Science.gov

Sample records for airborne cirrus properties

  1. An investigation of cirrus cloud properties using airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, John Edward

    The impact of cirrus clouds on the Earth's radiation budget remains a key uncertainty in assessing global radiative balance and climate change. Composed of ice, and located in the cold upper troposphere, cirrus clouds can cause large warming effects because they are relatively transmissive to short-wave solar radiation, but absorptive of long wave radiation. Our ability to model radiative effects of cirrus clouds is inhibited by uncertainties in cloud optical properties. Studies of mid-latitude cirrus properties have revealed notable differences compared to tropical anvil cirrus, likely a consequence of varying dynamic formation mechanisms. Cloud-aerosol lidars provide critical information about the vertical structure of cirrus for climate studies. For this dissertation, I helped develop the Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (ACATS), a Doppler wind lidar system at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). ACATS is also a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL), uniquely capable of directly resolving backscatter and extinction properties of a particle from high-altitude aircraft. The first ACATS science flights were conducted out of Wallops Island, VA in September of 2012 and included coincident measurements with the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) instrument. In this dissertation, I provide an overview of the ACATS method and instrument design, describe the ACATS retrieval algorithms for cloud and aerosol properties, explain the ACATS HSRL retrieval errors due to the instrument calibration, and use the coincident CPL data to validate and evaluate ACATS cloud and aerosol retrievals. Both the ACATS HSRL and standard backscatter retrievals agree well with coincident CPL retrievals. Mean ACATS and CPL extinction profiles for three case studies demonstrate similar structure and agree to within 25 percent for cirrus clouds. The new HSRL retrieval algorithms developed for ACATS have direct application to future spaceborne missions. Furthermore, extinction and particle wind

  2. Characterization of Cirrus Cloud Properties by Airborne Differential Absorption and High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, G.; Gross, S.; Schäfler, A.; Wirth, M.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the large impact of cirrus clouds on the Earth's climate system, their effects are still only poorly understood. Our knowledge of the climate effect of cirrus clouds is mainly based on theoretical simulations using idealized cloud structure and microphysics, as well as radiative transfer approximations. To improve the representation of cirrus clouds in idealized simulations and circulation models, we need a better understanding of the micro- and macrophysical properties of cirrus clouds. Airborne lidar measurements provide two-dimensional information of the atmospheric structure, and are thus a suitable tool to study the fine-structure of cirrus clouds, as well as their macrophysical properties. Aerosol and water vapor was measured with the airborne high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system WALES of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen. The system was operated onboard the German high altitude and long range research aircraft HALO during the Next-generation remote sensing for validation studies campaign (NARVAL) in December 2013 over the tropical North-Atlantic and in January 2014 out of Iceland, and during the ML-Cirrus campaign in March/April 2014 over Central and Southern Europe. During NARVAL 18 flights with more than 110 flight hours were performed providing a large number of cirrus cloud overpasses with combined lidar and radar instrumentation. In the framework of the ML-Cirrus campaign 17 flights with more than 80 flight hours were performed to characterize cirrus cloud properties in different environmental conditions using a combination of remote sensing (e.g. lidar) and in-situ observations. In our presentation we will give a general overview of the campaigns and of the WALES measurements. We will show first results from the aerosol and water vapor lidar measurements with focus on the structure of cirrus clouds, the humidity distribution within and outside the cloud and on the impact of the

  3. New insights into the properties of contrail cirrus and their impact on climate from airborne experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Christiane; Schumann, Ulrich; Minikin, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Anderson, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Current growth rates in aviation demand a profound scientific data base of contrail cirrus properties in order to accurately assess their climate impact. In particular, the differentiation of contrail cirrus in natural cirrus fields is challenging. Direct observations of contrail cirrus throughout their life cycle are scarce and therefore limit our understanding of the climate effects from contrail cirrus. Here, we give new insights into the growth, life-cycle and climate impact from contrail cirrus based on results from suite of aircraft experiments. NASA's ACCESSII mission focused on the detection of aircraft emissions and initial contrail stages. Nascent contrails were detected at cruise altitudes at 100 m distance to the engine exit. Contrail growth to 10-min contrail age was investigated during DLR's CONCERT campaigns. Finally, the objective of the ML-CIRRUS experiment was to study the life cycle and climate impact of contrail cirrus. The contrail measurements are related to previous observations and discussed in the context of recent developments in contrail modeling. Highlights include the quantification of the effects of aircraft type on contrail microphysics, the analysis of ice particle shapes and the quantitative distinction of contrail cirrus and natural cirrus.

  4. Spectral optical layer properties of cirrus from collocated airborne measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Fanny; Werner, Frank; Klingebiel, Marcus; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Voigt, Matthias; Borrmann, Stephan; Spichtinger, Peter; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Spectral upward and downward solar irradiances from vertically collocated measurements above and below a cirrus layer are used to derive cirrus optical layer properties such as spectral transmissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity, and cloud top albedo. The radiation measurements are complemented by in situ cirrus crystal size distribution measurements and radiative transfer simulations based on the microphysical data. The close collocation of the radiative and microphysical measurements, above, beneath, and inside the cirrus, is accomplished by using a research aircraft (Learjet 35A) in tandem with the towed sensor platform AIRTOSS (AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle). AIRTOSS can be released from and retracted back to the research aircraft by means of a cable up to a distance of 4 km. Data were collected from two field campaigns over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in spring and late summer 2013. One measurement flight over the North Sea proved to be exemplary, and as such the results are used to illustrate the benefits of collocated sampling. The radiative transfer simulations were applied to quantify the impact of cloud particle properties such as crystal shape, effective radius reff, and optical thickness τ on cirrus spectral optical layer properties. Furthermore, the radiative effects of low-level, liquid water (warm) clouds as frequently observed beneath the cirrus are evaluated. They may cause changes in the radiative forcing of the cirrus by a factor of 2. When low-level clouds below the cirrus are not taken into account, the radiative cooling effect (caused by reflection of solar radiation) due to the cirrus in the solar (shortwave) spectral range is significantly overestimated.

  5. Observations of TTL water vapor and cirrus properties from the NASA Global Hawk during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Gao, Ru-Shan; Woods, Sarah; Lawson, Paul; Bui, Thaopaul; Pfister, Leonhard; Fahey, David

    2015-04-01

    Despite its very low mixing ratios relative to the troposphere, water vapor in the lower stratosphere (LS) plays a significant role in Earth's radiative balance and climate system and is an important constituent in stratospheric chemistry. The low H2O content of air entering the LS is established to first order by dehydration processes controlled by the cold temperatures of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), especially over the western Pacific. Cirrus clouds occur with high frequency and large spatial extent in the TTL, and those occurring near the thermal tropopause facilitate the final dehydration of stratosphere-bound air parcels. Uncertainties in aspects of the nucleation and growth of cirrus cloud particles and the sparseness of in situ water vapor and cirrus cloud observations with sufficient spatial resolution limit our ability to fully describe the final stages of the dehydration process before air enters the LS in the tropics. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) measurement campaign has yielded more than 140 hours of sampling from the Global Hawk UAS in the Pacific TTL during deployments in winter 2013 and 2014, including more than 30 hours sampling TTL cirrus. Cirrus clouds were encountered throughout the TTL, up to the tropopause (17-18 km), with ice water contents (IWC) down to the detection limit of 3 μg m-3 and water vapor mixing ratios as low as 1.5 ppm. Most TTL cirrus sampled had particle number concentrations of less than 100 L-1, but some had concentrations ranging up to more than 1000 L-1. The mean value for relative humidity with respect to ice within cirrus was near 100%, but encompassed a range from < 50% to higher than 150%. The high spatial and temporal resolution in situ measurements of water vapor and cirrus cloud properties made during ATTREX provide an outstanding dataset by which to characterize the Pacific TTL environment and evaluate our current understanding of the dynamical and microphysical processes that

  6. Optical properties of cirrus derived from airborne measurements during FIRE IFO 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Pilewskie, Peter; Bucholtz, Anthony; Platnick, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The Radiation Measurement System (RAMS) on board the NASA ER-2 was used to acquire several optical parameters of interest during the FIRE Cirrus IFO 2. In this abstract we present results from the 26 Nov. IFO when the ER-2 flew over the Coffeyville airport hub site. We show retrieved optical thickness and cloud temperature, along with optical thickness obtained from RAMS instruments on the NCAR Sabreliner and at the surface site B. Independent retrieval of optical thickness, from the ER-2 and at the surface, are in agreement during the overpasses. Cirrus optical depths, derived from each platform, ranged between 1 and 2.

  7. Microphysical properties of cirrus clouds between 75°N and 25°S derived from extensive airborne in-situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous airborne field campaigns were performed in the last decades to record cirrus clouds microphysical properties. Beside the understanding of the processes of cirrus formation and evolution, an additional motivation for those studies is to provide a database to evaluate the representation of cirrus clouds in global climate models. This is of importance for an improved certainty of climate predictions, which are affected by the poor understanding of the microphysical processes of ice clouds (IPCC, 2013). To this end, the observations should ideally cover the complete respective parameter range and not be influenced by instrumental artifacts. However, due to the difficulties in measuring cirrus properties on fast-flying, high-altitude aircraft, some issues with respect to the measurements %evolved have arisen. In particular, concerns about the relative humidity in and around cirrus clouds and the ice crystal number concentrations were under discussion. Too high ice supersaturations as well as ice number concentrations were often reported. These issues have made more challenging the goal of compiling a large database using data from a suite of different instruments that were used on different campaigns. In this study, we have have addressed these challenges and compiled a large data set of cirrus clouds, sampled during eighteen field campaigns between 75°N and 25°S, representing measurements fulfilling the above mentioned requirements. The most recent campaigns were performed in 2014; namely, the ATTREX campaign with the research aircraft Global Hawk and the ML-CIRRUS and ACRIDICON campaigns with HALO. % The observations include ice water content (IWC: 130 hours of observations), ice crystal numbers (N_ice: 83 hours), ice crystal mean mass size (Rice: 83 hours) and relative humidity (RH_ice) in- and outside of cirrus clouds (78 and 140 hours). % We will present the parameters as PDFs versus temperature and derive medians and core ranges (including the most

  8. Microphysical properties of cirrus clouds between 75°N and 25°S derived from extensive airborne in-situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous airborne field campaigns were performed in the last decades to record cirrus clouds microphysical properties. Beside the understanding of the processes of cirrus formation and evolution, an additional motivation for those studies is to provide a database to evaluate the representation of cirrus clouds in global climate models. This is of importance for an improved certainty of climate predictions, which are affected by the poor understanding of the microphysical processes of ice clouds (IPCC, 2013). To this end, the observations should ideally cover the complete respective parameter range and not be influenced by instrumental artifacts. However, due to the difficulties in measuring cirrus properties on fast-flying, high-altitude aircraft, some issues with respect to the measurements %evolved have arisen. In particular, concerns about the relative humidity in and around cirrus clouds and the ice crystal number concentrations were under discussion. Too high ice supersaturations as well as ice number concentrations were often reported. These issues have made more challenging the goal of compiling a large database using data from a suite of different instruments that were used on different campaigns. In this study, we have have addressed these challenges and compiled a large data set of cirrus clouds, sampled during eighteen field campaigns between 75°N and 25°S, representing measurements fulfilling the above mentioned requirements. The most recent campaigns were performed in 2014; namely, the ATTREX campaign with the research aircraft Global Hawk and the ML-CIRRUS and ACRIDICON campaigns with HALO. % The observations include ice water content (IWC: 130 hours of observations), ice crystal numbers (N_ice: 83 hours), ice crystal mean mass size (Rice: 83 hours) and relative humidity (RH_ice) in- and outside of cirrus clouds (78 and 140 hours). % We will present the parameters as PDFs versus temperature and derive medians and core ranges (including the most

  9. Airborne lidar observations of cirrus clouds in the Tropics, Mid-latitudes, and the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Ferrare, R.; Grant, W.; Kooi, S.; Brackett, V.; Mahoney, M.

    2003-04-01

    Airborne lidar systems have demonstrated an unsurpassed capability to detect and profile optically thin cirrus. The airborne Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) has demonstrated a capability to detect thin cirrus at aerosol scattering levels of <2.0× 10-9 m-1 sr-1 at 815 nm, and this makes it well suited for deriving many cirrus cloud properties. LASE has been operated from high- and medium-altitude aircraft and has participated in 9 major field experiments over the past 8 years. During these missions, data were collected related to optically thin cirrus and moisture in the upper troposphere in the tropics, mid- and high-latitudes. LASE data from these field experiments have been used to characterize the cirrus as thin laminae, thick cirrus, deep convective cirrus, and cirrus anvils. In addition, characteristics including the cloud top height, optical depth, aerosol scattering ratio, lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio have been derived for optically thin cirrus. During these field experiments, many data sets were available to interpret the cirrus cloud properties including data from satellites, in situ temperature and moisture instruments on aircraft, radiosondes, and during some field experiments, the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP). LASE data from long-range flights have been used to derive a relationship between the latitudinal variation of cloud top heights and tropopause locations. These measurements were also used to examine the relationship between relative humidity and the presence of cirrus. LASE observations of cirrus clouds and water vapor fields have also been used to identify dynamical processes like stratosphere-troposphere exchange and to study their characteristics. Examples of these observations and analyses are presented to demonstrate the advantage of using LASE measurements for conducting atmospheric science investigations.

  10. Estimating cirrus cloud properties from MIPAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendrok, J.; Schreier, F.; Höpfner, M.

    2007-04-01

    High resolution mid-infrared limb emission spectra observed by the spaceborne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) showing evidence of cloud interference are analyzed. Using the new line-by-line multiple scattering [Approximate] Spherical Atmospheric Radiative Transfer code (SARTre), a sensitivity study with respect to cirrus cloud parameters, e.g., optical thickness and particle size distribution, is performed. Cirrus properties are estimated by fitting spectra in three distinct microwindows between 8 and 12 μm. For a cirrus with extremely low ice water path (IWP = 0.1 g/m2) and small effective particle size (D e = 10 μm) simulated spectra are in close agreement with observations in broadband signal and fine structures. We show that a multi-microwindow technique enhances reliability of MIPAS cirrus retrievals compared to single microwindow methods.

  11. Airborne Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Observations of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the first radiometric measurements of cirrus clouds in the frequency range of 89-325 GHz from a high-altitude aircraft flight. The measurements are conducted with a Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft over a region in northern Oklahoma. Aboard the same aircraft are a cloud lidar system and a multichannel radiometer operating at the visible and infrared wavelengths. The instrument ensemble is well suited for identifying cirrus clouds. It is shown that the depressions in brightness temperatures associated with a few intense cirrus clouds occur at all frequency channels of the MIR. Estimates of total ice water path of the cirrus clouds are derived from comparisons of radiative transfer calculations and observed brightness depressions.

  12. Linear contrail and contrail cirrus properties determined from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Sarah T.; Duda, David P.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Chee, Thad; Ayers, J. Kirk; Palikonda, Rabindra; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Boeke, Robyn

    2013-06-01

    properties of contrail cirrus clouds are retrieved through analysis of Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data for 21 cases of spreading linear contrails. For these cases, contrail cirrus enhanced the linear contrail coverage by factors of 2.4-7.6 depending on the contrail mask sensitivity. In dense air traffic areas, linear contrail detection sensitivity is apparently reduced when older contrails overlap and thus is likely diminished during the afternoon. The mean optical depths and effective particle sizes of the contrail cirrus were 2-3 times and 20% greater, respectively, than the corresponding values retrieved for the adjacent linear contrails. When contrails form below, in, or above existing cirrus clouds, the column cloud optical depth is increased and particle size is decreased. Thus, even without increased cirrus coverage, contrails will affect the radiation balance. These results should be valuable for refining model characterizations of contrail cirrus needed to fully assess the climate impacts of contrails.

  13. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Property Measurements with Raman Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoz, B.; Wang, Z.; Whiteman, D.

    2006-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the impact of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate, improved knowledge of cirrus cloud optical and microphysical properties is needed. However, long-term studies of the problem indicate that accurate cirrus cloud measurements are challenging, especially in the low ice water content regime most frequent in the tropical cirrus layers. Recent advances in Raman lidar techniques have demonstrated that Raman lidar is an excellent tool to provide reliable cirrus cloud optical and microphysical properties, which are important to study cirrus clouds as well as to validate satellite cirrus cloud measurements. Based on elastic and nitrogen Raman signals, cirrus cloud optical depth and extinction to backscatter ratio can be quantified. By utilizing the Raman scattered intensities from ice crystals, a new method to remotely sense cirrus ice water content and general effective radius profiles has been demonstrated with NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) measurements. Since the intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved, this method provides a more direct way of measuring the ice water content compared with other schemes. Based on the SRL measurements, these Raman lidar capabilities will be illustrated.

  14. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Properties under Thin Cirrus from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, Nai-Yung Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew Mark.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of aerosol optical properties using shortwave bands from passive satellite sensors, such as MODIS, is typically limited to cloud-free areas. However, if the clouds are thin enough (i.e. thin cirrus) such that the satellite-observed reflectance contains signals under the cirrus layer, and if the optical properties of this cirrus layer are known, the TOA reflectance can be corrected for the cirrus layer to be used for retrieving aerosol optical properties. To this end, we first correct the TOA reflectances in the aerosol bands (0.47, 0.55, 0.65, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.12 micron for ocean algorithm and 0.412, 0.47, and 0.65 micron for deep blue algorithm) for the effects of thin cirrus using 1.38 micron reflectance and conversion factors that convert cirrus reflectance in 1.38 micron band to those in aerosol bands. It was found that the conversion factors can be calculated by using relationships between reflectances in 1.38 micron band and minimum reflectances in the aerosol bands (Gao et al., 2002). Refer to the example in the figure. Then, the cirrus-corrected reflectance can be calculated by subtracting the cirrus reflectance from the TOA reflectance in the optically thin case. A sensitivity study suggested that cloudy-sky TOA reflectances can be calculated with small errors in the form of simple linear addition of cirrus-only reflectances and clear-sky reflectances. In this study, we correct the cirrus signals up to TOA reflectance at 1.38 micron of 0.05 where the simple linear addition is valid without extensive radiative transfer simulations. When each scene passes the set of tests shown in the flowchart, the scene is corrected for cirrus contamination and passed into aerosol retrieval algorithms.

  15. Microphysical Ice Crystal Properties in Mid-Latitude Frontal Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlage, Romy; Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Weigel, Ralf; Molleker, Sergej; Klingebiel, Marcus; Borrmann, Stephan; Luebke, Anna; Krämer, Martina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schäfler, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds modulate the climate by reflection of shortwave solar radiation and trapping of longwave terrestrial radiation. Their net radiative effect can be positive or negative depending on atmospheric and cloud parameters including ice crystal number density, size and shape. Latter microphysical ice crystal properties have been measured during the mid-latitude cirrus mission ML-CIRRUS with a set of cloud instruments on the new research aircraft HALO. The mission took place in March/April 2014 with 16 flights in cirrus formed above Europe and the Atlantic. The ice clouds were encountered at altitudes from 7 to 14 km in the typical mid-latitude temperature range. A focus of the mission was the detection of frontal cirrus linked to warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Within WCBs, water vapor is transported in the warm sector of an extra-tropical cyclone from the humid boundary layer to the upper troposphere. Cirrus cloud formation can be triggered in the WCB outflow region at moderate updraft velocities and additionally at low updrafts within the high pressure system linked to the WCB. Due to their frequent occurrence, WCBs represent a major source for regions of ice supersaturation and cirrus formation in the mid-latitudes. Here, we use data from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with detection for POLarization (CAS-POL) and the Cloud Combination Probe (CCP), combining a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and a greyscale Cloud Imaging Probe (CIPgs) to investigate the ice crystal distribution in the size range from 0.5 µm to 1 mm. We derive microphysical cirrus properties in mid-latitude warm front cirrus. Further, we investigate their variability and their dependence on temperature and relative humidity. Finally, we compare the microphysical properties of these frontal cirrus to cirrus clouds that formed at low updrafts within high pressure systems or at high updraft velocities in lee waves. We quantify statistically significant differences in cirrus properties formed in these

  16. Cirrus cloud detection from airborne imaging spectrometer data using the 1.38 micron water vapor band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    1993-01-01

    Using special images acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) at 20 km altitude, we show that wavelengths close to the center of the strong 1.38 micron water vapor band are useful for detecting thin cirrus clouds. The detection makes use of the fact that cirrus clouds are located above almost all the atmospheric water vapor. Because of the strong water vapor absorption in the lower atmosphere, AVIRIS channels near 1.38 micron receive little scattered solar radiance from the surface of low level clouds. When cirrus clouds are present, however, these channels receive large amounts of scattered solar radiance from the cirrus clouds. Our ability to determine cirrus cloud cover using space-based remote sensing will be improved if channels near the center of the 1.38 micron water vapor band are added to future satellites.

  17. Sensitivity of Cirrus Properties to Ice Nuclei Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The relative importance of heterogeneous and homogeneous ice nucleation for cirrus formation remains an active area of debate in the cloud physics community. From a theoretical perspective, a number of modeling studies have investigated the sensitivity of ice number concentration to the nucleation mechanism and the abundance of ice nuclei. However, these studies typically only addressed ice concentration immediately after ice nucleation. Recent modeling work has shown that the high ice concentrations produced by homogeneous freezing may not persist very long, which is consistent with the low frequency of occurrence of high ice concentrations indicated by cirrus measurements. Here, I use idealized simulations to investigate the impact of ice nucleation mechanism and ice nuclei abundance on the full lifecycle of cirrus clouds. The primary modeling framework used includes different modes of ice nucleation, deposition growth/sublimation, aggregation, sedimentation, and radiation. A limited number of cloud-resolving simulations that treat radiation/dynamics interactions will also been presented. I will show that for typical synoptic situations with mesoscale waves present, the time-averaged cirrus ice crystal size distributions and bulk cloud properties are less sensitive to ice nucleation processes than might be expected from the earlier simple ice nucleation calculations. I will evaluate the magnitude of the ice nuclei impact on cirrus for a range of temperatures and mesoscale wave specifications, and I will discuss the implications for cirrus aerosol indirect effects in general.

  18. Cirrus Microphysical Properties from Stellar Aureole Measurements, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J. G.; Kristl, J. A.; Rappaport, S. A.

    2012-04-20

    While knowledge of the impact of aerosols on climate change has improved significantly due to the routine, ground-based, sun photometer measurements of aerosols made at AERONET sites world-wide, the impact of cirrus clouds remains much less certain because they occur high in the atmosphere and are more difficult to measure. This report documents work performed on a Phase I SBIR project to retrieve microphysical properties of cirrus ice crystals from stellar aureole imagery. The Phase I work demonstrates that (1) we have clearly measured stellar aureole profiles; (2) we can follow the aureole profiles out to ~1/4 degree from stars (~1/2 degree from Jupiter); (3) the stellar aureoles from cirrus have very distinctive profiles, being flat out to a critical angle, followed by a steep power-law decline with a slope of ~-3; (4) the profiles are well modeled using exponential size distributions; and (5) the critical angle in the profiles is ~0.12 degrees, (6) indicating that the corresponding critical size ranges from ~150 to ~200 microns. The stage has been set for a Phase II project (1) to proceed to validating the use of stellar aureole measurements for retrieving cirrus particle size distributions using comparisons with optical property retrievals from other, ground-based instruments and (2) to develop an instrument for the routine, automatic measurement of thin cirrus microphysical properties.

  19. Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).

  20. Investigating the Impact of Updraft Velocity on Cirrus Cloud Properties Using the CAM5 Model Constrained with Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, K.; Comstock, J. M.; Wan, H.; Wang, M.

    2013-12-01

    Cirrus clouds composed of ice crystals play an important role in modifying the global radiative balance through scattering shortwave (SW) radiation and absorbing and emitting longwave (LW) terrestrial radiation. Updraft velocity in cirrus clouds determines the cooling rate for ice nucleation and thus influences the number concentration of ice crystals. It also plays an important role on the in-cloud supersaturation for ice crystal growth and thus the ice water content in cirrus clouds. However, there are still large uncertainties in the understanding of vertical velocity and its variability in cirrus cloud and its parameterization in global climate models, due to the scarcity of cirrus measurements. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)'s Small Particles in Cirrus (SPartICus) campaign and the NASA's Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) conducted airborne measurements over central North America with special emphasis to investigate the properties of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, the processes affecting these properties and their impact on radiation. In this study we use the SPartICus/MACPEX observations to constrain and improve the parameterization of in-cloud subgrid updraft velocity in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). Aircraft measurements of updraft velocities are mapped to 0.5x0.5 and 1x1 GCM grids to derive the sub-grid probability distribution frequency (sub-grid PDF) of velocities. The Liu and Penner (2005) ice nucleation scheme is called with each velocity sample inside a grid box to obtain the grid-box mean number of nucleated ice crystals. The characteristic updraft velocity (w*) for each grid box is inversely estimated by matching the grid-box mean ice crystal number. The relationship between w* and the mean and the standard deviation of sub-grid PDF of velocities inside a grid box is used to improve the current parameterization of w* in CAM5. Sensitivity tests with CAM5 are performed to assess the impact of

  1. Spatial scales of cirrus cloud properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, Paul F.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    Research in studying the spatial scales of the cirrus, used data collected during the flight legs of the NCAR Sabreliner aircraft on four days during the FIRE Cirrus IFO to study the spatial scales of the cirrus, and will concentrate on the scales of horizontal wind. The spatial scales of the cloud features can be described by power spectra (or spectral density graphs) and cumulative variance graphs. The cumulative variance graphs were created by first using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to create variance spectra. The variances were then summed in a cumulative fashion from the largest scalelengths (wavelengths) to the smallest. No detrending was done to the original data, and no smoothing or averaging was done to the spectral points. All the spectral points were included. This means that the values of the first five to ten spectral points of the large scalelengths should only be considered to be qualitatively correct. The cumulative variance at smaller scalelengths should be correct because a more accurate representation of the variance at the larger scalelengths should only redistribute the energy amongst the larger scalelengths.

  2. Microphysical properties of semi-transparent cirrus from AIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guignard, Anthony; Stubenrauch, Claudia; Cros, Sylvain; Lamquin, Nicolas; Baran, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    Cirrus covers about 30% of the globe and has been identified as one of the most influential atmospheric components on the Earth's radiative budget. In order to improve the parameterization of cirrus clouds within GCMs, modellers need long term records of cloud properties. Due to their complex microphysical characteristics (consisting of non-spherical ice crystals of various shapes and sizes) their physical and radiative properties are still not completely understood. Because of its high spectral resolution, the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard the NASA Aqua satellite is used for the identification of cirrus clouds night and day. AIRS can be easily collocated with the spaceborne lidar CALIOP of the CALIPSO mission and the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) of the CloudSat mission, as these instruments are part of the A-Train (a constellation of satellites that share the same orbit). These active instruments deliver accurate information on multi-layered clouds and geometrical cirrus thickness. We take advantage of the synergy between these passive and active remote sensing instruments to design a microphysical property retrieval for semi-transparent ice clouds. A subset of 17 channels between 8 and 12.5 micron has been selected in order to retrieve the effective diameter (De) and the ice water path (IWP) of the cirrus. The retrieval of De is based on spectral differences of cirrus emissivities. Relationships are complex and non-linear. Therefore we simulate these emissivities for a large range of values for De and IWP and for two ice crystal shapes (randomly oriented columns and aggregates). Ice crystal single scattering properties have been integrated over a bimodal size distribution and have been implemented into the 4A radiative transfer model coupled with Disort (taking into account multiple scattering) to generate look up tables that link these emissivities to the microphysical properties. We only consider clouds with temperatures less than 260 K and

  3. Retrieval of Cirrus properties by Sunphotometry: A new perspective on an old issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Ramachandran, S.; Redemann, J.; Baum, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cirrus clouds are important modulators of the earth radiation budget and continue to be one of the most uncertain components in weather and climate modeling and in the estimations of cooling and warming effects. This is mainly due to the high uncertainty in the derivation of their optical thicknesses and ice crystal size, shape and amount. While sunphotometers are widely accepted as one of the most accurate platforms for measuring aerosol optical depth (AOD), such measurements under cirrus are still considered unreliable. The ease and the relatively widespread use of sunphotometers globally, both as airborne and ground-based platforms, can potentially contribute to our increased capability in quantifying some of the most important cirrus properties such as cloud optical thickness (COT) and ice crystal effective diameter. However, under cloudy conditions, the signal received at the sunphotometer FOV contains not only the direct attenuated solar irradiation, but also the forward scattered term, which interferes with the proper derivation of AOD via the simple Beer-Lambert relation. Solutions to this problem were previously suggested in the form of correction factors. In the present work we have proposed a new approach that utilizes the additional information content that lies within the total measured irradiance under a cloudy scene. Relatively thin cirrus clouds (i.e. COT<4.0) allow direct sun irradiation to reach the detector, and at the same time strongly scatter some of this radiation into the instrument FOV. This results in increased transmittance values due to both the direct and scattered components. This quantity was modeled for the spectral range of 400-2200 nm, for a range of COT (0-4), and a range of ice particle effective diameters using the explicit Baum and Yang cirrus optical properties data sets. This allowed the derivations of transmittance look-up tables that were used for the retrieval procedure. The new approach was tested on two cases; an

  4. UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Lin, R.-F.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Masiello, G.

    2009-07-01

    Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment. The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements only at one wavelength), which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds. A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer. The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows to determine the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud anvil. Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicates that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is strongly influenced by the sublimation of precipitating ice crystals. Results

  5. UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Lin, R.-F.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Masiello, G.

    2009-11-01

    Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of the Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment. The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements, only at one wavelength), which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds. A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer. The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows the determination of the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud. Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicate that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is strongly influenced by the sublimation of precipitating ice crystals. Results

  6. Comparisons of Anvil Cirrus Spatial Characteristics between Airborne Observations in DC3 Campaign and WRF Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, J.; Diao, M.; Chen, M.

    2015-12-01

    John D'Alessandro1, Minghui Diao1, Ming Chen2, George Bryan2, Hugh Morrison21. Department of Meteorology and Climate Science, San Jose State University2. Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 80301 Ice crystal formation requires the prerequisite condition of ice supersaturation, i.e., relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) greater than 100%. The formation and evolution of ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) has large impact on the subsequent formation of ice clouds. To examine the characteristics of simulated ice supersaturated regions at various model spatial resolutions, case studies between airborne in-situ measurements in the NSF Deep Convective, Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (May - June 2012) and WRF simulations are conducted in this work. Recent studies using ~200 m in-situ observations showed that ice supersaturated regions are mostly around 1 km in horizontal scale (Diao et al. 2014). Yet it is still unclear if such observed characteristics can be represented by WRF simulations at various spatial resolutions. In this work, we compare the WRF simulated anvil cirrus spatial characteristics with those observed in the DC3 campaign over the southern great plains in US. The WRF model is run at 1 km and 3 km horizontal grid spacing with a recent update of Thompson microphysics scheme. Our comparisons focus on the spatial characteristics of ISSRs and cirrus clouds, including the distributions of their horizontal scales, the maximum relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and the relationship between RHi and temperature. Our previous work on the NCAR CM1 cloud-resolving model shows that the higher resolution runs (i.e., 250m and 1km) generally have better agreement with observations than the coarser resolution (4km) runs. We will examine if similar trend exists for WRF simulations in deep convection cases. In addition, we will compare the simulation results between WRF and CM1, particularly

  7. Optical depth of cirrus and embedded contrails from airborne Lidar and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.; Wirth, M.

    2009-04-01

    A new developed high performance airborne Lidar is applied to measure the backscatter, extinction, depolarization and water vapor profiles from above a thin cirrus cloud along a flight path of about 1000 km over Germany with high temporal/spatial resolution (about 0.2 s, 40 m). The observations revealed surprisingly many embedded contrails within the cirrus. The observations are roughly explained by a simple multiple-plume model simulating the many contrails that formed during the four hours before the observations. Direct airborne measurements of the optical thickness tau of thin cirrus layers have been performed using the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) channel at 532 nm wavelength of the Lidar instrument called WALES (Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space). During the 4 h flight, more than 1000 aircraft passed below the flight path of the Falcon. The observations show variable optical depth with a mean value of about 0.3 and large fluctuations with many sharp isolated peaks of typically 200 - 1000 m width up to or even exceeding unity. The observations are explained using a combination of two models versions. First we use the ice water content and extinction predicted with various versions of weather prediction models (ECMWF and COSMO, initiated at various times between 3 and 12 hours before start of the observations). These models explain roughly the mean behavior of the measured tau. The peaky structure of the tau signal is qualitatively explained by a multiple-plume contrail model. This model is based on a Gaussian plume model. It uses the known air traffic waypoint sequences for all the aircraft passing Germany during the day before the observations (provided by air traffic control, DFS). For each waypoint a Lagrangian calculation is started identifying flights under ambient conditions for which contrails are expected to form according to the Schmidt-Appleman criterion. The plume moves horizontally with the wind at constant potential temperature. This

  8. Properties of PSCs and Cirrus Determined from AVHRR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark; Pagan, Kathy; Foschi, Patricia G.

    1999-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCS) and cirrus have been investigated using thermal emission measurements at 10.8 and 12 micrometers wavelength (channels 4 and 5) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The AVHRR signal was evaluated from a theoretical basis to understand the emission from clear and cloudy skies, and models were developed to simulate the AVHRR signal. Signal simulations revealed that nitric acid PSCs are invisible to AVHRR, while ice PSCs and cirrus are readily detectable. Methods were developed to retrieve cloud optical depths, average temperatures, average effective radii, and ice water paths, from AVHRR channels 4 and 5. Properties of ice PSCs retrieved from AVHRR were compared to values derived from coincident radiosondes and from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement II instrument, showing good agreement.

  9. Investigation of tropical cirrus cloud properties using ground based lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Raghunath, K.; Venkat Ratnam, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play a significant role in the Earths radiation budget. Therefore, knowledge of geometrical and optical properties of cirrus cloud is essential for the climate modeling. In this paper, the cirrus clouds microphysical and optical properties are made by using a ground based lidar measurements over an inland tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), Andhra Pradesh, India. The variation of cirrus microphysical and optical properties with mid cloud temperature is also studied. The cirrus clouds mean height is generally observed in the range of 9-17km with a peak occurrence at 13- 14km. The cirrus mid cloud temperature ranges from -81°C to -46°C. The cirrus geometrical thickness ranges from 0.9- 4.5km. During the cirrus occurrence days sub-visual, thin and dense cirrus were at 37.5%, 50% and 12.5% respectively. The monthly cirrus optical depth ranges from 0.01-0.47, but most (<80%) of the cirrus have values less than 0.1. Optical depth shows a strong dependence with cirrus geometrical thickness and mid-cloud height. The monthly mean cirrus extinction ranges from 2.8E-06 to 8E-05 and depolarization ratio and lidar ratio varies from 0.13 to 0.77 and 2 to 52 sr respectively. A positive correlation exists for both optical depth and extinction with the mid-cloud temperature. The lidar ratio shows a scattered behavior with mid-cloud temperature.

  10. Impact of large-scale dynamics on the microphysical properties of midlatitude cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Evans, Stuart M.; Lawson, R. Paul; Marchand, Roger T.

    2014-04-01

    In situ microphysical observations of midlatitude cirrus collected during the Department of Energy Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) field campaign are combined with an atmospheric state classification for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to understand statistical relationships between cirrus microphysics and the large-scale meteorology. The atmospheric state classification is informed about the large-scale meteorology and state of cloudiness at the ARM SGP site by combining ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data with 14 years of continuous observations from the millimeter-wavelength cloud radar. Almost half of the cirrus cloud occurrences in the vicinity of the ARM SGP site during SPARTICUS can be explained by three distinct synoptic conditions, namely, upper level ridges, midlatitude cyclones with frontal systems, and subtropical flows. Probability density functions (PDFs) of cirrus microphysical properties such as particle size distributions (PSDs), ice number concentrations, and ice water content (IWC) are examined and exhibit striking differences among the different synoptic regimes. Generally, narrower PSDs with lower IWC but higher ice number concentrations are found in cirrus sampled in upper level ridges, whereas cirrus sampled in subtropical flows, fronts, and aged anvils show broader PSDs with considerably lower ice number concentrations but higher IWC. Despite striking contrasts in the cirrus microphysics for different large-scale environments, the PDFs of vertical velocity are not different, suggesting that vertical velocity PDFs are a poor predictor for explaining the microphysical variability in cirrus. Instead, cirrus microphysical contrasts may be driven by differences in ice supersaturations or aerosols.

  11. Cirrus cloud properties derived from coincident GOES and lidar data during the 1986 FIRE Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Alvarez, Jose M.; Young, David F.; Heck, Patrick W.; Sassen, Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    One of the main difficulties in detecting cirrus clouds and determining their correct altitude using satellite measurements is their nonblackness. In the present algorithm (Rossow et al., 1985) used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the cirrus cloud emissivity is estimated from the derived cloud reflectance using a theoretical model relating visible (VIS, 0.65 micron) optical depth to infrared (IR, 10.5 micron) emissivity. At this time, it is unknown how accurate this approach is or how the derived cloud altitude relates to the physical properties of the cloud. The First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) presents opportunities for determining how the observed radiances depend on the cloud properties. During the FIRE Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO, see Starr, 1987), time series of cloud thickness, height, and relative optical densities were measured from several surface-based lidars. Cloud microphysics and radiances at various wavelengths were also measured simultaneously over these sites from aircraft at specific times during the IFO (October 19 to November 2, 1986). Satellite-observed radiances taken simultaneously can be matched with these data to determine their relationships to the cirrus characteristics. The first step is taken toward relating all of these variables to the satellite observations. Lidar-derived cloud heights are used to determine cloud temperatures which are used to estimate cloud emissivities from the satellite IR radiances. These results are then correlated to the observed VIS reflectances for various solar zenith angles.

  12. Correlation Between Cirrus Particle Optical Properties: Microphysics and Implications for Spaceborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, Jens; Hess, M.; Reichardt, S.; Behrendt, A.; McGee, T. J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Cirrus measurements obtained with a ground-based polarization Raman lidar at 67.9 deg N in arctic winter reveal a strong correlation between the particle optical properties, specifically depolarization ratio and extinction-to-backscatter ratio, for ambient cloud temperatures above approximately -45 C, and an anti-correlation for colder temperatures. Similar correlations are evident in a 2-year midlatitude (53.4 deg N) cirrus data set. Scattering calculations show that the observed dependences can be interpreted in terms of the shapes and sizes of the cirrus ice particles. These findings suggest a retrieval method for determining cirrus extinction profiles from spaceborne lidar polarization data.

  13. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus in the pilot radiation observation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.; Patterson, G.R.

    1996-04-01

    The development of a sensitive filter radiometer for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been reported. The aim was to develop a reliable and fast instrument that could be used alongside a lidar to obtain near realtime optical properties of clouds, particularly high ice clouds, as they drifted over an ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site allowing calculation of the radiation divergence in the atmosphere over the site. Obtaining cloud optical properties by the lidar/radiometer, or LIRAD, method was described by Platt et al.; the latter paper also describes a year`s data on mid-latitude cirrus. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus (i.e., cirrus within a few degrees of the equator) have hardly been studied at all. The same is true of tropical cirrus, although a few observations have been reported by Davis and Platt et al.This paper describes obersvations performed on cirrus clouds, analysis methods used, and results.

  14. Modelling of contrail cirrus in a climate model: microphysical and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Lisa; Burkhardt, Ulrike; Kärcher, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Contrail cirrus is the largest climate forcing component of aviation. Current estimates using a climate model rely on an approach parameterizing contrail microphysical processes based on ice water content alone. A microphysical two-moment-scheme (prognostic ice water content and ice particle number density) allows a more realistic representation of the microphysical and optical properties of contrail cirrus. That implies a better estimate of their radiative forcing and its sensitivity to changes in ice particle number concentration. We modify the cloud scheme in ECHAM5-HAM by changing the nucleation parameterization consistent with a fractional coverage. Afterwards the contrail cirrus module (Burkhardt and Kärcher, 2009) developed for one-moment microphysics is implemented in ECHAM5 and extended with a two-moment-scheme. An exact description of contrail cirrus volume is important for a realistic characterization of the microphysical and optical properties of contrail cirrus. Therefore, parameterizations for the growth of the contrail cirrus volume due to diffusion, wind shear and sedimentation are implemented. The fields of ice water content, ice particle number concentration, cloud coverage and the frequency of ice supersaturated regions are validated and microphysical and optical properties of contrail cirrus are studied. In an idealized experiment the relative importance of microphysical processes is evaluated. As a consequence of the improved parameterization of microphysical processes the optical depth of contrail cirrus is higher in regions with high flight density than it was in earlier studies (Burkhardt and Kärcher, 2011) due to the high ice particle number concentrations on the main flight routes. Microphysical and optical properties of contrail cirrus turn out to be strongly dependent on the initial ice particle number. Reducing the latter leads to an overall decrease of contrail cirrus optical depth and visible coverage.

  15. Impact of large-scale dynamics on the microphysical properties of midlatitude cirrus

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Diskin, G. S.; Evans, Stuart; Lawson, Paul; Marchand, Roger

    2014-04-16

    In situ microphysical observations 3 of mid-latitude cirrus collected during the Department of Energy Small Particles in Cirrus (SPAR-TICUS) field campaign are combined with an atmospheric state classification for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to understand statistical relationships between cirrus microphysics and the large-scale meteorology. The atmospheric state classification is informed about the large-scale meteorology and state of cloudiness at the ARM SGP site by combining ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data with 14 years of continuous observations from the millimeter-wavelength cloud radar. Almost half of the cirrus cloud occurrences in the vicinity of the ARM SGP site during SPARTICUS can be explained by three distinct synoptic condi- tions, namely upper-level ridges, mid-latitude cyclones with frontal systems and subtropical flows. Probability density functions (PDFs) of cirrus micro- physical properties such as particle size distributions (PSDs), ice number con- centrations and ice water content (IWC) are examined and exhibit striking differences among the different synoptic regimes. Generally, narrower PSDs with lower IWC but higher ice number concentrations are found in cirrus sam- pled in upper-level ridges whereas cirrus sampled in subtropical flows, fronts and aged anvils show broader PSDs with considerably lower ice number con- centrations but higher IWC. Despite striking contrasts in the cirrus micro- physics for different large-scale environments, the PDFs of vertical velocity are not different, suggesting that vertical velocity PDFs are a poor predic-tor for explaining the microphysical variability in cirrus. Instead, cirrus mi- crophysical contrasts may be driven by differences in ice supersaturations or aerosols.

  16. Cirrus cloud properties measurement using lidar in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chengli; Tao, Zongming; Hu, Shunxing; Che, Huizheng; Yu, Jie; Feng, Caiyun; Xie, Chenbo; Liu, Dong; Zhong, Zhiqing; Yuan, Ke'e.; Cao, Kaifa; Huang, Jian; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Yingjian; Chen, Zhenyi

    2016-01-01

    Cirrus cloud has an important effect on the radiation balance between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The vertical structures, optical depth and effective lidar ratio of cirrus cloud detected by Mie scattering-polarization-Raman lidar system in Beijing from April 11 to December 31, 2012 are analyzed. The results show that the cloud height in Beijing is lower in spring and higher in autumn, with a mean value of about 8km. The mean of cloud thickness is 0.74km. The mean of optical depth is 0.092, and most observed cirrus cloud is thin while optical depth is less than 0.3. The effective lidar ratio of cirrus is lower in summer and higher in winter, inversely related to local temperature, with a mean value of 32.29Sr.

  17. Cirrus Mammatus Properties Derived from an Extended Remote Sensing Dataset.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Likun; Sassen, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    The first quantitative and statistical evaluation of cirrus mammatus clouds based on wavelet analysis of remote sensing data is made by analyzing the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) 10-yr high-cloud dataset. First, a case study of cirrus mammata combining a high-resolution lidar system and a W-band Doppler radar is presented, yielding an assessment of the thermodynamic environment and dynamic mechanisms. Then, 25 cirrus mammatus cases selected from the FARS lidar dataset are used to disclose their characteristic environmental conditions, and vertical and length scales. The results show that cirrus mammata occur in the transition zone from moist (cloudy) to dry air layers with weak wind shear, which suggests that cloud-induced thermal structures play a key role in their formation. Their maximum vertical and horizontal length scales vary from 0.3 to 1.1 km and 0.5 to 8.0 km, respectively. It is also found that small-scale structures develop between the large-scale protuberances. The spectral slopes of the lidar-returned power and mean radar Doppler velocity data extracted from the cirrus cloud-base region further indicate the presence of developed three-dimensional, locally isotropic, homogeneous turbulence generated by buoyancy. Finally, comparisons of anvil and cirrus mammata are made. Although both are generated in a similar environment, cirrus mammata generally do not form fallout fronts like their anvil counterparts, and so do not have their smooth and beautiful outlines.


  18. Evaluation of Tropical Cirrus Cloud Properties Derived from ECMWF Model Output and Ground Based Measurements over Nauru Island

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Jakob, Christian

    2004-05-26

    Cirrus clouds play an important role both radiatively and dynamically in the tropics. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the formation and persistence of tropical cirrus is an important step in accurately predicting cirrus in forecast models. In this study, we compare ground-based measurements of cloud properties with those predicted by the ECMWF model at a location in the tropical western Pacific. Our comparisons of cloud height and optical depth over an 8 month time period indicate that the model and measurements agree relatively well. The ECMWF model predicts cirrus anvils associated with deep convection during convectively active periods, and also isolated cirrus events that are influenced by large-scale vertical ascent. We also show through examination of an upper tropospheric cirrus case that the model produces tropospheric waves that appear to influence the morphology and maintenance of the cirrus layer.

  19. Airborne Differential Absorption and High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements for Cirrus Cloud Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Schaefler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin; Fix, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol and water vapor measurements were performed with the lidar system WALES of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) onboard the German research aircraft G550-HALO during the HALO Techno-Mission in October and November 2010 and during the ML-Cirrus mission in March and April 2014 over Central Europe and the North Atlantic region. Curtains composed of lidar profiles beneath the aircraft show the water vapor mixing ratio and the backscatter ratio. Temperature data from ECMWF model analysis are used to calculate the relative humidity above ice (RHi) in the 2-D field along the flight track to study the RHi distribution inside and outside of cirrus clouds at different stages of cloud evolution.

  20. Subtropical Cirrus Properties Derived from GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements during CAMEX 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Wang, Z.; Demoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island, Bahamas for the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 3) held in August - September, 1998 and acquired an extensive set of water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements (Whiteman et al., 2001). The cirrus data studied here have been segmented by generating mechanism. Distinct differences in the optical properties of the clouds are found when the cirrus are hurricane-induced versus thunderstom-induced. Relationships of cirrus cloud optical depth, mean cloud temperature, and layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S) are presented and compared with mid-latitude and tropical results. Hurricane-induced cirrus clouds are found to generally possess lower values of S than thunderstorm induced clouds. Comparison of these measurements of S are made with other studies revealing at times large differences in the measurements. Given that S is a required parameter for spacebased retrievals of cloud optical depth using backscatter lidar, these large diffaences in S measurements present difficulties for space-based retrievals of cirrus cloud extinction and optical depth.

  1. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2015-03-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated aboard passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by Airbus In-Service Aircraft) for measuring atmospheric relative humidity (RH). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, the instrument was operated aboard a Learjet 35A research aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (Fast in situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, or FISH) and an open-path tunable diode laser system (Open-path Jülich Stratospheric TDL ExpeRiment, or OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the CIRRUS-III data set to data corresponding to MOZAIC aircraft operation conditions, the 1 Hz RH data cross correlation between the MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.92 and slope m = 1.02 and provided a MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from the MCH and reference instruments agreed well between 10 and 70% RH with respect to liquid water in the ambient temperature range of ca. -70 to -40 °C. The use of MCH data is limited to sensor temperatures above the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft). Good performance of the MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  2. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2014-09-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated onboard of passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by AIRBUS In-Service Aircraft). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, it was operated aboard a Learjet 35A aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (FISH) and an open path tunable diode laser system (OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the data set to MOZAIC-relevant conditions, the 1Hz relative humidity (RH) cross correlation between MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.97 and slope m = 0.96 and provided the MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from MCH and reference instruments agreed well over the entire range of observations. The main limitation for the use of MCH data is related to sensor temperatures below the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft), which causes a delay in the sensor's time response. Good performance of MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  3. Cloud-base distribution and cirrus properties based on micropulse lidar measurements at a site in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhanqing; Zheng, Youfei; Cribb, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    The cloud fraction (CF) and cloud-base heights (CBHs), and cirrus properties, over a site in southeastern China from June 2008 to May 2009, are examined by a ground-based lidar. Results show that clouds occupied the sky 41% of the time. Significant seasonal variations in CF were found with a maximum/minimum during winter/summer and similar magnitudes of CF in spring and autumn. A distinct diurnal cycle in the overall mean CF was seen. Total, daytime, and nighttime annual mean CBHs were 3.05±2.73 km, 2.46±2.08 km, and 3.51±3.07 km, respectively. The lowest/highest CBH occurred around noon/midnight. Cirrus clouds were present ˜36.2% of the time at night with the percentage increased in summer and decreased in spring. Annual mean values for cirrus geometrical properties were 8.89±1.65 km, 9.80±1.70 km, 10.73±1.86 km and 1.83±0.91 km for the base, mid-cloud, top height, and the thickness, respectively. Seasonal variations in cirrus geometrical properties show a maximum/minimum in summer/winter for all cirrus geometrical parameters. The mean cirrus lidar ratio for all cirrus cases in our study was ˜ 25±17 sr, with a smooth seasonal trend. The cirrus optical depth ranged from 0.001 to 2.475, with a mean of 0.34±0.33. Sub-visual, thin, and dense cirrus were observed in ˜12%, 43%, and 45% of the cases, respectively. More frequent, thicker cirrus clouds occurred in summer than in any other season. The properties of cirrus cloud over the site are compared with other lidar-based retrievals of midlatitude cirrus cloud properties.

  4. Properties of CIRRUS Overlapping Clouds as Deduced from the GOES-12 Imagery Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Khaiyer, Mandana

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the impact of cirrus clouds on modifying both the solar reflected and terrestrial emitted radiations is crucial for climate studies. Unlike most boundary layer stratus and stratocumulus clouds that have a net cooling effect on the climate, high-level thin cirrus clouds can have a warming effect on our climate. Many research efforts have been devoted to retrieving cirrus cloud properties due to their ubiquitous presence. However, using satellite observations to detect and/or retrieve cirrus cloud properties faces two major challenges. First, they are often semitransparent at visible to infrared wavelengths; and secondly, they often occur over a lower cloud system. The overlapping of high-level cirrus and low-level stratus cloud poses a difficulty in determining the individual cloud top altitudes and optical properties, especially when the signals from cirrus clouds are overwhelmed by the signals of stratus clouds. Moreover, the operational satellite retrieval algorithms, which often assume only single layer cloud in the development of cloud retrieval techniques, cannot resolve the cloud overlapping situation properly. The new geostationary satellites, starting with the Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12), are providing a new suite of imager bands that have replaced the conventional 12-micron channel with a 13.3-micron CO2 absorption channel. The replacement of the 13.3-micron channel allows for the application of a CO2-slicing retrieval technique (Chahine et al. 1974; Smith and Platt 1978), which is one of the important passive satellite methods for remote sensing the altitudes of mid to high-level clouds. Using the CO2- slicing technique is more effective in detecting semitransparent cirrus clouds than using the conventional infrared-window method.

  5. In Situ Measurements of Microphysical and Radiative Properties of Cirrus and Anvil Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P.; Baker, B.; Pilson, B.

    2003-12-01

    In situ microphysical and radiative properties of mid-latitude cirrus, anvil and tropical anvil clouds, based on research flights conducted with the SPEC Learjet, the NASA WB-57 and DC-8, and the University of North Dakota Citation research aircraft, are presented. The measurements were collected in Colorado, Utah, Oklahoma, Florida and Kwajalein. All of the research aircraft were equipped with a standard complement of microphysical sensors and optical probes, plus a cloud particle imager (CPI), which produces high-definition (2.3 micron pixel) digital images of ice particles. The CPI data provide improved measurements of particle shape and size, facilitating better calculations of radiative properties of cirrus and anvil clouds. Based on the measurements, average mid-latitude cirrus, and mid-latitude and tropical cirrus microphysical properties of particle size distribution, crystal habit, ice water content, extinction coefficient, effective radius and optical depth are derived. The data show a distinct difference between particle characteristics in mid-latitude cirrus and anvil clouds. In cirrus, the predominate crystal type (weighted by area or mass) is the bullet rosette, a polycrystalline structure typical of crystal formation at temperatures colder than -30 C. Conversely, although anvils occur at temperatures similar to cirrus, bullet rosettes are very rare in anvils. Instead crystal types in anvils are typical of those formed at temperatures warmer than - 30 C. There is also a notable difference in microphysical and radiative characteristics between mid-latitude, Florida, and tropical (Kwajalein) anvils. Tropical anvils are comprised mainly of single crystals, mostly irregular blocky-shapes. In mid-latitude and Florida anvils, there are more aggregates and often chains of small particles that may be formed as a result of the higher electric fields in continental clouds. The impact of crystal type on calculations of radiative transfer are also considered.

  6. Did the Eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo Volcano Affect Cirrus Properties?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Zhengzhao; Rossow, William B.; Inoue, Toshiro; Stubenrauch, Claudia J.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Some observations suggest that the volcanic aerosols produced by the Mt. Pinatubo eruption may have altered cirrus properties. We look for evidence that such modification of cirrus is extensive enough to be climatically significant by comparing three satellite-based cirrus datasets produced by the ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) analysis, the 'split-window' analysis, and 3I analysis. Since the former two have not been compared in detail before, we conduct such a comparison here. When applied to AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data, both the ISCCP and split-window analyses identify about 0.2 - 0.3 cirrus cloud amount in tropical latitudes; however, there are detailed differences of classification for about half of these clouds. The discrepancies are attributed to the simplified assumptions made by both methods. The latter two datasets are derived from infrared radiances, so they are much less sensitive to volcanic aerosols than the ISCCP analysis. After the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, the ISCCP results indicate a dramatic decrease of thin cirrus (cloud top pressure less than 440 mb and visible optical thickness less than 1.3) over ocean, accompanied by a comparable increase of altocumulus and cumulus clouds; over land, there are no significant changes. In contrast, results from the split-window and 3I analyses show little change in thin cirrus amount over either ocean or land that is associated with the volcanic eruption. The ISCCP results can, therefore, be understood as a misclassification of thin cirrus because the additional reflected sunlight by the volcanic aerosol makes the cirrus clouds appear to be optically thicker. Examination of the split-window signature and the infrared emissivities from 3I show no significant change in infrared emissivity (or optical thickness). These results indicate that the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosol did not have a significant systematic effect on tropical cirrus properties, but rather

  7. A Study of Global Cirrus Optical and Microphysical Properties Based on an Efficient Infrared Retrieval Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Heidinger, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Current studies of global upper tropospheric cirrus clouds from satellite observations are focused on daytime, primarily due to dependence on solar reflectance in the retrieval technique. Here, utilizing an accurate and efficient infrared based retrieval technique, cirrus cloud optical properties, including cloud optical thickness and effective particle size, are investigated using Aqua MODIS data during both day and night conditions. It is revealed that contrast of averaged day and night properties is small, despite of an apparent distinction in occurrence frequencies. The geographical differences are more pronounced. Seasonal variations, vertical distributions, as well as interrelations with other macrophysical and microphysical properties are also studied. The findings of this study will be useful for developing future cirrus cloud parameterization schemes in climate models.

  8. Optical and morphological properties of Cirrus clouds determined by the high spectral resolution lidar during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grund, Christian John; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    1990-01-01

    Cirrus clouds reflect incoming solar radiation and trap outgoing terrestrial radiation; therefore, accurate estimation of the global energy balance depends upon knowledge of the optical and physical properties of these clouds. Scattering and absorption by cirrus clouds affect measurements made by many satellite-borne and ground based remote sensors. Scattering of ambient light by the cloud, and thermal emissions from the cloud can increase measurement background noise. Multiple scattering processes can adversely affect the divergence of optical beams propagating through these clouds. Determination of the optical thickness and the vertical and horizontal extent of cirrus clouds is necessary to the evaluation of all of these effects. Lidar can be an effective tool for investigating these properties. During the FIRE cirrus IFO in Oct. to Nov. 1986, the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was operated from a rooftop site on the campus of the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wisconsin. Approximately 124 hours of fall season data were acquired under a variety of cloud optical thickness conditions. Since the IFO, the HSRL data set was expanded by more than 63.5 hours of additional data acquired during all seasons. Measurements are presented for the range in optical thickness and backscattering phase function of the cirrus clouds, as well as contour maps of extinction corrected backscatter cross sections indicating cloud morphology. Color enhanced images of range-time indicator (RTI) displays a variety of cirrus clouds with approximately 30 sec time resolution are presented. The importance of extinction correction on the interpretation of cloud height and structure from lidar observations of optically thick cirrus are demonstrated.

  9. Parameterizations of the Vertical Variability of Tropical Cirrus Cloud Microphysical and Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twohy, Cynthia; Heymsfield, Andrew; Gerber, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Our multi-investigator effort was targeted at the following areas of interest to CRYSTAL-FACE: (1) the water budgets of anvils, (2) parameterizations of the particle size distributions and related microphysical and optical properties (3) characterizations of the primary ice particle habits, (4) the relationship of the optical properties to the microphysics and particle habits, and (5) investigation of the ice-nuclei types and mechanisms in anvil cirrus. Dr. Twohy's effort focused on (l), (2), and (5), with the measurement and analysis of ice water content and cirrus residual nuclei using the counterflow virtual impactor (CVI).

  10. Climatological and radiative properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds derived by automatic evaluation of lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienast-Sjögren, Erika; Rolf, Christian; Seifert, Patric; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Luo, Bei P.; Krämer, Martina; Peter, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus, i.e., high, thin clouds that are fully glaciated, play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget as they interact with both long- and shortwave radiation and affect the water vapor budget of the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Here, we present a climatology of midlatitude cirrus clouds measured with the same type of ground-based lidar at three midlatitude research stations: at the Swiss high alpine Jungfraujoch station (3580 m a.s.l.), in Zürich (Switzerland, 510 m a.s.l.), and in Jülich (Germany, 100 m a.s.l.). The analysis is based on 13 000 h of measurements from 2010 to 2014. To automatically evaluate this extensive data set, we have developed the Fast LIdar Cirrus Algorithm (FLICA), which combines a pixel-based cloud-detection scheme with the classic lidar evaluation techniques. We find mean cirrus optical depths of 0.12 on Jungfraujoch and of 0.14 and 0.17 in Zürich and Jülich, respectively. Above Jungfraujoch, subvisible cirrus clouds (τ < 0.03) have been observed during 6 % of the observation time, whereas above Zürich and Jülich fewer clouds of that type were observed. Cirrus have been observed up to altitudes of 14.4 km a.s.l. above Jungfraujoch, whereas they have only been observed to about 1 km lower at the other stations. These features highlight the advantage of the high-altitude station Jungfraujoch, which is often in the free troposphere above the polluted boundary layer, thus enabling lidar measurements of thinner and higher clouds. In addition, the measurements suggest a change in cloud morphology at Jungfraujoch above ˜ 13 km, possibly because high particle number densities form in the observed cirrus clouds, when many ice crystals nucleate in the high supersaturations following rapid uplifts in lee waves above mountainous terrain. The retrieved optical properties are used as input for a radiative transfer model to estimate the net cloud radiative forcing, CRFNET, for the analyzed cirrus clouds. All cirrus detected

  11. A Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part III: Radiative Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, K.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2001-08-01

    In Part III of a series of papers describing the extended time high-cloud observations from the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) supporting the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment, the visible and infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds over Salt Lake City, Utah, are examined. Using {approx}860 h of combined ruby (0.694 {micro}m) lidar and midinfrared (9.5-11.5 {micro}m) radiometer data collected between 1992 and 1999 from visually identified cirrus clouds, the visible optical depths {tau} and infrared layer emittance epsilon of the varieties of midlatitude cirrus are characterized. The mean and median values for the cirrus sample are 0.75 {+-} 0.91 and 0.61 for {tau}, and 0.30 {+-} 0.22 and 0.25 for epsilon. Other scattering parameters studied are the visible extinction and infrared absorption coefficients, and their ratio, and the lidar backscatter-to-extinction ratio, which has a mean value of 0.041 sr{sup -1}. Differences among cirrus clouds generated by general synoptic (e.g., jet stream), thunderstorm anvil, and orographic mechanisms are found, reflecting basic cloud microphysical effects. The authors draw parameterizations in terms of midcloud temperature T{sub m} and physical cloud thickness {Delta}z for epsilon and {tau}: both macrophysical variables are needed to adequately address the impact of the adiabatic process on ice cloud content, which modulates radiative transfer as a function of temperature. For the total cirrus dataset, the authors find epsilon = 1 -exp [-8.5 x 10{sup -5} (T{sub m} + 80 C) {Delta}z]. These parameterizations, based on a uniquely comprehensive dataset, hold the potential for improving weather and climate model predictions, and satellite cloud property retrieval methods.

  12. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment. Calibration version: FIRE King 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Laboratory tests during the FIRE Cirrus field experiment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and from the hemisphere to the MAS. The purpose of this report is to summarize the FIRE-Cirrus hemisphere calibration, and then describe how the MAS was calibrated from observations of the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented, and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. Thermal sensitivity of the MAS visible and near-infrared calibration is also discussed. Typically, the MAS in-flight is 30 to 60 degrees C colder than the room temperature laboratory calibration. Results from in-flight temperature measurements and tests of the MAS in a cold chamber are given, and from these, equations are derived to adjust the MAS in-flight data to what the value would be at laboratory conditions. For FIRE-Cirrus data, only channels 3 through 6 were found to be temperature sensitive. The final section of this report describes comparisons to an independent MAS (room temperature) calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere.

