbestos-fiber reentrainment during vacuuming and wet cleaning of carpet at a captive research site

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freybery, R.W.; Cain, W.C.; Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.

    1989-03-31

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of alternative carpet-cleaning techniques and to evaluate the potential for asbestos-fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet contaminated with asbestos. The equipment was evaluated at two carpet contamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations were determined before and during carpet cleaning. Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet-cleaning activity. The level of asbestos contamination and the type of cleaning method had no statistically significant effect on the relative increase of airborne asbestos concentrations during carpet cleaning.

  14. Asbestos-fiber reentrainment during dry vacuuming and wet cleaning of asbestos-contaminated carpet. Report for January 1988-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for asbestos fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet contaminated with asbestos. Two types of carpet cleaning equipment were evaluated at two carpet contamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations were determined before and during carpet cleaning. Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet cleaning activity. The level of asbestos contamination and the type of cleaning method used had no statistically significant effect on the relative increase of airborne asbestos concentrations during carpet cleaning.

  15. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc. PMID:16730109

  16. Ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos in non-occupational environments in Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Meshkani, Mohsen; Azam, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations were monitored in the urban areas of Tehran, Iran during the period of 23 August to 21 September 2012. The airborne fiber concentrations of 110 air samples collected from 15 different sites in five regions of Tehran. The monitoring sites were located 2.5 m above ground nearby the main street and heavy traffic jam. The ambient air samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM). The geometric means of the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations in the outdoor living areas was 1.6 × 10-2 SEM f ml-1 (1.18 × 10-3 PCM f ml-1). This criteria is considerably higher than those reported for the levels of asbestos in outdoor living areas in the Europe and the non-occupational environment of the Korea. No clear correlation was found between asbestos fiber concentration and the relative humidity and temperature. The SEM and PLM analysis revealed that all samples examined contained only chrysotile asbestos. It can be concluded that several factor such as heavy traffic, cement sheet and pipe consumption of asbestos, and geographical conditions play an important role for the high airborne asbestos levels in the non-occupational environments.

  17. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure at an asbestos cement sheet and pipe factory in Iran.

    PubMed

    Marioryad, Hossein; Kakooei, Hossein; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Yunesian, Masud; Azam, Kamal

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 metric tons of asbestos per year, and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, asbestos fiber concentrations during AC sheet and pipe manufacturing were measured by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) in 98 personal air samples. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels indicated a range from 0.02 to 0.55PCM f/ml (0.02-0.69PLM f/ml). The AC workers' geometric mean asbestos exposure was 0.09 PCM f/ml (0.11 PLM f/ml), with arithmetic mean of 0.13 PCM f/ml (0.16 PLM f/ml). The observed fiber concentrations in many processes were higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. Based on these findings, the PLM values were approximately 25% higher than PCM values. The SEM data demonstrate that fibrous particles contained chrysotile. The thinnest fiber recognized by SEM had a diameter of 0.2μm. Mean exposure exceeded the TLV for asbestos in pipe molding and finishing (100%) as well as sheet molding and finishing (45.5-83.3%). In conclusion exposure control may be needed to be in compliance with the ACGIH TLV and other guidance levels. Also, with regard to PCM limitations for airborne fiber analysis, the use of microscopic methods other than PCM can be used to improve the techniques used presently. PMID:21420461

  18. Urinary asbestos fibers and inorganic particles in past asbestos workers.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Sara; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Ballarin, Maria Nicoletta; Scoizzato, Luca; Carradori, Giorgio; Fedeli, Ugo; Capella, Silvana; Belluso, Elena

    2016-05-01

    To assess the validity of the procedure as a test of asbestos exposure, we compared urinary asbestos fibers with occupational and environmental exposure data in a random sample of 48 subjects with high past asbestos exposure. Occupational and environmental exposure was estimated on questionnaire, pleural plaques were diagnosed with computed tomography, and inorganic fibers and particles were identified by scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectrometry. Few urinary asbestos fibers (in 15% of workers and 17% of cases with pleural plaques) and high amount of urinary silicate (particularly nonfibrous particles) were detected. Asbestos undergoes dissolution in lung tissues, but the secondary minerals are largely unknown. These materials, possibly nonfibrous silicates or metals, could be excreted with urine. Therefore, another study including a control group is warranted to discriminate the occupational origin of minerals in the urine. PMID:25455013

  19. Health risk associated with airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Adam; Božek, František

    2015-07-01

    The following paper presents an assessment of health risks associated with air polluted with respirable asbestos fibers in towns of southwest Poland. The aim of the work was to determine whether or not any prevention measures are necessary in order to reduce the level of exposure to the pollutant. The risk assessment was carried out based on the air analyses and the latest asbestos toxicity data published by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), USA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). It was found that in some sites, the concentration of the asbestos fibers exceeded the acceptable levels, which should be a reason of special concern. The highest concentration of asbestos was found in town centers during the rush hours. In three spots, the calculated maximum health risk exceeded 1E-04 which is considered too high according to the adopted standards. So far, it has not yet been possible to find a reasonable method of ensuring the hazard reduction. PMID:26070993

  20. Evaluation of two cleaning methods for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Chesson, J.; Cain, W.C.; Powers, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The research study examined the effectiveness of dry vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities. Routine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered dry vacuum cleaners and HEPA-filtered hot-water extraction cleaners were simulated on carpet artificially contaminated with asbestos fibers. Overall, wet cleaning the carpet with a hot-water extraction cleaner reduced the level of asbestos contamination by approximately 70 percent. There was no significant evidence of either an increase or a decrease in the asbestos concentration after dry vacuuming. The level of asbestos contamination had no significant effect on the difference between the carpet asbestos concentrations before and after cleaning. Airborne asbestos concentrations were between two and four times greater during the carpet cleaning activities. The level of asbestos contamination in the carpet cleaning activities. The level of asbestos contamination in the carpet and the type of cleaning method used had no statistically significant effect on the difference between the airborne asbestos concentrations before and during cleaning.

  1. Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, N

    1989-01-01

    Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan were determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) for about 100 air samples from various outdoor settings. Asbestos fibres (chrysotile) were found in almost all samples. The fibre (mass) concentrations were in the range of 4-367 fibres per litre (0.02-47.2 ng/m3) with a geometric mean of 18 f/1 (0.3 ng/m3). The mass concentrations were similar to the earlier data reported from other countries. Samples from main roads showed extremely high asbestos concentrations and short fibre lengths compared with those of the other samples. This strongly suggested that braking of vehicles was a significant emission source of airborne asbestos. Laboratory experiments using a brake testing machine demonstrated that asbestos fibres were released during braking. In addition, the present study found high levels of airborne asbestos in some highly polluted areas, such as a serpentine quarry, a town adjacent to an asbestos mine, and factories making asbestos slate-board. On the other hand, chrysotile fibres were also found in air samples from a small isolated island in the Pacific Ocean as well as in ice samples from ten thousand years ago in Antarctica. These facts suggest that chrysotile fibres have been liberated both by industrial activities and natural weathering, and have circulated around the earth. PMID:2744826

  2. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with the installation and removal of roofing products.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Jason T; Roberts, Ben; Henshaw, John L; Pierce, Jennifer S

    2016-08-01

    Asbestos-containing roofing products were widely used throughout the 20th century, and certain products are still used in limited quantities today. Roofing products are generally considered non-friable and are not expected to release appreciable amounts of airborne asbestos fibers; however, despite the variety of roofing products that have contained asbestos over time, there are no comprehensive analyses of the exposure data associated with these products in the published literature. The objective of this study was to analyze the available data and characterize asbestos exposures associated with the installation, removal, and replacement of built-up roofing (BUR), felts, flashings, shingles, coatings, cements, and mastics under a variety of work practices. Published and unpublished literature that contained the following information was included in the analysis: (1) airborne fiber concentrations determined by PCM; (2) a description of the product(s) used; and (3) a description of the task(s) performed. More than 800 personal air samples from 12 studies performed between 1982 and 2010 were identified which fit the inclusion criteria. The findings indicate that short-term and full-shift exposures from the use of asbestos-containing roofing products were typically well below applicable occupational exposure limits. Additionally, the cumulative exposures associated with roofing work would be well below published chrysotile no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for asbestos-related diseases. PMID:27124394

  3. Efficiency of Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media: Implications for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    To measure airborne asbestos and other fibers, an air sample must represent the actual number and size of fibers. Typically, mixed cellulose ester (MCE, 0.45 or 0.8 µm pore size) and to a much lesser extent, capillary-pore polycarbonate (PC, 0.4 µm pore size) membrane filters are...

  4. Release of asbestos fibers from weathered and corroded asbestos cement products

    SciTech Connect

    Spurny, K.R.

    1989-02-01

    The controversy on whether weathered and corroded asbestos cement products are emitting biologically significant asbestos fiber concentrations in ambient air has not been resolved. Nor is it known if the weathered and corroded asbestos cement products release asbestos fibers which have the same carcinogenic potency as standard chrysotile. The purpose of this research project was to develop a method for sampling and measuring asbestos fiber emissions from solid planar surfaces (i.e., roofs and facades) consisting of asbestos cement products and to develop methods for studying the physical and chemical changes and the carcinogenic potency of the emitted fibers. Using this method asbestos fiber emissions in ambient air have been measured in the FRG during 1984/1986. The emissions of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns were in the range 10(6) to 10(8) fibers/m2.hr. The ambient air concentrations of these asbestos fibers were for the most part less than 10(3) fibers/m3. It was shown that the emitted asbestos fibers were chemically changed and it was shown with animal experiments that their carcinogenic potency did not differ from the carcinogenicity of standard chrysotile fibers.

  5. WATER FILTRATION FOR ASBESTOS FIBER REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a comprehensive review of data on removal of asbestos fibers by granular media filtration and diatomaceous earth filtration. It summarizes data obtained in pilot plant studies at Duluth and Seattle, in research program carried out at Duluth's Lakewood filtrat...

  6. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  7. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group is represented by a single asbestiform variety-chrysotile. There also are five commercial asbestiform varieties of amphiboles-anthophyllite asbestos, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. Nearly all of the asbestos mined after the mid-1990s was chrysotile. Only very small amounts of actinolite, anthophyllite, and tremolite asbestos may be mined in a few countries. Asbestos was mined in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Kazakhstan, and Russia in 2010; world production was estimated to be 1.97 × 106 tons. Properties that made asbestos valuable for industrial applications were their thermal, electrical, and sound insulation properties; inflammability; matrix reinforcement (cement, plastic, and resins); adsorption capacity (filtration, liquid sterilization); wear and friction properties (friction materials such as brakes and clutches); and chemical inertia (except in acids). These properties led to the use of asbestos in about 3,000 products by the 1960s. Since about 1995, asbestos-cement products, including pipe and sheets, accounted for more than 95% of global asbestos consumption as other uses of asbestos have declined. Global consumption of asbestos was estimated to have been about 1.98 × 106 tons in 2009. The leading consuming countries in 2009 were Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand, each with more than 100,000 tons of consumption.

  8. Health effects of asbestos and nonasbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Osinubi, O Y; Gochfeld, M; Kipen, H M

    2000-01-01

    Exposures to asbestos and synthetic fibers remain areas of great concern in the field of occupational lung disease. Despite extensive study, the health effects associated with fibers remains an area of substantial controversy. In particular, effects of fibers at relatively low doses, particularly for mesothelioma, remain a matter of evolving opinion, especially when integrated with the divergence of opinion on relative pathogenicity of different fiber types. Mechanistic studies continue to provide a window into pathogenesis and some hope for understanding dose-response relationships at the lower levels seen in contemporary Western workplaces and the general environment. Changes in clinical assessment based on use of new chest imaging techniques beyond the traditional plain film are also an area of evolution and begin to challenge B-reading as the definitive tool for noninvasive assessment of disease. Public health concerns have to a great extent been transported to the developing world where there is a strong trend toward increased use of asbestos, although it has been virtually eliminated from commerce in most developed countries. For nonasbestos fibers, the major unsettled issues are their relative potencies as carcinogens for the human lung and mesothelium and the need to sort out the relation between physical and chemical properties of these fibers and their pathogenicity. The recent discovery of "flock worker's lung" due to synthetic fibers once again alerts us to emerging diseases associated with new technologies. PMID:10931785

  9. Asbestos fiber release from the brake pads of overhead industrial cranes.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J W; Plisko, M J; Balzer, J L

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the actual contribution of airborne asbestos fibers to the work environment from the operation of overhead cranes and hoists that use asbestos composition brake pads. The evaluation was conducted in a working manufacturing facility. Other potential sources of asbestos were accounted for by visual inspection and background air monitoring. An overhead crane assembly comprised of a trolley and two hoists was employed for this study. The crane was operated for two consecutive eight-hour shifts representative of a heavy-duty cycle. Forty-four personal and area air samples were collected during the assessment. Asbestos fibers were analyzed for by phase contrast (NIOSH 7400), and transmission electron (NIOSH 7402) microscopy methods. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) asbestos fiber concentrations ranged from < 0.005 to 0.011 fibers/cc (PCM), and < 0.0026 to < 0.0094 f/cc (TEM). There were no asbestos fibers detected by the TEM method from air samples collected during the operation of the cranes. PMID:10429735

  10. Asbestos fiber release from the brake pads of overhead industrial cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.W.; Plisko, M.J.; Balzer, J.L.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the actual contribution of airborne asbestos fibers to the work environment from the operation of overhead cranes and hoists that use asbestos composition brake pads. The evaluation was conducted in a working manufacturing facility. Other potential sources of asbestos were accounted for by visual inspection and background air monitoring. An overhead crane assembly comprised of a trolley and two hoists was employed for this study. The crane was operated for two consecutive eight-hour shifts representative of a heavy-duty cycle. Forty-four personal and area air samples were collected during the assessment. Asbestos fibers were analyzed for by phase contrast (NIOSH 7400), and transmission electron (NIOSH 7402) microscopy methods. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) asbestos fiber concentrations ranges from <0.005 to 0.011 fibers/cc (PCM), and <0.0026 to <0.0094f/cc (TEM). There were no asbestos fibers detected by the TEM method from air samples collected during the operation of the cranes.

  11. Evaluation of two cleaning methods for removal of asbestos fibers from carpet. Report for January 1988-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Chesson, J.; Chatfield, E.J.

    1990-10-01

    The research study examined the effectiveness of dry vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities. Routine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficiency particulate absolute (HEPA) filtered dry vacuum cleaners and HEPA-filtered hot-water extraction cleaners were simulated on carpet artificially contaminated with asbestos fibers. Overall, wet cleaning the carpet with a hot-water extraction cleaner reduced the level of asbestos contamination by approximately 70 percent. There was no significant evidence of either an increase or a decrease in asbestos concentration after dry vacuuming. The level of asbestos contamination had no significant effect on the difference between the asbestos concentrations before and after cleaning. Airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet cleaning activities. The level of asbestos contamination in the carpet and the type of cleaning method used had no significant effect on the difference between the airborne asbestos concentration before and during cleaning.

  12. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET: DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. he carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally conta...

  13. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET. DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. The carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally cont...

  14. Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from artificially weathered asphalt-based roofing products.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Patrick; Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Floyd, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Historically, asbestos-containing roof cements and coatings were widely used for patching and repairing leaks. Although fiber releases from these materials when newly applied have been studied, there are virtually no useful data on airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with the repair or removal of weathered roof coatings and cements, as most studies involve complete tear-out of old roofs, rather than only limited removal of the roof coating or cement during a repair job. This study was undertaken to estimate potential chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures specific to these types of roofing products following artificially enhanced weathering. Roof panels coated with plastic roof cement and fibered roof coating were subjected to intense solar radiation and daily simulated precipitation events for 1 year and then scraped to remove the weathered materials to assess chrysotile fiber release and potential worker exposures. Analysis of measured fiber concentrations for hand scraping of the weathered products showed 8-h time-weighted average concentrations that were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for asbestos. There was, however, visibly more dust and a few more fibers collected during the hand scraping of weathered products compared to the cured products previously tested. There was a notable difference between fibers released from weathered and cured roofing products. In weathered samples, a large fraction of chrysotile fibers contained low concentrations of or essentially no magnesium and did not meet the spectral, mineralogical, or morphological definitions of chrysotile asbestos. The extent of magnesium leaching from chrysotile fibers is of interest because several researchers have reported that magnesium-depleted chrysotile fibers are less toxic and produce fewer mesothelial tumors in animal studies than normal chrysotile fibers. PMID:20923966

  15. FEDERAL REGULATIONS RELEVANT TO ASBESTOS POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health effects and epidemiological studies have established that breathing asbestos fibers can cause asbestosis, lung and other organ cancers, and mesothelioma. This has led to publication by EPA's Office of Toxic Substances of guidance for minimizing airborne asbestos exposure i...

  16. Airborne fibre and asbestos concentrations in system built schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdett, Garry; Cottrell, Steve; Taylor, Catherine

    2009-02-01

    This paper summarises the airborne fibre concentration data measured in system built schools that contained asbestos insulation board (AIB) enclosed in the support columns by a protective steel casing. The particular focus of this work was the CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system buildings. A variety of air monitoring tests were carried out to assess the potential for fibres to be released into the classroom. A peak release testing protocol was adopted that involved static sampling, while simulating direct impact disturbances to selected columns. This was carried out before remediation, after sealing gaps and holes in and around the casing visible in the room (i.e. below ceiling level) and additionally round the tops of the columns, which extended into the suspended ceiling void. Simulated and actual measurements of worker exposures were also undertaken, while sealing columns, carrying out cleaning and maintenance work in the ceiling voids. Routine analysis of these air samples was carried out by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) with a limited amount of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis to confirm whether the fibres visible by PCM were asbestos or non-asbestos. The PCM fibre concentrations data from the peak release tests showed that while direct releases of fibres to the room air can occur from gaps and holes in and around the column casings, sealing is an effective way of minimising releases to below the limit of quantification (0.01 f/ml) of the PCM method for some 95% of the tests carried out. Sealing with silicone filler and taping any gaps and seams visible on the column casing in the room, also gave concentrations below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the PCM method for 95% of the tests carried out. The data available did not show any significant difference between the PCM fibre concentrations in the room air for columns that had or had not been sealed in the ceiling void, as well as in the room

  17. Historical ambient airborne asbestos concentrations in the United States - an analysis of published and unpublished literature (1960s-2000s).

    PubMed

    Abelmann, Anders; Glynn, Meghan E; Pierce, Jennifer S; Scott, Paul K; Serrano, Samantha; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor concentrations of airborne asbestos have been measured throughout the US over time. However, a thorough review and analysis of these data has not been conducted. The purpose of this study is to characterize asbestos concentrations in ambient air by environment type (urban, rural) and by decade, using measurements collected in the absence of known asbestos emission sources. A total of 17 published and unpublished studies and datasets were identified that reported the results of 2058 samples collected from the 1960s through the 2000s across the US. Most studies did not report asbestos fiber type, and data based on different analytical methods (e.g. Phase Contrast Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, etc.) were combined in the dataset; however, only fibers ≥5 μm in length were considered. For a small subset of the measurements (n = 186, 9.0%), a conversion factor was used to convert mass-based data (e.g. ng/m(3)) to count-based values (i.e. f/cc ≥5 μm). The estimated overall mean and median ambient asbestos concentrations for the 1960s through 2000s were 0.00093 f/cc and 0.00022 f/cc, respectively. Concentrations generally increased from the 1960s through the early 1980s, after which they declined considerably. While asbestos use decreased throughout the 1970s, these results indicate that ambient concentrations peaked during the early 1980s, which suggests the possible contribution of abatement or demolition activities. Lastly, ambient asbestos concentrations were higher in urban than rural settings, which is consistent with the greater use of asbestos-containing materials in more densely populated areas. PMID:26671195

  18. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  19. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  20. EVALUATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS BEFORE AND DURING AND O&M ACTIVITY: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current lack of information regarding the impact of O&M activities on the potential for asbestos exposure to building staff and occupants prompted this study. This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected before and during an O&M activity i...

  1. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING, BURNISHING, AND STRIPPING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under preexisting and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. ow-speed spray-buffing...

  2. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING, BURNISHING, AND STRIPPING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Low-speed spray-buffin...

  3. Comptational comparison of asbestos fibers: Dosimetry model simulations to characterize variabilty and potency (Presentation poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled asbestos fibers result in respiratory diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma, but different asbestos fibers exhibit different potency. We applied a recently developed dosimetry model (Asgharian et al., Poster # 104) that describes th...

  4. [Concentration and form of asbestos fibers in tap drinking water contaminated from a water supply pipe with asbestos-cement].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, K; Takizawa, Y; Muto, H; Hirano, K

    1992-10-01

    The identification and concentration of asbestos fibers in tap drinking water supplied in a central area of Akita Prefecture, Japan, were determined by phase-contrast microscopy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. The following results were obtained. 1. Asbestos fibers were found in the tap water from two areas in which an asbestos-cement pipe was used for public water supply. The concentrations of asbestos fibers in the tap water were 2.7 x 10(4) to 27.0 x 10(4) fibers per liter of water in area A and 10.0 x 10(4) to 21.0 x 10(4) in area B. On the other hand, no asbestos fiber contamination was observed in tap water of area C, which shared a common water source with area A. A vinyl chloride pipe was used over the entire length of the water supply in route C. 2. Crocidolite was the predominant type of asbestos fiber detected in the tap water. Chrysotile and a mixture of chrysotile and amosite were also observed. 3. Almost all asbestos fibers detected in the tap water possessed the form of thick or sheaved fibers with lengths ranging from ca. 5 to 10 microns. Their shapes were very different from those of asbestos fibers found in the atmosphere. The typical form of the latter is short (ca. 1 micron in length) and needle-like. 4. It was suggested that the contamination of asbestos fibers in the tap water was caused by erosion and peeling off of the inner wall of the asbestos-cement pipe used as a conduit. In order to evaluate the safety of drinking water in Japan, an extensive survey on asbestos-fiber contamination in tap water is necessary. PMID:1464953

  5. Quantification of short and long asbestos fibers to assess asbestos exposure: a review of fiber size toxicity.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Guillaume; Andujar, Pascal; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Billon-Galland, Marie-Annick; Dion, Chantal; Dumortier, Pascal; Brochard, Patrick; Sobaszek, Annie; Bartsch, Pierre; Paris, Christophe; Jaurand, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    The fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, the current regulations focalise on long asbestos fibers (LAF) (Length: L ≥ 5 μm, Diameter: D < 3 μm and L/D ratio > 3). However air samples contain short asbestos fibers (SAF) (L < 5 μm). In a recent study we found that several air samples collected in buildings with asbestos containing materials (ACM) were composed only of SAF, sometimes in a concentration of ≥10 fibers.L-1. This exhaustive review focuses on available information from peer-review publications on the size-dependent pathogenetic effects of asbestos fibers reported in experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. In the literature, the findings that SAF are less pathogenic than LAF are based on experiments where a cut-off of 5 μm was generally made to differentiate short from long asbestos fibers. Nevertheless, the value of 5 μm as the limit for length is not based on scientific evidence, but is a limit for comparative analyses. From this review, it is clear that the pathogenicity of SAF cannot be completely ruled out, especially in high exposure situations. Therefore, the presence of SAF in air samples appears as an indicator of the degradation of ACM and inclusion of their systematic search should be considered in the regulation. Measurement of these fibers in air samples will then make it possible to identify pollution and anticipate health risk. PMID:25043725

  6. Quantification of short and long asbestos fibers to assess asbestos exposure: a review of fiber size toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos fibers are dependent on several fiber parameters including fiber dimensions. Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, the current regulations focalise on long asbestos fibers (LAF) (Length: L ≥ 5 μm, Diameter: D < 3 μm and L/D ratio > 3). However air samples contain short asbestos fibers (SAF) (L < 5 μm). In a recent study we found that several air samples collected in buildings with asbestos containing materials (ACM) were composed only of SAF, sometimes in a concentration of ≥10 fibers.L−1. This exhaustive review focuses on available information from peer-review publications on the size-dependent pathogenetic effects of asbestos fibers reported in experimental in vivo and in vitro studies. In the literature, the findings that SAF are less pathogenic than LAF are based on experiments where a cut-off of 5 μm was generally made to differentiate short from long asbestos fibers. Nevertheless, the value of 5 μm as the limit for length is not based on scientific evidence, but is a limit for comparative analyses. From this review, it is clear that the pathogenicity of SAF cannot be completely ruled out, especially in high exposure situations. Therefore, the presence of SAF in air samples appears as an indicator of the degradation of ACM and inclusion of their systematic search should be considered in the regulation. Measurement of these fibers in air samples will then make it possible to identify pollution and anticipate health risk. PMID:25043725

  7. The association among ferruginous body, uncoated fibers, asbestos and non-asbestos fibers in lung tissue in terms of length.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Sakakibara, Yoko; Hisanaga, Naomi; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yu, Il-Je; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Seno, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fumio; Shibata, Eiji

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the correlations between the concentrations of ferruginous body as well as uncoated fiber both of which can be observed with phase-contrast microscope and the concentration of various inorganic fibers including asbestos which requires the observation with TEM or SEM, we measured those indices among Japanese and Korean cases. Though the concentration of ferruginous body in lung tissue is an important index of asbestos exposure, uncoated fibers observed with phase-contrast microscope might be another index especially in such cases with relatively low exposure due to their history of living in a general environment. However, to establish the reliability of uncoated fibers as an index of asbestos exposure, analysis with more cases and from various backgrounds must be carried out. PMID:27021059

  8. The association among ferruginous body, uncoated fibers, asbestos and non-asbestos fibers in lung tissue in terms of length

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Takayoshi; SAKAKIBARA, Yoko; HISANAGA, Naomi; SAKAI, Kiyoshi; YU, Il-Je; LIM, Hyun-Sul; MIKAMO, Hiroshige; SENO, Hiroshi; KOBAYASHI, Fumio; SHIBATA, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the correlations between the concentrations of ferruginous body as well as uncoated fiber both of which can be observed with phase-contrast microscope and the concentration of various inorganic fibers including asbestos which requires the observation with TEM or SEM, we measured those indices among Japanese and Korean cases. Though the concentration of ferruginous body in lung tissue is an important index of asbestos exposure, uncoated fibers observed with phase-contrast microscope might be another index especially in such cases with relatively low exposure due to their history of living in a general environment. However, to establish the reliability of uncoated fibers as an index of asbestos exposure, analysis with more cases and from various backgrounds must be carried out. PMID:27021059

  9. Retrospective exposure assessment of airborne asbestos related to skilled craftsmen at a petroleum refinery in Beaumont, Texas (1940-2006).

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela; Paustenbach, Dennis; Balzer, J LeRoy; Mangold, Carl

    2007-07-01

    Despite efforts over the past 50 or more years to estimate airborne dust or fiber concentrations for specific job tasks within different industries, there have been no known attempts to reconstruct historical asbestos exposures for the many types of trades employed in various nonmanufacturing settings. In this paper, 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) asbestos exposures were estimated for 12 different crafts from the 1940s to the present day at a large petroleum refinery in Beaumont, TX. The crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, and maintenance workers. This analysis quantitatively accounts for (1) the historical use of asbestos-containing materials at the refinery, (2) the typical workday of the different crafts and specific opportunities for exposure to asbestos, (3) industrial hygiene asbestos air monitoring data collected at this refinery and similar facilities since the early 1970s, (4) published and unpublished data sets on task-specific dust or fiber concentrations encountered in various industrial settings since the late 1930s, and (5) the evolution of respirator use and other workplace practices that occurred as the hazards of asbestos became better understood over time. Due to limited air monitoring data for most crafts, 8-h TWA fiber concentrations were calculated only for insulators, while all other crafts were estimated to have experienced 8-h TWA fiber concentrations at some fraction of that experienced by insulators. A probabilistic (Monte Carlo) model was used to account for potential variability in the various data sets and the uncertainty in our knowledge of selected input parameters used to estimate exposure. Significant reliance was also placed on our collective professional experiences working in the fields of industrial hygiene, exposure assessment, and process engineering over the last 40 yr. Insulators at this refinery were

  10. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g{sup −1}. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup 6} g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup −6} f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  11. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos... available for public comment entitled ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other..., ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of...

  12. FATE OF INGESTED CHRYSOTILE ASBESTOS FIBER IN THE NEWBORN BABOON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to determine if orally administered chrysotile asbestos fibers could penetrate through the gastrointestinal tract of the neonate baboon and be recovered in selected tissues. A neonate baboon was given a cumulative dose of 3 to the 13th power chr...

  13. X-RAY ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS. FINAL REPORT: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPE ASBESTOS ANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype asbestos analyzer has been designed and constructed for use by the Environmental Protection Agency. It incorporates the principle of broad-beam x-ray optics and the special fiber-aligned sample described in earlier reports (PB-241 285 and PB-266 671). The prototype in...

  14. Genotoxic mechanisms of asbestos fibers: role of extranuclear targets.

    PubMed

    Xu, An; Huang, Xuelian; Lien, Yu-Chin; Bao, Lingzhi; Yu, Zengliang; Hei, Tom K

    2007-05-01

    Asbestos fibers are carcinogenic to both humans and experimental animals. The continued discoveries of exposure routes whereby the general public is exposed to asbestos suggest a long-term, low-dose exposure for a large number of people. However, the mechanisms by which asbestos induces malignancy are not entirely understood. In previous studies, we have shown that asbestos is an effective gene and chromosomal mutagen when assayed using the highly sensitive AL mutation assay and that the mutagenicity is mediated by reactive oxygen species. The objective of the present study is to determine the origin of these radical species, particularly reactive nitrogen species, in fiber mutagenesis. Using the radical probe 5',6'-chloromethyl-2',7'-dihydroxyphenoxazine diacetate to trap reactive radical species, we showed that crocidolite increased the levels of oxyradicals in cytoplasts, in the absence of the nucleus, in a dose-dependent manner, which was reduced significantly by cotreatment with the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide. Treatment of enucleated cells with crocidolite asbestos followed by rescue fusion using karyoplasts from control cells resulted in significant mutant induction, indicating that the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction is necessary for fiber mutagenesis. Using the fluorescent probe 2,3-diaminonaphthotriazole, crocidolite fibers were shown to induce a dose-dependent increase of nitric oxide production, which was suppressed significantly by concurrent treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Similarly, there was a dose-dependent decrease in the mutation yield induced by crocidolites in the presence of graded doses of L-NMMA. These data showed that extranuclear targets play an essential role in the initiation of oxidative damage that mediates fiber mutagenesis in mammalian cells. PMID:17447795

  15. Direct enhancement by cigarette smoke of asbestos fiber penetration and asbestos-induced epithelial proliferation in rat tracheal explants

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, J.; Gilks, B.; Wright, J.; Churg, A.

    1988-06-01

    Tracheal explants from Sprague-Dawley rats were briefly exposed to cigarette smoke or air (control) and then to amosite asbestos. Asbestos fibers in or under the tracheal epithelium were counted and extent of hyperplastic lesions was ascertained at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 1 week after exposure. Smoke-exposed cultures showed significantly greater numbers of fibers in the epithelium and greater proliferative activity compared to findings in cultures not exposed to smoke. These observations indicate that very short exposure to cigarette smoke can directly affect the response of the epithelium to asbestos fibers and that smoke exposure need not be concurrent with asbestos exposure for such event to occur. These reactions may play a role in the greater incidences of lung cancer and asbestosis seen in asbestos-exposed workers who smoke.

  16. TEM OBSERVATIONS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS STRUCTURES DURING THE REMOVAL OF VINYL ASBESTOS TILES AND MASTIC ADHESIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following details a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Tulsa District) research project to determine potential release of asbestos during removal of vinyl floor tiles (VAT) and mastic adhesive, both containing asbestos. Tests were conducted in seven enclosed test areas constructed...

  17. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  18. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  19. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  20. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  1. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  2. EVALUATION OF AEROSOLIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND RELATED FIBERS FROM BULK MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings; and, 2. Update on the Evaluation of Aerosolization of Asbestos and Related Fibers from Bulk Materials. This abstract a...

  3. X-RAY ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS. INTERIM REPORT: SAMPLE PREPARATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A measurement technique, suitable for submicrogram quantities of asbestos, using a combination of fiber alignment and x-ray diffraction was previously introduced. The x-ray measurement of aligned fibers is a straightforward operation. However, it has since been found that the sam...

  4. Numbers and types of asbestos fibers in subjects with pleural plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, M. L.; Prescott, B. T.; Kuwahara, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analyzed asbestos fibers in lung samples from 20 subjects with pleural plaques discovered on autopsy and compared the findings to their previous analyses of lungs from subjects with little or no asbestos exposure and no plaques. Sixteen of the subjects with plaques had a history of exposure to asbestos. The authors used electron-optical methods and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to investigate the structure, diffraction patterns, and chemical composition of the asbestos fibers. The subjects with plaques had significantly higher median concentrations than the control subjects for amosite and crocidolite fibers (P less than 0.01) but not for the other fiber types. Minimal microscopic asbestosis was present in the 3 subjects who had the highest amosite concentrations. In the subjects with typical plaques, a history of asbestos exposure, and more fibers than in the control population, the relation of the plaques to asbestos was confirmed; for others, it was uncertain. PMID:7124907

  5. Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  6. ASBESTOS FIBER RELEASE DURING CHANGE-OUT OF FILTER BAGS FROM HEPA-FILTERED VACUUM CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are the primary tool used to clean up asbestos containing material during operations and maintenance (O&M) activities. he change-out of vacuum bags is a potential source of airborne asbestos contamination. n 1989 and...

  7. EVALUATION OF TWO CLEANING METHODS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM CARPET

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study examined the effectiveness of dry vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities. outine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficiency particul...

  8. EVALUATION OF TWO CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM CARPET

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study examined the effectiveness of dry vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities. outine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficiency particul...

  9. Chronic inhalation study of fiber glass and amosite asbestos in hamsters: twelve-month preliminary results.

    PubMed Central

    Hesterberg, T W; Axten, C; McConnell, E E; Oberdörster, G; Everitt, J; Miiller, W C; Chevalier, J; Chase, G R; Thevenaz, P

    1997-01-01

    The effects of chronic inhalation of glass fibers and amosite asbestos are currently under study in hamsters. The study includes 18 months of inhalation exposure followed by lifetime recovery. Syrian golden hamsters are exposed, nose only, for 6 hr/day, 5 day/week to size-selected test fibers: MMVF10a (Schuller 901 insulation glass); MMVF33 (Schuller 475 durable glass); amosite asbestos (three doses); or to filtered air (controls). Here we report interim results on airborne fiber characterization, lung fiber burden, and pathology (preliminary) through 12 months. Aerosolized test fibers averaged 15 to 20 microns in length and 0.5 to 1 micron in diameter. Target aerosol concentrations of World Health Organization (WHO) fibers (longer than 5 microns) were 250 fibers/cc for MMVF10a and MMVF33, and 25, 125, or 250 fibers/cc for amosite. WHO fiber lung burdens showed time-dependent and (for amosite) dose-dependent increases. After a 12-month exposure, lung burdens of fibers longer than 20 microns were greatest with amosite high and mid doses, similar for low-dose amosite and MMVF33, and smaller for MMVF10a. Biological responses of animals exposed for 12 months to MMVF10a were limited to nonspecific pulmonary inflammation. However, exposures to MMVF33 and each of three doses of amosite were associated with lung fibrosis and possible mesotheliomas (1 with MMVF33 and 2, 3, and 1 with amosite low, mid, and high doses, respectively). Pulmonary and pleural changes associated with amosite were qualitatively and quantitatively more severe than those associated with MMVF33. As of the 12-month time point, this study demonstrates that two different fiber glass compositions with similar fiber dimensions but different durabilities can have distinctly different effects on the hamster lung and pleura after inhalation exposure. (Preliminary tumor data through 18 months of exposure and 6 weeks of postexposure recovery became available as this manuscript went to press: No tumors were

  10. Characterization of inhaled asbestos fibers in the lung of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, Y.; Hiroshima, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Goldstein, B.; Webster, I. National Center for Occupational Health, Johannesburg )

    1991-03-15

    The histopathological changes of the lungs of 7 baboons after exposure to asbestos fibers were studied, and the size distribution of the fibers was determined by electron microscopy using 25 {mu} paraffin sections and low temperature-ashing method. The size distribution of the fibers in four locations in the lung, peribronchiolar area, alveolar area, subpleural area, and interlobular connective tissue was studied. Both amosite and chrysotile induced pulmonary asbestosis and pleural thickening. Asbestosis occurred more severely in amosite-exposed animals than in chrysotile-exposed ones, and one pleural mesothelioma was found 49 months after exposure to amosite and after another 59 months of recovery in non-dusting conditions. The length, width and aspect ratios of the UICC standard sample fibers used had geometric means (G.M.) of 3.3 {mu} 0.28 {mu}, 11.8 for amosite and 1.1 {mu}, 0.12{mu}, 9.8 for chrysotile. As a whole, intrapulmonary amosite fibers were shorter than the UICC standard samples in the four baboons dusted. After 48 months exposure with or without recovery, amosite fibers found in the lungs were thinner when compared to the standard samples. For chrysotile, the length of fibers after 13 months and 26 months exposure was longer than those of standard samples of 8.5 months exposure. After inhalation, the width of the chrysotile fibers were thinner than the standard sample fibers. The size distribution of amosite fibers found in the lung and in the mesotheliomatous tissue was not significantly different.

  11. Asbestos exposures during reprocessing of automobile brakes and clutches.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Hisanaga, Naomi; Shibata, Eiji; Ono, Yuichiro; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos exposures of workers in three small factories reprocessing automobile brakes and clutches in Japan were investigated. Airborne asbestos was collected on a membrane filter using an air sampler. From 1982 to 1989, asbestos counting was performed on 295 samples (198 personal and 97 stationary), using phase contrast microscopy. Only chrysotile asbestos was detected. Workers who reprocessed automobile brakes and clutches were exposed to asbestos concentrations of 0.025-76.4 fibers/cm3. Geometric mean asbestos concentrations during attaching linings to brake shoes and attaching facings to clutch disks were 0.859 fibers/cm3 and 0.780 fibers/cm3, respectively. Concentrations during stripping worn brake linings and clutch facings were 0.484 fibers/cm3 and 0.382 fibers/cm3, respectively. Machine grinding and leveling of new brake-lining surfaces represent potential sources of heavy asbestos exposures, unless enclosures and local ventilation are efficient. PMID:16722188

  12. COMPARATIVE MESOTHELIOMA INDUCTION IN RATS BY ASBESTOS AND NON-ASBESTOS MINERAL FIBERS: POSSIBLE CORRELATION WITH HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fischer 344 rats were injected intrapleurally with chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, erionite and attapulgite and observed for their entire lifespan. etailed analysis of the number per unit mass of the various size categories of the fibers for each mineral species was determin...

