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Sample records for airborne contact dermatitis

  1. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  2. Airborne pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk ambrette in incense.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Arima, Y

    1987-02-01

    We reported 2 patients with pigmented contact dermatitis caused by occupational airborne contactants, whitening dyes in clothes and formaldehyde in packing adhesive tapes. A women developed airborne pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk ambrette in incense. Patch testing confirmed the diagnosis. Since olden times, people in Japan have burnt incense when they worshipped their ancestors. Recently, it has been in fashion to enjoy perfumes and people may burn incense all day long every day. Our patient burnt 2 kinds of incense every day for about 5 years. We assumed musk ambrette was volatilized when incense was burnt, and contact on her face being dissolved in sebum, thus inducing allergic pigmented contact dermatitis.

  3. Occupational Airborne Contact Dermatitis From Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeKoven, Joel G; Yu, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Few published reports have described occupational contact dermatitis from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure in the literature. We present an additional case of a 58-year-old male pharmaceutical worker with an occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis to PPIs confirmed by patch testing. This is a novel report of workplace exposure to dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole PPIs with resultant clinical contact allergy and relevant positive patch test results to these 2 agents. A literature review of all previously reported cases of occupational contact dermatitis to PPI is summarized. The case also emphasizes the importance of even minute exposures when considering workplace accommodation.

  4. Airborne contact dermatitis: common causes in the USA.

    PubMed

    Schloemer, Julie A; Zirwas, Matthew J; Burkhart, Craig G

    2015-03-01

    Airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD) is an inflammatory reaction involving the skin upon exposure to allergenic agents or irritants suspended in air. In allergic ABCD, the hypersensitivity is classified as a type IV reaction. Substances responsible for such reactions can be of plant or non-plant origin. Commonly reported plants include those of the Compositae family, which includes ragweed, goldenrod, and sunflowers. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is critical for preventing exposure and improving symptoms in patients. Obtaining a detailed history and performing a physical examination to determine the sites of involvement, as well as patch testing to establish the causative allergen, are the main methods of arriving at the correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves avoidance of the allergens or irritants when possible and may also include the application of topical barrier creams or systemic therapy in more severe cases. This article reviews the topic of ABCD and highlights its most common etiologies in the USA. PMID:24981079

  5. Contact dermatitis caused by airborne agents. A review and case reports.

    PubMed

    Dooms-Goossens, A E; Debusschere, K M; Gevers, D M; Dupré, K M; Degreef, H J; Loncke, J P; Snauwaert, J E

    1986-07-01

    A general review is given of airborne-induced contact dermatoses, particularly of the irritant and allergenic types. Because the reports in the literature often omit the term airborne, 12 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (January 1975-July 1985) were screened, and the cases cited were classified in function of the anamnesis, lesion locations, causative irritants and allergens, and other factors. The present article also discusses differential diagnoses, in particular with regard to contact dermatitis of the face, ears, and neck. Finally, seven case reports of occupational and nonoccupational contact dermatitis problems caused by airborne agents are presented. In some of the cases the allergens have not been mentioned in published literature previously.

  6. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Contact dermatitis Overview Contact dermatitis: Many health care workers ... to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Contact dermatitis: Overview Almost everyone gets this type of ...

  7. Direct and airborne contact dermatitis in a beekeeper from the Małopolska region.

    PubMed

    Basista, Katarzyna

    2012-09-01

    The paper describes an atypical case of simultaneous airborne and direct contact dermatitis in a beekeeper from the Małopolska region. This is the third such case described in a beekeeper in the world and the first in Poland. I suggest that propolis should be regarded as both a direct and airborne contact allergen in beekeepers.

  8. Contact dermatitis caused by airborne agents. A review and case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Dooms-Goossens, A.E.; Debusschere, K.M.; Gevers, D.M.; Dupre, K.M.; Degreef, H.J.; Loncke, J.P.; Snauwaert, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    A general review is given of airborne-induced contact dermatoses, particularly of the irritant and allergenic types. Because the reports in the literature often omit the term airborne, 12 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (January 1975-July 1985) were screened, and the cases cited were classified in function of the anamnesis, lesion locations, causative irritants and allergens, and other factors. The present article also discusses differential diagnoses, in particular with regard to contact dermatitis of the face, ears, and neck. Finally, seven case reports of occupational and nonoccupational contact dermatitis problems caused by airborne agents are presented. In some of the cases the allergens have not been mentioned in published literature previously. 84 references.