  13. Retrieval and Validation of Cirrus Cloud Properties with the Far-Infrared Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. Franklin

    2004-01-01

    This grant supported the principal investigator's analysis of data obtained during CRYSTAL-FACE by two submillimeter-wave radiometers: the Far-Infrared Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC) and the Conical Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR). The PI led the overall FIRSC investigation, though Co-I Michael Vanek led the instrument component at NASA Langley. The overall CoSSIR investigation was led by James Wang at NASA Goddard, but the cirrus retrieval and validation was performed at the University of Colorado. The goal of this research was to demonstrate the submillimeter-wave cirrus cloud remote sensing technique, provide retrievals of ice water path (IWP) and median mass particle diameter (D(sub me)), and perform validation of the cirrus retrievals using other CRYSTAL-FACE datasets.

  14. Study of microphysical and radiative properties of contrail cirrus using large-eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoli, Roberto; Thouron, Odile; Cariolle, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Contrails are ice clouds that form by condensation of water vapor exhaust from aircraft engines and develop further in the wake as they are entrained by the airplane trailing vortices. When contrails spread to form contrail cirrus, they can persist for hours resulting in additional (artificial) cloud cover that adds to the cover due to natural cirrus. This talk presents recent results from large-eddy situations (LES) of contrail cirrus dispersion that are carried out using the atmospheric model Méso-NH. The objective is to investigate whether and how the ambient conditions and the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals (e.g. shape, albedo), affect the three-dimensional structure and the overall microphysical and radiative characteristics of the contrail. The analysis is carried out by changing the radiative properties of the atmosphere (e.g. day/night conditions) for a given level of atmospheric turbulence. The turbulent field is generated by means of a stochastic forcing technique that reproduces the atmospheric conditions encountered in the upper troposphere. In addition to helping understanding the physics of contrails, the LES data retrieved from this study may provide useful inputs to the parameterization of contrail cirrus into global or climate models.

  15. Correlations among the Optical Properties of Cirrus-Cloud Particles: Microphysical Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Hess, M.; McGee, T. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Cirrus measurements obtained with a ground-based polarization Raman lidar at 67.9 deg N in January 1997 reveal a strong positive correlation between the particle optical properties, specifically depolarization ratio delta(sub par) and extinction- to-backscatter (lidar) ratio S, for delta(sub par) less than approximately 40%, and an anti-correlation for delta(sub par) greater than approximately 40%. Over the length of the measurements the particle properties vary systematically. Initially, delta (sub par) approximately equals 60% and S approximately equals 10sr are observed. Then, with decreasing delta(sub par), S first increases to approximately 27sr (delta(sub par) approximately equals 40%) before decreasing to values around 10sr again (delta(sub par) approximately equals 20%). The analysis of lidar humidity and radiosonde temperature data shows that the measured optical properties stem from scattering by dry solid ice particles, while scattering by supercooled droplets, or by wetted or subliming ice particles can be excluded. For the microphysical interpretation of the lidar measurements, ray-tracing computations of particle scattering properties have been used. The comparison with the theoretical data suggests that the observed cirrus data can be interpreted in terms of size, shape, and, under the assumption that the lidar measurements of consecutive cloud segments can be mapped on the temporal development of a single cloud parcel moving along its trajectory, growth of the cirrus particles: Near the cloud top in the early stage of cirrus development, light scattering by nearly isometric particles that have the optical characteristics of hexagonal columns (short, column-like particles) is dominant. Over time the ice particles grow, and as the cloud base height extends to lower altitudes characterized by warmer temperatures they become morphologically diverse. For large S and depolarization values of approximately 40%, the scattering contributions of column- and

  16. Comparisons of cirrus cloud microphysical properties between polluted and pristine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Minghui; Schumann, Ulrich; Minikin, Andreas; Jensen, Jorgen

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds occur in the upper troposphere at altitudes where atmospheric radiative forcing is most sensitive to perturbations of water vapor concentration and water phase. The formation of cirrus clouds influences the distributions of water in both vapor and ice forms. The radiative properties of cirrus depend strongly on particle sizes. Currently it is still unclear how the formation of cirrus clouds and their microphysical properties are influenced by anthropogenic emissions (e.g., industrial emission and biomass burning). If anthropogenic emissions influence cirrus formation in a significant manner, then one should expect a systematic difference in cirrus properties between pristine (clean) air and polluted air. Because of the pollution contrasts between the Southern (SH) and Northern Hemispheres (NH), cirrus properties could have hemispheric differences as well. Therefore, we study high-resolution (~200 m), in-situ observations from two global flight campaigns: 1) the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) global campaign in 2009-2011 funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), and 2) the Interhemispheric Differences In Cirrus Properties from Anthropogenic Emissions (INCA) campaign in 2000 funded by the European Union and participating research institutions. To investigate the changes of cirrus clouds by anthropogenic emissions, we compare ice crystal distributions in polluted and pristine air, in terms of their frequency occurrence, number concentration (Nc) and mean diameter (i.e., effective-mean Deff and volume-mean Dc). Total aerosol concentration is used to represent the combined influence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, measured carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratio is used to discriminate between polluted and pristine air masses. All analyses are restricted to temperatures ≤ -40°C to exclude mixed-phased clouds. The HIPPO campaign observations were obtained over the North America continent and the central Pacific Ocean

  17. A theoretical and observational study of the radiative properties of cirrus: Results from FIRE 1986. [FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Stackhouse, P.W. Jr.; Stephens, G.L. )

    1991-09-15

    A two-steam radiative transfer model is used to examine the radiative properties of cirrus clouds and compare simulations with the observations made during the cirrus FIRE IFO. The sensitivity of cirrus cloud radiative properties to altitude and size distribution changes are examined. The net radiative effect of cirrus in the infrared is largely determined by the amount of ice in the cloud and the surface-cloud base temperature different (and thus altitude). Increases (decreases) of this temperature difference produce a net radiative heating (cooling). Cloud-top solar heating increases (decrease) with increasing (decreasing) altitude as the optical path of the atmosphere above the cloud layer decreases (increases). The impact of varying concentrations of ice particles less than 100 [mu]m in diameter is also examined. The addition of these particles greatly enhances the longwave absorption and shortwave albedo of cirrus clouds in a manner that is spectrally dependent. Model simulations using observed microphysical and environmental conditions are compared to measured cirrus cloud radiative properties. Although cloud inhomogeneties are shown to be quite large, broad agreement in the cloud emittance is found between the highly uncertain observations of FIRE, other aircraft observations, and model simulations. Similar comparisons of the solar albedo reveal cirrus clouds to be significantly brighter than predicted by the model. Possible explanations of this brightening anomaly suggest that it may not be possible to use Mie scattering to model the cloud albedo. 43 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Q.; Sun, W.B.; Yang, P.

    1998-09-01

    An accurate parameterization is presented for the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds. For the single-scattering calculations, a composite scheme is developed for randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals by comparing results from Mie theory, anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), the geometric optics method (GOM), and the finite-difference time domain technique. This scheme employs a linear combination of single-scattering properties from the Mie theory, ADT, and GOM, which is accurate for a wide range of size parameters. Following the approach of Q. Fu, the extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and asymmetry factor are parameterized as functions of the cloud ice water content and generalized effective size (D{sub ge}). The present parameterization of the single-scattering properties of cirrus clouds is validated by examining the bulk radiative properties for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Compared with reference results, the typical relative error in emissivity due to the parameterization is {approximately}2.2%. The accuracy of this parameterization guarantees its reliability in applications to climate models. The present parameterization complements the scheme for the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds developed by Q. Fu for use in numerical models.

  19. Laboratory study of microphysical and scattering properties of corona-producing cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, E; Vochezer, P; Möhler, O; Schnaiter, M

    2014-11-01

    Corona-producing cirrus clouds were generated and measured under chamber conditions at the AIDA cloud chamber in Karlsruhe. We were able to measure the scattering properties as well as microphysical properties of these clouds under well-defined laboratory conditions in contrast with previous studies of corona-producing clouds, where the measurements were conducted by means of lidar and in situ aircraft measurements. Our results are in agreement with those of previous studies, confirming that corona-producing cirrus clouds consist of a narrow distribution of small (median Dp=19-32  μm) and compact ice crystals. We showed that the ice crystals in these clouds are most likely formed in homogeneous freezing processes. As a result of the homogeneous freezing process, the ice crystals grow uniformly in size; furthermore, the majority of the ice crystals have rough surface features. PMID:25402925

  20. A microphysics guide to cirrus clouds - Part 1: Cirrus types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, M.; Rolf, C.; Luebke, A.; Afchine, A.; Spelten, N.; Costa, A.; Zöger, M.; Smith, J.; Herman, R.; Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.; Baumgardner, D.; Borrmann, S.; Klingebiel, M.; Avallone, L.

    2015-11-01

    The microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds continue to be beyond understanding and thus still represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013). Our study aims to provide a guide to cirrus microphysics, which is compiled from an extensive set of model simulations, covering the broad range of atmospheric conditions for cirrus formation and evolution. The model results are portrayed in the same parameter space as field measurements, i.e. in the Ice Water Content-Temperature (IWC-T) parameter space. We validate this cirrus analysis approach by evaluating cirrus data sets from seventeen aircraft campaigns, conducted in the last fifteen years, spending about 94 h in cirrus over Europe, Australia, Brazil as well as Southern and Northern America. Altogether, the approach of this study is to track cirrus IWC development with temperature by means of model simulations, compare with observations and then assign, to a certain degree, cirrus microphysics to the observations. Indeed, the field observations show characteristics expected from the simulated cirrus guide. For example, high/low IWCs are found together with high/low ice crystal concentrations Nice. An important finding from our study is the classification of two types of cirrus with differing formation mechanisms and microphysical properties: the first cirrus type is rather thin with lower IWCs and forms directly as ice (in-situ origin cirrus). The second type consists predominantly of thick cirrus originating from mixed phase clouds (i.e. via freezing of liquid droplets - liquid origin cirrus), which are completely glaciated while lifting to the cirrus formation temperature region (< 235 K). In the European field campaigns, in-situ origin cirrus occur frequently at slow updrafts in low and high pressure systems, but also in conjunction with faster updrafts. Also, liquid origin cirrus mostly related to warm conveyor belts are found. In the US and tropical

  1. TTL cirrus ice water content--extinction relationships from ATTREX measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Woods, Sarah; Bui, Thaopaul; Gao, Ru-Shan

    2016-04-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of the globe and play a significant role in the radiative balance of the Earth system, but remain a source of uncertainty since their net radiative effect varies depending on their microphysical properties. Cirrus are particularly prevalent in the tropical central and western Pacific, where they form at the extremely cold temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and result in dehydration of air as it rises into the stratosphere. TTL cirrus typically exhibit low ice number concentrations and small particles relative to mid-latitude cirrus, resulting in significantly lower ice water contents (IWC). Lidar observations of TTL cirrus produce measurements of volume extinction (σ) and rely on empirically derived relationships to calculate cloud IWC. To date, TTL cirrus σ-IWC relationships have been extrapolated from measurements of mid-latitude, higher temperature clouds, or based on a limited number of observations within TTL cirrus. In this analysis we use measurements of cirrus extinction and IWC acquired during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) mission in the TTL over the western Pacific to derive new relationships between these parameters for TTL cirrus that can be used to improve the determination of TTL IWC from satellite, airborne and ground-based lidar. ATTREX yielded more than 24 hours of sampling in TTL cirrus at temperatures below 203 K (-70° C). Cirrus clouds were encountered at altitudes between 14.5 km and 17.5 km with IWC down to the ˜2 μg m‑3 detection limit of the NOAA Water instrument and water vapor mixing ratios as low as 1.5 ppm. Most TTL cirrus sampled had ice number concentrations (INC) less than 100 L‑1, and very few had INC of more than 1000 L‑1. σ values measured by the in situ cloud probes ranged from < 10‑6 m‑1 to ˜10‑3 m‑1.

  2. Retrieval of cirrus cloud properties from comparative analyses of aircraft and satellite measurements made during the 1986 FIRE IFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Philip D.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Kinne, Stefan; Hein, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparison of cirrus cloud properties obtained from aircraft measurements made during the FIRE Intensive Field Observations and Landsat 5 and NOAA-9 observations carried out during several near coincident overpasses by these satellites. Results of the analyses of these measurements and a comparison between measurements and model calculations were used to determine particle sizes within cirrus clouds and the IR optical depths.

  3. Optical and microphysical properties of a cold cirrus cloud - Evidence for regions of small ice particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, C. M. R.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Hart, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    An airborne lidar and a scanning radiometer aboard an ER-2 aircraft were used to observe a cold cirrus cloud, and a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) was used to obtain simultaneous in situ microphysical observations at two altitudes within the cloud. Lidar depolarization ratio data show that the clouds were composed predominantly of ice crystals. At an altitude where the temperature was -62.7 C, the lidar and radiometer analysis gave a visible extinction to infrared absorption ratio (alpha) of 2.3, while the cloud microphysics data provided an alpha value of 3.77. The discrepancy is attributed to undersizing of particles by the FSSP. Direct and remote measurements showed better agreement for a lower layer where the temperature was -47.3 C.

  4. Contrail Cirrus Parameterization in the UK Met Office Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rap, A.; Forster, P.; Dobbie, S.

    2011-12-01

    Air travel and its associated emissions are growing faster than other sectors and they are predicted to contribute a significant warming of climate over the coming century. According to current best estimates, the largest single radiative forcing component associated with aviation is due to aviation-induced cloudiness (AIC), which includes contrail cirrus and changes in the natural cirrus caused by air traffic. However, there is still a high level of uncertainty associated with these, and limited estimates for the forcing of the total effect of aviation induced cloudiness exist. This study, as part of the Contrails Spreading into Cirrus (COSIC) project, aimed to build a physically based parameterization of contrails spreading into cirrus within the UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) and thus to give an independent estimate of the climate impact of AIC. In-situ observations of contrails properties and their spreading have been performed during a series of flights with the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. These observations were used in the development of the parameterization, which simulates contrail formation and ageing interactively with the natural cirrus module within the UM. Based on this new parameterisation, estimates of global contrail cirrus coverage, optical depth, and radiative forcing are given, investigating also the contrail effect on the natural cirrus cloud and contrail saturation regional effects of future air traffic growth.

  5. Sensitivity of cirrus cloud radiative properties to ice crystal size and shape in general circulation model simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.L.; Kristjansson, J.E.; Newman, M.J.

    1995-04-01

    Recent research has shown that the radiative properties of cirrus clouds (i.e., optical depth, albedo, emissivity) depend on the shapes and sizes of ice crystals. For instance, the cloud albedo may vary by a factor of two, depending on whether hexagonal columns or bullet rosette ice crystals are assumed for a given ice water path (IWP). This variance occurs primarily because, at sizes characteristic of cirrus clouds, bullet rosettes have less mass than columns of the same size. However, their projected areas may be comparable. Thus, for a given IWP and mean cloud ice particle size, the optical depth will be considerably greater for rosettes, since many more rosettes are required to account for the IWP than are columns. The same could be said of hexagonal plates and columns, with plates exhibiting the greater optical depth. Satellite information suggests that the albedos of tropical cirrus clouds are greater than those of midlatitude cirrus, with albedos as high as 60%-80%. The reasons for this are not understood, but might be attributed in part to differences in ice particle size and shape. For instance, in the tropical western Pacific, ice crystal size distributions in cirrus near the tropopause exhibited median mass dimensions (D{sub m} around 30 {mu}m) and contained planar polycrystals. Very small ice crystals (typically 10 {mu}m, often ranging from about 2 {mu}m - 100 {mu}m) of indeterminate shape were sampled in anvil cirrus by an ice particle replicator in this region during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE). If fewer columnar ice crystals were present in tropical versus midlatitude cirrus and/or sizes were smaller, tropical cirrus should exhibit greater size distribution projected area, producing greater optical depth, albedo, and emissivity for the same IWP. Smaller crystal sizes would also promote higher albedos via enhanced backscattering.

  6. A microphysics guide to cirrus clouds - Part 1: Cirrus types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Martina; Rolf, Christian; Luebke, Anna; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Costa, Anja; Meyer, Jessica; Zöger, Martin; Smith, Jessica; Herman, Robert L.; Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker; Baumgardner, Darrel; Borrmann, Stephan; Klingebiel, Marcus; Avallone, Linnea

    2016-03-01

    The microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds continue to be beyond understanding and thus still represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013). Our study aims to provide a guide to cirrus microphysics, which is compiled from an extensive set of model simulations, covering the broad range of atmospheric conditions for cirrus formation and evolution. The model results are portrayed in the same parameter space as field measurements, i.e., in the Ice Water Content-Temperature (IWC-T) parameter space. We validate this cirrus analysis approach by evaluating cirrus data sets from 17 aircraft campaigns, conducted in the last 15 years, spending about 94 h in cirrus over Europe, Australia, Brazil as well as South and North America. Altogether, the approach of this study is to track cirrus IWC development with temperature by means of model simulations, compare with observations and then assign, to a certain degree, cirrus microphysics to the observations. Indeed, the field observations show characteristics expected from the simulated Cirrus Guide. For example, high (low) IWCs are found together with high (low) ice crystal concentrations Nice. An important finding from our study is the classification of two types of cirrus with differing formation mechanisms and microphysical properties: the first cirrus type forms directly as ice (in situ origin cirrus) and splits in two subclasses, depending on the prevailing strength of the updraft: in slow updrafts these cirrus are rather thin with lower IWCs, while in fast updrafts thicker cirrus with higher IWCs can form. The second type consists predominantly of thick cirrus originating from mixed phase clouds (i.e., via freezing of liquid droplets - liquid origin cirrus), which are completely glaciated while lifting to the cirrus formation temperature region (< 235 K). In the European field campaigns, slow updraft in situ origin cirrus occur frequently in low- and high

  7. Optical property retrievals of subvisual cirrus clouds from OSIRIS limb-scatter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiensz, J. T.; Degenstein, D. A.; Lloyd, N. D.; Bourassa, A. E.

    2012-08-01

    We present a technique for retrieving the optical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds detected by OSIRIS, a limb-viewing satellite instrument that measures scattered radiances from the UV to the near-IR. The measurement set is composed of a ratio of limb radiance profiles at two wavelengths that indicates the presence of cloud-scattering regions. Optical properties from an in-situ database are used to simulate scattering by cloud-particles. With appropriate configurations discussed in this paper, the SASKTRAN successive-orders of scatter radiative transfer model is able to simulate accurately the in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. Configured in this way, the model is used with a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) to retrieve the cloud extinction profile for an assumed effective cloud particle size. The sensitivity of these retrievals to key auxiliary model parameters is shown, and it is demonstrated that the retrieved extinction profile models accurately the measured in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. Since OSIRIS has an 11-yr record of subvisual cirrus cloud detections, the work described in this manuscript provides a very useful method for providing a long-term global record of the properties of these clouds.

  8. Simulation study of the remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds from satellite IR measurements.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Zhang, J

    1995-05-20

    Improved ray-optics theory and Mie theory for single scattering and an adding-doubling method for multiple scattering have been used to study the interaction of radiation in NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder Satellite (VAS) IR channels and the microphysics of inhomogeneous cirrus clouds. The simulation study shows that crystal shape has remarkable effects on scattering and on the radiative-transfer properties of cirrus clouds in IR spectra. The sensitivity of the brightness temperature, as observed with VAS-IR channels, to the hexagonal columns and plates in cirrus clouds is noticeable. A method that permits one to infer the optical thickness, crystal shape, ice-water content,and emittance of cirrus clouds by using a multi-IR window channel with a scanning observation technique is developed. Detailed error analyses are carried out, and the characteristics of VAS-IR window channels are investigated through the examination of the effects of sea-surface reflection and variations in the temperature and water-vapor profiles on the VAS measurements. It is shown that these effects are large and need to be considered. Some uncertainties that have risen from the theoretical model are studied; they demonstrate that the Mie-scattering theory should not be used to retrieve the microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. A suitable cloud-microphysics model and a suitable scattering model are needed instead. PMID:21052418

  9. Simulation study of the remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds from satellite IR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lisheng; Zhang, Jianyun

    1995-05-01

    Improved ray-optics theory and Mie theory for single scattering and an adding-doubling method for multiple scattering have been used to study the interaction of radiation in NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder Satellite (VAS) IR channels and the microphysics of inhomogeneous cirrus clouds. The simulation study shows that crystal shape has remarkable effects on scattering and on the radiative-transfer properties of cirrus clouds in IR spectra. The sensitivity of the brightness temperature, as observed with VAS-IR channels, to the hexagonal columns and plates in cirrus clouds is noticeable. A method that permits one to infer the optical thickness, crystal shape, ice-water content, and emittance of cirrus clouds by using a multi-IR window channel with a scanning observation technique is developed. Detailed error analyses are carried out, and the characteristics of VAS-IR window channels are investigated through the examination of the effects of sea-surface reflection and variations in the temperature and water-vapor profiles on the VAS measurements. It is shown that these effects are large and need to be considered. Some uncertainties that have risen from the theoretical model are studied; they demonstrate that the Mie-scattering theory should not be used to retrieve the microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. A suitable cloud-microphysics model and a suitable scattering model are needed instead.

  10. Macrophysical Properties of Tropical Cirrus Clouds from the CALIPSO Satellite and from Ground-based Micropulse and Raman Lidars

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, D.; Turner, David D.

    2013-08-27

    Lidar observations of cirrus cloud macrophysical properties over the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Darwin, Australia site are compared from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and In- frared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the ground-based ARM micropulse lidar (MPL), and the ARM Raman lidar (RL). Comparisons are made using the subset of profiles where the lidar beam is not fully attenuated. Daytime measurements using the RL are shown to be relatively unaffected by the solar background and are therefore suited for checking the validity of diurnal cycles. RL and CALIPSO cloud fraction profiles show good agreement while the MPL detects significantly less cirrus, particularly during the daytime. Both MPL and CALIPSO observations show that cirrus clouds occur less frequently during the day than at night at all altitudes. In contrast, the RL diurnal cy- cle is significantly different than zero only below about 11 km; where it is the opposite sign (i.e. more clouds during the daytime). For cirrus geomet- rical thickness, the MPL and CALIPSO observations agree well and both datasets have signficantly thinner clouds during the daytime than the RL. From the examination of hourly MPL and RL cirrus cloud thickness and through the application of daytime detection limits to all CALIPSO data we find that the decreased MPL and CALIPSO cloud thickness during the daytime is very likely a result of increased daytime noise. This study highlights the vast im- provement the RL provides (compared to the MPL) in the ARM program's ability to observe tropical cirrus clouds as well as a valuable ground-based lidar dataset for the validation of CALIPSO observations and to help im- prove our understanding of tropical cirrus clouds.

  11. (abstract) Infrared Cirrus and Future Space Based Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the known properties of the distribution of infrared cirrus is followed by a discussion of the implications of cirrus on observations from space. Probable limitations on space observations due to IR cirrus.

  12. 16-year Climatology of Cirrus cloud properties using ground-based Lidar over Gadanki (13.45˚N, 79.18˚E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Amit Kumar; Raghunath, Karnam; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Gadhavi, Harish

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous high level cold clouds predominantly consisting of ice-crystals. With their highest coverage over the tropics, these are one of the most vital and complex components of Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) due to their strong radiative feedback and dehydration in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) regions. The continuous changes in their coverage, position, thickness, and ice-crystal size and shape distributions bring uncertainties in the estimates of cirrus cloud radiative forcing. Long-term changes in the distribution of aerosols and water vapour in the TTL can influence cirrus properties. This necessitates long-term studies of tropical cirrus clouds, which are only few. The present study provides 16-year climatology of physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds observed using a ground-based Lidar located at Gadanki (13.45(°) N, 79.18(°) ˚E and 375 m amsl) in south-India. In general, cirrus clouds occurred for about 44% of the total Lidar observation time. Owing to the increased convective activities, the occurrence of cirrus clouds during the southwest-monsoon season is highest while it is lowest during the winter. Altitude distribution of cirrus clouds reveals that the peak occurrence was about 25% at 14.5 km. The most probable base and top height of cirrus clouds are 14 and 15.5 km, respectively. This is also reflected in the bulk extinction coefficient profile (at 532 nm) of cirrus clouds. These results are compared with the CALIPSO observations. Most of the time cirrus clouds are located within the TTL bounded by convective outflow level and cold-point tropopause. Cirrus clouds are thick during the monsoon season as compared to that during winter. An inverse relation between the thickness of cirrus clouds and TTL thickness is found. The occurrence of cirrus clouds at an altitude close to the tropopause (16 km) showed an increase of 8.4% in the last 16 years. Base and top heights of cirrus clouds also showed

  13. Comparison of Reflected Solar Radiance Using Aqua Modis and Airborne Remote Sensing (case : Deep Convective Clouds and Cirrus Clouds)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisna, T. C.; Ehrlich, A.; Werner, F.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) have key role in the tropical region. Despite they only have small spatial coverage, but they account most of the total precipitation in these region which often make flooding. There are such of aviation accidents caused by strong vertical wind, hailing, icing and lightning inside the clouds. Pollutions caused by biomass burning and land degradation can change the aerosol properties as well as cloud properties, therefore will influence the radiation and formation of the DCCs. Those are the major reasons that better understanding of DCCs formation and life cycle are necessary. Between Sept. 01 - Oct. 14, ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Concevtive Clouds Systems) campaign was conducted over Amazonia. It is suitable area to be the site-study due to has strong contrast environtment (pristine and polluted), regular convection activities and stable meteorological condition. In this study we focus on the 2 satellite validation missions designed to fly collocated but in different altitude with A-TRAIN constellation. In order to study DCCs-solar radiation interaction, we use SMART (Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation Measurements System) installed on HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) which measures spectral Irradiance (F) and Radiance (I) at the wavelength between 300-2200 nm corresponding to satellite. Due to the limitation in spatial and temporal, airborne measurements only give snapshots of atmosphere condition and DCCs formation, therefore we use multi-satellite data as DCCs have high vertical and horizontal distance, long temporal development and complex form. The comparison of AQUA MODIS and SMART Radiance at 645 nm (non-absorbing) in the clear-sky condition gives strong agreement, but in the multilayer-cloud condition gives worse and results in high underestimation (-86%) in SMART data especially at lower altitude. The bias is caused by interference from clouds

  14. A Microphysics Guide to Cirrus Clouds - Part I: Cirrus Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Martina; Rolf, Christian; Anna, Luebke; Armin, Afchine; Nicole, Spelten; Anja, Costa; Jessica, Meyer; Martin, Zöger; Jessica, Smith; Robert, Herman; Bernhard, Buchholz; Volker, Ebert; Darrel, Baumgardner; Stephan, Borrmann; Marcus, Klingebiel; Linnea, Avallone

    2016-04-01

    The microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds continue to be beyond understanding and thus still represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013). Our study provides a guide to cirrus microphysics, which is compiled from an extensive set of model simulations, covering the broad range of atmospheric conditions for cirrus formation and evolution (Krämer et al., 2015, ACPD). The model results are portrayed in the same parameter space as field measurements, i.e. in the Ice Water Content-Temperature (IWC-T) parameter space. We validate this cirrus analysis approach by evaluating cirrus data sets from seventeen aircraft campaigns, conducted in the last fifteen years, spending about 94 h in cirrus over Europe, Australia, Brazil as well as Southern and Northern America. Altogether, the approach of this study is to track cirrus IWC development with temperature by means of model simulations, compare with observations and then assign, to a certain degree, cirrus microphysics to the observations. Indeed, the field observations show characteristics expected from the simulated cirrus guide. For example, high/low IWCs are found together with high/low ice crystal concentrations. An important finding from our study is the classification of two types of cirrus with differing formation mechanisms and microphysical properties: the first cirrus type is rather thin with lower IWCs and forms directly as ice (in-situ origin cirrus). The second type consists predominantly of thick cirrus originating from mixed phase clouds (i.e. via freezing of liquid droplets - liquid origin cirrus), which are completely glaciated while lifting to the cirrus formation temperature region (< 235 K). In the European field campaigns, in-situ origin cirrus occur frequently at slow updrafts in low and high pressure systems, but also in conjunction with faster updrafts. Also, liquid origin cirrus mostly related to warm conveyor belts are found. In

  15. [Radiative Properties of Cirrus Clouds Based on Hexagonal and Spherical Ice Crystals Models].

    PubMed

    Husltu; Bao, Yu-hai; Xu, Jian; Qing, Song; Bao, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Single scattering properties for spherical and hexagonal ice crystal models with different size parameters and wavelengths were employed to calculate satellite observed radiation and downward flux in ground surface using RSTAR radiative transfer model. Results indicated that simulated satellite observed radiation and ground surface downward radiant flux from different shapes of ice crystal models were different. The difference in the spectral radiation fluxes between 0. 4 and 1. 0 µm was largest, and particle shapes affected the downward radiant flux significantly. It was verified that the proper selection of the effective ice crystal model is not only important for retrieval of the microphysical and optical parameters of the cirrus cloud, but also important for obtaining the radiant flux on the earth's surface correctly. These results are important for retrieving cloud microphysical parameters and simulation of the ground surface downward radiant flux. PMID:26415420

  16. Improved retrievals of the optical properties of cirrus clouds by a combination of lidar methods.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Bertrand; Giraud, Vincent; Haeffelin, Martial; Keckhut, Philippe; Rechou, Anne; Baldy, Serge

    2005-03-20

    We focus on improvement of the retrieval of optical properties of cirrus clouds by combining two lidar methods. We retrieve the cloud's optical depth by using independently the molecular backscattering profile below and above the cloud [molecular integration (MI) method] and the backscattering profile inside the cloud with an a priori effective lidar ratio [particle integration (PI) method]. When the MI method is reliable, the combined MI-PI method allows us to retrieve the optimal effective lidar ratio. We compare these results with Raman lidar retrievals. We then use the derived optimal effective lidar ratio for retrieval with the PI method for situations in which the MI method cannot be applied. PMID:15818860

  17. Analysis of cirrus optical properties with data from NASA ER2 High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L.; Ackerman, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    The 8 to 13 micron spectral region is an important atmospheric window for radiometric studies of the Earth's surface and clouds. Most of the Earth-atmosphere longwave radiative loss to space occurs in this spectral region. Selective gaseous absorption in this window occurs in the 9.6 micron ozone band with the remaining absorption dominated by the water vapor continuum. Cirrus clouds have a large impact on the transmittance of this atmospheric window region; it is therefore important to understand the interaction of cirrus cloud with the radiation field for climate studies and in the interpretation of satellite radiometric measurements. The focus was to employ observations of the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) made during First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) to improve the understanding of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds within this window region. Studies were undertaken to investigate the coupling between the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and their spectral variation within this window region. Extensions of the HIS studies to satellite measurements, with regards to remote sensing and interpretation, were also investigated.

  18. A Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Part V. Cloud Structural Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, Kenneth; Wang, Likun; Starr, David O.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Quante, Markus

    2007-07-31

    In this fifth of a series of papers describing the extended-time high cloud observation program from the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, the structural properties of cirrus clouds over Salt Lake City, Utah, are examined. Wavelet analysis is applied as a function of cloud height to a 10-y record of ruby (0.694 um) lidar backscattering data collected from visually-identified cirrus clouds to study the presence of periodic cloud structures, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, cirrus mammata, and uncinus cells (all with wavelengths of ~1-10 km), as well as longer mesoscale cloud organizations. Approximately 8.4% (18.8%, 30.8%) of the data display such periodic structures after passing a 95% (75%, 50%) confidence level test. This may signify that most cloud organizations are quasi-periodic in nature. The amount of lidar cloud data showing periodic structures does not change considerably with length scale between 0.2 to 200 km, although a preference for ~20-km mesoscale cloud structures is indicated. Using time series of vertically-integrated lidar backscattering profiles, we find a steady decrease in autocorrelation coefficients starting at a few kilometers as the length (or model grid) scale increases. Examining the variability of cirrus cloud optical depth t from an earlier LIRAD (combined lidar and infrared radiometer) analysis reveals that the standard deviation σ of t is related by σ = 0.36 t.

  19. Radiative Properties of Cirrus Clouds in the Infrared (8-13 microns) Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ping; Gao, Bo-Cai; Baum, Bryan A.; Hu, Yong X.; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Winker, Dave M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric radiation in the infrared (IR) 8-13 microns spectral region contains a wealth of information that is very useful for the retrieval of ice cloud properties from aircraft or space-borne measurements. To provide the scattering and absorption properties of nonspherical ice crystals that are fundamental to the IR retrieval implementation, we use the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method to solve for the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, and the asymmetry parameter of the phase function for ice crystals smaller than 40 microns. For particles larger than this size, the improved geometric optics method (IGOM) can be employed to calculate the asymmetry parameter with an acceptable accuracy, provided that we properly account for the inhomogeneity of the refracted wave due to strong absorption inside the ice particle. A combination of the results computed from the two methods provides the asymmetry parameter for the entire practical range of particle sizes between 1 micron and 10000 microns over wavelengths ranging from 8 microns to 13 microns. For the extinction and absorption efficiency calculations, several methods including the IGOM, Mie solution for equivalent spheres (MSFES), and the anomalous diffraction theory (ADT) can lead to a substantial discontinuity in comparison with the FDTD solutions for particle sizes on the order of 40 microns. To overcome this difficulty, we have developed a novel approach called the stretched scattering potential method (SSPM). For the IR 8-13 microns spectral region, we show that SSPM is a more accurate approximation than ADT, MSFES, and IGOM. The SSPM solution can be further refined numerically. Through a combination of the FDTD and SSPM, we have computed the extinction and absorption efficiency for hexagonal ice crystals with sizes ranging from 1 to 10000 microns at 12 wavelengths between 8 and 13 microns Calculations of the cirrus bulk scattering and absorption properties are performed for 30 size

  20. Radiative properties of visible and subvisible Cirrus: Scattering on hexagonal ice crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatau, Piotr J.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Draine, Bruce T.

    1990-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) is to provide a better understanding of the physics of upper level clouds. The focus is on just one specific aspect of cirrus physics, namely on characterizing the radiative properties of single, nonspherical ice particles. The basis for further more extensive studies of the radiative transfer through upper level clouds is provided. Radiation provides a potential mechanism for strong feedback between the divergence of in-cloud radiative flux and the cloud microphysics and ultimately on the dynamics of the cloud. Some aspects of ice cloud microphysics that are relevant to the radiation calculations are described. Next, the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) is introduced and some new results of scattering by irregular crystals are presented. The Anomalous Diffraction Theory (ADT) was adopted to investigate the scattering properties of even larger crystals. In this way the scattering properties of nonspherical particles were determined over a range of particle sizes.

  1. “Using Statistical Comparisons between SPartICus Cirrus Microphysical Measurements, Detailed Cloud Models, and GCM Cloud Parameterizations to Understand Physical Processes Controlling Cirrus Properties and to Improve the Cloud Parameterizations”

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The dual objectives of this project were improving our basic understanding of processes that control cirrus microphysical properties and improvement of the representation of these processes in the parameterizations. A major effort in the proposed research was to integrate, calibrate, and better understand the uncertainties in all of these measurements.

  2. Polar Cirrus Cloud Properties Through Long-Term Lidar and Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Campbell, James; Mahesh, Ashwin; Welton, Judd; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In comparison to mid latitude cloud cover, knowledge of polar cirrus and other cloud cover is limited. The interpretations of satellite-based cloud imaging and retrievals in polar regions have major problems due to factors such as darkness and extreme low temperatures. Beginning in 2002 a NASA orbiting lidar instrument, GLAS, (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) will unambiguously define cloud type and fraction with good coverage of polar regions. Active laser sensing gives the spatial and temporal distribution of clouds and diamond dust. In preparation for, and supplementing the GLAS measurements are ground based MP (micro pulse) lidar experiments providing continuous profiling. MP lidar installations have been operating at the South Pole since December 1999 and at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program arctic site since 1996. Both at the ARM Barrow, Alaska site and at the South Pole station, Fourier-transform interferometers also observe clouds in the wavelength intervals between approximately 5 and 18 microns. Spectral instruments can yield cloud microphysical properties with additional information from lidar about the vertical extent of clouds being modeled. We examine the simultaneous lidar and spectral data from both Barrow and South Pole, to obtain cloud properties (optical depth, particle size) by the use of both instruments. The results have applications to interpretation of current satellite data, and GLAS measurements when available.

  3. Inhomogeneous cirrus clouds during the AIRTOSS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Matthias; Spichtinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    . Clarifying the dominant sources and mechanisms of cirrus cloud formation. Science, 340(6138):1320-1324, June 2013. [2] W. Frey, H. Eichler, M. de Reus, R. Maser, M. Wendisch, and S. Borrmann. A new airborne tandem platform for collocated measurements of microphysical cloud and radiation properties. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2(1):147-158, 2009. [3] P. Spichtinger and K. M. Gierens. Modelling of cirrus clouds part 1a: Model description and validation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(2):685-706, 2009. [4] H. Wernli and H. C. Davies. A lagrangian-based analysis of extratropical cyclones .1. the method and some applications. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 123(538):467-489, January 1997.

  4. Evaluation of Cirrus Cloud Properties Derived from MODIS Data Using Cloud Properties Derived from Ground-Based Observations Collected at the ARM SGP Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Zhang, Yuying; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Minnis, Patrick; Yang, Ping

    2005-02-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra satellite has been collecting global data since March 2000 and the one on the Aqua satellite since June 2002. In this paper, cirrus cloud properties derived from ground-based remote sensing data are compared with similar cloud properties derived from MODIS data on Terra. To improve the space-time correlation between the satellite and ground-based observations, data from a wind profiler are used to define the cloud advective streamline along which the comparisons are made. In this paper, approximately two dozen cases of cirrus are examined and a statistical approach to the comparison that relaxes the requirement that clouds occur over the ground-based instruments during the overpass instant is explored. The statistical comparison includes 168 cloudy MODIS overpasses of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region and approximately 300 h of ground-based cirrus observations. The physical and radiative properties of cloud layers are derived from MODIS data separately by the MODIS Atmospheres Team and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Science Team using multiwavelength reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation measurements. Using two ground-based cloud property retrieval algorithms and the two MODIS algorithms, a positive correlation in the effective particle size, the optical thickness, the ice water path, and the cloud-top pressure between the various methods is shown, although sometimes there are significant biases. Classifying the clouds by optical thickness, it is demonstrated that the regionally averaged cloud properties derived from MODIS are similar to those diagnosed from the ground. Because of a conservative approach toward identifying thin cirrus pixels over this region, the area-averaged cloud properties derived from the MODIS Atmospheres MOD06 product tend to be biased slightly toward the optically thicker pixels. This bias tendency has implications for

  5. Corona-producing cirrus cloud properties derived from polarization lidar and photographic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Polarization lidar data are used to demonstrate that clouds composed of hexagonal ice crystals can generate multiple-ringed colored coronas. Although relatively uncommon in the mid-latitude cirrus sample, the coronas are associated with unusual cloud conditions that appear to be effective in generating the displays. Invariably, the cirrus cloud tops are located at or slightly above elevated tropopauses at temperatures between -60 and -70 C. The cloud top region also generates relatively strong laser backscattering and unusually high 0.5-0.7 linear depolarization ratios. Color photograph analysis of corona ring angles indicates crystals with mean diameters of from 12 to 30 microns. The cirrus cloud types were mainly subvisual to thin cirrostratus, but also included fibrous cirrus. Estimated cloud optical thicknesses at the 0.694-micron laser wavelength ranged from about 0.001 to 0.2, where the upper limit reflects the effects of multiple scattering and/or unfavorable changes in particle characteristics in deep cirrus clouds.

  6. Investigation on the monthly variation of cirrus optical properties over the Indian subcontinent using cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observation (Calipso)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Krishnakumar, V.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds have been identified as one of the atmospheric component which influence the radiative processes in the atmosphere and plays a key role in the Earth Radiation Budget. CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) is a joint NASA-CNES satellite mission designed to provide insight in understanding of the role of aerosols and clouds in the climate system. This paper reports the study on the variation of cirrus cloud optical properties of over the Indian sub - continent for a period of two years from January 2009 to December 2010, using cloud-aerosol lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observations (Calipso). Indian Ocean and Indian continent is one of the regions where cirrus occurrence is maximum particularly during the monsoon periods. It is found that during the south-west monsoon periods there is a large cirrus cloud distribution over the southern Indian land masses. Also it is observed that the north-east monsoon periods had optical thick clouds hugging the coast line. The summer had large cloud formation in the Arabian Sea. It is also found that the land masses near to the sea had large cirrus presence. These cirrus clouds were of high altitude and optical depth. The dependence of cirrus cloud properties on cirrus cloud mid-cloud temperature and geometrical thickness are generally similar to the results derived from the ground-based lidar. However, the difference in macrophysical parameter variability shows the limits of space-borne-lidar and dissimilarities in regional climate variability and the nature and source of cloud nuclei in different geographical regions.

  7. Infrared radiative properties of tropical cirrus clouds inferred with aircraft measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, K. T.; Cox, S. K.; Knollenberg, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Longwave emissivities and the vertical profile of cooling rates of tropical cirrus clouds are determined using broadband hemispheric irradiance data. Additionally, a broadband mass absorption coefficient is defined and used to relate emissivity to water content. The data used were collected by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Sabreliner during the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) in the summer of 1974. Three case studies are analyzed showing that these tropical cirrus clouds approached an emissivity of 1.0 within a vertical distance of 1.0 km. Broadband mass absorption coefficients ranging from 0.076 to 0.096 sq m per g are derived. A comparison of these results with other work suggests that tropical cirrus cloud emissivities may be significantly larger than heretofore believed. Ice water content of the clouds were deduced from data collected by a one-dimensional particle spectrometer. Analyses of the ice water content and the observed particle size distributions are presented.

  8. Dual-aureole and sun spectrometer system for airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Paul; Ruhtz, Thomas; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Jürgen

    2007-12-10

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct sun irradiance and the aureole radiance in two different solid angles. The high-resolution spectral radiation measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties. Combined measurements in two solid angles provide better information about the aerosol type without additional and elaborate measuring geometries. It is even possible to discriminate between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol types. Furthermore, they allow to apply additional calibration methods and simplify the detection of contaminated data (e.g., by thin cirrus clouds). For the characterization of the detected aerosol type a new index is introduced that is the slope of the aerosol phase function in the forward scattering region. The instrumentation is a flexible modular setup, which has already been successfully applied in airborne and ground-based field campaigns. We describe the setup as well as the calibration of the instrument. In addition, example vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties--including the aureole measurements--are shown and discussed. PMID:18071387

  9. Optical properties of contrail-induced cirrus: discussion of unusual halo phenomena.

    PubMed

    Sussmann, R

    1997-06-20

    Photographs of a 120 degrees parhelion and a 22 degrees parhelion within persistent contrails are presented. These phenomena result from hexagonal plate-shaped ice crystals oriented horizontally with diameters between 300 mum and 2 mm. From our observations and reinvestigation of previous reports, we conclude that a subset of the population in persistent contrails can consist of highly regular, oriented, hexagonal plates or columns comparable to the most regular crystals in natural cirrus clouds. This is explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation conditions of natural cirrus. The resulting strong azimuthal variability of the scattering phase function impacts the radiative transfer through persistent contrails. PMID:18253447

  10. Cirrus Cloud Modeling: Overview and Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A review of cirrus cloud modeling will be given with special attention to the role of dynamical processes in regulating cloud microphysical properties and the interactions with radiative process in determining cloud lifecycle. The talk will draw heavily on the papers by Starr and Quante, Quante and Starr and Demoz et al., as well as recent results from the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2) Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison and Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison projects, as described in Starr et al. and Lin et al. Key issues in current cirrus cloud modeling will be described and discussed.

  11. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical properties determined from AIRS infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qing; Liou, K. N.

    2009-03-01

    We developed an efficient thermal infrared radiative transfer model on the basis of the delta-four-stream approximation to facilitate high-spectral-resolution remote sensing applications under cirrus cloudy conditions in the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. Numerical experiments demonstrated that sensitivity in the 800-1130 cm-1 thermal infrared window spectral region is sufficiently distinct for the inference of cirrus optical depth and ice crystal mean effective size and shape factor. We analyzed 312 nighttime cirrus pixels in two AIRS granules over ARM TWP sites and applied the radiative transfer model to these cases to determine cirrus optical depth and ice crystal mean effective size, based on a look-up table approach. The retrieval program has been evaluated through an error budget analysis and validation effort by comparing AIRS-retrieved results with those determined from ground-based millimeter-wave cloud radar data at ARM TWP sites, for five AIRS pixels that were collocated and coincident with ground-based measurements.

  12. Characterization of optical and micro-physical properties of cirrus clouds using a wideband thermal infrared spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchetti, Luca; Di Natale, Gianluca; Bianchini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    High-altitude ice clouds such as cirrus clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget since they cover permanently about 20-30% of the surface of the planet, reaching even to 60-70% in the tropics. The modulation of the incoming solar radiation and the outgoing Earth's thermal emission due to cirrus can contribute to heat or to cool the atmosphere, according to their optical properties, which must be characterised with great accuracy and over the whole spectral range involved in the scattering and emission processes. Here we present the infrared measurements over the wide spectral range from 9 to 50 micron performed by the Fourier transform spectrometer REFIR-PAD (Radiation Explorer in Far InfraRed - Prototype for Application and Development) during many field campaigns that have taken place since 2007 from different high-altitude ground-based stations: Testa Grigia Station, Cervinia-Italy, (3480 m asl), Cerro Toco, Atacama-Chile, (5380 m asl), Concordia Base, Dome C-Antarctica (3230 m asl). These measurements show for the first time the spectral effect of cirrus clouds in the long-wave part of the emission spectrum above 15 micron of wavelength. To characterise these measurements over the wide spectral range as a function of the optical properties of ice particles, a model of the radiative transfer, that integrates the well known numerical code LBLRTM, which simulates the radiative transfer in the atmosphere, with a specific code which simulates the propagation of the radiation through the cloud, was developed. The optical properties of clouds have been modelled using the δ-scaled Eddington approximation for a single layer and the Ping Yang's database for the single-scattering properties of ice crystals. The preliminary results of the fit procedure used for the determination of the micro-physical parameters of ice crystals, such as the effective diameter, ice water path, effective temperature and optical thickness will be shown in the presentation. The

  13. Derivation of Physical and Optical Properties of Midlatitude Cirrus Ice Crystals for a Size-Resolved Cloud Microphysics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette masses are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5-2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by approx. 0.2 and 0.05, respectively. A model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from approx. 0:05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.

  14. Lidar investigations on the structure and microphysical properties of cirrus at a tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N and 79.2° E), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayeshlal, Gloryselvan S.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Motty, Gopinathan Nair S.; Dhaman, Reji K.; Krishnakumar, Vasudevannair; Mahadevan Pillai, Vellara P.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds are mainly composed of ice crystals and are known to be the major natural contributors to radiative forcing in the Earth's atmosphere system. Describing the formation and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and their role in climate models remain a challenging study. Lidar is a unique instrument, which provides the information on the optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds with good spatial and temporal resolutions. In this study we present the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and their temporal variability, obtained using the ground based dual polarisation lidar at the tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N and 79.2° E), India, during the period January2009 to March 2011. Using the method developed in house for deriving range dependent lidar ratio (LR), the lidar measurements are used for deriving the extinction coefficient and to obtain the nature of the scatterers present in the cloud. It is noted that lidar ratio plays an important role and its measurements indicate directly the type of the ice nucleating aerosol particles present in the cloud. The long term data obtained on the structure of the cirrus in this regard are useful in the climate modelling studies.

  15. Tropical Anvil Cirrus Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymsfield, A.; Bansemer, A.; Schmitt, C.; Baumgardner, D.; Poellot, M.; Twohy, C.; Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. T.; Sayres, D.; Avallone, L.; Hallar, G.

    2003-12-01

    This study synthesizes data collected during a number of field campaigns by in-situ aircraft to characterize the microphysical properties of tropical, convectively-generated cirrus. The field campaigns include the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission KWAJEX campaign near Kwajalein, M. I., KAMP (the Keys Area Microphysics Project) and the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE), both over southern Florida, and CAMEX-4 (the fourth convection and moisture experiment), studying hurricanes off the east coast of Florida. The measurements include particle size distribution and particle shape information, direct measurements of the condensed water content (CRYSTAL-FACE), and radar imagery. We examine the temperature dependence and vertical variability of the ice water content (IWC), extinction, and effective radii, and deduce the ensemble-mean ice particle densities. Data obtained in quiescent regions outside of convection are compared to observations within convective cells. The relationship between the properties of the particle size distributions and proximity to convection are examined. The IWCs show a strong temperature dependence and dependence on distance below cloud top. The IWCs are larger in the convective regions than in the quiescent regions, and the particle size distributions are markedly broader. Ensemble-mean ice particle densities are a strong function of the breadth of the particle size distributions.

  16. The microphysical and radiative properties of tropical cirrus from the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Jun Shik

    During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment conducted in the region near Darwin, Australia, the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft executed spiral profiles and flew horizontal legs through aging cirrus, fresh anvils, and cirrus of unknown origin. Data from 27 Jan., 29 Jan., and 2 Feb., when all the microphysical probes a Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS), a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP), a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP), and a Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) were working, are used to investigate whether a single parameterization can be used to characterize tropical cirrus in terms of prognostic variables used in large-scale models, to calculate the single-scattering properties (scattering phase function P11 and asymmetry parameter g) of aggregates and small ice crystals that more closely match observed ice crystals, and to quantify the influences of small ice crystals on the bulk scattering properties of tropical cirrus. A combination of CDP (D < 50 mum), fits (50 < D < 125 microm), and CIP (D > 125 mum) distributions is used to represent ice crystal size distributions. The CDP measurements are used for small ice crystals because comparison between the CAS and CDP suggested the CAS was artificially amplifying small ice crystal concentrations by detecting remnants of shattered large ice crystals. Artifacts in CIP images are removed or corrected and then CIP measurements are used to represent large ice crystals. Because of the uncertainties in both the CPI and CIP for 50 < D < 125 mum, the incomplete gamma fitting method with the CDP (D < 50 mum) and CIP (D > 125 mum) measurements as input is used to characterize these distributions. A new quasi-automatic habit classification scheme is developed. For all days, small quasi-spheres dominated the contributions from all ice crystal sizes (D > 0 mum, by number) for all 3 days. The areal fraction (D > 200 mum) from bullet rosettes and their aggregates was 48% and 60% for 27 and 29 Jan., respectively, but only 7

  17. Cirrus Clouds Optical, Microphysical and Radiative Properties Observed During Crystal-Face Experiment: I. A Radar-Lidar Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrescu, C.; Haynes, J. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Heymsfield, G. M.; McGill, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    A method of retrieving cloud microphysical properties using combined observations from both cloud radar and lidar is introduced. This retrieval makes use of an improvement to the traditional optimal estimation retrieval method, whereby a series of corrections are applied to the state vector during the search for an iterative solution. This allows faster convergence to a solution and is less processor intensive. The method is first applied to a synthetic cloud t o demonstrate its validity, and it is shown that the retrieval reliably reproduces vertical profiles of ice water content. The retrieval method is then applied to radar and lidar observations from the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment, and vertical profiles of ice crystal diameter, number concentration, and ice water content are retrieved for a cirrus cloud layers observed one day of that experiment. The validity of the relationship between visible extinction coefficient and radar reflectivity was examined. While synthetic tests showed such a functional relationship, the measured data only partially supported such a conclusion. This is due to errors in the forward model (as explained above) as well as errors in the data sets, including possible mismatch between lidar and radar profiles or errors in the optical depth. Empirical relationships between number concentrations and mean particle diameter were also examined. The results indicate that a distinct and robust relationship exists between these retrieved quantities and it is argued that such a relationship is more than an artifact of the retrieval process offering insight into the nature of the microphysical processes taking place in cirrus.

  18. Improvements in modeling the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Edwards, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The main work activity during this period was the refinement and GCM parameterization of the treatment of ice cloud radiative properties, developed for this project. The treatment has now been rigorously tested and improved, and can now be used with confidence in radiation transfer schemes. The ice Cloud radiation scheme has also proven useful in satellite remote sensing. The radiation scheme differs from others in the thermal infrared, where it is assumed that photon tunneling does not occur for real ice particles (tunneling can be viewed as a process by which photons outside a particle`s area-cross section can still be absorbed). Single particle T-matrix and Mie calculations suggest that a particle`s ability to capture energy through tunneling depends on surface morphology, with more tunneling the more circular (or less angular) a surface is. This assumption leads to retrievals of mean particle size which are similar to those observed in tropical cirrus by optical imaging probes, whereas retrieved sizes using Mie theory are about 1/3 those predicted by this scheme. The retrieval method requires channels in the 8--9 {micro}m and 11--12 {micro}m ranges. This assumption about tunneling, as well as treating size distributions in the radiation scheme as bimodal, allows retrievals over a broader range of mean particle size than previous schemes permitted, making such size retrievals applicable to most types of cirrus clouds.

  19. Subvisual Cirrus cloud properties derived from a FIRE IFO case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Griffin, M. K.; Dodd, G. C.

    1990-01-01

    From the central Wisconsin IFO field at Wausau, the Mobile Polarization Lidar and a surface radiation station from the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory observed two very tenuous cirrus clouds on 21 October 1986. The clouds were present just below the height of the tropopause, between -60 to -70 C. The first cloud was not detected visually, and is classified as subvisual cirrus. The second, a relatively narrow cloud band that was probably the remnants of an aircraft contrail, can be termed zenith-subvisual since, although it was invisible in the zenith direction, it could be discerned when viewed at lower elevation angles and also due to strong solar forward-scattering and corona effects. The observations provide an opportunity to assess the threshold cloud optical thickness associated with cirrus cloud visibility. Ruby lidar backscattered signals were converted to isotropic volume backscatter coefficients by applying the pure-molecular scattering assumption just below the cloud base. The backscattering coefficient due to the cloud is then obtained and expressed in relation to the molecular backscattering coefficient in terms of the scattering ratio R. The linear depolarization ratio for the cloud is computed after removing the essentially parallel-polarized scattering contribution from air molecules. The values are also applied to determine the cloud optical thickness through the use of backscatter-to-extinction ratio, and the concentration of cloud particles using the backscattering gain, and the effective diameter of the particles obtained from the analysis of solar corona photographs. The sizes of the particles generating the corona are related to the angular separations between the centers of the red bands and the sun, yielding diameters of approximately 25 microns. The direct and diffuse components of shortwave radiation fluxes, measured by full hemispheric pyranometers, were used to compute the nadir optical thickness of the total atmosphere.

  20. Geometric and optical properties of cirrus clouds inferred from three-year ground-based lidar and CALIOP measurements over Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yumi; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Man-Hae; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2014-03-01

    This study examines cirrus cloud top and bottom heights (CTH and CBH, respectively) and the associated optical properties revealed by ground-based lidar in Seoul (SNU-L), Korea, and space-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which were obtained during a three-year measurement period between July 2006 and June 2009. From two selected cases, we determined good agreement in CTH and CBH with cirrus cloud optical depth (COD) between ground-based lidar and space-borne CALIOP. In particular, CODs at a wavelength of 532 nm calculated from the three years of SNU-L and CALIOP measurements were 0.417 ± 0.394 and 0.425 ± 0.479, respectively. The fraction of COD lower than 0.1 was approximately 17% and 25% of the total SNU-L and CALIOP profiles, respectively, and approximately 50% of both lidar profiles were classified as sub-visual or optically thin such that COD was < 0.3. The mean depolarization ratio was estimated to be 0.30 ± 0.06 for SNU-L and 0.34 ± 0.08 for CALIOP. The monthly variation of CODs from SNU-L and CALIOP measurements was not distinct, whereas cirrus altitudes from both SNU-L and CALIOP showed distinct monthly variation. CALIOP observations showed that cirrus clouds reached the tropopause level in all months, whereas the up-looking SNU-L did not detect cirrus clouds near the tropopause in summer due to signal attenuation by underlying optically thick clouds. The cloud layer thickness (CLT) and COD showed a distinct linear relationship up to approximately 2 km of the CLT; however, the COD did not increase, but remained constant when the CLT was greater than 2.0 km. The ice crystal content, lidar signal attenuation, and the presence of multi-layered cirrus clouds may have contributed to this tendency.

  1. Microphysical properties of the November 26 cirrus cloud retrieved by Doppler radar/IR radiometer technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Kropfli, Robert A.; Orr, Brad W.; Snider, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    Gaining information about cirrus cloud microphysics requires development of remote sensing techniques. In an earlier paper. Matrosov et al. (1992) proposed a method to estimate ice water path (IWP) (i.e., vertically integrated ice mass content IMC) and characteristic particle size averaged through the cloud from combined groundbased measurements of radar reflectivities and IR brightness temperatures of the downwelling thermal radiation in the transparency region of 10-12 mu m. For some applications, the vertically averaged characteristic particle sizes and IWP could be the appropriate information to use. However, vertical profiles of cloud microphysical parameters can provide a better understanding of cloud structure and development. Here we describe a further development of the previous method by Matrosov et al. (1992) for retrieving vertical profiles of cirrus particle sizes and IMC rather than their vertically averaged values. In addition to measurements of radar reflectivities, the measurements of Doppler velocities are used in the new method. This provides us with two vertical profiles of measurements to infer two vertical profiles of unknowns, i.e., particle characteristic sizes and IMC. Simultaneous measurements of the IR brightness temperatures are still needed to resolve an ambiguity in particle size-fall velocity relationships.

  2. ML-CIRRUS - the HALO mission on mid latitude cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Clouds are a major source of uncertainty in current climate predictions. In particular, the observation of cirrus cloud variability and the classification of cirrus cloud properties in distinct meteorological regimes are prone to substantial ambiguities. Here we present results of the ML-CIRRUS mission with the German atmospheric science community high altitude long range aircraft HALO. The first in-situ cloud mission with the new research aircraft combined a state-of-the-art clould instrumentation consisting of 9 wing station probes with a novel aerosol, trace gas and radiation instrumentation and a high spectral resolution LIDAR inside the cabin. Further, a newly designed counter flow virtual impactor system allowed for the detection of ice residuals. In addition, models were specifically developed to support flight planning by forecasts of the occurrence and properties of natural cirrus (CLAMS, ECMWF) and frontal cirrus (WCB-ETH), as well as of aircraft induced clouds (CoCiP). In March and April 2014, the HALO research aircraft performed 16 flights (88 flight hours) in mid-latitude cirrus clouds and contrail cirrus at longitudes from 15 deg W to 15 deg E and latitudes from 36 to 58 deg N. Cirrus clouds with an ice water content < 0.5 mg m-3 were encountered up to 14 km altitude over a wide range of temperatures down to 204 K. More than 22 hours of in-situ observations in cirrus clouds plus remote sensing with the radiation instruments and the LIDAR onboard HALO allow to derive statistically significant data sets on microphysical and optical properties of mid latitude cirrus clouds. The clouds were observed in different meteorological regimes including jet stream cirrus, lee wave cirrus and convective clouds - with a strong focus on frontal cirrus. Besides natural cirrus, aircraft induced contrail cirrus were probed during 4 flights and an interesting contrail cirrus outbreak situation was encountered over the Atlantic. Here we present an overview and first

  3. Development and Comparison of Ground and Satellite-based Retrievals of Cirrus Cloud Physical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, David L

    2009-10-14

    This report is the final update on ARM research conducted at DRI through May of 2006. A relatively minor amount of work was done after May, and last month (November), two journal papers partially funded by this project were published. The other investigator on this project, Dr. Bob d'Entremont, will be submitting his report in February 2007 when his no-cost extension expires. The main developments for this period, which concludes most of the DRI research on this project, are as follows: (1) Further development of a retrieval method for cirrus cloud ice particle effective diameter (De) and ice water path (IWP) using terrestrial radiances measured from satellites; (2) Revision and publication of the journal article 'Testing and Comparing the Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation'; and (3) Revision and publication of our radar retrieval method for IWC and snowfall rate.

  4. Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Keckhut, P.; Winker, D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Chervet, P.; Roblin, A.

    2010-05-27

    Ground-based lidar and CALIOP datasets gathered over four mid-latitude sites, two US and two French sites, are used to evaluate the consistency of cloud macrophysical and optical property climatologies that can be derived by such datasets. The consistency in average cloud height (both base and top height) between the CALIOP and ground datasets ranges from -0.4km to +0.5km. The cloud geometrical thickness distributions vary significantly between the different datasets, due in part to the original vertical resolutions of the lidar profiles. Average cloud geometrical thicknesses vary from 1.2 to 1.9km, i.e. by more than 50%. Cloud optical thickness distributions in subvisible, semi-transparent and moderate intervals differ by more than 50% between ground and space-based datasets. The cirrus clouds with 2 optical thickness below 0.1 (not included in historical cloud climatologies) represent 30-50% of the non-opaque cirrus class. The differences in average cloud base altitude between ground and CALIOP datasets of 0.0-0.1 km, 0.0-0.2 km and 0.0-0.2 km can be attributed to irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without low-level clouds in ground-based data, respectively. The cloud geometrical thicknesses are not affected by irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, while up to 0.0-0.2 km and 0.1-0.3 km differences can be attributed to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without lowlevel clouds in ground-based data, respectively.

  5. The dependence of cirrus gamma size distributions expressed as volumes in N0-λ-μ phase space and bulk cloud properties on environmental conditions: Results from the Small Ice Particles in Cirrus Experiment (SPARTICUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    The variability of cirrus ice microphysical properties is investigated using observations obtained during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign. An existing approach that represents a size distribution (SD) as a single gamma function using an ellipsoid of equally realizable solutions in (N0, λ, μ) phase space is modified to automatically identify multiple modes in SDs and characterize each mode by such an ellipsoid. The modified approach is applied to ice crystals with maximum dimension D > 15 µm collected by the 2-D stereo and 2-D precipitation probes on the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet. The dependencies of N0, μ, and λ from each mode, total number concentration, bulk extinction, ice water content (IWC), and mass median maximum dimension Dmm as a function of temperature T and cirrus type are then analyzed. The changes in the observed codependencies between N0, μ, and λ, bulk extinction, IWC, and Dmm with environmental conditions indicate that particles were larger at higher T during SPARTICUS. At most two modes were observed in any SD during SPARTICUS, with the average boundary between them at 115 µm, similar to past studies not using probes with shatter mitigating tips and artifact removal algorithms. The bimodality of the SDs increased with T. This and the differences in N0, μ, and λ between the modes suggest that particles with smaller D nucleated more recently than particles with larger D, which grew via vapor deposition and aggregation. Because smaller crystals, whose concentrations are uncertain, make marginal contributions to higher order moments, the use of higher moments for evaluating model fields is suggested.