  13. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... building materials (roofing shingles, ceiling and floor tiles, paper products, and asbestos cement products), friction products (automobile ... Some PDF files may be electronic conversions from paper copy or other electronic ASCII text files. This ...

  14. The Performance of Available Approaches for Quantifying Airborne Exposure to Asbestos Generated from Natural Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, D.

    2012-12-01

    General options for quantifying airborne (exposure) concentrations to asbestos include (1) direct measurement, (2) simulation, and (3) emission/dispersion modeling (of measured asbestos concentrations in the source material). Suitable options for particular applications depend on whether one is evaluating current or future and short-term episodic or long-term average exposures. Moreover, because the character and the magnitude of exposure must both be determined for many applications, methods suitable for air- or bulk-phase measurements must exhibit appropriate performance. After all, it is only when we understand precisely what exposure estimates represent that we can interpret them meaningfully. What is known about the suitability and performance of various options for quantifying asbestos exposures generated from natural deposits will be reviewed in this talk with particular emphasis on an approach in which emission and dispersion of asbestos-containing dusts are modeled from bulk-phase measurements collected using the modified elutriator method (a method designed explicitly for this particular application).

  15. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the asbestos industry in 1997 is discussed. World production of asbestos in 1997 was estimated to be 2.07 Mt. Consumption in the U.S. fell 3 percent to 21 kt, and it is expected to continue to decline at a rate of 2–4 percent per year.

  16. THE NEED TO CONTROL ASBESTOS FIBERS IN POTABLE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occupational studies have shown that asbestos is a human carcinogen. Because many inhaled asbestos fibers deposited in the lung are cleared and swallowed, workers are also exposed through ingestion. Of the millions of current and former workers who have been heavily exposed to as...

  17. EVALUATION OF TURBIDIMETRIC METHODS FOR MONITORING OF ASBESTOS FIBERS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercially available turbidimeter, modified by the addition of a magnet, was evaluated for the measurement of asbestos in water. The instrument was used to measure the turbidities of asbestos fiber dispersions in non-boiling still water, as functions of both mass and numerica...

  18. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  19. Use of direct versus indirect preparation data for assessing risk associated with airborne exposures at asbestos-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Goldade, Mary Patricia; O'Brien, Wendy Pott

    2014-01-01

    At asbestos-contaminated sites, exposure assessment requires measurement of airborne asbestos concentrations; however, the choice of preparation steps employed in the analysis has been debated vigorously among members of the asbestos exposure and risk assessment communities for many years. This study finds that the choice of preparation technique used in estimating airborne amphibole asbestos exposures for risk assessment is generally not a significant source of uncertainty. Conventionally, the indirect preparation method has been less preferred by some because it is purported to result in false elevations in airborne asbestos concentrations, when compared to direct analysis of air filters. However, airborne asbestos sampling in non-occupational settings is challenging because non-asbestos particles can interfere with the asbestos measurements, sometimes necessitating analysis via indirect preparation. To evaluate whether exposure concentrations derived from direct versus indirect preparation techniques differed significantly, paired measurements of airborne Libby-type amphibole, prepared using both techniques, were compared. For the evaluation, 31 paired direct and indirect preparations originating from the same air filters were analyzed for Libby-type amphibole using transmission electron microscopy. On average, the total Libby-type amphibole airborne exposure concentration was 3.3 times higher for indirect preparation analysis than for its paired direct preparation analysis (standard deviation = 4.1), a difference which is not statistically significant (p = 0.12, two-tailed, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The results suggest that the magnitude of the difference may be larger for shorter particles. Overall, neither preparation technique (direct or indirect) preferentially generates more precise and unbiased data for airborne Libby-type amphibole concentration estimates. The indirect preparation method is reasonable for estimating Libby-type amphibole exposure and

  20. Evaluation of asbestos levels in two schools before and after asbestos removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karaffa, M.A.; Chesson, J.; Russell, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requirements and recent EPA guidelines, the study evaluates these historical data by standard statistical methods to determine if abated work areas meet proposed clearance criteria. The objectives of this statistical analysis were to compare (1) airborne asbestos levels indoors after removal with levels outdoors, (2) airborne asbestos levels before and after removal of asbestos, and (3) static sampling and aggressive sampling of airborne asbestos. The results of this evaluation indicated the following: the effect of asbestos removal on indoor air quality is unpredictable; the variability in fiber concentrations among different sampling sites within the same building indicates the need to treat different sites as separate areas for the purpose of clearance; and aggressive sampling is appropriate for clearance testing because it captures more entrainable asbestos structures. Aggressive sampling lowers the chance of declaring a worksite clean when entrainable asbestos is still present.

  1. Cigarette smoke increases the penetration of asbestos fibers into airway walls

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D.; Wright, J.; Wiggs, B.; Churg, A.

    1986-04-01

    For study of the penetration of asbestos fibers into airway walls, guinea pigs were given amosite asbestos by intratracheal instillation. Half of the animals were also exposed to cigarette smoke. Animals were sacrificed at 1 week and 1 month, and numbers of fibers in airway walls were counted in histologic sections. In both smoke-exposed and nonexposed groups, numbers of fibers per square millimeter of airway wall increased from 1 week to 1 month in the respiratory bronchioles. At each time period, smoke-exposed animals had significantly higher numbers of fibers in the airway walls, compared with nonexposed animals. It is concluded that 1) continued transport of fibers into interstitial tissues may be the reason that asbestosis can progress after cessation of exposure; 2) cigarette smoke increases the penetration of fibers into airway walls. This effect may play a role in the increased incidence of disease seen in smoking, compared with nonsmoking, asbestos workers.

  2. Cigarette smoke increases the penetration of asbestos fibers into airway walls.

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, D.; Wright, J.; Wiggs, B.; Churg, A.

    1986-01-01

    For study of the penetration of asbestos fibers into airway walls, guinea pigs were given amosite asbestos by intratracheal instillation. Half of the animals were also exposed to cigarette smoke. Animals were sacrificed at 1 week and 1 month, and numbers of fibers in airway walls were counted in histologic sections. In both smoke-exposed and nonexposed groups, numbers of fibers per square millimeter of airway wall increased from 1 week to 1 month in the respiratory bronchioles. At each time period, smoke-exposed animals had significantly higher numbers of fibers in the airway walls, compared with nonexposed animals. It is concluded that 1) continued transport of fibers into interstitial tissues may be the reason that asbestosis can progress after cessation of exposure; 2) cigarette smoke increases the penetration of fibers into airway walls. This effect may play a role in the increased incidence of disease seen in smoking, compared with nonsmoking, asbestos workers. PMID:3963152

  3. Asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Asbestos ; CASRN 1332 - 21 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  4. Exposure versus internal dose: Respiratory tract deposition modeling of inhaled asbestos fibers in rats and humans (Presentation Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to asbestos is associated with respiratory diseases, including asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Internal fiber dose depends on fiber inhalability and orientation, fiber density, length and width, and various deposition mechanisms (DM). Species-specific param...

  5. Multiple mechanisms for the carcinogenic effects of asbestos and other mineral fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, J C; Lamb, P W; Wiseman, R W

    1989-01-01

    Asbestos and other mineral fibers are carcinogenic to humans and animals but differ from many carcinogens in that they do not induce gene mutations. An understanding of these interesting human carcinogens, therefore, is an important problem in cancer research. Asbestos and other fibers induce predominantly two types of cancers: mesotheliomas and bronchogenic carcinomas. Fiber size is an important factor in the carcinogenic activity of these substances as has been shown for mesothelioma induction. For bronchogenic carcinomas, but not for mesotheliomas, a synergistic effect of asbestos exposure and cigarette smoke has been observed in humans. The mechanisms by which fibers alone versus fibers in concert with other carcinogens induce cancers are probably distinct. In addition to fiber dimensions, fiber durability and surface properties of fibers are important properties affecting carcinogenicity. Evidence exists that asbestos is a complete carcinogen, an initiator and a promoter. Multiple mechanisms must be operative to explain the diverse effects of mineral fibers. Although asbestos is inactive as a gene mutagen, there is now clear evidence that it induces chromosomal mutations (aneuploidy and aberrations) in a wide variety of mammalian cells including mesothelial cells. Asbestos also induces transformation of cells in culture including mesothelial cells and fibroblasts. A mechanism for cell transformation, which is dependent on fiber dimension, has been proposed. The fibers are phagocytized by the cells and accumulate in the perinuclear region of the cells. When the cell undergoes mitosis, the physical presence of the fibers interferes with chromosome segregation and results in anaphase abnormalities. The transformed cells show aneuploidy and other chromosome abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images FIGURE 1. A FIGURE 1. B FIGURE 1. C FIGURE 1. D FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:2667990

  6. Role of Mutagenicity in Asbestos Fiber-Induced Carcinogenicity and Other Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sarah X. L.; Jaurand, Marie-Claude; Kamp, David W.; Whysner, John; Hei, Tom K.

    2011-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of how asbestos fibers induce cancers and other diseases are not well understood. Both serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibers have been shown to induce oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, cellular toxicity and tissue injuries, genetic changes, and epigenetic alterations in target cells in vitro and tissues in vivo. Most of these mechanisms are believe to be shared by both fiber-induced cancers and noncancerous diseases. This article summarizes the findings from existing literature with a focus on genetic changes, specifically, mutagenicity of asbestos fibers. Thus far, experimental evidence suggesting the involvement of mutagenesis in asbestos carcinogenicity is more convincing than asbestos-induced fibrotic diseases. The potential contributions of mutagenicity to asbestos-induced diseases, with an emphasis on carcinogenicity, are reviewed from five aspects: (1) whether there is a mutagenic mode of action (MOA) in fiber-induced carcinogenesis; (2) mutagenicity/carcinogenicity at low dose; (3) biological activities that contribute to mutagenicity and impact of target tissue/cell type; (4) health endpoints with or without mutagenicity as a key event; and finally, (5) determinant factors of toxicity in mutagenicity. At the end of this review, a consensus statement of what is known, what is believed to be factual but requires confirmation, and existing data gaps, as well as future research needs and directions, is provided. PMID:21534089

  7. Role of mutagenicity in asbestos fiber-induced carcinogenicity and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sarah X L; Jaurand, Marie-Claude; Kamp, David W; Whysner, John; Hei, Tom K

    2011-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of how asbestos fibers induce cancers and other diseases are not well understood. Both serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibers have been shown to induce oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, cellular toxicity and tissue injuries, genetic changes, and epigenetic alterations in target cells in vitro and tissues in vivo. Most of these mechanisms are believe to be shared by both fiber-induced cancers and noncancerous diseases. This article summarizes the findings from existing literature with a focus on genetic changes, specifically, mutagenicity of asbestos fibers. Thus far, experimental evidence suggesting the involvement of mutagenesis in asbestos carcinogenicity is more convincing than asbestos-induced fibrotic diseases. The potential contributions of mutagenicity to asbestos-induced diseases, with an emphasis on carcinogenicity, are reviewed from five aspects: (1) whether there is a mutagenic mode of action (MOA) in fiber-induced carcinogenesis; (2) mutagenicity/carcinogenicity at low dose; (3) biological activities that contribute to mutagenicity and impact of target tissue/cell type; (4) health endpoints with or without mutagenicity as a key event; and finally, (5) determinant factors of toxicity in mutagenicity. At the end of this review, a consensus statement of what is known, what is believed to be factual but requires confirmation, and existing data gaps, as well as future research needs and directions, is provided. PMID:21534089

  8. [Estimation of the indoor diffusion of asbestos fibers with the diffusion model for the external environment of Pasquill and Gifford].

    PubMed

    Bellassai, Debora; Spinazzola, Antonio; Silvestri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In absence of results of environmental monitoring to proceed with the assessment of occupational exposure, it was developed a model that retraces the one of Pasquill and Gifford, currently used for the estimation of concentrations of pollutants at certain distances from the source in outdoor environment. Purpose of the study is the quantitative estimate of the diffusion of airborne asbestos fibers in function of the distance from the source in an factory where railway carriages were produced during the period when asbestos was sprayed as insulator of the body. The treatment was carried out in a large shed without separation from other operations. The application of the model, given the characteristics of the emitting source, has allowed us to estimate the diffusion of particles inside the shed with an expected decrease in concentration inversely proportional to the distance from the source. By appropriate calculations the concentration by weight has been converted into number offibers by volume, the unit of measure currently used for the definition of asbestos pollution. PMID:26193738

  9. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ASBESTOS FIBERS TO SUPPORT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency's Asbestos Coordinating Committee (ACT) has conducted a technical review of the research needs for asbestos programs. The overall research in this task has been highlighted as a high prioirty need from that review. The filter comparison needs assessment was a recommen...

  10. Phase 2, Determining the releasability of the asbestos fiber from soils and solid matrices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors that affect the releasability or aerosolization of asbestos and related mineral fibers from a variety of sources need to be better understood to allow prediction and modeling of the relative behavior of these fibers. Examples of the sources of concern include soils, roa...

  11. EVALUATION OF TWO CLEANING METHODS FOR THE REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS FIBERS FROM CARPETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of dry-vacuuming and wet-cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet was examined and the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities was evaluated. Routine carpet cleaning operations were simulated by using high-efficiency pa...

  12. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS STRUCTURES DURING THE REMOVAL OF VINYL ASBESTOS TILES AND MASTIC ADHESIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was conducted by the Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Tulsa District to determine potential release of asbestos during the removal of vinyl floor tiles (VAT) and mastic adhesive, both of which contained asbestos. ests were conducted during July and A...

  13. Dynamics and mechanisms of asbestos-fiber aggregate growth in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Ortiz, C. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most colloidal particles including asbestos fibers form aggregates in water, when solution chemistry provides favorable conditions. To date, the growth of colloidal aggregates has been observed in many model systems under optical and scanning electron microscopy; however, all of these studies have used near-spherical particles. The highly elongated nature of asbestos fibers may cause anomalous aggregate growth and morphology, but this has never been examined. Although the exposure pathway of concern for asbestos is through the air, asbestos particles typically reside in soil that is at least partially saturated, and aggregates formed in the aqueous phase may influence the mobility of particles in the environment. Here we study solution-phase aggregation kinetics of asbestos fibers using a liquid-cell by in situ microscopy, over micron to centimeter length scales and from a tenth of a second to hours. We employ an elliptical particle tracking technique to determine particle trajectories and to quantify diffusivity. Experiments reveal that diffusing fibers join by cross linking, but that such linking is sometimes reversible. The resulting aggregates are very sparse and non-compact, with a fractal dimension that is lower than any previously reported value. Their morphology, growth rate and particle size distribution exhibit non-classical behavior that deviates significantly from observations of aggregates composed of near-spherical particles. We also perform experiments using synthetic colloidal particles, and compare these to asbestos in order to separate the controls of particle shape vs. material properties. This direct method for quantitatively observing aggregate growth is a first step toward predicting asbestos fiber aggregate size distributions in the environment. Moreover, many emerging environmental contaminants - such as carbon nanotubes - are elongated colloids, and our work suggests that theories for aggregate growth may need to be modified in order to

  14. Asbestos-induced endothelial cell activation and injury. Demonstration of fiber phagocytosis and oxidant-dependent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J G; Gray, L D; Dodson, R F; Callahan, K S

    1988-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cell injury is important in the development of a variety of chronic interstitial lung disorders. However, the involvement of such injury in the inflammatory response associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers is unclear and the mechanism of asbestos fiber cytotoxicity remains unknown. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were challenged with amosite asbestos and several parameters of cellular function were examined. Electron microscopic examination revealed that endothelial cell exposure to asbestos resulted in active phagocytosis of these particulates. Biochemical evidence of dose-dependent asbestos-mediated endothelial cell activation was indicated by increased metabolism of arachidonic acid. For example, amosite asbestos (500 micrograms/ml) produced a ninefold increase in prostacyclin (PGI2) levels over those levels in non-exposed cells. Incubation of human endothelial cells with asbestos fibers induced specific 51Cr release in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion indicative of cellular injury. Injury induced by amosite asbestos was not significantly attenuated by treatment of the endothelial cell monolayer with either the iron chelator deferoxamine, which prevents hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation, or by the superoxide anion (O2-) scavenger, superoxide dismutase. However, significant dose-dependent protection was observed with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase. Chelation of elemental iron present within amosite asbestos fibers by deferoxamine produced a 33% reduction in asbestos cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential role for hydroxyl radical-mediated injury via the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3202471

  15. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  16. [Comparative carcinogenic properties of basalt fiber and chrysotile-asbestos].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, O V; Kogan, F M; Vanchugova, N N; Frash, V N

    1989-01-01

    In order to eliminate asbestos adverse effect on workers' health it was necessary to use mineral rayon, primarily basalt fibre, instead of asbestos. During a chronic experiment on animals the oncogenicity of 2 kinds of basalt fibre was studied compared to chrysotile asbestos. The dust dose of 25 mg was twice administered by intraperitonial route. All types of dust induced the onset of intraperitonial mesotheliomas but neoplasm rates were significantly lower in the groups exposed to basalt fibre. There was no credible data on the differences between the groups exposed to various types of basalt fibre. Since the latter produced some oncogenic effect, it was necessary to develop a complex of antidust measures, fully corresponding to the measures adopted for carcinogenic dusts. PMID:2545547

  17. Asbestos publications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    NIOSH publications and testimony on the health effects of exposure to asbestos were included in this compilation as full text articles or abstracts. Additional NIOSH publications on asbestos were listed in a bibliography. The information in this report included occupational safety and health guidelines for asbestos from NIOSH; respiratory diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma); work related lung disease surveillance report; and the NIOSH analytical methods for fibers, asbestos fibers, chrysotile asbestos, and bulk asbestos. Also contained in this report was NIOSH's testimony of January 24, 1991 on OSHA's proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite; and NIOSH's statement of April 26, 1990 before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances, Environmental Oversight, Research and Development, Committee on Environment and Public Works.

  18. Engineering and operating approaches for controlling asbestos fibers in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, G S

    1983-01-01

    Techniques are available to minimize the concentration of asbestos fibers in drinking water. Filtration research conducted at locations on Lake Superior and in the Cascade Mountains in Washington has shown that amphibole and chrysotile fibers can be removed by granular media filtration. Removal percentages can exceed 99% when the raw water is coagulated properly and the filtered water turbidity is 0.10 ntu (nephelometric turbidity units) or lower. Filtered water fiber counts below detectable limits of 0.1 to 0.01 X 10(6) fibers/L can be attained. A study by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California showed that when raw water chrysotile counts ranged from 200 X 10(6) fibers/L to 2000 X 10(6) fibers/L, filtered water fiber counts frequently exceeded 1 X 10(6) fibers/L. Even so, striving to attain a filtered water turbidity of 0.1 ntu resulted in improved fiber removal. Pilot scale and distribution system research projects have shown that asbestos cement (AC) pipes can be protected from dissolution and leaching effects that can result in release of asbestos fibers into drinking water. Suggested techniques include modifying low pH, low alkalinity waters so they are not aggressive; coating the pipe wall with a chemical precipitate; and applying a cement mortar lining to the pipe wall. Operation and maintenance practices related to the distribution system, when AC water mains are in service, can influence the fiber count in tapwater. Main flushing can stir up sediment that accumulates in low-flow and dead-end areas, raising the fiber count. If mains are tapped and the cuttings are not flushed away through the tapping machine, but are instead permitted to fall into the water main, the fiber count can be raised. PMID:6559130

  19. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  20. Asbestos fibers mediate transformation of monkey cells by exogenous plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.D.; Fasy, T.M.; Kohtz, D.S.; Kohtz, J.D.; Johnson, E.M. )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have tested the ability of chrysotile asbestos fibers to introduce plasmid DNA into monkey COS-7 cells and the ability of this DNA to function in both replication and gene expression. Chrysotile fibers are at least as effective as calcium phosphate in standard transfection assays at optimal ratios of asbestos to DNA. After transfection with chrysotile, a minor percentage of introduced plasmid DNA bearing a simian virus 40 origin of replication replicates after 24 hr. Fragmentation of entering DNA is more prominent with asbestos than with calcium phosphate, and after 72 hr most DNA introduced by asbestos is associated with chromosomal DNA. Cells transfected with plasmid p11-4, bearing the p53 protooncogene, express this gene. Cells transfected with pSV2-neo express a gene conferring resistance of antibiotic G418, allowing isolation of colonies of transformed cells after 18 days. The introduction of exogenous DNA into eukaryotic cells could cause mutations in several ways and thus contribute to asbestos-induced oncogenesis.

  1. Asbestos in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  2. EFFECTS OF SELECTED ASBESTOS FIBERS ON CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic cultures were used to compare the effects of five asbestos materials on a cellular, biochemical and molecular basis. Chrysotile was found to be the most cytotoxic followed by crocidolite, tremolite, amosite, and silica. Results of tests involving cellular ratios of cycl...

  3. The relationship between fibrosis and cancer in experimental animals exposed to asbestos and other fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J M; Cowie, H A

    1990-01-01

    The association between occupational asbestos exposure and the development of both pulmonary fibrosis or asbestosis and pulmonary carcinomas is well documented. It has been suggested that the two pathological conditions are associated with asbestos-related carcinomas developing from areas of asbestosis and not occurring when exposure has been too low to produce this type of pulmonary scarring. Experimental inhalation studies so far published have not been designed to examine this association specifically, but many publications have reported that asbestos samples producing high levels of fibrosis is experimental animals are also very carcinogenic. Samples of asbestos or man-made fibers that produce little fibrosis also produce few tumors. These works are reviewed. In order to examine the association between fibrosis and tumor production in more detail, groups of animals with and without pulmonary tumors and with individual fibrosis measurements were assembled from a number of inhalation studies undertaken over a period of years at this Institute. It was found that animals with pulmonary tumors had almost double the amount of pulmonary fibrosis as animals of similar age that did not. In a few of the animals where tumors were found at an early stage of development, their origin from fibrotic areas could be confirmed, although in most cases where tumor deposits were widespread this was not possible. Experimental confirmation of the site of origin of most pulmonary tumors in asbestos-treated rats would require new studies with rats examined specifically at an age when early tumors would be expected. PMID:2272327

  4. Increased epidermal growth factor-receptor protein in a human mesothelial cell line in response to long asbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Pache, J. C.; Janssen, Y. M.; Walsh, E. S.; Quinlan, T. R.; Zanella, C. L.; Low, R. B.; Taatjes, D. J.; Mossman, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent mitogen for human mesothelial cells, and autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor (EGF-R) occurs in these cell types after exposure to asbestos, a carcinogen associated with the development of mesothelioma. Here, the intensity and distribution of EGF-R protein was documented by immunocytochemistry in a human mesothelial cell line (MET5A) exposed to various concentrations of crocidolite asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF-10). Whereas cells in contact with or phagocytizing shorter asbestos fibers (<60 microm length) or MMVF-10 at a range of concentrations showed no increase in EGF-R protein as determined by immunofluorescence, elongated cells phagocytizing and surrounding longer fibers (> or =60 microm) showed intense staining for EGF-R. In contrast, human A549 lung carcinoma cells showed neither elongation nor increased accumulation of EGF-R protein in response to long fibers. Patterns of aggregation and increases in EGF-R protein in mesothelial cells phagocytizing long asbestos fibers were distinct from diffuse staining of phosphotyrosine residues observed in asbestos-exposed cultures. These studies indicate that aggregation of EGF-R by long fibers may initiate cell signaling cascades important in asbestos-induced mitogenesis and carcinogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9466557

  5. In Situ Liquid Cell Observations of Asbestos Fiber Diffusion in Water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Ortiz, Carlos; Xu, Ye; Willenbring, Jane; Jerolmack, Douglas

    2015-11-17

    We present real-time observations of the diffusion of individual asbestos fibers in water. We first scaled up a technique for fluorescent tagging and imaging of chrysotile asbestos fibers and prepared samples with a distribution of fiber lengths ranging from 1 to 20 μm. Experiments were then conducted by placing a 20, 100, or 150 ppm solution of these fibers in a liquid cell mounted on a spinning-disk confocal microscope. Using automated elliptical-particle detection methods, we determined the translation and rotation and two-dimensional (2D) trajectories of thousands of diffusing chrysotile fibers. We find that fiber diffusion is size-dependent and in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions for the Brownian motion of rods. This agreement is remarkable given that experiments involved non-idealized particles at environmentally relevant concentrations in a confined cell, in which particle-particle and particle-wall interactions might be expected to cause deviations from theory. Experiments also confirmed that highly elongated chrysotile fibers exhibit anisotropic diffusion at short time scales, a predicted effect that may have consequences for aggregate formation and transport of asbestos in confined spaces. The examined fibers vary greatly in their lengths and were prepared from natural chrysotile. Our findings thus indicate that the diffusion rates of a wide range of natural colloidal particles can be predicted from theory, so long as the particle aspect ratio is properly taken into account. This is an important first step for understanding aggregate formation and transport of non-spherical contaminant particles, in the environment and in vivo. PMID:26461183

  6. An experiment to develop conversion factors to standardise measurements of airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Dodic-Fikfak, Metoda

    2007-06-01

    Various researchers and agencies recommend different conversion factors for different asbestos exposures. The aim of this study was to develop conversion factors from particles per cm3 (p cm(-3)) to fibres per cm3 (f cm(-3)) and from mg m(-3) to f cm(-3). More than 1000 exposure measurements were available in the Slovenian asbestos-cement factory Salonit Anhovo. Three types of measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air were used: a konimeter measuring p cm-3, a gravimetric method measuring mg m-3 and a membrane filter method measuring f cm-3. Operation-specific conversion factors among these methods were developed. One conversion factor was obtained for asbestos-pipe-dry jobs (4.7) and one for asbestos-sheet-dry jobs (1.6). Only one conversion factor (0.8) was used for asbestos-cement-pipe-wet and asbestos-cement-pipe-dry jobs. For asbestos cement sheets, two conversion factors were obtained (0.3 and 1.2). The development of five different conversion factors made it possible to calculate cumulative exposure to asbestos from historical data and to decrease exposure misclassification. PMID:17562601

  7. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study of flange and valve repair work and an assessment of exposure variables.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Devlin, Kathryn D; Perez, Angela L; Hollins, Dana M; Cowan, Dallas M; Scott, Paul K; White, Katherine; Cheng, Thales J; Henshaw, John L

    2015-02-01

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate worker and area exposure to airborne asbestos associated with the replacement of asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials from flanges and valves and assess the influence of several variables previously not investigated. Additionally, potential of take home exposures from clothing worn during the study was characterized. Our data showed that product type, ventilation type, gasket location, flange or bonnet size, number of flanges involved, surface characteristics, gasket surface adherence, and even activity type did not have a significant effect on worker exposures. Average worker asbestos exposures during flange gasket work (PCME=0.166 f/cc, 12-59 min) were similar to average worker asbestos exposures during valve overhaul work (PCME=0.165 f/cc, 7-76 min). Average 8-h TWA asbestos exposures were estimated to range from 0.010 to 0.062 f/cc. Handling clothes worn during gasket and packing replacement activities demonstrated exposures that were 0.71% (0.0009 f/cc 40-h TWA) of the airborne asbestos concentration experienced during the 5 days of the study. Despite the many variables considered in this study, exposures during gasket and packing replacement occur within a relatively narrow range, are below current and historical occupational exposure limits for asbestos, and are consistent with previously published data. PMID:25445297

  8. Evaluation of sensitivity of fluorescence-based asbestos detection by correlative microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takenori; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Minakawa, Kenji; Hirota, Ryuichi; Sekiguchi, Kiyoshi; Kohyama, Norihiko; Kuroda, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy (FM) has recently been applied to the detection of airborne asbestos fibers that can cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer. In our previous studies, we discovered that the E. coli protein DksA specifically binds to the most commonly used type of asbestos, chrysotile. We also demonstrated that fluorescent-labeled DksA enabled far more specific and sensitive detection of airborne asbestos fibers than conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM). However, the actual diameter of the thinnest asbestos fibers visualized under the FM platform was unclear, as their dimensions were below the resolution of optical microscopy. Here, we used correlative microscopy (scanning electron microscopy [SEM] in combination with FM) to measure the actual diameters of asbestos fibers visualized under the FM platform with fluorescent-labeled DksA as a probe. Our analysis revealed that FM offers sufficient sensitivity to detect chrysotile fibrils as thin as 30-35 nm. We therefore conclude that as an analytical method, FM has the potential to detect all countable asbestos fibers in air samples, thus approaching the sensitivity of SEM. By visualizing thin asbestos fibers at approximately tenfold lower magnifications, FM enables markedly more rapid counting of fibers than SEM. Thus, fluorescence microscopy represents an advanced analytical tool for asbestos detection and monitoring. PMID:21932006

  9. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos. PMID:22401880

  10. PROPOSED ASTM METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS IN AIR BY TEM AND INFORMATION ON INTERFERING FIBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft of the ASTM Test Method for air entitled: "Airborne Asbestos Concentration in Ambient and Indoor Atmospheres as Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy Direct Transfer (TEM)" (ASTM Z7077Z) is an adaptation of the International Standard, ISO 10312. It is currently...

  11. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a...

  12. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a...

  13. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a...

  14. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a...

  15. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  16. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  17. In situ microscopic analysis of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibers retained in hamster lungs following inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, R A; Antonini, J M; Brismar, H; Lai, J; Hesterberg, T W; Oldmixon, E H; Thevenaz, P; Brain, J D

    1999-01-01

    Hamsters breathed, nose-only, for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day, either man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF)10a, MMVF33, or long amosite asbestos at approximately 300 World Health Organization (WHO) fibers/cc or long amosite at 25 WHO fibers/cc. [World Health Organization fibers are longer than 5 microm and thicker than 3 microm, with aspect ratio >3.] After sacrifice, fiber burden was estimated (left lungs) by ashing and scanning electron microscopy (ashing/SEM) or (right middle lobes) by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in situ. In situ CLSM also provided three-dimensional views of fibers retained, undisturbed, in lung tissue. Fibers of each type were lodged in alveoli and small airways, especially at airway bifurcations, and were seen fully or partly engulfed by alveolar macrophages. Amosite fibers penetrated into and through alveolar septa. Length densities of fibers in parenchyma (total length of fiber per unit volume of lung) were estimated stereologically from fiber transsections counted on two-dimensional optical sections and were 30.5, 25.3, 20.0, and 81.6 mm/mm3 for MMVF10a, MMVF33, and low- and high-dose amosite, respectively. Lengths of individual fibers were measured in three dimensions by tracking individual fibers through series of optical sections. Length distributions of amosite fibers aerosolized, but before inhalation versus after retention in the lung were similar, whether determined by ashing/SEM or in situ CLSM. In contrast, the fraction of short MMVF10a and MMVF33 fibers increased and the geometric mean fiber lengths of both MMVFs decreased by approximately 60% during retention. Most likely due to fiber deposition pattern and differences in sampling, fiber burdens [MMVF10a, MMVF33, and amosite (high dose; 269 WHO fibers/cc)] determined by ashing/SEM were 1.4, 1. 5, and 3.5 times greater, respectively, than those calculated from in situ CLSM data. In situ CLSM is able to provide detailed information about the anatomic sites of fiber

  18. Change of carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in the asbestos cement (eternit) to harmless waste by artificial carbonatization: petrological and technological results.

    PubMed

    Radvanec, Martin; Tuček, L'ubomír; Derco, Ján; Čechovská, Katarína; Németh, Zoltán

    2013-05-15

    Asbestos cement materials, mainly the eternit roof ceiling, being widely applied in the past, represent a serious environmental load. The solar radiation, rain and frost cause the deliberation of cement from the eternit roofing and consequently the wind contaminates the surrounding area by the asbestos (chrysotile) fibers. In combination with other carcinogens (e.g. smoking), or at reduced immunity of a man, they may cause serious respiratory diseases and lung cancer. The article presents the procedure and experimental results of artificial carbonatization, applied in the asbestos cement (eternit). The wet crushed and pulverized asbestos cement was thermally modified at 650°C and then the chrysotile fibers easily and completely reacted with the mixture of CO2 and water, producing new Mg-rich carbonates - hydromagnesite and magnesite: [Formula: see text] Applying this methodology, the asbestos-bearing waste can be stabilized and environmentally friendly permanently deposited. Finding a way of neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps represents also an asset of presented research. Simultaneously, the artificial carbonatization of chrysotile asbestos, applying CO2, offers an alternative way for permanent liquidation of a part of industrial CO2 emissions, contributing to multiple benefit of this methodology. PMID:23571021

  19. Airborne Laboratory Apparatus Draws Glass Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Smith, Guy A.

    1993-01-01

    Glass-fiber-drawing apparatus designed for studies of effect of gravitation on drawing process. Clear plastic housing surrounds fiber-drawing equipment and some of associated electronic instrumentation. External rack holds video monitor, personal computer, keyboard, videotape recorder, and power switch panel. Mounted in research aircraft, apparatus makes continuous video recordings of formation of fiber at effective gravitational accelerations ranging from 0.001 to 2 times normal Earth gravitational acceleration as aircraft dives, then pulls out of dives. Also records pertinent process data on video image.

  20. Effect of electrostatic charge on the aspiration efficiencies of airborne dust samplers: with special reference to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.M.; Jones, A.D.; Vincent, J.H.

    1987-07-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted into the effects of electrostatic charge, carried by the dust particles and by the sampler itself, on the sampling of airborne dusts. Experiments covering both personal and static sampling and a range of sampler types were carried out in the laboratory for both fibrous asbestos and isometric silica gel dusts. Experiments also were carried out in the spinning shop of an asbestos textile factory. The results showed that the aspiration efficiency of the sampler always is reduced as the charge on the sampler increases, independently of the type of sampler and of whether it is used as a static or personal sampler. The effect is most marked when sampling takes place in calm air. It is concluded from the results that, for the levels of charge reached by samplers in most practical situations, the effects on aspiration efficiency will be small. Possible exceptions to this might occur, however, in workplace environments where relative humidity is very low, and charge levels of the sampler (or on the worker wearing the sampler) can become high.

  1. The effect of electrostatic charge on the aspiration efficiencies of airborne dust samplers: with special reference to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Johnston, A M; Jones, A D; Vincent, J H

    1987-07-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted into the effects of electrostatic charge, carried by the dust particles and by the sampler itself, on the sampling of airborne dusts. Experiments covering both personal and static sampling and a range of sampler types were carried out in the laboratory for both fibrous asbestos and isometric silica gel dusts. Experiments also were carried out in the spinning shop of an asbestos textile factory. The results showed that the aspiration efficiency of the sampler always is reduced as the charge on the sampler increases, independently of the type of sampler and of whether it is used as a static or personal sampler. The effect is most marked when sampling takes place in calm air. It is concluded from the results that, for the levels of charge reached by samplers in most practical situations, the effects on aspiration efficiency will be small. Possible exceptions to this might occur, however, in workplace environments where relative humidity is very low, and charge levels of the sampler (or on the worker wearing the sampler) can become high. PMID:3039822

  2. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS - A PROVISIONAL METHODOLOGY MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes a provisional optimum electron microscope (EM) procedure for measuring the concentration of asbestos in air samples. The main features of the method include depositing an air sample on a polycarbonate membrane filter, examining an EM grid specimen in a trans...

  3. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS. A PROVISIONAL METHODOLOGY MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes a provisional optimum electron microscope (EM) procedure for measuring the concentration of asbestos in air samples. The main features of the method include depositing an air sample on a polycarbonate membrane filter, examining an EM grid specimen in a trans...

  4. Solubility of chrysotile asbestos and basalt fibers in relation to their fibrogenic and carcinogenic action.

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, F M; Nikitina, O V

    1994-01-01

    Fiber length and persistence are thought to be determinants for the development of toxic, fibrogenic, and carcinogenic effects of fibrous dusts. When the solubilities of chrysotile asbestos (CA) and basalt fibers (BF) were compared by measuring the loss of silica and magnesium in Leineweber's solution, CA was shown to be the more soluble. In a 6-month inhalation experiment, chrysotile at a mean concentration of 25 mg/m3 had a higher clearance rate than other comparable dusts. In acute toxicity studies, chrysotile and basalt fibers were administered intraperitoneally. At a dose of 1.7 g/kg body weight of CA, one third of the animals died. A dose of 2.7 g/kg body weight killed all the animals. With BF, even at a dose of 10 g/kg body weight all the animals survived. When the two fibers were administered over a 6-month period, either intratracheally or by inhalation, fibrotic lesions were more common in the group that received CA. Intraperitoneal administration of CA led to three times as many deaths from peritoneal mesothelioma as administration of BF. It appears, therefore, that in spite of its higher solubility and lower persistence, CA was the more toxic, fibrogenic and carcinogenic fiber, which gives rise to the hypothesis that the surface chemistry of the fibers is the determinant for biological activity. PMID:7882932

  5. Asbestos Exposure among Mitering Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sujirarat, Dusit; Musigapong, Pirutchada; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2012-01-01

    The objectives are to compare the airborne asbestos concentrations resulted from mitering of abestos cement roof sheets by a high-speed motor and a hand saw, and to monitor whether other workers near the test sites are vulnerable to the fibers exceeding the occupational exposure limit. Four test cases were carried out and altogether 7 personal and 4 area air samples were collected. The NIOSH method 7400 was employed for the air samplings and analysis. Using the phase contrast microscopy, fiber counting was conducted under Rule A. The study showed that the fiber concentration medians for personal air samples gathered from the two tools were 4.11 fibers/cc (ranged: 1.33-12.41 fibers/cc) and 0.13 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.01-5.00 fibers/cc) respectively. The median for the area samples was 0.59 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.14-3.32 fibers/cc). Comparing each study case, the concentration level caused by the high-speed motor saw was more than twice that of the hand saw. According to the area samples, the workers nearby the test site are at risk from high exposure to asbestos. PMID:23019536

  6. ASBESTOS AND RELATED DURABLE FIBERS: TOO UBIQUITOUS, TOO PERSISTENT, TOO COMPLEX TO PUT HEALTH RISKS TO REST?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos was used for centuries before its health risks become publicly known. Health concerns for non-occupational exposures rose at EPA's inception and these concerns quickly expanded to include risks from inhalation and ingestion of durable mineral and synthetic fibers that ...

  7. Elemental analysis of asbestos fibers by means of electron probe techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Ivan B.; Maggiore, Carl J.