  9. AIRBORNE-CONTACT DERMATITIS OF NON-PLANT ORIGIN: AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Airborne-contact dermatitis (ABCD) represents a unique type of contact dermatitis originating from dust, sprays, pollens or volatile chemicals by airborne fumes or particles without directly touching the allergen. ABCD in Indian patients has been attributed exclusively by pollens of the plants like Parthenium hysterophorus, etc., but in recent years the above scenario has been changing rapidly in urban and semiurban perspective especially in developing countries. ABCD has been reported worldwide due to various type of nonplant allergens and their clinical feature are sometimes distinctive. Preventive aspect has been attempted by introduction of different chemicals of less allergic potential. PMID:22345776

  10. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles.

    PubMed

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Gonçalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-09-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which we attribute to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, we showed that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, we noticed a delayed type of irritation after 72 hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is, as far as we know, the first time that a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil in tent-cloth is described. PMID:17680869

  11. Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Irritant Contact Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This ... severe involvement in the patient's armpit. Overview Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct ...

  12. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. PMID:27517356

  13. [Contact dermatitis in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Niang, S O

    2007-01-01

    Because of the widespread repartition of allergens, allergic contact dermatitis is the most common inflammatory skin disease. It's the best model of dilated hypersensibility mediated by T lymphocytes cells. Atopic dermatitis and irritative dermatitis are to be distinguished to contact dermatitis. The aetiological diagnosis is the most important step of management of patients with that disease because it's the best way to avoid recurrences. The identification of cause is based on aetiological interrogatory and epicutaneous tests with 23 allergens completed with personnel products and specialised tests. Contact dermatitis can be classified according to results of aetiological management. In occupational contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis due to drugs, to metals, cosmetics, clothes and accessory and proteins. Management of patients with contact dermatitis is based on individual eviction, protection, cosmetovigilance, declaration of occupational dermatosis and allergovigilance. PMID:19102084

  14. Contact dermatitis in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kockentiet, Brett; Adams, Brian B

    2007-06-01

    Athletes face numerous hazards in their daily activities. An athlete's skin, in particular, endures repeated exposure to trauma, heat, moisture, and numerous allergens and chemicals. These factors combine with other unique and less well-defined genetically predisposing factors in the athlete's skin to cause both allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). As with other cases of contact dermatitis, these eruptions in athletes present as a spectrum of acute to subacute to chronic dermatitis. Recognizing the unique environmental irritants and allergens encountered by athletes is paramount to facilitate appropriate therapy and prevention. This review comprehensively examines the literature on contact dermatitis in athletes. The different types of contact dermatitis have been classified under sport-specific subheadings. Furthermore, within each subheading, both ACD and ICD types are discussed.

  15. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  16. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  17. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  18. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  19. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  20. Direct release of the allergen tulipalin A from Alstroemeria cut flowers: a possible source of airborne contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Christensen, L P

    1999-12-01

    The allergen tulipalin A was collected by dynamic headspace technique from cut flowers of 2 Alstroemeria hybrids and quantified and identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The amounts of tulipalin A released into the air were correlated with the tulipalin A and the total allergen content (tulipalin A and tuliposides) in the plant tissue, respectively. Tulipalin A was released primarily from the wounded areas, i.e. the stems, although small amounts were also emitted from the undamaged flowers in one of the hybrids. The tulipalin A concentrations in the stems of the Alstroemeria hybrids investigated were 0.06% and 0.13% of fresh weight, respectively, and the amounts directly released from the cut flowers were 0.4 and 2.2 microg (cut flower)(-1) h(-1), respectively. The content of tulipalin A exceeded that of tuliposides in leaves and flowers of both hybrids, whereas the content of tulipalin A in stems (in % fresh weight) was slightly lower than the content of tuliposides. The possibility that airborne tulipalin A from Alstroemeria could be a source of airborne contact dermatitis is discussed.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  2. Contact Dermatitis (Including Latex Dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient education: Contact dermatitis (including latex dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics) Authors ... defined as an inflammation of the skin [ 1 ]. Contact dermatitis refers to dermatitis that is caused by ...