  6. The Dependence of Cirrus Gamma Size Distributions Expressed as Volumes in N(sub 0)-Lambda-Mu Phase Space and Bulk Cloud Properties on Environmental Conditions: Results from the Small Ice Particles in Cirrus Experiment (SPARTICUS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The variability of cirrus ice microphysical properties is investigated using observations obtained during the Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) campaign. An existing approach that represents a size distribution (SD) as a single gamma function using an ellipsoid of equally realizable solutions in (N(sub 0), lambda, mu) phase space is modified to automatically identify multiple modes in SDs and characterize each mode by such an ellipsoid. The modified approach is applied to ice crystals with maximum dimension D greater than15 micrometers collected by the 2-D stereo and 2-D precipitation probes on the Stratton Park Engineering Company Learjet. The dependencies of N(sub 0), mu, and lambda from each mode, total number concentration, bulk extinction, ice water content (IWC), and mass median maximum dimension D(sub mm) as a function of temperature T and cirrus type are then analyzed. The changes in the observed codependencies between N(sub 0), mu, and lambda, bulk extinction, IWC, and D(sub mm) with environmental conditions indicate that particles were larger at higher T during SPARTICUS. At most two modes were observed in any SD during SPARTICUS, with the average boundary between them at 115 micrometers, similar to past studies not using probes with shatter mitigating tips and artifact removal algorithms. The bimodality of the SDs increased with T. This and the differences in N(sub 0), mu, and lambda between the modes suggest that particles with smaller D nucleated more recently than particles with larger D, which grew via vapor deposition and aggregation. Because smaller crystals, whose concentrations are uncertain, make marginal contributions to higher order moments, the use of higher moments for evaluating model fields is suggested.

  7. A model predicting the evolution of ice particle size spectra and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Part 2: Dependence of absorption and extinction on ice crystal morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David L.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    1994-01-01

    This study builds upon the microphysical modeling described in Part 1 by deriving formulations for the extinction and absorption coefficients in terms of the size distribution parameters predicted from the micro-physical model. The optical depth and single scatter albedo of a cirrus cloud can then be determined, which, along with the asymmetry parameter, are the input parameters needed by cloud radiation models. Through the use of anomalous diffraction theory, analytical expressions were developed describing the absorption and extinction coefficients and the single scatter albedo as functions of size distribution parameters, ice crystal shapes (or habits), wavelength, and refractive index. The extinction coefficient was formulated in terms of the projected area of the size distribution, while the absorption coefficient was formulated in terms of both the projected area and mass of the size distribution. These properties were formulated as explicit functions of ice crystal geometry and were not based on an 'effective radius.' Based on simulations of the second cirrus case study described in Part 1, absorption coefficients predicted in the near infrared for hexagonal columns and rosettes were up to 47% and 71% lower, respectively, than absorption coefficients predicted by using equivalent area spheres. This resulted in single scatter albedos in the near-infrared that were considerably greater than those predicted by the equivalent area sphere method. Reflectances in this region should therefore be underestimated using the equivalent area sphere approach. Cloud optical depth was found to depend on ice crystal habit. When the simulated cirrus cloud contained only bullet rosettes, the optical depth was 142% greater than when the cloud contained only hexagonal columns. This increase produced a doubling in cloud albedo. In the near-infrared (IR), the single scatter albedo also exhibited a significant dependence on ice crystal habit. More research is needed on the

  8. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    Model simulations with the contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP driven by numerical weather prediction (NWP) data provided from the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) and global aircraft waypoint data show a mean computed cover (for optical depth larger than 0.1) of 0.23% globally, and 5.4% over mid Europe (Schumann and Graf, JGR, 2013). The computed mean longwave radiative forcing (RF) reaches 3 W m-2 over mid Europe (10°W-20°E and 40°N-55°N), and 0.13 W m-2 globally. The global net RF is about 40-60% smaller because of compensating shortwave cooling induced by contrails during daytime. The results depend on several model details such as the number of ice particles forming from aircraft soot emissions, the contrail plume dispersion, ice particle sedimentation etc., all influencing contrail life time and their optical properties. The quantitative results depend also strongly on ambient relative humidity, vertical motion and on ice water content of other cirrus predicted by the NWP model. In order to test and possibly improve this and other contrail models, high-quality observations are needed to which multi-parameter model output can be compared. The Mid-Latitude Cirrus Experiment ML-CIRRUS was performed (see C. Voigt et al., this conference) with a suite of in-situ and Lidar instruments for airborne measurements on the research aircraft HALO. Before and during the mission, CoCiP was run daily to provide 3-days forecasts of contrail cover using operational ECMWF forecasts and historical traffic data. CoCiP forecast output was made available in an internet tool twice a day for experiment planning. The one-day and two-day contrail forecasts often showed only small differences. Still, most recent forecasts and detailed satellite observations results were transmitted via satellite link to the crew for onboard campaign optimization. After the campaign, a data base of realistic air traffic data has been setup from various sources, and CoCiP was

  9. Are tropical cirrus brighter than mid-latitude cirrus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David L.; Arnott, W. Patrick; Sassen, Kenneth; Dong, Yayi; Hallett, John

    1993-01-01

    Recent measurements during FIRE II, in the tropics and elsewhere, support an emerging hypothesis about the role of stratospheric mixing in determining the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. This is only a working hypothesis, and may change as new measurements become available. This report reviews the conditions under which certain types of ice crystals form.

  10. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; Rogers, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) performed several aerial surveys over the region affected by the oil spill caused by the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. The instrument was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 aircraft together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft, including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. This work illustrates the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we make use of the degree of linear polarization in the glint region, which is severely affected by variations in the refractive index but insensitive to the waviness of the water surface. Alterations in the surface optical properties are therefore expected to directly affect the polarization response of the RSP channel at 2264 nm, where both molecular and aerosol scattering are negligible and virtually all of the observed signal is generated via Fresnel reflection at the surface. The glint profile at this wavelength is fitted with a model which can optimally estimate refractive index, wind speed and direction, together with aircraft attitude variations affecting the viewing geometry. The retrieved refractive index markedly increases over oil-contaminated waters, while the apparent wind speed is significantly lower than in adjacent uncontaminated areas, suggesting that the slick dampens high-frequency components of the ocean wave spectrum. The constraint on surface reflectance provided by the short-wave infrared channels is a cornerstone of established procedures to retrieve atmospheric aerosol microphysical parameters based on the inversion of the RSP multispectral measurements. This retrieval, which benefits from the ancillary information provided by the HSRL, was in this specific case hampered by

  11. Spectral emissivity of cirrus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Gordon H.; Davis, John M.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1993-01-01

    The inference of cirrus cloud properties has many important applications including global climate studies, radiation budget determination, remote sensing techniques and oceanic studies from satellites. Data taken at the Parsons Kansas site during the FIRE II project are used for this study. On November 26 there were initially clear sky conditions gradually giving way to a progressively thickening cirrus shield over a period of a few hours. Interferometer radiosonde and lidar data were taken throughout this event. Two techniques are used to infer the downward spectral emittance of the observed cirrus layer. One uses only measurements and the other involves measurements and FASCODE III calculations. FASCODE III is a line-by line radiance/transmittance model developed at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory.

  12. A Microphysics Guide to Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Martina; Rolf, Christian; Luebke, Anna; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Costa, Anja; Zöger, Martin; Smith, Jessica; Herman, Robert; Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker; Baumgardner, Darrel; Borrmann, Stephan; Klingebiel, Marcus; Avallone, Linnea

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds still represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013) since their microphysical and radiative properties remain poorly or only partially characterized. One major reason is that it is difficult to measure these properties on fast-flying, high altitude aircraft. Another problem is that aircraft measurements cannot capture the evolution of the cirrus clouds properties with time. The most common parameters that are measured in cirrus clouds -besides the meteorological variables- are ice water content (IWC), number of ice crystals (Nice) and relative humidity (with respect to ice, RHice), and sometimes vertical velocity. However, it is difficult to deduce on the history of ice nucleation and development of microphysical properties from these observations. Our study aims to provide a guide to cirrus microphysics, which is compiled from an extensive set of model simulations covering the broad range of atmospheric conditions for cirrus formation and evolution. The model results are portrayed in the same parameter space as the field measurements, i.e. in the temperature - IWC parameter space. From this representation of simulated cirrus, we can relate the formation mechanism and history to specific combinations of IWC, Nice and RHice inside of cirrus as a function of temperature. We validate this analysis approach by evaluating measurements of about 60h in cirrus during fifteen aircraft campaigns conducted in the last fifteen years over Europe, Australia and Southern and Northern America. It can be shown that the field observations indeed show the characteristics expected from the cirrus guide. For example, high/low IWCs are found together with high/low Nice. As a result it is now possible to track, to a certain degree, the formation mechanism and history of the observed cirrus clouds only from the measurement of IWC and RHice. Important findings from our study are that (i) a substantial part of thick cirrus

  13. Light scattering by cirrus cloud layers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, K.-N.

    1972-01-01

    The properties of the reflection, transmission, and absorption of the cirrus cloud layers are calculated under the assumption that the ice crystals in cirrus clouds may be approximated long circular cylinders randomly oriented in space. The phase function, the single scattering albedo, and the extinction cross section are obtained on the basis of Liou's (1972) calculations of light scattering by ice clouds in the visible and infrared. A modified two-stream approximation for radiative transfer is developed and is used to evaluate the radiative properties of the cirrus cloud layers.

  14. A contrail cirrus prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.

    2012-05-01

    A new model to simulate and predict the properties of a large ensemble of contrails as a function of given air traffic and meteorology is described. The model is designed for approximate prediction of contrail cirrus cover and analysis of contrail climate impact, e.g. within aviation system optimization processes. The model simulates the full contrail life-cycle. Contrail segments form between waypoints of individual aircraft tracks in sufficiently cold and humid air masses. The initial contrail properties depend on the aircraft. The advection and evolution of the contrails is followed with a Lagrangian Gaussian plume model. Mixing and bulk cloud processes are treated quasi analytically or with an effective numerical scheme. Contrails disappear when the bulk ice content is sublimating or precipitating. The model has been implemented in a "Contrail Cirrus Prediction Tool" (CoCiP). This paper describes the model assumptions, the equations for individual contrails, and the analysis-method for contrail-cirrus cover derived from the optical depth of the ensemble of contrails and background cirrus. The model has been applied for a case study and compared to the results of other models and in-situ contrail measurements. The simple model reproduces a considerable part of observed contrail properties. Mid-aged contrails provide the largest contributions to the product of optical depth and contrail width, important for climate impact.

  15. Analysis of Cirrus Cloud Microphysical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.; Grainger, Cedric A.

    1999-01-01

    The First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment (FIRE) program has the goal of improving our capabilities to understand, model and detect the properties of climatically-important clouds. This is being undertaken through a three-pronged effort of modeling, long-term observations and short-term intensive field studies. Through examination of satellite and other data it is apparent that stratus and cirrus cloud types have the greatest impact on climate due to their radiative effects and ubiquitous nature. As a result, the FIRE program has developed two paths of investigation, each having its own subset of research objectives and measurement programs. The work conducted under this grant was directed toward furthering our understanding of cirrus cloud systems. While it is known that cirrus are climatically important, the magnitude and even sign of the impact is unclear. Cirrus clouds affect the transfer of radiation according to their physical depth and location in the atmosphere and their microphysical composition. However, significant uncertainties still exist in how cirrus clouds form and how they are maintained, what their physical properties are and how they can be parameterized in numerical models. Better remote sensing techniques for monitoring cirrus cloud systems and improved modeling of radiative transfer through ice particles are also needed. A critical element in resolving these issues is a better understanding of cirrus cloud microphysical properties and how they vary. The focus of the research to be conducted under this grant was th data collected in situ by the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft. The goals of this research were to add to the body of knowledge of cirrus cloud microphysics, particularly at the small end of the size spectrum; and analyze the spatial variation of cirrus clouds.

  16. Optical-Microphysical Cirrus Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Lin, R.-F.; Hess, M.; McGee, T. J.; Starr, D. O.

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented that permits the simulation of the optical properties of cirrus clouds as measured with depolarization Raman lidars. It comprises a one-dimensional cirrus model with explicit microphysics and an optical module that transforms the microphysical model output to cloud and particle optical properties. The optical model takes into account scattering by randomly oriented or horizontally aligned planar and columnar monocrystals and polycrystals. Key cloud properties such as the fraction of plate-like particles and the number of basic crystals per polycrystal are parameterized in terms of the ambient temperature, the nucleation temperature, or the mass of the particles. The optical-microphysical model is used to simulate the lidar measurement of a synoptically forced cirrostratus in a first case study. It turns out that a cirrus cloud consisting of only monocrystals in random orientation is too simple a model scenario to explain the observations. However, good agreement between simulation and observation is reached when the formation of polycrystals or the horizontal alignment of monocrystals is permitted. Moreover, the model results show that plate fraction and morphological complexity are best parameterized in terms of particle mass, or ambient temperature which indicates that the ambient conditions affect cirrus optical properties more than those during particle formation. Furthermore, the modeled profiles of particle shape and size are in excellent agreement with in situ and laboratory studies, i.e., (partly oriented) polycrystalline particles with mainly planar basic crystals in the cloud bottom layer, and monocrystals above, with the fraction of columns increasing and the shape and size of the particles changing from large thin plates and long columns to small, more isometric crystals from cloud center to top. The findings of this case study corroborate the microphysical interpretation of cirrus measurements with lidar as suggested previously.

  17. Validation of POLDER/ADEOS data using a ground-based lidar network: Preliminary results for semi-transparent and cirrus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chepfer, H.; Sauvage, L.; Flamant, P. H.; Pelon, J.; Goloub, P.; Brogniez, G.; spinhirne, J.; Lavorato, M.; Sugimoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    At mid and tropical latitudes, cirrus clouds are present more than 50% of the time in satellites observations. Due to their large spatial and temporal coverage, and associated low temperatures, cirrus clouds have a major influence on the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere energy balance through their effects on the incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation. At present the impact of cirrus clouds on climate is well recognized but remains to be asserted more precisely, for their optical and radiative properties are not very well known. In order to understand the effects of cirrus clouds on climate, their optical and radiative characteristics of these clouds need to be determined accurately at different scales in different locations i.e. latitude. Lidars are well suited to observe cirrus clouds, they can detect very thin and semi-transparent layers, and retrieve the clouds geometrical properties i.e. altitude and multilayers, as well as radiative properties i.e. optical depth, backscattering phase functions of ice crystals. Moreover the linear depolarization ratio can give information on the ice crystal shape. In addition, the data collected with an airborne version of POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances) instrument have shown that bidirectional polarized measurements can provide information on cirrus cloud microphysical properties (crystal shapes, preferred orientation in space). The spaceborne version of POLDER-1 has been flown on ADEOS-1 platform during 8 months (October 96 - June 97), and the next POLDER-2 instrument will be launched in 2000 on ADEOS-2. The POLDER-1 cloud inversion algorithms are currently under validation. For cirrus clouds, a validation based on comparisons between cloud properties retrieved from POLDER-1 data and cloud properties inferred from a ground-based lidar network is currently under consideration. We present the first results of the validation.

  18. Sampling the composition of cirrus ice residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziczo, Daniel J.; Froyd, Karl D.

    2014-06-01

    Cirrus are high altitude clouds composed of ice crystals. They are the first tropospheric clouds that can scatter incoming solar radiation and the last which can trap outgoing terrestrial heat. Considering their extensive global coverage, estimated at between 25 and 33% of the Earth's surface, cirrus exert a measurable climate forcing. The global radiative influence depends on a number of properties including their altitude, ice crystal size and number density, and vertical extent. These properties in turn depend on the ability of upper tropospheric aerosol particles to initiate ice formation. Because aerosol populations, and therefore cirrus formation mechanisms, may change due to human activities, the sign of cirrus forcing (a net warming or cooling) due to anthropogenic effects is not universally agreed upon although most modeling studies suggest a positive effect. Cirrus also play a major role in the water cycle in the tropopause region, affecting not only redistribution in the troposphere but also the abundance of vapor entering the stratosphere. Both the current lack of understanding of cirrus properties and the need to improve our ability to project changes due to human activities in the future highlight the critical need to determine the aerosol particles on which cirrus form. This review addresses what is currently known about the abundance, size and composition of cirrus-forming particles. We review aircraft-based field studies which have either collected cirrus ice residuals for off-line analysis or determined their size, composition and other properties in situ by capturing ice crystals and sublimating/removing the condensed phase water. This review is predominantly restricted to cirrus clouds. Limited comparisons are made to other ice-containing (e.g., mixed-phase) cloud types. The findings of recent reviews on laboratory measurements that mimic upper tropospheric cirrus formation are briefly summarized. The limitations of the current state of the art

  19. The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO Cirrus Case Study: Cloud Optical Properties Determined by High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grund, C. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    1996-01-01

    During the First ISCCP Region Experiment (FIRE) cirrus intensive field observation (IFO) the High Spectral Resolution Lidar was operated from a roof top site on the University of Wisconsin-Madison campus. Because the HSRL technique separately measures the molecular and cloud particle backscatter components of the lidar return, the optical thickness is determined independent of particle backscatter. This is accomplished by comparing the known molecular density distribution to the observed decrease in molecular backscatter signal with altitude. The particle to molecular backscatter ratio yields calibrated measurements of backscatter cross sections that can be plotted ro reveal cloud morphology without distortion due to attenuation. Changes in cloud particle size, shape, and phase affect the backscatter to extinction ratio (backscatter-phase function). The HSRL independently measures cloud particle backscatter phase function. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the HSRL cirrus cloud data acquired over an approximate 33 hour period of continuous near zenith observations. Correlations between small scale wind structure and cirrus cloud morphology have been observed. These correlations can bias the range averaging inherent in wind profiling lidars of modest vertical resolution, leading to increased measurement errors at cirrus altitudes. Extended periods of low intensity backscatter were noted between more strongly organized cirrus cloud activity. Optical thicknesses ranging from 0.01-1.4, backscatter phase functions between 0.02-0.065 sr (exp -1) and backscatter cross sections spanning 4 orders of magnitude were observed. the altitude relationship between cloud top and bottom boundaries and the cloud optical center altitude was dependent on the type of formation observed Cirrus features were observed with characteristic wind drift estimated horizontal sizes of 5-400 km. The clouds frequently exhibited cellular structure with vertical to horizontal dimension

  20. Mission Investigates Tropical Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenson, Eric; Starr, David; Toon, Owen B.

    2004-02-01

    It has been a year since NASA conducted the highly successful Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment Study (CRYSTAL-FACE). The measurement campaign was designed to investigate the physical properties and formation processes of tropical cirrus clouds. CRYSTAL-FACE was sponsored by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise as an integral component of its Earth observation research strategy, and included substantial collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Naval Research Laboratory. During July 2002, the mission's six aircraft (NASA ER-2, NASA WB-57, Scaled Composites Proteus, University of North Dakota Citation, NSF-supported NRL P-3, and NRL Twin Otter) operated from the Key West Naval Air Facility. In addition, ground sites were located at the Tamiami airport on the east coast of Florida and near Everglades City on the west coast of Florida. Aircraft and ground site measurements are listed in Table 1. Data archiving is complete, and the data are now available to the general scientific community. Detailed instrument descriptions as well as the final data can be found on the CRYSTAL-FACE Web site (http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/crystalface/).

  1. ER-2 lidar observations from the October 1986 fire cirrus experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A description of the ER-2 lidar data characteristics and available products, plus flight times and locations is presented for the FIRE cirrus experiment of October 13 through November 2, 1986. The CALS airborne lidar was flown for this experiment on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The primary objectives of the CALS observations were to intensively measure cirrus cloud top height and structure for basic cirrus studies and for validation of satellite cloud retrievals.

  2. The origin of midlatitude ice clouds and the resulting influence on their microphysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebke, Anna E.; Afchine, Armin; Costa, Anja; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Meyer, Jessica; Rolf, Christian; Spelten, Nicole; Avallone, Linnea M.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Krämer, Martina

    2016-05-01

    The radiative role of ice clouds in the atmosphere is known to be important, but uncertainties remain concerning the magnitude and net effects. However, through measurements of the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, we can better characterize them, which can ultimately allow for their radiative properties to be more accurately ascertained. Recently, two types of cirrus clouds differing by formation mechanism and microphysical properties have been classified - in situ and liquid origin cirrus. In this study, we present observational evidence to show that two distinct types of cirrus do exist. Airborne, in situ measurements of cloud ice water content (IWC), ice crystal concentration (Nice), and ice crystal size from the 2014 ML-CIRRUS campaign provide cloud samples that have been divided according to their origin type. The key features that set liquid origin cirrus apart from the in situ origin cirrus are higher frequencies of high IWC ( > 100 ppmv), higher Nice values, and larger ice crystals. A vertical distribution of Nice shows that the in situ origin cirrus clouds exhibit a median value of around 0.1 cm-3, while the liquid origin concentrations are slightly, but notably higher. The median sizes of the crystals contributing the most mass are less than 200 µm for in situ origin cirrus, with some of the largest crystals reaching 550 µm in size. The liquid origin cirrus, on the other hand, were observed to have median diameters greater than 200 µm, and crystals that were up to 750 µm. An examination of these characteristics in relation to each other and their relationship to temperature provides strong evidence that these differences arise from the dynamics and conditions in which the ice crystals formed. Additionally, the existence of these two groups in cirrus cloud populations may explain why a bimodal distribution in the IWC-temperature relationship has been observed. We hypothesize that the low IWC mode is the result of in situ origin cirrus and the

  3. Derivation of physical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus ice crystals for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-06-10

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100 µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette massesmore » are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5–2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by  ∼  0.2 and 0.05, respectively. A model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from  ∼ 0.05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.« less

  4. Derivation of physical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus ice crystals for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-06-10

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100 µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette massesmore » are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5–2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by ~0.2 and 0.05, respectively. Furthermore, a model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from ~0.05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.« less

  5. Derivation of physical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus ice crystals for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlind, Ann M.; Atlas, Rachel; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2016-06-01

    Single-crystal images collected in mid-latitude cirrus are analyzed to provide internally consistent ice physical and optical properties for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model, including single-particle mass, projected area, fall speed, capacitance, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter. Using measurements gathered during two flights through a widespread synoptic cirrus shield, bullet rosettes are found to be the dominant identifiable habit among ice crystals with maximum dimension (Dmax) greater than 100 µm. Properties are therefore first derived for bullet rosettes based on measurements of arm lengths and widths, then for aggregates of bullet rosettes and for unclassified (irregular) crystals. Derived bullet rosette masses are substantially greater than reported in existing literature, whereas measured projected areas are similar or lesser, resulting in factors of 1.5-2 greater fall speeds, and, in the limit of large Dmax, near-infrared single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (g) greater by ˜ 0.2 and 0.05, respectively. A model that includes commonly imaged side plane growth on bullet rosettes exhibits relatively little difference in microphysical and optical properties aside from ˜ 0.05 increase in mid-visible g primarily attributable to plate aspect ratio. In parcel simulations, ice size distribution, and g are sensitive to assumed ice properties.

  6. Thin and Subvisual Tropopause Tropical Cirrus: Observations and Radiative Impacts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarquhar, Greg M.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Spinhirne, James; Hart, Bill

    2000-06-01

    In situ microphysical, remote sensing, and satellite observations of thin and subvisible cirrus have been used to establish their frequency of occurrence, determine their mean optical depths and radiative forcings, and to analyze their association with deep convection. A spatially thin layer of cirrus, with both base and top above 15 km, was observed in the central Pacific Tropics 29% of the time, with a mean thickness of 0.47 km, using a nadir-pointing Nd:YAG lidar operating at 1.064 m during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). In situ microphysical data collected in the mid-1970s and mid-1980s by a WB-57 and Learjet near Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, are revisited to determine typical ice crystal sizes and shapes that occur in this cloud type. Three observed vertical profiles, obtained from ascents/descents through cloud, are used with a -four-stream radiative transfer model to calculate observed heating rates of up to 1.0 K day1, principally in the infrared, and cloud radiative forcings of up to 1.2 W m2. These calculations are extended using remotely sensed optical depths acquired with the airborne lidar on four days during CEPEX; the average estimated was 0.01, and the corresponding heating rates and cloud radiative forcings were 1.66 K day1 and 1.6 W m2, respectively. Using a visibility threshold for of 0.03, this suggests that the majority of the thin cirrus observed are subvisible. The calculated radiative effects depend principally on the observed optical thickness of the cloud layers.Altitude-dependent average extinction coefficients between 0.001 and 0.004 km1 were calculated from the limb-viewing Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II satellite, confirming that the lidar estimated is representative for the Tropics. A comparison of the SAGE II observed occurrence times with cloud properties estimated from collocated International Satellite Cloud and Climatology Project retrievals for the closest time shows that 28% of the

  7. The lifecycle and climate-impact of contrail cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The lifecycle of contrail cirrus has to be understood as a prerequisite to compute its weather and climate impact for given airtraffic and meteorology. As a new concept, this study distinguishes between: 1) Externally limited contrail cirrus, where contrails form in moderately ice-supersaturated air, but ice particles stay small and contrails end by sublimation because of drying of the ambient air, e.g., when the ambient air subsides; 2) Internally limited contrail cirrus, where contrails form at high humidity with strong supersaturation or form in rising air masses, so that the ice particles grow until their fall speed gets large, and the ice particles finally fall to lower levels (e.g. in fall streaks). For both kinds of contrail cirrus, scaling laws are set up which show how the "Surface Forcing" (SF), i.e. the time-integral of optical depth times width (integral of ice particle number per flight distance times ice particle cross-section area times extinction efficiency) depends on the lifetime, on the number of ice particles per unit length, ambient humidity, uplift velocity, wind shear, turbulent mixing, and temperature. SF can be converted into an energy forcing (EF), from which the global radiative forcing can be evaluated, for given radiative Earth-atmosphere properties and traffic density. The scaling laws are tested by comparison to global contrail simulations with the most recent version of CoCiP (as in Schumann, 2012; and some changes), using ECMWF data and a global traffic data bases (ACCRI). The model assumes that contrail ice particles form initially mainly on soot, that the ice particles consume the ice supersaturation in the contrail plume, that the ice particle number decreases slightly with lifetime, and that interactions of contrails with ambient cirrus are weak. The scaling laws and the model allow estimating the climate impact of contrails as a function of a given aircraft and weather parameters. The results are compared to available results

  8. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  9. Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer: Cloud field study on October 28, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    The radiative properties of cirrus clouds present one of the unresolved problems in weather and climate research. Uncertainties in ice particle amount and size and, also, the general inability to model the single scattering properties of their usually complex particle shapes, prevent accurate model predictions. For an improved understanding of cirrus radiative effects, field experiments, as those of the Cirrus IFO of FIRE, are necessary. Simultaneous measurements of radiative fluxes and cirrus microphysics at multiple cirrus cloud altitudes allows the pitting of calculated versus measured vertical flux profiles; with the potential to judge current cirrus cloud modeling. Most of the problems in this study are linked to the inhomogeneity of the cloud field. Thus, only studies on more homogeneous cirrus cloud cases promises a possibility to improve current cirrus parameterizations. Still, the current inability to detect small ice particles will remain as a considerable handicap.

  10. Perturbed Physics Ensemble Simulations of Cirrus on the Cloud System-resolving Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlbauer, Andreas; Berry, Elizabeth; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mace, Gerald G.

    2014-04-16

    In this study, the effect of uncertainties in the parameterization of ice microphysical processes and initial conditions on the variability of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties are investigated in a series of cloud system-resolving perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) and initial condition ensemble (ICE) simulations. Three cirrus cases representative of mid-latitude, subtropical and tropical cirrus are examined. It is found that the variability in cirrus properties induced by perturbing uncertain parameters in ice microphysics parameterizations outweighs the variability induced by perturbing the initial conditions in midlatitude and subtropical cirrus. However, in tropical anvil cirrus the variability in the PPE and ICE simulations is about the same order of magnitude. The cirrus properties showing the largest sensitivity are ice water content (IWC) and cloud thickness whereas the averaged high cloud cover is only marginally affected. Changes in cirrus ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation are controlled primarily by changes in IWC and cloud thickness but not by changes is the averaged high cloud cover. The change in the vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud thickness is caused by changes in cirrus cloud base whereas cloud top is not sensitive to either perturbed physics or perturbed initial conditions. In all cirrus cases, the top three parameters controlling the microphysical variability and radiative impact of cirrus clouds are ice fall speeds, ice autoconversion size thresholds and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Changes in the ice deposition coefficient do not affect the ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation. Similarly, changes in the number concentration of aerosols available for homogeneous freezing have virtually no effect on the microphysical and radiative properties of midlatitude and subtropical cirrus but only little impact on tropical anvil cirrus. Overall, the sensitivity of cirrus microphysical and radiative

  11. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  12. Anatomy of a Cirrus Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. R.; Whiteway, J.; Choularton, T.; Gallagher, M.; Bower, K.; Flynn, M.; Green, P.; Busen, R.; Hacker, J.

    2003-04-01

    An airborne measurement campaign was conducted during September 2001 to study cirrus clouds above Adelaide, Australia. The campaign was called EMERALD: Egrett Microphysical Experiment with Radiation, Lidar, and Dynamics. It involved the use of two aircraft. One, the King Air, carried a lidar system for mapping the structure of the clouds from below. The second aircraft was the Egrett, a unique aircraft in its ability to fly at relatively slow speeds at altitudes of up to 15 km. The Egrett carried instrumentation for the measurement of cloud particles, water vapour, temperature, turbulence, and ozone. A poster will display a combination of lidar measurements of cloud structure and simultaneous in-situ sampling of ice crystals, thermodynamics, and turbulence.

  13. On the Formation and Seasonal Properties of Topical Cirrus Clouds over Amazon Basin (2.89ºS, 59.97ºW): Observations from Lidar, Radiosonde and Satellite instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, H. M.; Gouveia, D. A.; Barja Gonzalez, B.

    2014-12-01

    Formed mainly by anvil outflow and the remaining part of deep convective clouds after rainfall or in situ in the upper troposphere by synoptic events, high clouds are constantly found in the tropical region. The global cirrus cover has been estimated to be about 20-25% and their occurrence can be more than 70% over the tropics. These clouds have lifetime that can go from hours to a few days, large coverage area and have been recognized as important agents of the climate system as they can significantly alter the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Despite being relatively transparent to solar radiation (optical depth < 3.0), they trap the infrared radiation that would be lost to space, and thus may have a positive radiative forcing. In this paper, we report on tropical cirrus clouds characteristics as measured by a Lidar station operational in the central Amazon (2.89° S 59.97° W) since 2011. An automated algorithm for the detection of cirrus clouds was developed to determine the clouds geometrical properties. The transmittance of the lidar signal was used to derive the cirrus optical depth. The Klett method was used to derive the backscattering coefficient and to estimate the lidar ratio of the cirrus clouds. Precipitation information by TRMM satellite and wind field by ERA Interim reanalysis from ECMWF were used. As the results from the first two years of measurements (2011-2012), we found that the occurrence of high clouds with base altitude higher than 8 km (temperatures below -20°C) was approximately 71.0% of the total time of observation, varying between about 50% in the dry season (JJA) and about 80% in the wet season (DJF). These all cirrus clouds were classifies as subvisual (τ<0.03) approximately 24.2% of times, 40.7% were thin cirrus (0.03<τ<0.3) and 35.1% were cirrus stratus (τ>0.3). The average values of the cirrus base and top altitudes were 12.4±2.4km and 14.3±2.2km, respectively. They were found at temperatures down to -90°C they reside

  14. Advances in Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor, Cirrus Clouds and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Potter, John R.; Tola, Rebecca; Rush, Kurt; Veselovskii, Igor; Cadirola, Martin; Comer, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Narrow-band interference filters with improved transmission in the ultraviolet have been developed under NASA-funded research and used in the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) in ground- based, upward-looking tests. RASL is an airborne Raman Lidar system designed to measure water vapor mixing ratio, and aerosol backscatter/extinction/depolarization. It also possesses the capability to make experimental measurements of cloud liquid water and carbon dioxide. It is being prepared for first flight tests during the summer of 2006. With the newly developed filters installed in RASL, measurements were made of atmospheric water vapor, cirrus cloud optical properties and carbon dioxide that improve upon any previously demonstrated using Raman lidar. Daytime boundary layer profiling of water vapor mixing ratio is performed with less than 5% random error using temporal and spatial resolution of 2-minutes and 60 - 210, respectively. Daytime cirrus cloud optical depth and extinction- to-backscatter ratio measurements are made using 1-minute average. Sufficient signal strength is demonstrated to permit the simultaneous profiling of carbon dioxide and water vapor mixing ratio into the free troposphere during the nighttime. Downward-looking from an airborne RASL should possess the same measurement statistics with approximately a factor of 5 - 10 decrease in averaging time. A description of the technology improvements are provided followed by examples of the improved Raman lidar measurements.

  15. The temporal evolution of a long-lived contrail cirrus cluster: Simulations with a global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Lisa; Burkhardt, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The representation of contrail cirrus in climate models has advanced in the last years tremendously. Nevertheless, uncertainties in particular regarding the representation of contrail microphysics still remain. Properties of young contrail cirrus differ from those of natural cirrus due to the large ice crystal number concentration common in contrails. Consequently, microphysical process rates in contrail cirrus, which control its lifetime, can be very different to those in natural cirrus. We extend a contrail cirrus scheme within a climate model by implementing a microphysical two-moment scheme and study the life cycle of a contrail cirrus cluster. In an idealized experiment we study the properties and microphysical process rates of a contrail cirrus cluster in a large and long-lived ice supersaturated region. We find that at flight level contrail cirrus display their typical high ice crystal number concentration (of about 10-100 cm-3) for a few hours with far lower densities in lower levels caused by sedimentation. After about 7 h contrail cirrus have spread considerably so that even at flight level associated ice crystal number concentrations have dropped to values that prohibit fast relaxation of ice supersaturation. The reduced ice crystal number and the resulting limited water uptake in the contrail cirrus limit the lifetime of the contrail cirrus cluster to about 10 h even though surrounding conditions would be still favorable for contrail cirrus persistence. In our case studies, contrail cirrus resembles natural cirrus regarding their ice crystal number concentration and size after 5-7 h.

  16. The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study - Cloud optical properties determined by High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grund, C. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    1990-01-01

    The High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was operated from a roof-top site in Madison, Wisconsin. The transmitter configuration used to acquire the case study data produces about 50 mW of ouput power and achieved eye-safe, direct optical depth, and backscatter cross section measurements with 10 min averaging times. A new continuously pumped, injection seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser transmitter reduces time-averaging constraints by a factor of about 10, while improving the aerosol-molecular signal separation capabilities and wavelength stability of the instrument. The cirrus cloud backscatter-phase functions have been determined for the October 27-28, 1986 segment of the HSRL FIRE dataset. Features exhibiting backscatter cross sections ranging over four orders of magnitude have been observed within this 33 h period. During this period, cirrus clouds were observed with optical thickness ranging from 0.01 to 1.4. The altitude relationship between cloud top and bottom boundaries and the optical center of the cloud is influenced by the type of formation observed.

  17. Evolution of a Florida Cirrus Anvil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, T. J.; Navarro, B.C.; Twohy, C. H.; Jensen, E. J.; Bui, P. T.; Baumgardner, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Herman, R. L.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Lawson, P.; Minnis, P.; Nguyen, L.; Poellot, M.; Pope, S. K.; Valero, F. P. J.; Weinstock, E. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of a single thunderstorm anvil cirrus cloud measured on 21 July 2002 near southern Florida during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers--Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). NASA WB-57F and University of North Dakota Citation aircraft tracked the microphysical and radiative development of the anvil for 3 h. Measurements showed that the cloud mass that was advected downwind from the thunderstorm was separated vertically into two layers: a cirrus anvil with cloud-top temperatures of -45?C lay below a second, thin tropopause cirrus (TTC) layer with the same horizontal dimensions as the anvil and temperatures near -70?C. In both cloud layers, ice crystals smaller than 50 ?m across dominated the size distributions and cloud radiative properties. In the anvil, ice crystals larger than 50 ?m aggregated and precipitated while small ice crystals increasingly dominated the size distributions; as a consequence, measured ice water contents and ice crystal effective radii decreased with time. Meanwhile, the anvil thinned vertically and maintained a stratification similar to its environment. Because effective radii were small, radiative heating and cooling were concentrated in layers approximately 100 m thick at the anvil top and base. A simple analysis suggests that the anvil cirrus spread laterally because mixing in these radiatively driven layers created horizontal pressure gradients between the cloud and its stratified environment. The TTC layer also spread but, unlike the anvil, did not dissipate--perhaps because the anvil shielded the TTC from terrestrial infrared heating. Calculations of top-of-troposphere radiative forcing above the anvil and TTC showed strong cooling that tapered as the anvil evolved.

  18. Cirrus Simulations of CRYSTAL-FACE 23 July 2002 Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David; Lin, Ruci-Fong; Demoz, Belay; Lare, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is to understand relationships between the properties of tropical convective cloud systems and the properties and lifecycle of the extended cirrus anvils they produce. We report here on a case study of 23 July 2002 where a sequence of convective storms over central Florida produced an extensive anvil outflow. Our approach is to use a suitably-initialized cloud-system simulation with MM5 to define initial conditions and time-dependent forcing for a simulation of anvil evolution using a two-dimensional fine-resolution (100 m) cirrus cloud model that explicitly accounts for details of cirrus microphysical development (bin or spectra model) and fully interactive radiative processes. The cirrus model follows Lin. Meteorological conditions and observations for the 23 July case are described in this volume. The goals of the present study are to evaluate how well we can simulate a cirrus anvil lifecycle, to evaluate the importance of various physical processes that operate within the anvil, and to evaluate the importance of environmental conditions in regulating anvil lifecycle. CRYSTAL-FACE produced a number of excellent case studies of anvil systems that will allow environmental factors, such as static stability or wind shear in the upper troposphere, to be examined. In the present study, we strive to assess the importance of propagating gravity waves, likely produced by the deep convection itself, and radiative processes, to anvil lifecycle and characteristics.

  19. Effects of observed horizontal inhomogeneities within cirrus clouds on solar radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Nicole; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2002-10-01

    In situ microphysical and combined radar and radiometer measurements of 11 cirrus clouds from Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX), European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX), investigation of Clouds by Ground-Based and Airborne Radar and Lidar (CARL), and First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are used to investigate effects of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities on solar radiative transfer. A three-dimensional ray-tracing model (GRIMALDI), based on the Monte Carlo method, is used to calculate upward and downward flux densities and absorption for the spectral range from 0.38 to 4.0 μm. Radiative flux densities are calculated using the inhomogeneous clouds derived from the observations and for horizontally and vertically averaged homogeneous clouds. Horizontally averaged values of radiative flux densities and absorption for heterogeneous clouds can differ by up to 30% from those calculated for the homogeneous clouds for convectively induced tropical cirrus clouds. The midlatitude cases examined tended to be more homogeneous, and hence differences between radiative properties for the homogeneous and heterogeneous clouds did not exceed 10%. For cirrus clouds with mean optical thicknesses smaller than 5 and with relative variances of optical thickness smaller than 0.2, errors caused by the homogeneous assumption are smaller than ±10%.

  20. New Cirrus Retrieval Algorithms and Results from eMAS during SEAC4RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, R.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Wang, C.; Wind, G.; Arnold, T.; King, M. D.; Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS) scanning imager was flown on the ER-2 during the SEAC4RS field campaign. The imager provides measurements in 38 spectral channels from the visible into the 13μm CO2 absorption bands at approximately 25 m nadir spatial resolution at cirrus altitudes, and with a swath width of about 18 km, provided substantial context and synergy for other ER-2 cirrus observations. The eMAS is an update to the original MAS scanner, having new midwave and IR spectrometers coupled with the previous VNIR/SWIR spectrometers. In addition to the standard MODIS-like cloud retrieval algorithm (MOD06/MYD06 for MODIS Terra/Aqua, respectively) that provides cirrus optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) from several channel combinations, three new algorithms were developed to take advantage of unique aspects of eMAS and/or other ER-2 observations. The first uses a combination of two solar reflectance channels within the 1.88 μm water vapor absorption band, each with significantly different single scattering albedo, allowing for simultaneous COT and CER retrievals. The advantage of this algorithm is that the strong water vapor absorption can significantly reduce the sensitivity to lower level clouds and ocean/land surface properties thus better isolating cirrus properties. A second algorithm uses a suite of infrared channels in an optimal estimation algorithm to simultaneously retrieve COT, CER, and cloud-top pressure/temperature. Finally, a window IR algorithm is used to retrieve COT in synergy with the ER-2 Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) cloud top/base boundary measurements. Using a variety of quantifiable error sources, uncertainties for all eMAS retrievals will be shown along with comparisons with CPL COT retrievals.

  1. Principal component and sensitivity analysis of cirrus clouds using high-resolution IR radiance spectra: simulations and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldering, A.; Braverman, A.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    A set of simulated and observed nadir-oriented high-resolution infrared emission spectra of synthetic cirrus clouds is analyzed to assess the spectrally dependent variability of radiance from the adjustment of some microphysical and bulk cirrus cloud properties.

  2. Seasonal and optical characterisation of cirrus clouds over Indian sub-continent using LIDAR

    SciTech Connect

    Jayeshlal, G. S. Satyanarayana, Malladi Dhaman, Reji K. Motty, G. S.

    2014-10-15

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is an important remote sensing technique to study about the cirrus clouds. The subject of cirrus clouds and related climate is challenging one. The received scattered signal from Lidar contains information on the physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. The Lidar profile of the cirrus cloud provides information on the optical characteristics like depolarisation ratio, lidar ratio and optical depth, which give knowledge about possible phase, structure and orientation of cloud particle that affect the radiative budgeting of cirrus clouds. The findings from the study are subjected to generate inputs for better climatic modelling.

  3. Solar glint from oriented crystals in cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Claire; Roblin, Antoine; Chervet, Patrick

    2008-11-20

    Solar scattering on oriented cirrus crystals near the specular reflection direction is modeled using a mix method combining geometric optics and diffraction effects at three wavelengths in the visible and infrared domains. Different potential sources of phase function broadening around the specular direction, such as multiple scattering, solar disk, or tilt effects, are studied by means of a Monte Carlo method. The radiance detected by an airborne sensor located a few kilometers above the cirrus cloud and pointing in the specular scattering direction is calculated at four solar zenith angles showing a dramatic increase of the signal in relation to the usual assumption of random crystal orientation. PMID:19023393

  4. Inferring Cirrus Size Distributions Through Satellite Remote Sensing and Microphysical Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David; D'Entremont, Robert P.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Since cirrus clouds have a substantial influence on the global energy balance that depends on their microphysical properties, climate models should strive to realistically characterize the cirrus ice particle size distribution (PSD), at least in a climatological sense. To date, the airborne in situ measurements of the cirrus PSD have contained large uncertainties due to errors in measuring small ice crystals (D<60 m). This paper presents a method to remotely estimate the concentration of the small ice crystals relative to the larger ones using the 11- and 12- m channels aboard several satellites. By understanding the underlying physics producing the emissivity difference between these channels, this emissivity difference can be used to infer the relative concentration of small ice crystals. This is facilitated by enlisting temperature-dependent characterizations of the PSD (i.e., PSD schemes) based on in situ measurements. An average cirrus emissivity relationship between 12 and 11 m is developed here using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument and is used to retrieve the PSD based on six different PSD schemes. The PSDs from the measurement-based PSD schemes are compared with corresponding retrieved PSDs to evaluate differences in small ice crystal concentrations. The retrieved PSDs generally had lower concentrations of small ice particles, with total number concentration independent of temperature. In addition, the temperature dependence of the PSD effective diameter De and fall speed Vf for these retrieved PSD schemes exhibited less variability relative to the unmodified PSD schemes. The reduced variability in the retrieved De and Vf was attributed to the lower concentrations of small ice crystals in the retrieved PSD.

  5. Airborne observations of cloud properties on HALO during NARVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konow, Heike; Hansen, Akio; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation processes is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate and weather predictions. To validate model predictions of convective processes over the Atlantic ocean, usually satellite data are used. However, satellite products provide just a coarse view with poor temporal resolution of convective maritime clouds. Aircraft-based observations offer a more detailed insight due to lower altitude and high sampling rates. The research aircraft HALO (High Altitude Long Range Research Aircraft) is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). With a ceiling of 15 km, and a range of 10,000 km and more than 10 hours it is able to reach remote regions and operate from higher altitudes than most other research aircraft. Thus, it provides the unique opportunity to exploit regions of the atmosphere that cannot be easily accessed otherwise. Measurements conducted on HALO provide more detailed insights than achievable from satellite data. Therefore, this measurement platform bridges the gap between previous airborne measurements and satellites. The payload used for this study consists of, amongst others, a suite of passive microwave radiometers, a cloud radar, and a water vapor DIAL. To investigate cloud and precipitation properties of convective maritime clouds, the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) campaign was conducted in winter 2013/2014 out of Barbados and Keflavik (Iceland). This campaign was one of the first that took place on the HALO aircraft. During the experiment's two parts 15 research flights were conducted (8 flights during NARVAL-South out of Barbados to investigate trade-wind cumuli and 7 flights out of Keflavik with focus on mid-latitude cyclonic systems). Flight durations were between five and nine hours, amounting to roughly 118 flight hours overall. 121 dropsondes were deployed. In fall 2016 two additional aircraft campaigns with the same payload will take place: The

  6. On the life time of contrail cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.; Graf, K.

    2012-04-01

    Contrails represent reproducible prototypes of cirrus clouds which are easier to understand scientifically and offer better chances for experimental investigations than natural cirrus. In the past, investigation of contrails led to important general insight into the atmosphere system, such as the detection of ice supersaturation, homogeneous and heterogeneous ice particle formation, and subvisible cirrus. Even the Brewer-Dobson circulation was detected because contrails were observed to be short-lived at multitudes above the tropopause. Here we present results constraining the mean life time of contrail cirrus based on comparisons of results from a new contrail cirrus model, ECMWF forecast data and several years of Meteosat satellite observations for the North Atlantic and Europe. The mean life time of contrails is not yet well known. Persistent contrails form at aviation cruise altitudes mainly in the upper troposphere, when the temperature is below the Schmidt-Appleman (SAC) threshold temperature and when the ambient atmosphere is humid enough for long-lived contrails. The SAC threshold depends on aircraft and fuel properties, pressure and humidity. Contrails spread and persist in ice supersaturated air masses. Contrails are visible also for several minutes or even longer when the relative humidity is slightly below saturation, in particular at low temperatures. Contrails survive until the ambient air gets dried beyond ice saturation (e.g. by subsidence, mixing with dry air, radiative warming) or until the ice particles get large enough to sediment quickly and to fall down into drier air masses or, rarely, precipitate to ground. Contrails with large ice particles may end in fallstreaks (i.e. in a curtain of large and quickly falling ice particles). With time, contrails may loose their identity and become part of other thicker cirrus clouds. We model the formation and decay of contrails for a fleet of aircraft using a recently developed Lagrangian contrail cirrus

  7. Distribution and Radiative Forcing of Tropical Thin Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joonsuk; Yang, Ping; Dessler, Andrew E.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Platnick, Steven

    2009-01-01

    To understand the radiative impact of tropical thin cirrus clouds, the frequency of occurrence and optical depths of these clouds have been derived. Thin cirrus clouds are defined here as being those that are not detected by the operational Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask, corresponding to an optical depth value of approximately 0.3 or smaller, but that are detectable in terms of the cirrus reflectance product based on the MODIS 1.375-micron channel. With such a definition, thin cirrus clouds were present in more than 40% of the pixels flagged as clear sky by the operational MODIS cloud mask algorithm. It is shown that these thin cirrus clouds are frequently observed in deep convective regions in the western Pacific. Thin cirrus optical depths were derived from the cirrus reflectance product. Regions of significant cloud fraction and large optical depths were observed in the Northern Hemisphere during the boreal spring and summer and moved southward during the boreal autumn and winter. The radiative effects of tropical thin cirrus clouds were studied on the basis of the retrieved cirrus optical depths, the atmospheric profiles derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations, and a radiative transfer model in conjunction with a parameterization of ice cloud spectral optical properties. To understand how these clouds regulate the radiation field in the atmosphere, the instantaneous net fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface were calculated. The present study shows positive and negative net forcings at the TOA and at the surface, respectively. The positive (negative) net forcing at the TOA (surface) is due to the dominance of longwave (shortwave) forcing. Both the TOA and surface forcings are in a range of 0-20 W/sq m, depending on the optical depths of thin cirrus clouds.

  8. The analysis of in situ and retrieved aerosol properties measured during three airborne field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, Chelsea A.

    Aerosols can directly influence climate, visibility, and photochemistry by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Aerosol chemical and physical properties determine how efficiently a particle scatters and/or absorbs incoming short-wave solar radiation. Because many types of aerosol can act as nuclei for cloud droplets (CCN) and a smaller population of airborne particles facilitate ice crystal formation (IN), aerosols can also alter cloud-radiation interactions which have subsequent impacts on climate. Thus aerosol properties determine the magnitude and sign of both the direct and indirect impacts of aerosols on radiation-dependent Earth System processes. This dissertation will fill some gaps in our understanding of the role of aerosol properties on aerosol absorption and cloud formation. Specifically, the impact of aerosol oxidation on aerosol spectral (350nm < lambda< 500nm) absorption was examined for two biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-S aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission in Spring and Summer 2008. Spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved using actinic flux measured aboard the NASA DC-8 was used to calculate the aerosol absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE) for a 6-day-old plume on April 17 th and a 3-hour old plume on June 29th. Higher AAE values for the April 17th plume (6.78+/-0.38) indicate absorption by aerosol was enhanced in the ultraviolet relative to the visible portion of the short-wave spectrum in the older plume compared to the fresher plume (AAE= 3.34 0.11). These differences were largely attributed to the greater oxidation of the organic aerosol in the April 17th plume which can arise either from the aging of primary organic aerosol or the formation of spectrally-absorbing secondary organic aerosol. The validity of the actinic flux retrievals used above were also evaluated in this work by the comparison of SSA retrieved using

  9. SPARTICUS: Small Particles in Cirrus Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.; Jensen, E.; McFarquhar, G.; Comstock, J.; Ackerman, T.; Mitchell, D.; Liu, X.; Garrett, T.

    2009-10-31

    From a mass-weighted perspective, cirrus clouds exert an enormous influence on the radiative energy budget of the earth’s climate system. Owing to their location in the cold upper troposphere, cirrus can significantly reduce the outgoing longwave radiation while, at the same time, remaining relatively transmissive to solar energy. Thus, cirrus clouds are the only cloud genre that can exert a direct radiative warming influence on the climate system (Ackerman et al. 1988). It is not surprising, therefore, that general circulation models (GCMs) are especially sensitive to the presence of cirrus in the model atmosphere. Lohmann and Roeckner (1995), for instance, show that the climate sensitivity can vary by as much as 40% due to the properties of cirrus varying between transparent and opaque limits. Lohmann and Roeckner (1995) also identify a key feedback by cirrus that is often overlooked; on longer time scales cloud heating in the upper troposphere can act to maintain and modulate the general circulation of the atmosphere through accelerating the subtropical and polar jet streams. Understanding these mechanisms and representing them in models is complicated by the fact that cirrus properties vary over an enormous dynamic range compared to most other clouds.

  10. Midlatitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multichannel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-12-01

    range between 10-60 sr, and the estimated mean value is 31 ± 15 sr, similar to LR values of lower latitude cirrus measurements. The obtained results are consistent with previous studies conducted with different systems and confirm that cirrus classification based on a statistical approach seems to be a good tool both to validate the height-resolved cirrus fields calculated by models and to investigate the key processes governing cirrus formation and evolution. However, the lidar ratio and optical depth analyses are affected by some uncertainties (e.g., lidar error noise, multiple scattering effects, supercooled water clouds) that reduce the confidence of the results. Future studies are needed to improve the characterization of the cirrus optical properties and, thus, the determination of their radiative impact.

  11. Characterization of mechanical properties of leather with airborne ultrasonics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nondestructive method to accurately evaluate the quality of hides and leather is urgently needed by leather and hide industries. We previously reported the research results for airborne ultrasonic (AU) testing using non-contact transducers to evaluate the quality of hides and leather. The abilit...

  12. Influence of Nucleation Mechanisms on the Radiative Properties of Deep Convective Clouds and Subvisible Cirrus in CRYSTAL/FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    2005-01-01

    During the past few years we have conducted work on several different topics, as reflected by our publications. As one of the Co-Project scientists for The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL FACE) we worked to help design the mission and then conduct it in the field. Another major activity during the past two years has been to pull together various groups to formulate plans for follow on missions to CRYSTAL FACE. We organized a workshop at the University of Colorado during the summer of 2003 to assess the best locations for future missions. Working with a group of about 10 scientists from around the country we prepared a science-planning document (Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC(sup 4)) that outlined the rationale, locations, strategy to accomplish the goals, and possible payloads for a set of three tropical missions. We also prepared background materials for various NRAs being prepared at NASA Headquarters for missions in Costa Rica, Darwin and Guam. In conjunction with the group at NASA Ames we have helped build a new numerical model for deep convection and have applied that model to simulate the CRYSTAL data. Our goal in particular has been to better understand how convection distributes water vapor isotopes. CRYSTAL observations of water isotopes are very different from those suggested by previous workers who assumed the isotopes would obey Rayleigh fractionation. The water isotope study has several implications. First it is a check on the realism of the deep convection model. Second, the isotopes are a measure of the precipitation removal in the atmosphere. Hence they provide a constraint on a parameter that is difficult to otherwise measure. Finally it has been suggested that isotopes may be the key to unraveling the water transport into the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Such transport is critical both for the radiation balance and for stratospheric

  13. Dynamical States of Low Temperature Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Low ice crystal concentration and sustained in-cloud supersaturation, commonly found in cloud observations at low temperature, challenge our understanding of cirrus formation. Heterogeneous freezing from effloresced ammonium sulfate, glassy aerosol, dust and black carbon are proposed to cause these phenomena; this requires low updrafts for cirrus characteristics to agree with observations and is at odds with the gravity wave spectrum in the upper troposphere. Background temperature fluctuations however can establish a dynamical equilibrium between ice production and sedimentation loss (as opposed to ice crystal formation during the first stages of cloud evolution and subsequent slow cloud decay) that explains low temperature cirrus properties. This newly-discovered state is favored at low temperatures and does not require heterogeneous nucleation to occur (the presence of ice nuclei can however facilitate its onset). Our understanding of cirrus clouds and their role in anthropogenic climate change is reshaped, as the type of dynamical forcing will set these clouds in one of two preferred microphysical regimes with very different susceptibility to aerosol.

  14. Crystal-face: A Field Experiment An Modelling Program Focused On Tropical Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, E.

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of the Earth's climate. The deployment phase will occur in July, 2002 in southern Florida, USA. Several aircraft will be used, including the ER-2 and Proteus for cloud remote sensing, the WB-57 and Citation for in situ cloud measurements, the P-3 with a Doppler radar for characterization of convective systems, and the Twin Otter for sampling of inflow airmasses. In addition, numerous ground-based and satellite remote sensing measure- ments will be contributing. A central focus of the mission is improvement of our ability to model cirrus clouds with numerical models. Several research groups with a variety of model types (cloud- resolving models, mesoscale models, weather-prediction models, and general circu- lation models) will be participating. Our hope is to fully characterize several cumu- lonimbus/cirrus anvil systems that can be used as case studies for testing and improve- ment of the models. The models will be used for investigating cirrus generation and dissipation processes and the sensitivity of tropical cirrus to convective intensity and aerosol properties. Ultimately, we expect this effort to improve our ability to represent tropical cirrus in GCMs. A general description of the CRYSTAL-FACE program will be presented, with an emphasis on the cloud modeling approach.

  15. CRYSTAL-FACE: A Field Experiment and Modeling Program Focused on Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Eric; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical Cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of 'he Earth's climate. The deployment phase will occur in July, 2002 in southern Florida, USA. Several aircraft will be used, including the ER-2 and Proteus for cloud remote sensing, the WB-57 and Citation for in situ cloud measurements, the P-3 with a Doppler radar for characterization of convective systems, and the Twin otter for sampling of inflow airmasses. In addition, numerous ground-based and satellite remote sensing measurements will be contributing. A central focus of the mission is improvement of our ability to model cirrus clouds with numerical models. Several research groups with a variety of model types (cloud-resolving models, mesoscale models, weather-prediction models, and general circulation models) will be participating. Our hope is to fully characterize several mulonimbus/cirrus anvil systems that can be used as case studies for testing and improvement of the models. The models will be used for investigating cirrus generation and dissipation processes and the sensitivity of tropical cirrus to convective intensity and aerosol properties. Ultimately, we expect this effort to improve our ability to represent tropical cirrus in GCMs. A general description of the CRYSTAL-FACE program will be presented, with an emphasis on the cloud modeling approach.

  16. Changes in Cirrus Cloudiness and their Relationship to Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. Kirk; Palikonda, Rabindra; Doelling, David R.; Schumann, Ulrich; Gierens, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Condensation trails, or contrails, formed in the wake of high-altitude aircraft have long been suspected of causing the formation of additional cirrus cloud cover. More cirrus is possible because 10 - 20% of the atmosphere at typical commercial flight altitudes is clear but ice-saturated. Since they can affect the radiation budget like natural cirrus clouds of equivalent optical depth and microphysical properties, contrail -generated cirrus clouds are another potential source of anthropogenic influence on climate. Initial estimates of contrail radiative forcing (CRF) were based on linear contrail coverage and optical depths derived from a limited number of satellite observations. Assuming that such estimates are accurate, they can be considered as the minimum possible CRF because contrails often develop into cirrus clouds unrecognizable as contrails. These anthropogenic cirrus are not likely to be identified as contrails from satellites and would, therefore, not contribute to estimates of contrail coverage. The mean lifetime and coverage of spreading contrails relative to linear contrails are needed to fully assess the climatic effect of contrails, but are difficult to measure directly. However, the maximum possible impact can be estimated using the relative trends in cirrus coverage over regions with and without air traffic. In this paper, the upper bound of CRF is derived by first computing the change in cirrus coverage over areas with heavy air traffic relative to that over the remainder of the globe assuming that the difference between the two trends is due solely to contrails. This difference is normalized to the corresponding linear contrail coverage for the same regions to obtain an average spreading factor. The maximum contrail-cirrus coverage, estimated as the product of the spreading factor and the linear contrail coverage, is then used in the radiative model to estimate the maximum potential CRF for current air traffic.

  17. Ice Nuclei in Mid-Latitude Cirrus: Preliminary Results from a New Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) Aircraft Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froyd, K. D.; Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Kulkarni, G.; Lawson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Cirrus cloud properties are strongly governed by the mechanism of ice particle formation and by the number and effectiveness of ambient ice nuclei. Airborne measurements of ice nuclei reveal new nucleation mechanisms, provide constraints on microphysical models, and guide laboratory investigations. For over two decades the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) inlet has remained the prevailing approach for sampling cloud particles to measure ice nuclei from an aircraft platform. However, traditional CVI inlets have fundamental limitations when operating on high speed aircraft, where only a small fraction of ambient cloud particles are typically sampled. A novel 'folded' CVI was constructed and deployed during the NASA MACPEX 2011 campaign. The flow design of this inlet effectively doubles the CVI length and thereby increases the size range of captured cirrus particles. Additional design elements such as an internal vortex flow, a neon carrier gas, and an infrared laser further improve the capture and evaporation of ice crystals. Preliminary results of ice nuclei composition measured by the PALMS single-particle mass spectrometer are presented from the MACPEX campaign. Examples of ice nuclei from mid-latitude cirrus are shown, including mineral dust, organic-rich aerosol with amine and diacid components, and lead-containing aerosol.

  18. Invisible Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer's (MODIS') cloud detection capability is so sensitive that it can detect clouds that would be indistinguishable to the human eye. This pair of images highlights MODIS' ability to detect what scientists call 'sub-visible cirrus.' The image on top shows the scene using data collected in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum-the part our eyes can see. Clouds are apparent in the center and lower right of the image, while the rest of the image appears to be relatively clear. However, data collected at 1.38um (lower image) show that a thick layer of previously undetected cirrus clouds obscures the entire scene. These kinds of cirrus are called 'sub-visible' because they can't be detected using only visible light. MODIS' 1.38um channel detects electromagnetic radiation in the infrared region of the spectrum. These images were made from data collected on April 4, 2000. Image courtesy Mark Gray, MODIS Atmosphere Team

  19. Lidar cirrus cloud retrieval - methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroza, Eliane; Keckhut, Philippe; Nakaema, Walter; Brogniez, Gérard; Dubuisson, Philippe; Pelon, Jacques; Duflot, Valentin; Marquestaut, Nicolas; Payen, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades numerical modeling has experimented sensitive improvements on accuracy and capability for climate predictions. In the same time it has demanded the reduction of uncertainties related with the respective input parameters. In this context, high altitude clouds (cirrus) have attracted special attention for their role as radiative forcing. Also such clouds are associated with the vertical transport of water vapor from the surface to upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (URLS) in form of ice crystals with variability of concentration and morphology. Still cirrus formation can occur spatially and temporally in great part of the globe due to horizontal motion of air masses and circulations. Determining accurately the physical properties of cirrus clouds still represents a challenge. Especially the so-called subvisible cirrus clouds (optical depth inferior to 0.03) are invisible for space-based passive observations. On the other hand, ground based active remote sensing as lidar can be used to suppress such deficiency. Lidar signal can provide spatial and temporal high resolution to characterize physically (height, geometric thickness, mean temperature) and optically (optical depth, extinction-to-scattering ratio or lidar ratio, depolarization ratio) the cirrus clouds. This report describes the evolution of the methodology initially adopted to retrieval systematically the lidar ratio and the subsequent application on case studies and climatology on the tropical sites of the globe - São Paulo, Brazil (23.33 S, 46.44 W) and OPAR observatory at Ille de La Réunion (21.07 S, 55.38 W). Also is attempting a synergy between different instrumentations and lidar measurements: a infrared radiometer to estimate the kind of ice crystals compounding the clouds; CALIPSO satellite observations and trajectory model (HYSPLIT) for tracking air masses potentially responsible for the horizontal displacement of cirrus. This last approach is particularly interesting to

  20. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  1. Cirrus Cloud Optical and Morphological Variations within a Mesoscale Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Walter W.