    1974-01-01

    The identification and characterization of microparticles has become an important field of study in recent years due to their presence in the environment and association with pathogenesis. Asbestos fibers have been intensively studied for these reasons. Since conventional microscopy has not provided unique identification of these materials, electron probe microanalysis, which yields chemical data, has been utilized in conjunction with other techniques to provide the necessary answers. The options now available to undertake electron probe analysis are discussed with relation to their utilization for microparticle analyses. Two types of electron sources are available, thermionic and field emission. The x-ray spectroscopy requires the use of either wavelength-dispersive focussing crystal spectrometers or an energy-dispersive Si(Li) x-ray detector. Data are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of asbestos identification by using modified raw data obtained with a scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Further, the extension of the technique to other microparticle identification problems is discussed. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 5. PMID:4470958

  8. Diffusion of benzene confined in the oriented nanochannels of chrysotile asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, E.; Kumzerov, Yu.A.; Vakhrushev, S.B.

    2005-11-01

    We used quasielastic neutron scattering to study the dynamics of benzene that completely fills the nanochannels of chrysotile asbestos fibers with a characteristic diameter of about 5 nm. The macroscopical alignment of the nanochannels in fibers provided an interesting opportunity to study anisotropy of the dynamics of confined benzene by means of collecting the data with the scattering vector either parallel or perpendicular to the fibers axes. The translational diffusive motion of benzene molecules was found to be isotropic. While bulk benzene freezes at 278.5 K, we observed the translational dynamics of the supercooled confined benzene on the time scale of hundreds of picoseconds even below 200 K, until at about 160 K its dynamics becomes too slow for the {mu}eV resolution of the neutron backscattering spectrometer. The residence time between jumps for the benzene molecules measured in the temperature range of 260 K to 320 K demonstrated low activation energy of 2.8 kJ/mol.

  9. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  10. Buffing, burnishing, and stripping of vinyl asbestos floor tile

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Edwards, A.; Clark, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during the three principal types of preventative maintenance (low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping) used on asbestos-containing floor tiles. These were done under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before and during each floor care procedure to determine the magnitude of the increase in airborne asbestos levels during each procedure. Airborne total fiber concentrations were also measured for comparison with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3}. Low-speed spray-buffing and wet-stripping were evaluated on pre-existing floor conditions and three levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor, medium, and good). Ultra high-speed burnishing and wet-stripping were evaluated on two levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor and good). Floor care conditions were defined in consultation with the Chemical Specialty Manufacturers Association and other representatives of floor-care chemical manufacturers. Controlled studies were conducted in an unoccupied building at the decommissioned Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force. The building offered approximately 8600 ft{sup 2} of open floor space tiled with 9-inch by 9-inch resilient floor tile containing approximately 5% chrysotile asbestos.

  11. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... bundles of fibers. These fibers are found in soil and rocks in many parts of the world. ... water through several sources, such as rock or soil erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipes, or the ...

  12. Tumor incidence was not related to the thickness of visceral pleural in female Syrian hamsters intratracheally administered amphibole asbestos or manmade fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Shuichi; Kawamura, K.; Takemoto, Kazuo ); Kimura, Kikuzi )

    1992-06-01

    Histological observations were performed on female Syrian hamsters 2 years after the intratracheal administration of amphibole asbestos, amosite, and crocidolite to evaluate the tumorigenicity of six types of fine manmade fibers (reported previously). A mesothelioma and a lung tumor were induced in 20 animals administered amosite, but no tumors were found in the crocidolite group. Because this incidence is not higher than that of manmade fibers, such as basic magnesium sulfate fiber (9 tumor-bearing hamsters in 20 hamsters (9/20)), metaphosphate fiber (5/20), calcium sulfate fiber (3.20), and fiberglass (2/20), it is suggested that some types of manmade fibers have a greater ability than asbestos to induce tumors. Moreover, as a specific observation in manmade fiber groups, tumors were induced at intracelial organs rather than at the pleural cavity. On the other hand, the average thickness of visceral pleura was higher in all asbestos and manmade fiber groups than in the control (2.9 {mu}m), for instance, 36.95 {mu}m in potassium titanate fiber group, 15.90 {mu}m crocidolite group, 13.00 {mu}m basic magnesium sulfate fiber group, and 10.45 {mu} in the rockwool group. Although both pleural thickening and mesotherlioma were known as peculiar lesions in asbestos-exposed people, it might also be suggested that these lesions could be induced by different mechanisms from the result that there was no relation between the pleural thickening and mesothelioma incidence in hamsters.

  13. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  14. Mesothelioma in a wine cellar man: detailed description of working procedures and past asbestos exposure estimation.

    PubMed

    Nemo, Alessandro; Silvestri, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    A pleural mesothelioma arose in an employee of a wine farm whose work history shows an unusual occupational exposure to asbestos. The information, gathered directly from the case and from a work colleague, clarifies some aspects of the use of asbestos in the process of winemaking which has not been previously reported in such details. The man had worked as a winemaker from 1960 to 1988 in a farm, which in those years produced around 2500 hectoliters of wine per year, mostly white. The wine was filtered to remove impurities; the filter was created by dispersing in the wine asbestos fibers followed by diatomite while the wine was circulating several times and clogging a prefilter made of a dense stainless steel net. Chrysotile asbestos was the sole asbestos mineralogical variety used in these filters and exposure could occur during the phase of mixing dry fibers in the wine and during the filter replacement. A daily and annual time weighted average level of exposure and cumulative dose have been estimated in the absence of airborne asbestos fiber monitoring performed in that workplace. Since 1993, the Italian National Mesothelioma Register, an epidemiological surveillance system, has recorded eight cases with at least one work period spent as winemaker. Four of them never used asbestos filters and presented exposures during other work periods, the other four used asbestos filters but had also other exposures in other industrial divisions. For the information hitherto available, this is the first mesothelioma case with exclusive exposure in the job of winemaking. PMID:25296690

  15. Elemental Analysis of Histological Specimens: A Method to Unmask Nano Asbestos Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, M.; Pietroiusti, A.; Milano, F.; Anemona, L.; Orlandi, A.; Marsella, L.T.; Bonanno, E.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence that nanoparticles may enhance toxicological potential in comparison to the same material in the bulk form. The aim of this study was to develop a new method to unmask asbestos nanofibers from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissue. For the first time, in this study we applied Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis through transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate the presence of asbestos nanofibers in histological specimens of patients with possible occupational exposure to asbestos. The diagnostic protocol was applied to 10 randomly selected lung cancer patients with no history of previous asbestos exposure. We detected asbestos nanofibers in close contact with lung cancer cells in two lung cancer patients with previous possible occupational exposure to asbestos. We were also able to identify the specific asbestos iso-type, which in one of the cases was the same rare variety used in the workplace of the affected patient. By contrast, asbestos nanofibers were not detected in lung cancer patients with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. The proposed technique can represent a potential useful tool for linking the disease to previous workplace exposure in uncertain cases. Furthermore, Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues stored in the pathology departments might be re-evaluated for possible etiological attribution to asbestos in the case of plausible exposure. Since diseases acquired through occupational exposure to asbestos are generally covered by workers’ insurance in most countries, the application of the protocol used in this study may have also relevant social and economic implications. PMID:26972714

  16. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  17. Effects of asbestos fibers on cell division, cell survival, and formation of thioguanine-resistant mutants in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kenne, K.; Ljungquist, S.; Ringertz, N.R.

    1986-04-01

    The ability of crocidolite fibers to induce point mutations and mitotic abnormalities in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was examined in cell cultures. The purpose has been to study the possibilities for establishing in vitro test methods to quantify genetic damage induced by asbestos and other mineral fibers. Results obtained with the CHO/hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase system indicated that crocidolite fibers per se do not significantly increase the number of thioguanine-resistant mutants. Crocidolite fibers also failed to potentiate the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene. Time-lapse cinematography and microscopy showed that asbestos (crocidolite) fibers were markedly cytotoxic. Among surviving cells some underwent abnormal cell divisions which resulted in multi- and micronucleate cells. Many cells that contained a few asbestos fibers, however, underwent mitosis and successfully formed two mononucleate daughter cells capable of further divisions. Individual, fiber-containing cells were examined by time-lapse television recordings for 4-5 days. During this time period some cells underwent six divisions and generated an almost normal number of daughter cells. Cells which contained fibers that were longer or equivalent to the diameter of the mitotic cell (20 ..mu..m), showed different forms of mitotic abnormalities. The frequency of multinucleate cells was drastically increased following exposure to asbestos fibers. Only rarely, however, did these cells divide to produce viable daughter cells capable of continued cell multiplication. The frequency of multinucleate cells was dependent on the dose of exposure to asbestos fibers and could possible be used as an index of the degree of mitotic disturbances induced by mineral fibers.

  18. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  19. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on retention of asbestos fibers in various morphologic compartments of the guinea pig lung

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Tron, V.; Wright, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    For investigation of mechanisms whereby smoking might potentiate asbestos-related disease, guinea pigs were given 0.5 mg UICC amosite by intratracheal instillation. Half the animals were subsequently exposed to cigarette smoke. Animals were sacrificed at 1 day, 7 days, and 1 month after exposure. Lungs were lavaged and macrophages separated from the lavage fluid. Lung fiber concentration, numbers of fibers in macrophages, and fiber sizes from tissue (TFs), macrophages (MFs), and macrophage-free lavagate (FFs) were determined by electron microscopy. Smoke-exposed animals retained greater numbers of fibers in lung tissue by 1 month but had greater total numbers of fibers in macrophages at all time periods. In both smokers and nonsmokers, fibers in the three morphologic compartments had distinctly different lengths: the longest fibers were found associated with the lung tissue; the macrophages always contained the shortest fibers; and the macrophage-free lavagate had fibers of intermediate size. However, fiber widths and aspect ratios did not show the same clear separation by anatomic compartment, suggesting that in both smoking and nonsmoking animals length is the size parameter which is most important in determining fiber clearance. Smoking did not affect the lengths of MFs but did produce a progressive reduction in the lengths of FFs and TFs with time. These data indicate that smoking causes a marked increase in the number of fibers retained in the lung within macrophages and suggest that either macrophage removal via the mucociliary escalator or macrophage mobility is impaired by cigarette smoke. However, smoking does not change the sizes of fibers in macrophages and does not appear to depress phagocytic capacity.

  20. Presence of airborne fibers in tungsten refining and manufacturing processes: preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    McKernan, John L; Toraason, Mark A; Fernback, Joseph E

    2008-07-01

    In tungsten refining and manufacturing processes, a series of tungsten oxides (WO(X)) are typically formed as intermediates in the production of tungsten powder. Studies in the Swedish tungsten refining and manufacturing industry have shown that intermediate tungsten refining processes can create WO(X) fibers. The purpose of the present study was to identify and provide a preliminary characterization of airborne tungsten-containing fiber dimensions, elemental composition, and concentrations in the U.S. tungsten refining and manufacturing industry. To provide the preliminary characterization, 10 static air samples were collected during the course of normal employee work activities and analyzed using standard fiber sampling and counting methods. Results from transmission electron microscopy analyses conducted indicate that airborne fibers with length > 0.5 microm, diameter > 0.01 microm, and aspect ratio > or = 3:1, with a geometric mean (GM) length of approximately 2.0 microm and GM diameter of approximately 0.25 microm, were present on 9 of the 10 air samples collected. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry results indicate that airborne fibers prior to the carburization process consisted primarily of tungsten and oxygen, with other elements being detected in trace quantities. Results from an air sample collected at the carburization process indicated the presence of fibers composed primarily of tungsten with oxygen and carbon, and traces of other elements. Based on National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard fiber counting rules, airborne fiber concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to 0.14 f/cm(3). The calcining process was associated with the highest airborne fiber concentrations. More than 99% (574/578) of the airborne fibers identified had an aerodynamic diameter

  1. Lung proliferative and clearance responses to inhaled para-aramid RFP in exposed hamsters and rats: comparisons with chrysotile asbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Warheit, D B; Snajdr, S I; Hartsky, M A; Frame, S R

    1997-01-01

    This study compared pulmonary effects of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particles (RFP) (p-aramid fibrils) and chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures in rats. Additional p-aramid inhalation studies were conducted in hamsters to compare species responses. The hamster results are preliminary. The parameters studied were clearance/biopersistence of inhaled p-aramid RFP or size-separated asbestos fibers as well as pulmonary cell proliferation and inflammation indices after 2-week inhalation exposures. Rats were exposed nose only to chrysotile asbestos fibers at concentrations of 459 and 782 fibers/ml or to p-aramid RFP at 419 or 772 fibrils/ml. Hamsters were exposed whole body to p-aramid RFP at concentrations of 358 and 659 fibrils/ml. Subsequently, animals were assessed immediately (time 0) as well as 5 days (10 days for hamsters), 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postexposure. Lung burdens for the p-aramid-exposed rats were 4.8 x 10(7) and 7.6 x 10(7) fibrils/lung, with similar numbers of chrysotile fibers > 5 microns recovered from the lungs of asbestos-exposed rats. In comparison, 1.4 x 10(6) fibrils/lung were recovered in the high-dose hamster group. Biopersistence studies in p-aramid-exposed rats and hamsters demonstrated an initial increase (relative to time 0) in retained p-aramid fibrils during the first month postexposure, which indicated breakage or shortening of inhaled fibrils. This result was associated with a progressive reduction, and increased residence time in the lung, in the mean lengths of the fibrils, which signified biodegradability of inhaled p-aramid fibrils in both species. In contrast, clearance of short chrysotile asbestos fibers was rapid, but clearance of the long chrysotile fibers was slow or insignificant, as evidenced by a progressive increase over time in the mean lengths of fibers recovered from the lungs of exposed rats. Two-week, high-dose exposures to p-aramid in both rats and hamsters produced transient increases in pulmonary

  2. Lung proliferative and clearance responses to inhaled para-aramid RFP in exposed hamsters and rats: comparisons with chrysotile asbestos fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Snajdr, S I; Hartsky, M A; Frame, S R

    1997-09-01

    This study compared pulmonary effects of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particles (RFP) (p-aramid fibrils) and chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures in rats. Additional p-aramid inhalation studies were conducted in hamsters to compare species responses. The hamster results are preliminary. The parameters studied were clearance/biopersistence of inhaled p-aramid RFP or size-separated asbestos fibers as well as pulmonary cell proliferation and inflammation indices after 2-week inhalation exposures. Rats were exposed nose only to chrysotile asbestos fibers at concentrations of 459 and 782 fibers/ml or to p-aramid RFP at 419 or 772 fibrils/ml. Hamsters were exposed whole body to p-aramid RFP at concentrations of 358 and 659 fibrils/ml. Subsequently, animals were assessed immediately (time 0) as well as 5 days (10 days for hamsters), 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postexposure. Lung burdens for the p-aramid-exposed rats were 4.8 x 10(7) and 7.6 x 10(7) fibrils/lung, with similar numbers of chrysotile fibers > 5 microns recovered from the lungs of asbestos-exposed rats. In comparison, 1.4 x 10(6) fibrils/lung were recovered in the high-dose hamster group. Biopersistence studies in p-aramid-exposed rats and hamsters demonstrated an initial increase (relative to time 0) in retained p-aramid fibrils during the first month postexposure, which indicated breakage or shortening of inhaled fibrils. This result was associated with a progressive reduction, and increased residence time in the lung, in the mean lengths of the fibrils, which signified biodegradability of inhaled p-aramid fibrils in both species. In contrast, clearance of short chrysotile asbestos fibers was rapid, but clearance of the long chrysotile fibers was slow or insignificant, as evidenced by a progressive increase over time in the mean lengths of fibers recovered from the lungs of exposed rats. Two-week, high-dose exposures to p-aramid in both rats and hamsters produced transient increases in pulmonary

  3. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  4. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  5. [Pulmonary concentration of asbestos fibers in steel workers with pleural mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Somigliana, A; Festa, R; Bercich, L

    2010-01-01

    The asbestos fibre burden of the lung has been used in the past as a biological indicator of cumulative exposure to the mineral so much so that in 1997 reference limits even for non-occupationally exposed people have been proposed. This kind of analysis was performed on groups of workers of different type of industries and allowed to achieve a qualitative-quantitative estimate of past exposure to asbestos, even in absence of exposure estimates by environmental monitoring. An important example is the steel industry where asbestos was widely used in the past, but for which there are not available exposure estimates of workers. Among the mesothelioma cases collected by the Mesothelioma Registry of the Province of Brescia from 1980 to present there are 55 workers who spent at least 5 years in steel industry, on a total of 289 cases classified as asbestos exposed (19%). For 8 subjects who worked in steel mills and production of electrical steel pipes, of which 4 in the same plant, lung tissue samples were available for the asbestos fibres burden analysis (7 samples coming from autopsies and 1 from extra-pleural pneumonectomy). In all cases the diagnosis was given with histological analyses supplemented with immunohistochemistry. In 7 cases autopsied the diagnosis was confirmed. The work histories have been reconstructed in detail through the interview process, inclusive of details of duties performed. The asbestos fibre burden analyses showed a range of concentrations between 260,000 and 11,000,000 ff per grams of dry tissue; the concentration of amphiboles was much higher than that of chrysotile. The highest body burden was detected in the maintenance workers of the same plant in witch a cluster of malignant mesothelioma was observed. In conclusion, this study illustrates the results of asbestos fibres burden analyses in subjects where exposure to asbestos is sure but not quantifiable. The results showed also that these concentrations can reach values that overlap with

  6. Asbestos: Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, and Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group contains a single asbestiform variety: chrysotile; five asbestiform varieties of amphiboles are known: anthophyllite asbestos, grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. These fibrous minerals share several properties which qualify them as asbestiform fibers: they are found in bundles of fibers which can be easily separated from the host matrix or cleaved into thinner fibers; the fibers exhibit high tensile strengths, they show high length: diameter (aspect) ratios, from a minimum of 20 up to greater than 1000; they are sufficiently flexible to be spun; and macroscopically, they resemble organic fibers such as cellulose. Since asbestos fibers are all silicates, they exhibit several other common properties, such as incombustibility, thermal stability, resistance to biodegradation, chemical inertia toward most chemicals, and low electrical conductivity. The term asbestos has traditionally been attributed only to those varieties that are commercially exploited. The industrial applications of asbestos fibers have now shifted almost exclusively to chrysotile. Two types of amphiboles, commonly designated as amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. The other three amphibole varieties, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and tremolite asbestos, have no significant industrial applications presently.

  7. Expression of the tumor suppressor gene, p53, during the development of murine malignant mesotheliomas induced by asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Cora, E.; Kane, A. )

    1991-03-15

    Malignant mesotheliomas are rare tumors arising from the pleural or peritoneal lining after exposure to asbestos fibers. As a model system for human occupational exposure, C57B1/6 mice received weekly intraperitoneal injections of 200 {mu}g of crocidolite asbestos fibers. Tumors developed in 30-40% of mice after 30-60 weeks. Discrete morphologic stages in the development of malignant mesotheliomas have been identified: reactive mesothelial cells after 1-6 wks., dysplastic cells after 12-22 wks., neoplastic cells after 30-40 wks., and metastasizing cells after 40-50 wks. Cell lines have been established corresponding to each of these morphologic stages and probed for altered expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Using Northern blot analysis, four cell lines derived from neoplastic and invasive tumors showed absent or reduced expression of p53 mRNA in contrast to nontumorigenic cell lines derived from reactive mesothelial cells. Southern blot analysis revealed no rearrangement of the p53 gene after digestion with the restriction enzyme BamHI. It is hypothesized that point mutations in the p53 gene are correlated with neoplastic progression in this model system.

  8. Focus on asbestos; Choosing insurance

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, E.D. )

    1989-01-01

    any asbestos abatement process carries with it some hazards to health. The process of asbestos removal often involves heavy demolition as well as complex area isolation and air engineering procedures. If not planned, monitored and performed correctly, asbestos control work can spread significant amounts of airborne asbestos contamination through a building. Persons who visit or re-occupy such a contaminated building may later seek legal redress against the contractor, architect, building owner and others who are alleged to be responsible for injuries ultimately related to faulty asbestos abatement work. This paper reports that, for this reason, asbestos contractors, building owners, real estate managers, architects and others involved in asbestos abatement work need to be concerned about the adequacy of their insurance coverage.

  9. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... full-shift airborne concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit... cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a sampling period of 30 minutes. (3) Measurement...

  10. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... full-shift airborne concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit... cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a sampling period of 30 minutes. (3) Measurement...

  11. [Pathogenicity of artificial mineral fibers: are they as dangerous as asbestos?].

    PubMed

    Renzi, P M; Mantha, J; Matar, N; Renzi, G D

    1990-01-01

    Man-Made Mineral Fibres (MMMF) are starting to replace asbestos in the insulation industry. The popularity of these fibres has increased since the demonstration, in man, of the fibrogenicity and carcinogenicity of asbestos. A fear of human toxicity of MMMF has followed the demonstration of toxicity in animals after injection or instillation. This review of the litterature discusses the toxicity and side effects of MMMF. These fibres seem to have less toxicity than asbestos for the following reasons: 1. A lower concentration of fibres found in the air of the MMMF industry. 2. The cleavage of fibres in a perpendicular and non-parallel way. 3. The dissolution of fibres in the lung. Very fine fibreglass and mineral wool seem to be more toxic than continuous filaments and ordinary fibreglass. PMID:2159669

  12. Removal of Asbestos-Containing Coatings (ACC) from gas transmission pipelines. Final report, January 1991-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, L.E.; Blackburn, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Corrosion control coatings on transmission pipelines may contain asbestos as a secondary component of the coating. Current environmental and health regulations require a wet removal process for asbestos materials that provides close control of airborne emissions and asbestos fibers in effluent water. Modification of current line-traveling, water jet equipment was successfully completed in developing an economic removal process for asbestos-containing coatings (ACC). Materials handling components were added in yard experiments that permitted water jet removal, slurry filtration, and residue containerization meeting emission control levels, while providing pipe cleanliness suitable for recoating. Field evaluations under in-the-ditch and over-the-ditch conditions on 16-, 26- and 30-inch pipelines verified the achievement of design coating removal rates and asbestos emission control that meets current regulations.

  13. Radiographic evidence of asbestos effects in American marine engineers.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N; Diem, J E; Ziskand, M M; Rodriguez, M; Weill, H

    1984-04-01

    Marine engineers undergoing routine annual chest roentgenography showed an unusual prevalence of pleural abnormalities including plaques suggestive of past asbestos exposure. A pilot survey, and a subsequent comprehensive study of the films of more than 5,000 men, showed an overall prevalence of 12% with pleural abnormality (typical calcification or plaque, or diffuse thickening). Prevalence of films classifiable for pneumoconiotic small opacities was negligible--1.2% in the pilot study. Prevalences of pleural abnormality were significantly higher among men with longer union membership, after controlling for age. Older merchant ships contain substantial amounts of asbestos-containing thermal insulation. Marine engineers often remove and reapply insulation, operations known to produce high airborne fiber concentrations. These roentgenographic survey results indicate significant past asbestos exposures of ships' engineering department personnel. PMID:6716195

  14. EVALUATION OF ASBESTOS LEVELS IN TWO SCHOOLS BEFORE AND AFTER ASBESTOS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data, are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requir...

  15. Increases of thrombomodulin activity and antigen level on human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with asbestos and man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed

    Urano, H; Gotoh, S; Shirahata, A; Higashi, K; Karasaki, Y

    1997-07-01

    The potential influences of crocidolite asbestos fibers and man made mineral fibers (potassium titanate whisker and magnesium sulfate whisker) on a procoagulant system of human umbilical vein-endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated by measuring the activity and antigen level of thrombomodulin (TM) on the cell surface. Statistically significant increases in both the TM activity and TM antigen level were observed on HUVECs treated with crocidolite asbestos fibers for 48 h and 72 h compared to untreated cells at low concentrations of the fibers which showed no sign of a cytotoxic effect on the cells. An extensive increase in both the TM activity and TM antigen level was also observed on HUVECs treated with potassium titanate whisker or magnesium sulfate whisker for 48 h and 72 h. A statistical analysis revealed that these fibers had almost the same effects on the increases in both TM activity and the TM antigen level of HUVECs treated with the fibers for 48 h and 72 h, but a treatment of magnesium sulfate whisker at more than 1.25 micrograms/ml for 24 h was slightly more effective in increasing TM activity on HUVECs compared to other fibers (p < 0.05). The [3H]leucine incorporation in HUVECs increased when the cells were treated with crocidolite asbestos or man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs), indicating that the increases in TM activity and the TM antigen level on HUVECs directly exposed to those fibers may not reflect the sole induction of anticoagulant activities, but the general cell damage induced by the fibers. PMID:9248219

  16. Penetration of >5-. mu. chrysotile asbestos fibers through DuPont Tyvek 1422A and Kimberly-Clark CPF fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, R.W. Jr.; McLeod, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Aerosols of 4.1-..mu.. mass median aerodynamic diameter chrysotile asbestos fibers were generated and passed through stitched (seamed) and unstitched (unseamed) DuPont Tyvek 1422A and Kimberly-Clark composite polypropylene fabric (CPF) spunbonded fabrics. The two unstitched fabrics and the two stitched fabrics were penetrated by amounts of chrysotile which did not allow a statistically significant difference in penetration to be observed. Both the Tyvek and the CPF allowed approximately a 1% penetration through the unstitched material and approximately a 30% penetration through the stitched material. These values refer to the suit materials per se and not to the entire garment. As such, they should not be considered as representative of the entire suit as worn by Navy personnel.

  17. [Sedimentation method for measuring dispersion of fibers from asbestos cement roofs].

    PubMed

    Chiappino, G; Giannelle, V; Todaro, A; Picchi, O

    1999-01-01

    In order to define the need for removal versus conservative interventions regarding asbestos-cement roofs and the possible priorities, visual judgement of the state of deterioration or assessments based on the weight of the superficial friable material that can be removed with adhesives are not sufficient. Since in similar deterioration conditions the dispersion of fibres may vary considerably from case to case, only counting of the dispersed fibres will ensure a correct assessment of the pollution potential of an asbestos-cement weathered surface. The paper describes a simple method for measuring the atmospheric dispersion of fibres based on the well demonstrated fact that primary dispersion from the covering, as from many other sources of asbestos pollution, consists of course bundles that are subject to rapid sedimentation. By means of aluminium boxes containing object-holder slides installed under the edge of the covering for about one month, it is possible, using optical phase-contrast microscopy, to count the fibres that have sedimented and calculate the number of fibres/m2/day. If the method is used with the standardized criteria described, it gives reproducible results, involves low costs and has the advantage of balancing the possible variations in primary dispersion intensity due to changes in the local weather conditions over the relatively long sedimentation sampling period. PMID:10434533

  18. DRAFT METHODOLOGY FOR CONDUCTING RISK ASSESSMENTS AT ASBESTOS SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document will be an updated draft metholodogy for cancer risk assessment of asbestos. The draft methodology will address potential differences in cancer potency of different fiber types and different fiber dimensions of asbestos.

  19. EPA/ORD/RTP (Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park) asbestos program support for the OTS (Office of Toxic Substances) asbestos-in-schools program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    An overview of the EPA/ORD/RTP Asbestos program support for the OTS Asbestos-in-Schools Program is given. The program includes (1) a bulk sample asbestos analysis audit program, (2) an intercomparison of three measurement methods for airborne asbestos, (3) the development of audit materials for airborne asbestos measurement methods, and (4) the development of guidance for post-abatement asbestos air monitoring.

  20. Demonstration of nitric oxide on asbestos and silicon carbide fibers with a new ultraviolet spectrophotometric assay.

    PubMed Central

    Leanderson, P; Lagesson, V; Tagesson, C

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has a number of important functions in biological systems and may play a role in the toxicity of mineral fibers. We investigated whether NO might be present on the surface of mineral fibers and if crocidolite could adsorb NO from NO gas or cigarette smoke. NO was determined with a new gas chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometric technique after thermal desorption from the fiber surface and injection in a gas flow cell. NO was found in different amounts on chrysotile B, crocidolite, amosite, and silicon carbide whiskers. There was a strong correlation between the amount of NO and the specific surface area of these fibers (r = 0.98). NO could not be demonstrated on rockwool fibers [man-made vitreous fiber(s) (MMVF)21 and MMVF22] or silicon nitride whiskers. NO on crocidolite, amosite, and silicon carbide whiskers was readily desorbed from the fibers at increased temperature, while NO on chrysotile B seemed to be more firmly adsorbed to the fiber and required a longer period of time to be desorbed. The amount of NO bound to crocidolite increased from 34 micrograms/g fiber to 85 and 474 micrograms/g after exposing the fibers to cigarette smoke and NO gas, respectively. These findings indicate that a) NO adsorbs to fiber surfaces, b) some fibers adsorb more NO than others, c) some fibers adsorb NO more strongly than others, and d) the amounts of NO on fibers may be increased after exposure of the fiber to cigarette smoke or other sources of NO. The biological significance of NO on mineral fibers remains to be investigated. Images Figure 3. PMID:9400696

  1. A study of airborne chrysotile concentrations associated with handling, unpacking, and repacking boxes of automobile clutch discs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, George C T; Madl, Amy K; Ingmundson, Kelsey J; Murbach, Dana M; Fehling, Kurt A; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L

    2008-06-01

    Although automotive friction products (brakes and manual clutches) historically contained chrysotile asbestos, industrial hygiene surveys and epidemiologic studies of auto mechanics have consistently shown that these workers are not at an increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases. Airborne asbestos levels during brake repair and brake parts handling have been well-characterized, but the potential exposure to airborne asbestos fibers during the handling of clutch parts has not been examined. In this study, breathing zone samples on the lapel of a volunteer worker (n=100) and area samples at bystander (n=50), remote area (n=25), and ambient (n=9) locations collected during the stacking, unpacking, and repacking of boxes of asbestos-containing clutches, and the subsequent cleanup and clothes handling, were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, fiber morphology and size distribution was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, and ISO analytical methods. It was observed that the (1) airborne asbestos concentrations increased with the number of boxes unpacked and repacked, (2) repetitive stacking of unopened boxes of clutches resulted in higher asbestos concentrations than unpacking and repacking the boxes of clutches, (3) cleanup and clothes handling tasks yielded very low asbestos concentrations. Fiber size and morphology analyses showed that amphibole fibers were not detected in the clutches and that the vast majority (>95%) of the airborne chrysotile fibers were less than 20 microm in length. Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results, it was found that 30-min average airborne chrysotile concentrations (PCM adjusted) were 0.026+/-0.004 f/cc or 0.100+/-0.017 f/cc for a worker unpacking and repacking 1 or 2 boxes of clutches, respectively. The 30-min PCM adjusted average airborne asbestos

  2. Exposures and mortality among chrysotile asbestos workers. Part II: mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, J.M.; Harris, R.L. Jr.; Symons, M.J.; Shy, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among a cohort of 1,261 white males employed one or more months in chrysotile asbestos textile operations and followed between 1940 and 1975. Statistically significant excess mortality was observed for all causes combined (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) . 150), lung cancer (SMR . 135), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR . 125), nonmalignant respiratory diseases (SMR . 294), and accidents (SMR . 134). Using estimated fiber exposure levels in conjunction with detailed worker job histories, exposure-response relationships were investigated. Strong exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and asbestos related non-malignant respiratory diseases were observed. Compared with data for chrysotile miners and millers, chrysotile textile workers were found to experience significantly greater lung cancer mortality at lower lifetime cumulative exposure levels. Factors such as differences in airborne fiber characteristics may partially account for the large differences in exposure response between textile workers and miners and millers.

  3. Asbestos Testing: Is the EPA Misleading You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Hoag

    1983-01-01

    Experts warn that only electron microscopes can see the smaller fibers of asbestos that are known to cause the most cancers, though the Environmental Protection Agency still endorses optical microscopes for asbestos removal verification. Asbestos testing methods are explained and sources of information are provided. (MLF)

  4. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  5. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  6. IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF ASBESTOS GENOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos fibers are highly cytotoxic to cultured mammalian cells and produce chromosomal aberrations in several rodent cell types. There is some uncertainty in the literature as to whether these fibers are clastogenic to cultured human cells. Asbestos fibers do not produce either...

  7. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF INHALED FIBERS, PARTICLES AND NANOPARTICLES IN LUNG AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: A symposium on the mechanisms of action of inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM),pathogenic particles and fibers such as silica and asbestos, and nanomaterials, defined as synthetic particles or fibers less than 100 nm in diameter, was held on October 27 and 28,
    ...

  8. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiqiao; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Diao, Weifeng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Bi, Decang; Jiang, Liyuan; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Weibiao

    2016-06-01

    An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD) scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  9. Asbestos-Induced Gastrointestinal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Jo; Williams, David; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases, such as malignancies and asbestosis, remain a significant occupational and public health concern. Asbestos is still widely used in many developing countries despite being a recognized carcinogen that has been banned over 50 countries. The prevalence and mortality from asbestos-related diseases continue to pose challenges worldwide. Many countries are now experiencing an epidemic of asbestos-related disease that is the legacy of occupational exposure during the 20th century because of the long latency period (up to 40 years) between initial asbestos exposure and exhibition of disease. However, the gastrointestinal (GI) cancers resulting from asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review, we summarize some of the recent epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and then focus on the evidence implicating asbestos in causing GI malignancies. We also briefly review the important new pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years that may account for asbestos-related gastrointestinal cancers. All types of asbestos fibers have been implicated in the mortality and morbidity from GI malignancies but the collective evidence to date is mixed. Although the molecular basis of GI cancers arising from asbestos exposure is unclear, there have been significant advances in our understanding of mesothelioma and asbestosis that may contribute to the pathophysiology underlying asbestos-induced GI cancers. The emerging new evidence into the pathogenesis of asbestos toxicity is providing insights into the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related diseases in future management. PMID:27158561

  10. Asbestos exposure in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Gaensler, E.A. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are dose-related. Among these, asbestosis has occurred only with the heavy exposures of the past, is a disappearing disease, and is of no concern with the very small exposures from building occupancy. A possibly increased incidence of lung cancer has been included in risk analysis, but probably is also related to high exposure in that both epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a link between the process of alveolar inflammation and fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. The major concern has been mesothelioma in that it has occurred with much lower household and neighborhood exposure. Additionally, anxiety concerning buildings with ACM has been heightened by finding of friable asbestos in about 20% of public buildings, discovery of environmental asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in autopsies, and demonstration of a linear relationship between exposure and lung cancer risk in occupational groups, inviting extrapolation to a much lower dose. Legislative and regulatory mandates, promotional activities of abatement companies, adverse court decisions placing the onus of repairs on asbestos manufacturers, and a pandemic of mediagenic disease' all have contributed to panic among building owners, school boards, insurers, and others. In that there is neither clinical nor epidemiologic support for asbestos-related disease from building occupancy, risk estimates have been based on extrapolation from past experience with generally high-dose occupational exposure. However, only a few epidemiologic studies have contained quantitative estimates of exposure, and these have been measured in terms of all particles, with conversion to asbestos fibers uncertain and the fiber type and dimension largely unknown.

  11. Asbestos: The Need for and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    The monograph presents a brief summary of the problems associated with airborne asbestos. It discusses the evidence regarding the pathogenicity of asbestos in man and animals, considers the evidence of human non-occupational exposure to asbestos, evaluates the evidence regarding health risks associated with various degrees and types of exposure,…

  12. Occurrence of airborne silicon carbide fibers during industrial production of silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Bye, E; Eduard, W; Gjønnes, J; Sørbrøden, E

    1985-04-01

    Airborne dust from the production of silicon carbide has been analyzed for particle morphology and composition. Fibers of alpha silicon carbide were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction techniques (SAED). Micrographs taken at high magnification revealed several stacking periods along the fiber axis, and one or more of the polytypes 2H, 4H, or 6H could be distinguished. Preliminary investigations applying SEM showed that 80% of the fibers had diameters of less than 0.5 micron and a length greater than 5 micron. Fiber concentrations were examined by the counting of stationary and personal samples in an optical phase contrast microscope. The fiber levels in the three plants investigated were low and less than 1 fiber/cc of air (10(6) fibers/m3). Dust samples from the handling of raw material, including recycled material, contained up to 5 fibers/cc (5 X 10(6) fibers/m3). PMID:4001899

  13. Electrostatic removal of airborne particulates employing fiber beds

    DOEpatents

    Postma, Arlin Keith; Winegardner, W. Kevin

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for collecting aerosol particles. The particles are subjected to an electrostatic charge prior to collection in an electrically resistive fiber bed. The method is applicable to particles in a broad size range, including the difficult-to-remove particles having diameters between 0.01 and 2 microns.

  14. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  15. Tribological study of non-asbestos fiber reinforced phenolic composites for braking applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, P.; Dharani, L.R.; Blum, F.D.

    1994-12-31

    A cashew modified phenolic resin was used as the binder to prepare several different nonasbestos fiber reinforced composite friction materials. Friction-wear tests were conducted at various loads, speeds and temperatures on a Chase friction testing machine. The fade and wear characteristics of glass and carbon fiber reinforced friction materials were studied. The wear rates of hybrid composites containing Kevlar{reg_sign} (registered trademark of E.I. duPont de Nemours) pulp were compared to those of control composites without Kevlar{reg_sign} pulp.

  16. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 1: SPRAY-BUFFING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to ealuate airborne asbestos concentrations during spray-uffing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing residient floor tile under three levels of floor conditions (poor, medium, and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by transmission e...

  17. Asbestos/NESHAP regulated asbestos-containing-materials guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    In the initial Asbestos NESHAP rule promulgated in 1973, a distinction was made between building materials that would readily release asbestos fibers when damaged or disturbed and those materials that were unlikely to result in significant fiber release. The terms friable and nonfriable were used to make this distinction. EPA has since determined that, if severely damaged, otherwise nonfriable materials can release significant amounts of asbestos fibers. Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) is (a) friable asbestos material, (b) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that has become friable, (c) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that will be or has been subjected to sanding, grinding, cutting, or abrading, or (d) Category 2 nonfriable ACM that has a high probability of becoming or has become crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by the forces expected to act on the material in the course of demolition or renovation operations. The purpose of the document is to assist asbestos inspectors and the regulated community in determining whether or not a material is RACM and thus subject to the Asbestos NESHAP.

  18. Analysis of workplace compliance measurements of asbestos by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (1984-2011).