  3. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  4. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  5. Contact dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Wanscher, B

    1976-04-01

    Two patients with contact dermatitis due to the natural product propolis (bee glue) are reported. They presented perioral eczema and stomatitis which were recalcitrant until propolis was considered as the cause. Patch tests with propolis preparations were positive in both patients, and, furthermore, in the second patient the lesions relapsed after provocation tests. European standard patch test including balsam of Peru were negative. The complexity of propolis, its supposed anti-inflammatory effect due to flavonoids, and the sensitizing agents originating mainly from the poplar trees are discussed together with the cross-sensitization to balsam of Peru. Contact dermatitis due to propolis should be considered in unexplained eczemas, mainly perioral but also in other areas, as propolis preparations are available also as ointments and cosmetic creams.

  6. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  7. Contact dermatitis to homomenthyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Rietschel, R L; Lewis, C W

    1978-03-01

    Two patients with follicular dermatitis were found to have a contact sensitivity to homomenthyl salicylate, a sunscreening chemical present in a commercially available suntan lotion. One patient did not use the product, but her boyfriend did, and contact between the two individuals resulted in a follicular dermatitis developing in her. A second patient with contact dermatitis to homomenthyl salicylate also had a follicular eruption. Both patients appear to represent true allergic sensitivities.

  8. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  9. Paederus dermatitis featuring chronic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, Andrija; Skerlev, Mihael; Culav-Košćak, Ivana; Kovačević, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a distinct variant of acute irritant contact dermatitis caused by mucocutaneous contact with the specific toxin of an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. It is characterized by the sudden onset of erythema and vesiculobullous lesions on exposed skin, with special predilection for the periorbital region. Paederus species have been mostly identified in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central/South America. We report a 51-year-old woman who experienced 4 recurrences of periorbital erythema and edema in the previous year. No consistent etiology could be established at the beginning. Only after taking a detailed medical history was it discovered that 1 year before our examination, the patient had traveled to Kenya, where she had experienced contact with the insect. This fact led us to the diagnosis of Paederus dermatitis. After appropriate treatment, a complete regression was observed over a 3-week period.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lever, R; Forsyth, A

    1992-01-01

    Of 73 adult patients attending a clinic specially provided to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, 31 (42%) showed one or more positive patch reaction on contact testing. There was a striking female preponderance in the patch test positive group (26F:5M) in contrast to those with negative test results (9F:17M). The commonest allergens identified were fragrances in 13 patients, nickel (7), rubber (5), lanolin (4) and formaldehyde (3). In 21 patients, topical preparations, cosmetic or medically prescribed, could be implicated. Contact sensitivity seems to be relatively common in adult patients who have a continuing problem with their atopic dermatitis. Recognizing this sensitization may be important in their management.

  13. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  14. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  15. Contact dermatitis to fragrances.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Cristaudo, A; Cannistraci, C; Picardo, M

    1987-02-01

    2 groups of patients (1200 and 1500 respectively) were patch tested with different concentrations of perfume mix and fragrance raw materials. The study was to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to fragrances in Roma, Italy, and the influence of limited variations in fragrance and perfume mix concentrations on patch test responses. The results showed that a decrease in the perfume mix concentration from 16% to 8% correlated with a decrease in the % of positive patients (from 5.2% to 3.6%). Variations in the concentration of fragrance raw materials did not influence the % of positive reactions in the 2 groups. The perfume mixture at 16% or 8% gave some positive results, without a corresponding reaction to any of the constituents, that were not related to an excited skin syndrome.

  16. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration.

  17. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis from cardamom.

    PubMed

    Mobacken, H; Fregert, S

    1975-06-01

    A case is presented of a confectioner with a chronic hand dermatitis and positive patch test reactions to cardamom and certain terpenoid compounds present in the dried ripe seeds of cardamom. Cardamom is a popular traditional flavouring agent for baked goods and confectionery. Dermatitis from skin exposure to cardamom has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We report one case of allergic contact dermatitis to cardamom elicited by terpenes present in the seeds.