    1996-01-01

    Cirrus cloud optical and structural properties were measured above southern Wisconsin in two time segments between 18:07 and 21:20 GMT on December 1, 1989 by the volume imaging lidar (VIL) and the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the visible infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) atmospheric sounder (VAS) on GOES. A new technique was used to calculate the cirrus cloud visible aerosol backscatter cross sections for a single channel elastic backscatter lidar. Cirrus clouds were viewed simultaneously by the VIL and the HSRL. This allowed the HSRL aerosol backscatter cross sections to be directly compared to the VIL single channel backscattered signal. This first attempt resulted in an adequate calibration. The calibration was extended to all the cirrus clouds in the mesoscale volume imaged by the VIL.

  2. Modulation of Cloud Optical Properties by Vertical Circulations Associated with a Jet Streak Exit Region: The November 26 FIRE Cirrus Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Starr, David OC.; Minnis, Patrick; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The period from 18 UTC 26 November 1991 to roughly 23 UTC 26 November 1991 has become a focal case study of the FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment) Cirrus-11 field campaign. The middle and upper tropospheric cloud data that were collected have allowed FIRE scientists to learn a great deal about the morphological structure and microphysical and radiative characteristics of the mid-latitude cirrus that occurred during that time. An important component of this effort in determining the synoptic scale forcing that existed during this time. By forcing, we mean the coupling between the background vertical air motions and the large scale moisture budget that initiated and maintained cirrus cloud in the study region. Defining the synoptic scale forcing is one of the stated scientific objectives of the FIRE program.

  3. Cirrus Simulations of CRYSTAL-FACE 23 July 2002 Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Demoz, Belay; Lare, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is to understand relationships between the properties of tropical convective cloud systems and the properties and lifecycle of the extended cirrus anvils they produce. We report here on a case study of 23 July 2002 where a sequence of convective storms over central Florida produced an extensive anvil outflow. Our approach is to use a suitably-initialized cloud- system simulation with MM5 (Starr et al., companion paper in this volume) to define initial conditions and time-dependent forcing for a simulation of anvil evolution using a two-dimensional fine-resolution (100 m) cirrus cloud model that explicitly accounts for details of cirrus microphysical development (bin or spectra model) and fully interactive radiative processes. The cirrus model follows Lin (1997). The microphysical components are described in Lin et al. (2004) - see Lin et a1 (this volume). Meteorological conditions and observations for the 23 July case are described in Starr et al. (this volume). The goals of the present study are to evaluate how well we can simulate a cirrus anvil lifecycle, to evaluate the importance of various physical processes that operate within the anvil, and to evaluate the importance of environmental conditions in regulating anvil lifecycle. CRYSTAL-FACE produced a number of excellent case studies of anvil systems that will allow environmental factors, such as static stability or wind shear in the upper troposphere, to be examined. In the present study, we strive to assess the importance of propagating gravity waves, likely produced by the deep convection itself, and radiative processes, to anvil lifecycle and characteristics.

  4. Detection of soil properties with airborne hyperspectral measurements of bare fields.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne remote sensing data, using a hyperspectral (HSI) camera, were collected for a flight over two fields with a total of 128 ha. of recently seeded and nearly bare soil. The within-field spatial distribution of several soil properties was found by using multiple linear regression to select the ...

  5. Cirrus cloud spectra and layers observed during the FIRE and GASP projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatau, Piotr J.; Gultepe, I.; Nastrom, G.; Cotton, William R.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    A general characterization is developed for cirrus clouds in terms of their spectra, shapes, optical thicknesses, and radiative properties for use in numerical models. Data sets from the Global Atmospheric Sampling Project (GASP) of the upper troposphere and the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) are combined and analyzed to study general traits of cirrus clouds. A definition is given for 2D turbulence, and the GASP and FIRE data sets are examined with respect to cirrus layers and entrainment and to dominant turbulent scales. The approach employs conditional sampling in cloudy and clear air, power-spectral analysis, and mixing-line-type diagrams. Evidence is given for a well mixed cloud deck and for the tendency of cirrus to be formed in multilayer structures. The results are of use in mesoscale and global circulation models which predict cirrus, in small-scale cirrus modeling, and in studying the role of gravity waves in the horizontal structure of upper tropospheric clouds.

  6. Characterization of residuals from ice particles and droplets sampled in mid-latitude natural and aviation-influenced cirrus and in tropical deep convective cloud systems during ML-CIRRUS and ACRIDICON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Schulz, Christiane; Klimach, Thomas; Krüger, Mira; Schneider, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Airborne sampling of cloud particles inside different cirrus cloud types and inside deep convective clouds was conducted during the HALO missions ML-CIRRUS over Europe in March/April 2014 and ACRIDICON over Amazonia in September 2014. ML-CIRRUS aims at the investigation of the for-mation, evolution, microphysical state and radiative effects of different natural and aviation-induced cirrus clouds in the mid-latitudes. The main objectives of ACRIDICON are the microphysical vertical profiling, vertical aerosol transport and the cloud processing of aerosol particles (compari-son in- and outflow) of tropical deep convective cloud systems in clean and polluted air masses and over forested and deforested regions. The hydrometeors (drops and ice particles) are sampled by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) which has to be installed in the front part of the upper fuselage of the HALO aircraft. Such an intake position implies a size dependent abundance of cloud particles with respect to ambient conditions that was studied by particle trajectory simulations (Katrin Witte, HALO Technical Note 2008-003-A). On the other hand, this sampling location avoids that large ice crystals which could potentially bias the cloud particle sampling by shattering and break-up at the inlet shroud and tip enter the inlet. Both aspects as well as the flight conditions of HALO were taken into account for an optimized CVI design for HALO (HALO-CVI). Interstitial particles are pre-segregated and the condensed phase is evaporated/sublimated by the CVI, such that the residuals from cloud droplets and ice particles (CDR and IPR) can be microphysically and chemically analyzed by respective aerosol sensors located in the cabin. Although an even more comprehensive characterization of CDR and IPR was carried out, we like to report on the following measurements of certain aerosol properties. Particle number concentra-tion and size distribution are measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an

  7. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    S, Motty G Satyanarayana, M. Krishnakumar, V. Dhaman, Reji k.

    2014-10-15

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

  8. Dust ice nuclei effects on cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebbeler, M.; Lohmann, U.; Hendricks, J.; Kärcher, B.

    2014-03-01

    In order to study aerosol-cloud interactions in cirrus clouds, we apply a new multiple-mode ice microphysical scheme to the general circulation model ECHAM5-HAM. The multiple-mode ice microphysical scheme allows for analysis of the competition between homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, deposition nucleation of pure dust particles, and immersion freezing of coated dust particles and pre-existing ice. We base the freezing efficiencies of coated and pure dust particles on the most recent laboratory data. The effect of pre-existing ice, which has been neglected in previous ice nucleation parameterizations, is to deplete water vapour by depositional growth and thus prevent homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing from occurring. As a first step, we extensively tested the model and validated the results against in situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns. The results compare well with observations; properties such as ice crystal size and number concentration as well as supersaturation are predicted within the observational spread. We find that heterogeneous nucleation on mineral dust particles and the consideration of pre-existing ice in the nucleation process may lead to significant effects: globally, ice crystal number and mass are reduced by 10 and 5%, whereas the ice crystals' size is increased by 3%. The reductions in ice crystal number are most pronounced in the tropics and mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While changes in the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the tropics are mostly driven by considering pre-existing ice, changes in the northern hemispheric mid-latitudes mainly result from heterogeneous nucleation. The so-called negative Twomey effect in cirrus clouds is represented in ECHAM5-HAM. The net change in the radiation budget is -0.94 W m-2, implying that both heterogeneous nucleation on dust and pre-existing ice have the potential to modulate cirrus properties in climate simulations and thus should be

  9. Ground-Based Lidar and Radar Remote Sensing of Tropical Cirrus Clouds at Nauru Island: Cloud Statistics and Radiative Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Mace, Gerald G.

    2002-12-12

    Ground based active and passive remote sensing instrumentation are combined to derive radiative and macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds. Eight months of cirrus observations at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site located on Nauru Island provide independent retrieval of cloud height and visible optical depth using lidar and radar techniques. Comparisons reveal the millimeter cloud radar does not detect 13% of cirrus clouds with a cloud base higher than 15 km that are detected by the lidar. Lidar and radar cloud heights demonstrate good agreement when the cloud lies below 15 km. Radar and lidar retrievals of visible optical depth also compare well for all but the optically thinnest clouds. Cloud occurrence at Nauru as measured by lidar, reveal clear sky conditions occur on average 40%, low clouds 16%, and high clouds 44% of the time. Analysis of observed cirrus macrophysical and radiative properties suggests that two different types of cirrus exist in the tropical western Pacific: high, thin, laminar cirrus with cloud base higher than 15 km, and lower, physically thicker, more structured cirrus clouds. Differences in cirrus types are likely linked to their formation mechanisms. Radiosonde profiles of temperature and equivalent potential temperature near the tropical tropopause show a clear transition between neutrally stable and stable air at ~15 km, which may also explain the presence of two distinct cirrus types. Radiative heating rate and cloud forcing calculations for specific cirrus cases reveal the impact of tropical cirrus clouds on the earth?s radiation budget.

  10. Sun and aureole spectrometer for airborne measurements to derive aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Asseng, Hagen; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen

    2004-04-01

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct Sun irradiance and aureole radiance. The instrument is based on diffraction grating spectrometers with linear image sensors. It is robust, lightweight, compact, and reliable, characteristics that are important for airborne applications. The multispectral radiation measurements are used to derive optical properties of tropospheric aerosols. We extract the altitude dependence of the aerosol volume scattering function and of the aerosol optical depth by using flight patterns with descents and ascents ranging from the surface level to the top of the boundary layer. The extinction coefficient and the product of single scattering albedo and phase function of separate layers can be derived from the airborne measurements. PMID:15074425

  11. The Prospect for Remote Sensing of Cirrus Clouds with a Submillimeter-Wave Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, Aaron H.; Nolt, Ira G.; Marshall, B. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Given the substantial radiative effects of cirrus clouds and the need to validate cirrus cloud mass in climate models, it is important to measure the global distribution of cirrus properties with satellite remote sensing. Existing cirrus remote sensing techniques, such as solar reflectance methods, measure cirrus ice water path (IWP) rather indirectly and with limited accuracy. Submillimeter/wave radiometry is an independent method of cirrus remote sensing based on ice particles scattering the upwelling radiance emitted by the lower atmosphere. A new aircraft instrument, the Far Infrared Sensor for Cirrus (FIRSC), is described. The FIRSC employs a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). which measures the upwelling radiance across the whole submillimeter region (0.1 1.0-mm wavelength). This wide spectral coverage gives high sensitivity to most cirrus particle sizes and allows accurate determination of the characteristic particle size. Radiative transfer modeling is performed to analyze the capabilities of the submillimeter FTS technique. A linear inversion analysis is done to show that cirrus IWP, particle size, and upper-tropospheric temperature and water vapor may be accurately measured, A nonlinear statistical algorithm is developed using a database of 20000 spectra simulated by randomly varying most relevant cirrus and atmospheric parameters. An empirical orthogonal function analysis reduces the 500-point spectrum (20 - 70/cm) to 15 "pseudo-channels" that are then input to a neural network to retrieve cirrus IWP and median particle diameter. A Monte Carlo accuracy study is performed with simulated spectra having realistic noise. The retrieval errors are low for IWP (rms less than a factor of 1.5) and for particle sizes (rins less than 30%) for IWP greater than 5 g/sq m and a wide range of median particle sizes. This detailed modeling indicates that there is good potential to accurately measure cirrus properties with a submillimeter FTS.

  12. Cirrus cloud statistics: Temperatures and optical depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Gore, Warren J. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the upwelling infrared radiance at 10.5 and 6.5 microns were obtained during the FIRE cirrus Intensive Field Observations using a radiometer with a 15 deg cone nadir field-of-view flown on the NASA Ames ER-2. Data are recorded at a frequency of 1 Hz and the radiometer is continuously calibrated with a liquid nitrogen blackbody source, thereby providing a large number of very accurate radiance values during the course of a several hour flight. For this study, the focus is on the statistical properties of the cirrus deck as deduced from the radiance data. The data acquired on 28 October 1986 is stressed, but some data from the other flights are also shown for comparison purposes.

  13. Laser transmission through thin cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Liou, K N; Takano, Y; Ou, S C; Johnson, M W

    2000-09-20

    A near-infrared airborne-laser transmission model for thin cirrus clouds has been developed on the basis of the successive-order-of-scattering approach to account for multiple scattering by randomly and horizontally oriented ice crystals associated with an aircraft-target system. Direct transmission and transmission due to multiple scattering are formulated specifically for this geometric system, in which scattering and absorption associated with aerosols, water vapor, and air are accounted for. A number of sensitivity experiments have been performed for investigation of the effect of aircraft-target position, cirrus cloud optical depth, and ice crystal size on laser transmission for tactical applications. We show that transmission contributions produced by orders of scattering higher than 1 are small and can be neglected. The possibility of horizontal orientation of ice crystals can enhance transmission of laser beams in the aircraft-target geometry. Transmitted energy is strongly dependent on the horizontal distance between the aircraft and the target and on the cloud optical depth as well as on whether the cloud is above or below the aircraft. PMID:18350081

  14. Mid-latitude cirrus classification at Rome Tor Vergata through a multi-channel Raman-Mie-Rayleigh lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Liberti, G. L.; Cardillo, F.; Congeduti, F.

    2013-04-01

    and opaque cirrus classes (10%, 49% and 41%, respectively). The overall mean value of cirrus optical depth is 0.37 ± 0.18 , while most retrieved LReff values ranges between 10-60 sr and the estimated mean value is 31 ± 15 sr, similar to LR values of lower latitude cirrus measurements. The obtained results are consistent with previous studies conducted with different systems and confirm that cirrus classification based on a statistical approach seems to be a good tool both to validate the height-resolved cirrus fields, calculated by models, and to investigate the key processes governing cirrus formation and evolution. These are fundamental elements to improve the characterization of the cirrus optical properties and, thus, the determination of their radiative impact.

  15. Formation of low-temperature cirrus from H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Sassen, K; Kulmala, M

    2006-11-23

    We present experimental results obtained with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) that indicate the small ice particles in low-temperature cirrus clouds are not completely solid but rather coated with an unfrozen H2SO4/H2O overlayer. Our results provide a new look on the formation, development, and microphysical properties of low-temperature cirrus clouds. PMID:17107102

  16. Simulation of the optical properties of plate aggregates for application to the remote sensing of cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W; Baum, Bryan A; Hu, Yongxiang

    2011-03-10

    In regions of deep tropical convection, ice particles often undergo aggregation and form complex chains. To investigate the effect of the representation of aggregates on electromagnetic scattering calculations, we developed an algorithm to efficiently specify the geometries of aggregates and to compute some of their geometric parameters, such as the projected area. Based on in situ observations, ice aggregates are defined as clusters of hexagonal plates with a chainlike overall shape, which may have smooth or roughened surfaces. An aggregate representation is developed with 10 ensemble members, each consisting of between 4-12 hexagonal plates. The scattering properties of an individual aggregate ice particle are computed using either the discrete dipole approximation or an improved geometric optics method, depending upon the size parameters. Subsequently, the aggregate properties are averaged over all geometries. The scattering properties of the aggregate representation closely agree with those computed from 1000 different aggregate geometries. As a result, the aggregate representation provides an accurate and computationally efficient way to represent all aggregates occurring within ice clouds. Furthermore, the aggregate representation can be used to study the influence of these complex ice particles on the satellite-based remote sensing of ice clouds. The computed cloud reflectances for aggregates are different from those associated with randomly oriented individual hexagonal plates. When aggregates are neglected, simulated cloud reflectances are generally lower at visible and shortwave-infrared wavelengths, resulting in smaller effective particle sizes but larger optical thicknesses. PMID:21394178

  17. Cirrus clouds in convective outflow during the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.

    2007-05-01

    Light-weight microlidar measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (22 S, 49 W). Tropical cirrus observations showed high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. The cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height. It was found that the clouds were composed of different layers, characterized by a marked variability in height, thickness and optical properties. Trajectory analysis and mesoscale transport simulations clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region, while the observed optical properties and cloud structure variability could be linked to different residence times of convective-processed air in the upper troposphere. Mesoscale simulations were able to reproduce the supersaturation due to recent outflow, while it was necessary to consider the presence of other formation processes than convective hydration for cirrus forming in aged detrained anvils.

  18. Large Eddy Simulation of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Ting; Cotton, William R.

    1999-01-01

    of large ice crystals, and consequently, both radiative and dynamic properties of the cirrus cloud are significantly affected. A complete description of this research has been submitted as a paper to the Journal of Atmospheric Science (Wu et al., 1999), and included as Appendix 3.

  19. Measurements of Ocean Surface Scattering Using an Airborne 94-GHz Cloud Radar: Implication for Calibration of Airborne and Spaceborne W-band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li-Hua; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Racette, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering properties of the Ocean surface have been widely used as a calibration reference for airborne and spaceborne microwave sensors. However, at millimeter-wave frequencies, the ocean surface backscattering mechanism is still not well understood, in part, due to the lack of experimental measurements. During the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), measurements of ocean surface backscattering were made using a 94-GHz (W-band) cloud radar onboard a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The measurement set includes the normalized Ocean surface cross section over a range of the incidence angles under a variety of wind conditions. Analysis of the radar measurements shows good agreement with a quasi-specular scattering model. This unprecedented dataset enhances our knowledge about the Ocean surface scattering mechanism at 94 GHz. The results of this work support the proposition of using the Ocean surface as a calibration reference for airborne millimeter-wave cloud radars and for the ongoing NASA CloudSat mission, which will use a 94-GHz spaceborne cloud radar for global cloud measurements.

  20. Cirrus outflow dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilly, Douglas K.

    1988-01-01

    In the present analyses of cirrus clouds' deep-convection outflow plumes as dynamically and thermodynamically active systems, the initial outflow is considered as an analog to wake collapse: after a neutrally-buoyant flow intrusion is flattened and stretched by its stratified environment, the initially isotropic turbulence within it is converted to other forms. Dugan et al.'s (1976) analytic and numerical calculations are used to predict the early spread of the outflow. Strong radiative heat flux curvature then leads to maintenance or regeneration of buoyant turbulence in the collapsed outflow plume. The rise of narrow plumes is sufficiently rapid that their mean temperature does not significantly differ from that of their environment.

  1. Contrails, Cirrus Trends, and Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. Kirk; Palikonda, Rabindra; Phan, Dung

    2004-04-01

    Rising global air traffic and its associated contrails have the potential for affecting climate via radiative forcing. Current estimates of contrail climate effects are based on coverage by linear contrails that do not account for spreading and, therefore, represent the minimum impact. The maximum radiative impact is estimated by assuming that long-term trends in cirrus coverage are due entirely to air traffic in areas where humidity is relatively constant. Surface observations from 1971 to 1995 show that cirrus increased significantly over the northern oceans and the United States while decreasing over other land areas except over western Europe where cirrus coverage was relatively constant. The surface observations are consistent with satellite-derived trends over most areas. Land cirrus trends are positively correlated with upper-tropospheric (300 hPa) humidity (UTH), derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analyses, except over the United States and western Europe where air traffic is heaviest. Over oceans, the cirrus trends are negatively correlated with the NCEP relative humidity suggesting some large uncertainties in the maritime UTH. The NCEP UTH decreased dramatically over Europe while remaining relatively steady over the United States, thereby permitting an assessment of the cirrus contrail relationship over the United States. Seasonal cirrus changes over the United States are generally consistent with the annual cycle of contrail coverage and frequency lending additional evidence to the role of contrails in the observed trend. It is concluded that the U.S. cirrus trends are most likely due to air traffic. The cirrus increase is a factor of 1.8 greater than that expected from current estimates of linear contrail coverage suggesting that a spreading factor of the same magnitude can be used to estimate the maximum effect of the contrails. From the U.S. results and using mean contrail optical depths of 0.15 and 0.25, the maximum

  2. Mid-latitude cirrus investigations at high-resolution through ground-based lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, Davide; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain; Gaudo, Thierry; Courcoux, Yann; Porteneuve, Jacques; Hoareau, Christophe; Congeduti, Fernando; Liberti, Gianluigi

    2013-04-01

    Although cirrus vertical distributions determine their local cooling or warming effects, one of the main missing information in Global Climate Models (GCMs) is the characterization of their vertical location and stratification. Lidar technique, in contrast, can detect cirrus with high spatial and temporal resolution, providing accurate information on their vertical distribution. In this work, the recent and on going studies about the the characterization of mid-latitude cirrus through lidar systems located at the Observatory of Haute Provence (OHP, 43.9 ° N, 5.7 ° E) in France and at Rome Tor Vergata (RTV, 41.8 ° N, 12.6 ° E) in Italy are presented. Cirrus have been firstly studied in terms of quasi-stationary periods regarding statistical variability. A clustering approach has been then adopted to derive cirrus classification (and climatology) over the period 1996-2007 for OHP lidar measurements and over 2007-2010 for RTV dataset. Three independent cirrus classes have been identified: I thin middle tropospheric cirrus, II thick upper tropospheric cirrus, III thin tropopause cirrus. The temporal variability of the optical properties of these classes has been then analyzed at lidar raw temporal sampling (180 sec). While advection dominates, at the first order, variability on timescale of minutes can be related to space fluctuations of cloud properties on typical scale of few kilometers. Lognormal distributions of the optical depth have been used to model variability of the cirrus optical depth as observed by lidars. Finally, the implementation of the OHP lidar system in terms of two analogic channels that collect the Rayleigh-Mie orthogonal and parallel component signals through an high-resolution acquisition chain (vertical and temporal sampling of 37.5 m and 1 sec, respectively) has been employed to investigate the high frequency cirrus variability in a recent campaign held at the OHP. The preliminary results of this campaign are also showed

  3. Analysis of Aircraft, Radiosonde and Radar Observations in Cirrus Clouds Observed During FIRE II: The Interactions Between Environmental Structure, Turbulence and Cloud Microphysical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1999-01-01

    Ways to determine the turbulence intensity and the horizontal variability in cirrus clouds have been investigated using FIRE-II aircraft, radiosonde and radar data. Higher turbulence intensities were found within some, but not all, of the neutrally stratified layers. It was also demonstrated that the stability of cirrus layers with high extinction values decrease in time, possibly as a result of radiative destabilization. However, these features could not be directly related to each other in any simple manner. A simple linear relationship was observed between the amount of horizontal variability in the ice water content and its average value. This was also true for the extinction and ice crystal number concentrations. A relationship was also suggested between the variability in cloud depth and the environmental stability across the depth of the cloud layer, which requires further investigation.

  4. Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment: conversion of a ground-based lidar for airborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, James N.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Rothermel, Jeffrey; Menzies, Robert T.

    1996-11-01

    The first Multi center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) field experiment demonstrated an airborne high energy TEA CO2 Doppler lidar system for measurement of atmospheric wind fields and aerosol structure. The system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 during September 1995 in a series of checkout flights to observe several important atmospheric phenomena, including upper level winds in a Pacific hurricane, marine boundary layer winds, cirrus cloud properties, and land-sea breeze structure. The instrument, with its capability to measure 3D winds and backscatter fields, promises to be a valuable tool for climate and global change, severe weather, and air quality research. In this paper, we describe the airborne instrument, assess its performance, discuss future improvements, and show some preliminary results from the September experiments.

  5. Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes A global perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, K.-N.

    1986-01-01

    Current understanding and knowledge of the composition and structure of cirrus clouds are reviewed and documented in this paper. In addition, the radiative properties of cirrus clouds as they relate to weather and climate processes are described in detail. To place the relevance and importance of cirrus composition, structure and radiative properties into a global perspective, pertinent results derived from simulation experiments utilizing models with varying degrees of complexity are presented; these have been carried out for the investigation of the influence of cirrus clouds on the thermodynamics and dynamics of the atmosphere. In light of these reviews, suggestions are outlined for cirrus-radiation research activities aimed toward the development and improvement of weather and climate models for a physical understanding of cause and effect relationships and for prediction purposes.

  6. Ubiquitous influence of waves on tropical high cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Alexander, M. Joan; Bui, T. Paul; Dean-Day, Jonathan M.; Lawson, R. Paul; Woods, Sarah; Hlavka, Dennis; Pfister, Leonhard; Jensen, Eric J.

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and water vapor transported into the stratosphere have significant impacts on the global radiation budget and circulation patterns. Climate models, however, have large uncertainties in representing dehydration and cloud processes in the TTL, and thus their feedback on surface climate, prohibiting an accurate projection of future global and regional climate changes. Here we use unprecedented airborne measurements over the Pacific to reveal atmospheric waves as a strong modulator of ice clouds in the TTL. Wave-induced cold and/or cooling conditions are shown to exert a nearly ubiquitous influence on cirrus cloud occurrence at altitudes of 14-18 km, except when air was very recently influenced by convective hydration. We further observe that various vertical scales of cloud layers are associated with various vertical scales of waves, suggesting the importance of representing TTL waves in models.

  7. Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by the University of North Dakota (UND) under NASA Grant NAG5-11509, titled Airborne In Situ and Ground-based Polarimetric Radar Measurements of Tropical Convection in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE. This work focused on the collection of data by two key platforms: the UND Citation II research aircraft and the NASA NPOL radar system. The CRYSTAL-FACE (C-F) mission addresses several key issues from the NASA Earth System Enterprise, including the variability of water in the atmosphere, the forcing provided by tropical cirrus and the response of the Earth system to this forcing. In situ measurements and radar observations of tropical convection, cirrus clouds and their environment are core elements of C-F. One of the primary issues that C-F is addressing is the relationship of tropical cirrus anvils to precipitating deep convection. The in situ measurements from C-F are being used to validate remote sensing of Earth-Atmosphere properties, increase our knowledge of upper tropospheric water vapor and its distribution, and increase our knowledge of tropical cirrus cloud morphology and composition. Radar measurements, especially polarimetric diversity observations available fiom the NASA NPOL radar, are providing essential information about the initiation, modulation, and dissipation of convective cores and the generation of associated anvils in tropical convection. Specifically, NPOL radar measurements contain information about convective intensity and its vertical structure for comparison with thermodynamic and kinematic environmental measurements observed from soundings. Because of the polarimetric diversity of MOL, statistics on bulk microphysical properties can be retrieved and compared to the other characteristics of convection and associated cirrus anvils. In summary, the central objectives of this proposal were to deploy the UND Citation research aircraft as an in situ sensing platform for this mission and to provide collaborative

  8. The 5-6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: Possible influences of volcanic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, K.; Starr, D.O.C.; Melfi, S.H.; Spinhirne, J.D.; Poellot, M.R.; Eberhard, W.L.; Eloranta, E.W.; Hagen, D.E.; Hallett, J.

    1995-01-01

    In presenting an overview of the cirrus clouds comprehensively studied by ground-based and airborne sensors from Coffeyville, Kansas, during the 5-6 December 1992 Project FIRE IFO II case study period, evidence is provided that volcanic aerosols from the June 1991 Pinatubo eruptions may have significantly influenced the formation and maintenance of the cirrus. Following the local appearance of a spur of stratospheric volcanic debris from the subtropics, a series of jet streaks subsequently conditioned the troposphere through tropopause foldings with sulfur-based particles that became effective cloud-forming nuclei in cirrus clouds. Aerosol and ozone measurements suggest a complicated history of stratospheric-tropospheric exchanges embedded within the upper-level flow, and cirrus cloud formation was noted to occur locally at the boundaries of stratospheric aerosol-enriched layers that became humidified through diffusion, precipitation, or advective processes. Apparent cirrus cloud alterations include abnormally high ice crystal concentrations (up to {approximately}600 L{sup {minus}1}), complex radial ice crystal types, and relatively large haze particles in cirrus uncinus cell heads at temperatures between {minus}40{degrees} and {minus}50{degrees}C. Implications for volcanic-cirrus cloud climate effects and usual (nonvolcanic aerosol) jet stream cirrus cloud formation are discussed. 42 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The 5-6 December 1991 FIRE IFO 2 Jet Stream Cirrus Case Study: Possible Influences of Volcanic Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Starr, David OC.; Mace, Gerald G.; Poellot, Michael R.; Melfi, S. H.; Eberhard, Wynn L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Hagen, Donald E.; Hallett, John

    1996-01-01

    In presenting an overview of the cirrus clouds comprehensively studied by ground based and airborne sensors from Coffeyville, Kansas, during the 5-6 December 1992 First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) intensive field observation (IFO) case study period, evidence is provided that volcanic aerosols from the June 1991 Pinatubo eruptions may have significantly influenced the formation and maintenance of the cirrus. Following the local appearance of a spur of stratospheric volcanic debris from the subtropics, a series of jet streaks subsequently conditioned the troposphere through tropopause foldings with sulfur based particles that became effective cloud forming nuclei in cirrus clouds. Aerosol and ozone measurements suggest a complicated history of stratospheric-tropospheric exchanges embedded with the upper level flow, and cirrus cloud formation was noted to occur locally at the boundaries of stratospheric aerosol enriched layers that became humidified through diffusion, precipitation, or advective processes. Apparent cirrus cloud alterations include abnormally high ice crystal concentrations (up to approximately 600 L(exp. 1)), complex radial ice crystal types, and relatively large haze particles in cirrus uncinus cell heads at temperatures between -40 and -50 degrees C. Implications for volcanic-cirrus cloud climate effects and unusual (nonvolcanic) aerosol jet stream cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  10. Evaluating The Indirect Effect of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

    What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the indirect effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the indirect effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected

  11. Lidar studies on climate sensitivity characteristics of tropical cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motty, G. S.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2016-05-01

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget due to their high frequency of occurrence, non-spherical ice crystal formations, and variability in the scattering/absorption characteristics. Mostly, the tropical cirrus clouds are considered as greenhouse modulators. Thus the parameterization of tropical cirrus clouds in terms of the micro- physical properties and the corresponding radiative effects are highly important for the climate studies. For characterizing the radiative properties of cirrus clouds, which depend on the size, shape and number of the ice crystals, the knowledge of extinction coefficient (σ) and optical depth (τ) are necessary. The σ provides information needed for understanding the influence of the scatterers on the radiative budget whereas the τ gives an indication on the composition and thickness of the cloud. Extensive research on the tropical cirrus clouds has been carried out by using a ground based and satellite based lidar systems. In this work, the characteristics of tropical cirrus cloud derived by using the data from the ground based lidar system over the tropical site Gadanki [13.5°N, 79.2°E], India during 2010 are presented. Some of the results are compared with those obtained by us from satellite based CALIOP lidar observations of the CALIPSO mission. It is observed that there is a strong dependence of the some of the physical properties such as occurrence height, cloud temperature and the geometrical thickness on the microphysical parameters in terms of extinction coefficient and optical depth. The correlation of both the σ and τ with temperature is also observed.

  12. A four-lidar view of Cirrus from the FIRE IFO: 27-28 October 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Grund, Christian John; Alvarez, Jose M.; Hall, Freeman F.

    1990-01-01

    The four ground-based lidar systems that participated in the 1986 FIRE IFO were configured in a diamond-shaped array across central and southern Wisconsin. Data were generally collected in the zenith pointing mode, except for the Doppler lidar, which regularly operated in a scanning mode with intermittent zenith observations. As a component of the cirrus case study of 27 and 28 October 1986 selected for initial analysis, data collected by the remote sensor ensemble from 1600 (on the 27th) to 2400 UTC (on the 28th) is described and compared. In general, the cirrus studied on the 27th consisted of intermittent layers of thin and subvisual cirrus clouds. Particularly at Wausau, subvisual cirrus was detected from 11.0 to 11.5 km MSL, just below the tropopause. At lower levels, occasional cirrus clouds between approx. 8.0 to 9.5 km were detected from all ground sites. Preliminary analysis of the four-lidar dataset reveals the passage of surprisingly consistent cloud features across the experiment area. A variety of types and amounts of middle and high level clouds occurred, ranging from subvisual cirrus to deep cloud bands. It is expected that the ground-based lidar measurements from this case study, as well as the airborne observations, will provide an excellent data base for comparison to satellite observations.

  13. Cirrus-cloud thermostat for tropical sea surface temperature tested using satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Rong; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Rossow, William B.; Liu, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    Cirrus clouds associated with tropical convection may shield the ocean from sunlight and therefore act as a thermostat to limit tropical SST (sea surface temperature) to less than 305 K. This hypothesis was tested using satellite radiance data. It was found that changes in the properties of cirrus clouds do not seem to be related to changes in SSTs. During the 1987 El Nino event large-scale atmospheric circulation changes rather than the direct effect of SSTs seemed to control large-scale changes in radiative effects of cirrus clouds. If averaged over the entire tropical Pacific, increases in surface evaporative cooling are stronger than decreases in solar heating owing to cirrus cloud variation. This would indicate that there is no cirrus cloud thermostat to tropical SSTs.

  14. Chemistry and microphysics of polar stratospheric clouds and cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Zondlo, M A; Hudson, P K; Prenni, A J; Tolbert, M A

    2000-01-01

    Ice particles found within polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and upper tropospheric cirrus clouds can dramatically impact the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. The formation of PSCs and the subsequent chemical reactions that occur on their surfaces are key components of the massive ozone hole observed each spring over Antarctica. Cirrus clouds also provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions and significantly modify the Earth's climate by changing the visible and infrared radiation fluxes. Although the role of ice particles in climate and chemistry is well recognized, the exact mechanisms of cloud formation are still unknown, and thus it is difficult to predict how anthropogenic activities will change cloud abundances in the future. This article focuses on the nucleation, chemistry, and microphysical properties of ice particles composing PSCs and cirrus clouds. A general overview of the current state of research is presented along with some unresolved issues facing scientists in the future. PMID:11031290

  15. Contrail-Cirrus Studies at FARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    1997-01-01

    The three primary goals have been to: (1) increase our contrail remote sensing database collected from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) by expanding our Project FIRE Extended Time Observations (ETO) program to include contrail persistence studies: (2) continue our retrospective analyses of the statistical, physical, and radiative properties of contrails derived from our 10-year ETO cirrus cloud dataset to examine their potential direct impact for regional climate change: and, (3) prepare our mobile remote sensing systems and participate in the SUCCESS field campaign from the DOE Southern Great Plains ARM CART site.

  16. Cirrus microphysics and infrared radiative transfer: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Kinne, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Coincident measurements of cirrus cloud microphysical properties such as particle size distribution and particle shape and morphology, and measurements of infrared intensity and flux were made. Data was acquired nearly simultaneously in space and time by a KingAir in cloud and by an ER-2 at an altitude of 19 km. Upwelling infrared intensities and fluxes measured from the ER-2 and observations of cloud particle size distributions and particle phase and morphology made from the KingAir are discussed. Broad-band flux measurements were available both in and below the cirrus layer from the KingAir.

  17. Comparison of Cirrus height and optical depth derived from satellite and aircraft measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, M.; Kriebel, K.T.; Meerkoetter, R.; Renger, W.; Ruppersberg, G.H.; Wendling, P. )

    1993-10-01

    During the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE'89) simultaneous measurements of cirrus cloud-top height and optical depth by satellite and aircraft have been taken. Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the NOAA polar-orbiting meteorological satellite system have been used together with the algorithm package AVHRR processing scheme over clouds, land and ocean (APOLLO) to derive optical depth. NOAA High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) data have been used together with a bispectral technique to derive cloud-top height. Also, the optical depth of some contrails could be estimated. Airborne measurements have been performed simultaneously by using the Airborne Lidar Experiment (ALEX), a backscatter lidar. Comparison of satellite data with airborne data showed agreement of the top heights to about 500 m and of the optical depths to about 30%. These uncertainties are within the limits obtained from error estimates. 34 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Surface scattering properties estimated from modeling airborne multiple emission angle reflectance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, Edward A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Irons, J. R.; Harding, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Here, researchers apply the Hapke function to airborne bidirectional reflectance data collected over three terrestrial surfaces. The objectives of the study were to test the range of natural surfaces that the Hapke model fits and to evaluate model parameters in terms of known surface properties. The data used are multispectral and multiple emission angle data collected during the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) over a mud-cracked playa, an artificially roughened playa, and a basalt cobble strewn playa at Lunar Lake Playa in Nevada. Airborne remote sensing data and associated field measurements were acquired at the same time. The airborne data were acquired by the Advanced Solid State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) instrument, a 29-spectral band imaging system. ASAS reflectance data for a cobble-strewn surface and an artificially rough playa surface on Lunar Lake Playa can be explained with the Hanke model. The cobble and rough playa sites are distinguishable by a single scattering albedo, which is controlled by material composition; by the roughness parameter, which appears to be controlled by the surface texture and particle size; and the symmetry factor of the single particle phase function, which is controlled by particle size and shape. A smooth playa surface consisting of compacted, fine-grained particles has reflectance variations that are also distinct from either the cobble site or rough playa site. The smooth playa appears to behave more like a Lambertian surface that cannot be modeled with the Hapke function.

  19. Atmospheric Corerection of Aviris Data of Monterey Bay Contaminated by Thin Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van den Bosch, Jeannette; Davis, Curtiss O.; Mobley, Curtis D.; Rhea, W. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Aviris scenes are often rejected when cloud cover exceeds 10 percent. However, if the cloud cover is determined to be primarily cirrus rather than cumulus, inwater optical properties may still be extracted over open ocean.

  20. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnaiter, M.; Järvinen, E.; Vochezer, P.; Abdelmonem, A.; Wagner, R.; Jourdan, O.; Mioche, G.; Shcherbakov, V. N.; Schmitt, C. G.; Tricoli, U.; Ulanowski, Z.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    This study reports on the origin of ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3). It was found that a high ice crystal complexity is dominating the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapour during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4/H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers; the Polar Nephelometer (PN) probe of LaMP and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO) probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side- and backward scattering directions resulting in low asymmetry parameters g around 0.78. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  1. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnaiter, Martin; Järvinen, Emma; Vochezer, Paul; Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Wagner, Robert; Jourdan, Olivier; Mioche, Guillaume; Shcherbakov, Valery N.; Schmitt, Carl G.; Tricoli, Ugo; Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the origin of small-scale ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Small-scale ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3). It was found that a high crystal complexity dominates the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapor during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the small-scale crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4 / H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers: the polar nephelometer (PN) probe of Laboratoire de Métérologie et Physique (LaMP) and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO) probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side and backward scattering directions. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the small-scale crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  2. Impact of geoengineering on cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, Ana; Spichtinger, Peter; Weisenstein, Debra; Lohmann, Ulrike; Wernli, Heini; Peter, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    background aerosol mass and number concentrations in response to geoengineering measures. In order to obtain qualitative and quantitative estimations of troposphere-stratosphere air mixing (intrusions, tropopause folds etc.) trajectory studies are done using ECMWF data. The results of this conceptual study suggest that an enhancement of sulphuric acid in the tropopause and upper troposphere region may impact the ice crystal number concentrations in cirrus clouds formed via homogeneous nucleation. The global impact can not be estimated, but on the local level, this could lead to change of cloud lifetime and thickness. It would further influence the albedo and radiative properties of cirrus clouds, i.e. modifying the net warming impact of cirrus clouds. Budyko, M.I. (1977), Global Ecology. Mysl, Moscow, 327 pp. (in Russian). Crutzen, P.J. (2006), Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: A contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?, Climate Change, 77(3-4), 211-219. Nordhaus, W.D. (2007), A Question of Balance: Economic Modeling of Global Warming, Yale University Press, 2007. Polborn, S. and Tintelnot, F. (2009), How Geoengineering May Encourage Carbon Dioxide Abatement (June 2, 2009). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1413106 Spichtinger, P. and Gierens, K. (2009), Modelling of cirrus clouds - Part 1a: Model description and validation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 685-706. Spichtinger, P. and Cziczo, D. (2009), Impact of heterogeneous ice nuclei on homogeneous freezing events, J. Geophys. Res., in revision. Weisenstein, D.K., Penner, J.E., Herzog, M., and Liu, X., (2007), Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7(9), 2339-2355.

  3. A methodology for in-situ and remote sensing of microphysical and radiative properties of contrails as they evolve into cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, H. M.; Haywood, J.; Marenco, F.; O'Sullivan, D.; Meyer, J.; Thorpe, R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Krämer, M.; Bower, K. N.; Rädel, G.; Rap, A.; Woolley, A.; Forster, P.; Coe, H.

    2012-09-01

    Contrails and especially their evolution into cirrus-like clouds are thought to have very important effects on local and global radiation budgets, though are generally not well represented in global climate models. Lack of contrail parameterisations is due to the limited availability of in situ contrail measurements which are difficult to obtain. Here we present a methodology for successful sampling and interpretation of contrail microphysical and radiative data using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation on board the FAAM BAe146 UK research aircraft as part of the COntrails Spreading Into Cirrus (COSIC) study. Forecast models were utilised to determine flight regions suitable for contrail formation and sampling; regions that were both free of cloud but showed a high probability of occurrence of air mass being supersaturated with respect to ice. The FAAM research aircraft, fitted with cloud microphysics probes and remote sensing instruments, formed a distinctive spiral-shaped contrail in the predicted area by flying in an orbit over the same ground position as the wind advected the contrails to the east. Parts of these contrails were sampled during the completion of four orbits, with sampled contrail regions being between 7 and 30 min old. Lidar measurements were useful for in-flight determination of the location and spatial extent of the contrails, and also to report extinction values that agreed well with those calculated from the microphysical data. A shortwave spectrometer was also able to detect the contrails, though the signal was weak due to the dispersion and evaporation of the contrails. Post-flight the UK Met Office NAME III dispersion model was successfully used as a tool for modelling the dispersion of the persistent contrail; determining its location and age, and determining when there was interference from other measured aircraft contrails or when cirrus encroached on the area later in the flight. The persistent contrails were found to

  4. A methodology for in-situ and remote sensing of microphysical and radiative properties of contrails as they evolve into cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, H. M.; Haywood, J.; Marenco, F.; O'Sullivan, D.; Meyer, J.; Thorpe, R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Krämer, M.; Bower, K. N.; Rädel, G.; Rap, A.; Forster, P.; Coe, H.

    2012-03-01

    Contrails and especially their evolution into cirrus-like clouds are thought to have very important effects on local and global radiation budgets, though are generally not well represented in global climate models. Lack of contrail parameterisations is due to the limited availability of in situ contrail measurements which are difficult to obtain. Here we present a methodology for successful sampling and interpretation of contrail microphysical and radiative data using both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation on board the FAAM BAe146 UK research aircraft as part of the COntrails Spreading Into Cirrus (COSIC) study. Forecast models were utilised to determine flight regions suitable for contrail formation and sampling; regions that were both free of cloud but showed a high probability of occurrence of air mass being supersaturated with respect to ice. The FAAM research aircraft, fitted with cloud microphysics probes and remote sensing instruments, formed a distinctive spiral-shaped contrail in the predicted area by flying in an orbit over the same ground position as the wind advected the contrails to the east. Parts of these contrails were sampled during the completion of four orbits, with sampled contrail regions being between 7 and 30 min old. Lidar measurements were useful for in-flight determination of the location and spatial extent of the contrails, and also to report extinction values that agreed well with those calculated from the microphysical data. A shortwave spectrometer was also able to detect the contrails, though the signal was weak due to the dispersion and evaporation of the contrails. Post-flight the UK Met Office NAME III dispersion model was successfully used as a tool for modelling the dispersion of the persistent contrail; determining its location and age, and determining when there was interference from other measured other aircraft contrails or when cirrus encroached on the area later in the flight. The persistent contrails were found to

  5. Observations of Florida Convective Storms using Dual Wavelength Airborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Belcher, L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA conducted the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) during July 2002 for improved understanding of tropical cirrus. One of the goals was to improve the understanding of cirrus generation by convective updrafts. The reasons why some convective storms produce extensive cirrus anvils is only partially related to convective instability and the vertical transport ice mass by updrafts. Convective microphysics must also have an important role on cirrus generation, for example, there are hypotheses that homogeneous nucleation in convective updrafts is a major source of anvil ice particles. In this paper, we report on one intense CRYSTAL-FACE convective case on 16 July 2002 that produced extensive anvil. During CRYSTAL-FACE, up to 5 aircraft flying from low- to high-altitudes, were coordinated for the study of thunderstorm-generated cirrus. The NASA high-altitude (20 km) ER-2 aircraft with remote sensing objectives flew above the convection, and other aircraft such as the WB-57 performing in situ measurements flew below the ER-2. The ER-2 remote sensing instruments included two nadir viewing airborne radars. The CRS 94 GHz radar and the EDOP 9.6 GHz radar were flown together for the first time during CRYSTAL-FACE and they provided a unique opportunity to examine the structure of 16 July case from a dual-wavelength perspective. EDOP and CRS are complementary for studying convection and cirrus since CRS is more sensitive than EDOP for cirrus, and EDOP is considerably less attenuating in convective regions. In addition to the aircraft, coordinated ground-based radar measurements were taken with the NPOL S-Band (3 GHz) multiparameter radar. One of the initial goals was to determine whether dual-wavelength airborne measurements could identify supercooled water regions.

  6. A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H., Jr.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

    1995-01-01

    Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

  7. Retrieval of Topsoil Properties of Vegetation-Covered Terrain Using Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanfa; Buchroithner, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Soil spectroscopy is a promising technique for topsoil analysis, and has been successfully utilized in the laboratory. When it is applied from airborne platforms, the presence of vegetation significantly affects imaging spectroscopy or hyperspectral imaging when retrieving topsoil properties. A Forced Invariance Approach has been proved to be able to effectively suppress the vegetation signal in mixed pixels. However, the approach is still mainly limited to lithological mapping. In this paper, we attempted to apply it to the retrieval of topsoil properties (soil moisture and soil salinity at depths 4 cm and 10 cm) using airborne hyperspectral data. The corresponding ground truth data was obtained from an eco-hydrological wireless sensing network in the Zhangye Oasis in the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin, China. The General Linear Model with Logit Link Function was adopted to model the relationships between measured soil properties and the spectra. The vegetation suppression result demonstrates that the spectral response curves of hyperspectral image pixels are flattened and the shapes are rather similar to the soil endmenber spectrum. From the modelling results it can be seen that the Forced Invariance Approach is more effective for soil moisture than for soil salinity at depth 10 cm, as the salt content is comparatively lower than the water content in soil, and the corresponding spectral response is weaker. This approach did not work for soil at a depth of 4 cm. The reason for this is that surface soil is significantly influenced by exterior factors like irrigation and wind, and landscape fragmentation and cultivation activities also contribute to the high spatial heterogeneity of the surface soil properties.

  8. High supersaturation and modes of ice nucleation in thin tropopause cirrus: Simulation of the 13 July 2002 Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostyanov, Vitaly I.; Morrison, Hugh; Curry, Judith A.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Lawson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A unique and extensive data set of cirrus properties collected on 13 July 2002 during CRYSTAL-FACE provides the framework for simulations using cloud models to interpret the observations and to develop recommendations for microphysical parameterizations in large-scale models. Several outstanding issues in the simulations of cirrus clouds are addressed using detailed bin-resolving and bulk microphysics models. A new heterogeneous ice nucleation formulation based on extended classical theory with simultaneous dependence on temperature and saturation ratio is applied for the first time to thin tropopause cirrus. The simulated cloud microphysical properties are similar to observations, suggesting that tropopause cirrus may potentially form as a result of heterogeneous immersion freezing of internally mixed aerosols serving as ice nuclei (IN). The potential for mixed aerosols to serve as IN in tropopause cirrus is consistent with measurements of comparable amounts of soluble and insoluble material in cirrus residues and aerosols during CRYSTAL-FACE. Simulations using homogeneous nucleation theory are also able to produce comparable microphysical properties if the heterogeneous mode is turned off; hence the homogeneous mode cannot be excluded if insoluble material capable of serving as IN is not available. The calculated critical ice supersaturation for the onset of heterogeneous nucleation at these cold temperatures (˜200 K) was 70-80% (for the assumed aerosol nucleation parameters) and 15-20% higher for homogeneous nucleation. The calculated supersaturation relaxation time ranged from ˜1-2 hours in the center of the cloud to 3-6 hours near the boundaries, which may explain the high values of ice supersaturation (30-80%) observed in this cloud. Analysis of the supersaturation budget showed that supersaturation was generally nonequilibrium, and relaxation from the initial critical values to near equilibrium occurred only after several hours. The bulk model was able to

  9. Preliminary analysis of University of North Dakota aircraft data from the FIRE Cirrus IFO-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    The stated goals of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are 'to promote the development of improved cloud and radiation parameterization for use in climate models, and to provide for assessment and improvement of ISCCP projects'. FIRE Phase 2 has focused on the formation, maintenance and dissipation of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems. These objectives have been approached through a combination of modeling, extended-time observations and intensive field observation (IFO) periods. The work under this grant was associated with the FIRE Cirrus IFO 2. This field measurement program was conducted to obtain observations of cirrus cloud systems on a range of scales from the synoptic to the microscale, utilizing simultaneous measurements from a variety of ground-based, satellite and airborne platforms. By combining these remote and in situ measurements a more complete picture of cirrus systems can be obtained. The role of the University of North Dakota in Phase 2 was three-fold: to collect in situ microphysical data during the Cirrus IFO 2; to process and archive these data; and to collaborate in analyses of IFO data. This report will summarize the activities and findings of the work performed under this grant; detailed description of the data sets available and of the analyses are contained in the Semi-annual Status Reports submitted to NASA.

  10. Aerosol optical properties in the ABL over arctic sea ice from airborne aerosol lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Lukas; Neuber, Roland; Ritter, Christoph; Maturilli, Marion; Dethloff, Klaus; Herber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Between 2009 and 2013 aerosols, sea ice properties and meteorological variables were measured during several airborne campaigns covering a wide range of the western Arctic Ocean. The campaigns were carried out with the aircraft Polar 5 of the German Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI) during spring and summer periods. Optical properties of accumulation mode aerosol and clouds were measured with the nadir looking AMALi aerosol lidar covering the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 3000m, while dropsondes provided coincident vertical profiles of meteorological quantities. Based on these data we discuss the vertical distribution of aerosol backscatter in and above the atmospheric boundary layer and its dependence on relative humidity, dynamics and underlying sea ice properties. We analyze vertical profiles of lidar and coincident dropsonde measurements from various locations in the European and Canadian Arctic from spring and summer campaigns. Sea ice cover is derived from modis satellite and aircraft onboard camera images. The aerosol load in the arctic atmospheric boundary layer shows a high variability. Various meteorological parameters and in particular boundary layer properties are discussed with their respective influence on aerosol features. To investigate the effect of the frequency and size of open water patches on aerosol properties, we relate the profiles to the sea ice properties influencing the atmosphere in the upwind region.

  11. Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    During the Cirrus Intensive Field Operations of FIRE, data collected by the NCAR King Air in the vicinity of Wausau, WI on October 28 were selected to study the influence of cirrus cloud microphysics on radiative transfer and the role of microphysical approximations in radiative transfer models. The instrumentation of the King Air provided, aside from temperature and wind data, up-and downwelling broadband solar and infrared fluxes as well as detailed microphysical data. The aircraft data, supplied every second, are averaged over the 7 legs to represent the properties for that altitude. The resulting vertical profiles, however, suffer from the fact that each leg represents a different cloud column path. Based on the measured microphysical data particle size distributions of equivalent spheres for each cloud level are developed. Accurate radiative transfer calculations are performed, incorporating atmospheric and radiative data from the ground and the stratosphere. Comparing calculated to the measured up- and downwelling fluxes at the seven cloud levels for both the averaged and the three crossover data will help to assess the validity of particle size and shape approximation as they are frequently used to model cirrus clouds. Once agreement is achieved the model results may be applied to determine, in comparison to a cloudfree case, the influence of this particular cirrus on the radiation budget of the earth atmosphere system.

  12. Cirrus feedback on interannual climate fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C.; Dessler, A. E.; Zelinka, M. D.; Yang, P.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-28

    Cirrus clouds are not only important in determining the current climate, but also play an important role in climate change and variability. Analysis of satellite observations shows that the amount and altitude of cirrus clouds (optical depth <3.6, cloud top pressure <440 hPa) increase in response to inter-annual surface warming. Thus, cirrus clouds are likely to act as a positive feedback on short-term climate fluctuations, by reducing the planet’s ability to radiate longwave radiation to space in response to planetary surface warming. Using cirrus cloud radiative kernels, the magnitude of cirrus feedback is estimated to be 0.20±0.21W/m2/°C, which is comparable to the surface albedo feedback. Most of the cirrus feedback comes from increasing cloud amount in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and subtropical upper troposphere.

  13. CLaMS-Ice: Large-scale cirrus cloud simulations in comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anja; Rolf, Christian; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Spichtinger, Peter; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Dreiling, Volker; Zöger, Martin; Krämer, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are an element of uncertainty in the climate system and have received increasing attention since the last IPCC reports. The interactions of different freezing mechanisms, sedimentation rates, updraft velocity fluctuations and other factors that determine the formation and evolution of those clouds is still not fully understood. Thus, a reliable representation of cirrus clouds in models representing real atmospheric conditions is still a challenging task. At last year's EGU, Rolf et al. (2015) introduced the new large-scale microphysical cirrus cloud model CLaMS-Ice: based on trajectories calculated with CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002 and Konopka et al. 2007), it simulates the development of cirrus clouds relying on the cirrus bulk model by Spichtinger and Gierens (2009). The qualitative agreement between CLaMS-Ice simulations and observations could be demonstrated at that time. Now we present a detailed quantitative comparison between standard ECMWF products, CLaMS-Ice simulations, and in-situ measurements obtained during the ML-Cirrus campaign 2014. We discuss the agreement of the parameters temperature (observational data: BAHAMAS), relative humidity (SHARC), cloud occurrence, cloud particle concentration, ice water content and cloud particle radii (all NIXE-CAPS). Due to the precise trajectories based on ECMWF wind and temperature fields, CLaMS-Ice represents the cirrus cloud vertical and horizontal coverage more accurately than the ECMWF ice water content (IWC) fields. We demonstrate how CLaMS-Ice can be used to evaluate different input settings (e.g. amount of ice nuclei, freezing thresholds, sedimentation settings) that lead to cirrus clouds with the microphysical properties observed during ML-Cirrus (2014).

  14. What are cirrus point sources?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiles, Carl; Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Reach, William; Strauss, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Most cirrus point sources are associated with interstellar gas. A subset of these was isolated, together with other sources showing large band 4 to 3 flux density ratios, that are not associated with interstellar gas. Most of the point sources are associated with diffuse cirrus emissions. The sources appear to be distributed randomly on the sky, with the exception of six clusters, one of which is not associated with any known object. Six sources out of seventeen that were observed for redshifted H I at Arecibo were found to be associated with relatively nondescript external galaxies. Most of the sources do not appear on the Palomar Sky Survey. Deep optical observations of eight fields revealed some fairly distant galaxies, one object with a very peculiar optical spectrum, and several blank fields.

  15. GCSS Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of GCSS Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2), involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. The goal of this project is to document and understand the factors resulting in significant inter-model differences. The intent is to foment research leading to model improvement and validation. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (-40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 cm/s, respectively. Five models participated. These models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze drops) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, non-negligible quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation formulation, aerosol size, ice crystal growth rate (particularly the deposition coefficient), and water vapor uptake rate are critical components that lead to differences in predicted microphysics. Systematic bias exists between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies, but each includes

  16. Cloud shortwave radiative effect and cloud properties estimated from airborne measurements of transmitted and reflected light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Samuel E.; Redemann, Jens; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Kacenelenbogen, Meloë; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor; Russell, Philip; Schmid, Beat; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Pilewskie, Peter; Song, Shi

    2015-04-01

    from aircraft by using the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument. The 4STAR instrument was deployed on an airborne platform during SEAC4RS and TCAP. During SEAC4RS, the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) was also deployed alongside 4STAR. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius from the retrieval based on transmitted shortwave radiation are compared to cloud properties obtained from above the cloud by using reflected shortwave radiation measured with SSFR, with the enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS), with the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), and from in situ cloud probes. For TCAP, we compare cloud properties retrieved using 4STAR and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

  17. [Retrieval of the Optical Thickness and Cloud Top Height of Cirrus Clouds Based on AIRS IR High Spectral Resolution Data].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-nan; Wei, He-li; Dai, Cong-ming; Zhang, Xue-hai

    2015-05-01

    A study was carried out to retrieve optical thickness and cloud top height of cirrus clouds from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) high spectral resolution data in 1070~1135 cm-1 IR band using a Combined Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (CART) by brightness temperature difference between model simulation and AIRS observation. The research is based on AIRS LIB high spectral infrared observation data combined with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud product data. Brightness temperature spectra based, on the retrieved cirrus optical thickness and cloud top height were simulated and compared with brightness temperature spectra of AIRS observation in the 650~1150 cm-1 band. The cirrus optical thickness and cloud top height retrieved were compared with brightness temperature of AIRS for channel 760 (900.56 cm-1, 11. 1 µm) and cirrus reflectance of MODIS cloud product. And cloud top height retrieved was compared with cloud top height from MODIS. Results show that the brightness temperature spectra simulated were basically consistent with AIRS observation under the condition of retrieval in the 650~1150 cm-1 band. It means that CART can be used to simulate AIRS brightness temperature spectra. The retrieved cirrus parameters are consistent with brightness temperature of AIRS for channel 11. 1 µm with low brightness temperature corresponding to large cirrus optical thickness and high cloud top height. And the retrieved cirrus parameters are consistent with cirrus reflectance of MODIS cloud product with high cirrus reflectance corresponding to large cirrus optical thickness and high cloud top height. Correlation coefficient of brightness temperature between retrieved cloud top height and MODIS cloud top height was relatively high. They are mostly located in the range of 8. 5~11.5 km, and their probability distribution trend is approximately identical. CART model is feasible to retrieve cirrus properties, and the retrieval is reliable. PMID

  18. Separation of cirrus cloud from clear surface from AVIRIS data using the 1.38 micron water vapor band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Bo-Cai; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1992-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in climate systems because of their large area coverage, persistence, and radiative effects. Thin cirrus clouds are difficult to detect in visible images and infrared images in the 10-12 micron atmospheric window region, particularly over land, because these clouds are partially transparent. Ackerman recently developed a method for detecting cirrus clouds using three narrow channels centered near 8, 11, and 12 microns, respectively, based on the analysis of IR emission spectra measured with a high spectral resolution interferometer. Barton also described a method for estimating cirrus cloud height and amount from measurements with two narrow channel radiometers of the Selective Chopper Radiometer on Nimbus 5. Both channels are located within the strong 2.7 micron water vapor band absorption region. One of the channels includes additional carbon dioxide absorption. A differential absorption technique with sets of empirical coefficients was used in the estimation of cirrus cloud heights and amounts. A technique using narrow channels in the strong 1.38 micron water vapor band absorption region for detecting cirrus clouds from spectral imaging data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) on 5 Dec. 1991 during the FIRE (The First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment) Phase 2 Field Experiment is described.

  19. Effect of Thin Cirrus Clouds on Dust Optical Depth Retrievals From MODIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Qian; Hsu, N. Christina; Yang, Ping; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    The effect of thin cirrus clouds in retrieving the dust optical depth from MODIS observations is investigated by using a simplified aerosol retrieval algorithm based on the principles of the Deep Blue aerosol property retrieval method. Specifically, the errors of the retrieved dust optical depth due to thin cirrus contamination are quantified through the comparison of two retrievals by assuming dust-only atmospheres and the counterparts with overlapping mineral dust and thin cirrus clouds. To account for the effect of the polarization state of radiation field on radiance simulation, a vector radiative transfer model is used to generate the lookup tables. In the forward radiative transfer simulations involved in generating the lookup tables, the Rayleigh scattering by atmospheric gaseous molecules and the reflection of the surface assumed to be Lambertian are fully taken into account. Additionally, the spheroid model is utilized to account for the nonsphericity of dust particles In computing their optical properties. For simplicity, the single-scattering albedo, scattering phase matrix, and optical depth are specified a priori for thin cirrus clouds assumed to consist of droxtal ice crystals. The present results indicate that the errors in the retrieved dust optical depths due to the contamination of thin cirrus clouds depend on the scattering angle, underlying surface reflectance, and dust optical depth. Under heavy dusty conditions, the absolute errors are comparable to the predescribed optical depths of thin cirrus clouds.

  20. Retrieval of cloud optical properties using airborne hyperspectral cameras during the VOCALS campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, L.; Vaughan, G.

    2009-09-01

    A set of two hyperspectral imaging sensors have been used to analyze the optical properties of stratocumulus cloud off the coast of Northern Chile within the framework of the VAMOS Ocean Clouds Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) during September-October 2008. The SPECIM Aisa Eagle & Hawk are tandem pushbroom-type hyperspectral imagers scanning in the 400-970 and 970-2500 nm range, respectively. The instruments were mounted onboard the National Environmental Research Council's (NERC) Dornier DO-228 aircraft, based in Arica, northern Chile during the campaign. An area approximately 600 x 200 km was surveyed off the northern coast of Chile and a total of 14 science flights were carried out where hyperspectral data were successfully collected over the stratocumulus deck at altitudes varying between 10000 and 15000 ft. Cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and liquid water path can be retrieved which can then be compared with space-borne hyperspectral imagers' retrievals. Atmospheric corrections have been applied to enable the comparison between the different type of sensors and the analysis requires, amongst other, solving the back-scattering problems associated with off-nadir views. The high resolution, both spatial and temporal, of these airborne sensors makes them ideal to validate satellite retrievals of cloud optical properties.

  1. An Airborne A-Band Spectrometer for Remote Sensing Of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael; Hostetler, Chris; Poole, Lamont; Holden, Carl; Rault, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric remote sensing with the O2 A-band has a relatively long history, but most of these studies were attempting to estimate surface pressure or cloud-top pressure. Recent conceptual studies have demonstrated the potential of spaceborne high spectral resolution O2 A-band spectrometers for retrieval of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The physical rationale of this new approach is that information on the scattering properties of the atmosphere is embedded in the detailed line structure of the O2 A-band reflected radiance spectrum. The key to extracting this information is to measure the radiance spectrum at very high spectral resolution. Instrument performance requirement studies indicate that, in addition to high spectral resolution, the successful retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties from A-band radiance spectra will also require high radiometric accuracy, instrument stability, and high signal-to-noise measurements. To experimentally assess the capabilities of this promising new remote sensing application, the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an airborne high spectral resolution A-band spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a plane holographic grating with a folded Littrow geometry to achieve high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and low stray light in a compact package. This instrument will be flown in a series of field campaigns beginning in 2001 to evaluate the overall feasibility of this new technique. Results from these campaigns should be particularly valuable for future spaceborne applications of A-band spectrometers for aerosol and cloud retrievals.