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Cheng, Thales J; Ground, Matthew; Sahmel, Jennifer; Varughese, Allysha; Madl, Amy K

    2015-08-01

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) maintains the Chemical Exposure Health Data (CEHD) and the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) databases, which contain quantitative and qualitative data resulting from compliance inspections conducted from 1984 to 2011. This analysis aimed to evaluate trends in workplace asbestos concentrations over time and across industries by combining the samples from these two databases. From 1984 to 2011, personal air samples ranged from 0.001 to 175 f/cc. Asbestos compliance sampling data associated with the construction, automotive repair, manufacturing, and chemical/petroleum/rubber industries included measurements in excess of 10 f/cc, and were above the permissible exposure limit from 2001 to 2011. The utility of combining the databases was limited by the completeness and accuracy of the data recorded. In this analysis, 40% of the data overlapped between the two databases. Other limitations included sampling bias associated with compliance sampling and errors occurring from user-entered data. A clear decreasing trend in both airborne fiber concentrations and the numbers of asbestos samples collected parallels historically decreasing trends in the consumption of asbestos, and declining mesothelioma incidence rates. Although air sampling data indicated that airborne fiber exposure potential was high (>10 f/cc for short and long-term samples) in some industries (e.g., construction, manufacturing), airborne concentrations have significantly declined over the past 30 years. Recommendations for improving the existing exposure OSHA databases are provided. PMID:25985714

  19. Innovative technologies for asbestos removal, treatment and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Kasper, K.M.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will provide an overview of the Office of Science and Technology`s Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area`s investment in development and demonstration of innovative technologies for asbestos treatment, removal and recycle. The paper will cover the market opportunities for asbestos abatement, major regulations covering asbestos abatement, baseline technologies used by DOE for removal of asbestos, asbestos-related technology needs submitted by DOE`s Site Technology Coordinating Groups, and asbestos development and demonstration projects supported by the D & D Focus Area and other organizations. Based on the Environmental Management Integrated Database, there are about five million cubic feet of asbestos within the DOE Weapons Complex that will be abated by 2030. DOE has three main forms of asbestos: transite used in building construction, thermal pipe insulation, and floor tile. The D & D Focus Area has or is supporting three projects in asbestos removal, and three projects on destruction of asbestos fibers by chemical and thermal treatment. In asbestos removal, the D & D Focus Area is investigating a robot which removes asbestos insulation from pipes; a laser cutting technology which melts asbestos fibers while cutting insulated pipes; and a vacuum system which removes thermal insulation sandwiched between panels of transite. For destruction of asbestos fibers, the D & D Focus Area is supporting development and demonstration of a trailer-mounted process which destroys asbestos fibers by a combination of thermal and chemical treatment; a three-step process which removes organic and radioactive contaminants from the asbestos prior to decomposing the asbestos fibers by acid attack; and an in situ chemical treatment process to convert asbestos fibers into a non-regulated material.

  20. A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940-2006).

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Phelka, Amanda D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of the published and selected unpublished literature on historical asbestos exposures among skilled craftsmen in various nonshipyard and shipyard settings. The specific crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, maintenance workers, and abatement workers. Over 50 documents were identified and summarized. Sufficient information was available to quantitatively characterize historical asbestos exposures for the most highly exposed workers (insulators), even though data were lacking for some job tasks or time periods. Average airborne fiber concentrations collected for the duration of the task and/or the entire work shift were found to range from about 2 to 10 fibers per cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) during activities performed by insulators in various nonshipyard settings from the late 1960s and early 1970s. Higher exposure levels were observed for this craft during the 1940s to 1950s, when dust counts were converted from millions of particles per cubic foot (mppcf) to units of fibers per cubic centimeter (fibers/cc) using a 1:6 conversion factor. Similar tasks performed in U.S. shipyards yielded average fiber concentrations about two-fold greater, likely due to inadequate ventilation and confined work environments; however, excessively high exposure levels were reported in some British Naval shipyards due to the spraying of asbestos. Improved industrial hygiene practices initiated in the early to mid-1970s were found to reduce average fiber concentrations for insulator tasks approximately two- to five-fold. For most other crafts, average fiber concentrations were found to typically range from <0.01 to 1 fibers/cc (depending on the task or time period), with higher concentrations observed during the use of powered tools, the mixing or sanding of drywall cement, and the cleanup of asbestos insulation or lagging

  1. Asbestos, Lung Cancers, and Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Nicholas H.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M. W.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since we published findings in the AJRCMB demonstrating that induction of early response fos/jun proto-oncogenes in rodent tracheal and mesothelial cells correlates with fibrous geometry and pathogenicity of asbestos. Our study was the first to suggest that the aberrant induction of signaling responses by crocidolite asbestos and erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral associated with the development of malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) in areas of Turkey, led to altered gene expression. New data questioned the widely held belief at that time that the carcinogenic effects of asbestos in the development of lung cancer and MM were due to genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Later studies by our group revealed that proto-oncogene expression and several of the signaling pathways activated by asbestos were redox dependent, explaining why antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes were elevated in lung and pleura after exposure to asbestos and how they alleviated many of the phenotypic and functional effects of asbestos in vitro or after inhalation. Since these original studies, our efforts have expanded to understand the interface between asbestos-induced redox-dependent signal transduction cascades, the relationship between these pathways and cell fate, and the role of asbestos and cell interactions in development of asbestos-associated diseases. Of considerable significance is the fact that the signal transduction pathways activated by asbestos are also important in survival and chemoresistance of MMs and lung cancers. An understanding of the pathogenic features of asbestos fibers and dysregulation of signaling pathways allows strategies for the prevention and therapy of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:20068227

  2. Asbestos, the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  3. Factoring-in agglomeration of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for better prediction of their toxicity versus asbestos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF) are allotropes of carbon featuring fibrous morphology. The dimensions and high aspect ratio of CNT and CNF have prompted the comparison with naturally occurring asbestos fibers which are known to be extremely pathogenic. While the toxicity and hazardous outcomes elicited by airborne exposure to single-walled CNT or asbestos have been widely reported, very limited data are currently available describing adverse effects of respirable CNF. Results Here, we assessed pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress markers and systemic immune responses to respirable CNF in comparison to single-walled CNT (SWCNT) and asbestos. Pulmonary inflammatory and fibrogenic responses to CNF, SWCNT and asbestos varied depending upon the agglomeration state of the particles/fibers. Foci of granulomatous lesions and collagen deposition were associated with dense particle-like SWCNT agglomerates, while no granuloma formation was found following exposure to fiber-like CNF or asbestos. The average thickness of the alveolar connective tissue - a marker of interstitial fibrosis - was increased 28 days post SWCNT, CNF or asbestos exposure. Exposure to SWCNT, CNF or asbestos resulted in oxidative stress evidenced by accumulations of 4-HNE and carbonylated proteins in the lung tissues. Additionally, local inflammatory and fibrogenic responses were accompanied by modified systemic immunity, as documented by decreased proliferation of splenic T cells ex vivo on day 28 post exposure. The accuracies of assessments of effective surface area for asbestos, SWCNT and CNF (based on geometrical analysis of their agglomeration) versus estimates of mass dose and number of particles were compared as predictors of toxicological outcomes. Conclusions We provide evidence that effective surface area along with mass dose rather than specific surface area or particle number are significantly correlated with toxicological responses to carbonaceous

  4. Control of asbestos exposure during brake drum service

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehy, J.W.; Cooper, T.C.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Froehlich, P.A.

    1989-08-01

    Earlier studies of airborne asbestos exposure to mechanics during brake maintenance operations showed overexposure to asbestos fibers during brake servicing, especially brake assembly cleaning. Because an estimated 150,000 brake mechanics and garage workers in the U.S. are potentially exposed to asbestos, a known carcinogen, and the lack of information available on the effectiveness of available controls, an evaluation of these methods was initiated. Detailed field surveys were conducted at five facilities employing five methods for controlling exposure to asbestos during brake repair. These included the use of two commercial enclosure devices with ventilation provided by HEPA filter-equipped vacuum, a HEPA filter-equipped vacuum alone, a brush with recirculating cleaning solution, and cleaning solvents in aerosol cans. These controls were evaluated while servicing brakes to automobiles, pickup trucks, vans, and vehicles with a 4-wheel rear axle. Detailed evaluations of these control measures involved a program consisting of traditional air sampling methods, incorporating phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a real-time analysis of brake dust exposure. Personal and area air samples were collected during brake repair to each vehicle.

  5. Determination of Micro-Quantities of Chrysotile Asbestos by Dye Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, M. Clare; Wosczyna, Karen

    1976-01-01

    Airborne asbestos is analyzed by differential dye adsorption. Quantities can be estimated down to 100 mg. For industrial use, asbestos samples must be separated from interfering minerals by density flotation. (Author/BT)

  6. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  7. Concentration and size of asbestos in water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Pansing, M F; Twyman, J D

    1980-01-01

    A review of the results of over 1500 asbestos analyses from U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations in their drinking water over 1 x 10(6) fibers per liter. There are, however, some populations that are exposed to waterborne asbestos concentrations over 10 x 10(6) fibers per liter caused by natural erosion, mine processing wastes, waste pile erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipe, or disintegration of asbestos tile roofs running into cisterns. The distribution of fiber sizes in the water is dependent on the source of the fibers. The average length of chrysotile fibers found in an asbestos cement distribution system was 4 micrometers, while the average fiber length of chrysotile fibers contributed to a water supply by natural erosion was 1 micrometer. PMID:7389681

  8. Asbestos in water supplies of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Stober, J; Rosenthal, M

    1983-01-01

    The review of available data on the concentrations of asbestos in U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations over 1 million fibers/Liter. A few populations, however, may be exposed to concentrations over 1 billion fibers/L. Of the 538 water supplies for which waterborne asbestos data are available, 8% have concentrations of fibers over 10 million fibers/L. The vast majority of asbestos fibers found in U.S. water supplies are under 5 micron in length. PMID:6662093

  9. [Health hazards: asbestos--a review (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beck, B; Irmscher, G

    1976-01-01

    The health hazards caused by asbestos are reviewed and some conclusions are drawn. Asbestos and the materials containing a high percentage of asbestos cannot completely be substituted by other materials without dangerous health effects. It is to be expected that the use of asbestos will still increase. An important health hazard has become evident among asbestos insulation workers. But also in other branches the application of asbestos is widespread. It seems to be difficult to find substitutes meeting the same requirements for using like asbestos. Rock-wool and glass fibres are used more and more in exchange for asbestos. Registers for asbestos workers and asbestos working places are established in several countries. The main causes of death induced by asbestos among asbestos workers are asbestosis. mesothelioma and cancer. For the evaluation and assessment of cancer risk due to asbestos epidemiological studies have to be conducted. Even a short period of exposure to low quantities of asbestos fibres proves to be a health hazard causing certain diseases (diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, pleural hyalinosis, pleural calcifications, mesothelioma) after more than 20 years. For avoiding occupational disease hazards among asbestos workers the dust level on the working place has to be lowered to acceptable concentrations (maximal allowable concentrations). The identification of dust sources of asbestos, the application of practice codes for handling of asbestos, the substitution of asbestos by materials without dangerous health effects, and dust control at source are the most effective directions of hygienic practice. The health protection requires annual medical examinations of all persons exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos. PMID:788371

  10. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 2: ULTRA HIGH SPEED BURNISHING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during ultra high speed (UHS) burnishing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under two levels of floor care condition (poor and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by...

  11. Biodurability of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oze, C.; Solt, K.

    2008-12-01

    Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos represent two mineralogical categories of regulated asbestos commonly evaluated in epidemiological, toxicological, and pathological studies. Lung and digestive fluids are undersaturated with respect to chrysotile and tremolite asbestos (i.e. dissolution is thermodynamically favorable), where the dissolution kinetics control the durability of these minerals in respiratory and gastric systems. Here we examined the biodurability of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos in simulated body fluids (SBFs) as a function of mineral surface area over time. Batch experiments in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; HCl and NaCl solution at pH 1.2) and simulated lung fluid (SLF; a modified Gamble's solution at pH 7.4) were performed at 37°C over 720 hours. The rate-limiting step of Si release for both minerals was used to determine and compare dissolution rates. Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos are less biodurable in SGF compared to SLF. Based on equal suspension densities (surface area per volume of solution, m2 L- 1), chrysotile undergoes dissolution approximately 44 times faster than tremolite asbestos in SGF; however, amphibole asbestos dissolves approximately 6 times faster than chrysotile in SLF. Provided identical fiber dimensions, fiber dissolution models demonstrate that chrysotile is more biodurable in SLF and less biodurable in SGF compared to tremolite asbestos. Overall, the methodology employed here provides an alternative means to evaluate asbestos material fiber lifetimes based on mineral surface considerations.

  12. Evaluation of errors in quantitative determination of asbestos in rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baietto, Oliviero; Marini, Paola; Vitaliti, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The quantitative determination of the content of asbestos in rock matrices is a complex operation which is susceptible to important errors. The principal methodologies for the analysis are Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Phase Contrast Optical Microscopy (PCOM). Despite the PCOM resolution is inferior to that of SEM, PCOM analysis has several advantages, including more representativity of the analyzed sample, more effective recognition of chrysotile and a lower cost. The DIATI LAA internal methodology for the analysis in PCOM is based on a mild grinding of a rock sample, its subdivision in 5-6 grain size classes smaller than 2 mm and a subsequent microscopic analysis of a portion of each class. The PCOM is based on the optical properties of asbestos and of the liquids with note refractive index in which the particles in analysis are immersed. The error evaluation in the analysis of rock samples, contrary to the analysis of airborne filters, cannot be based on a statistical distribution. In fact for airborne filters a binomial distribution (Poisson), which theoretically defines the variation in the count of fibers resulting from the observation of analysis fields, chosen randomly on the filter, can be applied. The analysis in rock matrices instead cannot lean on any statistical distribution because the most important object of the analysis is the size of the of asbestiform fibers and bundles of fibers observed and the resulting relationship between the weights of the fibrous component compared to the one granular. The error evaluation generally provided by public and private institutions varies between 50 and 150 percent, but there are not, however, specific studies that discuss the origin of the error or that link it to the asbestos content. Our work aims to provide a reliable estimation of the error in relation to the applied methodologies and to the total content of asbestos, especially for the values close to the legal limits. The error assessments must

  13. Laser-jamming effectiveness analysis of combined-fiber lasers for airborne defense systems.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xu; Shanghong, Zhao; Rui, Hou; Shengbao, Zhan; Lei, Shi; Jili, Wu; Shaoqiang, Fang; Yongjun, Li

    2008-12-20

    The laser-jamming effectiveness of combined fiber lasers for airborne defense systems is analyzed in detail. Our preliminary experimental results are proof of the concept of getting a high-power laser through a beam combination technique. Based on combined fiber lasers, the jamming effectiveness of four-quadrant guidance and imaging guidance systems are evaluated. The simulation results have proved that for a four-quadrant guidance system, the tracking system takes only two seconds to complete tracking, and the new tracking target is the jamming laser; for the imaging guidance system, increasing the power of the jamming laser or the distance between the target and the jamming laser are both efficient ways to achieve a successful laser jamming. PMID:19104536

  14. California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) Update of the Schools Naturally Occurring Asbestos Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, M.

    2012-12-01

    Prior to acquisition and/or construction of prospective school sites, the California Education Code mandates that school districts complete environmental assessments and cleanups for prospective new or expanding school sites in order to qualify for state funding. If prospective school sites are determined to have environmental contamination from hazardous materials, including naturally occurring hazardous materials such as naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), where there may be unacceptable potential health risks, the school sites must be properly mitigated prior to occupancy for protection of human health and the environment. NOA is of special concern for schools, because children who are exposed to asbestos may be at increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases over time. In order to protect human health, the Department of Toxic Substances Control's (DTSC) goals at school sites are to: 1) identify the presence of NOA in school site soils using exposure-reducing soil thresholds; 2) manage potential NOA exposures using mitigation measures to reduce generation of airborne asbestos fibers from soils on school sites; and 3) ensure long-term monitoring and protection of mitigation measures via Operations & Maintenance activities. DTSC is currently in the process of revising its Interim Guidance Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) at School Sites - September 2004. The revisions include: 1) updating the guidance to consider incremental sampling for use at NOA sites in consultation with DTSC's project manager and technical staff, and 2) documenting a tiered approach to addressing high and low activity areas on a school.

  15. Use of asbestos in the Israeli Defense Forces.

    PubMed

    Schlezinger, Z

    1986-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have adopted the current standards for asbestos in the workplace (1 fiber/ml). Although average daily exposure to asbestos is relatively limited, nevertheless, the army personnel concerned are defined as "asbestos workers." Four main areas of asbestos use were monitored, and medical examinations of susceptible personnel were performed. Recommendations were suggested for improving conditions. The IDF is now in the process of eliminating the use of materials containing asbestos, with the aim of eliminating asbestos use in the IDF within a three-to five-year period. PMID:3812492

  16. Use of asbestos in the Israeli Defense Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Schlezinger, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have adopted the current standards for asbestos in the workplace (1 fiber/ml). Although average daily exposure to asbestos is relatively limited, nevertheless, the army personnel concerned are defined as asbestos workers. Four main areas of asbestos use were monitored, and medical examinations of susceptible personnel were performed. Recommendations were suggested for improving conditions. The IDF is now in the process of eliminating the use of materials containing asbestos, with the aim of eliminating asbestos use in the IDF within a three-to five-year period.

  17. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  18. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  19. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  20. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  1. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  2. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  3. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  4. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  5. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  6. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  7. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  8. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  9. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  10. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  11. [Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: its relation to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Moruzzo, D; Siuti, E; del Corso, L

    1995-10-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos can induce malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (PMM) without pulmonary or pleural involvement (PIMM). The localization to the peritoneum depends on the different susceptibility of the two mesotheliums and, perhaps, on the length of asbestos fibers which can facilitate their direct translocation. PMID:8622811

  12. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  13. Real-time single airborne nanoparticle detection with nanomechanical resonant filter-fiber

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Silvan; Kurek, Maksymilian; Adolphsen, Jens Q.; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have an unprecedented mass sensitivity sufficient to detect single molecules, viruses or nanoparticles. The challenge with nanomechanical mass sensors is the direction of nano-sized samples onto the resonator. In this work we present an efficient inertial sampling technique and gravimetric detection of airborne nanoparticles with a nanomechanical resonant filter-fiber. By increasing the nanoparticle momentum the dominant collection mechanism changes from diffusion to more efficient inertial impaction. In doing so we reach a single filter-fiber collection efficiency of 65 ± 31% for 28 nm silica nanoparticles. Finally, we show the detection of single 100 nm silver nanoparticles. The presented method is suitable for environmental or security applications where low-cost and portable monitors are demanded. It also constitutes a unique technique for the fundamental study of single filter-fiber behavior. We present the direct measurement of diffusive nanoparticle collection on a single filter-fiber qualitatively confirming Langmuir's model from 1942. PMID:23411405

  14. Asbestos Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denver, Colorado) Tremolite Asbestos. Close Up of Vermiculite Insulation in an Attic (Photo courtesy of EPA) Different ... Vermiculite (Photo courtesy of EPA) Attic Containing Vermiculite Insulation (Photo courtesy of EPA) Top of Page Text ...

  15. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  16. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma following asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Manavoğlu, O; Orhan, B; Evrensel, T; Ozçelik, T; Yolcu, I; Kunt, E

    1996-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and pathological studies have demonstrated that asbestosis plays a major role in the etiology of mesothelioma. The direct exposure of workers in industrialized countries to asbestos fibers and nonoccupational household contact elevate the risk of malignant mesothelioma. An increased risk has been found in certain geographic areas of Turkey due to the presence of asbestos deposits and the use of the material known as "white soil" as an insulation. We present a malignant mesothelioma case from rural eastern Turkey with a history of asbestos exposure from using "white soil". We review the epidemiological aspects of asbestos as they relate to mesothelioma. PMID:9216805

  17. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler and a Breathing Zone Model for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for asbestos structures to become airborne when the source is disturbed. The source can be naturally occurring asbestos in soil, mine tailings in the soil at brownfield sites, vermiculite attic insulation in indoor envi...

  18. ENGINEERING CONTROL PRACTICES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS DURING DRILLING OF ASBESTOS-CONTAINING FLOORING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the implementation and testing of control measures to reduce airborne asbestos generated by the drilling of asbestos-containing flooring materials, an OSHA Class III asbestos maintenance activity. Bosch 11224 and 11222 rotary drills were fitted with shrouds ...

  19. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...

  20. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. hese 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Departm...

  1. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  2. Pleural plaque related to asbestos mining in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lee, Jen-Jyh

    2010-12-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of twisting-like pain in her left lower chest. During physical examination, friction rubbing was noted in both lungs. Chest radiography showed extensive bilateral pleural calcification. High-resolution computed tomography confirmed the presence of bilateral calcified pleural plaques. The patient had worked at a Japanese asbestos factory in Taiwan for 1 year when she was 16 years old. Her job involved picking out asbestos fibers from crushed asbestos minerals, but no protective equipment was used at that time. This is believed to be the first reported case of asbestos-related disease in Taiwan that resulted from asbestos mining. We also summarize the history of domestic asbestos mining, importation of asbestos, and trends in asbestos use in Taiwan. PMID:21195893

  3. Guide to the asbestos NESHAP as revised November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The specific authority of EPA regarding asbestos is listed under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act entitled 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants' (NESHAP). The particular standard, that addresses asbestos is contained in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Part 61, Subpart M. These regulations generally specify emission control requirements for the milling, manufacturing and fabricating of asbestos, for activities associated with the demolition and renovation of asbestos-containing buildings, and for the handling and disposal of asbestos-containing waste material. The major intention of the regulations is to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during all activities involving the handling and processing of asbestos and asbestos-containing material.

  4. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  5. Asbestos in drinking water. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence and problems associated with drinking water contaminated by asbestos fibers. Water supply contamination by asbestos cement pipes and factors involved in the release of asbestos fibers are discussed. Topics also include distribution data, epidemiology studies, health effects, detection, and measurement methods. (Contains a minimum of 114 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Standard test method for airborne asbestos concentration in ambient and indoor atmospheres as determined by transmission electron microscopy direct transfer (TEM). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-22 on Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.07 on Asbestos. Current edition approved Jul. 10, 1998. Published October 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  7. Asbestos and other ferruginous bodies: their formation and clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Churg, A. M.; Warnock, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of asbestos bodies from the general population have confirmed that these structures, like asbestos bodies from the lungs of asbestos workers, contain an asbestos core. In members of the general population this core is almost always an amphibole, whereas asbestos workers may have bodies formed on either amphibole or chrysotile. Most adults have a few bodies, and increasing numbers are seen in blue collar workers and others who handle small amounts of the fiber, with the highest levels being seen in asbestos workers. In men with minimal or extensive occupational exposure, asbestos bodies are formed on the commercial fibers, amosite and crocidolite, whereas women also form a significant number of bodies on the noncommercial fibers, anthophyllite and tremolite. These findings suggest that women may be exposed to specific asbestos-containing products, eg, cosmetic talc. The commercial fibers found in women and white collar men probably reflect atmospheric pollution with asbestos. At the highest levels of exposure, numbers of asbestos bodies correlate in a general way with the presence of asbestosis, although no precise value has been determined above which asbestosis is always found. In persons with much lower or environmental exposure, there does not appear to be any correlation between numbers of bodies and disease, in particular between numbers of bodies and carcinoma of the lung or gastrointestinal tract. The situation for mesothelioma is uncertain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6101235

  8. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE RESEARCH - AIR, SOIL AND BULK MATERIAL SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently, asbestos and other mineral fibers are monitored in the workplace and in the environment using several basic analytical techniques, based primarily upon observing the fiber by either optical or electron microscopy. EPA is conducting research to determine which sampling ...

  9. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

  10. A visual historical review of exposure to asbestos at puget sound naval shipyard (1962-1972).

    PubMed

    Hollins, Dana M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Clark, Katherine; Mangold, Carl A

    2009-02-01

    The study of occupational exposure to asbestos has been an ongoing activity for at least 75 years, dating back to the papers of Merewether and Price (1930). Since that time, literally tens of thousands of air samples have been collected in an attempt to characterize the concentration of asbestos associated with various activities. Many of the individuals who developed diseases from the 1970s to the current day were often exposed to very high airborne concentrations because of direct or indirect exposure to either raw asbestos fiber or insulation during the approximate 1940-1970 time period. Often, these high exposures were associated with work in shipyards during and after World War II and the Korean War, as well as with decommissioning, which continued into the mid-1970s. This study reviews the historical asbestos concentrations measured in shipyards and presents a visual illustration of typical conditions and work practices. A majority of the photographs presented in this article depict work conditions at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, circa 1940-1965, which is representative of other military shipyards of the time. PMID:19235622

  11. DEFINITION FOR ASBESTOS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; Kuntze, Richard A.; Clifton, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A definition of asbestos is proposed. Under this definition, the term asbestos applies to six naturally occurring minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, which are in part derived from their asbestiform habit. The six minerals are the serpentine mineral chrysotile and the amphibole minerals grunerite asbestos (also referred to as amosite), riebeckite asbestos (also referred to as crocidolite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Individual mineral particles, however processed and regardless of their mineral name, are not demonstrated to be asbestos if the length-to-width ratio is less than 20:1.

  12. No meeting of the minds on asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The debate on the health hazards of asbestos has become so polarized that researchers from one camp no longer go to the other camp's meetings. One view suggests that a spate of asbestos-triggered diseases would strike thousands of construction workers, firemen, custodians, and other people exposed to microscopic asbestos fibers that crumble from building and pipe insulation, brake pads, and hundreds of other sources. Other researchers believe that chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type in the US, poses relatively little health risk to the general public at the levels of exposure generally encountered, and that expensive removal of properly maintained asbestos-containing materials such as insulation and cement is not warranted.

  13. Sampling and Analysis of Asbestos Fibers on Filter Media to Support Exposure Assessment: Bench-Scale Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling efficiency is essential in exposure assessments of contaminants in air, as well as other matrices. In the measurement of airborne contaminants, it is critical to collect a sample of air containing representative contaminants in the air of concern, that is, contaminant c...

  14. Carcinogenic hazards from inhaled carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers: recent evaluations by an IARC Monographs Working Group.

    PubMed

    Baan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    In February 2006, an IARC Monographs Working Group reevaluated the carcinogenic hazards to humans of carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc, which belong to the group of poorly soluble, low-toxicity particles. The review of the relevant literature and the evaluations by the Working Group will be published in Volume 93 of the IARC Monographs series. This article summarizes the Working Group's conclusions. Epidemiological studies among workers in carbon black production and in the rubber industry provided inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity. The overall data from cancer studies in rodents exposed to carbon black provided sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity. The Working Group evaluated carbon black as possibly carcinogenic to humans, Group 2B. Reviewing the epidemiological studies in the titanium dioxide production industry, the Working Group concluded that there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity. Overall, the results from rodent cancer studies with titanium dioxide were considered to provide sufficient evidence. Titanium dioxide was evaluated as possibly carcinogenic to humans, Group 2B. Epidemiological studies on talc miners and millers provided inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity of inhaled talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers. The evidence from rodent cancer studies was considered limited. The Working Group evaluated inhaled talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers as not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans, Group 3. The Working Group noted that prolonged exposure to inhaled particles at sufficiently high concentrations in experimental animals may lead to impairment of normal clearance mechanisms in the alveolar region of the lung, resulting in a continued buildup of particles that eventually leads to excessive lung burdens accompanied by chronic alveolar inflammation. The inflammatory response may give rise to increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cell injury, cell proliferation, fibrosis

  15. Thermal modification of chrysotile asbestos: evidence for decreased cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R; Chang, M J; Hart, R W; Finch, G L; Fisher, G L

    1983-01-01

    Many asbestiform minerals exhibit temperature-dependent thermoluminescence. Since thermoluminescence involves electronic transitions within crystalline materials, the effect of temperature on asbestos cytotoxicity was evaluated. Heat pretreatment of Canadian chrysotile asbestos reduces its cytotoxicity towards cultured human fibroblasts and bovine alveolar macrophages. When monitored 44 hr after the addition of either 200 degrees C or 400 degrees C heat-pretreated asbestos, alveolar macrophage viability was approximately 40% higher than comparable amounts of unheated asbestos. Similarly, asbestos toxicity, expressed as fibroblast growth inhibition, was inversely related to the asbestos pretreatment temperature in the following manner, 70 degrees C greater than 200 degrees C greater than 400 degrees C = unexposed fibroblast controls. Pretreatment of chrysotile asbestos to 400 degrees C reduced its adsorptive capacity for bovine serum albumin by 25%. Furthermore, asbestos heated to 200 degrees C followed by irradiation with 4 MeV X-rays (4500 rads) resulted in reactivation of asbestos cytotoxicity. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the ratios of free to fiber-associated alveolar macrophages and the fiber fragment size distributions were unaffected by either heat pretreatment or X-ray irradiation. These observations strongly suggest that the surface charge characteristics and electronic state of asbestos fibers may be responsible for its biological activity. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. (A) FIGURE 5. (B) FIGURE 6. (A) FIGURE 6. (B) FIGURE 6. (C) FIGURE 6. (D) FIGURE 7. PMID:6315379

  16. Chrysotile asbestos exposure in the manufacturing of thermal insulating boards.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, L J; Vyas, J B; Shaikh, M I; Dodia, S L

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to asbestos fibers has been extensively studied in milling, mining of asbestos fibers, and in industries manufacturing asbestos-cement sheets, pipes, etc. However, very few studies have been reported in asbestos textiles, brake lining workers, and insulation products. In the present investigation, chrysotile exposure monitoring was carried out in a small thermal insulating boards manufacturing facility. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed from various locations like feeding of raw materials, weighing, pressing, machine grinding, and hand finishing of final products. Twenty-five percent of the samples were found to be above ACGIH TLV of 0.1 fibers per milliliter. However, mean fiber concentrations were found to be lower than 0.1 fibers per milliliter, except for the process of feeding of raw materials where the mean fiber concentration was 0.1087+/-0.0631 fibers per milliliter. PMID:19626449

  17. Asbestos in buildings: what standards are needed

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, W.; Lieff, M.

    1985-06-01

    The reaction of school jurisdictions over the known hazards of airborne asbestos inhalation points out the need for better standards and inspection requirements. A National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) report emphasizes the need for standards in several areas, and a Canadian study concurred on the need for standards even though it found the risk from exposure to asbestos in buildings was not significant. The author notes other laboratory tests and efforts to develop a standard for friable asbestos containing materials and encapsulants for asbestos building materials when a hazard is identified. Consensus standards will provide uniform and coherent procedures for controlling the problem to replace the emotion, confusion, and unnecessary costs of the affected interests.

  18. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  19. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  20. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Although there were several anecdotal reports from earlier times, the first well documented case of asbestosis was reported in 1906 in a worker engaged in the production of asbestos textiles. In 1917 a report of ten cases of pulmonary fibrosis occurring at a Pennsylvania facility was published. The first detailed epidemiologic study of asbestos workers was undertaken in Great Britain in 1928. The first indication that asbestos might be a human carcinogen came in 1935 with the report of three independently diagnosed cases of lung cancer detected during autopsy of asbestos workers. Epidemiologic studies have now repeatedly demonstrated an association between asbestos exposure and increased mortality due to asbestosis, lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, and gastrointestinal cancer. In some studies asbestos exposure has also been associated with increased risks for laryngeal cancer and cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. Studies which have been concerned with exposure to crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and chrysotile were highlighted. Other topics reviewed included asbestos contamination of other minerals, the combined effects of asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, mortality and pleural radiographic changes, and mixed fiber exposures.

  1. Asbestos occurrence in the Eagle C-4 quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura

    1969-01-01

    An asbestos occurrence was discovered in a remote part of the Eagle quadrangle, Alaska, in the summer of 1968 during geologic reconnaissance in connection with the U.S. Geological Survey's Heavy Metals program. The exposed part of the deposit consists of large joint blocks of serpentine which are cut by closely spaced subparallel veins. Most of the veins are about ? inch thick, and they consist of cross-fiber chrysotile asbestos. The asbestos appears to be of commercial quality, but the total quantity is unknown. The asbestos occurs in a serpentinized ultramafic mass which appears to intrude metamorphic rocks. Many other serpentinized ultramafic masses are known in the Eagle quadrangle, but this is the first one in which considerable asbestos has been found. The deposit is of importance because it shows that geologic conditions are locally favorable for the formation of asbestos in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and hope of finding commercial asbestos deposits thus seems possible.

  2. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lemen, R A; Dement, J M; Wagoner, J K

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and is restricted to primarily occupational exposure studies. However, some mention of nonoccupational exposures are made because of their direct relationship to a worker or to a secondary occupational source. Over 100 epidemiological studies are reviewed, dating back to the first case of asbestos-associated disease reported by Montague Murray in 1906. The studies are divided by specific fiber type and by specific disease outcomes and the interaction of asbestos and cigarette smoking is discussed in great detail. PMID:6993197

  3. The use of an experimental room for monitoring of airborne concentrations of microorganisms, glass fibers, and total particles

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, M.P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental room was used as a microcosm for studies of airborne particles and microorganisms in indoor environments. The interior of the room measures 4 by 4 by 2.2 m high and has a hardwood floor and the walls and ceiling are sheetrocked and coated with interior latex paint. Exterior walls are 11.4-cm thick plywood panels consisting of two outer sections of plywood insulated with fiber glass batts. The ceiling is of similar construction with 17.1-cm thick panels. Attached to the room entrance is an anteroom equipped with a HEPA-filtered air shower to reduce mixing of air resulting from entering and exiting during experiments. The room is equipped with a computer-controlled heating, ventilation, and cooling system. Temperature, relative humidity, air flow, and room pressure can be continuously monitored by probes located in the room and air handling system components. Several research projects have been conducted using this room including monitoring the potential for airborne glass fibers released from rigid fibrous ductboard, comparisons of commercially available samplers for monitoring of airborne fungal spores, and a study on the efficacy of vacuum bags to minimize dispersal of particles, including fungal spores from fungal-contaminated carpet. During studies designed to monitor airborne fiberglass, air samples were taken in the room serviced by new rigid fibrous glass ductwork, and the results were compared to those obtained in the room with bare metal ductwork installed. Monitoring of airborne fungal spores using the Andersen six-stage sampler, the high flow Spiral Biotech sampler, the Biotest RCS Plus sampler, and the Burkard spore trap sampler was performed following the release of Penicillium spores into the room through the supply register. Dispersal of carpet-associated particles and fungal spores was measured after vacuuming using conventional cellulose vacuum bags in comparison to recently developed bags.

  4. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  5. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  6. Design and performance of a fiber array coupled multi-channel photon counting, 3D imaging, airborne lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Genghua; Shu, Rong; Hou, Libing; Li, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Photon counting lidar has an ultra-high sensitivity which can be hundreds even thousands of times higher than the linear detection lidar. It can significantly increase the system's capability of detection rang and imaging density, saving size and power consumings in airborne or space-borne applications. Based on Geiger-mode Si avalanche photodiodes (Si-APD), a prototype photon counting lidar which used 8 APDs coupled with a 1×8-pixel fiber array has been made in June, 2011. The experiments with static objects showed that the photon counting lidar could operate in strong solar background with 0.04 receiving photoelectrons on average. Limited by less counting times in moving platforms, the probability of detection and the 3D imaging density would be lower than that in static platforms. In this paper, a latest fiber array coupled multi-channel photon counting, 3D imaging, airborne lidar system is introduced. The correlation range receiver algorithm of photon counting 3D imaging is improved for airborne signal photon events extraction and noise filter. The 3D imaging experiments in the helicopter shows that the false alarm rate is less than 6×10-7, and the correct rate is better than 99.9% with 4 received photoelectrons and 0.7MHz system noise on average.

  7. Evaluation of the Dark-Medium Objective Lens in Counting Asbestos Fibers by Phase-Contrast Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Nelson, John H.; Kashon, Michael L.; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A Japanese round-robin study revealed that analysts who used a dark-medium (DM) objective lens reported higher fiber counts from American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) chrysotile samples than those using a standard objective lens, but the cause of this difference was not investigated at that time. The purpose of this study is to determine any major source of this difference by performing two sets of round-robin studies. For the first round-robin study, 15 AIHA PAT samples (five each of chrysotile and amosite generated by water-suspended method, and five chrysotile generated by aerosolization method) were prepared with relocatable cover slips and examined by nine laboratories. A second round-robin study was then performed with six chrysotile field sample slides by six out of nine laboratories who participated in the first round-robin study. In addition, two phase-shift test slides to check analysts’ visibility and an eight-form diatom test plate to compare resolution between the two objectives were examined. For the AIHA PAT chrysotile reference slides, use of the DM objective resulted in consistently higher fiber counts (1.45 times for all data) than the standard objective (P-value < 0.05), regardless of the filter generation (water-suspension or aerosol) method. For the AIHA PAT amosite reference and chrysotile field sample slides, the fiber counts between the two objectives were not significantly different. No statistically significant differences were observed in the visibility of blocks of the test slides between the two objectives. Also, the DM and standard objectives showed no pattern of differences in viewing the fine lines and/or dots of each species images on the eight-form diatom test plate. Among various potential factors that might affect the analysts’ performance of fiber counts, this study supports the greater contrast caused by the different phase plate absorptions as the main cause of high counts for

  8. Overview On Alternate Asbestos Control Method Research And NESHAP Comparison - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  9. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  10. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    PubMed Central

    Cherrie, John W; Tindall, Matthew; Cowie, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from <0.06 to 0.55 fibres/ml, with no significant difference in fibre exposure between aged and unused mitts. The use of high localised ventilation to simulate convective airflows from a furnace reduced exposure levels by about a factor of five. Differences between tasks were statistically significant, with simulated "rowing" of molten glass lowest and replacement of side seals on the furnace highest. Estimated lifetime cancer risk from 20 years exposure at the upper end of the exposure range measured during the study is less than 22 per 100,000. Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low. PMID:16202137

  11. Oxygen radicals and asbestos-mediated disease.

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, T R; Marsh, J P; Janssen, Y M; Borm, P A; Mossman, B T

    1994-01-01

    Asbestos fibers are potent elaborators of active oxygen species whether by reactions involving iron on the surface of the fiber, or by attempted phagocytosis of fibers by cell types resident in the lung. The link between production of active oxygen species and the pathogenesis of asbestos-mediated disease has been highlighted by studies outlined here exploring the use of antioxidant scavengers which inhibit the cytotoxic effects of asbestos both in vitro and in vivo. The use of antioxidant enzymes ameliorates the induction of certain genes necessary for cell proliferation, such as ornithine decarboxylase, implicating oxidants as causative factors in some abnormal cell replicative events. Based on these observations, antioxidant enzymes likely represent an important lung defense mechanism in response to oxidative stress. In addition, their gene expression in lung or in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage might be a valuable biomarker of chronic inflammation and pulmonary disease after inhalation of oxidants. PMID:7705283

  12. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  13. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  14. [Experimental rationale for carcinogenic risk of asbestos cement industry and its products].