  2. Analysing the health effects of simultaneous exposure to physical and chemical properties of airborne particles

    PubMed Central

    Pirani, Monica; Best, Nicky; Blangiardo, Marta; Liverani, Silvia; Atkinson, Richard W.; Fuller, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Airborne particles are a complex mix of organic and inorganic compounds, with a range of physical and chemical properties. Estimation of how simultaneous exposure to air particles affects the risk of adverse health response represents a challenge for scientific research and air quality management. In this paper, we present a Bayesian approach that can tackle this problem within the framework of time series analysis. Methods We used Dirichlet process mixture models to cluster time points with similar multipollutant and response profiles, while adjusting for seasonal cycles, trends and temporal components. Inference was carried out via Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. We illustrated our approach using daily data of a range of particle metrics and respiratory mortality for London (UK) 2002–2005. To better quantify the average health impact of these particles, we measured the same set of metrics in 2012, and we computed and compared the posterior predictive distributions of mortality under the exposure scenario in 2012 vs 2005. Results The model resulted in a partition of the days into three clusters. We found a relative risk of 1.02 (95% credible intervals (CI): 1.00, 1.04) for respiratory mortality associated with days characterised by high posterior estimates of non-primary particles, especially nitrate and sulphate. We found a consistent reduction in the airborne particles in 2012 vs 2005 and the analysis of the posterior predictive distributions of respiratory mortality suggested an average annual decrease of − 3.5% (95% CI: − 0.12%, − 5.74%). Conclusions We proposed an effective approach that enabled the better understanding of hidden structures in multipollutant health effects within time series analysis. It allowed the identification of exposure metrics associated with respiratory mortality and provided a tool to assess the changes in health effects from various policies to control the ambient particle matter mixtures. PMID:25795926

  3. University of Wisconsin Cirrus Remote Sensing Pilot Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Eloranta, Ed W.; Grund, Chris J.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Smith, William L.; Wylie, Donald P.

    1993-01-01

    During the period of 26 October 1989 through 6 December 1989 a unique complement of measurements was made at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to study the radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Simultaneous observations were obtained from a scanning lidar, two interferometers, a high spectral resolution lidar, geostationary and polar orbiting satellites, radiosonde launches, and a whole-sky imager. This paper describes the experiment, the instruments deployed, and, as an example, the data collected during one day of the experiment.

  4. Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds Derived from Hurricane Nora: A Case Study with Implications for Ice Crystal Nucleation and Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Arnott, W. Patrick; OCStarr, David; Mace, Gerald G.; Wang, Zhien; Poellot, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane Nora traveled up the Bala Peninsula coast in the unusually warm El Nino waters of September 1997, until rapidly decaying as it approached Southern California on 24 September. The anvil cirrus blowoff from the final surge of tropical convection became embedded in subtropical flow that advected the cirrus across the western US, where it was studied from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) in Salt Lake City, Utah. A day later, the cirrus shield remnants were redirected southward by midlatitude circulations into the Southern Great Plains, providing a case study opportunity for the research aircraft and ground-based remote sensors assembled at the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in northern Oklahoma. Using these comprehensive resources and new remote sensing cloud retrieval algorithms, the microphysical and radiative cloud properties of this unusual cirrus event are uniquely characterized. Importantly, at both the FARS and CART sites the cirrus generated spectacular optical displays, which acted as a tracer for the hurricane cirrus, despite the limited lifetimes of individual ice crystals. Lidar polarization data indicate widespread regions of uniform ice plate orientations, and in situ particle masticator data show a preponderance of pristine, solid hexagonal plates and columns. It is suggested that these unusual aspects are the result of the mode of cirrus particle nucleation, presumably involving the lofting of sea-salt nuclei in thunderstorm updrafts into the upper troposphere. This created a reservoir of haze particles that continued to produce halide-saltcontaminated ice crystals during the extended period of cirrus cloud maintenance. The reference that marine microliters are embedded in the replicas of ice crystals collected over the CART site points to the longevity of marine effects. Various nucleation scenarios proposed for cirrus clouds based on this and other studies, and the implications for understanding cirrus radiative

  5. The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS). V. Ultraviolet diffuse emission and cirrus properties in the Virgo cluster direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Voyer, E.; Bianchi, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Guhathakurta, P.; Heinis, S.; Cortese, L.; Duc, P.-A.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Davies, J. I.; Smith, M. W. L.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The Virgo direction has been observed at many wavelengths in recent years, in particular in the ultraviolet with GALEX. The far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse light detected by GALEX offers interesting information on the large scale distribution of Galactic dust, owing to the GALEX FUV band sensitivity and resolution. Aims: We aim to characterise the ultraviolet large scale distribution of diffuse emission in the Virgo direction. A map of this emission may become useful for various studies by identifying regions where dust affects observations by either scattering light or absorbing radiation. Methods: We constructed mosaics of the FUV and near ultraviolet (NUV) diffuse emission over a large sky region (RA 12 to 13 h, Dec 0 to 20 deg) surrounding the Virgo cluster, using all the GALEX available data in the area. We tested for the first time the utilisation of the FUV diffuse light as a Galactic extinction E(B - V) tracer. Results: The FUV diffuse light scattered on cirrus reveals details about their geometry. Despite large dispersion, the FUV diffuse light correlates roughly with other Galactic dust tracers (coming from IRAS, Herschel, Planck), offering an opportunity to use the FUV emission to locate them in future studies with a better resolution (about 5 arcsec native resolution, 20 arcsec pixels maps presented in this paper) than for several usual tracers. Estimating the Galactic dust extinction on the basis of this emission allows us to find a smaller dispersion in the NUV - i colour of background galaxies at a given E(B - V) than with other tracers. The diffuse light mosaics obtained in this work are made publicly available. The diffuse light mosaics as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/579/A29

  6. The FIRE Cirrus Science Results 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, David S. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    FIRE (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation research program that seeks to improve our basic understanding and parameterizations of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems and ISCCP data products. The FIRE Cirrus Science Conference was held in Breckenridge, CO, 14-17 Jun. 1993, to present results of cirrus research for the second phase of FIRE (1989-present) and to refine cirrus research goals and priorities for the next phase of FIRE (1994-future). This Conference Publication contains the text of short papers presented at the conference. The papers describe research analyses of data collected at the Cirrus Intensive Field Observations-2 field experiment conducted in Kansas, 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991.

  7. The FIRE Cirrus Science Results 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McDougal, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    FIRE (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment) is a U.S. cloud-radiation research program that seeks to improve the basic understanding and parameterizations of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems and ISCCP data products. The FIRE Cirrus Science Conference was held in Breckenridge, CO, 14-17 Jun. 1993, to present results of cirrus research for the second phase of FIRE (1989-present) and to refine cirrus research goals and priorities for the next phase of FIRE (1994-future). This Conference Publication contains the text of short papers presented at the conference. The papers describe research analyses of data collected at the Cirrus Intensive Field Observations-2 field experiment conducted in Kansas, 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  8. Impact of nucleation schemes on cirrus cloud formation in a GCM with sectional microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, C.; Gettelman, A.; Jensen, E. J.; Heymsfield, A.; Delanoe, J.; Deng, M.

    2012-12-01

    We have implemented a sectional microphysics scheme for ice clouds based upon the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), which allows for a size resolved treatment of ice particle nucleation, condensational growth, coagulation, sedimentation and detrainment. Detrained and in situ formed ice particles are tracked separately in the model allowing for different microphysical assumptions and separate analysis. Cloud ice from CAM5/CARMA simulations compare better with satellite observations than those with the standard CAM5 two-moment microphysics. CAM5/CARMA has a prognostic treatment for snow, which results in improved ice mass and representation of a melting layer that is absent in CAM5. Here we explore the sensitivity of the simulations to different nucleation schemes including: homogeneous freezing based on Koop et al. (2000), homogeneous freezing based upon Aerosols Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber measurement (Möhler et al., 2010), heterogeneous nucleation with dust aerosols, and heterogeous nucleation with glassy aerosols (Murray et al. 2010). The initial size for detrained ice particles in CAM5/CARMA is temperature dependent based upon a fits to observations from Heymsfield et al. (2010). We explore the sensitivity of the model to different choices for these fits. Results from these simulations are compared to retrievals of water vapor from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), ice cloud properties from CloudSat-CALIPSO observations (Delanoë and Hogan, 2010; Deng et al. 2010) and to aircraft observations from several field campaigns including: the Costa Rica Aura Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4), the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) and the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX).

  9. [The estimation of cirrus cloud particulate shape using combined simulation and a three-wavelength lidar measurement].

    PubMed

    Tao, Zong-Ming; Liu, Dong; Wei, He-Li; Ma, Xiao-Min; Shi, Bo; Nie, Miao; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Ying-Jian

    2013-07-01

    The global occurrence of cirrus clouds can reach as high as 30%, whose scattering properties are essential impact on the climatic model, radiative transfer, and remote sensing. Their scattering properties are determined by the ice crystal shape, size distribution, refractive index and so on. Retrieval of the backscattering color ratios of cirrus cloud using a 355, 532 and 1 064 nm three-wavelength lidar, combined with the simulation of the three backscattering color ratios of different ice crystal shape, the shape of the lidar-measured ice crystal can be estimated. The results indicate that the shape of cirrus cloud over Hefei city is mostly composed by aggregates. PMID:24059165

  10. Synoptic conditions producing cirrus during the FIRE cirrus IFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Wylie, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    Although direct observations of cirrus clouds by the FIRE research aircraft were usually confined to the area of Intensive Field Observation (IFO) surface network, these cirrus were generally part of a more extensive zone of upper level cloudiness. It is these large scale patterns of cirriform cloud and their relationship to the corresponding synoptic environment which are the prime focus. Three conceptual models are presented and each of the individual cases are classified into one of these categories. Although the cases manifest significant differences in intensity and small scale structure, it is believed that they are best viewed in this unified context. The descriptions given are mostly qualitative, however, quantitative descriptions of the synoptic control and its relationship to cloud structure for all the IFO cases are summarized. The synoptic situations in which extensive cirriform clouds were observed are classified into three basic types: warm front cases, cold front cases, and closed low aloft cases. A simplified summary of each type of situation is presented.

  11. A New Way to Measure Cirrus Ice Water Content by Using Ice Raman Scatter with Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhien; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; Veselovskii, Igor

    2004-01-01

    High and cold cirrus clouds mainly contain irregular ice crystals, such as, columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, and dendrites, and have different impacts on the climate system than low-level clouds, such as stratus, stratocumulus, and cumulus. The radiative effects of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate depend strongly on cirrus cloud microphysical properties including ice water content (IWC) and ice crystal sizes, which are mostly an unknown aspect of cinus clouds. Because of the natural complexity of cirrus clouds and their high locations, it is a challenging task to get them accurately by both remote sensing and in situ sampling. This study presents a new method to remotely sense cirrus microphysical properties by using ice Raman scatter with a Raman lidar. The intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved. Therefore, ice Raman scattering signal provides a more direct way to measure IWC than other remote sensing methods. Case studies show that this method has the potential to provide essential information of cirrus microphysical properties to study cloud physical processes in cirrus clouds.

  12. Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor and Cirrus Clouds During The Passage of Hurricane Bonnie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Demoz, B.; Starr, D OC.; Eloranta, E. W.; Tobin, D.; Feltz, W.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Gutman, S. I.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island in the Bahamas during August - September, 1998 as a part of the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) which focussed on hurricane development and tracking. During the period August 21 - 24, hurricane Bonnie passed near Andros Island and influenced the water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements acquired by the SRL. Two drying signatures related to the hurricane were recorded by the SRL and other sensors. Cirrus cloud optical depths (at 351 nm) were also measured during this period. Optical depth values ranged from less than 0.01 to 1.5. The influence of multiple scattering on these optical depth measurements was studied. A correction technique is presented which minimizes the influences of multiple scattering and derives information about cirrus cloud optical and physical properties. The UV/IR cirrus cloud optical depth ratio was estimated based on a comparison of lidar and GOES measurements. Simple radiative transfer model calculations compared with GOES satellite brightness temperatures indicate that satellite radiances are significantly affected by the presence of cirrus clouds if IR optical depths are approximately 0.005 or greater. Using the ISCCP detection threshold for cirrus clouds on the GOES data presented here, a high bias of up to 40% in the GOES precipitable water retrieval was found.

  13. Measurements of the concentration and composition of nuclei for cirrus formation.

    PubMed

    DeMott, P J; Cziczo, D J; Prenni, A J; Murphy, D M; Kreidenweis, S M; Thomson, D S; Borys, R; Rogers, D C

    2003-12-01

    This article addresses the need for new data on indirect effects of natural and anthropogenic aerosol particles on atmospheric ice clouds. Simultaneous measurements of the concentration and composition of tropospheric aerosol particles capable of initiating ice in cold (cirrus) clouds are reported. Measurements support that cirrus formation occurs both by heterogeneous nucleation by insoluble particles and homogeneous (spontaneous) freezing of particles containing solutions. Heterogeneous ice nuclei concentrations in the cirrus regime depend on temperature, relative humidity, and the concentrations and physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. The cirrus-active concentrations of heterogeneous nuclei measured in November over the western U.S. were <0.03 cm-3. Considering previous modeling studies, this result suggests a predominant potential impact of these nuclei on cirrus formed by slow, large-scale lifting or small cooling rates, including subvisual cirrus. The most common heterogeneous ice nuclei were identified as relatively pure mineral dusts and metallic particles, some of which may have origin through anthropogenic processes. Homogeneous freezing of large numbers of particles was detected above a critical relative humidity along with a simultaneous transition in nuclei composition toward that of the sulfate-dominated total aerosol population. The temperature and humidity conditions of the homogeneous nucleation transition were reasonably consistent with expectations based on previous theoretical and laboratory studies but were highly variable. The strong presence of certain organic pollutants was particularly noted to be associated with impedance of homogeneous freezing. PMID:14657330

  14. Horizontal variability of aerosol optical properties observed during the ARCTAS airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Clarke, A. D.; Podolske, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The properties of tropospheric aerosol and gas vary within a satellite grid cell and between ground-based instruments. This hinders comparison between satellite and suborbital measurements of different spatial scales as well as their applications to climate and air quality studies. This paper quantifies the realistic range of the variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD), its Angstrom exponent, in-situ extinction coefficient and carbon monoxide mixing ratio over horizontal distances of 1-30 km, using measurements from the ARCTAS airborne experiment. The Canada phase in June and July 2008, in which smoke from local forest fires was sampled, likely represents the most heterogeneous of the ambient aerosol environments common over the globe. The relative standard deviation (stdrel) of AOD measured with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) has median 19.4% (at 499 nm) among thousands of horizontal 20 km segments. For 6 km segments the analogous median is 9.1%. Another measure of horizontal variability, the autocorrelation (r) of AOD499 across 20 km and 6 km segments is 0.37 and 0.71, respectively. In contrast, the Alaska phase in April 2008, which sampled particles transported from Asia, is presumably among the most homogeneous environments. The median stdrel is 3.0% and r is 0.90, both over 30 km, only slightly different from those for 1 km (stdrel=0.4% and r=1.00). r in the Canada phase is ~0.2 less for in situ extinction coefficient (from a nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer) than for the AOD. It is ~0.1 less than for the carbon monoxide mixing ratio. The trends of horizontal variability with distance and aerosol environment are different for the wavelength dependence and the humidity response of light scattering. We discuss challenges in estimating aerosol optical properties, particle size and chemical composition from measurements at a distant location. The statistical parameters thus help interpret existing remote

  15. Analysis of in situ measurements of cirrus anvil outflow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, J. I.; Whiteway, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The airborne campaign, EMERALD 2 (Egrett Microphysics Experiment with Radiation, Lidar, and Dynamics,) was conducted out of Darwin, Australia in 2002. Objectives included characterization of the dynamics in the cirrus anvil outflow from tropical deep convection. Two aircraft, the Egrett and King Air, were flown in tandem in the upper troposphere (7 km - 15 km) to collect in situ measurements in the anvil outflow from a storm named "Hector" that occurs on a regular basis over the Tiwi Islands north of Darwin during November and December. Turbulence probes mounted on the wings of the Egrett aircraft were used to measure the wind fluctuations across the anvil and along its length with a spatial resolution of 2 meters. The in situ measurements from the Egrett were coincident with lidar measurements of the cloud structure from the King Air aircraft flying directly below. The presentation will show results of the analysis of the measurements with an emphasis on the turbulence, gravity waves, and coherent structures that are particular to the cirrus anvil outflow environment. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics associated with the generation of mammatus formations at the base of the anvil clouds.

  16. Statistics of Cirrus Horizontal Inhomogeneity in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1999-01-01

    Variability of cloud properties on scales smaller than that of a GCM grid is potentially important both for realistic parameterizations of microphysical processes and for the prediction of the large-scale radiative effects of clouds, have suggested that a simple model of marine stratocumulus variability, based on the assumption of Gaussian variation statistics of cloud depth, can explain the liquid water path histogram shapes observed in Landsat data. In advance of ARM SGP MMCR ice water path climatologies, we have examined aircraft ice water content statistics for cirrus clouds observed over Coffeyville, Kansas during FIRE 2. We find similar associations of histogram shape and cloud cover for these clouds, and we show that a simple modification of the model for cirrus combined with observed mean cloud depths, their standard deviations, and ambient thermodynamic conditions predicts both the histogram shape and cirrus cloud cover fairly well. This suggests that subgrid variability of cloud properties may be similar for vastly different cloud types, and that a universal parameterization of the effects of subgrid variability in GCMs as a function of only a few parameters may be a realistic goal.

  17. New Findings on Ice Nucleation in Mid-latitude Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lawson, P.; Baker, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent GCM simulations (CESM1) show a global aerosol indirect effect of -1.39 W m-2 with -2.02 W m-2 from shortwave and +0.63 W m-2 from longwave cloud forcing, the longwave being due to homogeneous nucleation of ice crystals. However, the extent of homogeneous nucleation in ice clouds is poorly understood. This study uses results from a recent field campaign, SPARTICUS (Small PARTicles In CirrUS), to evaluate the impact of homogeneous nucleation on the ice particle size distribution (PSD) shape, as well as ice particle concentration, shape, PSD effective size and fall speed. While earlier measurements were difficult to evaluate for ice nucleation effects due to the problem of ice particle shattering, recent in-situ measurements using the 2 dimensional-stereo (2D-S) probe have greatly reduced this problem resulting in provocative findings for both synoptic and anvil cirrus sampled during SPARTICUS. For mid-latitude synoptic and anvil cirrus around -40°C, these new measurements show that clear changes in the ice PSD and its properties occur regarding (1) PSD shape, (2) total number concentration-to-ice water content ratio (N/IWC), (3) PSD mean size, (4) PSD mean area ratio and (5) the mass-weighted fall velocity (Vm). These changes are consistent with a change in ice nucleation mechanism, with heterogeneous nucleation processes active at temperatures warmer than -40°C and homogeneous freezing nucleation at temperatures colder than -40°C. The change in Vm implies that cirrus colder than -40°C will have longer lifetimes and greater cloud coverage than warmer cirrus clouds, all other relevant factors remaining equal. The increase in N/IWC with colder temperatures (T < -40°C) appears consistent with homogeneous nucleation theory. Figure 1 shows normalized frequency distribution of PSD area ratios for temperatures above and below -40°C. Area ratios (ice particle projected area/area of circle defined by particle maximum dimension) are a measure of ice particle shape

  18. Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Ice Supersaturation and Cirrus in the TTL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGangi, J. P.; Podolske, J. R.; Rana, M.; Slate, T. A.; Diskin, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The processes controlling cloud formation and evolution represent a significant uncertainty in models of global climate change. High altitude cirrus clouds contribute a large portion of this uncertainty due to their altitude and abundance. The mechanism behind the formation of cirrus clouds depends on the characteristics and composition of ice supersaturation (ISS) regions, regions where the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) is greater than 100%. Small-scale dynamics have recently been shown to have a strong effect on the RHi of the UT/LS, and therefore on cirrus cloud formation. Until now, there has been insufficient data in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) to investigate these effects. The Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) was a series of campaigns focused on improving our understanding of humidity in the TTL. During this campaign, the NASA Langley/Ames Diode Laser Hygrometer was part of the payload on the NASA Global Hawk, resulting in measurements of humidity with as low as 1-2 m vertical resolution at altitudes up to 19 km. We will present observations from ATTREX describing the small scale spatial variability of water vapor along transects of ISSRs and cirrus clouds, as well as the dynamics driving the formation of ISS regions. These results will be discussed in context with results from prior UT/LS campaigns, such as DC3 and HIPPO.

  19. A Study of Cirrus Clouds and Aerosols in the Upper Troposphere using Models and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the final report for the Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1213. It is a compilation of publications produced under this Cooperative Agreement and conference presentations. The tasks for the Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model for the Upper Troposphere include: Task 1: To compare APCM predictions against the SUCCESS data and other aircraft campaigns and to investigate the role of aerosol composition on cirrus cloud nucleation; Task 2: To study the seasonal evolution and spatial distribution of upper-tropospheric tropical and polar cirrus; Task 3: To investigate CLAES cirrus data with other complementary (TOGA-COARE and CEPEX) data. Tasks for Upper Tropospheric Cirrus Clouds include: Task 1: Assemble 3-hourly (or more frequent) meteorological satellite data fiom geostationary satellites to obtain a global, or nearly global, dataset of infiared brightness temperatures as a function of time for airborne experimental periods; Task 2: Explore methods to improve the cloud top altitude distributions calculated fiom meteorological satellite data. This will focus on linlung the 6.5 micron channel geostationary brightness temperatures and the 10.5 micron brightness temperatures; Task 3: Explore methods to differentiate convective fiom stratiform cloudiness; Task 4: Perform trajectory analyses using an existing trajectory modeling package that links the cloud data with air mass histories; Task 5: Apply techniques from tasks 1 through 4 to provide meteorological support to the CRYSTAL-FACE mission, both in its preparation and deployment phases. The report include four published articles and two slide presentations.

  20. Wavelet analysis applied to the IRAS cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Wilson, Robert W.; Anderson, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of infrared cirrus clouds is analyzed with Laplacian pyramid transforms, a form of non-orthogonal wavelets. Pyramid and wavelet transforms provide a means to decompose images into their spatial frequency components such that all spatial scales are treated in an equivalent manner. The multiscale transform analysis is applied to IRAS 100 micrometer maps of cirrus emission in the north Galactic pole region to extract features on different scales. In the maps we identify filaments, fragments and clumps by separating all connected regions. These structures are analyzed with respect to their Hausdorff dimension for evidence of the scaling relationships in the cirrus clouds.

  1. Retrieval of Snow and Rain From Combined X- and W-B and Airborne Radar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald M.

    2008-01-01

    Two independent airborne dual-wavelength techniques, based on nadir measurements of radar reflectivity factors and Doppler velocities, respectively, are investigated with respect to their capability of estimating microphysical properties of hydrometeors. The data used to investigate the methods are taken from the ER-2 Doppler radar (X-band) and Cloud Radar System (W-band) airborne Doppler radars during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment campaign in 2002. Validity is assessed by the degree to which the methods produce consistent retrievals of the microphysics. For deriving snow parameters, the reflectivity-based technique has a clear advantage over the Doppler-velocity-based approach because of the large dynamic range in the dual-frequency ratio (DFR) with respect to the median diameter Do and the fact that the difference in mean Doppler velocity at the two frequencies, i.e., the differential Doppler velocity (DDV), in snow is small relative to the measurement errors and is often not uniquely related to Do. The DFR and DDV can also be used to independently derive Do in rain. At W-band, the DFR-based algorithms are highly sensitive to attenuation from rain, cloud water, and water vapor. Thus, the retrieval algorithms depend on various assumptions regarding these components, whereas the DDV-based approach is unaffected by attenuation. In view of the difficulties and ambiguities associated with the attenuation correction at W-band, the DDV approach in rain is more straightforward and potentially more accurate than the DFR method.

  2. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1; The Critical Components to Simulate Cirrus Initiation Explicitly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Sassen, Kenneth; Jensen, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project, a project of the GCSS (GEWEX Cloud System Studies) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems, involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase I of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus, both subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 centimeters per second. Five models participated. The various models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins or treated separately. Simulations are made including both the homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze droplets) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found for the homogeneous-nucleation- only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, significant quantitative differences are found. Detailed analysis reveals that the homogeneous nucleation rate, haze particle solution concentration, and water vapor uptake rate by ice crystal growth (particularly as controlled by the deposition coefficient) are critical components that lead to differences in predicted microphysics. Systematic bias exists between results based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies, but each includes assumptions that can only be justified by further laboratory research. Consequently, it is not yet

  3. Sensitivity of Cirrus Bidirectional Reflectance at MODIS Bands to Vertical Inhomogeneity of Ice Crystal Habits and Size Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P.; Gao, B.-C.; Baum, B. A.; Wiscombe, W.; Hu, Y.; Nasiri, S. L.; Soulen, P. F.; Heymsfield, A. J.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Miloshevich, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    A common assumption in satellite imager-based cirrus retrieval algorithms is that the radiative properties of a cirrus cloud may be represented by those associated with a specific ice crystal shape (or habit) and a single particle size distribution. However, observations of cirrus clouds have shown that the shapes and sizes of ice crystals may vary substantially with height within the clouds. In this study we investigate the sensitivity of the top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectances at two MODIS bands centered at 0.65 micron and 2.11 micron to the cirrus models assumed to be either a single homogeneous layer or three distinct but contiguous, layers. First, we define the single- and three-layer cirrus cloud models with respect to ice crystal habit and size distribution on the basis of in situ replicator data acquired during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE-II), held in Kansas during the fall of 1991. Subsequently, fundamental light scattering and radiative transfer theory is employed to determine the single scattering and the bulk radiative properties of the cirrus cloud. Regarding the radiative transfer computations, we present a discrete form of the adding/doubling principle by introducing a direct transmission function, which is computationally straightforward and efficient an improvement over previous methods. For the 0.65 micron band, at which absorption by ice is negligible, there is little difference between the bidirectional reflectances calculated for the one- and three-layer cirrus models, suggesting that the vertical inhomogeneity effect is relatively unimportant. At the 2.11 micron band, the bidirectional reflectances computed for both optically thin (tau = 1) and thick (tau = 10) cirrus clouds show significant differences between the results for the one- and three-layer models. The reflectances computed for the three-layer cirrus model are substantially larger than those computed for the single-layer cirrus. Finally, we find that cloud

  4. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Lopes, Fabio J. S.; Landulfo, Eduardo; Ochoa, Héctor; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W), located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW) in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio) and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness) properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable) LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  5. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  6. Forecasting and understanding cirrus clouds with the large scale Lagrangian microphysical model CLaMS-Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, Christian; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Spichtinger, Peter; Costa, Anja; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role by influencing the Earth's radiation budget and the global climate (Heintzenberg and Charlson, 2009). This is shown in the recent IPCC reports, where the large error bars relating to the cloud radiative forcing underline the poor scientific knowledge of the underlying processes. The formation and further evolution of cirrus clouds is determined by the interplay of temperature, ice nuclei (IN) properties, relative humidity, cooling rates and ice crystal sedimentation. For that reason, a Lagrangian approach using meteorological wind fields is the most realistic way to simulate cirrus clouds. In addition, to represent complete cirrus systems as e.g. frontal cirrus, three dimensional cloud modeling on a large scale is desirable. To this end, we coupled the two momentum microphysical ice model of Spichtinger and Gierens (2009) with the 3D Lagrangian model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002). The new CLaMS-Ice module simulates cirrus formation by including heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing as well as ice crystal sedimentation. The boxmodel is operated along CLaMS trajectories and individually initialized with the ECMWF meteorological fields. In addition, temperature fluctuations are superimposed directly to the trajectory temperature and pressure by the parametrization of Gary et al. (2006). For a typical cirrus scenario with latitude/longitude coverage of 49° x 42° on three pressure levels, 6100 trajectories are simulated over 24 hours in time. To achieve the model results in an acceptable time, the box model is accelerated by about a factor of 10 before coupling to CLaMS. Now, CLaMS-Ice needs only about 30-40 minutes for such a simulation. During the first HALO cloud field campaign (ML-Cirrus), CLaMS-Ice has been successfully deployed as a forecast tool. Here, we give an overview about the capabilities of CLaMS-Ice for forecasting, modeling and understanding of cirrus clouds in general. In addition, examples from the recent ML-Cirrus

  7. Tropical cirrus cloud radiative forcing: Sensitivity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.J.; Kinne, S.; Toon, O.B.

    1994-09-01

    We have performed one dimensional radiative transfer calculations to evaluate the impact of cirrus clouds on the tropical radiation budget. We investigate the sensitivity of solar and infrared fluxes to cloud optical depth, particle size distributions, and cloud height. If the observed solar cloud forcing in excess of 100 W/sq m is to be attributed to cirrus anvils alone, then the optical depth of these anvils must be at least 5 (assuming 50% cloud cover and an ice crystal effective radius of 15 microns). The net radiative forcing of cirrus near the tropical tropopause is positive (heating) for cloud optical depths less than about 16 and negative (cooling) for larger optical depths. If cirrus clouds alone are responsible for the equal and opposite shortwave and longwave cloud forcing in excess of 100 W/sq m observed by Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), then the cirrus must typically take the form of deep, optically thick clouds with relatively small particles (radii of 10-20 microns) and cloud-tops well below the tropopause. The maintenance of this balance on monthly time scales can be attributed to a variety of correlations: The cloud cover of optically thick cirrus or thin cirrus overlying low-level stratus clouds could vary; or cirrus anvil height cloud increase along with a decrease in the ice crystal effective radius and an increase in optical depth. It would be of great interest to determine observationally which of these correlations is responsible for the observed lack of variation in cloud forcing.

  8. Physical processes controlling the evolution of ice concentration in cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2011-12-01

    Several past studies have compared measured cirrus ice concentrations with calculations based on nucleation theory. However, such calculations only indicate the peak ice concentrations occurring just after nucleation events. Various cloud processes (e.g., differential sedimentation, entrainment, dispersion, and aggregation) conspire to reduce mean ice concentrations as the cloud evolves. Here, we use both a one-dimensional cloud model and a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model to evaluate the impact of these processes on the evolution of ice concentration through the lifecycle of cirrus clouds. Results are compared statistically with recent airborne measurements of ice concentration in the midlatitude and tropical uppermost troposphere. We will show that mean ice concentrations are reduced substantially by processes occurring after nucleation events, and this issue should be taken into consideration when comparing with observations that necessarily represent a range of cloud ages.

  9. Multiangle Remote Sensing of Optically Thin Cirrus Clouds From MISR Using Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, M. J.; Mazzoni, D.; Davies, R.; Wagstaff, K.

    2004-05-01

    Thin cirrus clouds, those with optical depths less than 1, can potentially have large radiative effects on the atmospheric and surface energy budgets in regions where they are prevalent. They also present an impediment to the retrieval of clear sky properties such as aerosol optical depth, temperature profiles, etc. Such clouds, however, are notoriously difficult to detect using standard satellite remote sensing techniques. The unique multiangle sensing capability of the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on NASA's Terra satellite, in particular the availability of cameras with view angles as large as 70.5 degrees, gives MISR the ability to detect thin cirrus clouds that are invisible to nadir-looking instruments. While MISR has been operational for over four years and many scenes containing thin cirrus have been examined on a per case basis, there remains a need to objectively and automatically identify just the cirrus clouds within any given scene. Based on our previous work applying machine learning technology to develop a more robust MISR cloud mask, we have developed a thin cirrus cloud detector for MISR, using Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and taking advantage of spectral, spatial and angular signature information from MISR's 45.6, 60 and 70.5-degree cameras. For a few representative cases, we will demonstrate the accuracy of the SVM cirrus retrieval, especially in comparison to a traditional nadir-looking retrieval, emphasizing the usefulness of the multiangle approach. We then show how this trained SVM can be used to generate a climatology of thin cirrus clouds.

  10. Climatology Of Thin Cirrus Clouds at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) Using Ground Based Lidar And Satellite Based Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motty, G. S.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Satyanarayana, M.

    2014-11-01

    High altitude cirrus clouds play a significant role in the radiative balance of Earth atmosphere system. Information on cirrus occurrences and their optical properties is essential for climate modeling studies. The influence of high altitude thin cirrus clouds on the climate is important due to their optical and thermodynamic properties. In order to quantify their effect on atmosphere, the vertical structure and optical properties of these thin cirrus clouds are to be characterized. The Lidar technique has become a unique tool for detecting and characterizing cirrus clouds for their optical properties. Ground based LIDAR system offers an excellent way to obtain characteristic values on the cirrus formations, although the microphysical and optical properties of thin cirrus clouds can also obtained on global scale by the observations from Earth-orbiting Satellites .The ground-based lidar observations could provide more intensive measurements on continuous basis, compared to satellite observations. Utilising observations from both, the statistical characteristics, physical and optical properties of thin cirrus clouds can be retrieved more precisely. The present study is based on the ground based lidar measurements using the pulsed monostatic LIDAR system at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory [NARL], Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), Andhra Pradesh, India. The data obtained in the altitude range of 8-20 km are used for this study. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO and MODIS satellites are compared with the ground based lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology. Optically thin cirrus clouds (τ < 0.3) observed during 2009 are selected and their microphysical and geometrical properties are studied. The microphysical properties such as optical depth, lidar ratio and depolarisation ratio for cirrus clouds were obtained. It is observed that the variability in optical depth depends on the composition and thickness of the clouds. The

  11. Tropical Convection's Roles in Tropical Tropopause Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Matthew T.; Starr, David OC.; Verlinde, Johannes; Lee, Sukyoung

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing observations reveal the frequent occurrence of tropopause cirrus, thin cirrus layers located near the tropical cold-point tropopause. Here, we present a theory in which tropical convection plays several important roles in tropopause cirrus formation. First, tropical convection is the primary means by which the moisture required for tropopause cirrus formation is transported into the upper troposphere. However, previous studies suggest that this convection rarely penetrates to the altitudes at which tropopause cirrus layers are observed, suggesting that additional vertical moisture transport is required to explain tropopause cirrus formation. We propose a mechanism for explaining this transport in which tropical convection plays the key role. According to this hypothesis, the transport is accomplished by meridional circulations that develop within the tropopause transition layer (TTL) in response to momentum transport by Rossby waves generated by tropical convection. Results of a series of global scale model runs designed to test this hypothesis will be presented. In addition, reanalyses vertical velocity data will be examined for evidence of the expected correlation between large-scale rising motion within the TTL and tropical convection. Once moisture is present near the cold-point tropopause, large-scale cooling is required to initiate tropopause cirrus formation. One source of this cooling is stratospheric tropical waves induced by tropical convection, as we will show using a time series of radiosonde temperature data superimposed with data on cloud occurrence from the DOE ARM Nauru99 field experiment. Observations of the global characteristics of these waves from a longer time series of reanalysis data will also be presented.

  12. Classification of particle effective shape ratios in cirrus clouds based on the lidar depolarization ratio.

    PubMed

    Noel, Vincent; Chepfer, Helene; Ledanois, Guy; Delaval, Arnaud; Flamant, Pierre H

    2002-07-20

    A shape classification technique for cirrus clouds that could be applied to future spaceborne lidars is presented. A ray-tracing code has been developed to simulate backscattered and depolarized lidar signals from cirrus clouds made of hexagonal-based crystals with various compositions and optical depth, taking into account multiple scattering. This code was used first to study the sensitivity of the linear depolarization rate to cloud optical and microphysical properties, then to classify particle shapes in cirrus clouds based on depolarization ratio measurements. As an example this technique has been applied to lidar measurements from 15 mid-latitude cirrus cloud cases taken in Palaiseau, France. Results show a majority of near-unity shape ratios as well as a strong correlation between shape ratios and temperature: The lowest temperatures lead to high shape ratios. The application of this technique to space-borne measurements would allow a large-scale classification of shape ratios in cirrus clouds, leading to better knowledge of the vertical variability of shapes, their dependence on temperature, and the formation processes of clouds. PMID:12148751

  13. A comparison of cirrus cloud observations from the NASA ATTREX-3 field mission with simulations from the NCAR atmospheric CESM model (CAM5) coupled with an advanced cirrus cloud model (CARMA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, C.; Toon, O. B.; Bardeen, C.; Diskin, G. S.; McGill, M. J.; Rollins, A. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Woods, S.

    2014-12-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in the vertical transport of water vapor between the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Unfortunately, the physical limitations of observing the TTL and the model uncertainty surrounding cirrus clouds prevent a full understanding of the properties of cirrus and their role in water vapor transport. However, recently NASA's ATTREX 3 field mission was undertaken to observe water vapor and cirrus properties in the TTL. The high altitude Global Hawk aircraft gathered a unique in-situ data set from the tropical Western Pacific. This region is known to be crucial for the upward motion of water vapor and chemical transport in the atmosphere, but has been observed infrequently. With the ATTREX data, we investigate the differences between in situ and anvil cirrus, and we assess the relative frequency of heterogeneous and homogenous ice nucleation. Alongside the observational data, we ran NCAR's CESM model and coupled it to an advanced cirrus model (CARMA). The model was run at a 1x1 degree resolution along the aircraft's flight track to simulate the observations. We compare the CAM5/CARMA simulations to the aircraft observations to investigate the effectiveness of the model in reproducing the aircraft data.

  14. A variational approach for retrieving ice cloud properties from infrared measurements: application in the context of two IIR validation campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourdeval, O.; -Labonnote, L. C.; Brogniez, G.; Jourdan, O.; Pelon, J.; Garnier, A.

    2013-08-01

    Cirrus are cloud types that are recognized to have a strong impact on the Earth-atmosphere radiation balance. This impact is however still poorly understood, due to the difficulties in describing the large variability of their properties in global climate models. Consequently, numerous airborne and space-borne missions have been dedicated to their study in the last decades. The satellite constellation A-Train has for instance proven to be particularly helpful for the study of cirrus. More particularly, the Infrared Imaging Radiometer (IIR) carried onboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite shows a great sensitivity to the radiative and microphysical properties of these clouds. Our study presents a novel methodology that uses the thermal infrared measurements of IIR to retrieve the ice crystal effective size and optical thickness of cirrus. This methodology is based on an optimal estimation scheme, which possesses the advantage of attributing precise uncertainties to the retrieved parameters. Two IIR airborne validation campaigns have been chosen as case studies for illustrating the results of our retrieval method. It is observed that optical thicknesses could be accurately retrieved but that large uncertainties may occur on the effective diameters. Strong agreements have also been found between the products of our method when separately applied to the measurements of IIR and of the airborne radiometer CLIMAT-AV, which consolidates the results of previous validation studies of IIR level-1 measurements. Comparisons with in situ observations and with operational products of IIR are also discussed and appear to be coherent with our results. However, we have found that the quality of our retrievals can be strongly impacted by uncertainties related to the choice of a pristine crystal model and by poor constraints on the properties of possible liquid cloud layers underneath cirrus. Simultaneous retrievals of liquid

  15. A variational approach for retrieving ice cloud properties from infrared measurements: application in the context of two IIR validation campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourdeval, O.; C.-Labonnote, L.; Brogniez, G.; Jourdan, O.; Pelon, J.; Garnier, A.

    2013-02-01

    Cirrus are cloud types that are recognized to have a strong impact on the Earth-atmosphere radiation balance. This impact is however still poorly understood, due to the difficulties in describing the large variability of their properties in global climate models. Consequently, numerous airborne and space borne missions have been dedicated to their study in the last decades. The satellite constellation A-Train has proven to be particularly helpful to study cirrus on global scale due to such instruments as the Infrared Imaging Radiometer (IIR), which shows great sensitivity to the radiative and microphysical properties of these clouds. This study presents an algorithm that uses thermal infrared measurements to retrieve the optical thickness of cirrus and the effective size of their ice crystals. This algorithm is based on an optimal estimation scheme, which possesses the advantage of attributing precise uncertainties to the retrieved parameters. Two IIR airborne validation campaigns have been chosen as case studies. It is observed that optical thicknesses could be accurately retrieved but that large uncertainties may occur on the effective diameters. Strong agreements have been found between the products of our algorithm when separately applied to the measurements of IIR and of the airborne radiometer CLIMAT-AV, which comforts the results of previous validations of IIR level-1 measurements. Comparisons with in situ observations and with operational products of IIR also show confidence in our results. However, we have found that the quality of our retrievals can be strongly impacted by uncertainties related to the choice of a pristine crystal model and by poor constraints on the properties of possible liquid cloud layers underneath cirrus. Simultaneous retrievals of liquid clouds radiative and microphysical properties or the use of different ice crystal models should therefore be considered to improve the quality of the results.

  16. Aerosol Properties Derived from Airborne Sky Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent NASA and DoE Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions.The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE (Department of Energy)-sponsored TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013) experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and air-mass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance

  17. Dust ice nuclei effects on cirrus clouds in ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Kübbeler, Miriam; Hendricks, Johannes; Kärcher, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are one of the main uncertainties in climate research. Up to now a lot of research has been conducted on aerosol-cloud interactions in warm clouds. The impact of aerosols on ice or mixed-phase clouds is much less understood. Cirrus clouds in an unpolluted environment are assumed to form mainly via homogeneous freezing. The presence of heterogeneous ice nuclei can lead to earlier ice crystal formation and change the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds. Recent box model studies even suggest that heterogeneous freezing can suppress homogeneous freezing, if several conditions are fulfilled. Most likely this would lead to cirrus clouds containing fewer and larger ice crystals. If homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing compete either freezing mechanism may dominate depending mainly on vertical velocity and number density of ice nuclei. Thus, it is not clear yet how number and size of ice crystals are affected.

  18. Cirrus cloud iridescence: a rare case study.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2003-01-20

    On the evening of 25 November 1998, a cirrus cloud revealing the pastel colors of the iridescence phenomenon was photographed and studied by a polarization lidar system at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). The diffraction of sunlight falling on relatively minute cloud particles, which display spatial gradients in size, is the cause of iridescence. According to the 14-year study of midlatitude cirrus clouds at FARS, cirrus rarely produce even poor iridescent patches, making this particularly long-lived and vivid occurrence unique. In this unusually high (13.2-14.4-km) and cold (-69.7 degrees to -75.5 degrees) tropopause-topped cirrus cloud, iridescence was noted from approximately 6.0 degrees to approximately 13.5 degrees from the Sun. On the basis of simple diffraction theory, this indicates the presence of particles of 2.5-5.5-microm effective diameter. The linear depolarization ratios of delta = 0.5 measured by the lidar verify that the cloud particles were nonspherical ice crystals. The demonstration that ice clouds can generate iridescence has led to the conclusion that iridescence is rarely seen in midlatitude cirrus clouds because populations of such small particles do not exist for long in the presence of the relatively high water-vapor supersaturations needed for ice-particle nucleation. PMID:12570270

  19. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Sassen, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. Furthermore, the common ground of the findings may provide guidelines for models with simpler cirrus microphysics modules. We focus on the nucleation regimes of the warm (parcel starting at -40 C and 340 hPa) and cold (-60 C and 170 hPa) cases studied in the GCSS WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project. Nucleation and ice crystal growth were forced through an externally imposed rate of lift and consequent adiabatic cooling. The background haze particles are assumed to be lognormally-distributed H2SO4 particles. Only the homogeneous nucleation mode is allowed to form ice crystals in the HN-ONLY runs; all nucleation modes are switched on in the ALL-MODE runs. Participants were asked to run the HN-lambda-fixed runs by setting lambda = 2 (lambda is further discussed in section 2) or tailoring the nucleation rate calculation in agreement with lambda = 2 (exp 1). The depth of parcel lift (800 m) was set to assure that parcels underwent complete transition through the nucleation regime to a stage of approximate equilibrium between ice mass growth and vapor supplied by the specified updrafts.

  20. 'Infrared cirrus' - New light on the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    The observational data on 'infared cirrus', considered here to be emission from tenuous dust clouds scattered throughout the ISM, are reviewed. The morphology of individual clouds and of the global distribution of infared cirrus is addressed, as well as the energy distribution. Some of the implications of the results for the ISM are summarized, and prospects for future cirrus measurements are briefly addressed.

  1. Tropical Convection's Roles in Tropical Tropopause Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, Matthew T.; Starr, David OC.; Verlinde, Johannes; Lee, Sukyoung

    2002-01-01

    The results presented here show that tropical convection plays a role in each of the three primary processes involved in the in situ formation of tropopause cirrus. First, tropical convection transports moisture from the surface into the upper troposphere. Second, tropical convection excites Rossby waves that transport zonal momentum toward the ITCZ, thereby generating rising motion near the equator. This rising motion helps transport moisture from where it is detrained from convection to the cold-point tropopause. Finally, tropical convection excites vertically propagating tropical waves (e.g. Kelvin waves) that provide one source of large-scale cooling near the cold-point tropopause, leading to tropopause cirrus formation.

  2. Small particle cirrus observed by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, B. H.; Eldering, A.; Fishbein, E. F.

    2003-04-01

    , Accelerated monochromatic radiative transfer for scattering atmospheres: Application of a new model to spectral radiance observations. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21,853-21,866, 1997. Rathke, C., and J. Fischer, Retrieval of cloud microphysical properties from thermal infrared observations by a fast iterative radiance fitting method, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 17, 1509-1524, 2000. Smith, W.L., S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D.H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, and A. Collard, Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1137-1140, 1998. Strabala, K.I., S.A. Ackerman, and W.P. Menzel, Cloud properties inferred from 8-12 micron data. J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 212-229, 1994.

  3. Impact of spatial resolution on cirrus infrared satellite retrievals in the presence of cloud heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchez, T.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Zhang, Z.; Cornet, C.; Szczap, F.; Dubuisson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds are an important part of the Earth radiation budget but an accurate assessment of their role remains highly uncertain. Cirrus optical properties such as Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) and ice crystal effective particle size are often retrieved with a combination of Visible/Near InfraRed (VNIR) and ShortWave-InfraRed (SWIR) reflectance channels. Alternatively, Thermal InfraRed (TIR) techniques, such as the Split Window Technique (SWT), have demonstrated better accuracy for thin cirrus effective radius retrievals with small effective radii. However, current global operational algorithms for both retrieval methods assume that cloudy pixels are horizontally homogeneous (Plane Parallel Approximation (PPA)) and independent (Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA)). The impact of these approximations on ice cloud retrievals needs to be understood and, as far as possible, corrected. Horizontal heterogeneity effects in the TIR spectrum are mainly dominated by the PPA bias that primarily depends on the COT subpixel heterogeneity; for solar reflectance channels, in addition to the PPA bias, the IPA can lead to significant retrieval errors due to a significant photon horizontal transport between cloudy columns, as well as brightening and shadowing effects that are more difficult to quantify. Furthermore TIR retrievals techniques have demonstrated better retrieval accuracy for thin cirrus having small effective radii over solar reflectance techniques. The TIR range is thus particularly relevant in order to characterize, as accurately as possible, thin cirrus clouds. Heterogeneity effects in the TIR are evaluated as a function of spatial resolution in order to estimate the optimal spatial resolution for TIR retrieval applications. These investigations are performed using a cirrus 3D cloud generator (3DCloud), a 3D radiative transfer code (3DMCPOL), and two retrieval algorithms, namely the operational MODIS retrieval algorithm (MOD06) and a research-level SWT algorithm.

  4. Sensitivity of contrail cirrus radiative forcing to air traffic scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newinger, Christina; Burkhardt, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    Air traffic effects high cloudiness and therefore the Earth's radiation budget by producing contrail cirrus. Contrail cirrus comprise of line-shaped contrails and irregularly shaped ice clouds that originate from them. The warming effect of contrail cirrus is disproportionally large at night, since at daytime the cooling due to the short wave cloud albedo effect acts toward compensating the long wave warming effect. Therefore it has been suggested to restrict air traffic to daytime in order to reduce its climate impact. The potential for reducing the contrail cirrus radiative forcing by shifting air traffic to daytime depends on the diurnal cycle of contrail cirrus coverage which is in turn determined by the diurnal cycle of air traffic and the contrail cirrus lifetimes. Simulations with a global atmospheric general circulation model indicate that the annual mean contrail cirrus coverage may be almost constant over the day even in areas where air traffic is close to zero at night. A conceptual model describing the temporal evolution of contrail cirrus coverage reveals that this is due to the large variability in contrail cirrus lifetimes in combination with the spreading of contrail cirrus. This large variability of lifetimes is consistent with observational evidence but more observations are needed to constrain the contrail lifetime distribution. An idealized mitigation experiment, shifting nighttime flights to daytime, indicates that contrail cirrus radiative forcing is not significantly changed.

  5. Selected topics on interactions between cirrus clouds and embedded contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.

    2012-09-01

    Persistent contrails and natural cirrus clouds often coexist in the upper troposphere and contrails can be embedded within cirrus clouds. The present paper deals with some questions regarding the interaction of cirrus clouds and embedded contrails. I have selected only questions that can be answered by analytical means. I find that (1) the emission index for water vapour is only slightly changed when an aircraft crosses a cirrus cloud, (2) that contrail formation is not affected by an ambient cirrus, (3) that cirrus ice crystals entrained into the trailing wing tip vortex do not efficiently retard the sublimation of contrail ice crystals, and (4) that cirrus can start to dissolve an embedded contrail after a couple of hours by aggregation.

  6. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O.; Yang, P.

    2008-12-10

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in cirrus clouds using a detailed microphysical model and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. To help understand dynamic scales important in cirrus formation, we force the model using both large-scale forcing derived using ARM variational analysis, and mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where we have implemented a rigorous classical theory heterogeneous nucleation scheme to compare with empirical representations. We evaluate model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. This approach allows for independent verification of both the large and small particle modes of the particle size distribution. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities, while nucleation mechanism is secondary. Slow ice crystal growth tends to overestimate the number of small ice crystals, but does not seem to influence bulk properties such as ice water path and cloud thickness. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Ice crystal number concentrations on the order of 10-100 L-1 produce results consistent with both lidar and radar observations during a cirrus event observed on 7 December 1999, which has an optical depth range typical of

  7. The origin of midlatitude ice clouds and the resulting influence on their microphysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebke, Anna; Rolf, Christian; Costa, Anja; Afchine, Armin; Avallone, Linnea; Borrmann, Stephan; Baumgardner, Darrel; Klingebiel, Marcus; Kraemer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Ice clouds are known to play an important role in the radiative balance of the atmosphere. The nature of this role is determined by the macrophysical and microphysical properties of a cloud. Thus, it is crucial that we have an accurate understanding of properties such as the ice water content (IWC), ice crystal concentration (Ni), and ice crystal size (Ri). However, these properties are difficult to parameterize due to their large variability and the fact that they are influenced by a number of other factors such as temperature, vertical velocity, relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice), and the available ice nuclei. The combination of those factors ultimately establishes whether heterogeneous or homogeneous nucleation will lead to ice crystal formation. The aforementioned factors are largely determined by the dynamics of the environment in which the ice cloud forms, collectively contained in a meteorological situation. Ice clouds have been observed in a variety of situations such as frontal systems, jet streams, gravity waves, and convective systems. Most recently, the concept of the influence of large-scale dynamics on midlatitude cirrus properties has been demonstrated in the work of Muehlbauer et al. (2014). In the work presented here, we explore this concept further by examining how differences in dynamics are translated into the differences in IWC, Ni, and Ri that are found within and between datasets. Data from two American-based campaigns, the 2004 Midlatitude Cirrus Experiment (MidCiX) and the 2011 Midlatitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX), as well as some European-based campaigns, the 2004 and 2006 CIRRUS campaigns, the 2013 AIRTOSS-ICE campaign, and the 2014 ML-CIRRUS campaign are combined to form a large, and more latitudinally comprehensive database of Northern Hemisphere in-situ, midlatitude ice cloud observations. We have divided the data by meteorological situation and explored the differences and similarities between

  8. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  9. Sub-visual Cirrus detection and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, E.; Grams, G.; Patterson, E.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of archived cold optics (COR) radiometer data is yielding useful information on the diurnal, geographic, seasonal and altitude variability of atmospheric background radiance levels in the 11 micron window region. This database is a compilation of Kuiper Infrared Technology Experiment (KITE) and Atmospheric Radiance Study (ARS) observations under a wide variety of conditions. Correlating the measurements from these two studies with the LOWTRAN model code has revealed several important results. First, the 11 micron window appears to be filled-in, i.e., the troughs on either side of the nitric acid peak are shallower than expected. Second, the amplitude of the background radiances measured exceeds the model predictions by a factor of 2 to 3 or more. This is thought to be due to the existence of thin, high altitude cirrus clouds (sub-visual cirrus) above the sensor platform. These high background levels are observed under quiescent conditions in the South Pacific (Marshall Islands), as well as over the continental United States (the West Coast). In the tropics, there appears to be little diurnal variability, a plausible seasonal variation and a linear dependence between 7.2 and 11.4 micron band data, indicating possible multi-spectral approaches to detection of sub-visual cirrus clouds. Theoretical analysis of the magnitude of the effects of a sub-visual cirrus cloud on atmospheric background radiances measured by a near-horizontal sensor is in progress.

  10. The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, D.; DeMott, P.; Cotten, R.; Jensen, E.; Sassen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project involves the systematic comparison of current models of ice crystal nucleation and growth for specified, typical, cirrus cloud environments. In Phase 1 of the project reported here, simulated cirrus cloud microphysical properties are compared for situations of "warm" (-40 C) and "cold" (-60 C) cirrus subject to updrafts of 4, 20 and 100 centimeters per second, respectively. Five models are participating in the project. These models employ explicit microphysical schemes wherein the size distribution of each class of particles (aerosols and ice crystals) is resolved into bins. Simulations are made including both homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. A single initial aerosol population of sulfuric acid particles is prescribed for all simulations. To isolate the treatment of the homogeneous freezing (of haze drops) nucleation process, the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is disabled for a second parallel set of simulations. Qualitative agreement is found amongst the models for the homogeneous-nucleation-only simulations, e.g., the number density of nucleated ice crystals increases with the strength of the prescribed updraft. However, non-negligible quantitative differences are found. Systematic bias exists between results of a model based on a modified classical theory approach and models using an effective freezing temperature approach to the treatment of nucleation. Each approach is constrained by critical freezing data from laboratory studies. This information is necessary, but not sufficient, to construct consistent formulae for the two approaches. Large haze particles may deviate considerably from equilibrium size in moderate to strong updrafts (20-100 centimeters per second) at -60 C when the commonly invoked equilibrium assumption is lifted. The resulting difference in particle-size-dependent solution concentration of haze particles may significantly affect the ice nucleation rate during the initial

  11. Direct estimate of cirrus noise in Herschel Hi-GAL images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. G.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Roy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Molinari, S.; Billot, N.; Brunt, C.; Calzoletti, L.; Digiorgio, A. M.; Elia, D.; Faustini, F.; Joncas, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natoli, P.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Robitaille, J. F.; Strafella, F.; Traficante, A.; Veneziani, M.

    2010-07-01

    In Herschel images of the Galactic plane and many star forming regions, a major factor limiting our ability to extract faint compact sources is cirrus confusion noise, operationally defined as the “statistical error to be expected in photometric measurements due to confusion in a background of fluctuating surface brightness”. The histogram of the flux densities of extracted sources shows a distinctive faint-end cutoff below which the catalog suffers from incompleteness and the flux densities become unreliable. This empirical cutoff should be closely related to the estimated cirrus noise and we show that this is the case. We compute the cirrus noise directly, both on Herschel images from which the bright sources have been removed and on simulated images of cirrus with statistically similar fluctuations. We connect these direct estimates with those from power spectrum analysis, which has been used extensively to predict the cirrus noise and provides insight into how it depends on various statistical properties and photometric operational parameters. We report multi-wavelength power spectra of diffuse Galactic dust emission from Hi-GAL observations at 70 to 500 μm within Galactic plane fields at l = 30 °and l = 59 °. We find that the exponent of the power spectrum is about -3. At 250 μm, the amplitude of the power spectrum increases roughly as the square of the median brightness of the map and so the expected cirrus noise scales linearly with the median brightness. For a given region, the wavelength dependence of the amplitude can be described by the square of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the dust emission. Generally, the confusion noise will be a worse problem at longer wavelengths, because of the combination of lower angular resolution and the rising power spectrum of cirrus toward lower spatial frequencies, but the photometric signal to noise will also depend on the relative SED of the source compared to the cirrus. Herschel is an ESA space

  12. Modeling of light scattering in cirrus clouds with inhomogeneous hexagonal monocrystals. Comparison with in-situ and ADEOS-POLDER measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labonnote, Laurent C.; Brogniez, Gérard; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Buriez, Jean-Claude; Gayet, Jean-François; Chepfer, Hélène

    2000-01-01

    An Inhhomogeneous Hexagonal Monocrystal (IHM) model is used to simulate light scattering by randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals containing air bubbles. This model based on a combination of ray-tracing, Mie theory and Monte-Carlo techniques, allows to retrieve the scattering phase function. In-situ measurements of the light scattering diagram in natural cirrus clouds with an airborne nephelometer have been performed. The results given by the IHM model have been favorably adjusted with these measurements. This agreement provides an opportunity to use this model in order to analyze ADEOS-POLDER reflectance measurements over cirrus clouds. POLDER uses an original concept to measure, for a given scene, total and polarized reflectances under several viewing directions. A first analysis of cirrus cloud spherical albedoes for the 10th November 1996 shows a rather good agreement between measurements and calculations.

  13. A Comparison of Cirrus Clouds Retrieved From POLDER-3/PARASOL and MODIS/Aqua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Yang, P.; Riedi, J.; Kattawar, G.

    2007-12-01

    MODIS on board Aqua and POLDER-3 on board PARASOL are two key instruments in the A-Train constellation of satellites. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelength ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 μm, but makes measurement at only one direction without information about polarization. POLDER performs multidirectional measurements, of both reflectance and polarization, at nine spectral channels (from 443 to 1020 nm). The two instruments offer different, and somehow complementary, advantages for the remote sensing of microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. In this study, a comparison of cirrus clouds retrieved from the two instruments is made to obtain understanding of the possibility, advantages and limitations of synergetic retrieval. First, the comparison is made between the single scattering properties of "Inhomogeneous Hexagonal Monocrystals" (IHM) used in POLDER retrieval algorithm and the ice-crystal ensemble model used for MODIS. Substantial differences are found in the scattering phase matrix. Co-located cloud mask and cloud top height retrievals are compared, with the emphasis on high and thin cirrus clouds. The optical thicknesses of cirrus clouds retrieved by POLDER are compared with those by MODIS, with and without the constraint that the cloud effective particle size retrieved by MODIS must be similar to that of IHM.

  14. Spatial distribution of Sahelian land surface properties from airborne POLDER multiangular observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Roselyne; Roujean, Jean-Louis; Goutorbe, Jean-Paul

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents the spatial distribution of land surface parameters in southwestern Niger, a region composed mainly of shrub and grassland fallows, millet crop, and tiger bush. The regional patterns of the surface albedo, the leaf area index, the fractional vegetation cover, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation are estimated through the growing season from airborne POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances) data acquired during the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in Sahel (HAPEX-Sahel). The retrieval of these parameters is via a bidirectional reflectance model, appropriate vegetation indices, and Sun-view geometries. Comparison of the POLDER-derived surface parameters with airborne and ground measurements shows that the procedure generally performs well, enhancing the ability to constrain soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models in the Sahel area by providing spatially averaged and updated information. This will enable a more valid assessment of the role of the land surface in determining the Sahelian climate, with a better determination of the scaling effect of surface processes. Although the algorithms described in this work rely primarily on multiangular observations, such as those provided by spaceborne POLDER data sets, they should be useful in a number of remote sensing applications.

  15. An algorithm for simultaneous inversion of aerosol properties and surface reflectance from airborne GeoTASO hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, W.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Ding, S.; Han, D.; Leitch, J. W.; Delker, T.; Chen, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an inversion method to retrieve aerosol properties from the hyperspectral data collected by airborne GeoTASO (Geostationary Trance gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization). Mounted on the NASA HU-25C aircraft, GeoTASO measures radiation in 1000 spectral bands from 415 nm to 696 nm, and is a prototype for the TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument. It flew over Houston during September 2013 and gathered several days' of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data for our research. Our inversion method, which is based on the optimization theory and different from the traditional lookup table (LUT) retrieval technique, can simultaneously retrieve parameters of atmospheric aerosols such as the aerosol optical depth and other aerosol parameters, as well as the surface reflectance albedo. To provide constraints of hyperspectral surface reflectance in the inversion, we first conduct principal component analysis (PCA) using 46 reflectance spectra of various plants and vegetation to identify the most influential components. With the first six principal components and the corresponding calculated weight vector, the spectra could be reconstructed with an accuracy of 1%. UNL-VRTM (UNified Linearized Radiative Transfer Model) is employed for forward model calculation, and its outputs include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements, but also their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol properties parameters and the principal components of surface spectral reflectance. The inversion is carried out with optimization algorithm L-BFGS-B (Large scale BFGS Bound constrained), and is conducted iteratively until the modeled spectral radiance fits with GeoTASO measurements. Finally, the retrieval results of aerosol optical depth and other aerosol parameters are compared against those retrieved by AEROENT and/or in situ measurements during the aircraft campaign.