    PubMed

    Pylev, D N; Smirnova, O V; Vasil'eva, L A; Khrustalev, S A; Vezentsev, A I; Gudkova, E A; Naumova, L N

    2010-01-01

    During intraperitoneal administration of dispersiveness-comparable chrysotile or asbestos cement fibers to rats (20 mg thrice), mesotheliomas were found in 45.1 and 7.7% of cases respectively. Asbestos cement dust induced tumors in 2.5% of cases, which is of biological importance. Cement or freeze asbestos destruction cement dust failed to cause tumors. The latter were not detected in a control group receiving physiological saline. Asbestos cement fibers and fascicles are covered by a cement matrix. Fiber amorphization gradually occurs. In lung tissue, there may be destruction of the cement coat of fascicles and release of native chrysotile fibers that are carcinogenic. PMID:21381365

  15. Essential Components of a Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan and Worker Protection Program at Sites Involving the Excavation of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdeb, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    Preparing a Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan that provides the essential information and methods of evaluation needed to assure that the health of the surrounding community is adequately protected and adapting currently existing Cal/OSHA regulations to be relevant to the protection of workers at sites involving the excavation of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) is oftentimes challenging in California. Current guidelines regarding what constitutes an effective air monitoring program are often lacking in details regarding what should be sampled and analyzed to characterize a site and what evaluation techniques should be applied to process the results of monitoring, and the current Cal/OSHA asbestos related regulations regarding worker protection are for the most part largely pertinent to the abatement of asbestos in buildings. An overview of the essential components of an effective Baseline and Perimeter Air Monitoring Plan will be presented that includes a brief discussion of the various asbestos types and fiber sizes that may need to be considered, possible approachs for evaluating temporal and spatial variability, review of selected site boundary target concentrations, and consideration of the potential for airborne dust and soil containing asbestos (and other contaminants) to migrate and accumulate offsite eventually contributing to "background creep" --the incremental increase of overall airborne asbestos concentrations in the areas surrounding the site due to the re-entrainment of asbestos from the settled dust and/or transported soil. In addition to the above, the current Cal/OSHA asbestos regulations related to worker protection will be briefly discussed with respect to their relevancy at NOA sites with an overview of the adaptations to the regulations that were developed as a result of some fairly lengthy discussions with representatives of Cal/OSHA. These adaptations include, among other things, defining how regulated areas (asbestos concentrations over 1

  16. [Mortality from pleural and peritoneal cancer in a cohort of asbestos workers, many years after start of the exposure: possible role of fibers clearance].

    PubMed

    Adesi, F Barone; Ferrante, D; Bertolotti, M; Todesco, A; Mirabelli, D; Terracini, B; Magnani, C

    2007-01-01

    The multistage theory of carcinogenesis assumes rates of mesothelioma increasing monotonically as a function of time since first exposure (TSFE) to asbestos. However, some authors have suggested that the increase in mesothelioma rate with TSFE might be attenuated by clearance of asbestos from the lungs. We estimated mortality time trends from pleural and peritoneal cancer in a cohort of 3443 asbestos-cement workers. The role of asbestos clearance was explored using the traditional mesothelioma multistage model, generalized to include a term representing elimination over time. We observed 139 deaths from pleural and 56 from peritoneal cancer during the period 1950-2003. The rate of pleural cancer increased during the first 40 years of TSFE and reached a plateau thereafter. In contrast, the rate of peritoneal cancer increased monotonically with TSFE. The model allowing for asbestos elimination fitted the data better than the traditional model for pleural (p = 0.02) but not for peritoneal cancer (p = 0.22). The risk for pleural cancer, rather than showing an indefinite increase, might reach a plateau when a sufficiently long time has elapsed since exposure. The different trends for pleural and peritoneal cancer might be related to clearance of the asbestos from the workers' lungs. PMID:18409718

  17. Asbestos ban in India: challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Bhuva, Uttpal B; Katoch, Priyanka

    2006-09-01

    Rapidly industrializing India is described by the International Monetary Fund as a young, disciplined, and vibrant economy with a projected growth of 6.7% for 2005. The total workforce of 397 million has only 7% of workers employed in the organized sector with construction, where asbestos exposure is prevalent, employing 4.4%. The domestic production of asbestos declined from 20,111 tons in 1998-1999 to 14,340 tons in 2002-2003. The imports from Russia and Canada increased from 61,474 tons in 1997-1998 to 97,884 tons in 2001-2002. The production of asbestos cement products went up from 0.68 million tons in 1993-1994 to 1.38 million tons in 2002-2003. The asbestos industry has been delicensed since March 2003. The number of asbestos-based units stood at 32, with the western state of Maharashtra having the largest number. According to official figures, the industry employs 8000 workers. The occupational exposure standard is still 2 fibers/mL, worse still, mesothelioma is not recognized as an occupational disease. The latest cancer registry data have no information on mesothelioma. The health and safety legislation does not cover 93% of workers in the unorganized sector where asbestos exposures are extremely high. Workers remain uninformed and untrained in dealing with asbestos exposure. Enforcement agencies are not fully conscious of the risks of asbestos exposure. Industrial hygiene assessment is seldom carried out and pathologists do not receive training in identifying mesothelioma histopathologically. The lack of political will and powerful influence of the asbestos industry are pushing India toward a disaster of unimaginable proportion. PMID:17119210

  18. Asbestos removal in the construction industry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the impact of asbestos abatement on the construction industry. It is estimated that the cleanup effort may cost $100 billion over the next twenty five years. More than 733,000 structures, or twenty percent of U. S. commercial and public properties are believed to contain asbestos. Some of the material is in a friable state. This asbestos is crumbling into microscopic fibers that can float in through the air. The use of asbestos was restricted after high doses of its fibers were found to scar lungs, causing cancer and other diseases. Construction businesses use 50 percent of the U. S. supply of asbestos in asbestos cement pipes, sheets, siding shingles, floor tiles, coatings, and sealants. Some 29,000 workers install asbestos insulation during building construction. Other estimates of exposed workers include 20,400 in demolition, 67,800 in abatement, 82,500 in general building renovation, 135,700 doing routine maintenance in buildings, and 183,200 in routine maintenance in general industry. The demand for asbestos removal services exceeds the ability of the industry to supply it safely. Asbestos management and removal are major issues for the construction industry world wide.

  19. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  20. Assessment of asbestos exposure during a simulated agricultural activity in the proximity of the former asbestos mine of Balangero, Italy.

    PubMed

    Turci, Francesco; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Gazzano, Claudia; Tomatis, Maura; Gentile-Garofalo, Laura; Bergamini, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The natural occurrence of asbestos (NOA) in rural areas is a serious concern for human health and the dispersion route of asbestos in the proximity of natural asbestos-rich settings has been marginally evaluated so far. NOA may affect air, but also water and soil quality. In rural areas population may be exposed to asbestos with a largely unknown impact on human health. This work investigates the potential exposure of a farmer cultivating a field nearby the largest former asbestos mine of Western Europe (Balangero, Italy). The concentration of waterborne asbestos in the stream used to water the field was measured (ca. 2×10(5) fibers per liter, ff/L) and the cultivated ultramafic topsoil characterized, evidencing a remarkable occurrence of chrysotile. The worker's personal exposure and the environmental fiber dispersion during a simulated agricultural activity (tillage) were quantified in two independent trials. During the trials, the worker was exposed to average concentrations of 16 and 26 ff/L, with a peak of 40 ff/L. These data inform about the possible exposure of an agricultural worker to asbestos concentration higher than the accepted threshold of 2 ff/L. The release of asbestos fibers into the environment was negligible (0-2 ff/L). PMID:26852207

  1. Histopathological data of iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Elisa; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Pascolo, Lorella; Pascotto, Ernesto; Casarsa, Claudia; Lucattelli, Monica; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cavarra, Eleonora; Bartalesi, Barbara; Zweyer, Marina; Borelli, Violetta

    2016-03-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, "Synchrotron X-ray microscopy reveals early calcium and iron interaction with crocidolite fibers in the lung of exposed mice" [1]. Asbestos fibers disrupt iron homeostasis in the human and mouse lung, leading to the deposition of iron (Fe) onto longer asbestos fibers which forms asbestos bodies (AB) [2]. Similar to Fe, calcium (Ca) is also deposited in the coats of the AB. This article presents data on iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure detected by histochemical evaluation. PMID:26909387

  2. Histopathological data of iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Elisa; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Pascolo, Lorella; Pascotto, Ernesto; Casarsa, Claudia; Lucattelli, Monica; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cavarra, Eleonora; Bartalesi, Barbara; Zweyer, Marina; Borelli, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, “Synchrotron X-ray microscopy reveals early calcium and iron interaction with crocidolite fibers in the lung of exposed mice” [1]. Asbestos fibers disrupt iron homeostasis in the human and mouse lung, leading to the deposition of iron (Fe) onto longer asbestos fibers which forms asbestos bodies (AB) [2]. Similar to Fe, calcium (Ca) is also deposited in the coats of the AB. This article presents data on iron and calcium in the mouse lung after asbestos exposure detected by histochemical evaluation. PMID:26909387

  3. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  4. Asbestos in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Schreier, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book consists of six chapters which cover asbestos types and health effects; asbestos properties, mineralogy, distribution, and analysis; asbestos in the aquatic environment; asbestos in the soil environment; asbestos and plant growth; and other environmental concerns. The book is useful and is recommended for those interested in asbestos in soil and water and in a general review of asbestos sources. The book is not recommended for those interested in asbestos sampling and analysis or in a critical review of human health effects resulting from asbestos exposure. 400 refs.

  5. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  6. Chlor-alkali producers evaluate safer alternatives to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Stadig, W.

    1993-03-01

    Until recently, 75% of all US capacity for producing chlor-alkali - more than 40% of the world's capacity - has used asbestos diaphragm-cell technology. Although the Environmental Protection Agency continues to exempt asbestos use in diaphragms from restrictions, producers are considering alternatives. In Germany, stringent regulations will ban asbestos in chlor-alkali production after 1994. Heavy fines were levied recently against some chlor-alkali producers in the United States when EPA inspectors found asbestos fibers in cell renewal areas. Restrictions on the mining of asbestos raise the cost of obtaining adequate amounts of high-quality asbestos and gradually raise the cost of transporting and discarding spent diaphragms. Two alternatives are to use newly developed, non-asbestos diaphragms or to convert to existing ion-exchange membrane-cell technology. Only the former seems economical in the United States. The non-asbestos diaphragm is based on an inorganic polymer composite developed in 1988 as an asbestos substitute. The composite received Du Pont's Plunkett Award for Innovation with Teflon[trademark], landed on the National Development Association's 1991 Honor Roll and became a 1991 R D 100 Award winner. 6 figs.

  7. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  8. Asbestos-related lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: selected current issues.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases persist, because millions of workers have had prior exposure and many industrializing countries continue to use asbestos. Globally, an estimated 107,000 people die annually from lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, and asbestosis due to occupational asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are caused by all major types of asbestos. Asbestos causes more lung cancer deaths than malignant mesothelioma of the pleura; most cases of the latter are due to asbestos exposure. The cancer risk increases with cumulative asbestos exposure, with increased risk even at low levels of exposure to asbestos. Based on empirical studies, an estimated cumulative occupational exposure to asbestos of 1 fiber/mL-year substantially raises malignant mesothelioma risk. No safe threshold for asbestos exposure has been established for lung cancer and mesothelioma. The validity of fiber-type risk assessments depends critically on the quality of exposure assessments, which vary considerably, leading to a high degree of uncertainty. Asbestos exposure without asbestosis and smoking increases the risk of lung cancer. The joint effect of asbestos and smoking is supra-additive, which may depend in part on the presence of asbestosis. Asbestos workers who cease smoking experience a dramatic drop in lung cancer risk, which approaches that of nonsmokers after 30 years. Studies to date show that longer, thinner fibers have a stronger association with lung cancer than shorter, less thin fibers, but the latter nonetheless also show an association with lung cancer and mesothelioma. Low-dose chest computed tomographic scanning offers an unprecedented opportunity to detect early-stage lung cancers in asbestos-exposed workers. PMID:26024342

  9. NIOSH testimony on asbestos before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances, Environmental Oversight, Research and Development Committee on Environment and Public Works by Richard A. Lemen, April 26, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-26

    The testimony concerns the position of NIOSH regarding the science and health effects caused by exposure to asbestos. Based on studies of workers exposed to asbestos before general governmental regulations were in place, it is known that asbestos causes specific diseases such as asbestosis and mesothelioma. Asbestos is one of the leading causes of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Asbestos exposure for smokers increases the risk of lung cancer approximately 55 times. Asbestos is also associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal and other cancers. Chrysotile is much more chemically and biologically reactive than amphibole fibers. There is no compelling evidence at this time to justify different public health policies for different asbestos fiber types. NIOSH reaffirmed its position that no distinction be made between the types of asbestos fibers with regard to regulatory purposes. The scientific evidence suggests that fiber shape and size are the most critical factors in the pathogenicity of the material.

  10. Biopersistence and potential adverse health impacts of fibrous nanomaterials: what have we learned from asbestos?

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Vanesa C.; Pietruska, Jodie R.; Miselis, Nathan R.; Hurt, Robert H.; Kane, Agnes B.

    2010-01-01

    Human diseases associated with exposure to asbestos fibers include pleural fibrosis and plaques, pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis), lung cancer, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma. The critical determinants of fiber bioactivity and toxicity include not only fiber dimensions, but also shape, surface reactivity, crystallinity, chemical composition, and presence of transition metals. Depending on their size and dimensions, inhaled fibers can penetrate the respiratory tract to the distal airways and into the alveolar spaces. Fibers can be cleared by several mechanisms, including the mucociliary escalator, engulfment, and removal by macrophages, or through splitting and chemical modification. Biopersistence of long asbestos fibers can lead to inflammation, granuloma formation, fibrosis, and cancer. Exposure to synthetic carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is considered a potential health hazard because of their physical similarities with asbestos fibers. Respiratory exposure to CNTs can produce an inflammatory response, diffuse interstitial fibrosis, and formation of fibrotic granulomas similar to that observed in asbestos-exposed animals and humans. Given the known cytotoxic and carcinogenic properties of asbestos fibers, toxicity of fibrous nanomaterials is a topic of intense study. The mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, but recent evidence suggests points of similarity with asbestos fibers, including a role for generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Considering the rapid increase in production and use of fibrous nanomaterials, it is imperative to gain a thorough understanding of their biologic activity to avoid the human health catastrophe that has resulted from widespread use of asbestos fibers. PMID:20049814

  11. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... reasons, asbestos has been used widely in many industries. Chemically, asbestos minerals are silicate compounds, meaning they ... Since then, asbestos has been used in many industries. For example, the building and construction industries have ...

  12. Diagnosis of Asbestos-Related Diseases: The Mineralogist and Pathologist's Role in Medicolegal Field.

    PubMed

    Capella, Silvana; Bellis, Donata; Belluso, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Because asbestos diseases represent a complex pattern of legal, social, and political issue, the involvement of the mineralogist and pathologist for a multidisciplinary assessment of its diagnosis helps investigate the relationship between mesothelioma or lung cancer and occupational or environmental asbestos exposure.In the present study, we consider the concentrations of asbestos bodies (ABs) detected by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the burden of different kinds of mineral fibers (among which is asbestos) identified by SEM combined with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), in 10 lung tissue samples of subjects with occupational and nonoccupational exposure to asbestos.In all subjects with occupational exposure to asbestos, more than 1000 ABs per gram of dry weight were detected both with OM and SEM; this concentration is internationally accepted as suggesting high probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos.In 9 lung samples of the 10 investigated by SEM-EDS different inorganic fibers were found. Asbestos fibers have been identified too, and more than 100,000 fibers per gram of dry weight were detected in subjects with occupational exposure; this concentration is internationally accepted as suggesting high probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos.Instead, when the ABs burden is low or moderate (such as in subjects with absent or probable asbestos exposure), the correlation between ABs concentration determined by OM and those determined by SEM is lost. Therefore, when the ABs value in OM is borderline, the SEM investigation became essential. Furthermore, the mineralogical analysis by SEM-EDS (identification and quantification of inorganic fibers in general and asbestos in particular) of the fibers detected in the lung tissues is very useful, if not necessary, to complete the pathological diagnosis of asbestos-related malignancies in medicolegal field. PMID:26566053

  13. Surveys of facilities for the potential effects from the fallout of airborne graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of the entry of graphite fibers into workplaces in the United States is discussed. Areas where an electrical failure could cause major problems include process and production systems, hospitals, and police/fire emergency communication systems.

  14. Detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials by microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, N; Kashimura, K; Hashiguchi, M; Sato, M; Horikoshi, S; Mitani, T; Shinohara, N

    2015-03-01

    The detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was investigated through simulations and experiments. The permittivities of pure CaO and Mg3Si4O12, as quasi-asbestos materials, were measured using the cavity perturbation method. The real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity (ɛr' and ɛr″) of CaO are functions of temperature, and numerical simulations revealed the thermal distributions in an electromagnetic field with respect to both asbestos shape and material configuration based on permittivity. Optical microscopic observation revealed that the thickness of chrysotile fibers decreased as a result of CaO heating. The heating mechanism of asbestos materials has been determined using CaO phase, and the detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was discussed based on the heating mechanism. PMID:25463234

  15. Analysis of the asbestos permissible-exposure-level threshold standard. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.W.

    1991-06-01

    This thesis examines the reasoning of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to set stringent exposure levels for airborne asbestos in the work place. Technical recommendations from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Bureau of Mines, and the American conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists were presented to OSHA for consideration. OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set industry standards for permissible exposure levels (PEL) of airborne asbestos. Exposure to asbestos poses a health hazard to workers, their families, and consumers of asbestos products. Because it poses an unreasonable risk human life, OSHA has repeatedly lowered the Permissible Exposure Levels and the EPA will ban the manufacture, importation, processing and commercial distribution of asbestos containing products from the United States in phases by 1997. These decisions may have been made too hastily because of the long latency (15-40 years) period before cancer develops, and the added risks that smoking imposes.

  16. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  17. Cigarette smoke, asbestos, and small irregular opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.

    1984-08-01

    The long-term inhalation of cigarette smoke is associated with the appearance of diffuse small irregular opacities of mild profusion on chest roentogenograms of some subjects in a limited number of reports. Human histologic and experimental animal studies have shown the presence of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. The radiographic abnormalities may be explained by interstitial fibrosis, although bronchiolar wall thickening may also be involved. Because asbestos causes diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, the literature was reviewed for evidence concerning an interaction between cigarette smoke and asbestos in the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis. A majority of 14 prevalence studies and 7 cohort studies of asbestos workers with information on smoking habits have shown a positive interaction between the 2 agents. The interaction appears to be additive rather than synergistic. Smoking may exert an effect on the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis by increasing the effective fiber dose retained in the lungs through interference with clearance.

  18. Asbestos concentrations two years after abatement in seventeen schools. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Brownlee, J.A.; Gerber, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) in 1988. The 1988 study showed that asbestos concentrations measured independently by the NJDOH and EPA during the clearance phase of the abatement were elevated in the abatement and perimeter areas compared with outdoor concentrations. The present study was conducted to determine the current levels of airborne asbestos under simulated occupancy conditions and to determine whether the elevated levels found during the clearance phase were still present 2 years after abatement. In 1990, four sites showed significantly higher mean asbestos concentrations inside the building (i.e., the previously abated area and/or perimeter area) compared with those outdoors (p<0.05). In 1990, the mean asbestos concentration measured in the perimeter area at one site and in the previously abated area at two sites were significantly higher than those in 1988 (p<0.05). Variations in asbestos levels between 1988 and 1990 may be due to sampling techniques (passive and aggressive versus modified aggressive), residual air-entrainable asbestos from the 1988 abatement, or air-entrainable asbestos from operations and maintenance activities since 1988.

  19. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  20. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system. Phase I. Topical report, November 1993--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Based on several key design criteria and site visits, we developed a Robot design and built a system which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure. Experimental results indicated that the current robotic abatement process is sound yet needs to be further expanded and modified. One of the main discoveries was that a longitudinal cut to fully allow the paddles to dig in and compress the insulation off the pipe is essential. Furthermore, a different cutting method might be explored to alleviate the need for a deeper cut and to enable a combination of certain functions such as compression and cutting. Unfortunately due to a damaged mechanism caused by extensive testing, we were unable to perform vertical piping abatement experiments, but foresee no trouble in implementing them in the next proposed Phase. Other encouraging results have BOA removing asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. However, we feel confident that we can double the asbestos removal rate by improving cutting speed, and increasing the length of the BOA robot. The containment and vacuum system on BOA is able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/8-hr. shift. Currently, BOA weighs about 117 pounds which is more than a human is permitted to lift overhead under OSHA requirements (i.e., 25 pounds). We are considering designing the robot into two components (i.e., locomotor section and cutter/removal section) to aid human installation as well as incorporating composite materials. A more detailed list of all the technical modifications is given in this topical report.

  1. Lichens on asbestos-cement roofs: bioweathering and biocovering effects.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, S E; Castelli, D; Fubini, B; Piervittori, R

    2009-03-15

    Asbestos-cement roofs, the most widespread sources of airborne, toxic and carcinogenic asbestos fibres, are often colonized by lichens. Since these latter are physical and chemical weathering agents, they have been often considered as significant responsible of disaggregation processes increasing fibre dispersion. Consequently, official guidelines for the management of asbestos often suggest their removal. Weathering and/or covering effects of lichens on asbestos-cement, however, have never been deeply investigated and available procedures to evaluate asbestos-cement aging do not take the biological colonization into account. In this study we show that a 25% lichen cover modifies physical and chemical properties of asbestos-cement sheets containing chrysotile and crocidolite fibres. By innovatively coupling pull up tests and image analysis of linear structures, we show that fibre loss is significantly lower ( approximately 30%) where lichens develop and offer a physical barrier to the fibre detachment. Below the most covering lichens (Acarospora cervina, Candelariella ssp.), chrysotile and crocidolite undergo a partial incongruent dissolution, which in laboratory assays generally determined a reduction of their surface reactivity. Because of their biocovering and bioweathering effects, lichens on asbestos-cement play a role which differs from the current public opinion and the assumptions of some official regulations, acting as effective spontaneous bioattenuation agents. PMID:18692312

  2. Asbestos substitutes: A closer look at potential health hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that, with the possible exception of some relatively minor, specialized uses, the need for asbestos in industrial and consumer products has come to an end. Although there are apparent cost or performance penalties in some applications, adequate substitute materials have been found. It seems likely that these penalties will diminish with time. The existence of asbestos materials in older structures, however, will require continued vigilance. Although no material is completely safe under all conditions of exposure, the health hazards of many asbestos substitutes are relatively minor. Mica and perlite are low hazard materials, unless the perlite has >1% free silica. Vermiculite is presumed to be of low hazard potential, unless it is contaminated with asbestos fibers. Ordinary fibrous glass is one of the most common substitute materials, and it is of low inhalation hazard. Ultrafine glass fibers may be hazardous, but their use is thus far limited to special applications. Mineral wools are considered to be of low hazard by an acknowledged authority, ACGIH; however, some mineral wools have a high fraction of thin fibers, and these may be of higher hazard potential. Thin ceramic fiber material is presumed by many to be as hazardous as the asbestos it replaces, but a recently-completed animal study found no excess cancers. The uses of carbon fiber material are highly specialized, and there is little information on health effects as yet. Organic fibers appear to be of very low hazard potential. 8 refs.

  3. Tabulation of asbestos-related terminology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Greg

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos has been defined in numerous publications including many State and Federal regulations. The definition of asbestos often varies depending on the source or publication in which it is used. Differences in definitions also exist for the asbestos-related terms acicular, asbestiform, cleavage, cleavage fragment, fiber, fibril, fibrous, and parting. An inexperienced reader of the asbestos literature would have difficulty understanding these differences and grasping many of the subtleties that exist in the literature and regulatory language. Disagreement among workers from the industrial, medical, mineralogical, and regulatory communities regarding these definitions has fueled debate as to their applicability to various morphological structures and chemical compositions that exist in the amphibole and serpentine groups of minerals. This debate has significant public health, economic and legal implications. This report summarizes asbestos-related definitions taken from a variety of academic, industrial, and regulatory sources. This summary is by no means complete but includes the majority of significant definitions currently applied in the discipline.

  4. The role of free radicals in asbestos-induced diseases.

    PubMed

    Kamp, D W; Graceffa, P; Pryor, W A; Weitzman, S A

    1992-01-01

    Asbestos exposure causes pulmonary fibrosis and malignant neoplasms by mechanisms that remain uncertain. In this review, we explore the evidence supporting the hypothesis that free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important mechanism by which asbestos mediates tissue damage. There appears to be at least two principal mechanisms by which asbestos can induce ROS production; one operates in cell-free systems and the other involves mediation by phagocytic cells. Asbestos and other synthetic mineral fibers can generate free radicals in cell-free systems containing atmospheric oxygen. In particular, the hydroxyl radical often appears to be involved, and the iron content of the fibers has an important role in the generation of this reactive radical. However, asbestos also appears to catalyze electron transfer reactions that do not require iron. Iron chelators either inhibit or augment asbestos-catalyzed generation of the hydroxyl radical and/or pathological changes, depending on the chelator and the nature of the asbestos sample used. The second principal mechanism for asbestos-induced ROS generation involves the activation of phagocytic cells. A variety of mineral fibers have been shown to augment the release of reactive oxygen intermediates from phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved are unclear but may involve incomplete phagocytosis with subsequent oxidant release, stimulation of the phospholipase C pathway, and/or IgG-fragment receptor activation. Reactive oxygen species are important mediators of asbestos-induced toxicity to a number of pulmonary cells including alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells, mesothelial cells, and endothelial cells. Reactive oxygen species may contribute to the well-known synergistic effects of asbestos and cigarette smoke on the lung, and the reasons for this synergy are discussed. We conclude that there is strong evidence supporting the premise that reactive

  5. Fungal weathering of asbestos in semi arid regions of India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; John, P J; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-02-01

    The science of Geomicrobiology, which deals with mineral- microbe interaction in nature contributes effectively to three important processes namely- mineral and metal bioremediation, biomining and soil mineral formation by microbes. Bioremediation one of the important process of the above, degrades or transforms hazardous contaminants to less toxic compounds. Several groups of fungi have proved highly efficient in this aspect, with asbestos being one such toxic entity in the environment on which their activity was studied. The present investigation uses the same tool as a device for detoxifying asbestos, a potent carcinogenic entity; with fungal isolates native to the asbestos mines of Rajasthan, India, being investigated for the first time. The cellular mechanism of asbestos toxicity is mainly attributed to the presence of iron in its chemical composition which catalyzes generation of free radicals leading to oxidation of biomolecules. The two dominant novel species found therein, identified as Aspergillus tubingenesis and Coemansia reversa have proved capable of actively removing iron from asbestos fibers as studied by scanning electron microscopy- electron diffraction X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis. This probably could lead to a reduction in toxicity of asbestos, due to reduced iron concentration as reported in related studies. Many fungi are known to release iron chelating compounds, siderophores, which could be instrumental in the study. The findings related to two new fungal species being added to the list of earlier identified fungal bioremediators of asbestos, widens the prospect of using bioremediation as an effective tool for asbestos detoxification. PMID:26520469

  6. Geologic sources of asbestos in Seattle's tolt reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, M.E.; Craven, G.

    1996-01-01

    Water from Seattle's South Fork Tolt Reservoir contains chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers, derived from natural sources. Using optical petrographic techniques, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, we identified the geologic source of these asbestiform minerals within the watershed. No asbestos was found in the bedrock underlying the watershed, while both chrysotile and amphibole fibers were found in sediments transported by Puget-lobe glacial processes. These materials, widely distributed throughout the lower watershed, would be difficult to separate from the reservoir sediments. The probable source of this asbestos is in pods of ultramafic rock occurring north of the watershed. Because asbestos is contained in widespread Pugetlobe glacial materials, it may be naturally distributed in other watersheds in the Puget Sound area.

  7. Variable feed rate mechanism for fluidized bed asbestos generators

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.G.; Gearhart, J.M.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive dust feed mechanism has been designed for use with a two-phase fluidized bed generator (FBG). The mechanism is especially useful for generating asbestos aerosols, but may be used with other dusts as well. Using this system, a steady state concentration (39.1 fibers/cc > 5 ..mu..m in length +/- 6.2%) of asbestos aerosol was maintained in an inhalation chamber for five hours. In addition, FBG output concentration was easily adjusted and quickly equilibrated (within 10 minutes). The system provides a good technique for generating asbestos aerosols for day-long animal exposures.

  8. ASBESTOS PROBLEM RESOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the variety of regulations applicable to asbestos in buildings, ranging from the Clean Air Act to the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act. Remedial actions are discussed (removal, enclosure and encapsulation) and the ongoing research related to those areas ...

  9. Asbestos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which threatens the safety of students and teachers. The Environmental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and advise on this problem. Suggestions are offered for school personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos. (DF)

  10. All about Asbestos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

  11. The geology of asbestos in the United States and its practical applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) has drawn the attention of numerous health and regulatory agencies and citizen groups. NOA can be released airborne by (1) the disturbance of asbestos-bearing bedrocks through human activities or natural weathering, and (2) the mining and milling of some mineral deposits in which asbestos occurs as an accessory mineral(s). Because asbestos forms in specific rock types and geologic conditions, this information can be used to focus on areas with the potential to contain asbestos, rather than devoting effort to areas with minimal NOA potential. All asbestos minerals contain magnesium, silica, and water as essential constituents, and some also contain major iron and/or calcium. Predictably, the geologic environments that host asbestos are enriched in these components. Most asbestos deposits form by metasomatic replacement of magnesium-rich rocks. Asbestos-forming environments typically display shear or evidence for a significant influx of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Asbestos-forming processes can be driven by regional metamorphism, contact metamorphism, or magmatic hydrothermal systems. Thus, asbestos deposits of all sizes and styles are typically hosted by magnesium-rich rocks (often also iron-rich) that were altered by a metamorphic or magmatic process. Rock types known to host asbestos include serpentinites, altered ultramafic and some mafic rocks, dolomitic marbles and metamorphosed dolostones, metamorphosed iron formations, and alkalic intrusions and carbonatites. Other rock types appear unlikely to contain asbestos. These geologic insights can be used by the mining industry, regulators, land managers, and others to focus attention on the critical locales most likely to contain asbestos.

  12. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  13. Asbestos in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Thomas; Johnston, Ronnie; McIvor, Arthur; Watterson, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the asbestos hazard in Scotland and draws upon a systematic oral history project to analyze from the workers' perspective the nature of exposure, the limitations of government regulatory initiatives, and the ramifications of contracting asbestos-related diseases for sufferers and their families. Current issues are investigated, stressing the agency of workers, trade unions, sympathetic local councils, and, especially, the victims' pressure groups. The occupational and environmental health threats of asbestos in Scotland remain significant, although recent E.U.- and U.K.-based decisions to ban further use of asbestos together with active campaigning by local activist groups have helped to reduce them. Mesothelioma mortality rates remain high, due to historic exposures, and much work remains to be done to reduce the number and plight of asbestos-exposed workers. PMID:15281377

  14. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Inhaling asbestos fibers may cause cancer. Do not release fibers by cutting, crushing, sanding.... OSHA standards for personnel protection are codified at 29 CFR 1910.1001. EPA disposal standards are codified at 40 CFR part 763. (ii) Immediately after excess determination, all items of personal...

  15. Performance of membrane filters used for TEM analysis of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Webber, James S; Czuhanich, Alex G; Carhart, Laurie J

    2007-10-01

    This article presents findings related to characteristics of membrane filters that can affect the recovery of asbestos and the quality of preparations for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Certain applications and preparation steps can lead to unacceptable performance of membrane filters used in analysis of asbestos by TEM. Unless substantial care is used in the collapsing of mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters with an acetone hot block, grid preparations can suffer and fiber recoveries can be compromised. Calibration of the etching depth of MCE filters, especially at differing locations in an asher's chamber, is critical for reliable fiber recovery. Excessive etching of MCE filters with aerosol-deposited asbestos can lead to loss of short fibers, while insufficient etching of MCE filters with aqueous-deposited asbestos can, paradoxically, also lead to loss of short fibers. Interlaboratory precision on MCE filters is improved by aerosol-deposited asbestos, as opposed to aqueous deposition. In comparison, straightforward preparation, improved solvents, and reduced contamination make PC filters an increasingly acceptable alternative. Variations in the geometric configuration during application of carbon films can lead to fiber loss and unacceptable grid quality for either type of filter. PMID:17763069

  16. CO-EXISTING WITH ASBESTOS: A LOOK AT THE ENGINEERING RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the strategy, accomplishments and current direction of a highly experienced engineering-control effort incorporating diversified monitoring and advanced analytical instrumentation directed primarily towards eliminating airborne asbestos emissions in buildings...

  17. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  18. Identification and quantitation of asbestos in talc

    PubMed Central

    Rohl, Arthur N.; Langer, Arthur M.

    1974-01-01

    The currently used analytical methods for identification, characterization and quantitation of asbestos fiber in consumer talcum products include polarized light microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. Light microscope methods have severe limitations imposed by the ultimate size resolution of the light-optical system. Small particles go unresolved; those marginally resolved may possess optical properties different from those properties cited in the literature; most optical properties, e.g., indices of refraction, are difficult to measure on small particles. In addition to these difficulties, talc fibers often possess optical properties different from those of talc plates, which further confound analysis. Light microscopy is recommended for use only as a preliminary tool on limited, large-sized, samples. Transmission electron microscopy is a good standard technique for visualization of contaminant asbestos fibers. Together with selected area electron diffraction, talc fibers may be easily differentiated from amphibole asbestos fibers on the basis of both morphological and structural characterization. Chrysotile fibers are easily distinguished on this basis as well. The amphibole asbestos minerals require chemical characterization to differentiate among the different fiber types. Probe analysis is mandatory for such fibers. The major drawbacks to electron beam instrumentation for the mineralogical characterization of talcum products are the time and effort required for data acquisition. These techniques do not lend themselves to routine study. X-ray diffraction analysis, utilizing the step-scan method, offers a relatively rapid, quantitative technique for gross fiber analysis. Based on comparison with standard specimens the fiber content of talcs may be quantitatively determined. It is essential to employ a specimen preparation technique which yields

  19. How conflicted authors undermine the World Health Organization (WHO) campaign to stop all use of asbestos: spotlight on studies showing that chrysotile is carcinogenic and facilitates other non-cancer asbestos-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Xaver; Soskolne, Colin L; Lemen, Richard A; Schneider, Joachim; Woitowitz, Hans-Joachim; Budnik, Lygia Therese

    2015-01-01

    The silicate mineral asbestos is categorized into two main groups based on fiber structure: serpentine asbestos (chrysotile) and amphibole asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite). Chrysotile is used in more than 2 000 applications and is especially prevalent in the construction industry. Although its use is banned or restricted in more than 52 countries, an estimated 107 000 workers die from asbestos exposure each year, and approximately 125 million workers continue to be exposed. Furthermore, ambient exposures persist to which the public is exposed, globally. Today, the primary controversies regarding the use of asbestos are the potencies of different types of asbestos, as opposed whether or not asbestos causes morbidity and mortality. The asbestos industry has promoted and funded research based on selected literature, ignoring both clinical and scientific knowledge. In this piece, we highlight a prominent example of a conflicted publication that sought to undermine the World Health Organization (WHO) campaign to stop the use of all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile asbestos. Independent and rigorous scientific data provide sufficient evidence that chrysotile asbestos, like other forms of asbestos, is a cause of asbestos-related morbidity and premature mortality PMID:25729927

  20. In vitro biologic responses to native and surface-modified asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Hahon, N.; Vallyathan, V.; Booth, J.A.; Sepulveda, M.J.

    1986-04-01

    A comparative study was made of in vitro biologic responses to native chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite and corresponding asbestos fibers whose surfaces were modified by metal oxides. Interferon induction by influenza virus was depressed by approximately 50% by all native asbestos whereas corresponding surface modified asbestos minimally affected this nonspecific cellular defense mechanism. The release of the cytoplasmic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lysosomal enzymes, ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase (..beta..-NAG) and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-Gluc), by rat alveolar macrophages after exposure to either native or surface-modified asbestos (which is indicative of membrane damage) was monitored. Although both native and surface-modified asbestos induced significant leakage of LDH, generally, lesser amounts of the enzyme were released as a result of exposure to the latter than to native asbestos. Whereas all forms of native asbestos caused significant release of ..beta..-NAG and ..beta..-Gluc, leakage of these enzymes from macrophages exposed to surface-modified asbestos was minimal. In contrast to native asbestos which induced irritation of cell membranes, as indicated by hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, surface-modified asbestos exhibited minimal hemolytic activity. The findings indicate that surface modification of different asbestos by metal oxides generally lessened the adverse effect of the native mineral on the aforementioned biologic entities.

  1. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health. PMID:14998741

  2. Optical fiber-based laser remote sensor for airborne measurement of wind velocity and turbulence.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Scott M; Richter, Dirk; Spowart, Michael P; Rieken, Kathrin

    2011-02-20

    We discuss an optical fiber-based continuous-wave coherent laser system for measuring the wind speed in undisturbed air ahead of an aircraft. The operational principles of the instrument are described, and estimates of performance are presented. The instrument is demonstrated as a single line of sight, and data from the inaugural test flight of August 2010 is presented. The system was successfully operated under various atmospheric conditions, including cloud and clear air up to 12 km (40,300 ft). PMID:21343963

  3. Some Facts About Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    For information on historic asbestos mines, historic prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., see: Eastern U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/); Central U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2006-1211 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/); Rocky Mountain States ---> Open-File Report 2007-1182 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/); Southwest U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2008-1095 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). For commodity statistics and information see: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/asbestos/

  4. Electrostatic effects in asbestos sampling. I: Experimental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, P.A.; Deye, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Electrostatic charge can cause errors during sampling of airborne asbestos fibers and other particles. The change in particle trajectories caused by charge effects during sampling can result in nonuniform deposits on the collecting filter surface and net loss of sample. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the dependence of sampling efficiency and sample uniformity on these variables. Humidity has been postulated as a primary determinant of particle charge during aerosol generation. Measurements of particle charge and concentration were made as a function of relative humidity with chrysotile fibers generated from a fluidized bed. A strong increase in charge and a decrease in concentration of fibers was noted as the relative humidity was decreased below 15%. The effects of conductive versus nonconductive samplers and sampling flow rate were measured as a function of particle and sampler charge levels. Nonconductive samplers can carry a large and variable charge distribution on their surfaces. This can result in a biased and highly variable particle deposit on the filter when sampling charged particles. Conductive cowls spread any acquired charge over the entire surface and produce a more symmetrical and less biased charged particle deposit. Increasing the sampling flow rate will improve sampling efficiency and decrease deposit variability because the charged particle has less time to interact with the field produced by the sampler. These results suggest that sampling problems caused by electrostatic charge interactions are most likely to occur under low humidity conditions of dust generation, that sampling should be done at as high a flow rate as possible to reduce these effects, and that analysts should select fields toward the center of the filter to minimize bias and variability. 36 references.

  5. Electrostatic effects in asbestos sampling. I: Experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Baron, P A; Deye, G J

    1990-02-01

    Electrostatic charge can cause errors during sampling of airborne asbestos fibers and other particles. The change in particle trajectories caused by charge effects during sampling can result in nonuniform deposits on the collecting filter surface and net loss of sample. The degree of these electrostatic effects depends on particle charge, sampler charge, sampler conductivity, and sampling flow rate and direction. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the dependence of sampling efficiency and sample uniformity on these variables. Humidity has been postulated as a primary determinant of particle charge during aerosol generation. Measurements of particle charge and concentration were made as a function of relative humidity with chrysotile fibers generated from a fluidized bed. A strong increase in charge and a decrease in concentration of fibers was noted as the relative humidity was decreased below 15%. The effects of conductive versus nonconductive samplers and sampling flow rate were measured as a function of particle and sampler charge levels. Nonconductive samplers can carry a large and variable charge distribution on their surfaces. This can result in a biased and highly variable particle deposit on the filter when sampling charged particles. Conductive cowls spread any acquired charge over the entire surface and produce a more symmetrical and less biased charged particle deposit. Increasing the sampling flow rate will improve sampling efficiency and decrease deposit variability because the charged particle has less time to interact with the field produced by the sampler. These results suggest that sampling problems caused by electrostatic charge interactions are most likely to occur under low humidity conditions of dust generation, that sampling should be done at as high a flow rate as possible to reduce these effects, and that analysts should select fields toward the center of the filter to minimize bias and variability. PMID:2407082

  6. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  7. EVALUATION OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR PROCESS CONTROL IN THE ASBESTOS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) as potential tools for fine particle asbestos fiber counting for process control in the asbestos industry. The study defined the capabilities and lim...

  8. CANCER MORBIDITY INVESTIGATIONS: LESSONS FROM THE DULUTH STUDY OF POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1973, 1 to 30 million asbestos-like fibers per liter of tap water were discovered in Duluth drinking water. Previous studies had linked mesothelioma, lung, and gastrointestinal cancers with occupational exposure to asbestos, so surveillance of cancer morbidity in Duluth was in...

  9. Evaluation of a hyperspectral scanner allowing for deterioration status assessment of asbestos-cement roofing sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, Simone; Bassani, Cristiana; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo

    2007-10-01

    Aim of this study is the identification of the hyperspectral scanner operational characteristics allowing for asbestos cement (AC) roofing sheets deterioration status assessment that is related to the asbestos fibers abundance. At this purpose we made laboratory measurements on AC samples with different deterioration status collected in two industrial areas in Italy. The asbestos occurrence in the AC samples was recognized using XRD and FTIR instruments and the abundance of surfacing asbestos fibers was performed by using a high resolution scanner (SEM). The samples optical characteristics and the directional effects that can affect the AC samples were analyzed using a portable field spectrometer (ASD). The results of the ASD measurements (i.e. band-depth ratio of the continuum removed calculated for the asbestos diagnostic band at 2.32μm) were related to the relative percentage of surfacing asbestos fibers (i.e. the AC deterioration status). Since laboratory measurements confirmed that optical measurements are sensitive to variations in asbestos fiber abundance, detection limit analysis was used for defining the requirements (signal-to-noise ratio, band FWHM, and sampling range) of an optimal hyperspectral sensor most suitable for detecting the diagnostic asbestos absorption features.

  10. OXIDANT GENERATION PROMOTES IRON SEQUESTRATION IN BEAS-2B CELLS EXPOSED TO ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung injury following asbestos exposure is associated with an oxidative stress that is catalyzed by iron in the fiber matrix, complexed to the surface, or both. We tested the hypothesis that the cellular response to asbestos includes the transport and sequestration of this iron ...

  11. *OXIDANT GENERATION PROMOTES IRON SEQUESTRATION IN BEAS-2B CELLS EXPOSED TO ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung injury after asbestos exposure is associated with an oxidative stress that is catalyzed by iron in the fiber matrix, complexed to the surface, or both. We tested the hypothesis that the cellular response to asbestos includes the transport and sequestration of this iron throu...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE OF ASBESTOS/SUBSTITUTES FROM COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS USE AND DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the first time, the release of respirable asbestos fibers has been quantified in terms of standard mechanical forces using widely accepted methodology and specified QA/QC procedures. Both fabrication of new products from asbestos containing materials and repair or removal of ...

  13. Malignant mesothelioma not related to asbestos exposure: Analytical scanning electron microscopic analysis of 83 cases and comparison with 442 asbestos-related cases.

    PubMed

    Kraynie, Alyssa; de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Sporn, Thomas A; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Roggli, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that 80-90% of mesotheliomas are asbestos related. This suggests that 10-20% are not. Lung fiber burden analysis provides objective information about past exposures to asbestos. We have performed lung fiber burden analysis on a large cohort of mesothelioma cases and compared the findings with a reference population. Herein we report our findings along with demographic and exposure data. PMID:27070945

  14. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  15. Controlling Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Spurred by recent medical findings, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a program to help educators check their schools for asbestos-containing materials and correct any hazardous conditions which are found. (Author/RE)

  16. Identification of dangerous fibers: some examples in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Giovanna; Marini, Paola; Giorgis, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    The presence of asbestiform minerals has to be foreseen in the planning of infrastructural activities: Asbestos can be a component of sedimentary rocks or of mafic and ultra mafic metamorphic rocks. Surveys and core drilling, in addition to providing important information on the quality of the rock and its geotechnical characteristics, allow for a prediction of the presence of asbestiform minerals in the areas affected by mining or infrastructural activities. During the excavation, workers can be exposed to the asbestos risk, therefore, the control of the air quality and of the excavated materials are fundamental for the safety of involved people. In this work some problems we met in the analysis of airborne filters and bulk samples from sites in northern Italy are presented. The asbestos fibers present in rocks as accessory minerals, are often different in habit and dimension from the well-known asbestos fibers used as industrial minerals and moreover can be erroneously identified as minerals morphologically and chemically similar present in the same rock or environment. In the case of tunnel muck it could be contaminated by substances used for the excavation that could modify colours and optical properties of asbestos minerals. In the PCOM (Phase Contrast Optical Microscope) analysis chrysotile, sepiolite and antigorite, due to their different refraction index, when the fibers have dimension > 0,5 micron and aren't contaminated by lubricant can be easely identified even if the morphology of chrysotile is very similar to that of sepiolite. In Electron Scanning Microscope (SEM) the discrimination between chrysotile and antigorite on the airborne filters is not always possible because the fibers of thin dimensions show similar habit and spectrum. In the case of the tremolite amphibole, morphology changes from prismatic to fibrous depending on its origin (p.eg. Monastero, Val Grana, Verrayes, Brachiello). Both prismatic and asbestiform tremolite (Gamble and Gibbs

  17. The asbestos war.

    PubMed

    Kazan-Allen, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    That asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal diseases is testament to the effectiveness of a campaign, spear-headed by Canadian interests, to promote a product already banned in many developed countries. Blessed by government and commercial support, asbestos apologists have implemented a long-term coordinated strategy targeting new consumers in Asia, the Far East and Latin America. At industry-backed "conferences" and on government-funded junkets, they spin a web of deceit, telling all who will listen that "chrysotile (white asbestos) can be used safely." The fact that Canada exports over 95% of all the chrysotile it mines suggests that while chrysotile is supposedly safe enough for foreigners, it is not safe enough for Canadians. Asbestos victims in many countries have struggled to gain public recognition of the human cost of asbestos use. In recent years, nongovernmental organizations working with these groups have created a global anti-asbestos virtual network; with the commitment and support of thousands of "virtual members," this network challenges industry's propaganda and exposes the forces that support its cynical attempt to offload this dangerous substance on developing countries. PMID:12967154

  18. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors. PMID:26822071

  19. Asbestos removal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods of removing asbestos from buildings and water. Walk-through survey reports describe wet and dry removal techniques being employed at work sites. Containment barriers, ventilation systems, and vacuum systems used during asbestos removal projects are also described. Monitors that measure asbestos dust fibers, and water filters that remove asbestos are also discussed. Alternative uses in highway construction and as an absorbing agent in oil spill cleanups are explored along with disposal methods. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  1. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Asbestos Dump, Millington Site, Millington, New Jersey (first remedial action), September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The Asbestos Dump site is an 11-acre commercial property, formerly an asbestos processing plant, in Millington, New Jersey. Part of the site lies within the flood plain of the Passaic River which serves as a public water-supply source for 74,000 people. Asbestos, Limited engaged in the fiberization and sale of asbestos at the site from 1927 until 1946. From 1946 until 1953, the plant was owned by Bernard E. Smith and operated under the name of Smith Asbestos, Inc., a manufacturer of asbestos roofing and siding. Most of the waste was recaptured and recycled during this period, although broken siding and asbestos fibers were dumped on a five-acre area on the property. From 1959 until 1972, National Gypsum used phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) as a fungicide to coat the asbestos shingles. The selected remedial action for this site includes: installation of a two-foot soil cover on areas of exposed or minimally covered asbestos, construction of slope protection/stabilization measures along the asbestos mound embankment, and surface run-off diversion channels on top of asbestos mound; and long-term monitoring.

  3. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine.

    PubMed

    Nolan, R P; Langer, A M; Wilson, R

    1999-03-30

    The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals-grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)-have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner's exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

  4. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, R. P.; Langer, A. M.; Wilson, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals—grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)—have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner’s exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

  5. Cigarette smoke makes airway and early parenchymal asbestos-induced lung disease worse in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Tron, V.; Wright, J.L.; Harrison, N.; Wiggs, B.; Churg, A.

    1987-08-01

    In order to assess the effects of cigarette smoke and asbestos exposure, we divided guinea pigs into 4 groups: smoking or nonsmoking, and asbestos-exposed or not asbestos-exposed groups. Asbestos-exposed animals were given a single intratracheal instillation of 5 mg UICC amosite, a dose and method of administration that we have previously shown produces morphologic changes in the small airways as well as minimal interstitial fibrosis. Animals were smoked 5 days per week for 6 months. By itself, smoking did not affect lung collagen content, small airways wall thickness, or the volume fraction of tissue surrounding airways, but it did cause a significant increase in alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm). Asbestos alone increased collagen content, airway wall thickness, and tissue volume fraction surrounding airways, the latter measure used to assess interstitial fibrosis. An unexpected finding was that asbestos also increased Lm. The two agents administered together caused more severe changes of all types than were produced by either agent alone, and the interaction between the 2 was generally synergistic. Smoke-exposed animals retained 3 times the asbestos fiber burden of those not smoke-exposed; the increase in retention was greater for short than for long fibers. We conclude that cigarette smoke can potentiate the fibrosis induced by asbestos, possibly because of increased fiber retention. As well, in this model, asbestos or asbestos plus cigarette smoke produces increases in alveolar size.

  6. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony on asbestos by R. A. Lemen on March 21, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-21

    The testimony discussed the work conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) concerning protection for workers exposed to asbestos (1332214). All commercial forms of asbestos were considered to be carcinogenic. Exposure to asbestos significantly increased the risk of contracting asbestos, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos was one of the primary causes of lung cancer in nonsmokers. It was estimated that since the beginning of World War II as many as eight million workers have been exposed to asbestos. Over one million currently worked where exposure may be a problem. Construction workers involved in the demolition of buildings containing asbestos insulation were at increased risk of developing asbestos-related disease. Maintenance personnel often repaired machines in asbestos-contaminated work spaces or worked directly with products containing asbestos. NIOSH programs have involved measuring and characterizing asbestos fibers found in the work environment, quantification of the extent of disease among workers through epidemiological studies, and supporting these study results with toxicological experiments. NIOSH has also sponsored educational programs for the public and the training of workers to alert individuals to the dangers of asbestos.

  7. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  8. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  9. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    KAKOOEI, Hossein; NORMOHAMMADI, Mohhammad

    2013-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02–0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers. PMID:24292876

  10. Long-Term Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Male Fischer 344 Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysot...

  11. Safe Replacement For Asbestos In Nickel/Hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, William E.

    1993-01-01

    Polyethylene fibers and potassium titanate particles perform as well as asbestos. New material for separators of nickel-hydrogen electrochemical cells offers performance similar to that of asbestos separator material without adverse health effects. In one version, separator contains pure polyethylene fibers, and may or may not contain supplementary latices as bonding agents. In standard wet-laying papermaking process, fibers pressed into mat, then dried. Mat used as is or pressed further in hot calender stack to soften and fuse fibers at crossing points. Treatment reduces porosity and increases resistance of mat to passage of air bubbles under pressure. In alternative version, matrix of 20 to 40 percent polyethylene fibers and 60 to 80 percent potassium titanate particles formed on paper machine, then dried. It, too, can be treated by hot calendering.

  12. Asbestos: From Beginning to End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Richard C.; Cain, Gary K.

    In conjunction with a bond proposal for energy related items, the North County Public Schools (Missouri) undertook the task of removing friable asbestos Missouri school district undertook the task of removing friable asbestos from schools. Specifications for asbestos abatement prepared by the district administrative office were reviewed by the…

  13. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russek, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  14. A Report on Asbestos Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

  15. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

  16. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  17. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

  18. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    PubMed

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  19. [Estimation of asbestos exposure among workers repairing asbestos cement pipes used for conduits].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Nakachi, S; Kurumatani, N; Nakagiri, S; Kataoka, A

    1993-05-01

    Asbestos cement pipes (ACPs) containing 15 to 20% chrysotile or crocidolite have been used for underground conduits. Even today 16.2% of all conduits in Japan are ACPs, though the production of ACPs was suspended in 1985. When such a conduit is accidentally damaged the workers belonging to the Waterworks Bureau of a local government cut off the damaged conduit using a high-speed disk cutter and replace it with a new conduit. This operation develops a cloud of dust and the workers involved run the risk of asbestos exposure. It was the aim of the present study to estimate asbestos exposure levels among these workers. First, in the experiment, we established the typical working conditions and requested an experienced worker to cut an ACP using a high-speed disc cutter in a hole dug in the ground as he routinely does. The experiment was repeated three times. During a bout of each experiment, dust was sampled at several points both inside and outside the hole. Second, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain information from the workers regarding their working conditions in cutting ACPs. The subjects of the survey were 1,048 men belonging to conduit repair sections of the Waterworks Bureau of 119 local governments. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. 1) Each bout of cutting ACPs required about five minutes. The concentration of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns with 3:1 aspect ratio ranged from 48 to 170 fibers/ml (92 fibers/ml on an average) inside and 1.7 to 15 fibers/ml outside the hole. The concentration inside the hole exceeded the ceiling limit (10 fibers/ml) recommended for asbestos by the Japanese Association of Industrial Health. A concentration of 92 fibers/ml is equivalent to 0.96 fibers/ml as 8-h time-weighted average. 2) The number of subjects with experience of cutting ACPs was 849 (81.0%). The average length of service in conduit repair section was 14.2 yr. Based on the information obtained from each subject

  20. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis associated with asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, K; Ohwada, H; Ishibashi, M; Yamamoto, N; Tamiya, N; Yamaguchi, Y

    1996-01-01

    A 71 year old man was admitted for the purpose of diagnosis of a right solitary pulmonary nodule. The size of the nodule was 18 x 18 mm in diameter 2 years ago, but it has become large, 25 x 25 mm in diameter. The nodule was resected by thoracotomy. Microscopically, eosinophilic amorphous, acellular substances were surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates. It stained with Congo red stain and showed green birefringence with polarizing microscopy. Amyloid fibrils were observed electron microscopically. Asbestos bodies were observed in the lung parenchyma around the nodule. This case shows that a nodule in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis can grow gradually and suggests the possibility of asbestos fibers as one of the etiologic factors in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis. PMID:10846552

  1. Materials based on carbon-filled porous layers of PVC cyclam derivatives cross-linked with the surfaces of asbestos fabric fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardishev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Novikov, A. K.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Petrova, N. V.

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of bilayer materials with porous upper layers composed of PVC hydroxyethylcyclam derivatives filled with carbon and a layer consisting of hydroxyethylcyclam, cross-linked via Si-O-C groups with the silica chains of a developed surface of asbestos fabric, is described. The aza-crown groups in these materials are bound with aqua complexes of H2SO4 or NaOH. The structure of the materials is examined, their adsorption characteristics are determined, and the rate of motion of H+ or OH- ions in electrochemical bridges is measured, while the formation of H2 and O2 in their cathodic and anodic polarization is determined as a function of voltage. It is shown that the upper layer of these materials is adsorption-active and electronand H+- or OH-- conductive, while the bottom layer is only H+- or OH-- conductive; through it, the upper layer is supplied with the H+ or OH- ions needed for the regeneration of the aqua complexes broken down to H2 and O2 on carbon particles.

  2. Fabrication of carbon nanowires by pyrolysis of aqueous solution of sugar within asbestos nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butko, V. Yu.; Fokin, A. V.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanowires have been fabricated by pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of sugar in nanochannels of asbestos fibers. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the diameter of these nanochannels corresponds to the diameter of the thinnest of the carbon nanowires obtained. Some of these nanowires have a graphite crystal lattice and internal pores. After asbestos is etched out, the carbon nanowires can retain the original shape of the asbestos fibers. Heating in an inert atmosphere reduces the electrical resistivity of the carbon nanowires to ˜0.035 Ω cm.

  3. Asbestos screening process

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The paper discusses and demonstrates a simple asbestos screening test developed by Kupel and Kim. Standard tests to determine asbestos content in building materials cost up to $500.00 to perform. With 2 simple tests and kit devised by two men, anyone can perform these tests that now cost 25 cents each. And they are accurate. If positive results are obtained, the materials are sent to the lab for analysis. The two tests consist of use of acids, bases and reagents to test for iron and manganese content.

  4. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  5. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources. PMID:24531338

  6. Nonpulmonary outcomes of asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be "limited." The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  7. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  8. METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARPET SAMPLES FOR ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing asbestos fiber contamination in a carpet is complicated by the nature of the carpeting – because of the pile’s rough surface and thickness, samples cannot be collected directly from carpet for analysis by TEM. Two indirect methods are currently used by laboratories when...

  9. [Critical in demolition and removal of asbestos cement materials].

    PubMed

    Brunelli, E; Garattini, S; Borghetti, F; Barbieri, P G

    2012-01-01

    Those involved in the asbestos removal is the main category of workers currently exposed to asbestos in the province of Brescia. Although Italy, since 1991, has special rules for the protection of workers exposed to asbestos, improved further by D. Lgs. n. 81 of 2008, the working conditions found in shipyards are still far from a satisfactory degree of protection of workers. Sanitary facilities are largely lacking, management of work clothing is left to chance, use of filtering face masks is often incorrect, wetting of surfaces with encapsulant is frequently inadequate, daily cleaning of work areas and areas of construction that may have been contaminated by asbestos fibers with extractors absolute filters is shortly implemented. Little attention is also paid to the protection of workers from the premises concerned to the replacement of the cover, as well as to the dispersion in the external environment of asbestos fibers that contaminate the gutters removed and sent for disposal. Finally, it is still very high risk of falling from, documented by the tribute of serious and fatal accidents that occur in these sites. Increased surveillance of Health Prevention Services of ASL is required to achieve higher levels of prevention. PMID:23405714

  10. Asbestos in public hospitals: are employees at risk?

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Postlethwait, Edward; Delzell, Elizabeth; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Oestenstad, R Kent

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos is an established human carcinogen. Asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM) are used in surfacing materials, thermal system insulation (TSI), and miscellaneous materials, and they have been used in buildings in Jamaica in the past. The objective of the study described here was to identify ACBM, its characteristics, and its determinants in Jamaican hospitals. A walk-through survey of all hospitals was undertaken and 152 bulk samples were collected from 26 public and private hospitals. The samples were analyzed using polarized light microscopy. Sixteen (61.5%) hospitals had ACBM used mainly as TSI. The ACBM in most cases was friable and in a poor condition indicative of fiber release and contained the fibers chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. The age of hospitals was not associated with the presence of ACBM. Results indicated potential risk of asbestos exposure in hospitals. The hospital authorities should formulate and implement an asbestos policy for hospitals and undertake proper management of asbestos in all hospitals. PMID:22329205

  11. High levels of dioxin-like PCBs found in organic-farmed eggs caused by coating materials of asbestos-cement fiber plates: A case study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    During a regional monitoring project of organic-farmed, free-range and cage-free eggs, high levels of dioxin-like compounds were detected in organic-farmed eggs, using the dioxin responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay. Further evaluations performed with GC-HRMS (gas chromatography in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry) revealed elevated amounts of non-dioxin-like (non-dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated by most lipophilic congeners like PCB 138, 153 and 180 and of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, with a congener pattern in the descending order of PCB 118, 156, 167, 105, 189, 157, 105, 126 and PCB 77. Contaminations with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) appeared of minor priority, with only hepta- and octa-substituted dioxins above their limits of quantification (LOQs). The pattern of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was dominated by low amounts of tetra- and penta-chlorinated congeners. To identify the source of contamination, several samples of organic-farmed eggs, soil, laying hens, feedstuff, corrugated asbestos-cement cover plates (ACPs), stable dust and debris collected in the gutter of the stable, were analyzed. Comparing PCB congener-pattern of individual samples, the source was traced back to the coating of ACPs, which covered roof and sidewalls of the stable. Because coating materials probably have been used for roofing and cladding in many countries worldwide, there is a high probability that the presented case report is not a local incident but rather describes a new source of PCB contamination, yet widely unknown or underestimated. PMID:25898153

  12. Asbestos and health in the Third World: the case of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Almost all of the asbestos used in Brazil is mined by an enterprise wholly owned by two European multinational companies, which also produce and market over two-thirds (by weight of asbestos) of the products made from asbestos. About 80 percent of the asbestos used in Brazil is finally consumed in the form of asbestos cement: for roof tiles and roofing panels, wall-board, and domestic and industrial water tanks. A survey of consumer literature and advertising printed by Eternit, S.A., and Brasilit, S.A., disclosed no mention of a potential danger from exposure to asbestos dust, and no recommendations for cutting down exposure to that dust. The situation at smaller, Brazilian-owned firms is reputed to be disastrous from the standpoint of workers exposure to asbestos dust at the point of production. At a large asbestos-cement manufacturing plant owned by Eternit, however, exposure to asbestos dust (according to company records) seemed to be kept under 2.0 fibers per cc., the present standard for the United States.

  13. Mineral Carbonation Using Asbestos-Containing Cement Board Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral carbonation appears to be one of the plausible methods for the practical fixation of CO2. Carbon consumption and sequestration by carbonation reactions involving alkaline elements such as Ca and Mg have been developed. Suitable feedstocks for CO2 sequestration are mineral carbonation using Ca/Mg-silicates. Asbestos-containing cement board waste consists of chrysotile asbestos which is one of the Mg-silicate and cement. Chrysotile is one of the raw materials to form carbonate mineral for CO2 fixation in previous studies and cement contains a quantity of calcium which is able to react with CO2. Generally, asbestos-containing cement board waste is dumped in controlled waste sites in South Korea. However, this cannot be regarded as an ultimate solution because dispersion of asbestos fibers in the air is an intrinsic risk during dumping operations and in the long-term management. An alternative solution is thermal transformation of asbestos-containing material into non-hazardous phase. Therefore, the aims of the study were to sequester CO2 using asbestos-containing cement board waste via mineral carbonation and to detoxify chrysotile asbestos in cement board waste via heat treatment. Two steps of experiments were designed: (1) synthesis of a carbonate mineral (i.e., calcite and magnesite), via the physicochemical reactions of fragmented cement board with CO2 and (2) transformation of fibrous asbestos into non-fibrous material through heat treatment. Physicochemical and mineralogical properties of cement board waste were investigated by TG-DTA , XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS analyses. XRD analysis showed that the calcite (CaCO3) was formed after reaction of fragmented cement board with CO2. Mineralogical characteristics showed minerals such as chrysotile [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4] and calcite (CaCO3) in the reactions of fragmented cement board with CO2 were transformed into calcite (CaCO3), calcium oxide (CaO), and quartz (SiO2) by heat treatment. SEM-EDS analyses showed that

  14. Libby Amphibole asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 11 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF LIBBY AMPHIBOLE ASBESTOS In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 2014 ( Note : This document is an assessment of the noncancer and cancer health effects associated with the inha

  15. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  16. Microwave-driven asbestos treatment and its scale-up for use after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sumi, Takuya; Ito, Shigeyuki; Dillert, Ralf; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Shinohara, Naoki

    2014-06-17

    Asbestos-containing debris generated by the tsunami after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, was processed by microwave heating. The analysis of the treated samples employing thermo gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and phase-contrast microscopy revealed the rapid detoxification of the waste by conversion of the asbestos fibers to a nonfibrous glassy material. The detoxification by the microwave method occurred at a significantly lower processing temperature than the thermal methods actually established for the treatment of asbestos-containing waste. The lower treatment temperature is considered to be a consequence of the microwave penetration depth into the waste material and the increased intensity of the microwave electric field in the gaps between the asbestos fibers resulting in a rapid heating of the fibers inside the debris. A continuous treatment plant having a capacity of 2000 kg day(-1) of asbestos-containing waste was built in the area affected by the earthquake disaster. This treatment plant consists of a rotary kiln to burn the combustible waste (wood) and a microwave rotary kiln to treat asbestos-containing inorganic materials. The hot flue gas produced by the combustion of wood is introduced into the connected microwave rotary kiln to increase the energy efficiency of the combined process. Successful operation of this combined device with regard to asbestos decomposition is demonstrated. PMID:24856876

  17. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases caused ... peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location of the ...

  18. STATUS ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS: ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the mining, milling, uses, and health effects of asbestos. Its major applications are in asbestos cement products, floor tiles, electrical equipment, brake linings, and flame resistant compositions. Impaired human health from industrial exposure to asbestos i...

  19. Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Final Rule and Notice. Part III: Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a final rule under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) to require all local education agencies (LEAs) to identify asbestos-containing materials in their school buildings and take appropriate action to control release of asbestos fibers. The LEAs are required to describe their activities in…

  20. Fireblocking Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    PBI was originally developed for space suits. In 1980, the need for an alternative to asbestos and stricter government anti-pollution standards led to commercialization of the fire blocking fiber. PBI is used for auto racing driver suits and aircraft seat covers. The fiber does not burn in air, is durable and easily maintained. It has been specified by a number of airliners and is manufactured by Hoechst-Celanese Corporation.

  1. Decomposition of chrysotile asbestos by fluorosulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Sabatini, R.; Petrakis, L.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a fluorosulfonic acid (FSO{sub 3}H) aqueous solution on decomposing the chrysotile asbestos fibers was investigated by using FT-IR, XRD, and XPS. From the equilibrium of FSO{sub 3}H in an aqueous medium (FSO{sub 3}H + H{sub 2}O = HF + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), the resulting H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} had a strong affinity for the external Mg(OH){sub 2} layers in the tubular, scroll-like chrysotile structure. This acid-base reaction led to the precipitation and lixiviation of MgSO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, MgO, and Mg{sup 2+} ion. Once the breakage of the outer Mg(OH){sub 2} layers occurred, HF readily diffused into the inner silicious layers and then reacted with silicates, converting them into SiO{sub 2} hydrate and H{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}, while the ionic reaction between lixiviated Mg{sup 2+} and F{sup {minus}} resulted in precipitating MgF{sub 2}, thereby destroying the fibrous nature of the asbestos. An optimum combination of HF and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} contributed significantly to enhancing the rate of conversion of asbestos into nonfibrous materials in a short treatment time without any physical agitation.

  2. A case control study of lung cancer and exposure to chrysotile and amphibole at a slovenian asbestos-cement plant.

    PubMed

    Dodic Fikfak, M; Kriebel, D; Quinn, M M; Eisen, E A; Wegman, D H

    2007-04-01

    A lung cancer case-control study was conducted in a Slovenian asbestos-cement factory for which unusually good records of asbestos exposures were available. The cohort consisted of all 6714 workers employed at the Salonit Anhovo factory after 31 December 1946 who worked there for at least one day between 1964 and 1994. Fifty-eight histologically confirmed cases of primary lung cancer and 290 controls were selected from the cohort. Working life exposure histories to amphibole and chrysotile forms of asbestos were estimated separately. Airborne asbestos concentrations were low. For example, the arithmetic mean exposure to all forms of asbestos in the highest exposure period (1947-1971) was 1.2 f/cm(3). Chrysotile asbestos made up about 90% of this exposure (mean 1.1 f/cm(3)), whereas amphibole accounted for 10% (0.1 f/cm(3)). Comparing those above and below the 90 percentile of cumulative exposure, the odds ratios for all asbestos, chrysotile and amphibole were 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0, respectively, but confidence intervals were wide. There are only a few asbestos-lung cancer studies with high-quality exposure data and exposures in this low range. Though imprecise, the findings are important to the ongoing debate about asbestos risks. PMID:17351264

  3. History of asbestos related disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  4. History of asbestos related disease.

    PubMed

    Bartrip, P W J

    2004-02-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  5. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony on a new asbestos standard by Anthony Robbins, April 17, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-17

    The testimony concerned the findings of a joint NIOSH/OSHA Work Group which reviewed recent scientific information about the health effects of asbestos. The study group reconfirmed that there is no safe exposure limit for asbestos and that all commercial and several noncommercial forms of asbestos cause disease. The report served to recommend to the Department of Labor that it promulgate a safer standard for workers exposed to asbestos and that it eliminate from the workplace all exposures from new nonessential uses of asbestos. The group asked that the new standard set a maximum workplace exposure limit of 100,000 fibers per cubic meter of air, the lowest level which can be accurately measured. The present level is two million fibers per cubic meter of air. Asbestos has been found to cause asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Exposure to asbestos has also been related to significant increases in the incidence of laryngeal and gastrointestinal cancers. The group concluded that substitutes for asbestos be used whenever possible. Medical testing procedures for asbestos exposed workers should include chest x-rays, pulmonary function tests, and observation of respiratory and other clinical symptoms.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Coalinga Asbestos Mine, Fresno County, CA. (Second remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The 557-acre Coalinga Asbestos Mine site, a former asbestos processing area and chromite mine, comprises part of the Johns Manville Coalinga Asbestos Mill site in western Fresno County, California. This rural mountainous area is used primarily for recreational purposes. From 1962 to 1974, asbestos ore from several local mines was processed and sorted onsite, and the resulting asbestos mill tailings were periodically bulldozed into an intermittent stream channel. Subsequently, from 1975 to 1977, a chromite milling operation was conducted onsite. Tailings were often washed downstream during periods of stream flow, and the resuspension of asbestos fibers from the tailings into the air produced a significant inhalation hazard. As a result of these activities, approximately 450,000 cubic yards of mill tailings and asbestos ore remain onsite within a large tailing pile. In 1980 and 1987, State investigations indicated that the site was contributing a significant amount of asbestos into the surface water. The site will be remediated as two Operable Units (OU). The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the remedial action for OU2, the Johns Manville Coalinga Asbestos Mill Area. The primary contaminant of concern affecting the surface water is asbestos.

  7. A low-level asbestos exposure case-control epidemiology study

    SciTech Connect

    Ocasio-Alvarex, A.

    1988-01-01

    The potential for low levels of airborne asbestos exposure in public schools and in public and commercial buildings in the United States has generated concern due to the large population at risk and the definite human carcinogenicity of asbestos at high levels. To assist in the clarification of the risk associated with low level asbestos exposure and in the decision-making in asbestos management in schools and in other buildings, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the risk relationship between low levels of asbestos exposure and pulmonary cancer among Indiana public school teachers. A total of 236 lung cancer cases and 154 controls to be used in this case-control study were identified from a previous proportionate mortality rate study which had examined over 8,000 teachers' death certificates. The controls were selected from teachers who died of chronic bronchitis, emphysema or a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The teachers' work history and their potential for asbestos exposure, as well as the reliability of the information obtained on the presence or absence of asbestos, was determined to calculate the odds ratio.

  8. Treatment of Asbestos Wastes Using the GeoMelt Vitrification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, K.G.; Thompson, L.E.; Abuku, T.; Nakauchi, H.

    2008-07-01

    The disposal of waste asbestos from decommissioning activities is becoming problematic in countries which have limited disposal space. A particular challenge is the disposal of asbestos wastes from the decommissioning of nuclear sites because some of it is radioactively contaminated or activated and disposal space for such wastes is limited. GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification is being developed as a treatment method for volume and toxicity minimization and radionuclide immobilization for UK radioactive asbestos mixed waste. The common practice to date for asbestos wastes is disposal in licensed landfills. In some cases, compaction techniques are used to minimize the disposal space requirements. However, such practices are becoming less practical. Social pressures have resulted in changes to disposal regulations which, in turn, have resulted in the closure of some landfills and increased disposal costs. In the UK, tens of thousands of tonnes of asbestos waste will result from the decommissioning of nuclear sites over the next 20 years. In Japan, it is estimated that over 40 million tonnes of asbestos materials used in construction will require disposal. Methods for the safe and cost effective volume reduction of asbestos wastes are being evaluated for many sites. The GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification process is being demonstrated at full-scale in Japan for the Japan Ministry of Environment and plans are being developed for the GeoMelt treatment of UK nuclear site decommissioning-related asbestos wastes. The full-scale treatment operations in Japan have also included contaminated soils and debris. The GeoMelt{sup R} vitrification process result in the maximum possible volume reduction, destroys the asbestos fibers, treats problematic debris associated with asbestos wastes, and immobilizes radiological contaminants within the resulting glass matrix. Results from recent full-scale treatment operations in Japan are discussed and plans for GeoMelt treatment of UK nuclear site

  9. Comparative hazards of chrysotile asbestos and its substitutes: A European perspective.

    PubMed

    Harrison, P T; Levy, L S; Patrick, G; Pigott, G H; Smith, L L

    1999-08-01

    Although the use of amphibole asbestos (crocidolite and amosite) has been banned in most European countries because of its known effects on the lung and pleura, chrysotile asbestos remains in use in a number of widely used products, notably asbestos cement and friction linings in vehicle brakes and clutches. A ban on chrysotile throughout the European Union for these remaining applications is currently under consideration, but this requires confidence in the safety of substitute materials. The main substitutes for the residual uses of chrysotile are p-aramid, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and cellulose fibers, and it is these materials that are evaluated here. Because it critically affects both exposure concentrations and deposition in the lung, diameter is a key determinant of the intrinsic hazard of a fiber; the propensity of a material to release fibers into the air is also important. It is generally accepted that to be pathogenic to the lung or pleura, fibers must be long, thin, and durable; fiber chemistry may also be significant. These basic principles are used in a pragmatic way to form a judgement on the relative safety of the substitute materials, taking into account what is known about their hazardous properties and also the potential for uncontrolled exposures during a lifetime of use (including disposal). We conclude that chrysotile asbestos is intrinsically more hazardous than p-aramid, PVA, or cellulose fibers and that its continued use in asbestos-cement products and friction materials is not justifiable in the face of available technically adequate substitutes. PMID:10417355

  10. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help with weight control. Fiber aids digestion and helps prevent constipation . It is sometimes used ... fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  11. In vitro determinants of asbestos fiber toxicity: effect on the relative toxicity of Libby amphibole in primary human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An abnormally high incidence of lung disease has been observed in the residents of Libby, Montana, which has been attributed to occupational and environmental exposure to fibrous amphiboles originating from a nearby contaminated vermiculite mine. The composition of Libby amphibole (LA) is complex and minimal toxicity data are available. In this study, we conduct a comparative particle toxicity analysis of LA compared with standard reference asbestiform amphibole samples. Methods Primary human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to two different LA samples as well as standard amphibole reference samples. Analysis of the samples included a complete particle size distribution analysis, calculation of surface area by electron microscopy and by gas adsorption and quantification of surface-conjugated iron and hydroxyl radical production by the fibers. Interleukin-8 mRNA levels were quantified by qRT-PCR to measure relative pro-inflammatory response induced in HAEC in response to amphibole fiber exposure. The relative contribution of key physicochemical determinants on the observed pro-inflammatory response were also evaluated. Results The RTI amosite reference sample contained the longest fibers and demonstrated the greatest potency at increasing IL-8 transcript levels when evaluated on an equal mass basis. The two LA samples and the UICC amosite reference sample consisted of similar particle numbers per milligram as well as similar particle size distributions and induced comparable levels of IL-8 mRNA. A strong correlation was observed between the elongated particle (aspect ratio ≥3:1) dose metrics of length and external surface area. Expression of the IL-8 data with respect to either of these metrics eliminated the differential response between the RTI amosite sample and the other samples that was observed when HAEC were exposed on an equal mass basis. Conclusions On an equal mass basis, LA is as potent as the UICC amosite reference sample at

  12. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  13. Chrysotile asbestos in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Rimoldi, Bianca

    2013-07-01

    The Valmalenco serpentinite (Central Alps, Northern Italy) is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, from the XIX century until 1975. Asbestos is a well-known carcinogen, and there is the possibility of releasing fibres during quarrying, subsequently exposing workers. From 2004 to 2011, extensive sampling and monitoring of quarry fronts, asbestos veins, commercial stones and airborne asbestos was carried out. Massive rock and vein samples were analyzed by a combined use of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM). Asbestos is concentrated almost exclusively in discrete horizons, that coincide with the main discontinuities of the rock mass. Commercial stones without fractures and veins are practically asbestos free, whereas there is a slight contamination (sometimes exceeding the 1000 ppm threshold) close to hydrothermal selvages. Quarry floors were always quite contaminated by chrysotile "beards" detached from the surface of the blocks. The airborne asbestos concentrations (PCM and SEM) were distributed over a wide range, mostly below the occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Concentrations at the quarry property border or at the closest villages were always below the environmental exposure limit of 0.002 f ml(-1). The extreme thinness of chrysotile fibrils produced during quarrying activities, and the abundance of pseudo-fibrous antigorite cleavage fragments proved the SEM-EDS analytical procedure to be the most suitable. It is of crucial importance to avoid the interception of veins during quarrying and to remove all visible asbestos from the extracted blocks, before any further processing. PMID:23770928

  14. Reduction of chrysotile asbestos-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Yadava, Santosh; Papp, Thilo; Schiffmann, Dietmar; Rahman, Qamar

    2004-11-28

    Asbestos fibers are well known environmental carcinogen, however, the underlying mechanisms of their action have still not clearly been identified. Asbestos is capable of depleting glutathione and generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators of damage in biological system. Asbestos-induced mutagenecity, may be mediated by the generation. It is known that a number of scavengers and antioxidants attenuate asbestos-induced ROS release. Furthermore, it is known that garlic, contains numerous sulfur compounds and glutathione precursors which act as antioxidants and also demonstrate anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether garlic extract has any influence on asbestos-mediated genotoxicity. As an assay system, we applied the micronucleus assay, sister chromatid exchanges, and chromosomal aberrations with human peripheral blood lymphocytes, which has already been used to analyze the genotoxicity of asbestos fibers. Our results indicate that garlic extract, when administered to the lymphocytes cell culture simultaneously with chrysotile reduced the rates of micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchanges, and chromosomal aberrations significantly. We conclude that garlic extract may be an efficient, physiologically tolerable quencher of asbestos-mediated genotoxicity. PMID:15454308

  15. Relative source contributions of diet and air to ingested asbestos exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, J N

    1983-01-01

    Reliable assessments of the relative contributions of diet (food, beverages, and orally administered drugs) and air (inhaled fibers) to total ingested asbestos exposure are not feasible due to the paucity of quantitative data on the subject. Instead, scenarios for both modes of exposure were developed from the limited information available to give crude estimates of ingestion of asbestos from these routes. They suggest that such sources are potentially significant relative to the contribution of asbestos exposure derived from drinking water. Research recommendations are discussed. PMID:6662081

  16. DRAFT ASBESTOS HEALTH ASSESSMENT UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data developed since the early 1970's from large population studies with long follow-up strengthen the association of asbestos exposure to disease. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most important asbestos-related causes of death among exposed individuals. The accumulated data...