  16. SUCCESS Evidence for Cirrus Cloud Ice Nucleation Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    During the SUCCESS mission, several measurements were made which should improve our understanding of ice nucleation processes in cirrus clouds. Temperature and water vapor concentration were made with a variety of instruments on the NASA DC-8. These observations should provide accurate upper tropospheric humidities. In particular, we will evaluate what humidities are required for ice nucleation. Preliminary results suggest that substantial supersaturations frequently exist in the upper troposphere. The leading-edge region of wave-clouds (where ice nucleation occurs) was sampled extensively at temperatures near -40 and -60C. These observations should give precise information about conditions required for ice nucleation. In addition, we will relate the observed aerosol composition and size distributions to the ice formation observed to evaluate the role of soot or mineral particles on ice nucleation. As an alternative technique for determining what particles act as ice nuclei, numerous samples of aerosols inside ice crystals were taken. In some cases, large numbers of aerosols were detected in each crystal, indicating that efficient scavenging occurred. Analysis of aerosols in ice crystals when only one particle per crystal was detected should help with the ice nucleation issue. Direct measurements of the ice nucleating activity of ambient aerosols drawn into airborne cloud chambers were also made. Finally, measurements of aerosols and ice crystals in contrails should indicate whether aircraft exhaust soot particles are effective ice nuclei.

  17. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  18. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 μm) and angular range (180°) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  19. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer, CAR, and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 μm) and angular range (180°) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  20. Comparison of CALIPSO-Like, LaRC, and MODIS Retrievals of Ice Cloud Properties over SIRTA in France and Florida during CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiriaco, M.; Chepfer, H.; Haeffelin, M.; Minnis, P.; Noel, V.; Platnick, S.; McGill, M.; Baumgardner, D.; Dubuisson, P.; Pelon, J.; Spangenberg, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Wind, G.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares cirrus particle effective radius retrieved by a CALIPSO-like method with two similar methods using MODIS, MODI Airborne Simulator (MAS), and GOES imagery. The CALIPSO-like method uses lidar measurements coupled with the split-window technique that uses the infrared spectral information contained at the 8.65-micrometer, 11.15-micrometer and 12.05-micrometer bands to infer the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds. The two other methods, sing passive remote sensing at visible and infrared wavelengths, are the operational MODIS cloud products (referred to by its archival product identifier MOD06 for MODIS Terra) and MODIS retrievals performed by the CERES team at LaRC (Langley Research Center) in support of CERES algorithms; the two algorithms will be referred to as MOD06- and LaRC-method, respectively. The three techniques are compared at two different latitudes: (i) the mid-latitude ice clouds study uses 18 days of observations at the Palaiseau ground-based site in France (SIRTA: Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teledetection Atmospherique) including a ground-based 532 nm lidar and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) overpasses on the Terra Platform, (ii) the tropical ice clouds study uses 14 different flight legs of observations collected in Florida, during the intensive field experiment CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment), including the airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and the MAS. The comparison of the three methods gives consistent results for the particle effective radius and the optical thickness, but discrepancies in cloud detection and altitudes. The study confirms the value of an active remote-sensing method (CALIPSO-like) for the study of sub-visible ice clouds, in both mid-latitudes and tropics. Nevertheless, this method is not reliable in optically very thick tropical ice clouds.

  1. Synergy between ground-based remote sensing systems in microphysical analysis of cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, V.; Reichardt, J.; Görsdorf, Ulrich; Reigert, Andrew; Leinweber, R.; Lehmann, Volker

    2014-10-01

    A broad suite of ground-based remote sensing instruments of the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg, Germany, is combined for the first time to synergistically analyze cirrus cloud microphysics, including a Raman lidar, a Ka band cloud radar and a 5ff tilted ceilometer. 84 days of cirrus cloud measurements have been selected to study the correlation between, and the dependences of, the different measured variables. The presented study investigates the effect of the spatial orientation and the shape of solid cloud particles on particle optical properties and their relation to wind and turbulence parameters. A sensitive indicator of particle spatial orientation is the particle depolarization ratio (PDR). When ice crystals are horizontally aligned, mirror reflections can occur, which is evidenced by low PDR if observed with a vertically pointing Raman lidar. Observations are grouped according to the prevailing weather condition. It is found that on some days PDR is constant for long time periods. Interestingly, during warm fronts the PDR is generally small (<0.2), while during cold fronts it is high (> 0.4). Moreover, the mean lidar ratio of cirrus with high PDR is about 20 sr, two times larger than of cirrus with low PDR. Similar dependences on PDR have been found for the particle extinction coefficient, and for the backscatter coefficient from the tilted ceilometer, but for the Raman lidar backscatter coefficient in perpendicular polarization the opposite behavior is observed.

  2. Microphysical fundamentals governing cirrus cloud growth: Modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Dodd, Gregory C.; Starr, David

    1990-01-01

    For application to Global Climate Models, large scale numerical models of cirrus cloud formation and maintenance need to be refined to more reliably simulate the effects and feedbacks of high level clouds. A key aspect is how ice crystal growth is initiated in cirrus, which has started a cloud microphysical controversy between camps either believing that heterogeneous or homogeneous drop freezing is predominantly responsible for cold cirrus ice crystal nucleation. In view of convincing evidence for the existence of highly supercooled cloud droplets in the middle and upper troposphere, however, it is concluded that active ice nuclei are rather scarce at cirrus cloud altitudes, and so a new understanding of cirrus cloud formation is needed. This understanding is sought through an examination of cirrus cloud growth models.

  3. Cirrus Cloud Seeding has Potential to Cool Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storelvmo, T.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Muri, H.; Pfeffer, M.; Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cirrus clouds, thin ice clouds in the upper troposphere, have a net warming effect on Earth s climate. Consequently, a reduction in cirrus cloud amount or optical thickness would cool the climate. Recent research indicates that by seeding cirrus clouds with particles that promote ice nucleation, their lifetimes and coverage could be reduced. We have tested this hypothesis in a global climate model with a state-of-the-art representation of cirrus clouds and find that cirrus cloud seeding has the potential to cancel the entire warming caused by human activity from pre-industrial times to present day. However, the desired effect is only obtained for seeding particle concentrations that lie within an optimal range. With lower than optimal particle concentrations, a seeding exercise would have no effect. Moreover, a higher than optimal concentration results in an over-seeding that could have the deleterious effect of prolonging cirrus lifetime and contributing to global warming.

  4. The Colorado/Missouri 1989 cirrus mini IFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Hagen, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments with aircraft were planned for Nov. and Dec. 1989 to study cirrus ice crystal nucleation mechanisms and to test new aircraft instrumentation. The measurements were conducted using the NCAR Sabreliner and King Air. Sampling was conducted near Boulder, Colorado, in lenticular (mountain wave) clouds, and over Missouri in cirrus generating cells. Field samples of aerosol and ice crystal replicas and melt water from these cirrus clouds were collected and studied. Aircraft instrumentation and sampling techniques are discussed.

  5. The NOAA Water Instrument: A Two-Channel, Tunable Diode Laser-Based Hygrometer for Measurement of Water Vapor and Cirrus Cloud Ice Water Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Rollins, A. W.; Gao, R. S.; Watts, L. A.; Ciciora, S. J.; McLaughlin, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The recently developed NOAA Water instrument is a two-channel, closed-path, tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer designed for the measurement of water vapor and enhanced total water (vapor + inertially enhanced condensed-phase) from the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) or other high-altitude research aircraft. Combining the measurements from the two channels allows the determination of cloud ice water content (IWC), an important metric for evaluating the radiative properties of cirrus clouds. The instrument utilizes wavelength-modulated spectroscopy with second harmonic detection near 2694 nm to achieve high precision with a 79 cm double-pass optical path. The detection cells are operated under constant temperature, pressure and flow conditions to maintain a constant sensitivity to H2O independent of the ambient sampling environment. An on-board calibration system is used to perform periodic in situ calibrations to verify the stability of the instrument sensitivity during flight. For the water vapor channel, ambient air is sampled perpendicular to the flow past the aircraft in order to reject cloud particles, while the total water channel uses a heated, forward-facing inlet to sample both water vapor and cloud particles. The total water inlet operates subisokinetically, thereby inertially enhancing cloud particle number in the sample flow and affording increased cirrus IWC sensitivity. The NOAA Water instrument was flown for the first time during the second deployment of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) in February-March 2013 on board the Global Hawk UAS. The instrument demonstrated a typical in-flight precision (1 s, 1 σ) of better than 0.17 parts per million (ppm, 10-6 mol/mol), with an overall H2O vapor measurement uncertainty of 5% ± 0.23 ppm. The inertial enhancement for cirrus cloud particle sampling under ATTREX flight conditions ranged from 33-48 for ice particles larger than 8 µm in diameter, depending primarily

  6. Seasonal and interannual changes in cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wylie, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    Statistics on cirrus clouds using the multispectral data from the GOES/VAS satellite have been collected since 1985. The method used to diagnose cirrus clouds and a summary of the first two years of data was given in Wylie and Menzel (1989) and at the 1988 FIRE meeting in Vail, CO. This study was expanded to three years of data which allows a more detailed discussion of the geographical and seasonal changes in cloud cover. Interannual changes in cloud cover also were studied. GOES/VAS cloud retrievals also were compared to atmospheric dynamic parameters and to radiative attenuation data taken by a lidar. Some of the highlights of these studies are discussed.

  7. Studying the influence of temperature and pressure on microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds using airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan; Sorin-Nicolae, Vajaiac; Mihai, Cimpuieru

    2015-04-01

    One cloud type for which the formation and evolution process is not well-understood is the mixed-phase type. In general mixed-phase clouds consist of liquid droplets and ice crystals. The temperature interval within both liquid droplets and ice crystals can potentially coexist is limited to 0 °C and - 40 °C. Mixed-phase clouds account for 20% to 30% of the global cloud coverage. The need to understand the microphysical characteristics of mixed-phase clouds to improve numerical forecast modeling and radiative transfer calculation is of major interest in the atmospheric community. In the past, studies of cloud phase composition have been significantly limited by a lack of aircraft instruments capable of discriminating between the ice and liquid phase for a wide range of particle sizes. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote-sensing techniques. The knowledge of the temperature and pressure variation during the airborne measurements is crucial in order to understand their influence on the cloud dynamics and also their role in the cloud formation processes like accretion and coalescence. Therefore, in this paper is presented a comprehensive study of cloud microphysical properties in mixed-phase clouds in focus of the influence of temperature and pressure variation on both, cloud dynamics and the cloud formation processes, using measurements performed with the ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research in property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS). The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 µm) and a HAWKEYE cloud probe. The analyzed data in this

  8. Variability of cirrus clouds in a convective outflow during the Hibiscus campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Marécal, V.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.; Durry, G.

    2008-08-01

    Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers characterized by marked differences in height, thickness and optical properties. Simultaneous water vapour observations show that the different layers are characterized by different values of the saturation with respect to ice. A mesoscale simulation and a trajectory analysis clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region and that the observed variability of the optical properties and of the cloud structure is likely linked to the different residence times of the convectively-processed air in the upper troposphere.

  9. Optical properties of aerosols obtained from airborne lidar and several in-situ instruments during RACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, Kevin B.; Li, Shao-Meng

    1997-05-01

    Two aircraft, the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) Convair 580 (CV580) and NRCC DHC-6 Twin Otter, along with the Yarmouth and Digby Ferries, a ground site near Yarmouth and coordination with satellite overpasses (AVHRR and LANDSAT) provided an exceptionally well rounded compliment of observing platforms to meet the project objectives for the radiation, aerosols and cloud experiment (RACE) (refer to http://www.on.doe.ca/armp/RACE/RACE.html for a complete list of instrumentation and investigators involved). The general flight plans involved upwind measurements of a selected target by the CV580 lidar, followed by coincident flights allowing the Twin Otter to perform in-situ measurements while the Convair used a variety of remote sensors from above. The CV580 then descended to perform in-situ measurements including size segregated samples through the use of a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). This paper focuses on the airborne lidar results during RACE and in particular introduces two case studies comparing the lidar with a MOUDI impactor and ASASP particle probe using Mie theory.

  10. Formation of a Tropopause Cirrus Layer Observed over Florida during CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Thaopaul; Weinheimer, Andrew; Weinstock, Elliot; Smith, Jessica; Pittman, Jasna; Baumgardner, Darrel; Lawson, Paul; McGill, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    On July 13, 2002 a widespread, subvisible tropopause cirrus layer occurred over the Florida region. This cloud was observed in great detail with the NASA Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) instrumentation, including in situ measurements with the WB-57 aircraft. In this paper, we use the 13 July cloud as a case study to evaluate the physical processes controlling the formation and evolution of tropopause cirrus layers. Microphysics measurements indicate that ice crystal diameters in the cloud layer ranged from about 7 to 50 microns, and the peak number mode was about 10-25 microns. In situ water vapor and temperature measurements in the cloud indicated supersaturation with respect to ice throughout, with ice saturation ratios as large as 1.8. Even when the ice surface area density was as high as about 500 sq microns/cu cm, ice supersaturations of 20-30% were observed. Trajectory analysis shows that the air sampled near the tropopause on this day generally came from the north and cooled considerably during the previous few days. Examination of infrared satellite imagery along air parcel back trajectories from the WB-57 flight track indicates that the tropopause cloud layer formation was, in general, not simply left over ice from recently generated anvil cirrus. Simulations of cloud formation using time-height curtains of temperature along the trajectory paths show that the cloud could have formed in situ near the tropopause as the air was advected into the south Florida region and cooled to unusually low temperatures. If we assume a high threshold for ice nucleation via homogeneous freezing of aqueous sulfate aerosols, the model reproduces the observed cloud structure, ice crystal size distributions, and ice supersaturation statistics. Inclusion of observed gravity wave temperature perturbations in the simulations is essential to reproduce the observed cloud properties. Without waves, crystal

  11. Heterogeneous nucleation of ice particles on glassy aerosols modifies TTL cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. W.; Murray, B. J.; Dobbie, S.; Al-Jumur, S. M.; Cui, Z.; Wagner, R.; Moehler, O.; Schnaiter, M.; Benz, S.; Niemand, M.; Saathoff, H.; Skrotzki, J.; Ebert, V.; Wagner, S.; Karcher, B.

    2010-12-01

    Experiments at the AIDA chamber, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, have shown that glassy aqueous citric acid aerosol can nucleate ice at temperatures relevant to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL)(1). Modelling suggests this new route to the formation of TTL cirrus can provide an explanation for the very low ice particle number density observed in cirrus clouds in this region and may lead to high in-cloud supersaturations(1). Nucleation of ice on glassy aerosol is consistent with the absence of traditional ice nuclei in sampled TTL cirrus residue(2). In addition, we will present new data from experiments performed in July 2010 at the AIDA chamber using glassy aerosols composed of other atmospherically relevant compounds (levoglucosan, raffinose) and an internal mixture of five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate (raffinose/M5AS)(3). All four systems tested nucleate ice when in a glassy state. This indicates that heterogeneous ice nucleation is a general property of glassy aerosols and that natural aerosols which are composed of similar molecules will also nucleate ice if glassy. Glassy aqueous levoglucosan and raffinose/M5AS aerosol nucleated ice at temperatures similar to those found for glassy aqueous citric acid aerosol (<202 K). Whereas raffinose, which forms a glass at much higher temperatures, nucleated ice heterogeneously at up to ~220 K. This activity at higher temperatures suggests that ice nucleation by glassy aerosol may also play a role in the formation of warmer ice clouds. (1)B. J. Murray et al., Heterogeneous nucleation of ice particles on glassy aerosols under cirrus conditions, Nature Geosci, 2010, 3, 233-237. (2)K. D. Froyd et al., Aerosols that form subvisible cirrus at the tropical tropopause, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2010, 10, 209-218. (3)B. Zobrist et al., Do atmospheric aerosols form glasses?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2008, 8, 5221-5244.

  12. SUCCESS Studies of the Impact of Aircraft on Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    During April of 1996 NASA will sponsor the SUCCESS project to better understand the impact of subsonic aircraft on the Earth's radiation budget. We plan to better determine the radiative properties of cirrus clouds and of contrails so that satellite observations can better determine their impact on Earth's radiation budget. We hope to determine how cirrus clouds form, whether the exhaust from subsonic aircraft presently affects the formation of cirrus clouds, and if the exhaust does affect the clouds whether the changes induced are of climatological significance. We seek to pave the way for future studies by developing and testing several new instruments. We also plan to better determine the characteristics of gaseous and particulate exhaust products from subsonic aircraft and their evolution in the region near the aircraft. In order to achieve our experimental objectives we plan to use the DC-8 aircraft as an in situ sampling platform. It will carry a wide variety of gaseous, particulate, radiative, and meteorological instruments. We will also use a T-39 aircraft primarily to sample the exhaust from other aircraft. It will carry a suite of instruments to measure particles and gases. We will employ an ER-2 aircraft as a remote sensing platform. The ER-2 will act as a surrogate satellite so that remote sensing observations can be related to the in situ parameters measured by the DC-8 and T-39. The mission strategy calls for a 5 week deployment beginning on April 8, 1996, and ending on May 10, 1996. During this time all three aircraft will be based in Salina, Kansas. A series of flights, averaging one every other day during this period, will be made mainly near the Department of Energy's Climate and Radiation Testbed site (CART) located in Northern Oklahoma, and Southern Kansas. During this same time period an extensive set of ground based measurements will be made by the DOE, which will also be operating several aircraft in the area to better understand the

  13. Can cirrus clouds warm early Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The presence of the ancient valley networks on Mars indicates a climate 3.8 Ga that was warm enough to allow substantial liquid water to flow on the martian surface for extended periods of time. However, the origin of these enigmatic features is hotly debated and discussion of their formation has been focused on how warm such a climate may have been and for how long. Recent warm and wet solutions using single-column radiative convective models involve supplementing CO2-H2O atmospheres with other greenhouse gases, such as H2 (i.e. Ramirez et al., 2014; Batalha et al., 2015). An interesting recent proposal, using the CAM 3-D General Circulation model, argues that global cirrus cloud decks in CO2-H2O atmospheres with at least 0.25 bar of CO2 , consisting of 10-micron (and larger) sized particles, could have generated the above-freezing temperatures required to explain the early martian surface geology (Urata and Toon, 2013). Here, we use our single-column radiative convective climate model to check these 3-D results and analyze the likelihood that such warm atmospheres, with mean surface pressures of up to 3 bar, could have supported cirrus cloud decks at full and fractional cloud cover for sufficiently long durations to form the ancient valleys. Our results indicate that cirrus cloud decks could have provided the mean surface temperatures required, but only if cloud cover approaches 100%, in agreement with Urata and Toon (2013). However, even should cirrus cloud coverage approach 100%, we show that such atmospheres are likely to have been too short-lived to produce the volumes of water required to carve the ancient valleys. At more realistic early Mars cloud fractions (~50%, Forget et al., 2013), cirrus clouds do not provide the required warming. Batalha, N., Domagal-Goldman, S. D., Ramirez, R.M., & Kasting, J. F., 2015. Icarus, 258, 337-349. Forget, F., Wordsworth, R., Millour, E., Madeleine, J. B., Kerber, L., Leconte, J., ... & Haberle, R. M., 2013. Icarus, 222

  14. Effects of cirrus composition on atmospheric radiation budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    1988-01-01

    A radiative transfer model that can be used to determine the change in solar and infrared fluxes caused by variations in the composition of cirrus clouds was used to investigate the importance of particle size and shape on the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. Even though the cloud optical thickness dominates the radiative properties of ice clouds, the particle size and nonsphericity of ice crystals are also important in calculations of the transfer of near-IR solar wavelengths. Results show that, for a given optical thickness, ice clouds composed of larger particles would produce larger greenhouse effects than those composed of smaller particles. Moreover, spherical particles with equivalent surface areas, frequently used for ice crystal clouds, would lead to an overestimation of the greenhouse effect.

  15. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O'C.; Yang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in nighttime cirrus clouds using a one-dimensional cloud model with bin microphysics and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. We forced the model using both large-scale vertical ascent and, for the first time, mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where a classical theory heterogeneous scheme is compared with empirical representations. We evaluated model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities. Model sensitivity to the ice growth rate is also investigated. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Simulated ice crystal number concentrations (tens to hundreds particles per liter) are typically two orders of magnitude smaller than previously published results based on aircraft measurements in cirrus clouds, although higher concentrations are possible in isolated pockets within the nucleation zone.

  16. Atmospheric correction of AVIRIS data of Monterey Bay contaminated by thin cirrus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Davis, Curtiss O.; Mobley, Curtis D.; Rhea, W. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Point source measurements (e.g. sun photometer data, weather station observations) are often used to constrain radiative transfer models such as MODTRAN/LOWTRAN7 when atmospherically correcting AVIRIS imagery. The basic assumption is that the atmosphere is horizontally homogeneous throughout the entire area. If the target area of interest is isolated a distance away from the point measurement position, the calculated visibility and atmospheric profiles may not be characteristic of the atmosphere over the target. AVIRIS scenes are often rejected when cloud cover exceeds 10%. However, if the cloud cover is determined to be primarily cirrus rather than cumulus, in-water optical properties may still be extracted over open ocean. High altitude cirrus clouds are non-absorbing at 744 nm. If the optical properties of the AVIRIS scene can be determined from the 744 nm band itself, the atmospheric conditions during the overflight may be deduced.

  17. Microphysical and Dynamical Influences on Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, J.; Baker, M.; Hegg, D.

    2005-03-18

    Cirrus cloud inhomogeneity occurs at scales greater than the cirrus radiative smoothing scale ({approx}100 m), but less than typical global climate model (GCM) resolutions ({approx}300 km). Therefore, calculating cirrus radiative impacts in GCMs requires an optical depth distribution parameterization. Radiative transfer calculations are sensitive to optical depth distribution assumptions (Fu et al. 2000; Carlin et al. 2002). Using raman lidar observations, we quantify cirrus timescales and optical depth distributions at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Lamont, OK (USA). We demonstrate the sensitivity of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) calculations to assumed optical depth distributions and to the temporal resolution of optical depth measurements. Recent work has highlighted the importance of dynamics and nucleation for cirrus evolution (Haag and Karcher 2004; Karcher and Strom 2003). We need to understand the main controls on cirrus optical depth distributions to incorporate cirrus variability into model radiative transfer calculations. With an explicit ice microphysics parcel model, we aim to understand the influence of ice nucleation mechanism and imposed dynamics on cirrus optical depth distributions.

  18. Vertical Sizing of Cirrus Clouds using the 1.38 μm Spectral Lines and MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Liou, K.; Ou, S.

    2006-12-01

    Atmospheric albedo and heating rates in cloudy conditions are dependent on the vertical inhomogeneity of clouds. For example, small ice crystal sizes aloft coupled with larger sizes at the cloud base would reflect more solar radiation as compared to the use of an averaged ice crystal size for the same cloud. Significant variability of the heating rate also occurs in association with vertical inhomogeneity. In situ measurements from the airborne optical probe, replicator, and cloud scope clearly illustrate the vertical distribution of ice crystal size and shape. We have developed an approach to infer the vertical profile of mean effective particle size on the basis of the spectral line reflectance of the 1.38 μm water vapor band. In it, seventeen narrow bands of various water vapor absorption strengths have been selected. The physical principle for this approach is based on the fact that the reflectance in strong absorptive wavelengths is most sensitive to cloud top properties, whereas the reflectance in less absorptive wavelengths senses the microphysical properties deeper into the cloud. To test this concept, we have prescribed several cloud vertical structures and used an adding-doubling radiative transfer program coupled with the correlated k-distribution method to calculate the look-up tables of reflectance for a variety of cloud settings. We show some success of hypothetical retrieval exercises by applying a χ2 minimization principle. The vertical sizing idea described above has been applied to the MODIS visible and three near-IR channels and we demonstrate that it is possible to derive two vertical ice crystal sizes from a combination of these channels. For validation purposes, we have selected a number of cirrus scenes over the ARM Southern Great Plain site and compared the retrieved vertical ice crystal sizes with the ground-based cloud radar retrieval values. The vertical sizing results determined from the 1.38 μm spectral lines and MODIS data will be

  19. GCSS Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The GCSS Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2) is conducting a systematic comparison and evaluation of cirrus cloud models. This fundamental activity seeks to support the improvement of models used for climate simulation and numerical weather prediction through assessment and improvement of the "process" models underlying parametric treatments of cirrus cloud processes in large-scale models. The WG2 Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project is an initial comparison of cirrus cloud simulations by a variety of cloud models for a series of idealized situations with relatively simple initial conditions and forcing. The models (16) represent the state-of-the-art and include 3-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) models, two-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs), and single column model (SCM) versions of GCMs. The model microphysical components are similarly varied, ranging from single-moment bulk (relative humidity) schemes to fully size-resolved (bin) treatments where ice crystal growth is explicitly calculated. Radiative processes are included in the physics package of each model. The baseline simulations include "warm" and "cold" cirrus cases where cloud top initially occurs at about -47C and -66C, respectively. All simulations are for nighttime conditions (no solar radiation) where the cloud is generated in an ice supersaturated layer, about 1 km in depth, with an ice pseudoadiabatic thermal stratification (neutral). Continuing cloud formation is forced via an imposed diabatic cooling representing a 3 cm/s uplift over a 4-hour time span followed by a 2-hour dissipation stage with no cooling. Variations of these baseline cases include no-radiation and stable-thermal-stratification cases. Preliminary results indicated the great importance of ice crystal fallout in determining even the gross cloud characteristics, such as average vertically-integrated ice water path (IWP). Significant inter-model differences were found. Ice water fall speed is directly

  20. Directly Measured Heating Rates of a Tropical Subvisible Cirrus Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucholtz, Anthongy; Hlavka, Dennis L.; McGill, Matthew J.; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Pilewskie, Peter; Davis, Sean M.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Walker, Annette L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first direct measurements of the infrared and solar heating rates of a tropical subvisible cirrus (SVC) cloud sampled off the east coast of Nicaragua on 25 July 2007 by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). On this day a persistent thin cirrus layer, with mostly clear skies underneath, was detected in real time by the cloud lidar on the ER-2, and the aircraft was directed to profile down through the SVC. Measurements of the net broadband infrared irradiance and spectrally integrated solar irradiance above, below, and through the SVC are used to determine the infrared and solar heating rates of the cloud. The lidar measurements show that the variable SVC layer was located between approximately 13 and 15 km. Its midvisible optical depth varied from 0.01 to 0.10 with a mean of 0.034 +/- 0.033. Its depolarization ratio was approximately 0.4, indicative of ice clouds. From the divergence of the measured net irradiances the infrared heating rate of the SVC was determined to be approximately 2.50 - 3.24 K/d and the solar heating rate was found to be negligible. These values are consistent with previous indirect observations of other SVC and with model-generated heating rates of SVC with similar optical depths. This study illustrates the utility and potential of the profiling sampling strategy employed here. A more fully instrumented high-altitude aircraft that also included in situ cloud and aerosol probes would provide a comprehensive data set for characterizing both the radiative and microphysical properties of these ubiquitous tropical clouds

  1. Aggregation of ice crystals in cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kajikawa, Masahiro; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are given from analysis of the aggregation of thick plate, columnar, and bullet rosette ice crystals in cirrus. Data were obtained from PMS 2D-C images, oil coated slides, and aircraft meteorological measurements. Crystal size ranged from 100 to 900 microns in temperatures from -30 to -45 C. The results indicate that the ratio of the sizes of aggregating crystals and the difference of their terminal velocities are important in aggregation. The collection efficiency was calculated for the thick plate crystals from the same data.

  2. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-06-01

    16 year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013) which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  3. Retrieve Optically Thick Ice Cloud Microphysical Properties by Using Airborne Dual-Wavelength Radar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm to retrieve optically thick ice cloud microphysical property profiles is developed by using the GSFC 9.6 GHz ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) and the 94 GHz Cloud Radar System (CRS) measurements aboard the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. In situ size distribution and total water content data from the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign are used for the algorithm development. To reduce uncertainty in calculated radar reflectivity factors (Ze) at these wavelengths, coincident radar measurements and size distribution data are used to guide the selection of mass-length relationships and to deal with the density and non-spherical effects of ice crystals on the Ze calculations. The algorithm is able to retrieve microphysical property profiles of optically thick ice clouds, such as, deep convective and anvil clouds, which are very challenging for single frequency radar and lidar. Examples of retrieved microphysical properties for a deep convective clouds are presented, which show that EDOP and CRS measurements provide rich information to study cloud structure and evolution. Good agreement between IWPs derived from an independent submillimeter-wave radiometer, CoSSIR, and dual-wavelength radar measurements indicates accuracy of the IWC retrieved from the two-frequency radar algorithm.

  4. Sensitivity of thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer to ice crystal shape and radiative absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, R. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Durran, D. R.

    2016-03-01

    Subvisible cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) play potentially important roles in Earth's radiation budget and in the transport of water into the stratosphere. Previous work on these clouds with 2-D cloud-resolving models has assumed that all ice crystals were spherical, producing too few crystals greater than 60 μm in length compared with observations. In this study, the System for Atmospheric Modeling cloud-resolving model is modified in order to calculate the fall speeds, growth rates, and radiative absorption of nonspherical ice crystals. This extended model is used in simulations that aim to provide an upper bound on the effects of ice crystal shape on the time evolution of thin cirrus clouds and to identify the physical processes responsible for any such effects. Model runs assuming spheroidal crystals result in a higher center of cloud ice mass than in the control, spherical case, while the total mass of ice is little affected by the shape. Increasing the radiative heating results in less total cloud ice mass relative to the control case, an effect which is robust with more extreme perturbations to the absorption coefficients. This is due to higher temperatures reducing the relative humidity in the cloud and its environment, and greater entrainment of dry air due to dynamical changes. Comparisons of modeled ice crystal size distributions with recent airborne observations of TTL cirrus show that incorporating nonspherical shape has the potential to bring the model closer to observations.

  5. Cirrus cloud characteristics derived from volume imaging lidar, high spectral resolution lidar, HIS radiometer, and satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grund, Christian J.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Eloranta, Edwin W.; Knutsen, Robert O.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Smith, William L.; Wylie, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary measurement results are presented from the Cirrus Remote Sensing Pilot Experiment which used a unique suite of instruments to simultaneously retrieve cirrus cloud visible and IR optical properties, while addressing the disparities between satellite volume averages and local point measurements. The experiment employed a ground-based high resolution interferometer sounder (HIS) and a second Fourier transform spectrometer to measure the spectral radiance in the 4-20 micron band, a correlated high spectral resolution lidar, a volume imaging lidar, a CLASS radiosonde system, the Scripps Whole Sky Imager, and multispectral VAS, HIRS, and AVHRR satellite data from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites. Data acquired during the month long experiment included continuous daytime monitoring with the Whole Sky Imager.

  6. Stratospheric ion and aerosol chemistry and possible links with cirrus cloud microphysics - A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, Volker A.

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of stratospheric ion chemistry and physics are assessed as they relate to aerosol formation and the transport of aerosols to upper tropospheric regions to create conditions favorable for cirrus cloud formation. It is found that ion-induced nucleation and other known phase transitions involving ions and sulfuric acid vapor are probably not efficient processes for stratospheric aerosol formation, and cannot compete with condensation of sulfuric acid on preexisting particles of volcanic or meteoritic origin which are larger than about 0.15 micron in radius. Thus, galactic cosmic rays cannot have a significant impact on stratospheric aerosol population. Changes in the stratospheric aerosol burden due to volcanos are up to two orders of magnitude larger than changes in ion densities. Thus, volcanic activity may modulate the radiative properties of cirrus clouds.

  7. Evidence that nitric acid increases relative humidity in low-temperature cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Gao, R S; Popp, P J; Fahey, D W; Marcy, T P; Herman, R L; Weinstock, E M; Baumgardner, D G; Garrett, T J; Rosenlof, K H; Thompson, T L; Bui, P T; Ridley, B A; Wofsy, S C; Toon, O B; Tolbert, M A; Kärcher, B; Peter, Th; Hudson, P K; Weinheimer, A J; Heymsfield, A J

    2004-01-23

    In situ measurements of the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and of nitric acid (HNO3) were made in both natural and contrail cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere. At temperatures lower than 202 kelvin, RHi values show a sharp increase to average values of over 130% in both cloud types. These enhanced RHi values are attributed to the presence of a new class of HNO3-containing ice particles (Delta-ice). We propose that surface HNO3 molecules prevent the ice/vapor system from reaching equilibrium by a mechanism similar to that of freezing point depression by antifreeze proteins. Delta-ice represents a new link between global climate and natural and anthropogenic nitrogen oxide emissions. Including Delta-ice in climate models will alter simulated cirrus properties and the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor. PMID:14739457

  8. Simulation of cirrus clouds with a quasi 2-moment microphysical scheme: a 1D case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are receiving a great scientific interest because of their importance on the climate system through their impact on the radiation budget and on the physico-chemical balance of the upper troposphere. In this presentation, we concentrate on the application of a mixed-phase 2-moment microphysical scheme to simulate cirrus cloud properties with various ice nucleation modes. The complete scheme is implemented in the multi-purpose mesoscale model MésoNH with several capabilities (3D real vs. academic flows, grid-nesting, etc.). The 1D FIRE and subvisible test cases of Jensen et al. (1994 and 1996 both in JGR) are selected in the present study. The simulations are performed with a similar a thermo-dynamical and dynamical framework and microphysical results are analysed. Additional variations of some critical input parameters (CCN and IN concentrations, vertical velocity and ice characteristics) are explored to test the sensitivity of the microphysical scheme.

  9. Evidence That Nitric Acid Increases Relative Humidity in Low-Temperature Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, R. S.; Popp, P. J.; Fahey, D. W.; Marcy, T. P.; Herman, R. L.; Weinstock, E. M.; Baumgardner, D. G.; Garrett, T. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Thompson, T. L.

    2004-01-01

    In situ measurements of the relative humidity with respect to ice (RH(sub(i)) and of nitric acid (HNO3) were made in both natural and contrail cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere. At temperatures lower than 202 kelvin, RH(sub i) values show a sharp increase to average values of over 130% in both cloud types. These enhanced RH(sub i) values are attributed to the presence of a new class of NHO3- containing ice particles (Delta-ice). We propose that surface HNO3 molecules prevent the ice/vapor system from reaching equilibrium by a mechanism similar to that of freezing point depression by antifreeze proteins. Delta-ice represents a new link between global climate and natural and anthropogenic nitrogen oxide emissions. Including Delta-ice in climate models will alter simulated cirrus properties and the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor.

  10. Thin cirrus clouds - Seasonal distribution over oceans deduced from Nimbus-4 IRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Fraser, R. S.; Dalu, G.; Wu, Man-Li C.; Curran, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral differences in the extinction of the 10.8- and 12.6-micron bands of the IR window region, due to optically thin clouds, were found in the measurements made by both an airborne broadband IR radiometer and the IR interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) aboard the Nimbus-4 satellite; the extinction at 12.6 microns was significantly larger than that at 10.8 microns; both water and ice particles in the clouds can account for such spectral difference in extinction. Multiple scattering radiative transfer calculations of IRIS data revealed this spectral feature about 100 to 20 km away from the high-altitude cold clouds; it is assumed that this feature is related to the spreading of cirrus clouds. Based on this assumption, mean seasonal maps of the distribution of thin cirrus clouds over the oceans were deduced from the IRIS data. The maps show that such clouds are often present over the convectively active areas, such as ITCZ, SPCZ, and the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon.

  11. Modeling of scattering and absorption by nonspherical cirrus ice particles at thermal infrared wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Q.; Sun, W.B.; Yang, P.

    1999-08-15

    This paper examines a number of commonly used methods for the calculation of the scattering and absorption properties of nonspherical ice crystals at thermal infrared wavelengths. It is found that, for randomly oriented nonspherical particles, Mie theory using equivalent ice spheres tends to overestimate the absorption efficiency while the anomalous diffraction theory (ADT) and the geometric optics method (GOM) tend to underestimate it. The absorption efficiency is not sensitive to the particle shape when the size parameter is large. Herein a composite scheme is used that is valid for nonspherical particles with a wide range of size parameters. This scheme is a composite of Mie theory, GOM, and ADT to fit the single-scattering properties of hexagonal particles derived from the GOM for large size parameters and the finite-difference time domain technique for small size parameters. Applying this composite technique, errors in the broadband emissivity of cirrus clouds associated with conventional approaches are examined. It is shown that, when the projected area is preserved, Mie results overestimate the emissivity of cirrus clouds while, when the volume is preserved, Mie results underestimate the emissivity. Mie theory yields the best results when both projected area and volume are preserved (the relative errors are less than 10%). It is also shown that the ADT underestimates cirrus cloud emissivity. In some cases, the relative errors can be as large as 20%. The errors in the GOM are also significant and are largely a result of nonspherical particles with size parameters smaller than 40.

  12. Aerosol Indirect Effects on Cirrus Clouds in Global Aerosol-Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, K.; Wang, Y.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.; Ferrachat, S.; Zhou, C.; Penner, J.; Barahona, D.; Shi, X.

    2015-12-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in regulating the Earth's radiative budget and water vapor distribution in the upper troposphere. Aerosols can act as solution droplets or ice nuclei that promote ice nucleation in cirrus clouds. Anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel and biomass burning activities have substantially perturbed and enhanced concentrations of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Global aerosol-climate models (GCMs) have now been used to quantify the radiative forcing and effects of aerosols on cirrus clouds (IPCC AR5). However, the estimate uncertainty is very large due to the different representation of ice cloud formation and evolution processes in GCMs. In addition, large discrepancies have been found between model simulations in terms of the spatial distribution of ice-nucleating aerosols, relative humidity, and temperature fluctuations, which contribute to different estimates of the aerosol indirect effect through cirrus clouds. In this presentation, four GCMs with the start-of-the art representations of cloud microphysics and aerosol-cloud interactions are used to estimate the aerosol indirect effects on cirrus clouds and to identify the causes of the discrepancies. The estimated global and annual mean anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect through cirrus clouds ranges from 0.1 W m-2 to 0.3 W m-2 in terms of the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) net radiation flux, and 0.5-0.6 W m-2 for the TOA longwave flux. Despite the good agreement on global mean, large discrepancies are found at the regional scale. The physics behind the aerosol indirect effect is dramatically different. Our analysis suggests that burden of ice-nucleating aerosols in the upper troposphere, ice nucleation frequency, and relative role of ice formation processes (i.e., homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation) play key roles in determining the characteristics of the simulated aerosol indirect effects. In addition to the indirect effect estimate, we also use field campaign

  13. Interpretation of satellite-measured bidirectional reflectance from Cirrus cloudy atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takano, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Minnis, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of the observed bidirectional reflectance from cirrus cloudy atmospheres is presented. A theoretical model was developed for the computation of the transfer of solar radiation in an anisotropic medium with particular applications to oriented ice crystals in cirrus clouds. In this model, the adding principle for radiative transfer was used with modifications to account for the anisotropy of scattering particles and the associated scattering phase matrix. The single-scattering properties, including the phase function, single-scattering albedo, and extinction cross sections, were used for randomly and horizontally oriented hexagonal ice crystals in radiative transfer computations. The radiative transfer model developed for the cirrus clouds was modified to account for the scattering contributions from the atmosphere and the surface. In order to test the relevance and significance of the ice crystal model for the interpretation of observed bidirectional reflectance from satellites, visible radiances collected on the half hour by the GOES series were selected. The data are calibrated and corrected with the proper filter functions, then navigated to match selected landmark data. A number of clear and cloudy cases during the cirrus IFO of the Fire experiment were chosen for theoretical analyses. The cloud particle shape and size distributions that were taken during satellite overpasses are used in radiative transfer calculations. The sensitivities of the shape, orientation, and size distribution of ice crystals on the reflected intensities at the top of the atmosphere are investigated. Finally, the relative importance of these cloud microphysical properties in the interpretation of satellite bidirectional reflectance are assessed and presented.

  14. On the signature of the cirrus twilight zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollner, Uri; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2014-09-01

    Cirrus clouds are known to play a key role in the climate system, but their overall effect on Earth’s radiation budget is not yet fully quantified. The uncertainties are, in part, due to ambiguities in cirrus extent or coverage. Here we show that despite careful filtering of cloudy pixels, cirrus clouds have a clear statistical signature. This signature can be estimated by the proximity to detectable cirrus clouds. Such a residual signature can affect retrievals that rely on a cloud-free atmosphere, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) or sea surface temperature. Analyzing MODIS raw-data and products, we show a clear increase in the reflectance when approaching detectable cirrus clouds. We estimated a mean increase in AOD of 0.03 ± 0.01 and a decrease in the Angstrom-exponent of -0.22 ± 0.20 in the first kilometer around detectable cirrus. The effect decays tenfold at a typical distance of 5.5 ± 1.8 km. Such trends confirm the contribution of large particles that are likely to be ice crystals to the so-called cloud-free atmosphere near detectable cirrus clouds.

  15. Aviation effects on already-existing cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesche, Matthias; Achtert, Peggy; Glantz, Paul; Noone, Kevin J.

    2016-06-01

    Determining the effects of the formation of contrails within natural cirrus clouds has proven to be challenging. Quantifying any such effects is necessary if we are to properly account for the influence of aviation on climate. Here we quantify the effect of aircraft on the optical thickness of already-existing cirrus clouds by matching actual aircraft flight tracks to satellite lidar measurements. We show that there is a systematic, statistically significant increase in normalized cirrus cloud optical thickness inside mid-latitude flight tracks compared with adjacent areas immediately outside the tracks.

  16. Aviation effects on already-existing cirrus clouds

    PubMed Central

    Tesche, Matthias; Achtert, Peggy; Glantz, Paul; Noone, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the effects of the formation of contrails within natural cirrus clouds has proven to be challenging. Quantifying any such effects is necessary if we are to properly account for the influence of aviation on climate. Here we quantify the effect of aircraft on the optical thickness of already-existing cirrus clouds by matching actual aircraft flight tracks to satellite lidar measurements. We show that there is a systematic, statistically significant increase in normalized cirrus cloud optical thickness inside mid-latitude flight tracks compared with adjacent areas immediately outside the tracks. PMID:27327838

  17. Aviation effects on already-existing cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Tesche, Matthias; Achtert, Peggy; Glantz, Paul; Noone, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Determining the effects of the formation of contrails within natural cirrus clouds has proven to be challenging. Quantifying any such effects is necessary if we are to properly account for the influence of aviation on climate. Here we quantify the effect of aircraft on the optical thickness of already-existing cirrus clouds by matching actual aircraft flight tracks to satellite lidar measurements. We show that there is a systematic, statistically significant increase in normalized cirrus cloud optical thickness inside mid-latitude flight tracks compared with adjacent areas immediately outside the tracks. PMID:27327838

  18. The effects of ice crystal shape on the evolution of optically thin cirrus clouds in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, Rick

    Thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) play potentially important roles in Earth's radiation budget and in the transport of water into the stratosphere. Radiative heating of these clouds results in mesoscale circulations that maintain them against sedimentation and redistribute water vapor. In this study, the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) cloud-resolving model is modified in order to calculate the fall speeds, growth rates, and radiative absorption coefficients of non-spherical ice crystals. This extended model is used in simulations that aim to constrain the effects of ice crystal shape on the time evolution of thin cirrus clouds and to identify the physical processes responsible. Model runs assuming spheroidal crystals result in a higher center of cloud ice mass than in the control, spherical case, which is roughly 60% due to a reduction in fall speeds and 40% due to stronger updrafts caused by stronger radiative heating. Other effects of ice crystal shape on the cloud evolution include faster growth and sublimation in supersaturated and subsaturated environments, respectively, and local temperature increases caused by diabatic heating. Effects of ice crystal shape on the total and mean ice crystal masses are within about 10% but do not appear to be entirely negligible. Comparisons of modeled ice crystal size distributions with recent airborne observations of TTL cirrus show that incorporating non-spherical shape has the potential to bring the model closer to observations. It is hoped that this work will eventually lead towards a more realistic physical representation of thin tropical cirrus in global climate models.

  19. Airborne in situ characterization of dry urban aerosol optical properties around complex topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targino, Admir Créso; Noone, Kevin J.

    2006-02-01

    In situ data from the 1997 Southern California Ozone Study—NARSTO were used to describe the aerosol optical properties in an urban area whose aerosol distribution is modified as the aerosols are advected over the surrounding topography. The data consist of measurements made with a nephelometer and absorption photometer onboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Pelican aircraft. The cases investigated in this study include vertical profiles flown over coastal sites as well as sites located along some important mountain ranges in southern California. The vertical distribution of the aerosol in the Los Angeles Basin showed a complex configuration, directly related with the local meteorological circulations and the surrounding topography. High spatial and temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations within a relatively small area was found, as indicated by the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficient data. The results suggest that in areas with such complex terrain, a high spatial resolution is required in order to adequately describe the aerosol optical quantities. Principal components analysis (PCA) has been applied to aerosol chemical samples in order to identify the major aerosol types in the Los Angeles Basin. The technique yielded four components that accounted for 78% of the variance in the data set. These were indicative of marine aerosols, urban aerosols, trace elements and secondary aerosol components of traffic emissions and agricultural activities. A Monte Carlo radiation transfer model has been employed to simulate the effects that different aerosol vertical profiles have on the attenuation of solar energy. The cases examined were selected using the results of the PCA and in situ data were used to describe the atmospheric optical properties in the model. These investigations comprise a number of sensitivity tests to evaluate the effects on the results of the location of the aerosol layers as well as

  20. High Albedos of Cirrus in the Tropical Pacific Warm Pool: Microphysical Interpretations from CEPEX and from Kwajalein, Marshall Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; McFarquhar, Greg M.

    1996-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that extensive shields of cirrus clouds over the equatorial Pacific `warn pool' may have a significant influence on the global climate, yet details of the links between cloud microphysical properties, upper-tropospheric latent and radiative heating rates, and climate are poorly understood. This study addresses whether relatively reflective ice crystals with dimensions smaller than about 100 µm near the tops of tropical cirrus clouds, produced by deep convection when the sea surface temperature exceeds 300 K, are principally responsible for the high albedos observed in this region.In situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions and shapes, acquired during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX), are used to derive cloud ice water content (IWC), particle cross-sectional area (A), and other microphysical and optical properties from particles with sizes down to 5 µm. These measurements are needed to ascertain the microphysical properties primarily responsible for determining cloud optical depth and albedo in visible wavelengths and were acquired by a Learjet flying in tropical cirrus and occasionally in convection between altitudes of 8 and 14 km (20°C to 70°C). Previously unanalyzed microphysical measurements in the vicinity of Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, acquired in the mid-1970s from a WB57F aircraft between altitudes of 5 and 17 km, are also used to study the variation in microphysical properties from cirrus base to top, using a combination of constant-altitude penetrations and steep ascents and descents through cloud.Analysis shows that IWC, A, and various measures of particle size all tend to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing altitude, although considerable scatter is observed. Small ice crystals make up more than half the mass and cause more than half the extinction on average in the upper, colder parts of the cirrus; however, the predominantly large particles in the lower, warmer parts of the cirrus

  1. Large-Scale Analysis of Cirrus Clouds from AVHRR Data: Assessment of Both a Microphysical Index and the Cloud-Top Temperature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, V.; Buriez, J. C.; Fouquart, Y.; Parol, F.; Seze, G.

    1997-06-01

    An algorithm that allows an automatic analysis of cirrus properties from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations is presented. Further investigations of the information content and physical meaning of the brightness temperature differences (BTD) between channels 4 (11 m) and 5 (12 m) of the radiometer have led to the development of an automatic procedure to provide global estimates both of the cirrus cloud temperature and of the ratio of the equivalent absorption coefficients in the two channels, accounting for scattering effects. The ratio is useful since its variations are related to differences in microphysical properties. Assuming that cirrus clouds are composed of ice spheres, the effective diameter of the particle size distribution can be deduced from this microphysical index.The automatic procedure includes first, a cloud classification and a selection of the pixels corresponding to the envelope of the BTD diagram observed at a scale of typically 100 × 100 pixels. The classification, which uses dynamic cluster analysis, takes into account spectral and spatial properties of the AVHRR pixels. The selection is made through a series of tests, which also guarantees that the BTD diagram contains the necessary information, such as the presence of both cirrus-free pixels and pixels totally covered by opaque cirrus in the same area. Finally, the cloud temperature and the equivalent absorption coefficient ratio are found by fitting the envelope of the BTD diagram with a theoretical curve. Note that the method leads to the retrieval of the maximum value of the equivalent absorption coefficient ratio in the scene under consideration. This, in turn, corresponds to the minimum value of the effective diameter of the size distribution of equivalent Mie particles.The automatic analysis has been applied to a series of 21 AVHRR images acquired during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE'89). Although the dataset is obviously much too limited to draw

  2. A scheme for parameterizing cirrus cloud ice water content in general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Donner, Leo J.

    1990-01-01

    Clouds strongly influence th earth's energy budget. They control th amount of solar radiative energy absorbed by the climate system, partitioning the energy between the atmosphere and the earth's surface. They also control the loss of energy to space by their effect on thermal emission. Cirrus and altostratus are the most frequent cloud types, having an annual average global coverage of 35 and 40 percent, respectively. Cirrus is composed almost entirely of ice crystals and the same is frequently true of the upper portions of altostratus since they are often formed by the thickening of cirrostratus and by the spreading of the middle or upper portions of thunderstorms. Thus, since ice clouds cover such a large portion of the earth's surface, they almost certainly have an important effect on climate. With this recognition, researchers developing climate models are seeking largely unavailable methods for specifying the conditions for ice cloud formation, and quantifying the spatial distribution of ice water content, IWC, a necessary step in deriving their radiative characteristics since radiative properties are apparently related to IWC. A method is developed for specifying IWC in climate models, based on theory and measurements in cirrus during FIRE and other experiments.

  3. Sensitivity of Homogeneous Freezing to Aerosol Perturbation and Implication for Aerosol Indirect Forcing through Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Shi, X.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    The susceptibility of cloud properties to aerosol perturbation is critical for the aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Burdens of aerosols such as sulfate have substantially increased from preindustrial time to present-day. However, it is still not clear whether the number of ice crystals (Ni) resulting from homogeneous freezing of sulfate solution droplets is sensitive to the change in sulfate number concentration (Na) in the upper troposphere. Some cloud parcel modeling studies show that Ni is insensitive to Na (Kärcher and Lohmann, 2002; Kay and Wood, 2008), while others show moderate sensitivity of Ni to Na (Liu and Penner, 2005; Barahona and Nenes, 2008). The poorly understood cirrus cloud processes lead to large uncertainties in ice nucleation parameterizations in global climate models, with implications for climate change studies. In this study, we examine the sensitivity of Ni from homogeneous freezing to Na with a cloud parcel model running at different input aerosol and cloud conditions and under different model assumptions. By these sensitivity tests, we are able to reconcile the contrasting results from previous studies on the sensitivity of Ni to Na. Furthermore, the implications of these results on aerosol indirect forcing through ice clouds are quantified by comparing three ice nucleation parameterizations (Liu and Penner, 2005; Barahona and Nenes, 2008; Kärcher and Lohmann, 2002) implemented in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). The global and annual mean longwave aerosol indirect forcing through cirrus clouds ranges from -0.03 (Kärcher and Lohmann, 2002) to ~0.3 W m-2 (Liu and Penner, 2005; Barahona and Nenes, 2008). Future studies should quantify the occurrence frequency of homogeneous nucleation in the upper troposphere and the relative contribution between homogeneous versus heterogeneous freezing to Ni in cirrus clouds to further narrow down the aerosol indirect forcing through cirrus clouds.

  4. High albedos of cirrus in the tropical Pacific warm pool: Microphysical interpretation from CEPEX and from Kwajalein, Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Heymsfield, A.J.; McFarquhar, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that extensive shields of cirrus clouds over the equatorial Pacific {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} may have a significant influence on the global climate, yet details of the links between cloud microphysical properties, upper-tropospheric latent and radiative beating rates, and climate are poorly understood. This study addresses whether relatively reflective ice crystals with dimensions smaller than about 100 {mu}m near the tops of tropical cirrus clouds, produced by deep convection when the sea surface temperature exceeds 300 K, are principally responsible for the high albedos observed in this region. In situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions and shapes, acquired during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX), are used to derive cloud ice water content (IWC), particle cross-sectional area (A), and other microphysical and optical properties from particles with sizes down to 5 {mu}m. These measurements are needed to ascertain the microphysical properties primarily responsible for determining cloud optical depth and albedo in visible wavelengths. Analysis shows that IWC, A, and various measures of particle size all tend to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing altitude, although considerable scatter is observed. Small ice crystals make up more than half the mass and cause more than half the extinction on average in the upper, colder parts of the cirrus; however, the predominantly large particles in the lower, warmer parts of the cirrus contain at least an order of magnitude greater mass and are dominant in producing the high observed albedos. An examination of the lidar and radiometer data acquired onboard the NASA ER-2, which overflew the Learjet during CEPEX, supports the conclusion that the higher, colder regions of the cirrus typically have volume extinction coefficients that are only about 10% of those in the lower, warmer regions. 36 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  6. Effects of stratospheric aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: simulations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H R; Zhang, T; He, F; Ding, K

    1997-01-20

    Using simulations, we determine the influence of stratospheric aerosol and thin cirrus clouds on the performance of the proposed atmospheric correction algorithm for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data over the oceans. Further, we investigate the possibility of using the radiance exiting the top of the atmosphere in the 1.38-microm water vapor absorption band to remove their effects prior to application of the algorithm. The computations suggest that for moderate optical thicknesses in the stratosphere, i.e., tau(s) < or approximately 0.15, the stratospheric aerosol-cirrus cloud contamination does not seriously degrade the MODIS except for the combination of large (approximately 60 degrees) solar zenith angles and large (approximately 45 degrees) viewing angles, for which multiple-scattering effects can be expected to be particularly severe. The performance of a hierarchy of stratospheric aerosol/cirrus cloud removal procedures for employing the 1.38-microm water vapor absorption band to correct for stratospheric aerosol/cirrus clouds, ranging from simply subtracting the reflectance at 1.38 microm from that in the visible bands, to assuming that their optical properties are known and carrying out multiple-scattering computations of their effect by the use of the 1.38-microm reflectance-derived concentration, are studied for stratospheric aerosol optical thicknesses at 865 nm as large as 0.15 and for cirrus cloud optical thicknesses at 865 nm as large as 1.0. Typically, those procedures requiring the most knowledge concerning the aerosol optical properties (and also the most complex) performed the best; however, for tau(s) < or approximately 0.15, their performance is usually not significantly better than that found by applying the simplest correction procedure. A semiempirical algorithm is presented that permits accurate correction for thin cirrus clouds with tau(s) as large as unity when an accurate estimate of the cirrus cloud

  7. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  8. (abstract) An All Sky Cirrus Confusion Noise Map for WIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gautier, T. N.

    1996-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) is a Small Explorer (SMEX) satellite scheduled for launch in 1998 which will carry out a sky survey of at least 100 square degrees in the wavelength regions of 9-15(micro)m and 21-27(micro)m with spatial resolution of approximately 20 arcsec and sensitivity exceeding 0.6mJy. At this sensitivity level WIRE observations can be seriously affected by the confusion noise contribution from the infrared cirrus emission, so the WIRE survey must be planned with some knowledge of the expected level of cirrus confusion. Production of a cirrus confusion noise map with 0.5 degree resolution based on the spatial power spectral density of the cirrus emission in the IRAS ISSA data is in progess using the method described by Gauthier, et al. Spectrally resolved power spectra density data is obtained from the ISSA maps with a wavelet transform technique.

  9. Towards Improved Cirrus Cloud Optical Depths from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Anne; Vaughan, Mark; Pelon, Jacques; Winker, David; Trepte, Chip; Young, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews recent advances regarding the retrieval of optical depths of semi-transparent cirrus clouds using synergetic analyses of perfectly collocated observations from the CALIOP lidar and the IIR infrared radiometer aboard the CALIPSO satellite.

  10. Characteristics of cirrus clouds in the tropical lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Suginori; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny; Kubota, Hisayuki; Shibata, Takashi; Okamoto, Hajime; Ishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    A unique type of cloud in the tropical lower stratosphere, which we call "stratospheric cirrus", is described in this study. Stratospheric cirrus clouds are generally detached from overshooting deep convection and are much smaller than subvisual cirrus often observed near the tropical tropopause. We analyzed two cases of stratospheric cirrus in the tropical and subtropical lower stratosphere captured by the space-borne lidar, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Both cases occurred 2-3 hours after the most active phase of the nearby convective cloud clusters. Case 1 has a double-layer structure above the cold point height (CPH); the CPH and two cloud top heights are, respectively, 17.8, 18.9, and 19.9 km. Case 2 has a single cloud layer where CPH and the cloud top height are, respectively, 16.5 and 18.7 km. The mode radius and ice water content of the stratospheric cirrus clouds are estimated to be 4-10 μm and 0.2-0.8 mg/m3 based on the radar-lidar method and consideration of the cloud particle terminal velocity. Comparisons with previous numerical model simulation studies suggest that the double-layer stratospheric cirrus clouds are likely from an overshooting plume, pushed up into the stratosphere in an overshoot when warm stratospheric air is inhomogeneously mixed with cold overshooting air. The single-layer stratospheric cirrus cloud is associated with some non-negligible wind shear, so it could be a jumping cirrus cloud, although we cannot rule out the possibility that it came from an overshooting plume because of the similarity in cloud characteristics and morphology between the two cases. Guided by the case studies, an automatic algorithm was developed to select stratospheric cirrus clouds for global survey and statistical analysis. A total of four years of CALIPSO and space-borne cloud radar (CloudSat) data were analyzed. Statistical analysis suggests that stratospheric cirrus clouds occur on the order of 3.0 × 103 times a year

  11. Cirrus Clouds on Mars: Data Analysis and GCM Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Yuk L.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the investigation was to obtain a better retrieval of cirrus ice concentrations [to] gain a quantitative understanding of the cirrus clouds in the upper atmosphere by analyzing The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We study the global distribution of dust and ice for a Martian year to address the fundamental question of the importance of ice in the Martian atmosphere.

  12. 76 FR 67631 - Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cirrus Design Corporation (Cirrus) Model SR22T airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of partial loss of engine power due to a dislodged rubber gasket/seal being ingested into the turbocharger. This proposed AD would require inspection and modification of the air box flange welds and slots and installation of......

  13. The Development of Midlatitude Cirrus Models for MODIS Using FIRE-I, FIRE-II, and ARM In Situ Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasiri, Shaima L.; Baum, Bryan A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Yang, Ping; Poellot, Michael R.; Kratz, David P.; Hu, Yong-Xiang

    2002-01-01

    Detailed in situ data from cirrus clouds have been collected during dedicated field Campaigns, but the use of the size and habit distribution data has been lagging in the development of more realistic cirrus scattering models. In this study, the authors examine the use of in situ cirrus data collected during three field campaigns to develop more realistic midlatitude cirrus microphysical models. Data are used from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)-I (1986) and FIRE-II (1991) campaigns and from a recent Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program campaign held in March-April of 2000. The microphysical models are based on measured vertical distributions of both particle size and particle habit and are used to develop new scattering models for a suite of moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) bands spanning visible. near-infrared, and infrared wavelengths. The sensitivity of the resulting scattering properties to the underlying assumptions of the assumed particle size and habit distributions are examined. It is found that the near-infrared bands are sensitive not only to the discretization of the size distribution but also to the assumed habit distribution. In addition. the results indicate that the effective diameter calculated from a given size distribution tends to be sensitive to the number of size bins that are used to discretize the data and also to the ice-crystal habit distribution.

  14. The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System. Part I; Overview and Description of the Instrument and Retrival Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorks, John E.; Mcgill, Matthew J.; Scott, V. Stanley; Kupchock, Andrew; Wake, Shane; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Selmer, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (ACATS) is a multi-channel Doppler lidar system recently developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). A unique aspect of the multi-channel Doppler lidar concept such as ACATS is that it is also, by its very nature, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). Both the particulate and molecular scattered signal can be directly and unambiguously measured, allowing for direct retrievals of particulate extinction. ACATS is therefore capable of simultaneously resolving the backscatterextinction properties and motion of a particle from a high altitude aircraft. ACATS has flown on the NASA ER-2 during test flights over California in June 2012 and science flights during the Wallops Airborne Vegetation Experiment (WAVE) in September 2012. This paper provides an overview of the ACATS method and instrument design, describes the ACATS retrieval algorithms for cloud and aerosol properties, and demonstrates the data products that will be derived from the ACATS data using initial results from the WAVE project. The HSRL retrieval algorithms developed for ACATS have direct application to future spaceborne missions such as the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the direct extinction and particle wind velocity retrieved from the ACATS data can be used for science applications such 27 as dust or smoke transport and convective outflow in anvil cirrus clouds.

  15. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, David L.; Finnegan, William

    2009-10-01

    Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

  16. Implications of Enhanced Relative Humidity in Cold Tropical Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard

    2004-01-01

    In situ measurements of water vapor concentration and temperature in tropical cirrus during the CRYSTAL-FACE and Pre-AVE missions indicate that the steady-state relative humidity within cirrus at T less than 200 K is about 20-30% higher than ice saturation. These measurements challenge the conventional belief, that any water vapor in excess of ice saturation should be depleted by crystal growth given sufficient time. Detailed simulations of thin cirrus near the tropopause indicate that this enhanced steady-state relative humidity increases ice number densities, decreases crystal sizes and extends cloud lifetimes. The areal coverage of thin cirrus in the tropics is increased rather than decreased as indicated by simpler conceptual models. Perhaps most significantly, the increased steady-state H2O saturation mixing ratio over ice in thin cirrus near the tropopause results in about a 0.5-1 ppmv increase in the amount of water that can enter the stratosphere across the tropical tropopause cold trap. Hence, the enhanced steady-state relative humidity in cold cirrus implies that lower tropopause temperatures are required to explain the observed stratospheric water vapor mixing ratios than previously assumed.

  17. Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive samplers in industrial, urban, and rural environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volke; Gieré, Reto

    2012-12-01

    Passive air samplers have been installed in industrial, urban, rural and remote forested environments in order to collect coarse airborne particles for subsequent chemical characterization. To identify principal polluting sources, isotopic tracers, such as Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios, have been used. The mass deposition rates (MDRs) of trace metals, determined for each of the studied environments, clearly indicate that industrial and traffic sites are especially affected by air pollution. Elements such as V, Pb, Fe, Cr, Co, Mo, Cd, Ni, As, Sb and Zn are notably enriched in samples from industrial zones, whereas V, Mn, Ba, Sr, Al, U, Th, rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Y, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sn and Cu are principal components of the airborne particles collected close to areas influenced by heavy traffic. The chemical/isotopic baseline composition derived from the airborne particles is the result of mixing of particles from different industrial sources, traffic and fertilizers. The monthly analysis of trace-metal MDRs of the collected airborne particle samples from different stations around the industrial zone allows for the detection of distinct atmospheric dust-deposition events during the year, characterized by high MDRs. "Natural" dusts from regional soil re-suspension, including from more distant regions like the Sahara desert, might overprint the regional atmospheric baseline composition, as suggested by trace metal trajectories in ternary diagrams and by Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data.