  17. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  18. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  19. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  20. Malignant mesotheliomas in Kure City, Japan: The relationship of asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, T.; Sato, T.; Ono, T.; Okada, K.; Masuda, Y.; Ito, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen patients with malignant mesothelioma were seen at Kure Mutual Aid Hospital over a 10-year period. According to occupational history, chest x-ray manifestations, and evidence of asbestos bodies in the tissue, 13 of these cases were definitely thought to be due to exposure to asbestos as a result of two or three of these items testing positive. Kure City is one of the major ship-building cities in Japan since the 1920s. Most of the 18 patients worked in ship building before and during World War II. Malignant mesothelioma appeared about 40 years after their first exposure to asbestos. In western countries, most malignant mesotheliomas are thought to be induced by exposure to asbestos fibers. Consequently, there has been a serious effort to deal with this problem recently, including lowering rate of exposure. In Japan, however, there have been few reports that asbestos fibers caused malignant mesothelioma. This report suggests that an increased incidence of malignant mesotheliomas in a specific area of Japan may also be due to exposure to asbestos fibers.

  1. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    PubMed Central

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Nodari, Francesco Rota; Via, Giorgio Dalla; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified. PMID:25166502

  2. Mapping asbestos-cement roofing with hyperspectral remote sensing over a large mountain region of the Italian Western Alps.

    PubMed

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Rota Nodari, Francesco; Dalla Via, Giorgio; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified. PMID:25166502

  3. [A survey on physiological strains of asbestos abatement work wearing protective clothing in summer].

    PubMed

    Tochihara, Y; Ohnaka, T; Nagai, Y; Muramatsu, T

    1993-01-01

    Since the health hazard of asbestos fibers has been widely recognized, the number of asbestos abatement projects in schools has increased rapidly. Most of these projects were planned during summer vacation from school. However, in Japan, it is hot and humid in summer. Moreover, the workers have to wear impermeable protective clothing because of the asbestos exposure risk. The purpose of this survey is to study the workload of asbestos abatement work by measuring physiological reactions. Physiological strains of 12 male workers and working conditions during asbestos abatements work in two schools were measured in August in 1988 and in 1989. Body weight loss by the work of all workers was measured, and heart rate, rectal temperature and skin temperatures at five sites of some of them were measured every minute. In both workplaces, the workers wore disposable coveralls with hoods and shoes covers and protective masks. Air temperature in the workplaces was between 24.6 degrees C and 28.8 degrees C, and air humidity was between 85% and 96%. The high humidity was result of covering the floor, ceiling and wall of the workplaces were covered with vinyl seats, and sprinkling the asbestos fibers with water to lower the amount of asbestos in the air. Working hours of asbestos abatement were between 46 minutes and 95 minutes. Sweat rates were between 217 g/h and 605 g/h. These values were greater compared to the estimate values when work was done wearing commonly used light clothing. Heart rates during asbestos abatement work did not exceed 150 beats/min in one school where the temperature was 25 degrees C-27 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8507292

  4. The Strength of Disease: Molecular Bonds Between Asbestos and Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, E. S.; Lower, S. K.; Wylie, A. G.; Mossman, B. T.

    2008-12-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos has been linked to the development of life-threatening cancers (i.e., mesothelioma) and diseases (i.e., asbestosis), which can sometimes take decades to appear after initial exposure. There is increasing evidence that environmental exposure to asbestos is a significant public health concern in some regions of the United States, and this type of asbestos contamination could lead to an epidemic of mesothelioma for at least the next two decades. Although mines and regions nearby should be safer with stricter protocols for processing asbestos, the long latent period for asbestos-related diseases makes understanding them an ever-present concern. In addition to the many epidemiological studies, laboratory in vitro and in vivo studies on the biochemical effect of asbestos show that the most trusted predictor for disease is the dosage of longer, thinner chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers. However, many scientists agree that incorporating the many physical and chemical properties of the mineral fibers is needed to properly assess their influence. The study of asbestos-related disease is essentially a multidisciplinary task, requiring knowledge from medicine, biochemistry and mineralogy. To bridge the gap between these disciplines, attention needs to be placed on the molecular communication between the asbestos fibers and the biological environments in which they can be deposited. Our work focused on determining the surface chemical response of riebeckite and crocidolite-its asbestiform counterpart-to changes in salinity and pH. As expected, studies on the mineral surface charge using atomic force microscopy (AFM) yielded a slight dependence on pH, as measured by the adhesion force acting on the probe, but not on ionic strength, except at near zero salt concentration. A transition was found for the surface charge of crocidolite above pH 7, where forces at the mineral surface increased. In contrast, the surface charge on riebeckite was

  5. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed. PMID:16878394

  6. Asbestos-Induced Cellular and Molecular Alteration of Immunocompetent Cells and Their Relationship with Chronic Inflammation and Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Maeda, Megumi; Lee, Suni; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Kojima, Yoko; Tabata, Rika; Kishimoto, Takumi; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Otsuki, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos causes lung fibrosis known as asbestosis as well as cancers such as malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. Asbestos is a mineral silicate containing iron, magnesium, and calcium with a core of SiO2. The immunological effect of silica, SiO2, involves the dysregulation of autoimmunity because of the complications of autoimmune diseases found in silicosis. Asbestos can therefore cause alteration of immunocompetent cells to result in a decline of tumor immunity. Additionally, due to its physical characteristics, asbestos fibers remain in the lung, regional lymph nodes, and the pleural cavity, particularly at the opening sites of lymphatic vessels. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation in these areas due to the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. As a consequence, immunocompetent cells can have their cellular and molecular features altered by chronic and recurrent encounters with asbestos fibers, and there may be modification by the surrounding inflammation, all of which eventually lead to decreased tumor immunity. In this paper, the brief results of our investigation regarding reduction of tumor immunity of immunocompetent cells exposed to asbestos in vitro are discussed, as are our findings concerned with an investigation of chronic inflammation and analyses of peripheral blood samples derived from patients with pleural plaque and mesothelioma that have been exposed to asbestos. PMID:22500091

  7. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  8. Worldwide asbestos supply and consumption trends from 1900 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States has produced about 3.28 million metric tons of asbestos fiber and used approximately 31.5 million tons between 1900 and 2000. About half of this amount was used since 1960. Cumulative world production during that same time period was about 173 million tons. Assuming that unusually large stocks are not maintained and that world consumption roughly equals production, about half of the world production and consumption occurred since 1976. The United States and western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of States within the former Soviet Union by the 1970s. With the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, world production and consumption began to decline during the 1980s. In 2000, world consumption, estimated to be 1.48 million tons, was only 31% that of 1980. Countries in Asia, South America, and the former Soviet Union remain the largest users of asbestos. More specifically, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia, and Thailand are the only countries that consumed more than 60,000 tons of asbestos in 2000. These six countries accounted for more than 80% of world?s apparent consumption in 2000.

  9. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  10. Pulmonary Endpoints (Lung Carcinomas and Asbestosis) Following Inhalation Exposure to Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Brooke T.; Lippmann, Morton; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Bonner, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Lung carcinomas and pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) occur in asbestos workers. Understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases is complicated because of potential confounding factors, such as smoking, which is not a risk factor in mesothelioma. The modes of action (MOA) of various types of asbestos in the development of lung cancers, asbestosis, and mesotheliomas appear to be different. Moreover, asbestos fibers may act differentially at various stages of these diseases, and have different potencies as compared to other naturally occurring and synthetic fibers. This literature review describes patterns of deposition and retention of various types of asbestos and other fibers after inhalation, methods of translocation within the lung, and dissolution of various fiber types in lung compartments and cells in vitro. Comprehensive dose-response studies at fiber concentrations inhaled by humans as well as bivariate size distributions (lengths and widths), types, and sources of fibers are rarely defined in published studies and are needed. Species-specific responses may occur. Mechanistic studies have some of these limitations, but have suggested that changes in gene expression (either fiber-catalyzed directly or by cell elaboration of oxidants), epigenetic changes, and receptor-mediated or other intracellular signaling cascades may play roles in various stages of the development of lung cancers or asbestosis. PMID:21534086

  11. Progress and New Problems Mark Your Battle Against School Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a survey of asbestos in the schools and the status of asbestos regulations enforcement policy. Reviews the status of asbestos litigation and recovery of abatement costs. Provides suggestions for choosing asbestos abatement contractors. (MD)

  12. An unusual case of mixed-dust exposure involving a "noncommercial" asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, R F; Levin, J L

    2001-01-01

    Our health center evaluated an individual for suspected pneumoconiosis, which had resulted from exposures in a foundry/metal reclamation facility. Appropriate consent forms were obtained for the procedures. Historically, individuals who work in foundries have been exposed to various types of dusts. The clinical findings in this case were consistent with silicosis with a suspicion of asbestos-induced changes as well. A sample from this individual, analyzed by electron microscopy, showed both classical and atypical ferruginous bodies. The uncoated fiber burden in this individual indicated an appreciable number of anthophyllite asbestos fibers. This finding, coupled with analysis of cores from ferruginous bodies and the presence of ferruginous bodies in areas of interstitial fibrosis, pathologically supported the diagnosis of asbestos-related disease. The unique factor associated with this case is that unlike in some settings in Finland where anthophyllite was mined and used commercially, this mineral fiber is not commonly found in commercially used asbestos products in the United States. Although the actual source of the asbestos exposure in this case is still being sought, it should be recognized that anthophyllite is a contaminant of many other minerals used in workplace environments, including foundries. The fiber burden indicates a unique type of exposure, differing from that usually construed as typical in occupational settings in the United States. PMID:11266334

  13. Asbestos in commercial cosmetic talcum powder as a cause of mesothelioma in women

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Ronald E; Fitzgerald, Sean; Millette, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cosmetic talcum powder products have been used for decades. The inhalation of talc may cause lung fibrosis in the form of granulomatose nodules called talcosis. Exposure to talc has also been suggested as a causative factor in the development of ovarian carcinomas, gynecological tumors, and mesothelioma. Purpose: To investigate one historic brand of cosmetic talcum powder associated with mesothelioma in women. Methods: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) formvar-coated grids were prepared with concentrations of one brand of talcum powder directly, on filters, from air collections on filters in glovebox and simulated bathroom exposures and human fiber burden analyses. The grids were analyzed on an analytic TEM using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine asbestos fiber number and type. Results: This brand of talcum powder contained asbestos and the application of talcum powder released inhalable asbestos fibers. Lung and lymph node tissues removed at autopsy revealed pleural mesothelioma. Digestions of the tissues were found to contain anthophyllite and tremolite asbestos. Discussion: Through many applications of this particular brand of talcum powder, the deceased inhaled asbestos fibers, which then accumulated in her lungs and likely caused or contributed to her mesothelioma as well as other women with the same scenario. PMID:25185462

  14. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage in relation to asbestos bodies and asbestos fibres in lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, A; Piipari, R; Mäntylä, T; Mönkkönen, M; Nurminen, M; Tukiainen, P; Vanhala, E; Anttila, S

    1996-05-01

    In Finland, unlike other countries, anthophyllite asbestos has been widely used due to its domestic production in 1918-1975. In this particular context, the aim of the present study was to analyse the relationship between asbestos bodies (ABs) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the concentration of ABs and the different amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue. Sixty five BAL lung tissue sample pairs from patients with pulmonary disease were analysed. The concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and lung tissue was determined with optical microscopy, and the concentration, type and dimensions of asbestos fibres in lung tissue with scanning electron microscopy. There was a significant correlation between the concentrations of ABs in BAL fluid and in lung tissue (r = 0.72; p < 0.001), between the concentrations of ABs and amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.73; p < 0.001), and between the concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and the concentration of amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). In patients who had been exposed mainly to commercial anthophyllite, significantly higher concentrations of ABs were observed per total pulmonary amphibole fibre burden, as compared to patients whose main exposure was to crocidolite/amosite. The anthophyllite fibres in lung tissue were longer than the crocidolite/amosite fibres. The relationship between asbestos body counts in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was similar to previous international observations. When using the asbestos body count to predict the underlying total pulmonary amphibole asbestos burden in Finnish patients, however, it should be borne in mind that the relationship between the two parameters seems to be different with anthophyllite as compared to crocidolite/amosite fibres. PMID:8793463

  15. AIHA position statement on the removal of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) from buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The health risks associated with asbestos exposure for building occupants has been demonstrated to be very low. The decision to remove asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in undamaged, intact condition that are not readily accessible to occupants should be made only after assessing all other options. Both technical and financial issues should be fully explored by a team of trained specialists, including industrial hygienists, architects, and engineers. The optimal solution will vary from building to building, based on factors unique to each situation. One important consideration is the use of a well-designed air-monitoring program to identify changes in airborne levels of asbestos. Special training and maintenance programs are needed to ensure the safety and health of building and contract workers who may encounter asbestos or who may disturb it during routine or nonroutine activities. Each building owner who has ACM in a building should identify an in-house asbestos manager, and it is also necessary to provide appropriate resources, including professional consultants, to develop and manage a responsible and effective in-place management program throughout the life of a building containing asbestos.

  16. Synthetic vitreous fibers--inhalation studies.

    PubMed

    McConnell, E E

    1994-12-01

    Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), often referred to as "man-made vitreous fibers," are a class of materials that have their major uses for insulation against heat and sound. The original fibers are produced by melting various types of rock, clay, etc. and then blowing or extruding them into fibers of particular properties. During production and use small fractions of airborne fibers can be generated. Because of this a series of state-of-the-art inhalation studies was initiated to study the possible health hazards presented by the four major types of vitreous materials [two types of insulation glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, and four types of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF)] found in the workplace or to which the general public may be exposed. Rats and hamsters (30 mg/m3 kaolin-based RCF only) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to 3, 16, or 30 mg/m3 for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 18 (hamsters) or 24 (rats) months and were held for lifetime observation (until approximately 20% survival) to study the chronic toxicity and potential carcinogenic activity of these classes of SVFs. Chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos served as positive controls. All of the fibers stimulated an inflammatory response characterized by an increase in the number of pulmonary macrophages at the level of the terminal bronchioles and proximal alveoli. RCF produced interstitial fibrosis in the walls of the proximal alveoli as early as 3 months and rock wool by 12 months. The only fiber which showed carcinogenic activity was RCF which produced a dose-related increase in both primary lung neoplasms (rats only) and mesotheliomas (rats and hamsters). PMID:7724853

  17. NIOSH testimony on asbestos before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Navigation, House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries by R. A. Lemen, February 12, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-12

    Testimony concerned the activities of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in regard to asbestos hazards in the workplace. Workers have been exposed to asbestos while mining, milling, and transporting the mineral and while manufacturing and working with products which contain the substance such as protective clothing, mailbags, padding, conveyor belts, pipes, roofing shingles and gutters. Exposure to asbestos significantly increases the risk of contracting three serious diseases: asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Other causes of death associated with asbestos exposure include gastrointestinal cancer and laryngeal cancer. While it was not certain how asbestos causes disease, there has been thought that the surface properties, fiber size, and metallic content of the fibers may influence the carcinogenic properties of the substance. Exposures to asbestos among shipbuilders and seamen were highlighted in the report with mention being made of several epidemiologic studies conducted among workers in these occupations. The importance of occupational standards for asbestos exposure was discussed, and the history traced of the development of the standard. The current occupational exposure standard for asbestos permitted a maximum of two fibers larger than 5 microns in length per cubic centimeter of air. Based on recent evidence, NIOSH has requested that this standard be lowered to 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter.

  18. Substitute materials to replace asbestos in refinery-service gaskets and packings

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.F.; McKillop, G.R.

    1986-05-26

    Refiners have been able to successfully replace asbestos in many packing and gasket applications. The changeover has been driven by health concerns, refusal of product liability insurance to suppliers, and supplier concern over long-term availability of asbestos. A great deal of purchasing and engineering effort is currently being expended to qualify and convert nonasbestos materials for gaskets and packings. The task has been complicated by a lack of objective performance criteria in existing industry standards. The majority of industry standards has specified the use of asbestos-based products because operating experience has shown they work. The specification criteria which do exist typically are valid for comparing competitive asbestos products only, and do not correlate well when applied to unrelated materials. The task of reliably and safely operating a refinery without asbestos-based gasketing and packing is progressing on three fronts: 1. Replacement with products based on materials such as flexible graphite and poly tetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE). Performance characteristics are well known, and sufficient historical operating data exist. The initial cost of these materials is typically higher than asbestos-based products. 2. Trials and replacement with ''new'' materials such as Aramid or glass-fiber-based sheet materials and braided packing, or mica/graphite-filled, spiral-wound gaskets. The performance characteristics of these materials are not well known in comparison to asbestos.

  19. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605)

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Albelda, Steven M.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of asbestos fibers with macrophages generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative cell damage that are key processes linked to malignancy. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a non-toxic, flaxseed-derived pluripotent compound that has antioxidant properties and may thus function as a chemopreventive agent for asbestos-induced mesothelioma. We thus evaluated synthetic SDG (LGM2605) in asbestos-exposed, elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as an in vitro model of tissue phagocytic response to the presence of asbestos in the pleural space. Murine peritoneal macrophages (MFs) were exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm2) and evaluated at various times post exposure for cytotoxicity, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA), and levels of 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α (8-isoP). We then evaluated the ability of LGM2605 to mitigate asbestos-induced oxidative stress by administering LGM2605 (50 µM) 4-h prior to asbestos exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.0001), time-dependent increase in asbestos-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and the release of MDA and 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α, markers of lipid peroxidation, which increased linearly over time. LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation, while decreasing levels of MDA and 8-isoP by 71%–88% and 41%–73%, respectively. Importantly, exposure to asbestos fibers induced cell protective defenses, such as cellular Nrf2 activation and the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, HO-1 and Nqo1 that were further enhanced by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 boosted antioxidant defenses, as well as reduced asbestos-induced ROS generation and markers of oxidative stress in murine peritoneal macrophages, supporting its possible use as a chemoprevention agent in the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma. PMID:26938529

  20. [Asbestos related cancers in seamen].

    PubMed

    Filon, Francesca Larese; Negro, Corrado; De Michieli, Paola; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Seamen and marine engineers were formerly exposed to asbestos used in gasket, pipes, valves and machinery. Ship motion and vibration can release asbestos in the surrounding space. Asbestos fibres may also be inhaled by workers involved in maintenance operations of vessels built before 1992 in Italy. History of asbestos exposure has been reported by workers and confirmed by a higher prevalence of pleural abnormalities and a significant excess of mesothelioma with a Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) ranging between 1.83 and 4.8 as a function of years of exposure. SIR for lung cancer ranged between 1.10 and 1.62. Mesothelioma in seamen and marine engineers represents about 2.5% of the overall Italian mesothelioma cases with a very long latency period (47.6 +/- 9.6 years). There is no epidemiological evidence for an excess risk of mesothelioma in fishermen. PMID:24303696

  1. Historical developments and perspectives in inorganic fiber toxicity in man.

    PubMed Central

    Selikoff, I J

    1990-01-01

    The first patient known to have died from asbestosis (1900) began work in 1885, approximately 5 years after the industrial use of asbestos began in Britain. Mineral particles were found in his lungs. No special comment was made of their fibrous nature then nor when the first case was reported in 1924. The various neoplasms attributed to asbestos in the next decades posed an additional question: What influence did the fibrous shape of the particles have on carcinogenic potential? The cogency of the problem was amplified by the identification in humans of asbestos-like neoplasms with a fiber other than asbestos (erionite) and by the production of such neoplasms in experimental animals with a variety of man-made inorganic fibers, often used as substitutes for asbestos. The lessons learned about asbestos may help guide us in evaluating current fiber problems. PMID:2272322

  2. Toxic effect on the rat small intestine of chronic administration of asbestos in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Delahunty, T J; Hollander, D

    1987-12-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were given a 0.5 g/l Chrysotile asbestos solution in their drinking water (approximately 7 mg/day ingested) for 1.5 years and compared to control rats of the same age. During this time there were no differences in weight or appearance of the asbestos-treated rats in comparison to controls maintained under the same conditions. However, when in vivo intestinal permeability studies were performed using a gavage/urinary collection technique, some significant changes were noted. The recovery of lactulose in the urine of asbestos-treated rats was 0.66 +/- 0.07%, significantly less than that of the controls (1.01 +/- 0.08, P less than 0.005). The recovery of mannitol was similarly decreased (2.2 +/- 0.28 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.17, P less than 0.02), but that of rhamnose was unchanged. Creatinine clearance studies indicated that there was no impairment of kidney function in the asbestos-treated group and polarized light microscopy did not reveal any asbestos fibers in sections of the small bowel. The results suggest that the chronic exposure of rats to asbestos fibers in the drinking water results in a decreased ability of the intestine to absorb some non-metabolizable sugars. PMID:3120357

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Asbestos. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Virta, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of a regulation enacted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that phases out the use of asbestos went into effect on August 27, 1990. Health and liability issues continued to be a major factor in determining the economic stability of several former producers of asbestos products. The number of firms that produce asbestos-containing products continued to decline in response to these issues. Domestic asbestos production increased slightly from that of 1989, but consumption decreased 25%, from 55,306 to 41,348 tons. Asbestos was consumed domestically for roofing products, 37%; friction products, 26%; asbestos-cement pipe, 15%; packing and gaskets, 8%; and other, 14%.

  4. AMI cautions against attacks on asbestos replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The asbestos industry claims that alternative materials pose risks comparable to asbestos are not only unfounded, they have users of substitutes by limiting the options available if asbestos is banned. EPA will determine if the millions of tons of asbestos still imported into the US each year represents an unreasonable risk. Risk involves issues of toxicity and exposure. There are no data indicating that alternatives are comparable to asbestos. Rather, the information we do have shows that alternative materials are safe substitutes for asbestos.

  5. Asbestos exposure and neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J.; Churg, J.; Hammond, E.C.

    1984-07-06

    Builiding trades insulation workers have relatively light, intermittent, exposure to asbestos. Of 632 insulation workers, who entered the trade before 1943 and were traced through 1962, forty-five died of cancer of the lung or pleura, whereas only 6.6 such deaths were expected. Three of the pleural tumors were mesotheliomas; there was also one peritoneal mesothelioma. Four mesotheliomas in a total of 255 deaths is an exceedingly high incidence for such a rare tumor. In addition, an unexpectedly large number of men died of cancer of the stomach, colon, or rectum (29 compared with 9.4 expected). Other cancers were not increased; 20.5 were expected, 21 occurred. Twelve men died of asbestosis. This landmark article appeared originally in this journal 188:22-26, 1964.

  6. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace, January 1980-July 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational exposure to asbestos and silicate fibers in the workplace. Correlations are cited between occupational exposure, carcinogenicity, and mortality in some of the citations. Included are surveys of occupational exposure of shipyard workers, mechanics, miners, insulation installers, jewelers, and welders. Asbestos and silicate pollution exposure standards, and hazard control technology are cited. References to asbestos removal, and non occupational asbestos and silicate pollution are excluded and can be found in other bibliographies. Also excluded are Health Hazard Evaluations for a specific location and Industrial Hygiene Survey Reports. (Contains 167 citations with title list and subject index.)

  7. Mortality among asbestos-exposed workers in a railroad workshop.

    PubMed

    Ohlson, C G; Klaesson, B; Hogstedt, C

    1984-10-01

    The mortality experience of a cohort of 3 297 railroad maintenance shopworkers exposed to asbestos was investigated. The study period was 1951-1980, and the vital status was assessed for 99.6% of the men. Individual estimates of cumulative asbestos exposure were based on detailed records on work tasks and divisions. Dust measurements were scanty in earlier decades, and estimates of average fiber levels were therefore based on information on the amount and kind of asbestos used, job descriptions, and interviews with older workers. The overall mortality was lower than expected from the national death rates (standardized mortality ratio = 82). The mortality from lung cancer increased as cumulative exposure increased in consistent dose-response relationships. Employment times of less than 30 years in workplaces with moderate levels of mainly chrysotile asbestos was not associated with any apparent increase in the risk of lung cancer. A subgroup exposed for more than 30 years in workplaces repairing steam engines, where amphiboles were used as well, had a standardized mortality ratio of 192 for lung cancer. This figure may be an underestimation due to healthy worker selection and fewer smokers than normal. The "true" standardized mortality ratio was estimated to be about 300. Five cases of mesothelioma were observed. PMID:6098009

  8. Asbestos content of lung tissue in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A study of 42 cases.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Gustaaf G; Kraynie, Alyssa; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Oury, Tim D; Roggli, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Lung tissue from 42 peritoneal mesothelioma cases was analyzed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry. There were 34 men and 8 women with a mean age of 61 ± 10 years. Also, 17% of cases had histologically confirmed asbestosis, and 26% had only parietal pleural plaques. The asbestos body count exceeded our normal range in 22 of 42 cases (52%). Cases with asbestos-related pulmonary disease had higher fiber burdens than those without. The vast majority of fibers were commercial amphiboles (amosite with lesser amounts of crocidolite). These findings concur with previously published epidemiological observations. PMID:27281118

  9. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates

    PubMed Central

    Roggli, Victor L.; Boelter, Fred W.; Rasmuson, Eric J.; Redinger, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Context A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. Objective (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. Methods A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff’s answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff’s discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Results Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed

  10. Flaxseed lignans enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside prevent acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Arguiri, Evguenia; Menges, Craig W.; Testa, Joseph R.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Albelda, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM), linked to asbestos exposure, is a highly lethal form of thoracic cancer with a long latency period, high mortality and poor treatment options. Chronic inflammation and oxidative tissue damage caused by asbestos fibers are linked to MM development. Flaxseed lignans, enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. As a prelude to chronic chemoprevention studies for MM development, we tested the ability of flaxseed lignan component (FLC) to prevent acute asbestos-induced inflammation in MM-prone Nf2+/mu mice. Mice (n = 16–17 per group) were placed on control (CTL) or FLC-supplemented diets initiated 7 days prior to a single intraperitoneal bolus of 400 µg of crocidolite asbestos. Three days post asbestos exposure, mice were evaluated for abdominal inflammation, proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokine release, WBC gene expression changes and oxidative and nitrosative stress in peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF). Asbestos-exposed mice fed CTL diet developed acute inflammation, with significant (P < 0.0001) elevations in WBCs and proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, HMGB1 and active TGFß1) relative to baseline (BL) levels. Alternatively, asbestos-exposed FLC-fed mice had a significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in PLF WBCs and proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokine levels relative to CTL-fed mice. Importantly, PLF WBC gene expression of cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, HMGB1 and TGFß1) and cytokine receptors (TNFαR1 and TGFßR1) were also downregulated by FLC. FLC also significantly (P < 0.0001) blunted asbestos-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress. FLC reduces acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation, nitrosative and oxidative stress and may thus prove to be a promising agent in the chemoprevention of MM. PMID:26678224

  11. Flaxseed lignans enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside prevent acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Arguiri, Evguenia; Menges, Craig W; Testa, Joseph R; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Albelda, Steven M; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM), linked to asbestos exposure, is a highly lethal form of thoracic cancer with a long latency period, high mortality and poor treatment options. Chronic inflammation and oxidative tissue damage caused by asbestos fibers are linked to MM development. Flaxseed lignans, enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive properties. As a prelude to chronic chemoprevention studies for MM development, we tested the ability of flaxseed lignan component (FLC) to prevent acute asbestos-induced inflammation in MM-prone Nf2(+/mu) mice. Mice (n = 16-17 per group) were placed on control (CTL) or FLC-supplemented diets initiated 7 days prior to a single intraperitoneal bolus of 400 µg of crocidolite asbestos. Three days post asbestos exposure, mice were evaluated for abdominal inflammation, proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokine release, WBC gene expression changes and oxidative and nitrosative stress in peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF). Asbestos-exposed mice fed CTL diet developed acute inflammation, with significant (P < 0.0001) elevations in WBCs and proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, HMGB1 and active TGFß1) relative to baseline (BL) levels. Alternatively, asbestos-exposed FLC-fed mice had a significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in PLF WBCs and proinflammatory/profibrogenic cytokine levels relative to CTL-fed mice. Importantly, PLF WBC gene expression of cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, HMGB1 and TGFß1) and cytokine receptors (TNFαR1 and TGFßR1) were also downregulated by FLC. FLC also significantly (P < 0.0001) blunted asbestos-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress. FLC reduces acute asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation, nitrosative and oxidative stress and may thus prove to be a promising agent in the chemoprevention of MM. PMID:26678224

  12. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

  13. Environmental projects. Volume 4: Asbestos survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), near Barstow, California, operates in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. Many of the buildings and structures at the GDSCC were erected before it became known that asbestos posed a hazard to human health. Thus, because of concern with asbestos, two field surveys were conducted at the GDSCC in October/November 1986 and in September 1987 to locate, classify, and quantify all asbestos-containing materials in buildings, structures, roofs and boilers. The report describes the results of the two surveys and describes methods for both asbestos management and asbestos abatement. The surveys found that GDSCC practices involving asbestos are conscientious and forward-thinking. A program, due to start in FY 1988 and to be completed in FY 1990, is planned to remove all friable (easily pulverized) asbestos-containing materials discovered during the two field surveys for asbestos at the GDSCC.

  14. Model curriculum for asbestos abatement workers

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    These slides are part of a 4-day-course intended for those persons seeking accreditation as asbestos abatement workers. The course presents a straight forward, easy-to-read approach to learning the basics of asbestos abatement.

  15. Asbestos in Schools--A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A magazine insert contains six short articles that deal with school district compliance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Display advertisements by asbestos-related firms accompany the insert. (MLF)

  16. Reinforcement of polymeric structures with asbestos fibrils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, C. A.; Schwartz, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation determines structural potential of asbestos fibrils. Methods are developed for dispersing macrofibers of the asbestos into colloidal-sized ultimate fibrils and incorporating these fibrils in matrices without causing reagglomeration.

  17. Asbestos activates CH12.LX B-lymphocytes via macrophage signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Devon L.; Pfau, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of asbestos exposure on the development and progression of autoimmunity is becoming increasingly recognized as a public health issue. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between exposure to airborne silicates, such as asbestos, and autoimmunity, but the etiology remains unresolved. B1a B-lymphocytes have been implicated in autoimmune responses in mice, and splenic B1a cell numbers are altered following asbestos exposure. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible role of B1a B-lymphocytes in the production of pathogenic autoantibodies by testing the hypothesis that B1a B-lymphocytes directly react with asbestos and increase production of antibodies. The B1a-like B-lymphocyte model, CH12.LX, was exposed to asbestos in vitro via direct and indirect mechanisms. The effect was determined of these exposures on the rate of proliferation and on production of various immunoglobulin classes. Direct exposure elicited no measurable response by the CH12.LX cells. Culturing the CH12.LX cells in media from asbestos-exposed RAW 264.7 macrophages, however, decreased the proliferation rate and stimulated the cells to increase production of the immunoglobulin isotypes IgG1, IgG3, and IgA. It was discovered that asbestos stimulated the macrophages to increase production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Recombinant murine IL-6 caused similar results seen with the macrophage media, indicating a role of IL-6 in stimulating a response by the B1a B-lymphocytes to asbestos. In correlation with the in vitro data, it was determined ex vivo that exposure of peritoneal cells (from C57Bl/6 mice) to asbestos caused an increase in the expression of IL-6 and TNFα, as well as of surface expression of IgA on the peritoneal B1a B-lymphocytes. These data demonstrate that asbestos leads to immunologic changes consistent with activation of B1a B-lymphocytes. This study also provides a model for analyzing the critical steps that

  18. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  19. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  20. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  1. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  2. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  3. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  4. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  5. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  6. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  7. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  8. Long-term health effects in hamsters and rats exposed chronically to man-made vitreous fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Ortiz, L.W.; Archuleta, R.F.; Johnson, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    Rats and hamsters were exposed to several types of airborne man-made vitreous fibers. Exposure protocols were ''nose-only'' 6 h a day, 5 d a week for 24 m with surviving animals maintained for the rest of their lives. Challenge aerosols consisted of 4 types of fibrous glass, 1 refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), and 1 mineral wool fiber. UICC crocidolite asbestos and clean air served as positive and negative controls for the inhalation groups. Groups of additional controls were unmanipulated caged animals, intraperitoneally (IP) injected animals, and intratracheally (IT) instilled animals. Animals, after their deaths, were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Fiber lung burdens were significant for the inhalation exposures and related to the mean diameters of the fibrous challenge aerosols. The inhalation exposures with MMVF did not result in any adverse effects except for a mesothelioma of the lung in 1 hamster exposed to the RCF, not a statistically significant finding. Consistent with other reported work, abdominal mesotheliomas were induced in the groups of hamsters and rats injected IP with 0.45-micron mean diameter fibrous glass, RCF, and crocidolite asbestos. With IT instillations, primary lung tumors were found only in hamsters and rats receiving UICC crocidolite; no lung tumors occurred in animals instilled IT with 2 types of MMVF. 28 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Osteopontin modulates inflammation, mucin production, and gene expression signatures after inhalation of asbestos in a murine model of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Ramos-Nino, Maria E; Eugenia-Ariza, Maria; Macpherson, Maximilian B; Butnor, Kelly J; Vacek, Pamela C; McGee, Sean P; Clark, Jessica C; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T

    2011-05-01

    Inflammation and lung remodeling are hallmarks of asbestos-induced fibrosis, but the molecular mechanisms that control these events are unclear. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) of distal bronchioles in a murine asbestos inhalation model, we show that osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated by bronchiolar epithelial cells after chrysotile asbestos exposures. In contrast to OPN wild-type mice (OPN(+/+)) inhaling asbestos, OPN null mice (OPN(-/-)) exposed to asbestos showed less eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, diminished lung inflammation, and decreased mucin production. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 subunit p40, MIP1α, MIP1β, and eotaxin) also were significantly less in asbestos-exposed OPN(-/-) mice. Microarrays performed on lung tissues from asbestos-exposed OPN(+/+) and OPN(-/-) mice showed that OPN modulated the expression of a number of genes (Col1a2, Timp1, Tnc, Eln, and Col3a1) linked to fibrosis via initiation and cross talk between IL-1β and epidermal growth factor receptor-related signaling pathways. Novel targets of OPN identified include genes involved in cell signaling, immune system/defense, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell cycle regulation. Although it is unclear whether the present findings are specific to chrysotile asbestos or would be observed after inhalation of other fibers in general, these results highlight new potential mechanisms and therapeutic targets for asbestosis and other diseases (asthma, smoking-related interstitial lung diseases) linked to OPN overexpression. PMID:21514415

  10. Determining the frequency of asbestos use in automotive brakes from a fleet of on-road California vehicles.

    PubMed

    De Vita, Joseph; Wall, Stephen; Wagner, Jeff; Wang, Zhong-Min; Rao, Leela E

    2012-02-01

    Asbestos is a known human carcinogen, and recent regulation in California limits asbestiform fibers in brakes to trace levels beginning in 2014, although there is no corresponding federal requirement. In order to gauge the current prevalence of asbestos use in automotive brake applications, the California Air Resources Board tested brake linings from 137 light- and medium-duty vehicles and 54 heavy-duty vehicles. Only about 3% of the light- and medium-duty vehicle brake linings contained chrysotile asbestos. All of those brake linings were drum-type shoes, which are generally being phased out. No asbestos was found in low mileage vehicles presumed to have their original stock linings from the vehicle manufacturer. Additionally, no asbestos was found in the heavy-duty vehicle brake shoe linings sampled. Given the small percentage of vehicle brake linings with asbestos observed, it appears that the prior federal ban that was subsequently overturned, in combination with a threat of litigation, has reduced asbestos use in brake linings. However, our study was limited in scope and without a national ban, the current and future prevalence of asbestos in brakes is uncertain, suggesting the need for continued monitoring of materials released as toxic air contaminants in normal braking operations. PMID:22191788

  11. The epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Niklinski, Jacek; Niklinska, Wieslawa; Chyczewska, Elzbieta; Laudanski, Jerzy; Naumnik, Wojciech; Chyczewski, Lech; Pluygers, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Asbestos has been recognised as a potential health hazard since the 1940s. Of the two major species of asbestos; white asbestos (chrysotile) and blue asbestos (crocidolite), both of which are hazardous. The workers at extraction facilities are at the greatest risk of exposure to asbestos and, therefore, the development of asbestos-related diseases, commonly mesothelioma. However, other individuals at a high risk of exposure include asbestos-cement workers, insulation workers and ship-yard workers. Environmental exposure to asbestos can occur as a result of living in areas either characterised by natural outcrops of asbestos or asbestos-related materials, or those close to asbestos-producing or -using plants. Unfortunately, man-made fibre alternatives to asbestos, such as rock and slag-wool and glass wool, have also been shown to have a detrimental effect on human health. A characteristic of mesothelioma is that there is a long latency period (20-30 years) before the signs and symptoms of the disease become apparent. In addition, diagnosis of the disease can be difficult. The use of biological markers, such as tissue polypeptide antigen, may play a useful role in the early detection of the disease in individuals at risk. PMID:15261426

  12. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  13. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  14. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  15. Uncle Sam Flunks Asbestos Control in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of using asbestos to insulate heating and air-conditioning systems in schools and mixing asbestos into ceiling plaster for fireproofing and noise control. Suggests that the Environmental Protection Agency's plan for asbestos removal may be causing problems where none exist. (TW)

  16. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ron

    This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains eight sections that…

  17. Asbestos Imperative: What You Must Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Under federal regulation, all friable asbestos must be removed from buildings before undertaking major renovation or demolition. The American Council on Education is filing a national voluntary class action suit to recover from asbestos manufacturers the costs of removing asbestos-containing materials. (MLW)

  18. Thermal removal of asbestos pipeline coating

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.H.

    1997-03-01

    A heat (thermal) technique, not previously used in the US for removing external pipe coating was used to remove asbestos-wrapped coating from 17 miles of 24-inch-diameter pipe. The process was conducted in compliance with all asbestos and air quality regulations, and produced asbestos-free pipe at timely and cost-effective rates.

  19. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... broccoli, spinach, and artichokes legumes (split peas, soy, lentils, etc.) almonds Look for the fiber content of ... salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Add lentils or whole-grain barley to your favorite soups. ...

  20. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... short period of time can cause intestinal gas ( flatulence ), bloating , and abdominal cramps . This problem often goes ... 213. National Research Council. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and ...

  1. Usefulness of combined light and electron microscopy: Evaluation of sputum samples for asbestos to determine past occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, R.F.; Williams, M.G. Jr.; Corn, C.J.; Idell, S.; McLarty, J.W. )

    1989-07-01

    Ferruginous bodies (FB) in sputa are recognized as an indicator of past exposure to asbestos. However, a great variability exists in FB production, even in individuals with a history of occupational exposure. A further complication in interpreting the presence of FBs in sputa is that all individuals in modern society are exposed to asbestos and, in lung tissue studies, have been shown to harbor appreciable numbers of asbestos fibers. Thus, some of these individuals should occasionally produce FBs in their sputa. The present study was undertaken to determine if uncoated asbestos fiber content could be used to better discriminate occupationally exposed individuals from the general population. Randomly selected sputum samples from 12 former workers in an amosite asbestos plant and 12 controls were studied. The samples were prepared for the study by digesting the sputa in sodium hypochlorite. The digests were filtered through 0.2-microns polycarbonate filters for collection of particulates. The filters were screened for FBs by light microscopy at 200 X, and the presence or absence of uncoated asbestos fibers was determined at 5000 X in an AMRAY 1000A scanning electron microscope. The use of electron microscopy revealed the presence of commercial amphiboles in the sputa of the occupationally exposed individuals and enabled a differentiation of these samples from those of the general population.

  2. Evaluation of take-home exposure and risk associated with the handling of clothing contaminated with chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Sahmel, J; Barlow, C A; Simmons, B; Gaffney, S H; Avens, H J; Madl, A K; Henshaw, J; Lee, R J; Van Orden, D; Sanchez, M; Zock, M; Paustenbach, D J

    2014-08-01

    The potential for para-occupational (or take-home) exposures from contaminated clothing has been recognized for the past 60 years. To better characterize the take-home asbestos exposure pathway, a study was performed to measure the relationship between airborne chrysotile concentrations in the workplace, the contamination of work clothing, and take-home exposures and risks. The study included air sampling during two activities: (1) contamination of work clothing by airborne chrysotile (i.e., loading the clothing), and (2) handling and shaking out of the clothes. The clothes were contaminated at three different target airborne chrysotile concentrations (0-0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter [f/cc], 1-2 f/cc, and 2-4 f/cc; two events each for 31-43 minutes; six events total). Arithmetic mean concentrations for the three target loading levels were 0.01 f/cc, 1.65 f/cc, and 2.84 f/cc (National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety [NIOSH] 7402). Following the loading events, six matched 30-minute clothes-handling and shake-out events were conducted, each including 15 minutes of active handling (15-minute means; 0.014-0.097 f/cc) and 15 additional minutes of no handling (30-minute means; 0.006-0.063 f/cc). Percentages of personal clothes-handling TWAs relative to clothes-loading TWAs were calculated for event pairs to characterize exposure potential during daily versus weekly clothes-handling activity. Airborne concentrations for the clothes handler were 0.2-1.4% (eight-hour TWA or daily ratio) and 0.03-0.27% (40-hour TWA or weekly ratio) of loading TWAs. Cumulative chrysotile doses for clothes handling at airborne concentrations tested were estimated to be consistent with lifetime cumulative chrysotile doses associated with ambient air exposure (range for take-home or ambient doses: 0.00044-0.105 f/cc year). PMID:24517168

  3. Dual preventive benefits of iron elimination by desferal in asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Chew, Shan-Hwu; Nakamura, Kosuke; Ohara, Yuuki; Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis is currently a profound social issue due to its extremely long incubation period and high mortality rate. Therefore, procedures to prevent malignant mesothelioma in people already exposed to asbestos are important. In previous experiments, we established an asbestos-induced rat peritoneal mesothelioma model, which revealed that local iron overload is a major cause of pathogenesis and that the induced genetic alterations are similar to human counterparts. Furthermore, we showed that oral administration of deferasirox modified the histology from sarcomatoid to the more favorable epithelioid subtype. Here, we used i.p. administration of desferal to evaluate its effects on asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation and iron deposition, as well as oxidative stress. Nitrilotriacetate was used to promote an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction as a positive control. Desferal significantly decreased peritoneal fibrosis, iron deposition, and nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in mesothelial cells, whereas nitrilotriacetate significantly increased all of them. Desferal was more effective in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells to counteract asbestos-induced cytotoxicity than in murine macrophages (RAW264.7). Furthermore, rat sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells were more dependent on iron for proliferation than rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Because inflammogenicity of a fiber is proportionally associated with subsequent mesothelial carcinogenesis, iron elimination from the mesothelial environment can confer dual merits for preventing asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis by suppressing inflammation and mesothelial proliferation simultaneously. PMID:27088640

  4. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Harington, J.S. )

    1991-12-31

    In in vitro test systems, chrysotile is markedly toxic, causes chromosomal aberrations, and is capable of inducing morphological and preneoplastic transformation. In carefully designed animal experiments, chrysotile produces lung cancer and mesothelioma as effectively as do the amphiboles tested. Human population studies do not refute these experimental results. Chrysotile asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, especially for the induction of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed populations. For cancers of other sites, with the exception of laryngeal and possibly gastrointestinal cancer, the evidence for association with exposure to all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, is not yet adequate for evaluation.48 references.

  5. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  6. [Disposal of waste containing asbestos in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Vinko

    2009-11-01

    In order to ensure systematic disposal of asbestos waste in the whole of Croatia, its government has mandated the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund to implement emergency measures to collect and dispose of asbestos-containing construction waste. This requires a construction of 45 special disposal containers in the existing municipal waste landfills and contracting collection of asbestos-containing construction waste. By now, the Fund has disposed of 8000 m3 of asbestos cement waste, recovered five dumps with asbestos-containing construction waste, reclaimed a location contaminated by asbestos in Vranjic, and has continued to recover the land at the premises of factory Salonit in bankruptcy, which had been producing corrugated asbestos sheets before the ban. In collaboration with several non-governmental organisations, the Fund has started an educational campaign to protect the environment. PMID:20853773

  7. Comparative hazards of chrysotile asbestos and its substitutes: A European perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P T; Levy, L S; Patrick, G; Pigott, G H; Smith, L L

    1999-01-01

    Although the use of amphibole asbestos (crocidolite and amosite) has been banned in most European countries because of its known effects on the lung and pleura, chrysotile asbestos remains in use in a number of widely used products, notably asbestos cement and friction linings in vehicle brakes and clutches. A ban on chrysotile throughout the European Union for these remaining applications is currently under consideration, but this requires confidence in the safety of substitute materials. The main substitutes for the residual uses of chrysotile are p-aramid, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and cellulose fibers, and it is these materials that are evaluated here. Because it critically affects both exposure concentrations and deposition in the lung, diameter is a key determinant of the intrinsic hazard of a fiber; the propensity of a material to release fibers into the air is also important. It is generally accepted that to be pathogenic to the lung or pleura, fibers must be long, thin, and durable; fiber chemistry may also be significant. These basic principles are used in a pragmatic way to form a judgement on the relative safety of the substitute materials, taking into account what is known about their hazardous properties and also the potential for uncontrolled exposures during a lifetime of use (including disposal). We conclude that chrysotile asbestos is intrinsically more hazardous than p-aramid, PVA, or cellulose fibers and that its continued use in asbestos-cement products and friction materials is not justifiable in the face of available technically adequate substitutes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10417355

  8. Asbestos-Induced Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis. The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Mueller, Amanda; Lam, Anna P; Trejo, Humberto; Williams, David; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Baker, Margaret; Ridge, Karen; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Beri, Rohinee

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos exposure results in pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) and malignancies (bronchogenic lung cancer and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis is important in the development of pulmonary fibrosis after exposure to an array of toxins, including asbestos. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptosis occur in AECs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease with similarities to asbestosis. Asbestos induces AEC intrinsic apoptosis, but the role of the ER is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether asbestos causes an AEC ER stress response that promotes apoptosis. Using human A549 and rat primary isolated alveolar type II cells, amosite asbestos fibers increased AEC mRNA and protein expression of ER stress proteins involved in the unfolded protein response, such as inositol-requiring kinase (IRE) 1 and X-box–binding protein-1, as well as ER Ca²2+ release ,as assessed by a FURA-2 assay. Eukarion-134, a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, as well as overexpression of Bcl-XL in A549 cells each attenuate asbestos-induced AEC ER stress (IRE-1 and X-box–binding protein-1 protein expression; ER Ca²2+ release) and apoptosis. Thapsigargin, a known ER stress inducer, augments AEC apoptosis, and eukarion-134 or Bcl-XL overexpression are protective. Finally, 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone that attenuates ER stress, blocks asbestos- and thapsigargin-induced AEC IRE-1 protein expression, but does not reduce ER Ca²2+ release or apoptosis. These results show that asbestos triggers an AEC ER stress response and subsequent intrinsic apoptosis that is mediated in part by ER Ca²2+ release. PMID:23885834

  9. Asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Kamp, David W; Liu, Gang; Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Mueller, Amanda; Lam, Anna P; Trejo, Humberto; Williams, David; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Baker, Margaret; Ridge, Karen; Chandel, Navdeep S; Beri, Rohinee

    2013-12-01

    Asbestos exposure results in pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) and malignancies (bronchogenic lung cancer and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis is important in the development of pulmonary fibrosis after exposure to an array of toxins, including asbestos. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptosis occur in AECs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease with similarities to asbestosis. Asbestos induces AEC intrinsic apoptosis, but the role of the ER is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether asbestos causes an AEC ER stress response that promotes apoptosis. Using human A549 and rat primary isolated alveolar type II cells, amosite asbestos fibers increased AEC mRNA and protein expression of ER stress proteins involved in the unfolded protein response, such as inositol-requiring kinase (IRE) 1 and X-box-binding protein-1, as well as ER Ca²(2+) release ,as assessed by a FURA-2 assay. Eukarion-134, a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, as well as overexpression of Bcl-XL in A549 cells each attenuate asbestos-induced AEC ER stress (IRE-1 and X-box-binding protein-1 protein expression; ER Ca²(2+) release) and apoptosis. Thapsigargin, a known ER stress inducer, augments AEC apoptosis, and eukarion-134 or Bcl-XL overexpression are protective. Finally, 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone that attenuates ER stress, blocks asbestos- and thapsigargin-induced AEC IRE-1 protein expression, but does not reduce ER Ca²(2+) release or apoptosis. These results show that asbestos triggers an AEC ER stress response and subsequent intrinsic apoptosis that is mediated in part by ER Ca²(2+) release. PMID:23885834

  10. Journal Article: Low Levels of Exposure to Libby Amphibole Asbestos and Localized Pleural Thickening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Libby Amphibole asbestos (LAA) is a mixture of amphibole fibers present in ore from the vermiculite mine near Libby, MT (1). Workers and community residents were exposed to LAA at the mining operations in Libby, MT (2, 3), as well as at vermiculite processing facilities in Marys...

  11. CHEMICAL STABILIZERS FOR THE CONTROL OF FUGITIVE ASBESTOS EMISSIONS FROM OPEN SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quarried serpentinite, recently found to contain asbestos, is used to aggregate for surfacing secondary roads. Emission concentrations of 0.6 x 10 to the 6th power to 8 x 10 to the 6th power fibers/cu m were collected 20 m downwind from a serpentinite surfaced roadway. These leve...

  12. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  13. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  14. Perspectives on refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) carcinogenicity: comparisons with other fibers*

    PubMed Central

    Greim, Helmut; Utell, Mark J.; Niebo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, SCOEL classified RCF as a secondary genotoxic carcinogen and supported a practical threshold. Inflammation was considered the predominant manifestation of RCF toxicity. Intrapleural and intraperitoneal implantation induced mesotheliomas and sarcomas in laboratory animals. Chronic nose-only inhalation bioassays indicated that RCF exposure in rats increased the incidence of lung cancer and similar exposures resulted in mesothelioma in hamsters, but these studies may have been compromised by overload. Epidemiological studies in the US and Europe showed an association between exposure and prevalence of respiratory symptoms and pleural plaques, but no interstitial fibrosis, mesotheliomas, or increased numbers of lung tumors were observed. As the latency of asbestos induced mesotheliomas can be up to 50 years, the relationship between RCF exposure and respiratory malignances has not been fully determined. Nonetheless, it is possible to offer useful perspectives. RCF and rock wool have similar airborne fiber dimensions and biopersistence. Therefore, it is likely that these fibers have similar toxicology. Traditional rock wool has been the subject of numerous cohort and case control studies. For rock wool, IARC (2002) concluded that the epidemiological studies did not provide evidence of carcinogenicity. Based on analogies with rock wool (read across), it is reasonable to believe that increases in lung cancer or any mesotheliomas are unlikely to be found in the RCF-exposed cohort. RCF producers have developed a product stewardship program to measure and control fiber concentrations and to further understand the health status of their workers. PMID:25264933

  15. Historical developments and perspectives in inorganic fiber toxicity in man

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The first patient known to have died from asbestosis (1900) began work in 1885, approximately 5 years after the industrial use of asbestos began in Britain. Mineral particles were found in his lungs. No special comment was made of their fibrous nature then nor when the first case was reported in 1924. The various neoplasms attributed to asbestos in the next decades posed an additional question: what influence did the fibrous shape of the particles have on carcinogenic potential The cogency of the problem was amplified by the identification in humans of asbestoslike neoplasms with a fiber other than asbestos (erionite) and by the production of such neoplasms in experimental animals with a variety of man-made inorganic fibers, often used as substitutes for asbestos. The lessons learned about asbestos may help guide us in evaluating current fiber problems.

  16. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

  17. Prevention of asbestos-induced cell death in rat lung fibroblasts and alveolar macrophages by scavengers of active oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Shatos, M.A.; Doherty, J.M.; Marsh, J.P.; Mossman, B.T.

    1987-10-01

    The possible modulation of asbestos-related cell death using antioxidants in both target and effector cells of asbestosis was investigated. After exposure to crocidolite asbestos at a range of concentrations (2.5-25 ..mu..gcm/sup 2/ dish), the viability of a normal rat lung fibroblast line and freshly isolated alveolar macrophages (AM) was determined. In comparison to fibroblasts, AM were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of asbestos. Cytotoxic concentrations of asbestos then were added to both cell types in combination with the antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), a scavenger of superoxide (O/sub 2//sup -./), and catalase, an enzyme scavenging H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. Dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of the hydroxyl radical (OH/sup ./) and deferoxamine, an iron chelator, also were evaluated in similar studies. Results showed significant dosage-dependent reduction of asbestos-associated cell death with all agents. In contrast, asbestos-induced toxicity was not ameliorated after addition of chemically inactivated SOD and catalase or bovine serum albumin. Results above suggest asbestos-induced cell damage is mediated by active oxygen species. In this regard, the iron associated with the fiber andor its interaction with cell membranes might be critical in deriving a modified Haber-Weiss (Fenton-type) reaction resulting in production of OH/sup ./.

  18. Molecular Basis of Asbestos-Induced Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos causes asbestosis and malignancies by molecular mechanisms that are not fully understood. The modes of action underlying asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma appear to differ depending on the fiber type, lung clearance, and genetics. After reviewing the key pathologic changes following asbestos exposure, we examine recently identified pathogenic pathways, with a focus on oxidative stress. Alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis, which is an important early event in asbestosis, is mediated by mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways and may be modulated by the endoplasmic reticulum. We review mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-damage and -repair mechanisms, focusing on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase, as well as cross talk between reactive oxygen species production, mtDNA damage, p53, OGG1, and mitochondrial aconitase. These new insights into the molecular basis of asbestos-induced lung diseases may foster the development of novel therapeutic targets for managing degenerative diseases (e.g., asbestosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), tumors, and aging, for which effective management is lacking. PMID:23347351

  19. Cancer incidence following exposure to drinking water with asbestos leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, H.L.; Wolfgang, P.E.; Burnett, W.S.; Nasca, P.C.; Youngblood, L.

    1989-05-01

    In November 1985, the New York State Department of Health was altered to extraordinary concentrations of asbestos leachate in the drinking water in the Town of Woodstock. Concentrations of 3.2 million fibers per liter (MFL) to 304.5 MFL were found, depending on location. An investigation of cancer incidence in the area was conducted for the period 1973-83 using the State Cancer Registry to compute standardized incidence ratios. No evidence was found of elevated cancer incidence at sites associated with asbestos exposure. A statistically non-significant excess of kidney cancer was seen among men, but not women. Colon cancer among men was significantly low, but incidence among women was similar to that expected. Lung cancer incidence was lower than expected for both sexes. Ovarian cancer rates were not different from expected rates. At sites not previously related to asbestos exposure, cancer of the oral cavity was significantly high, with most affected persons having a history of cigarette smoking. Surveillance of the community is continuing because of an insufficient latent period for some exposed groups.

  20. Minimal asbestos exposure in germline BAP1 heterozygous mice is associated with deregulated inflammatory response and increased risk of mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, A; Pellegrini, L; Dey, A; Larson, D; Tanji, M; Flores, E G; Kendrick, B; Lapid, D; Powers, A; Kanodia, S; Pastorino, S; Pass, H I; Dixit, V; Yang, H; Carbone, M

    2016-04-14

    Germline BAP1 mutations predispose to several cancers, in particular malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy generally associated with professional exposure to asbestos. However, to date, we found that none of the mesothelioma patients carrying germline BAP1 mutations were professionally exposed to asbestos. We hypothesized that germline BAP1 mutations might influence the asbestos-induced inflammatory response that is linked to asbestos carcinogenesis, thereby increasing the risk of developing mesothelioma after minimal exposure. Using a BAP1(+/-) mouse model, we found that, compared with their wild-type littermates, BAP1(+/-) mice exposed to low-dose asbestos fibers showed significant alterations of the peritoneal inflammatory response, including significantly higher levels of pro-tumorigenic alternatively polarized M2 macrophages, and lower levels of several chemokines and cytokines. Consistent with these data, BAP1(+/-) mice had a significantly higher incidence of mesothelioma after exposure to very low doses of asbestos, doses that rarely induced mesothelioma in wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that minimal exposure to carcinogenic fibers may significantly increase the risk of malignant mesothelioma in genetically predisposed individuals carrying germline BAP1 mutations, possibly via alterations of the inflammatory response. PMID:26119930

  1. Evaluation of cellular toxicity of TAFMAG, a natural substitute for asbestos from China.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Jung; Nam, Hae Yun; Hiroshi, Yamato; Shinohara, Yasushi; Kohyama, Norihiko; Yun, Hyoung Kyu; Lim, Young; Song, Jung Sub

    2005-01-15

    Asbestos is a very important material for industrial use. However, the need for a substitute for asbestos fiber is currently on the rise due to its high disease causing potential. This study evaluated the potential bio-hazardous effects of TAFMAG, a natural fibrous silicate produced in China, in comparison with chrysotile, a typical toxic asbestos. The physicochemical properties of TAFMAG were very similar to those of chrysotile when it was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Both of TAFMAG and chrysotile showed high content of magnetite and Fenton activity when compared with wollastonite, a non-asbestos fiber with a known low toxicity. When their cellular toxicity was assessed, TAFMAG showed no or less comparable to that of chrysotile in the hemolysis and lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes, and also on a MTT assay in RLE-6TN, a rat alveolar epithelial cell line. Pre-treatment of fibers with desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, showed that iron content of TAFMAG and chrysotile might be important in their cellular toxicity. These results suggest that TAFMAG is potentially toxic when inhaled into the lung and appropriate laws and regulations should be established for its use. PMID:15585361

  2. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  3. Reconstituted asbestos matrix for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1975-01-01

    Method is described for reprocessing commercially available asbestos matrix stock to yield greater porosity and bubble pressure (due to increased surface tension), improved homogeneity, and greater uniformity.

  4. Inflammation-Related IL1β/IL1R Signaling Promotes the Development of Asbestos-Induced Malignant Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kadariya, Yuwaraj; Menges, Craig W; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Cai, Kathy Q; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Cheung, Mitchell; Mossman, Brooke T; Shukla, Arti; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to asbestos is causally associated with the development of malignant mesothelioma, a cancer of cells lining the internal body cavities. Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer resistant to all current therapies. Once inhaled or ingested, asbestos causes inflammation in and around tissues that come in contact with these carcinogenic fibers. Recent studies suggest that inflammation is a major contributing factor in the development of many types of cancer, including malignant mesothelioma. The NALP3/NLRP3 inflammasome, including the component ASC, is thought to be an important mediator of inflammation in cells that sense extracellular insults, such as asbestos, and activate a signaling cascade resulting in release of mature IL1β and recruitment of inflammatory cells. To determine if inflammasome-mediated inflammation contributes to asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma, we chronically exposed Asc-deficient mice and wild-type littermates to asbestos and evaluated differences in tumor incidence and latency. The Asc-deficient mice showed significantly delayed tumor onset and reduced malignant mesothelioma incidence compared with wild-type animals. We also tested whether inflammation-related release of IL1β contributes to tumor development in an accelerated mouse model of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma. Nf2(+/-);Cdkn2a(+/-) mice exposed to asbestos in the presence of anakinra, an IL1 receptor (IL1R) antagonist, showed a marked delay in the median time of malignant mesothelioma onset compared with similarly exposed mice given vehicle control (33.1 weeks vs. 22.6 weeks, respectively). Collectively, these studies provide evidence for a link between inflammation-related IL1β/IL1R signaling and the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma. Furthermore, these findings provide rationale for chemoprevention strategies targeting IL1β/IL1R signaling in high-risk, asbestos-exposed populations. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 406-14. ©2016 AACR

  5. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational exposure to asbestos and silicate fibers in the workplace. Correlations are cited between occupational exposure, carcinogenesis, and mortality. Included are surveys of occupational exposure of shipyard and dockyard workers; mechanics, miners; insulation workers; sheet metal workers; millers; and workers in pottery mills, foundries, the chemical industry, and power stations. Surveys and health examinations are reported for workers and family members whose exposure resulted from contact with the worker. Asbestos and silicate pollution exposure standards and hazard control technology are cited. References to nonoccupational asbestos and silicate pollution are excluded and can be found in other bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 245 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Re-evaluation of Non-regulatory Asbestos Group Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, M.; Dogan, A.

    2013-05-01

    There are established rules and regulations for some asbestos group minerals - amphibole group minerals of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, tremolite; and serpentine group minerals of chrysotile- called "regulatory". There are also "non-regulatory" naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) group minerals as constituent of rocks and soil, including richterite, winchite, fluoro-edenite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, gageite, arfvedsonite, and magnesio-arfvedsonite. Strong evidences for carcinogenicity of these NOA minerals in later cohorts of cancer patients demonstrated the risks associated with these minerals. In addition, although the chrysotile asbestos regulated by some organizations such as WHO, World Trade Organization, United Nations, US EPA, International Labour Organization, and EU Countries; however, controversies still continue surrounding the use of chrysotile. Determinations of polymineralic fibrous veins, mixed particles, amphibole cleavage fragments, and genetic predisposition are also important issues (i.e. Dogan et al., 2006).Therefore, accurate characterizations of chemical composition, morphology, structure, and defects are necessary in order to find out mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of all asbestos group minerals. Calculation methods of chemical composition are still under debate because of assumption of no vacancies at any sites and intergrowth of minerals. Substitution(s) may cause deviations from the ideal chemical formula and wide variations in chemical compositions. Detail morphological and chemical quantification of individual asbestos group minerals in micro- and nano-scale may help to evaluate its true carcinogenetic mechanism(s), and consequently prevention and possibly treatment of related diseases. we propose that nonregulatory asbestos minerals and the chrysotile should be re-evaluated. The amount of fibers inhaled, in terms of weight percent and number, need also be re-evaluated by mineralogists. Finally, Regulatory

  7. Effects of chrysotile asbestos on coho salmon and green sunfish: evidence of behavioral and pathological stress

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, S.E.; Schurr, K.; Allen, D.J.; Gohara, A.F.

    1986-02-01

    The effects of chrysotile asbestos on larval coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and juvenile green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were investigated at levels approximating those reported in the Great Lakes basin (10(6) fibers/liter). Behavioral stress effects, such as loss of rheotaxic position and balance, were observed in salmon exposed at 3.0 X 10(6) fibers/liter and in sunfish exposed at 1.5 and 3.0 X 10(6) fibers/liter. Coho larvae at 1.5 X 10(6) fibers/liter were significantly more susceptible to an anesthetic stress test, becoming ataxic and losing equilibrium faster than control cohorts (P less than 0.001). Two of 106 larvae exposed at 3.0 X 10(6) fibers/liter developed tumorous swellings and three additional fish developed coelomic distentions. Cytological examination of ventral epidermal tissue revealed cellular histolysis, and evidence by transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of asbestos in the salmon larvae. Distortion of the lateral line region in asbestos-treated coho salmon was linked to behavioral and orientational aberrations. Differential mortality was not observed between control and treated groups of either test species.

  8. Radiographic Evidence of Nonoccupational Asbestos Exposure from Processing Libby Vermiculite in Minneapolis, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Raleigh, Katherine K.; Johnson, Jean; Mandel, Jeffrey H.; Adgate, John L.; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Messing, Rita B.; Eshenaur, Tannie; Williams, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Community exposure to asbestos from contaminated vermiculite ore from Libby, Montana, occurred in many processing sites in the United States, including a densely populated urban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Objective: We examined exposed community residents who never worked at the plant or never lived with a plant worker for radiographic evidence of lung changes consistent with asbestos exposure. Methods: We obtained posteroanterior chest radiographs to identify the prevalence of pleural abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis, as determined by consensus of two National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health–certified B-reader radiologists. We estimated cumulative asbestos exposure (fibers per cubic centimeters × months) with air dispersion model data and activity-based modeled exposure estimates for vermiculite processing waste contact. We modeled associations between pleural abnormalities and asbestos exposure using multiple logistic regression to adjust for year of birth, sex, and potential occupational asbestos exposure. Results: Radiographs were obtained for 461 participants. The prevalence of pleural abnormalities by B-reader consensus was 10.8%. A history of direct contact with the waste and ever playing in the waste piles was associated with pleural abnormalities {odds ratio [OR] 2.78 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 6.10] and 2.17 (95% CI: 0.99, 4.78), respectively, when adjusted for background exposure}. The regression coefficients for log-transformed measures (fibers per cubic centimeters × months) of background exposure and activity-based exposure were 0.322 (95% CI: 0.078, 0.567) and 0.063 (95% CI: –0.013, 0.139), respectively, when adjusted for each other, and 0.283 (95% CI: 0.104, 0.463) for cumulative exposure from all sources. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that community exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite originating from Libby, Montana, is associated with

  9. How are the physical and chemical properties of chrysotile asbestos altered by a 10-year residence in water and up to 5 days in simulated stomach acid

    SciTech Connect

    Seshan, K.

    1983-11-01

    Various tests and techniques were used to study the effect of exposure to simulated gastric juices as well as the effect of long term storage in water on asbestos fibers. Changes were noted in the physical, chemical and surface properties of chrysotile asbestos as a result of exposure to water, strong acids, and simulated gastric juices. The charge on the surface (the zeta potential) was changed from positive to negative; the surface became silica-like; and the magnesium was lost from the asbestos fibers on exposure to water and acid. The smaller the fiber diameter, the faster the loss of the magnesium. Notable among the changes in physical properties is a change in the refractive index. Asbestos exposed to acids or water may not be detectable using the dispersion staining techniques that identify asbestos based on the refractive index. Other physical property changes include the destruction of the gross crystallinity of the fibers. The x-ray diffraction signal disappears when fibers are exposed to acid. The fibers may still be detected by electron diffraction. Upon acid exposure, the magnesium ions are leached out, leaving a magnesium-free silica network. A positive ion, possibly the proton or the hydronium ion, replaces the lost magnesium ion. 20 references, 11 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Exposure pathway evaluations for sites that processed asbestos-contaminated vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Dearwent, Steve M; Durant, James T; Dyken, Jill J; Freed, Jennifer A; Moore, Susan McAfee; Wheeler, John S

    2005-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is currently evaluating the potential public health impacts associated with the processing of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite at various facilities around the country. Vermiculite ore contaminated with significant levels of asbestos was mined and milled in Libby, Montana, from the early 1920s until 1990. The majority of the Libby ore was then shipped to processing facilities for exfoliation. ATSDR initiated the National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) to identify and evaluate exposure pathways associated with these processing facilities. This manuscript details ATSDR's phased approach in addressing exposure potential around these sites. As this is an ongoing project, only the results from a selected set of completed site analyses are presented. Historical occupational exposures are the most significant exposure pathway for the site evaluations completed to date. Former workers also probably brought asbestos fibers home on their clothing, shoes, and hair, and their household contacts may have been exposed. Currently, most site-related worker and community exposure pathways have been eliminated. One community exposure pathway of indeterminate significance is the current exposure of individuals through direct contact with waste rock brought home for personal use as fill material, driveway surfacing, or soil amendment. Trace levels of asbestos are present in soil at many of the sites and buried waste rock has been discovered at a few sites; therefore, future worker and community exposure associated with disturbing on-site soil during construction or redevelopment at these sites is also a potential exposure pathway. PMID:15881979

  11. Asbestos contamination in feldspar extraction sites: a failure of prevention? Commentary.

    PubMed

    Cavariani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous tremolite is a mineral species belonging to the amphibole group. It is present almost everywhere in the world as a natural contaminant of other minerals, like talc and vermiculite. It can be also found as a natural contaminant of the chrysotile form of asbestos. Tremolite asbestos exposures result in respiratory health consequences similar to the other forms of asbestos exposure, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. Although abundantly distributed on the earth's surface, tremolite is only rarely present in significant deposits and it has had little commercial use. Significant presence of amphibole asbestos fibers, characterized as tremolite, was identified in mineral powders coming from the milling of feldspar rocks extracted from a Sardinian mining site (Italy). This evidence raises several problems, in particular the prevention of carcinogenic risks for the workers. Feldspar is widespread all over the world and every year it is produced in large quantities and it is used for several productive processes in many manufacturing industries (over 21 million tons of feldspar mined and marketed every year). Until now the presence of tremolite asbestos in feldspar has not been described, nor has the possibility of such a health hazard for workers involved in mining, milling and handling of rocks from feldspar ores been appreciated. Therefore the need for a wider dissemination of knowledge of these problems among professionals, in particular mineralogists and industrial hygienists, must be emphasized. In fact both disciplines are necessary to plan appropriate environmental controls and adequate protections in order to achieve safe working conditions. PMID:27033611

  12. Asbestos and multi-walled carbon nanotubes generate distinct oxidative responses in inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Satomi; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Ito, Daiki; Asakawa, Atsushi; Nagai, Hirotaka; Tajima, Masafumi; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is considered a social burden by causing mesothelioma. Despite the use of synthetic materials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are similar in dimension to asbestos and produce mesothelioma in animals. The role of inflammatory cells in mesothelial carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the differences in inflammatory cell responses following exposure to these fibrous materials using a luminometer and L-012 (8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyrido[3,4-d]pyridazine-1,4-(2H,3H) dione) to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS). Rat peripheral blood or RAW264.7 cells were used to assess the effects on neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. Crocidolite and amosite induced significant ROS generation by neutrophils with a peak at 10 min, whereas that of chrysotile was ~25% of the crocidolite/amosite response. MWCNTs with different diameters (~15, 50, 115 and 145 nm) and different carcinogenicity did not induce significant ROS in peripheral blood. However, the MWCNTs induced a comparable amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells to that following asbestos treatment. The peaks for MWCNTs (0.5–1.5 h) were observed earlier than those for asbestos (1–5 h). Apocynin and superoxide dismutase significantly inhibited ROS generation for each fiber, suggesting an involvement of NADPH oxidase and superoxide. Thus, asbestos and MWCNTs induce different oxidative responses in inflammatory cells, indicating the importance of mesothelial cell evaluation for carcinogenesis. PMID:25759516

  13. [Asbestos concentrations in drinking water. Asbestos cement pipes and geogenic sources in Austria].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, M; Frank, W; Golob, P; Warbichler, P

    1996-03-01

    Sources of asbestos in drinking water may be natural deposits or the use of asbestos cement for water distribution. 50 water samples were selected in Austria to detect fibre contamination from either geology or asbestos cement by comparison with control areas and by comparison of raw and treated water. Standardized EPA/BGA methodology with transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and selected area electron diffraction was used to quantify concentrations of different sized amphibole and chrysotile fibres. In 10 areas with asbestos deposits and in 14 areas with use of asbestos cement pipes asbestos concentrations in drinking water were low and not significantly different from 6 control areas (median 32,000 total asbestos fibres per litre). The relative highest concentration was found in an area with natural deposits at the source of the water supply (190,000 per litre). In areas without natural deposits the increase of asbestos concentrations from origin to consumer of water was not significant and unrelated to water aggressiveness, age and length of asbestos cement pipes. This could be mainly due to the fact that in areas with aggressive water asbestos cement pipes have been coated in Austria. A sample from a cistern, however, showed considerable asbestos contamination and raises concern about the use of surface water for room air humidification. PMID:9376056

  14. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  15. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  16. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31–2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38–9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8–13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26–1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63–1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00–1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31–0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits. PMID:26274395

  17. Enhancement of regulatory T cell-like suppressive function in MT-2 by long-term and low-dose exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chen; Maeda, Megumi; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Yoshitome, Kei; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Otsuki, Takemi

    2015-12-01

    Asbestos exposure causes lung fibrosis and various malignant tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. The effects of asbestos on immune cells have not been thoroughly investigated, although our previous reports showed that asbestos exposure reduced anti-tumor immunity. The effects of continuous exposure of regulatory T cells (Treg) to asbestos were examined using the HTLV-1 immortalized human T cell line MT-2, which possesses a suppressive function and expresses the Treg marker protein, Foxp3. Sublines were generated by the continuous exposure to low doses of asbestos fibers for more than one year. The sublines exposed to asbestos showed enhanced suppressive Treg function via cell-cell contact, and increased production of soluble factors such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. These results also indicated that asbestos exposure induced the reduction of anti-tumor immunity, and efforts to develop substances to reverse this reduction may be helpful in preventing the occurrence of asbestos-induced tumors. PMID:26505785

  18. Cell signaling pathways elicited by asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, B T; Faux, S; Janssen, Y; Jimenez, L A; Timblin, C; Zanella, C; Goldberg, J; Walsh, E; Barchowsky, A; Driscoll, K

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that minerals can trigger alterations in gene expression by initiating signaling events upstream of gene transactivation. These cascades may be initiated at the cell surface after interaction of minerals with the plasma membrane either through receptorlike mechanisms or integrins. Alternatively, signaling pathways may be stimulated by active oxygen species generated both during phagocytosis of minerals and by redox reactions on the mineral surface. At least two signaling cascades linked to activation of transcription factors, i.e., DNA-binding proteins involved in modulating gene expression and DNA replication, are stimulated after exposure of lung cells to asbestos fibers in vitro. These include nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade important in regulation of the transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Both NF kappa B and AP-1 bind to specific DNA sequences within the regulatory or promoter regions of genes that are critical to cell proliferation and inflammation. Unraveling the cell signaling cascades initiated by mineral dusts and pharmacologic inhibition of these events may be important for the control and treatment of mineral-associated occupational diseases. Images Figure 2. B Figure 3. A Figure 3. B PMID:9400710

  19. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

  20. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1910.1001 Section 1910.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. (1)...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  10. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  11. Asbestos identification by dispersion staining microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ganotes, J T; Tan, H T

    1980-01-01

    Asbestos can be detected and identified by an optical microscope procedure known as dispersion staining. This procedure can be carried out with most phase contrast equipped microscopes. The primary application is for material samples. Distinction between tremolite and anthophyllite asbestos requires examination between crossed polarizers. PMID:6153496

  12. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review the experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.

  13. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

  14. Development of the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment for intermittent, low-level exposure to asbestos requires personal breathing concentration data. Currently, activity-based sampling (ABS) is the preferred approach to measurement of a person’s inhalation exposure; i.e., asbestos structures per cubic centimeter ...

  15. Factors that Impact Susceptibility to Fiber-Induced Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Below, Jennifer E.; Cox, Nancy J.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Hirvonen, Ari; Testa, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Asbestos and related fibers are associated with a number of adverse health effects, including malignant mesothelioma (MM), an aggressive cancer that generally develops in the surface serosal cells of the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Although approximately 80% of individuals with MM are exposed to asbestos, fewer than 5% of asbestos workers develop MM. In addition to asbestos, other mineralogical, environmental, genetic, and possibly viral factors might contribute to MM susceptibility. Given this complex etiology of MM, understanding susceptibility to MM needs to be a priority for investigators in order to reduce exposure of those most at risk to known environmental carcinogens. In this review, the current body of literature related to fiber-associated disease susceptibility including age, sex, nutrition, genetics, asbestos, and other mineral exposure is addressed with a focus on MM, and critical areas for further study are recommended. PMID:21534090

  16. RELATIVE MESOTHELIOMA INDUCTION IN RATS BY MINERAL FIBERS: COMPARISON WITH RESIDUAL PULMONARY MINERAL FIBER NUMBER AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed in Fischer 344 rats comparing relative tumorigeneses of chrysotile, krokidolite asbestos, erionite and attapulgite by intrapleural injection and chrysotile, krokidolite and erionite by intratracheal instillation. Tumor fiber ratios were computed employi...

  17. FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPING SOURCE SAMPLING METHODS FOR ASBESTOS EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program was to determine the feasibility of developing methods for sampling asbestos in the emissions of major asbestos sources: (1) ore production and taconite production, (2) asbestos-cement production, (3) asbestos felt and paper production, and (4) the p...

  18. What You Should Know about Asbestos Health Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The presence of asbestos health hazards in the schools is particulary serious since children exposed to asbestos are more likely to develop cancer than adults similarly exposed. Health risks of asbestos, scope of the problem, and asbestos testing are discussed. (DF)

  19. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  20. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...