  18. Sensitivity Studies For Cirrus Effective Ice Crystal Size Retrieval In The Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radel, G.; Stubenrauch, C.; Holz, R.; Mitchell, D.

    During the last years, much effort has been made to find a realistic description of the single-scattering properties of non-spherical ice crystals of cirrus clouds explicitely in dependence of ice crystal shape and size distribution. By using single scattering properties of non-spherical ice crystals instead of ice spheres, one observes that the spectral region between 8 and 12 micron offers a possibility of effective ice crystal size retrieval. The difference between cirrus emissivities at these wavelengths is sen- sitive to the mean ice crystal size of the cirrus cloud. At present, we use two different sets of ice crystal single scattering properties in the infrared: one for randomly oriented planar polycrystals and the other for hexagonal columns. For planar polycrystals, mod- ified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (mADA) is used to describe absorption coefficients as analytical expressions of size distribution parameters, ice crystal shape, wavelength and refractive index, taking into account a parameterized correction for internal reflection and refraction. As scattering cannot be calculated through mADA, scattering contributions are obtained from different combinations of Improved Geo- metric Optics and Finite Difference Time Domain. For hexagonal columns the single scattering properties have been computed using the Finite Difference Time Domain method. Retrievals of mean effective ice crystal sizes in the infrared have the advan- tage that they are less dependent on the assumed shape of the ice crystals, in contrary to retrievals from differences between the visible and near-infrared radiation. Several satellite instruments measure now emitted and scattered radiation from different lev- els of the atmosphere. The longest time period is covered by the TOVS instruments aboard the NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (since 1979). These obser- vations have been converted into atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles as well as cloud and

  19. High fidelity remote sensing of snow properties from MODIS and the Airborne Snow Observatory: Snowflakes to Terabytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T.; Mattmann, C. A.; Brodzik, M.; Bryant, A. C.; Goodale, C. E.; Hart, A. F.; Ramirez, P.; Rittger, K. E.; Seidel, F. C.; Zimdars, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The response of the cryosphere to climate forcings largely determines Earth's climate sensitivity. However, our understanding of the strength of the simulated snow albedo feedback varies by a factor of three in the GCMs used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, mainly caused by uncertainties in snow extent and the albedo of snow-covered areas from imprecise remote sensing retrievals. Additionally, the Western US and other regions of the globe depend predominantly on snowmelt for their water supply to agriculture, industry and cities, hydroelectric power, and recreation, against rising demand from increasing population. In the mountains of the Upper Colorado River Basin, dust radiative forcing in snow shortens snow cover duration by 3-7 weeks. Extended to the entire upper basin, the 5-fold increase in dust load since the late-1800s results in a 3-week earlier peak runoff and a 5% annual loss of total runoff. The remotely sensed dynamics of snow cover duration and melt however have not been factored into hydrological modeling, operational forecasting, and policymaking. To address these deficiencies in our understanding of snow properties, we have developed and validated a suite of MODIS snow products that provide accurate fractional snow covered area and radiative forcing of dust and carbonaceous aerosols in snow. The MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) and MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MODDRFS) algorithms, developed and transferred from imaging spectroscopy techniques, leverage the complete MODIS surface reflectance spectrum. The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. We have created the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties, and provide complete

  20. Cirrus clouds in a global climate model with a statistical cirrus cloud scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.

    2010-06-21

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that accounts for mesoscale temperature perturbations is implemented in a coupled aerosol and atmospheric circulation model to better represent both subgrid-scale supersaturation and cloud formation. This new scheme treats the effects of aerosol on cloud formation and ice freezing in an improved manner, and both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are included. The scheme is able to better simulate the observed probability distribution of relative humidity compared to the scheme that was implemented in an older version of the model. Heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) are shown to decrease the frequency of occurrence of supersaturation, and improve the comparison with observations at 192 hPa. Homogeneous freezing alone can not reproduce observed ice crystal number concentrations at low temperatures (<205 K), but the addition of heterogeneous IN improves the comparison somewhat. Increases in heterogeneous IN affect both high level cirrus clouds and low level liquid clouds. Increases in cirrus clouds lead to a more cloudy and moist lower troposphere with less precipitation, effects which we associate with the decreased convective activity. The change in the net cloud forcing is not very sensitive to the change in ice crystal concentrations, but the change in the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere is still large because of changes in water vapor. Changes in the magnitude of the assumed mesoscale temperature perturbations by 25% alter the ice crystal number concentrations and the net radiative fluxes by an amount that is comparable to that from a factor of 10 change in the heterogeneous IN number concentrations. Further improvements on the representation of mesoscale temperature perturbations, heterogeneous IN and the competition between homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are needed.

  1. Cirrus cloud model parameterizations: Incorporating realistic ice particle generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Dodd, G. C.; Starr, David OC.

    1990-01-01

    Recent cirrus cloud modeling studies have involved the application of a time-dependent, two dimensional Eulerian model, with generalized cloud microphysical parameterizations drawn from experimental findings. For computing the ice versus vapor phase changes, the ice mass content is linked to the maintenance of a relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI) of 105 percent; ice growth occurs both with regard to the introduction of new particles and the growth of existing particles. In a simplified cloud model designed to investigate the basic role of various physical processes in the growth and maintenance of cirrus clouds, these parametric relations are justifiable. In comparison, the one dimensional cloud microphysical model recently applied to evaluating the nucleation and growth of ice crystals in cirrus clouds explicitly treated populations of haze and cloud droplets, and ice crystals. Although these two modeling approaches are clearly incompatible, the goal of the present numerical study is to develop a parametric treatment of new ice particle generation, on the basis of detailed microphysical model findings, for incorporation into improved cirrus growth models. For example, the relation between temperature and the relative humidity required to generate ice crystals from ammonium sulfate haze droplets, whose probability of freezing through the homogeneous nucleation mode are a combined function of time and droplet molality, volume, and temperature. As an example of this approach, the results of cloud microphysical simulations are presented showing the rather narrow domain in the temperature/humidity field where new ice crystals can be generated. The microphysical simulations point out the need for detailed CCN studies at cirrus altitudes and haze droplet measurements within cirrus clouds, but also suggest that a relatively simple treatment of ice particle generation, which includes cloud chemistry, can be incorporated into cirrus cloud growth.

  2. Nitric Acid Uptake on Subtropical Cirrus Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, P. J.; Gao, R. S.; Marcy, T. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Hudson, P. K.; Thompson, T. L.; Kaercher, B.; Ridley, B. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Baumgardner, D.; Garrett, T. J.; Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D. S.; Pittman, J. V.; Dhaniyala, S.; Bui, T. P.; Mahoney, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    The redistribution of HNO3 via uptake and sedimentation by cirrus cloud particles is considered an important term in the upper tropospheric budget of reactive nitrogen. Numerous cirrus cloud encounters by the NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) were accompanied by the observation of condensed-phase HNO3 with the NOAA chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The instrument measures HNO3 with two independent channels of detection connected to separate forward and downward facing inlets that allow a determination of the amount of HNO3 condensed on ice particles. Subtropical cirrus clouds, as indicated by the presence of ice particles, were observed coincident with condensed-phase HNO3 at temperatures of 197-224 K and pressures of 122-224 hPa. Maximum levels of condensed-phase HNO3 approached the gas-phase equivalent of 0.8 ppbv. Ice particle surface coverages as high as 1.4 # 10(exp 14) molecules/ square cm were observed. A dissociative Langmuir adsorption model, when using an empirically derived HNO3 adsorption enthalpy of -11.0 kcal/mol, effectively describes the observed molecular coverages to within a factor of 5. The percentage of total HNO3 in the condensed phase ranged from near zero to 100% in the observed cirrus clouds. With volume-weighted mean particle diameters up to 700 ?m and particle fall velocities up to 10 m/s, some observed clouds have significant potential to redistribute HNO3 in the upper troposphere.

  3. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and sun photometers during the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment. Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scanning Raman lidar system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W); are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and root-mean-square differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a) = 60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements. The lidar measurements of AOT are found to be generally within 25% of the AOT measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-6). However, during certain periods the lidar and Sun photometer measurements of AOT differed significantly, possibly because of variations in the aerosol physical characteristics (e.g., size, composition) which affect S(sub a). Estimates of PWV, derived from water vapor mixing ratio profiles measured by LASE, are within 5-10% of PWV derived from the airborne Sun photometer. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by both lidars show that aerosols were generally concentrated in the lowest 2-3 km.

  4. Comparisons of cirrus cloud formation and evolution lifetime between five field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, M.; Zondlo, M. A.; DiGangi, J. P.; O'Brien, A.; Heymsfield, A.; Rogers, D. C.; Beaton, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, it is important to understand the formation and evolution of the environments where ice crystals form and reside on the microscale (~100 m). Uncertainties remain in simulating/parameterizing the evolution of ice crystals, which require more analyses in the Lagrangian view. However, most in situ observations are in the Eulerian view and are restricted from examining the lifecycle of cirrus clouds. In this work, a new method of Diao et al. GRL (2013)* is used to separate out five phases of ice crystal evolution, using the horizontal spatial relationships between ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) and ice crystal regions (ICRs). In-situ, aircraft-based observations from five flight campaigns are used to compare the evolution processes of ISSRs and ICRs, which include the National Science Foundation HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011 Arctic to Antarctic over the central Pacific Ocean), the Stratosphere Troposphere Analyses Regional Transport 2008 (START08) campaign (2008 North America), the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) campaign (2010 tropical western Atlantic), the Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of Reactive Halogen Species and Oxygenated VOC (2012 Costa Rica), and the Deep Convection, Clouds, and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (2011 Interior North America). To understand the evolution of ICRs and ISSRs on the microscale, we compare the microphysical evolution processes inside ISSRs and ICRs in terms of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), ice crystal mean diameter (Dc) and ice crystal number density (Nc) at different meteorological and dynamical backgrounds during these five campaigns. Different phases of ice nucleation and evolution are contrasted to understand how cirrus clouds evolve from clear-sky ISS into fully developed clouds, and finally into sedimentation/evaporation phase. The results show that the ratios of

  5. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    Since both greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds strongly affect outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) with no affect or less affect on solar radiation, respectively, an attempt to delay global warming to buy time for emission reduction strategies to work might naturally target cirrus clouds. Cirrus having optical depths < 3.6 cover 13% of the globe and have a net warming effect on climate, with the coldest cirrus having the strongest warming effect. Roughly 2/3 of predicted global warming is due to the feedback effect of water vapor and clouds from an initial greenhouse gas forcing, and a recent study indicates water vapor and clouds in the upper troposphere (UT) have the greatest impact on climate sensitivity (the equilibrium response of global-mean surface temperature to a CO2 doubling). Thus altering UT water vapor and cirrus may be a good strategy for climate engineering. Cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing via GCM simulations are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). This cirrus engineered net forcing is due to (1) reduced cirrus coverage and (2) reduced upper tropospheric water vapor, due to enhanced ice sedimentation. The implementation of this climate engineering could use the airline industry to disperse the seeding material. Commercial airliners typically fly at temperatures between -40 and -60 deg. C (where homogeneous

  6. Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer - Cloud field study on 28 October 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Spinhirne, James D.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of remote-sensing measurements which had detected an inhomogeneous cloud structure, at 6-11 km altitude, in the data acquired during the FIRE 86 experiment in a 75 x 50 km cirrus cloud field, has derived fluxes whose comparison with modeled fluxes imply a modeling-based underestimation of both solar reflectivity/attenuation and downward IR fluxes. Reconciliation of model results with measurements can be achieved either by adding large concentrations of ice crystals or by altering the backscattering properties of ice crystals.

  7. Why cirrus cloud seeding cannot substantially cool the planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Blaž; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    The net warming effect of cirrus clouds has driven part of the geoengineering research toward the idea of decreasing their occurrence frequency by seeding them with efficient ice nucleating particles. We study responses of cirrus clouds to simplified global seeding strategies in terms of their radiative fluxes with the help of the ECHAM-HAM general circulation model. Our cirrus scheme takes into account the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, preexisting ice crystals, and the full spectrum of updraft velocities. While we find that the cirrus cloud radiative effect evaluated from our model is positive and large enough (5.7 W/m2) to confirm their geoengineering potential, none of the seeding strategies achieves a significant cooling due to complex microphysical mechanisms limiting their climatic responses. After globally uniform seeding is applied, we observe an increase in cirrus cloud cover, a decrease in ice crystal number concentration, and a decrease in ice crystal radius. An analysis of their respective radiative contributions points to the ice crystal radius decrease as the main factor limiting seeding effectiveness.

  8. Laser transmission-backscattering through inhomogeneous cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Ou, Szu-Cheng; Takano, Yoshihide; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Lefevre, Randy J; Johnson, Michael W

    2002-09-20

    We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) model for inhomogeneous cirrus clouds in plane-parallel and spherical geometries for the analysis of the transmission and backscattering of high-energy laser beams. The 2D extinction-coefficient and mean effective ice-crystal size fields for cirrus clouds can be determined from a combination of the remote sensing of cirrus clouds by use of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on board National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites and the vertical profiling of ice-crystal size distributions available from limited measurements. We demonstrate that satellite remote sensing of the position and the composition of high cirrus can be incorporated directly in the computer model developed for the transmission and backscattering of high-energy laser beams in realistic atmospheres. The results of laser direct transmission, forward scattering, and backscattering are analyzed carefully with respect to aircraft height, cirrus cloud optical depth, and ice-crystal size and orientation. Uncertainty in laser transmission that is due to errors in the retrieved ice-crystal size is negligible. But uncertainty of the order of 2% can be produced if the retrieved optical depth has errors of +/-0.05. With both the aircraft and the target near the cloud top, the direct transmission decreases, owing to the propagation of the laser beam through the curved portion of the cloud top. This effect becomes more pronounced as the horizontal distance between the aircraft and the target increases. PMID:12269574

  9. Cirrus Removal in Multispectral Datawithout 1.38μM Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarau, Aliaksei; Richter, Rudolf; Zekoll, Viktoria; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus is one of the most common artifacts in the remotely sensed optical data. Contrary to the low altitude (1-3 km) cloud the cirrus cloud (8-20 km) is semitransparent and the extinction (cirrus influence) of the upward reflected solar radiance can be compensated. The widely employed and almost 'de-facto' method for cirrus compensation is based on the 1.38μm spectral channel measuring the upwelling radiance reflected by the cirrus cloud. The knowledge on the cirrus spatial distribution allows to estimate the per spectral channel cirrus attenuation and to compensate the spectral channels. A wide range of existing and expected sensors have no 1.38μm spectral channel. These sensors data can be corrected by the recently developed haze/cirrus removal method. The additive model of the estimated cirrus thickness map (CTM) is applicable for cirrus-conditioned extinction compensation. Numeric and statistic evaluation of the CTM-based cirrus removal on more than 80 Landsat-8 OLI and 30 Sentinel-2 scenes demonstrates a close agreement with the 1.38μm channel based cirrus removal.

  10. Evaluation of Various Spectral Inputs for Estimation of Forest Biochemical and Structural Properties from Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolová, L.; Janoutová, R.; Malenovský, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this study we evaluated various spectral inputs for retrieval of forest chlorophyll content (Cab) and leaf area index (LAI) from high spectral and spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy data collected for two forest study sites in the Czech Republic (beech forest at Štítná nad Vláří and spruce forest at Bílý Kříž). The retrieval algorithm was based on a machine learning method - support vector regression (SVR). Performance of the four spectral inputs used to train SVR was evaluated: a) all available hyperspectral bands, b) continuum removal (CR) 645 - 710 nm, c) CR 705 - 780 nm, and d) CR 680 - 800 nm. Spectral inputs and corresponding SVR models were first assessed at the level of spectral databases simulated by combined leaf-canopy radiative transfer models PROSPECT and DART. At this stage, SVR models using all spectral inputs provided good performance (RMSE for Cab < 10 μg cm-2 and for LAI < 1.5), with consistently better performance for beech over spruce site. Since application of trained SVRs on airborne hyperspectral images of the spruce site produced unacceptably overestimated values, only the beech site results were analysed. The best performance for the Cab estimation was found for CR bands in range of 645 - 710 nm, whereas CR bands in range of 680 - 800 nm were the most suitable for LAI retrieval. The CR transformation reduced the across-track bidirectional reflectance effect present in airborne images due to large sensor field of view.

  11. Influence of thermodynamic properties of a thermo-acoustic emitter on the efficiency of thermal airborne ultrasound generation.

    PubMed

    Daschewski, M; Kreutzbruck, M; Prager, J

    2015-12-01

    In this work we experimentally verify the theoretical prediction of the recently published Energy Density Fluctuation Model (EDF-model) of thermo-acoustic sound generation. Particularly, we investigate experimentally the influence of thermal inertia of an electrically conductive film on the efficiency of thermal airborne ultrasound generation predicted by the EDF-model. Unlike widely used theories, the EDF-model predicts that the thermal inertia of the electrically conductive film is a frequency-dependent parameter. Its influence grows non-linearly with the increase of excitation frequency and reduces the efficiency of the ultrasound generation. Thus, this parameter is the major limiting factor for the efficient thermal airborne ultrasound generation in the MHz-range. To verify this theoretical prediction experimentally, five thermo-acoustic emitter samples consisting of Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) coatings of different thicknesses (from 65 nm to 1.44 μm) on quartz glass substrates were tested for airborne ultrasound generation in a frequency range from 10 kHz to 800 kHz. For the measurement of thermally generated sound pressures a laser Doppler vibrometer combined with a 12 μm thin polyethylene foil was used as the sound pressure detector. All tested thermo-acoustic emitter samples showed a resonance-free frequency response in the entire tested frequency range. The thermal inertia of the heat producing film acts as a low-pass filter and reduces the generated sound pressure with the increasing excitation frequency and the ITO film thickness. The difference of generated sound pressure levels for samples with 65 nm and 1.44 μm thickness is in the order of about 6 dB at 50 kHz and of about 12 dB at 500 kHz. A comparison of sound pressure levels measured experimentally and those predicted by the EDF-model shows for all tested emitter samples a relative error of less than ±6%. Thus, experimental results confirm the prediction of the EDF-model and show that the model can

  12. Halos in cirrus clouds: why are classic displays so rare?

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2005-09-20

    Upper tropospheric cirrus clouds consist of hexagonal ice crystals, which geometrical ray-tracing-theory predicts should regularly produce a variety of optical phenomena such as vivid 22 degrees and 46 degrees halos. Yet, cirrus inconsistently generate such optical displays, while a class of more exotic displays are reported, albeit rarely. I review current knowledge of the cirrus cloud microphysical factors that control ice crystal shape, and hence halo/arc formation, but also appeal to halo enthusiasts to help investigate the causes of unusually complex, brilliant, or rare optical displays. Currently, a wealth of meteorological information can be tapped from the Internet to help advance our knowledge of the basic meteorological factors leading to these rare events. PMID:16201430

  13. Cirrus and aerosol lidar profilometer - analysis and results

    SciTech Connect

    Spinhirne, J.D.; Scott, V.S.; Reagan, J.A.; Galbraith, A.

    1996-04-01

    A cloud and aerosol lidar set from over a year of near continuous operation of a micro pulse lidar (MPL) instrument at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been established. MPL instruments are to be included in the Ames Research Center (ARC) instrument compliments for the SW Pacific and Arctic ARM sites. Operational processing algorithms are in development for the data sets. The derived products are to be cloud presence and classification, base height, cirrus thickness, cirrus optical thickness, cirrus extinction profile, aerosol optical thickness and profile, and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. A cloud presence and base height algorithm is in use, and a data set from the CART site is available. The scientific basis for the algorithm development of the higher level data products and plans for implementation are discussed.

  14. Cloud-radiation interactions - Effects of cirrus optical thickness feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.; Iacobellis, Sam

    1987-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a cloud-radiation feedback mechanism which may be an important component of the climate changes expected from increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace greenhouse gases. A major result of the study is that cirrus cloud optical thickness feedbacks may indeed tend to increase the surface warming due to trace gas increases. However, the positive feedback from cirrus appears to be generally weaker than the negative effects due to lower clouds. The results just confirm those of earlier research indicating that the net effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks may be a negative feedback which may substantially (by a factor of about 2) reduce the surface warming due to the doubling of CO2, even in the presence of cirrus clouds.

  15. CIRRUS: A Chemistry Internet Resource for Research by Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldow, Dean A.; Fryhle, Craig B.; Bock, J. Chris

    1997-04-01

    Participation in research can be pivotal in an undergraduate's growth toward a profession in chemistry. The research experience can be an important extension of the classroom, integrating the chemical knowledge students have been building throughout their course work. Research can also be a focal point for a student's course work. CIRRUS, the Chemistry Internet Resource for Research by Undergraduate Students, is provided as an Internet-based resource in support of the undergraduate chemical research enterprise. It is a World Wide Web (WWW) (1) site at http://www.chem.plu.edu/cirrus.html containing a variety of information and links pertinent to undergraduate research in chemistry. CIRRUS also supports communication and information-sharing by providing a companion electronic mail server as a resource for communication focused on chemical research by undergraduate students. Recent articles have described the WWW (2) in relation to chemistry and provided an example of its use in chemical education (3).

  16. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements at Barrax (Spain) during the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrós, Roberto; Martinez-Lozano, Jose A.; Utrillas, Maria P.; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Tena, Fernando

    2003-09-01

    The Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) was carried out for the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to develop the potential of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for a range of different scientific applications. DAISEX involved simultaneous data acquisitions using different airborne imaging spectrometers over test sites in southeast Spain (Barrax) and the Upper Rhine valley (Colmar, France, and Hartheim, Germany). This paper presents the results corresponding to the column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements over the Barrax area during the DAISEX campaign days in the years 1998, 1999, and 2000. The instruments used for spectral irradiance measurements were two Licor 1800 and one Optronic OL-754 spectroradiometers. The analysis of the spectral aerosol optical depth in the visible range shows in all cases the predominance of the coarse-particle mode over the fine-particle mode. The analysis of the back trajectories of the air masses indicates a predominance of marine-type aerosols in the lower atmospheric layers in all cases. Overall, the results obtained show that during the DAISEX there was a combination of maritime aerosols with smaller continental aerosols.

  17. Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties and Water Vapor Among Ground and Airborne Lidars and Sun Photometers During TARFOX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R.; Ismail, S.; Browell, E.; Brackett, V.; Clayton, M.; Kooi, S.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Evans, K.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Holben, B.; Remer, L.; Smirnov, A.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2000-01-01

    We compare aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) measurements derived from ground and airborne lidars and Sun photometers during TARFOX (Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment). Such comparisons are important to verify the consistency between various remote sensing measurements before employing them in any assessment of the impact of aerosols on the global radiation balance. Total scattering ratio and extinction profiles measured by the ground-based NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) system, which operated from Wallops Island, Virginia (37.86 deg N, 75.51 deg W), are compared with those measured by the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) airborne lidar system aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Bias and rms differences indicate that these measurements generally agreed within about 10%. Aerosol extinction profiles and estimates of AOT are derived from both lidar measurements using a value for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio S(sub a)=60 sr for the aerosol extinction/backscattering ratio, which was determined from the Raman lidar measurements.

  18. Transmittance ratio constrained retrieval technique for lidar cirrus measurements.

    PubMed

    Su, Jia; McCormick, M Patrick; Liu, Zhaoyan; Lee, Robert B; Leavor, Kevin R; Lei, Liqiao

    2012-05-01

    This letter describes a lidar retrieval technique that uses the transmittance ratio as a constraint to determine an average lidar ratio as well as extinction and backscatter coefficients of transparent cirrus clouds. The cloud transmittance ratio is directly obtained from two adjacent elastic lidar backscatter signals. The technique can be applied to cirrus measurements where neither the molecular scattering dominant signals above and below the cloud layer are found nor cloudfree reference profiles are available. The technique has been tested with simulated lidar signals and applied to backscatter lidar measurements at Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia. PMID:22555749

  19. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado

  20. Secondary sulphate aerosols and cirrus clouds detection with SEVIRI during Nabro volcano eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Sèze, Geneviève; Legras, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can perturb the upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols by the injection of volatile sulphur compounds, like sulphur dioxide, and the subsequent conversion to secondary sulphate aerosols (SSA). The volcanically-produced sulphates can act as ice nuclei, at these altitudes, and modify the occurrence and microphysical/optical properties of cirrus clouds in the upper-troposphere. Sulphate aerosols and cirrus clouds have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget from the regional to the global scale, and then on the Earth's climate. The Nabro volcano (Eritrea, 13.37°N, 41.70°E) erupted violently on 12 June 2011. The eruption, which lasted almost 1 month, is responsible for the most important injection of sulfur dioxide in the upper-troposphere and stratosphere since the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (1991), significantly perturbing the aerosol layer at these altitudes. The detailed study of this eruption and its atmospheric impact is of particular interest because this event is spatially and temporally coincident with the Asian summer monsoon dynamics, during 2011. The volcanic effluents were captured in the monsoon anticyclone; the interaction of the eruption with the monsoon dynamics is debated and still not clear. In this contribution, we present new SSA measurements, based on the work of Sellitto and Legras (2015), and cirrus clouds classification (Derrien and LeGléau, 2005), using SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) observations. We use these observations to characterize the evolution of Nabro eruption at a very high temporal resolution. The role of the volcanic SSA on the occurrence of cirrus clouds at the regional scale is also analysed and discussed for this event. References: (Derrien and LeGléau, 2005) Derrien, M. and LeGléau, H.: MSG/SEVIRI cloud mask and type from SAFNWC, Int. J. Rem. Sens., 26, 4707-4732, doi: 10.1080/01431160500166128, 2005. (Sellitto and Legras, 2015) Sellitto, P. and Legras, B

  1. A New Instrument For In-Situ Measurement of Total Ice Water Content - Observations of Sub-visible Cirrus at the Tropical Tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. B.; Weinstock, E.; Vellovic, J.; Sayres, D.; Moyer, E.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2002-12-01

    The recently developed Harvard Total Water Instrument measures the ice water content of cirrus, in conjunction with the Harvard water vapor instrument. The instrument samples liquid and/or solid water particles without perturbing the ambient particle density, and uses the well established lyman-α photo-fragment fluorescence technique to make accurate and precise measurements of the total water content of the ambient air. Data obtained aboard the WB-57 aircraft on flights out of Costa Rica during the summer of 2001 show both agreement with the Harvard water vapor instrument in dry air, and sufficient sensitivity to detect sub-visible cirrus near the tropical tropopause. Preliminary analysis shows evidence of high supersaturations in the presence of these cirrus. Intercomparisons with an airborne tunable diode laser hygrometer during the CRYSTAL-FACE mission show that contamination of our water vapor measurement due to evaporation in our sampling duct is at most 5%, and cannot explain the observed supersaturations. We will discuss the implications of high supersaturation in the context of cloud microphysics, and the processes controlling water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  2. Evaluation of cloud resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-Train observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlbauer, A. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates cloud resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-train satellites. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in GCMs and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating the microphysical, macrophysical and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable

  3. Evaluations of Thin Cirrus Contamination and Screening in Ground Aerosol Observations Using Collocated Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Smirnov, Alexander; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Hansell, Richard A.; Berkoff, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Cirrus clouds, particularly sub visual high thin cirrus with low optical thickness, are difficult to be screened in operational aerosol retrieval algorithms. Collocated aerosol and cirrus observations from ground measurements, such as the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to examine the susceptibility of operational aerosol products to thin cirrus contamination. Quality assured aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements were also tested against the CALIPSO vertical feature mask (VFM) and the MODIS-derived thin cirrus screening parameters for the purpose of evaluating thin cirrus contamination. Key results of this study include: (1) Quantitative evaluations of data uncertainties in AERONET AOT retrievals are conducted. Although AERONET cirrus screening schemes are successful in removing most cirrus contamination, strong residuals displaying strong spatial and seasonal variability still exist, particularly over thin cirrus prevalent regions during cirrus peak seasons, (2) Challenges in matching up different data for analysis are highlighted and corresponding solutions proposed, and (3) Estimation of the relative contributions from cirrus contamination to aerosol retrievals are discussed. The results are valuable for better understanding and further improving ground aerosol measurements that are critical for aerosol-related climate research.

  4. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles. PMID:7005667

  5. Selected topics on the interaction between cirrus clouds and embedded contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.

    2012-12-01

    Persistent contrails and natural cirrus clouds often coexist in the upper troposphere and contrails can be embedded within cirrus clouds. The present paper deals with some questions regarding the interaction of cirrus clouds and embedded contrails. I have selected only questions that can be answered by analytical means. I find that (1) the emission index for water vapour is only slightly changed when an aircraft crosses a cirrus cloud, (2) that contrail formation is not affected by an ambient cirrus, (3) that cirrus ice crystals entrained into the trailing wing tip vortex do not efficiently retard the sublimation of contrail ice crystals, and (4) that cirrus can start to dissolve an embedded contrail after a couple of hours by aggregation.

  6. Medium-Range Predictability of Contrail-Cirrus Demonstrated during Experiments Ml-Cirrus and Access-Ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.

    2015-12-01

    The Contrail Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP (doi:10.5194/gmd-5-543-2012) has been applied quasi operationally to predict contrails for flight planning of ML-CIRRUS (C. Voigt, DLR, et al.) in Europe and for ACCESS II in California (B. Anderson, NASA, et al.) in March-May 2014. The model uses NWP data from ECMWF and past airtraffic data (actual traffic data are used for analysis). The forecasts provided a sequence of hourly forecast maps of contrail cirrus optical depth for 3.5 days, every 12 h. CoCiP has been compared to observations before, e.g. within a global climate-aerosol-contrail model (Schumann, Penner et al., ACPD, 2015, doi:10.5194/acpd-15-19553-2015). Good predictions would allow for climate optimal routing (see, e.g., US patent by Mannstein and Schumann, US 2012/0173147 A1). The predictions are tested by: 1) Local eyewitness reports and photos, 2) satellite observed cloudiness, 3) autocorrelation analysis of predictions for various forecast periods, 4) comparisons of computed with observed optical depth from COCS (doi:10.5194/amt-7-3233-2014, 2014) by IR METEOSAT-SEVIRI observations over Europe. The results demonstrate medium-range predictability of contrail cirrus to a useful degree for given traffic, soot emissions, and high-quality NWP data. A growing set of satellite, Lidar, and in-situ data from ML-CIRRUS and ACCENT are becoming available and will be used to further test the forecast quality. The autocorrelation of optical depth predictions is near 70% for 3-d forecasts for Europe (outside times with high Sahara dust loads), and only slightly smaller for continental USA. Contrail cirrus is abundant over Europe and USA. More than 1/3 of all cirrus measured with the research aircraft HALO during ML-CIRRUS was impacted by contrails. The radiative forcing (RF) is strongly daytime and ambience dependent. The net annual mean RF, based on our global studies, may reach up to 0.08 W/m2 globally, and may well exceed 1 W/m2 regionally, with maximum over Europe

  7. Impact of Albedo Contrast Between Cirrus and Boundary-Layer Clouds on Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Lindzen, R. S.; Hou, A. Y.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In assessing the iris effect suggested by Lindzen et al. (2001), Fu et al. (2001) found that the response of high-level clouds to the sea surface temperature had an effect of reducing the climate sensitivity to external radiative forcing, but the effect was not as strong as LCH found. This weaker reduction in climate sensitivity was due to the smaller contrasts in albedos and effective emitting temperatures between cirrus clouds and the neighboring regions. FBH specified the albedos and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in the LCH 3.5-box radiative-convective model by requiring that the model radiation budgets at the top of the atmosphere be consistent with that inferred from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). In point of fact, the constraint by radiation budgets alone is not sufficient for deriving the correct contrast in radiation properties between cirrus clouds and the neighboring regions, and the approach of FBH to specifying those properties is, we feel inappropriate for assessing the iris effect.

  8. a Brief Climatology of Cirrus LIDAR Ratios Measured by High Spectral Resolution LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, R.; Holz, R.; Hair, J. W.; Vaughan, M. A.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to detect and probe the vertical extent of cirrus was hugely improved with the launch of the NASA-CNES CALIPSO mission in April 2006. However, our skill at retrieving the optical properties of the cirrus detected by the CALIPSO lidar is not yet commensurate with our detection abilities. As with any new observing system, CALIPSO faces challenges and uncertainties in the retrieval of the geophysical parameters from its fundamental measurements. Specifically, extinction and optical depth retrievals for elastic backscatter lidars like CALIPSO typically rely on a priori assumptions about layer-mean extinction-to-backscatter ratios (AKA lidar ratios), which can vary regionally and for which uncertainties are high. To improve CALIPSO optical properties retrievals, we show High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) measurements acquired with systems from the University of Wisconsin and NASA Langley. HSRLs can directly determine ice cloud extinction and lidar ratio by separately measuring the molecular and particulate components of the total backscattered signal, thus largely eliminating many of the uncertainties inherent in elastic backscatter retrievals. These measurements were acquired during the SEAC4RS (Huntsville, AL, USA and Singapore), and FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ 2014 (BAO tower near Boulder, CO, USA) field campaigns, and an intensive operations period in Hampton, VA, USA.

  9. Measurements of aerosol distributions and properties from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and DRAGON during the DISCOVER-AQ California Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Scarino, A. J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hare, R.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Sawamura, P.

    2011-12-01

    The new NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) was deployed from the NASA Langley King Air aircraft for the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and DRAGON experiments that occurred over the San Joaquin Valley during January and February, 2013. The HSRL-2, which is the world's first airborne multiwavelength HSRL, measures aerosol extinction at 355 and 532 nm via the HSRL technique, as well as aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). During this mission, the King Air flights and HSRL-2 measurements were acquired over the DRAGON network and long-term AERONET sites and were closely coordinated with flights of the NASA P-3 aircraft that carried a suite of in situ aerosol instruments. In this presentation, we discuss how the HSRL-2 and DRAGON observations have been used to examine aerosol optical and microphysical properties as well as spatial and temporal variability. On some days, both HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements indicated that coarse mode dust contributed a significant fraction of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT); in these cases, HSRL-2 measurements indicated that this depolarizing layer was located at the top of the boundary layer. We discuss differences in the aerosol properties between two episodes of high surface PM2.5 concentrations as revealed by the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements. Both the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements reveal considerable day-to-day spatial variability in the aerosol distributions across the valley. The HSRL-2 measurements also show variability in the daily evolution of the vertical distribution of aerosols.

  10. Measurements of aerosol distributions and properties from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and DRAGON during the DISCOVER-AQ California Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Scarino, A. J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hare, R.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Sawamura, P.

    2013-12-01

    The new NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) was deployed from the NASA Langley King Air aircraft for the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and DRAGON experiments that occurred over the San Joaquin Valley during January and February, 2013. The HSRL-2, which is the world's first airborne multiwavelength HSRL, measures aerosol extinction at 355 and 532 nm via the HSRL technique, as well as aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). During this mission, the King Air flights and HSRL-2 measurements were acquired over the DRAGON network and long-term AERONET sites and were closely coordinated with flights of the NASA P-3 aircraft that carried a suite of in situ aerosol instruments. In this presentation, we discuss how the HSRL-2 and DRAGON observations have been used to examine aerosol optical and microphysical properties as well as spatial and temporal variability. On some days, both HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements indicated that coarse mode dust contributed a significant fraction of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT); in these cases, HSRL-2 measurements indicated that this depolarizing layer was located at the top of the boundary layer. We discuss differences in the aerosol properties between two episodes of high surface PM2.5 concentrations as revealed by the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements. Both the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements reveal considerable day-to-day spatial variability in the aerosol distributions across the valley. The HSRL-2 measurements also show variability in the daily evolution of the vertical distribution of aerosols.

  11. In-situ aircraft observations of ice supersaturation and cirrus clouds in global field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, M.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    cirrus cloud formation into three stages: 1) clear-sky ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs), 2) ISSRs with ice crystals, and 3) subsaturated cirrus clouds. Analyses of the maximum RHi inside the clear-sky ISSRs show a wider range of RHi distributions in NH than SH for the same lengths of ISSRs. These findings demonstrate a large difference in cirrus cloud formation processes between the two hemispheres, indicating different ice nucleation thresholds between the two hemispheres. The difference in nucleation thresholds could be influenced by the different aerosol loading in the two hemispheres in terms of number concentration, size and chemical contents, but direct linkage between the ISS distributions, the aerosol properties, and the representativeness of the flight tracks need more investigation.

  12. Quantifying the Amount of Ice in Cold Tropical Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Melody A.; Winker, David M.; Garnier, Anne; Lawson, R. Paul; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Mo, Qixu; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Woods, Sarah; Lance, Sara; Young, Stuart A.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Trepte, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    How much ice is there in the Tropical Tropopause layer, globally? How does one begin to answer that question? Clouds are currently the largest source of uncertainty in climate models, and the ice water content (IWC) of cold cirrus clouds is needed to understand the total water and radiation budgets of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, originally a "pathfinder" mission only expected to last for three years, has now been operational for more than eight years. Lidar data from CALIPSO can provide information about how IWC is vertically distributed in the UT/LS, and about inter-annual variability and seasonal changes in cloud ice. However, cloud IWC is difficult to measure accurately with either remote or in situ instruments because IWC from cold cirrus clouds is derived from the particle cross-sectional area or visible extinction coefficient. Assumptions must be made about the relationship between the area, volume and density of ice particles with various crystal habits. Recently there have been numerous aircraft field campaigns providing detailed information about cirrus ice water content from cloud probes. This presentation evaluates the assumptions made when creating the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) global IWC data set, using recently reanalyzed aircraft particle probe measurements of very cold, thin TTL cirrus from the 2006 CR-AVE.

  13. Some peculiarities in sounding cirrus clouds from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, Bruno V.; Werner, Christian

    1994-12-01

    Cirrus clouds are a specific atmospheric formation that essentially influence on the radiation balance in the atmosphere, hamper the operation of the Earth-Space optical communication systems, and distort the results of instrumental observations of the Earth from space. Very often cirrus clouds are invisible for spaceborne instruments which makes it difficult to properly account for the distortions they introduce into the observations. These and other circumstances make the detection of cirrus clouds and measurement of the characteristics with a spaceborne lidar an urgent problem of lidar technology. Sounding of cirrus clouds with a lidar has some peculiarities compared to sounding of lower level clouds, first of all because these clouds are mainly composed of crystal particles. Orientation of such particles that can occur due to the action of gravity, aerodynamic, and electrostatic forces makes lidar return signals strongly dependent on the angle at which sounding radiation is incident on the particles and on the state of sounding radiation polarization. To illustrate this statement we remind the existence of the effect of anomalous backscattering discussed. The effect occurs due to specular reflection of light from the plane surfaces of ice crystals.

  14. Parameterization of Infrared Absorption in Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, Kenneth; Wang, Zhien; Platt, C.M.R.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2003-01-01

    Employing a new approach based on combined Raman lidar and millimeter-wave radar measurements and a parameterization of the infrared absorption coefficient {sigma}{sub a}(km{sup -1}) in terms of retrieved cloud microphysics, we derive a statistical relation between {sigma}{sub a} and cirrus cloud temperature. The relations {sigma}{sub a} = 0.3949 + 5.3886 x 10{sup -3} T + 1.526 x 10{sup -5} T{sup 2} for ambient temperature (T,{sup o}C), and {sigma}{sub a} = 0.2896 + 3.409 x 10{sup -3} T{sub m} for midcloud temperature (T{sub m}, {sup o}C), are found using a second order polynomial fit. Comparison with two {sigma}{sub a} versus T{sub m} relations obtained primarily from midlatitude cirrus using the combined lidar/infrared radiometer (LIRAD) approach reveals significant differences. However, we show that this reflects both the previous convention used in curve fitting (i. e., {sigma}{sub a} {yields} 0 at {approx} 80 C), and the types of clouds included in the datasets. Without such constraints, convergence is found in the three independent remote sensing datasets within the range of conditions considered valid for cirrus (i.e., cloud optical depth {approx} 3.0 and T{sub m} < {approx}20 C). Hence for completeness we also provide reanalyzed parameterizations for a visible extinction coefficient {sigma}{sub a} versus T{sub m} relation for midlatitude cirrus, and a data sample involving cirrus that evolved into midlevel altostratus clouds with higher optical depths.

  15. Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity: a comparison of observations obtained during the INCA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ström, J.; Seifert, M.; Kärcher, B.; Ovarlez, J.; Minikin, A.; Gayet, J.-F.; Krejci, R.; Petzold, A.; Auriol, F.; Haag, W.; Busen, R.; Schumann, U.; Hansson, H. C.

    2003-10-01

    Based on in-situ observations performed during the Interhemispheric differences in cirrus properties from anthropogenic emissions (INCA) experiment, we introduce and discuss the cloud presence fraction (CPF) defined as the ratio between the number of data points determined to represent cloud at a given ambient relative humidity over ice (RHI) divided by the total number of data points at that value of RHI. The CPFs are measured with four different cloud probes. Within similar ranges of detected particle sizes and concentrations, it is shown that different cloud probes yield results that are in good agreement with each other. The CPFs taken at Southern Hemisphere (SH) and Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes differ from each other. Above ice saturation, clouds occurred more frequently during the NH campaign. Local minima in the CPF as a function of RHI are interpreted as a systematic underestimation of cloud presence when cloud particles become invisible to cloud probes. Based on this interpretation, we find that clouds during the SH campaign formed preferentially at RHIs between 140 and 155%, whereas clouds in the NH campaign formed at RHIs somewhat below 130%. The data show that interstitial aerosol and ice particles coexist down to RHIs of 70-90%, demonstrating that the ability to distinguish between different particle types in cirrus conditions depends on the sensors used to probe the aerosol/cirrus system. Observed distributions of cloud water content differ only slightly between the NH and SH campaigns and seem to be only weakly, if at all, affected by the freezing aerosols.

  16. Retrieval of subvisual cirrus cloud optical thickness from limb-scatter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiensz, J. T.; Degenstein, D. A.; Lloyd, N. D.; Bourassa, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for estimating the optical thickness of subvisual cirrus clouds detected by OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System), a limb-viewing satellite instrument that measures scattered radiances from the UV to the near-IR. The measurement set is composed of a ratio of limb radiance profiles at two wavelengths that indicates the presence of cloud-scattering regions. Cross-sections and phase functions from an in situ database are used to simulate scattering by cloud-particles. With appropriate configurations discussed in this paper, the SASKTRAN successive-orders of scatter radiative transfer model is able to simulate accurately the in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. Configured in this way, the model is used with a multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) to retrieve the cloud extinction profile for an assumed effective cloud particle size. The sensitivity of these retrievals to key auxiliary model parameters is shown, and it is shown that the retrieved extinction profile, for an assumed effective cloud particle size, models well the measured in-cloud radiances from OSIRIS. The greatest sensitivity of the retrieved optical thickness is to the effective cloud particle size. Since OSIRIS has an 11-yr record of subvisual cirrus cloud detections, the work described in this manuscript provides a very useful method for providing a long-term global record of the properties of these clouds.

  17. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Morales Betancourt, Ricardo; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-03-03

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are donemore » with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.« less

  18. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Morales Betancourt, Ricardo; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-03-03

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are donemore » with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. In conclusion, Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.« less

  19. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Morales Betancourt, Ricardo; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are done with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.

  20. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth Under Thin Cirrus from MODIS: Application to an Ocean Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, Nai-Yung Christina; Sayer, Andrew Mark; Bettenhausen, Corey

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) under conditions of thin cirrus coverage from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is presented. We adopt an empirical method that derives the cirrus contribution to measured reflectance in seven bands from the visible to shortwave infrared (0.47, 0.55, 0.65, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.12 µm, commonly used for AOD retrievals) by using the correlations between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at 1.38 micron and these bands. The 1.38 micron band is used due to its strong absorption by water vapor and allows us to extract the contribution of cirrus clouds to TOA reflectance and create cirrus-corrected TOA reflectances in the seven bands of interest. These cirrus-corrected TOA reflectances are then used in the aerosol retrieval algorithm to determine cirrus-corrected AOD. The cirrus correction algorithm reduces the cirrus contamination in the AOD data as shown by a decrease in both magnitude and spatial variability of AOD over areas contaminated by thin cirrus. Comparisons of retrieved AOD against Aerosol Robotic Network observations at Nauru in the equatorial Pacific reveal that the cirrus correction procedure improves the data quality: the percentage of data within the expected error +/-(0.03 + 0.05 ×AOD) increases from 40% to 80% for cirrus-corrected points only and from 80% to 86% for all points (i.e., both corrected and uncorrected retrievals). Statistical comparisons with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) retrievals are also carried out. A high correlation (R = 0.89) between the CALIOP cirrus optical depth and AOD correction magnitude suggests potential applicability of the cirrus correction procedure to other MODIS-like sensors.

  1. Validation of fascod3 and modtran3: comparison of model calculations with ground-based and airborne interferometer observations under clear-sky conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Anderson, G P; Revercomb, H E; Knuteson, R O

    1996-10-20

    The validation of fascod3 and modtran3 against ground-based and airborne high-resolution Michelson interferometer measurements under clear-sky conditions is presented. Important considerations including water vapor continuum, frequency-dependent sea surface emissivity in the IR window region, and spectral resolution of modtran3 in the comparison of model calculations with high-resolution interferometer measurements are discussed. Our results indicate that it is not adequate to assume sea surface emissivity of 1.0 [?(ν) = 1.0] or a constant in the simulation of upwelling radiance observed by the airborne Michelson interferometer. The use of spectral emissivity (frequency-dependent emissivity) leads to much better agreement between model calculations and interferometer measurements in the IR window region from 750.0 to 1050.0 cm(-1). This could have important implications for the retrieval of sea surface temperature, thin cirrus properties, and aerosol parameters because of the sea surface emissivity of 1.0 assumption commonly used by many researchers. Comparisons of modtran3 calculations with interferometer measurements show that the agreement might not be adequate at the nominal resolution of 2.0 cm(-1), and further spectral degradation might be necessary to improve the agreement between measurements and modtran3 calculations. modtran should be used with caution for relatively high spectral resolution remote-sensing applications. PMID:21127618

  2. Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Vodacek, Anthony; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Blough, Neil V.

    1995-10-01

    The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) at 355 nm has been retrieved from airborne laser-induced and water Raman-normalized CDOM fluorescence. Four combined airborne and ship field experiments have demonstrated that (1) the airborne CDOM fluorescence-to--water Raman ratio is linearly related to concurrent quinine-sulfate-standardized CDOM shipboard fluorescence measurements over a wide range of water masses (coastal to blue water); (2) the vicarious calibration of the airborne fluorosensor in units traceable to a fluorescence standard can be established and then maintained over an extended time period by tungsten lamp calibration; (3) the vicariously calibrated airborne CDOM fluorescence-to-water Raman ratio can be directly applied to previously developed

  3. Parameterization of cirrus optical depth and cloud fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, B.

    1995-09-01

    This research illustrates the utility of combining satellite observations and operational analysis for the evaluation of parameterizations. A parameterization based on ice water path (IWP) captures the observed spatial patterns of tropical cirrus optical depth. The strong temperature dependence of cirrus ice water path in both the observations and the parameterization is probably responsible for the good correlation where it exists. Poorer agreement is found in Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes where the temperature dependence breaks down. Uncertainties in effective radius limit quantitative validation of the parameterization (and its inclusion into GCMs). Also, it is found that monthly mean cloud cover can be predicted within an RMS error of 10% using ECMWF relative humidity corrected by TOVS Upper Troposphere Humidity. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  4. Clarifying the dominant sources and mechanisms of cirrus cloud formation.

    PubMed

    Cziczo, Daniel J; Froyd, Karl D; Hoose, Corinna; Jensen, Eric J; Diao, Minghui; Zondlo, Mark A; Smith, Jessica B; Twohy, Cynthia H; Murphy, Daniel M

    2013-06-14

    Formation of cirrus clouds depends on the availability of ice nuclei to begin condensation of atmospheric water vapor. Although it is known that only a small fraction of atmospheric aerosols are efficient ice nuclei, the critical ingredients that make those aerosols so effective have not been established. We have determined in situ the composition of the residual particles within cirrus crystals after the ice was sublimated. Our results demonstrate that mineral dust and metallic particles are the dominant source of residual particles, whereas sulfate and organic particles are underrepresented, and elemental carbon and biological materials are essentially absent. Further, composition analysis combined with relative humidity measurements suggests that heterogeneous freezing was the dominant formation mechanism of these clouds. PMID:23661645

  5. Two Years of Global Cirrus Cloud Statistics Using HIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wylie, Donald; Menzel, W. Paul; Woolf, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    A climatology of upper tropospheric semi-transparent cirrus clouds has been compiled using HIRS multispectral infrared data, sensitive to CO2 absorption, from the NOAA polar orbiting satellites. This is a report on the two years of data analyzed (June 1989 - May 1991). Semi-transparent clouds were found in 36% of the observations. Large seasonal changes were found in these clouds in many geographical areas; large changes occur in areas dominated by the ITCZ, the sub-tropical high pressure systems, and the mid-latitude storm belts. Semi-transparent clouds associated with these features move latitudinally with the seasons. These clouds also are more frequent in the summer hemisphere than the winter hemisphere. They appear to be linked to convective cloud development and the mid-latitudinal frontal weather systems. However, very thin semi-transparent cirrus has less seasonal movement than other cloud forms.

  6. Measurements of Terminal Velocities of Cirrus Clouds in the Upper Trosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai Nee, Jan; Chen, W. N.; Chiang, C. W.; Das, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus clouds are composed of ice crystals condensed from humidity due to low temperature condition in the upper atmosphere. The microphysics of cirrus clouds including sizes and shapes of ice particles are not well understood but are important in climate modeling. Ice crystal will fall under gravitational sedimentation to reach terminal velocities which depend on the size, mass, and ice habit. We studied here the terminal velocity of cirrus clouds by using lidar observations at Chungli (25N, 121E). The terminal velocities for a few cases of stable cirrus clouds are measured to determine the ice particle sizes and processes in the upper atmosphere.

  7. Nitric Acid Uptake on Subtropical Cirrus Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The redistribution of HNO3 via uptake and sedimentation by cirrus cloud particles is considered an important term in the upper tropospheric budget of reactive nitrogen. Numerous cirrus cloud encounters by the NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft during CRYSTAL-FACE were accompanied by the observation of condensed-phase HNO3 with the NOAA chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The instrument measures HNO3 with two independent channels of detection connected to separate forward- and downward-facing inlets that allow a determination of the amount of HNO3 condensed on ice particles. Subtropical cirrus clouds, as indicated by the presence of ice particles, were observed coincident with condensed-phase HNO3 at temperatures of 197 K - 224 K and pressures of 122 hPa - 224 hPa. Maximum levels of condensed-phase HNO3 approached the gas-phase equivalent of 0.8 ppbv. Ice particle surface coverages as high as 1.4- 10(exp 14) molecules/sq cm were observed. A dissociative Langmuir adsorption model, when using an empirically derived HNO3 adsorption enthalpy of -11.0 kcal/mol, effectively describes the observed molecular coverages to within a factor of 5. The percentage of total HNO3 in the condensed phase ranged from near zero to 100% in the observed cirrus clouds. With volume-weighted mean particle diameters up to 700 pm and particle fall velocities up to 10 m/s, some observed clouds have significant potential to redistribute HNO3 in the upper troposphere.

  8. On Cirrus Cloud Fields Measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Brian H.; Eldering, Annmarie; Liou, Kuo Nan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation showing trends in clouds measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is given. The topics include: 1) Trends in clouds measured by AIRS: Are they reasonable? 2) Single and multilayered cloud trends; 3) Retrievals of thin cirrus D(sub e) and tau: Single-layered cloud only; 4) Relationships between ECF, D(sub e), tau, and T(sub CLD); and 5) MODIS vs. AIRS retrievals.

  9. Effective Ice Particle Densities for Cold Anvil Cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Schmitt, Carl G.; Bansemer, Aaron; Baumgardner, Darrel; Weinstock, Elliot M.; Smith, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    This study derives effective ice particle densities from data collected from the NASA WB-57F aircraft near the tops of anvils during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) in southern Florida in July 2002. The effective density, defined as the ice particle mass divided by the volume of an equivalent diameter liquid sphere, is obtained for particle populations and single sizes containing mixed particle habits using measurements of condensed water content and particle size distributions. The mean effective densities for populations decrease with increasing slopes of the gamma size distributions fitted to the size distributions. The population-mean densities range from near 0.91 g/cu m to 0.15 g/cu m. Effective densities for single sizes obey a power-law with an exponent of about -0.55, somewhat less steep than found from earlier studies. Our interpretations apply to samples where particle sizes are generally below 200-300 microns in maximum dimension because of probe limitations.

  10. Simulated radiative forcing from contrails and contrail cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Gettelman, A.

    2013-04-01

    A comprehensive general circulation model including ice supersaturation is used to estimate the climate impact of aviation induced contrails. The model uses a realistic aviation emissions inventory for 2006 to initiate contrails, and allows them to evolve consistently with the model hydrologic cycle. The radiative forcing from linear contrails is very sensitive to the diurnal cycle of flights. For linear contrails, including the diurnal cycle of flights reduces the estimated global radiative forcing by 55%, and for contrails cirrus estimates, the global radiative forcing is reduced by 25%. Estimated global radiative forcing from linear contrails is 0.0029±0.00125 W m-2. The instantaneous radiative forcing for contrails is found to exhibit a strong diurnal cycle. The integrated effect of contrail cirrus is much less sensitive to the diurnal cycle of flights. The estimated global radiative forcing from contrail cirrus is 0.012±0.01 W m-2. Over regions with the highest air traffic, the regional effect can be as large as 1 W m-2.

  11. Simulated radiative forcing from contrails and contrail cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Gettelman, A.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive general circulation model including ice supersaturation is used to estimate the climate impact of aviation induced contrails. The model uses a realistic aviation emissions inventory for 2006 to initiate contrails, and allows them to evolve consistently with the model hydrologic cycle. The radiative forcing from linear contrails is very sensitive to the diurnal cycle. For linear contrails, including the diurnal cycle of air traffic reduces the estimated radiative forcing by 29%, and for contrail cirrus estimates, the radiative forcing is reduced by 25%. Estimated global radiative forcing from linear contrails is 0.0031 ± 0.0005 Wm-2. The linear contrail radiative forcing is found to exhibit a strong diurnal cycle. The contrail cirrus radiative forcing is less sensitive to the diurnal cycle of flights. The estimated global radiative forcing from contrail cirrus is 0.013 ± 0.01 Wm-2. Over regions with the highest air traffic, the regional effect can be as large as 1 Wm-2.

  12. 3D reconstruction of tropospheric cirrus clouds by stereovision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    A stereo imaging method is applied to measure the altitude of cirrus clouds and provide a 3D map of the altitude of the layer centroid. They are located in the high troposphere and, sometimes in the lower stratosphere, between 6 and 10 km high. Two simultaneous images of the same scene are taken with Canon cameras (400D) in two sites distant of 37 Km. Each image processed in order to invert the perspective effect and provide a satellite-type view of the layer. Pairs of matched points that correspond to a physical emissive point in the common area are identified in calculating a correlation coefficient (ZNCC: Zero mean Normalized Cross-correlation or ZSSD: as Zero mean Sum of Squared Differences). This method is suitable for obtaining 3D representations in the case of low-contrast objects. An observational campaign was conducted in June 2014 in France. The images were taken simultaneously at Marnay (47°17'31.5" N, 5°44'58.8" E; altitude 275 m) 25 km northwest of Besancon and in Mont poupet (46°58'31.5" N, 5°52'22.7" E; altitude 600 m) southwest of Besancon at 43 km. 3D maps of the Natural cirrus clouds and artificial like "aircraft trails" are retrieved. They are compared with pseudo-relief intensity maps of the same region. The mean altitude of the cirrus barycenter is located at 8.5 ± 1km on June 11.

  13. Examination of the observed synoptic scale cirrus cloud environment: The December 3-6 FIRE cirrus case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Sassen provided evidence for supercooled water droplets in cirrus uncinus cell heads at temperatures between 40 and -50 C. Chemistry related to volcanic aerosol of stratospheric origin was evoked as an explanation for this phenomenon. Sassen speculated that injections of sulfuric acid droplets into the upper troposphere were accomplished by tropopause folds associated with subtropical jet streams. He also postulated global climatic perturbations due to the effect of these cirrus microphysical perturbations on radiative fluxes. Using data processing and objective analysis techniques described by Mace and Ackerman, the synoptic scale environment was examined for evidence of tropopause folds that may have served as a source mechanism of stratospheric aerosol in the upper troposphere.

  14. Setup and first airborne application of an aerosol optical properties package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Herber, Andreas; Mattis, Ina; Berg, Marcel; De Faira, Julia; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    different spectral information. The number of CAPS units to be used will depend on the size of the final electronic boards which are currently under development. The Sky OPC measures the size distribution theoretically up to 32 μm covering the relevant size information for calculation of aerosol optical properties. Because of the inlet cut off diameter of D50 = 3μm we are using the 16 channel mode in the range of 250 nm - 2.5 μm at 1 Hz resolution. In this presentation the setup of the IAGOS Aerosol package P2E is presented and characterized for pressure levels relevant for the planned application, down to cruising level of 150 hPa. In our aerosol lab we have tested the system against standard instrumentation with different aerosol test substances. In addition first results for airborne measurements are shown from a first airborne field campaign where in situ profiles are compared to LIDAR measurements over Bornholm (Denmark) and Lindenberg (Germany).

  15. Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that tracks ice saturation ratio in the clear-sky and cloudy portion of a grid box separately has been implemented into NCAR CAM5 to provide a consistent treatment of ice nucleation and cloud formation. Simulated ice supersaturation and ice crystal number concentrations strongly depend on the number concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), subgrid temperature formulas and the number concentration of sulfate particles participating in homogeneous freezing, while simulated ice water content is insensitive to these perturbations. 1% to 10% dust particles serving as heterogeneous IN is 20 found to produce ice supersaturaiton in better agreement with observations. Introducing a subgrid temperature perturbation based on long-term aircraft observations of meso-scale motion produces a better hemispheric contrast in ice supersaturation compared to observations. Heterogeneous IN from dust particles significantly alter the net radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) (-0.24 to -1.59 W m-2) with a significant clear-sky longwave component (0.01 to -0.55 W m-2). Different cirrus treatments significantly perturb the net TOA anthropogenic aerosol forcing from -1.21 W m-2 to -1.54 W m-2, with a standard deviation of 0.10 W m-2. Aerosol effects on cirrus clouds exert an even larger impact on the atmospheric component of the radiative fluxes (two or three times the changes in the TOA radiative fluxes) and therefore on the hydrology cycle through the fast atmosphere response. This points to the urgent need to quantify aerosol effects on cirrus clouds through ice nucleation and how these further affect the hydrological cycle.

  16. Support for the Harvard University Water Vapor and Total Water Instruments for the 2004 NASA WB57 Middle Latitude Cirrus Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the role clouds play in the climate system, NASA is investing considerable effort in characterizing clouds with instruments ranging from passive remote sensors on board the EOS platforms, to the forthcoming active remote sensors on Cloudsat and Calipso. These missions, when taken together, have the capacity to advance our understanding of the coupling between various components of the hydrologic cycle and the atmospheric circulation, and hold the additional potential of leading to significant improvements in the characterization of cloud feedbacks in global models. This is especially true considering that several of these platforms will be flown in an identical orbit within several minutes of one another-a constellation of satellites known as the A-Train. The algorithms that are being implemented and developed to convert these new data streams from radiance and reflectivity measurements into geophysical parameters invariably rely on some set of simplifymg assumptions and empirical constants. Uncertainties in these relationships lead to poorly understood random and systematic errors in the retrieved properties. This lack of understanding introduces ambiguity in interpreting the data and in using the global data sets for their intended purposes. In light of this, a series of flights with the W57F was proposed to address certain specific issues related to the basic properties of mid latitude cirrus clouds: the NASA WE357 Middle Latitude Cirrus Experiment ("MidCiX"). The science questions addressed are: 1) Can cloud property retrieval algorithms developed for A-Train active and passive remote sensing measurements accurately characterize the microphysical properties of synoptic and convectively generated cirrus cloud systems? 2) What are the relationships between the cirrus particle mass, projected area, and particle size spectrum in various genre of cirrus clouds? 3) Does the present compliment of state of the art in situ cloud

  17. Coincident occurrences of tropical individual cirrus clouds and deep convective systems derived from TRMM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bing; Xu, Kuan-Man; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Chambers, Lin; Fan, Tai-Fang; Sun, Wenbo

    2007-07-01

    Satellite measurements of cloud properties and atmospheric radiation were used to investigate the effect of spatial and temporal scales on the coincident occurrences of tropical individual cirrus clouds (ICCs) and deep convective systems (DCSs). There is little or even negative correlation between instantaneous occurrences of ICC and DCS in small areas. When spatial and temporal domains are increased, ICCs become more dependent on DCSs due to the origination of many ICCs from DCSs and moisture supply from the DCS in the upper troposphere for the ICCs to grow, resulting in significant positive correlation between the two types of clouds. The estimated radiative feedback due to the change in tropical high cloud area coverage with sea surface temperature appears small and about -0.14 Wm-2K-1, which would not cancel out the estimated anthropogenic forcing of doubled atmospheric CO2.

  18. Microphysics and Radiative Properties of Cirrus: Instrumentation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallett, John

    2002-01-01

    Work under this grant has involved further development of a new aircraft instrument (the cloudscope) for real time characterization of atmospheric particulates together with field observations of such particulates, both in the form of ice and also as nuclei responsible for nucleation of both ice and water cloud particles. Part of the work involving assessment of the frequency of ice crystal shapes has been carried out in collaboration with the Meteorological Service of Canada; part of the work in a field program with the NCAR C-130. Part of the work has been interpreted in terms of laboratory simulation of ice crystal growth under a wide variety of conditions carried out under a grant from Physical Meteorology Program, National Science Foundation.

  19. Backscattering Mueller matrix for quasi-horizontally oriented ice plates of cirrus clouds: application to CALIPSO signals.

    PubMed

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Kustova, Natalia; Okamoto, Hajime

    2012-12-17

    A general view of the backscattering Mueller matrix for the quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal ice crystals of cirrus clouds has been obtained in the case of tilted and scanning lidars. It is shown that the main properties of this matrix are caused by contributions from two qualitatively different components referred to the specular and corner-reflection terms. The numerical calculation of the matrix is worked out in the physical optics approximation. These matrices calculated for two wavelengths and two tilt angles (initial and present) of CALIPSO lidar are presented as a data bank. The depolarization and color ratios for these data have been obtained and discussed. PMID:23263056

  20. ETO lidar studies of cirrostratus altocumulogenitus: Another role for supercooled liquid water in cirrus cloud formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    Cirrus clouds have traditionally been viewed as cold, wispy, or stratiform ice clouds, typically displaying optical phenomena such as haloes. A composition entirely of hexagonal ice crystals, of one habit or another could only have a transitory existence in cirrus, since the concentrations of ice nuclei (IN) measured by various techniques (at the surface or in the lower troposphere) indicate an enormous number of IN that should be active at cirrus cloud temperatures. In light of recent instrumental aircraft and polarization lidar studies of cirrus clouds, it is clear that highly supercooled cloud droplets can sometimes be a component of cirrus clouds. It remains to be determined if supercooled liquid water (SLW) is present abundantly enough in cirrus to play a significant role in earth's radiance balance, or is merely a curious, infrequent occurrence. To help evaluate this issue, the UH polarization lidar FIRE Extended Time Observation (ETO) of cirrus clouds are being utilized to compile, among other parameters, a climatological record of SLW clouds associated with and within cirrus.

  1. Optical properties and vertical distribution of pollution aerosols in the Mediterranean basin in summertime: airborne observations from the Charmex SOP0, SOP1, and SOP2 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Beekmann, Matthias; Chevallier, Servanne; Denjean, Cyrielle; Doppler, Lionel; Gaimoz, Cecile; Grand, Noel; Loisil, Rodrigue; Mallet, Marc; Pelon, Jacques; Ravetta, Francois; Sartelet, Karine; Schnitt, Sabrina; Triquet, Sylvain; Zapf, Pascal; Formenti, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is a very complex area where high concentrations of atmospheric aerosols of different origin and types may be found. The North-Western part of the Mediterranean basin, due to its closeness with high polluted industrialized areas and coastal high populated cities, is frequently affected by severe pollution episodes. The strength of these episodes is particularly intense during summer when stable meteorological conditions favour the accumulation of pollutants in the lowermost atmospheric layers. Three intensive airborne campaigns (TRAQA, TRansport and Air QuAlity, June-July 2012), ADRIMED (Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region, June 2013) and SAFMED (Secondary Aerosol Formation in the MEDiterranean, July 2013) have been conducted over the North-Western and Central Mediterranean basin with the SAFIRE ATR-42 aircraft in the framework of the ChArMex Special Observing Periods 0 and 1. During the different campaigns the ATR-42 was equipped with a large set of instruments for the measurements of the aerosol physico-chemical (GRIMM, SMPS, PCASP, USHAS, FSSP for size distribution, and three lines for filter sampling on polycarbonate and quartz membranes in order to derive the bulk aerosol composition) and optical properties (TSI nephelometer, Magee Sci. aethalomether, and CAPS for scattering, absorption, and extinction coefficients at several wavelengths in the visible). Lidar backscatter profiles at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, meteorological parameters, upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, and atmospheric composition (H2O, CO2, CO, and O3) were also measured from aircraft instrumentation. In this work we present data on the aerosol physico-chemical and optical properties obtained during the 25 scientific flights of TRAQA, ADRIMED, and SAFMED performed in correspondence of pollution episodes. During the campaigns the Western Mediterranean basin was interested by different synoptic

  2. Comparison of physicochemical properties between fine (PM2.5) and coarse airborne particles at cold season in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Oh, Jungsun; Han, Weon Shik; Chon, Chul-Min; Kwon, Youngsang; Kim, Do Yeon; Shin, Woosik

    2016-01-15

    Although it has been well-known that atmospheric aerosols affect negatively the local air quality, human health, and climate changes, the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols are not fully understood yet. This study experimentally measured the physiochemical characteristics of fine and coarse aerosol particles at the suburban area to evaluate relative contribution to environmental pollution in consecutive seasons of autumn and winter, 2014-2015, using XRD, SEM-EDX, XNI, ICP-MS, and TOF-SIMS. For these experimental works, the fine and coarse aerosols were collected by the high volume air sampler for 7 days each season. The fine particles contain approximately 10 μg m(-3) of carbonaceous aerosols consisting of 90% organic and 10% elemental carbon. The spherical-shape carbonaceous particles were observed for the coarse samples as well. Interestingly, the coarse particles in winter showed the increased frequency of carbon-rich particles with high contents of heavy metals. These results suggest that, for the cold season, the coarse particles could contribute relatively more to the conveyance of toxic contaminants compared to the fine particles in the study area. However, the fine particles showed acidic properties so that their deposition to surface may cause facilitate the increase of mobility for toxic heavy metals in soil and groundwater environments. The fine and coarse particulate matters, therefore, should be monitored separately with temporal variation to evaluate the impact of atmospheric aerosols to environmental pollution and human health. PMID:26476059

  3. GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2002-01-01

    Status, progress and plans will be given for current GCSS (GEWEX Cloud System Study) WG2 (Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems) projects, including: (a) the Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project, (b) the Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project (Phase 2), and (c) the developing Hurricane Nora extended outflow model case study project. Past results will be summarized and plans for the upcoming year described. Issues and strategies will be discussed. Prospects for developing improved cloud parameterizations derived from results of GCSS WG2 projects will be assessed. Plans for NASA's CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) potential opportunities for use of those data for WG2 model simulations (future projects) will be briefly described.

  4. Effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geo-engineering on cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebbeler, Miriam; Lohmann, Ulrike; Feichter, Johann

    2012-12-01

    Cooling the Earth through the injection of sulphate into the stratosphere is one of the most discussed geo-engineering (GE) schemes. Stratospheric aerosols can sediment into the troposphere, modify the aerosol composition and thus might impact cirrus clouds. We use a global climate model with a physically based parametrization for cirrus clouds in order to investigate possible microphysical and dynamical effects. We find that enhanced stratospheric aerosol loadings as proposed by several GE approaches will likely lead to a reduced ice crystal nucleation rate and thus optically thinner cirrus clouds. These optically thinner cirrus clouds exert a strong negative cloud forcing in the long-wave which contributes by 60% to the overall net GE forcing. This shows that indirect effects of stratospheric aerosols on cirrus clouds may be important and need to be considered in order to estimate the maximum cooling derived from stratospheric GE.

  5. Investigating In-cloud Relative Humidity and Thin Cirrus in the Upper Tropical Atmosphere Using AIRS, CALIPSO, and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. K.; Kahn, B. H.; Eldering, A.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate vertical and horizontal distributions of tropical oceanic thin cirrus optical and microphysical properties observed by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). These properties are related to thermodynamic quantities, i.e., relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), and cloud top temperature derived from the AIRS Level 2 operational soundings. Differences between all sky and in-cloud RHi are explored and possible mechanisms that explain these anomalies are discussed. Furthermore, we evaluate the hypothesis that many of the observed clouds are physically much thinner than the nominal resolution of AIRS, which may lead to dry biases of in-cloud RHi. To test this we exploit the co-located AIRS RHi and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) cloud thickness. Finally, we diagnose the ability of AIRS to measure water vapor in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) using co- located observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From this, a combined AIRS-MLS RHi product is used to investigate joint distributions of cirrus microphysical and optical properties, and RHi in the TTL.

  6. The radiation budget of a Cirrus layer deduced from simultaneous aircraft observations and model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Kinne, Stefan A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several aircraft were employed during the FIRE Cirrus IFO in order to make nearly simultaneous observations of cloud properties and fluxes. A segment of the flight data collected on 28 October 1988 during which the NASA Ames ER-2 overflew the NCAR King Air was analyzed. The ER-2 flew at high altitude making observations of visible and infrared radiances and infrared flux and cloud height and thickness. During this segment, the King Air flew just above the cloud base making observations of ice crystal size and shape, local meteorological variables, and infrared fluxes. While the two aircraft did not collect data exactly coincident in space and time, they did make observations within a few minutes of each other. For this case study, the infrared radiation balance of the cirrus layer is of primary concern. Observations of the upwelling 10 micron radiance, made from the ER-2, can be used to deduce the 10 micron optical depth of the layer. The upwelling broadband infrared flux is also measured from the ER-2. At the same time, the upwelling and downwelling infrared flux at the cloud base is obtained from the King Air measurements. Information on cloud microphysics is also available from the King Air. Using this data in conjunction with atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles from local radiosondes, the necessary inputs for an infrared radiative transfer model can be developed. Infrared radiative transfer calculations are performed with a multispectral two-stream model. The model fluxes at the cloud base and at 19 km are then compared with the aircraft observations to determine whether the model is performing well. Cloud layer heating rates can then be computed from the radiation exchange.

  7. Cirrus and Polar Stratospheric Cloud Studies using CLAES Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mergenthaler, John L.; Douglass, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We've concluded a 3 year (Period of Performance- January 21, 1998 to February 28, 2001) study of cirrus and polar stratospheric clouds using CLAES (Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer) data. We have described the progress of this study in monthly reports, UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) science team meetings, American Geophysical Society Meetings, refereed publications and collaborative publications. Work undertaken includes the establishment of CLAES cloud detection criteria, the refinement of CLAES temperature retrieval techniques, compare the findings of CLAES with those of other instruments, and present findings to the larger community. This report describes the progress made in these areas.

  8. A Study of Tropical thin Cirrus Clouds with Supervised Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodier, S. D.; Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Accurate knowledge of the temporal frequency and spatial extent of optically thin cirrus is crucial to climate feedback analysis. Current global warming theory asserts that when the atmospheric concentration of CO2 increases, the outgoing longwave radiation at non-window wavelengths is reduced. If the Earth's net radiative balance is to remain stable, ground temperatures must rise in response, thereby increasing thermal emission to space. Current models do not account for subsequent changes in cloud cover, because this aspect of the climate feedback system is so poorly understood. One possible response of the cloud-climate feedback process is an increase in the global occurrence of thin cirrus clouds, driven by the increase in longwave cooling in the upper troposphere that results from higher CO2 concentrations. Exacerbating the difficulty of assessing the situation is the fact that passive remote sensing instruments cannot reliably detect cirrus clouds with optical depths less than ~0.3, because these clouds do not reflect enough sunlight to create a sufficient contrast with the Earth's surface. Now, however, the presence of thin cirrus can for the first time be accurately detected and systematically monitored by the combination of active and passive sensors onboard the CALIPSO satellite. Nevertheless, the data record is still quite limited, as CALIPSO has been in orbit for only 16 months. We have therefore initiated a multi-platform data fusion study to establish a methodology for extending the limited set of CALIPSO measurements to the existing 30-year record of passive remote sensing data, and thus improve our understanding of cloud feedback mechanisms. Using nighttime data from the first 10 days in April 2007 as a training set, we applied a general regression neural network (GRNN) to collocated samples of sea surface temperature (SST) reported by AMSR, brightness temperatures (BT) from the CALIPSO imaging infrared radiometer (IIR), and optical depths

  9. Interference phenomena at backscattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Kustova, Natalia; Konoshonkin, Alexander

    2015-09-21

    It is shown that light backscattering by hexagonal ice crystals of cirrus clouds is formed within the physical-optics approximation by both diffraction and interference phenomena. Diffraction determines the angular width of the backscattering peak and interference produces the interference rings inside the peak. By use of a simple model for distortion of the pristine hexagonal shape, we show that the shape distortion leads to both oscillations of the scattering (Mueller) matrix within the backscattering peak and to a strong increase of the depolarization, color, and lidar ratios needed for interpretation of lidar signals. PMID:26406659

  10. Modeled Impact of Cirrus Cloud Increases Along Aircraft Flight Paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Lonergan, P.; Shah, K.

    1999-01-01

    The potential impact of contrails and alterations in the lifetime of background cirrus due to subsonic airplane water and aerosol emissions has been investigated in a set of experiments using the GISS GCM connected to a q-flux ocean. Cirrus clouds at a height of 12-15km, with an optical thickness of 0.33, were input to the model "x" percentage of clear-sky occasions along subsonic aircraft flight paths, where x is varied from .05% to 6%. Two types of experiments were performed: one with the percentage cirrus cloud increase independent of flight density, as long as a certain minimum density was exceeded; the other with the percentage related to the density of fuel expenditure. The overall climate impact was similar with the two approaches, due to the feedbacks of the climate system. Fifty years were run for eight such experiments, with the following conclusions based on the stable results from years 30-50 for each. The experiments show that adding cirrus to the upper troposphere results in a stabilization of the atmosphere, which leads to some decrease in cloud cover at levels below the insertion altitude. Considering then the total effect on upper level cloud cover (above 5 km altitude), the equilibrium global mean temperature response shows that altering high level clouds by 1% changes the global mean temperature by 0.43C. The response is highly linear (linear correlation coefficient of 0.996) for high cloud cover changes between 0. 1% and 5%. The effect is amplified in the Northern Hemisphere, more so with greater cloud cover change. The temperature effect maximizes around 10 km (at greater than 40C warming with a 4.8% increase in upper level clouds), again more so with greater warming. The high cloud cover change shows the flight path influence most clearly with the smallest warming magnitudes; with greater warming, the model feedbacks introduce a strong tropical response. Similarly, the surface temperature response is dominated by the feedbacks, and shows

  11. Backscattering by hexagonal ice crystals of cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Kustova, Natalia

    2013-08-01

    Light backscattering by randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals of cirrus clouds is considered within the framework of the physical-optics approximation. The fine angular structure of all elements of the Mueller matrix in the vicinity of the exact backward direction is first calculated and discussed. In particular, an approximate equation for the differential scattering cross section is obtained. Its simple spectral dependence is discussed. Also, a hollow of the linear depolarization ratio around the exact backward direction inherent to the long hexagonal columns is revealed. PMID:23903169

  12. Understanding subtropical anvil cirrus: A coupled modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Robert Wyatt

    This research investigates the sensitivity of anvil layer cirrus's characteristics to its mesoscale environment. A coupled modeling system composed of a mesoscale model and cloud model is used to represent the evolution of systems with different scales. Lagrangian trajectories in the mesoscale model are used to determine the mesoscale environment of the simulated anvil and calculate the mesoscale forcing. A new sedimentation parameterization for the cloud model is developed to better represent fall speeds for large particles. Convection and the resulting outflow cirrus occurring near Ft. Myers, Florida on July 16, 2002 are used for the case study. The mesoscale model produced convection and an ice cloud similar to what was observed that day. The cloud model was used to determine the set of cloud processes in response to the mesoscale forcing that produced more condensate and prolonged cloud lifetime. These simulations show that differential radiative heating and cooling is the key process. The cooling and moistening in response to the mesoscale forcing produces more ice, enhancing cloud-top radiative cooling and cloud-base infrared warming. This generates more buoyancy, strengthening the cloud's updrafts and producing many small crystals to further enhance the cloud-top cooling, until sedimentation removes enough mass to end the positive feedbacks. The presence and magnitude of the mesoscale forcing alters the amount of condensate formed, altering the cloud-top cooling rate and the cloud's response to the forcing. The anvil cloud simulation was relatively insensitive to the initial condensate once the cloud becomes optically thick enough to be considered a black-body. While longwave cloud-top cooling is necessary for the interactions between mesoscale forcing and cloud dynamics, the most turbulent anvil cirrus layers require shortwave in-cloud warming. In response to recent measurements of the deposition coefficient, alpha d, I develop a parameterization that

  13. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are given. The AOL system is described and its potential for various measurement applications including bathymetry and fluorosensing is discussed.

  14. Sensitivity Studies of Dust Ice Nuclei Effect on Cirrus Clouds with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Jensen, Eric J.; Gettelman, Andrew; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios; Lawson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effect of dust aerosol on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds through heterogeneous ice nucleation is investigated in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) with two ice nucleation parameterizations. Both parameterizations consider homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and the competition between the two mechanisms in cirrus clouds, but differ significantly in the number concentration of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) from dust. Heterogeneous nucleation on dust aerosol reduces the occurrence frequency of homogeneous nucleation and thus the ice crystal number concentration in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) cirrus clouds compared to simulations with pure homogeneous nucleation. Global and annual mean shortwave and longwave cloud forcing are reduced by up to 2.0+/-0.1Wm (sup-2) (1 uncertainty) and 2.4+/-0.1Wm (sup-2), respectively due to the presence of dust IN, with the net cloud forcing change of -0.40+/-0.20W m(sup-2). Comparison of model simulations with in situ aircraft data obtained in NH mid-latitudes suggests that homogeneous ice nucleation may play an important role in the ice nucleation at these regions with temperatures of 205-230 K. However, simulations overestimate observed ice crystal number concentrations in the tropical tropopause regions with temperatures of 190- 205 K, and overestimate the frequency of occurrence of high ice crystal number concentration (greater than 200 L(sup-1) and underestimate the frequency of low ice crystal number concentration (less than 30 L(sup-1) at NH mid-latitudes. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the number concentrations and properties of heterogeneous IN (including dust aerosol) in the upper troposphere from the global perspective.

  15. Sensitivity Studies of Dust Ice Nuclei Effect on Cirrus Clouds with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohong; Shi, Xiangjun; Zhang, Kai; Jensen, Eric; Gettelman, A.; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios; Lawson, Paul

    2012-12-19

    In this study the effect of dust aerosol on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds through heterogeneous ice nucleation is investigated in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) with two ice nucleation parameterizations. Both parameterizations consider homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and the competition between the two mechanisms in cirrus clouds, but differ significantly in the number concentration of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) from dust. Heterogeneous nucleation on dust aerosol reduces the occurrence frequency of homogeneous nucleation and thus the ice crystal number concentration in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) cirrus clouds compared to simulations with pure homogeneous nucleation. Global and annual mean shortwave and longwave cloud forcing are reduced by up to 2.0 ± 0.1 W m-2 (1σ uncertainty) and 2.4 ± 0.1 W m-2, respectively due to the presence of dust IN, with the net cloud forcing change of -0.40 ± 0.20 W m-2. Comparison of model simulations with in situ aircraft data obtained in NH mid-latitudes suggests that homogeneous ice nucleation may play an important role in the ice nucleation at these regions with temperatures of 205–230 K. However, simulations overestimate observed ice crystal number concentrations in the tropical tropopause regions with temperatures of 190–205 K, and overestimate the frequency of occurrence of high ice crystal number concentration (> 200 L-1) and underestimate the frequency of low ice crystal number concentration (< 30 L-1) at NH mid-latitudes. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the number concentrations and properties of heterogeneous IN (including dust aerosol) in the upper troposphere from the global perspective.

  16. The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO Cirrus Case Study: Cirrus Parameter Relationships Derived from Satellite and Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Sassen, Kenneth; Alvarez, Joseph M.; Grund, Christian J.

    1990-01-01

    Cirrus cloud radiative and physical characteristics are determined using a combination of ground-based, aircraft, and satellite measurements taken as part of the FIRE Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO) during October and November 1986. Lidar backscatter data are used with rawinsonde data to define cloud base, center, and top heights and the corresponding temperatures. Coincident GOES 4-km visible (0.65 micro-m) and 8-km infrared window (11.5 micro-m) radiances are analyzed to determine cloud emittances and reflectances. Infrared optical depth is computed from the emittance results. Visible optical depth is derived from reflectance using a theoretical ice crystal scattering model and an empirical bidirectional reflectance model. No clouds with visible optical depths greater than 5 or infrared optical depths less than 0.1 were used in the analysis. Average cloud thickness ranged from 0.5 km to 8.0 km for the 71 scenes. Mean vertical beam emittances derived from cloud-center temperatures were 0.62 for all scenes compared to 0.33 for the case study (27-28 October) reflecting the thinner clouds observed for the latter scenes. Relationships between cloud emittance, extinction coefficients, and temperature for the case study are very similar to those derived from earlier surface- based studies. The thicker clouds seen during the other IFO days yield different results. Emittances derived using cloud-top temperature were ratioed to those determined from cloud-center temperature. A nearly linear relationship between these ratios and cloud-center temperature holds promise for determining actual cloud-top temperatures and cloud thicknesses from visible and infrared radiance pairs. The mean ratio of the visible scattering optical depth to the infrared absorption optical depth was 2.13 for these data. This scattering efficiency ratio shows a significant dependence on cloud temperature. Values of mean scattering efficiency as high as 2.6 suggest the presence of small ice

  17. The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO Cirrus Case Study: Cirrus Parameter Relationships Derived from Satellite and Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Sassen, Kenneth; Alvarez, Joseph M.; Grund, Christian J.

    1996-01-01

    Cirrus cloud radiative and physical characteristics are determined using a combination of ground based, aircraft, and satellite measurements taken as part of the First ISCCP Region Experiment (FIRE) cirrus intensive field observations (IFO) during October and November 1986. Lidar backscatter data are used with rawinsonde data to define cloud base, center and top heights and the corresponding temperatures. Coincident GOES-4 4-km visible (0.65 micrometer) and 8-km infrared window (11.5 micrometer) radiances are analyzed to determine cloud emittances and reflectances. Infrared optical depth is computed from the emittance results. Visible optical depth is derived from reflectance using a theoretical ice crystal scattering model and an empirical bidirectional reflectance model. No clouds with visible optical depths greater than 5 or infrared optical depths less than 0.1 were used in the analysis. Average cloud thickness ranged from 0.5 km to 8.0 km for the 71 scenes. Mean vertical beam emittances derived from cloud-center temperatures were 062 for all scenes compared to 0.33 for the case study (27-28 October) reflecting the thinner clouds observed for the latter scenes. Relationships between cloud emittance , extinction coefficients, and temperature for the case study are very similar to those derived from earlier surface-based studies. The thicker clouds seen during the other IFO days yield different results. Emittances derived using cloud-top temperature wer ratioed to those determined from cloud-center temperature. A nearly linear relationship between these ratios and cloud-center temperature holds promise for determining actual cloud-top temperature and cloud thickness from visible and infrared radiance pairs. The mean ratio of the visible scattering optical depth to the infrared absorption optical depth was 2.13 for these data. This scattering efficiency ratio shows a significant dependence on cloud temperature. Values of mean scattering efficiency as high as 2

  18. The origin of the gullwing-shaped cirrus above an Argentinian thunderstorm as seen in CALIPSO images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pao K.; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Setvak, Martin; Wang, Chen-Kang

    2016-04-01

    Gullwing-shaped cirrus layers are observed on an image above a severe thunderstorm occurred in Argentina taken by the instrument CALIOP on board of the CALIPSO satellite. The cirrus layers extended into a level in the stratosphere even higher than the above-anvil cirrus plumes that had been studied previously. This paper utilized the cloud model simulation results of a similar storm to explain the formation of such gullwing cirrus. It is shown that these cirrus layers can form from the moisture transported upward by successive internal gravity wave breaking at levels higher than the above-anvil plumes. The vertical locus of the wave crests where wave breaking occurs is itself gullwing-shaped which is the main reason why the thin cirrus layers are also gullwing shaped. Model results indicate that wave breaking can transport materials irreversibly into higher stratospheric layers and the gullwing-shaped cirrus is an evidence of this transport process.

  19. Airborne Observations of Drizzle in Marine Sc during VOCALS-REx: quantification, and implications for boundary-layer dynamics and cloud properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, D.; Snider, J. R.; Wang, Z.; Zuidema, P.; Wood, R.

    2009-12-01

    Airborne radar, lidar, and radiometric measurements together with in situ measurements of cloud- and precipitation-particle distributions collected onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Land-Atmosphere Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) are used to derive drizzle rates and accretion/evaporation profiles for the variety of marine Sc conditions encountered during VOCALS-REx. These measurements not only reconfirm the importance of drizzle as an essential feature of marine Sc (consistent with results from previous field studies including EPIC and DYCOMS-II), but also provide a comprehensive dataset for investigation of the links between drizzle, cloud properties, and the dynamics and organization the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL). Radar-lidar retrievals of drizzle rate from sub-cloud legs and conditional-sampling of in situ droplet size distributions are used to develop a Reflectivity-Rainrate (Z-R) relationship which is applied to radar reflectivity measurements from the Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR) and to examine the sensitivity of the resulting drizzle rate estimates to the underlying approach used to determine a family of Z-R relationships. These relationships are known to be a function of height, since the droplet spectrum shifts towards larger sizes below cloud base as a result of evaporation, but may also depend on cloud properties such as droplet number concentration. For instance, in Pockets of Open Cells (POC) where droplet concentrations are very low, the size spectrum of drizzle droplets shifts to smaller sizes. Vertical profiles of the drizzle rate are used to infer profiles of accretion (in cloud) and evaporation (sub cloud). Knowledge of the accretion profiles is necessary for quantifying the coalescence-scavenging rate, while the evaporation profile is of interest from the boundary-layer dynamics perspective. Finally, we examine the spatial distribution of drizzle to grasp the factors influencing the degree to which drizzle is

  20. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Below-canopy Surface Water Height , Slope and Optical Properties in the Florida Everglades Shark River Slough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, P.; Harding, D. J.; Valett, S. R.; Yu, A. W.; Feliciano, E. A.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Pitts, K.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the presence, persistence, optical properties and variation in height and slope of surface water beneath the dense canopies of flooded forests and mangrove stands could contribute to studies of the acquisition of water and nutrients by plant roots. NASA's airborne Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) provides unique capabilities that can identify below-canopy surface water, measure its height with respect to vegetation constituents with sub-decimeter precision and quantify its slope. It also provides information on canopy structure and closure, the water column extinction profile as a proxy for turbidity and water depth, with the penetration depth constrained by turbidity. It achieves this by using four laser beams operating at two wavelengths with measurements of water surface elevation at 1064 nm (near infrared) and water column properties at 532 nm (green), analogous to a bathymetric lidar. Importantly the instrument adds a polarimetry function, like some atmospheric lidars, which measures the amount of depolarization determined by the degree to which the plane-parallel transmitted laser pulse energy is converted to the perpendicular state. The degree of depolarization is sensitive to the number of photon multiple-scattering events. For the water surface, which is specular consisting only of single-scattering events, the near-infrared received signal retains the parallel polarization state. Absence of the perpendicular signal uniquely identifies surface water. Penetration of green light and the depth profile of photons converted to the perpendicular state compared to those in the parallel state is a measure of water-column multiple scattering, providing a relative measure of turbidity. The amount of photons reflected from the canopy versus the water provides a wavelength-dependent measure of canopy closure. By rapidly firing laser pulses (11,400 pulses per second) with a narrow width (1 nsec) and detecting single photons

  1. A Simple Model of Cirrus Horizontal Inhomogeneity and Cloud Fraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1998-01-01

    A simple model of horizontal inhomogeneity and cloud fraction in cirrus clouds has been formulated on the basis that all internal horizontal inhomogeneity in the ice mixing ratio is due to variations in the cloud depth, which are assumed to be Gaussian. The use of such a model was justified by the observed relationship between the normalized variability of the ice water mixing ratio (and extinction) and the normalized variability of cloud depth. Using radar cloud depth data as input, the model reproduced well the in-cloud ice water mixing ratio histograms obtained from horizontal runs during the FIRE2 cirrus campaign. For totally overcast cases the histograms were almost Gaussian, but changed as cloud fraction decreased to exponential distributions which peaked at the lowest nonzero ice value for cloud fractions below 90%. Cloud fractions predicted by the model were always within 28% of the observed value. The predicted average ice water mixing ratios were within 34% of the observed values. This model could be used in a GCM to produce the ice mixing ratio probability distribution function and to estimate cloud fraction. It only requires basic meteorological parameters, the depth of the saturated layer and the standard deviation of cloud depth as input.

  2. The sources of variability and uncertainty in global cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Sylvia; Nenes, Athanasios; Morales-Betancourt, Ricardo; Barahona, Donifan

    2015-04-01

    Although recent research has focused on more accurately representing heterogeneous ice nucleation in climate models, significant uncertainties are still associated with these nucleation spectra. Here we present adjoint techniques as a new, computationally efficient means of helping to minimize these uncertainites. Automatic differentiation tools are used to construct the adjoint model of the 2009 Barahona and Nenes ice nucleation parameterization (ABN13), run in both the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model version 5 at pressure levels relevant to both cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Ice crystal number sensitivities to dynamic and aerosol inputs are calculated using two empirical spectra (Phillips et al. 2008 and Phillips et al. 2013) and one spectrum based on classical nucleation theory (Barahona and Nenes 2009). At cirrus-relevant altitudes, the sensitivity can be used to classify freezing regime; we see large regions of homogeneous freezing in the tropics but predominantly heterogeneous freezing elsewhere. The more recent empirical spectrum indicates the importance of accumulation mode dust number; of appropriately representating vertical motions; and of accurate threshold supersaturations in determining in-cloud crystal number on a global scale. Glassy aerosol has a small, seasonally-dependent contribution at high altitudes, while the global contribution of black carbon to ice number becomes negligible. Attribution analyses also allows us to pinpoint which variables and regions generate the most variability in ice crystal number, and whether this variability comes from inherent parameterization biases or from input fluctuations.

  3. Benchmarking longwave multiple scattering in cirrus environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C.; Feldman, D.; Yang, P.; Flanner, M.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Many global climate models currently assume that longwave photons are non-scattering in clouds, and also have overly simplistic treatments of surface emissivity. Multiple scattering of longwave radiation and non-unit emissivity could lead to substantial discrepancies between the actual Earth's radiation budget and its parameterized representation in the infrared, especially at wavelengths longer than 15 µm. The evaluation of the parameterization of longwave spectral multiple scattering in radiative transfer codes for global climate models is critical and will require benchmarking across a wide range atmospheric conditions with more accurate, though computationally more expensive, multiple scattering models. We therefore present a line-by-line radiative transfer solver that includes scattering, run on a supercomputer from the National Energy Research Scientific Computing that exploits the embarrassingly parallel nature of 1-D radiative transfer solutions with high effective throughput. When paired with an advanced ice-particle optical property database with spectral values ranging from the 0.2 to 100 μm, a particle size and habit distribution derived from MODIS Collection 6, and a database for surface emissivity which extends to 100 μm, this benchmarking result can densely sample the thermodynamic and condensate parameter-space, and therefore accelerate the development of an advanced infrared radiative parameterization for climate models, which could help disentangle forcings and feedbacks in CMIP6.

  4. A morphological filter for removing 'Cirrus-like' emission from far-infrared extragalactic IRAS fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Siqueira, P. R.; Basart, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of diffuse extended IR emission from the Galaxy in the form of the so called 'Galactic Cirrus' emission has hampered the exploration of the extragalactic sky at long IR wavelengths. We describe the development of a filter based on mathematical morphology which appears to be a promising approach to the problem of cirrus removal. The method of Greyscale Morphology was applied to a 100 micron IRAS image of the M81 group of galaxies. This is an extragalactic field which suffers from serious contamination from foreground Galactic 'cirrus'. Using a technique called 'sieving', it was found that the cirrus emission has a characteristic behavior which can be quantified in terms of an average spatial structure spectrum or growth function. This function was then used to attempt to remove 'cirrus' from the entire image. The result was a significant reduction of cirrus emission by an intensity factor of 15 compared with the original input image. The method appears to preserve extended emission in the spatially extended IR disks of M81 and M82 as well as distinguishing fainter galaxies within bright regions of galactic cirrus. The techniques may also be applicable to IR databases obtained with the Cosmic Background Explorer.

  5. Balloon-borne match measurements of midlatitude cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, A.; Luo, B. P.; Engel, I.; Wienhold, F. G.; Sprenger, M.; Krieger, U. K.; Weers, U.; Romanens, G.; Levrat, G.; Jeannet, P.; Ruffieux, D.; Philipona, R.; Calpini, B.; Spichtinger, P.; Peter, T.

    2014-07-01

    Observations of high supersaturations with respect to ice inside cirrus clouds with high ice water content (> 0.01 g kg-1) and high crystal number densities (> 1 cm-3) are challenging our understanding of cloud microphysics and of climate feedback processes in the upper troposphere. However, single measurements of a cloudy air mass provide only a snapshot from which the persistence of ice supersaturation cannot be judged. We introduce here the "cirrus match technique" to obtain information about the evolution of clouds and their saturation ratio. The aim of these coordinated balloon soundings is to analyze the same air mass twice. To this end the standard radiosonde equipment is complemented by a frost point hygrometer, "SnowWhite", and a particle backscatter detector, "COBALD" (Compact Optical Backscatter AerosoL Detector). Extensive trajectory calculations based on regional weather model COSMO (Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling) forecasts are performed for flight planning, and COSMO analyses are used as a basis for comprehensive microphysical box modeling (with grid scale of 2 and 7 km, respectively). Here we present the results of matching a cirrus cloud to within 2-15 km, realized on 8 June 2010 over Payerne, Switzerland, and a location 120 km downstream close to Zurich. A thick cirrus cloud was detected over both measurement sites. We show that in order to quantitatively reproduce the measured particle backscatter ratios, the small-scale temperature fluctuations not resolved by COSMO must be superimposed on the trajectories. The stochastic nature of the fluctuations is captured by ensemble calculations. Possibilities for further improvements in the agreement with the measured backscatter data are investigated by assuming a very slow mass accommodation of water on ice, the presence of heterogeneous ice nuclei, or a wide span of (spheroidal) particle shapes. However, the resulting improvements from these microphysical refinements are moderate and comparable in

  6. Evaluation of cloud-resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-train observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlbauer, A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, R. P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    the microphysical, macrophysical, and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable need for reducing observational uncertainties and providing better observations especially for relative humidity and for the size distribution and chemical composition of aerosols in the upper troposphere.

  7. The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: Cirrus parameter relationships derived from satellite and lidar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.; Sassen, Kenneth; Alvarez, Joseph M.; Grund, Christian J.

    1989-01-01

    Cirrus cloud radiative and physical characteristics are determined using a combination of ground-based, aircraft, and satellite measurements taken as part of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO) during October and November 1986. Lidar backscatter data are used to define cloud base, center, and top heights and the corresponding temperatures. Coincident GOES 4 km visible (0.65 microns) and 8 km infrared window (11.5 microns) radiances are analyzed to determine cloud emittances and reflectances. Infrared optical depth is computed from the emittance results. Visible optical depth is derived from reflectance using a theoretical ice crystal scattering model and an empirical bidirectional reflectance mode. No clouds with visible optical depths greater than 5 or infrared optical depths less than 0.1 were used in the analysis. Average cloud thickness ranged from 0.5 km to 8 km for the 71 scenes. An average visible scattering efficiency of 2.1 was found for this data set. The results reveal a significant dependence of scattering efficiency on cloud temperature.

  8. A method for determination of cirrus extinction-to-backscatter ratio from CALIOP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingbin; Nee, Jan-Bai

    2016-06-01

    We are presenting an empirical equation to retrieve cirrus lidar ratio by using CALIOP 532 nm level 1 data for nighttime cases. Retrieval results have non-relationship with cirrus multiple scattering effects and not affected by the error of transmission. The average CALIPSO 532 nm cirrus lidar ratio over Longitude 120+/- 10 and Latitude 25+/-10 for whole year of 2008 are 21.66±0.06sr for the year of 2008 respectively, with the maximum bias of 9.25% for the year 2008, the results is fairly stable and reasonable.

  9. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Characteristics as Estimated by A Micropulse Ground-Based Lidar and A Spaceborne Lidar CALIOP Datasets Over Lille, France (50.60 °N, 3.14 ° E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohra, Rita; Parol, Frédéric; Dubuisson, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Our goal is to establish a climatology of cirrus cloud properties over Lille, France (50.60°N, 3.14 °E) using a ground-based lidar. A statistical analysis of mid-latitude cirrus clouds from lidar data in Lille over the period 2008-2013 is presented and discussed. The macrophysical properties (cloud base altitude, cloud top altitude, geometrical thickness, mid-cloud temperature) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness and lidar ratio) are evaluated and compared between the ground-based and the spaceborne lidar CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) measurements for the period 2008-2013. We found similar results of macrophysical properties derived from both lidars. In addition a difference in the optical properties results is due to the multiple scattering and the heterogeneity of the observed scenes.

  10. In Situ Balloon-Borne Ice Particle Imaging in High-Latitude Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Cirrus clouds reflect incoming solar radiation, creating a cooling effect. At the same time, these clouds absorb the infrared radiation from the Earth, creating a greenhouse effect. The net effect, crucial for radiative transfer, depends on the cirrus microphysical properties, such as particle size distributions and particle shapes. Knowledge of these cloud properties is also needed for calibrating and validating passive and active remote sensors. Ice particles of sizes below 100 µm are inherently difficult to measure with aircraft-mounted probes due to issues with resolution, sizing, and size-dependent sampling volume. Furthermore, artefacts are produced by shattering of particles on the leading surfaces of the aircraft probes when particles several hundred microns or larger are present. Here, we report on a series of balloon-borne in situ measurements that were carried out at a high-latitude location, Kiruna in northern Sweden (68N 21E). The method used here avoids these issues experienced with the aircraft probes. Furthermore, with a balloon-borne instrument, data are collected as vertical profiles, more useful for calibrating or evaluating remote sensing measurements than data collected along horizontal traverses. Particles are collected on an oil-coated film at a sampling speed given directly by the ascending rate of the balloon, 4 m s-1. The collecting film is advanced uniformly inside the instrument so that an always unused section of the film is exposed to ice particles, which are measured by imaging shortly after sampling. The high optical resolution of about 4 µm together with a pixel resolution of 1.65 µm allows particle detection at sizes of 10 µm and larger. For particles that are 20 µm (12 pixel) in size or larger, the shape can be recognized. The sampling volume, 130 cm3 s-1, is well defined and independent of particle size. With the encountered number concentrations of between 4 and 400 L-1, this required about 90- to 4-s sampling times to

  11. From HYSOMA to ENSOMAP - A new open source tool for quantitative soil properties mapping based on hyperspectral imagery from airborne to spaceborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Rabe, Andreas; Foerster, Saskia; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Soil spectroscopy from the visible-near infrared to the short wave infrared has been shown to be a proven method for the quantitative prediction of key soil surface properties in the laboratory, field, and up to airborne studies for exposed soils in appropriate surface conditions. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors within the next 3 to 5 years (EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, SHALOM), a great potential for the global mapping and monitoring of soil properties is appearing. This potential can be achieved only if adequate software tools are available, as shown by the increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products from the geoscience community that have neither the capacity nor the expertise to deliver these soil products. In this context, recently many international efforts were tuned toward the development of robust and easy-to-access soil algorithms to allow non-remote sensing experts to obtain geoscience information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In particular, several algorithms for geological and mineral mapping were recently released such as the U.S. Geological Survey Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM) software, or the GFZ EnMAP Geological Mapper. For quantitative soil mapping and monitoring, the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral Soil Mapper) software interface was developed at GFZ under the EUFAR (www.eufar.net) and the EnMAP (www.enmap.org) programs. HYSOMA was specifically oriented toward digital soil mapping applications and has been distributed since 2012 for free as IDL plug-ins under the IDL-virtual machine at www.gfz-potsdam.de/hysoma under a close source license. The HYSOMA interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. With more than 100 users around the world

  12. Airborne Studies in the Arctic in Support of FIRE-III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    This grant supported (i) the participation of the University of Washington's (UW) Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG), with its Convair-580 research aircraft, in the FIRE-ACE field study in the Arctic; (ii) analyses of portions of the data collected; (iii) presentation of results at conferences and workshops; (iv) formal publication of results; and, (v) archiving of the data collected by the UW/CARG. The UW/CARG Convair-580 flew twenty-three research flights, totaling over 97 research hours, in the FIRE-ACE field study during the period 19 May through 24 June 1998. Six flights were beneath the NASA ER-2 aircraft, eight flights over the instrumented SHEBA ship, and eleven flights over the DOE ARM site in Barrow, Alaska. Measurements of cloud radiative properties and cloud structures were obtained in stratus, altocumulus and cirrus clouds. Aerosol measurements were obtained in polluted arctic haze, and in very clean conditions. Several new instruments were flown on the UW Convair-580, including the Gerber g-meter, the NASA/Goddard spectral full-scanning radiometer, and the SPEC cloud particle imager (CPI). A complete listing of all of the UW Convair-580 flights in FIRE-ACE is given in the report by Hobbs listed as (ii) in Section 3 below. The UW/CARG focussed its own analyses of these data on the airborne in situ measurements of clouds and aerosols. This resulted in five formal publications, covering topics ranging from the production of aerosols by clouds and aerosol effects on surface heating in the arctic, to the structures of arctic clouds and comparisons of in situ measurements of cloud structures with deductions from remote sensing measurements.

  13. The Occurrence of Particle Size Distribution Bimodality in Midlatitude Cirrus as Inferred from Ground-Based Remote Sensing Data

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yang; Mace, Gerald G; Comstock, Jennifer M

    2011-06-01

    To better understand the role of small particles in the microphysical processes and the radiative properties of cirrus, the reliability of historical in-situ data must be understood. Recent studies call into question the validity of that data because of shattering of large crystals on probe and aircraft surfaces thereby artificially amplifying the concentration of crystals smaller than approximately 50 μm. We contend that the general character of the in-situ measurements must be consistent, in a broad sense, with statistics derived from long-term remote sensing data. To examine this consistency, an algorithm using Doppler radar moments and Raman lidar extinction is developed to retrieve a bimodal particle size distribution and its uncertainty. Using case studies and statistics compiled over one year we show that the existence of high concentrations (> 1 cm-3 ) of small (sub 50 μm) particles in cirrus are not consistent with any reasonable interpretation of the remote sensing data. We conclude that the high concentrations of small particles found in many aircraft data sets are therefore likely an artifact of the in situ measurement process.

  14. Serendipity Observations of Far Infrared Cirrus Emission in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey: Analysis of Far-Infrared Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Boulanger, François; Lagache, Guilaine; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Draine, Bruce; Martin, Peter

    2009-04-01

    We present an analysis of far-infrared (FIR) dust emission from diffuse cirrus clouds. This study is based on serendipitous observations at 160 μm at high-galactic latitude with the Multiband Imaging Photometer onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope by the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. These observations are complemented with IRIS data at 100 and 60 μm and constitute one of the most sensitive and unbiased samples of FIR observations at a small scale of diffuse interstellar clouds. Outside regions dominated by the cosmic infrared background fluctuations, we observe a substantial scatter in the 160/100 colors from cirrus emission. We compared the 160/100 color variations to 60/100 colors in the same fields and find a trend of decreasing 60/100 with increasing 160/100. This trend cannot be accounted for by current dust models by changing solely the interstellar radiation field. It requires a significant change of dust properties such as grain size distribution or emissivity or a mixing of clouds in different physical conditions along the line of sight. These variations are important as a potential confusing foreground for extragalactic studies. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  15. A Hierarchical Modeling Study of the Interactions Among Turbulence, Cloud Microphysics, and Radiative Transfer in the Evolution of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Judith; Khvorostyanov, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    This project used a hierarchy of cloud resolving models to address the following science issues of relevance to CRYSTAL-FACE: What ice crystal nucleation mechanisms are active in the different types of cirrus clouds in the Florida area and how do these different nucleation processes influence the evolution of the cloud system and the upper tropospheric humidity? How does the feedback between supersaturation and nucleation impact the evolution of the cloud? What is the relative importance of the large-scale vertical motion and the turbulent motions in the evolution of the crystal size spectra? How does the size spectra impact the life-cycle of the cloud, stratospheric dehydration, and cloud radiative forcing? What is the nature of the turbulence and waves in the upper troposphere generated by precipitating deep convective cloud systems? How do cirrus microphysical and optical properties vary with the small-scale dynamics? How do turbulence and waves in the upper troposphere influence the cross-tropopause mixing and stratospheric and upper tropospheric humidity? The models used in this study were: 2-D hydrostatic model with explicit microphysics that can account for 30 size bins for both the droplet and crystal size spectra. Notably, a new ice crystal nucleation scheme has been incorporated into the model. Parcel model with explicit microphysics, for developing and evaluating microphysical parameterizations. Single column model for testing bulk microphysics parameterizations

  16. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  17. Dual Wavelength Lidar Observation of Tropical High-Altitude Cirrus Clouds During the ALBATROSS 1996 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, G.; Schafer, J.; Neuber, R.; Schrems, O.; McDermid, I. S.

    1998-01-01

    Dual wavelength aerosol lidar observations of tropical high-altitude cirrus clouds were performed during the ALBATROSS 1996 campaign aboard the research vessel POLARSTERN on the Atlantic ocean in October-November 1996.

  18. Measurements of cirrus cloud backscatter color ratio with a two-wavelength lidar.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zongming; McCormick, M Patrick; Wu, Dong; Liu, Zhaoyan; Vaughan, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    We present observations of cirrus clouds from June 2006 to July 2007 performed by using a two-wavelength lidar located at Hampton University. For this time period, cirrus clouds were observed mostly in 7-13.5 km altitudes. Data analyses have been performed focusing on a color-ratio retrieval. In total, 86,369 samples from 1,689 profiles (1 min average and 15 m range resolution) containing cirrus clouds with attenuated backscatter ratio (ratio of attenuated total backscatter to the molecular backscatter) larger than 10 have been selected. The cirrus color ratio distribution shows a peak value at about 0.88 and a full width at half-maximum of 0.12. PMID:18382576

  19. Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Cho, Byung S.

    1992-01-01

    A polarization (0.694 microns wavelength) lidar dataset for subvisual and thin (bluish-colored) cirrus clouds is drawn from project FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) extended time observations. The clouds are characterized by their day-night visual appearance; base, top, and optical midcloud heights and temperatures; measured physical and estimated optical cloud thicknesses; integrated linear depolarization ratios; and derived k/2 eta ratios. A subset of the data supporting 30 NOAA polar-orbiting satellite overpasses is given in tabular form to provide investigators with the means to test cloud retrieval algorithms and establish the limits of cirrus detectability from satellite measurements under various conditions. Climatologically, subvisual-thin cirrus appear to be higher, colder, and more strongly depolarizing than previously reported multilatitude cirrus, although similar k/2 eta that decrease with height and temperature are found.

  20. CRYSTAL: The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E.; Cox, Stephen K.; Curran, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    CRYSTAL the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Layers is part of the ongoing series of field experiments to study clouds and their impact on world weather and climate, and will attempt to improve the application of cloud effects in global climate models. CRYSTAL is being planned as two parts: a limited CRYSTAL field campaign in 2001 to examine towering clouds and anvil genesis over the Everglades of Florida, and the main CRYSTAL field campaign in the summer of 2003 in the Tropical Western Pacific. The latter is timed to take advantage of several cloud measurement satellites that will be operational at that time. This paper discusses some of the issues to be addressed in CRYSTAL, gives a brief description of the research plan, and describes its relationship to other important field experiments.

  1. Replicator for characterization of cirrus and polar stratospheric cloud particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallett, John; Purcell, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    A formvar replicator for installation in an aircraft pod has been designed, built, and flight tested on the NASA DC-8. The system incorporates a deicing capability (which can be pressure activated) to enable climb out through icing situations prior to deployment. The system can be operated at preselected speeds such that data can be recorded over a period of one to ten hours on 200 ft of 16mm film. A x2 speed control can be used during flight. Capability exists for detection of chemical constituents by appropriate doping of the formvar solution. An article entitled 'Measurements of ice particles in tropical cirrus anvils: importance in radiation balance' is attached as appendix A.

  2. Radiative Influences On The Dynamical Structure of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

    The results of a study will be presented which investigates the role of radiative and la- tent heating processes on the dynamical and microphysical evolution of cirrus clouds. The UK Met. Office's LES model run in 2D is used as the cloud resolving model for this work. Results will be shown pertaining to the effects that solar and IR radiation have on cloud stability, morphology, microphysics, time evolution, and cloud lifetime. In an attempt to generalize the results beyond the model calculations, stability num- bers will be presented that help to assess the influence that these diabatic processes have on the cloud stability. Recent work will also be shown pertaining to full 3D model simulations and a study showing a comparison of results from the LES double moment microphysics scheme to observations.

  3. The hydrological cycle response to cirrus cloud thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristjánsson, Jón Egill; Muri, Helene; Schmidt, Hauke

    2015-12-01

    Recent multimodel studies have shown that if one attempts to cancel increasing CO2 concentrations by reducing absorbed solar radiation, the hydrological cycle will weaken if global temperature is kept unchanged. Using a global climate model, we investigate the hydrological cycle response to "cirrus cloud thinning (CCT)," which is a proposed climate engineering technique that seeks to enhance outgoing longwave radiation. Investigations of the "fast response" in experiments with fixed sea surface temperatures reveal that CCT causes a significant enhancement of the latent heat flux and precipitation. This is due to enhanced radiative cooling of the troposphere, which is opposite to the effect of increased CO2 concentrations. By combining CCT with CO2 increase in multidecadal simulations with a slab ocean, we demonstrate a systematic enhancement of the hydrological cycle due to CCT. This leads to enhanced moisture availability in low-latitude land regions and a strengthening of the Indian monsoon.

  4. A modelling study of moisture redistribution by thin cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, T.; Fueglistaler, S.; Durran, D.; Ackerman, T.

    2014-05-01

    A high resolution 2-dimensional numerical model is used to study the moisture redistribution following homogeneous ice nucleation induced by Kelvin waves in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We compare results for dry/moist initial conditions, and three levels of complexity for the representation of cloud processes: full bin microphysics and radiative effects of the ice, ditto but without radiative effects, and instantaneous removal of moisture in excess of saturation upon nucleation. Cloud evolution and the profiles of moisture redistribution are found to be sensitive to initial conditions and cloud processes. Ice sedimentation leads to a downward flux of water. On the other hand, the cloud radiative heating induces upward advection of the cloudy air. This results in an upward flux of water vapour if the cloudy air is moister (or drier) than the environment, which is typically when the environment is subsaturated (or supersaturated). The numerical results show that only a small fraction (less than 25%) of the cloud experiences nucleation. Sedimentation and reevaporation are important, and hydrated layers in observation may be as good an indicator as dehydrated layers for the occurrence of thin cirrus clouds. The calculation with instantaneous removal of condensates misses the hydration by construction, but also underestimates dehydration due to lack of moisture removal from sedimenting particles below the nucleation level, and due to nucleation before reaching the minimum saturation mixing ratio. The sensitivity to initial conditions and cloud processes suggests that it is difficult to reach generic, quantitative conclusions regarding the role of thin cirrus clouds for the moisture distribution in the TTL and stratosphere.

  5. The three-dimensional structure of the infrared cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaustad, John E.

    1994-01-01

    This project was carried out over a period of four years, beginning 6/15/89 and continuing through 9/15/93. Intermediate results have been reported as poster papers at several meetings of the American Astronomical Society. A brief summary was presented in April 1993 at a symposium on the infrared cirrus. The final results were published in late 1993. The measurements have been deposited in NASA's Astronomical Data Center. Briefly, the results are as follows: Using the IRAS data base, we surveyed the 1808 06-B9.5 stars in the Bright Star Catalog for extended excess emission at 60 micrometers, indicating the presence of heated dust (cirrus hotspots) at the location of the star. Measurements of the angular size and infrared flux at 12, 25, 60 and 100 micrometers were obtained for 302 objects. From these basic data we calculated the radius, absorption, optical depth, color temperature, and dust density for each object. Arguing that the stars are randomly distributed point probes of the ISM, we showed that the filling factor of the dust-bearing component of the ISM is 14.6 + 2.4 percent within 400 pc of the sun for clouds with an equivalent hydrogen density greater than 0.5 cm(exp -3). Above a density of 1.0 cm(exp -3) the density distribution function appears to follow a power law of index -1.25. Further, we showed that the dust is distributed more sparsely in a region near the sun about 60 pc wide and extending several hundred parsecs in the direction of longitudes 80-260 deg. The distances to the dust clouds were determined from the spectroscopic parallaxes of the embedded stars; when the HIPPARCOS parallaxes become available, we will be able to produce a more accurate three-dimensional view of the local ISM.

  6. Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai

    2002-10-20

    We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization ratios for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar ratio are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar ratio, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar ratio, the optical depth, and the depolarization ratio were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar ratios compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar ratios are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization ratio is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization ratio with the lidar ratio was also reported. The lidar and depolarization ratios were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals. PMID:12396200

  7. Distinguishing cirrus cloud presence in autonomous lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Oo, M.; Holz, R. E.; Lewis, J. R.; Welton, E. J.

    2014-07-01

    Level 2 Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite-based cloud datasets from 2012 are investigated for metrics that help distinguish the cirrus cloud presence of in autonomous lidar measurements, using temperatures, heights, optical depth and phase. A thermal threshold, proposed by Sassen and Campbell (2001; SC2001) for cloud top temperature Ttop ≤ -37 °C, is evaluated vs. CALIOP algorithms that identify ice-phase cloud layers alone using depolarized backscatter. Global mean cloud top heights (11.15 vs. 10.07 km a.m.s.l.), base heights (8.76 vs. 7.95 km a.m.s.l.), temperatures (-58.48 °C vs. -52.18 °C and -42.40 °C vs. -38.13 °C, respectively for tops and bases) and optical depths (1.18 vs. 1.23) reflect the sensitivity to these competing constraints. Over 99% of all Ttop ≤ -37 °C clouds are classified as ice by CALIOP Level 2 algorithms. Over 81% of all ice clouds correspond with Ttop ≤ -37 °C. For instruments lacking polarized measurements, and thus practical phase estimates, Ttop ≤ -37 °C proves stable for distinguishing cirrus, as opposed to the risks of glaciated liquid water cloud contamination occurring in a given sample from clouds identified at warmer temperatures. Uncertainties in temperature profiles use to collocate with lidar data (i.e., model reanalyses/sondes) may justifiably relax the Ttop ≤ -37 °C threshold to include warmer cases. The ambiguity of "warm" (Ttop > -37 °C) ice cloud genus cannot be reconciled completely with available measurements, however, conspicuously including phase. Cloud top heights and optical depths are evaluated as potential constraints, as functions of CALIOP-retrieved phase. However, these data provide, at best, additional constraint in regional samples, compared with temperature alone, and may exacerbate classification uncertainties overall globally.

  8. Distinguishing cirrus cloud presence in autonomous lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Oo, M.; Holz, R. E.; Lewis, J. R.; Welton, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    2012 Level-2 Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite-based cloud data sets are investigated for thresholds that distinguish the presence of cirrus clouds in autonomous lidar measurements, based on temperatures, heights, optical depth and phase. A thermal threshold, proposed by Sassen and Campbell (2001) for cloud top temperature Ttop ≤ -37 °C, is evaluated versus CALIOP algorithms that identify ice-phase cloud layers using polarized backscatter measurements. Derived global mean cloud top heights (11.15 vs. 10.07 km above mean sea level; a.m.s.l.), base heights (8.76 km a.m.s.l. vs. 7.95 km a.m.s.l.), temperatures (-58.48 °C vs. -52.18 °C and -42.40 °C vs. -38.13 °C, respectively, for tops and bases) and optical depths (1.18 vs. 1.23) reflect the sensitivity to this constraint. Over 99 % of all Ttop ≤ -37 °C clouds are classified as ice by CALIOP Level-2 algorithms. Over 81 % of all ice clouds correspond with Ttop ≤ -37 °C. For instruments lacking polarized measurements, and thus practical estimates of phase, Ttop ≤ -37 °C provides sufficient justification for distinguishing cirrus, as opposed to the risks of glaciated liquid-water cloud contamination occurring in a given sample from clouds identified at relatively "warm" (Ttop > -37 °C) temperatures. Although accounting for uncertainties in temperatures collocated with lidar data (i.e., model reanalyses/sondes) may justifiably relax the threshold to include warmer cases, the ambiguity of "warm" ice clouds cannot be fully reconciled with available measurements, conspicuously including phase. Cloud top heights and optical depths are investigated, and global distributions and frequencies derived, as functions of CALIOP-retrieved phase. These data provide little additional information, compared with temperature alone, and may exacerbate classification uncertainties overall.

  9. Remote sensing estimates of cirrus particle size for tropical and midlatitude cirrus: Hexagonal crystals and ice spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Minnis, Patrick; Arduini, Robert; Parker, Lindsay; Tsay, Si-Chee; Takano, Yoshihide; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    1993-01-01

    A large discrepancy exists in current estimates of a mean cirrus particle size appropriate for calculations of the effects of these ice clouds on solar and thermal infrared radiative fluxes. For spheres with large size parameter (x = (2 pi r / lambda) is greater than 30, where r is particle radius), and moderate absorption (n(sup i) x less than 1, where n(sup i) is imaginary index of refraction for ice), the optimal effective particle radius is given by: r(sub e) = integral of r(exp 3)n(r)dr / integral of r(exp 2)n(r)dr. For the remote sensing of cirrus particle size at wavelengths of 0.83, 1.65, and 2.21 mu m, a 50 mu m ice sphere would have a size parameter of about 200, and values of n(sup i) x of 0, 0.045, and 0.06, satisfying the above conditions. However, while r(sub e) is a well-defined parameter for spheres, this cross-section area-weighted particle radius can only be extended to non-spherical particles by defining some equivalent sphere, typically an equivalent volume or equivalent cross-section area sphere. Using equivalent volume spheres, values of r(sub e) obtained over Lake Michigan on October 28, 1986, during FIRE phase I varied from 200 mu m (King Air 2D Imaging probes) to 60 mu m (Landsat reflectances at 0.83, 1.65, and 2.2 mu m), to 25 mu m (HIS spectrometer thermal emission between 8 and 12 mu m). Three major uncertainties were identified in this comparison: small ice particles missed by the 2D-C aircraft probes, uncertain ice refractive index, and uncertainties in the single scatter albedos and scattering phase functions used in the radiative calculations. Since the first FIRE cirrus results, advances have been made in all three areas. The present paper reports on improvements in the radiative modeling of ice particles at 0.83, 1.65, and 2.21 mu m wavelengths appropriate for comparisons to Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The paper also includes new results for Landsat observations of ice clouds in the eastern and western tropical Pacific.

  10. Midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. IV. Optical displays.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang; Benson, Sally

    2003-01-20

    In this fourth of a series of papers that describe long-term cloud research at the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing at Salt Lake City, Utah, an approximately 10-year record of polarization lidar and photographic observations is analyzed to characterize the occurrence of optical displays in our local varieties of midlatitude cirrus clouds. The frequencies of occurrence of various types of halo, arc, and corona displays are evaluated according to their appearance and longevity over nominal 1-h observation periods and to the meteorological source of the cirrus. We find that complex halo-arc displays are rare at our locale and that even the so-called common 22 degree halo occurs infrequently as a complete long-lived ring. For example, only approximately 6% of the 1561-h daytime cirrus periods have bright and prolonged 22 degree halos, although a total of 37.3% have some indications of this halo, even if they are brief and fragmentary. Other fairly frequent features are the 22 degree upper tangent arc (8.6%), 22 degree parhelia (8.5%), and solar corona (7.2%). Of the optical displays observed, 83.6% are refraction based, only 1.9% are due to reflection phenomena, and a surprising 15.4% are caused by diffraction. Complex halo-arc displays are disproportionally associated with cirrus formed in tropical or subtropical airflow and also contain more horizontally oriented planar ice crystals. Lidar linear depolarization ratios from a subset of vivid displays show significant differences between halo- and the corona-producing cirrus, reflecting the effects of particle shape. Halos are associated with relatively warm cirrus that contain randomly and horizontally oriented planar ice crystals, whereas the colder corona cirrus produce much stronger depolarization from crystals too small to be uniformly oriented. Comparisons are made with available information from other locales, and we attempt to explain the geographical differences in terms of basic cirrus cloud processes

  11. Thermodynamic regulation of ocean warming by cirrus clouds deduced from observations of the 1987 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made during the 1987 El Nino show that in the upper range of sea surface temperatures, the greenhouse effect increases with surface temperature at a rate which exceeds the rate at which radiation is being emitted from the surface. In response to this 'super greenhouse effect', highly reflective cirrus clouds are produced which act like a thermostat, shielding the ocean from solar radiation. The regulatory effect of these cirrus clouds may limit sea surface temperatures to less than 305 K.

  12. An airborne system for collecting polarization imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildum, Edward A.; Spinhirne, James D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a recently completed electrooptical camera flying onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The device includes a six-position filter wheel which can be fitted with a combination of polarizing and/or spectral filters. An alternate configuration will include a polarizing filter which can be rotated to any angle under computer control. The camera mount in the nose of the ER-2 can tilt forward or aft up to 40 degrees, both for bidirectional reflectance studies and for image motion compensation (the aircraft moves 34 meters between frame acquisitions). The ground resolution is nominally 5 meters from and altitude of 20 km. Spectral responsivity is that of the silicon imaging array (Kodak KAF-1400). Initial data sets were acquired in support of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program Regional Experiment of November, 1991, and will be used to study cirrus cloud properties.

  13. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  14. Toolsets for Airborne Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-02

    article title:  Toolsets for Airborne Data     View larger image The ... limit of detection values. Prior to accessing the TAD Web Application ( https://tad.larc.nasa.gov ) for the first time, users must ...

  15. Identification of Cirrus over Wausau during the 1986 FIRE IFO from ground-based radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David A.; Frei, Allan

    1990-01-01

    The potential of using irradiation data to indicate episodes of cirrus cloudiness during the daylight hours is explored. Thresholds separating cirrus from other clouds and clear skies are determined using four days of irradiation data, hourly weather observations, sky photographs, sky video, and occasional lidar observations. Data were gathered during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Field Observations (IFO) cirrus project. Thresholds are tested using data from the remaining 17 days of the IFO. Cirrus episodes are defined as intervals when the sky cover is primarily cirrus. Measurements of incoming shortwave and near infrared full hemispheric and diffuse irradiation, and atmospheric infrared irradiation were made at Wausau, Wisconsin Municipal Airport. Data were collected between October 13 and November 2, 1986 and are one minute averages of ten second samples. Data from October 23 and from October 27 to 29 were used for threshold determination. Using weather observations, lidar output, photographs and video, sky conditions were grouped into three categories: noncirrus cloudy, cirrus, and clear. Irradiation data from all periods falling under each of the sky categories were then examined and thresholds denoting a change from one sky category to another were determined. Variables with only a small amount of overlap between sky categories were selected as key indicators.

  16. The airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  17. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O'C.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction. The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  18. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather predict