  19. Identifying the causes of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ruth; Horn, Helen M

    2014-06-01

    Contact dermatitis results from skin contact with an exogenous substance. It can be caused by direct contact, airborne particles, vapours or light. Individuals of any age can be affected. The two most common variants are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ICD is more common and has a worse prognosis. Other less common forms of contact dermatitis include photocontact allergy and, in food handlers, protein contact dermatitis. ICD is a form of eczema and is induced by direct inflammatory pathways without prior sensitisation. Classical ACD is mediated by type 4 cell-mediated immunity. Sensitisation occurs within 5 to 16 days of skin contact with a potential allergen but at this first exposure there is no inflammation. Frequent exposure and high concentrations of potential allergens increase the risk of sensitisation. If eczema is recurrent/persistent, or occurs in an individual with no previous history of eczema, contact dermatitis should be considered. Dorsal aspects of the hands are most often affected by ICD, usually with involvement of the finger webs. Cumulative effects of water, soaps and detergents are the most common cause of ICD which affects the hands more often than any other site. Nickel, fragrances, rubber accelerators and biocides are the most common sensitisers in ACD. Patients with leg ulcers and stasis eczema are at especially high risk of developing allergies to ingredients of their topical treatments, dressings and bandages. If ACD is suspected the patient should be referred to secondary care for patch testing. Age should not be a deterrent to patch testing. Accurate diagnosis, avoidance of identified allergens and protection from irritants are the key to successful treatment.

  20. [Systemic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Gomułka, Krzysztof; Dziemieszonek, Paulina; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV) and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th) (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc), and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens' distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease. PMID:26943310

  1. Contact dermatitis in a woodworker.

    PubMed

    Correale, Christine E; Marks, James G

    2002-03-01

    Woods are capable of causing allergic or irritant contact dermatitis which typically occurs on the exposed areas of the arms, face, and neck. The allergens found in woods include quinones, stilbenes, phenols, and terpenes. We report an 84-year-old woodworker who developed allergic contact dermatitis from Bolivian rosewood and Cocobolo wood. The patient was patch-tested using the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Tray; 2,6 dimethoxyl 1,4 benzoquinone; and wood that he had been exposed to on a regular basis. Positive patch test reactions occurred to methyldibromo glutaronitrile phenoxyethanol, sodium gold thiosulfate, Bolivian rosewood, and Cocobolo wood. Allergens found in Bolivian rosewood and Cocobolo wood caused this patient's chronic dermatitis, which cleared when he avoided these woods.

  2. Contact dermatitis in Nigeria. (III). Dermatitis of the neck.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Y

    1987-09-01

    Out of 545 consecutive contact dermatitis clinic patients, 73 (13%) had dermatitis of the neck of whom 18 (25%) were nickel positive. 7 had clothing dermatitis and 3 of them reacted to chromate in military uniforms. 5 patients were sensitised to perfume and 4 to medicaments used to treat existing dermatitis. 3 patients were sensitised to hair dyes. Nickel dermatitis, was clinically overdiagnosed, mainly due (for various reasons) to inability to make a firm diagnosis of atopy.

  3. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education.

  4. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  5. Depigmented contact dermatitis due to incense.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Arima, Y

    1987-05-01

    A 63-year-old male school teacher with itchy depigmented macules on his left dorsum manus, left shoulder and abdomen presented at our clinic on 8 July 1986. He had practiced the incense ceremony for about 15 years, and had burnt several incenses and sandalwood. 48 h closed patch testing revealed perfume in the incenses was the cause. We assumed that perfume in the incense was volatized in air when incense was burnt; skin surface contact occurred with airborne particle, which dissolved in sebum; thus allergic contact dermatitis accompanied by depigmentation might arise.

  6. [Dermatitis from contact with perfume].

    PubMed

    Piriou-Robaglia, A; Robaglia, J L; Bonérandi, J J

    1990-09-01

    Contact dermatitis essentially involves those areas to which perfume is applied. The mixture of perfumes in the standard battery of the L.C.D.R.G. detects 70 to 80% of sensitised cases. The allergens that are most often involved are oak moss, isoeugenol and cinnamic aldehyde. Prevention of dermatitis requires, at individual level, use of non-perfumed cosmetics and at the industrial level, good observance of the international rules of I.F.R.A., aimed at limiting the frequency of occurrence.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  8. Contact dermatitis from an ostomy deodorant.

    PubMed

    Davids, M G; Hodgson, G A; Evans, E

    1978-02-01

    Two patients with contact dermatitis from an ostomy agent are described. Detailed patch testing revealed contact allergic dermatitis to one of the twelve groups of ingredients which largely comprised citronella oil. The problem of dermatitis is discussed in relation to the perfume ingredients of the ostomy agent.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins. PMID:19808007

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis from carmine.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis within 6 to 24 hours exclusively after using carmine-containing eyeshadows and lipsticks. She had both a positive patch test result and a positive antecubital repeated open application test result with carmine 2.5% in petrolatum. Thirty other patients had negative patch test results. Carmine is a widely used pigment derived from gravid cochineal insects. Carminic acid is the source of its color. Only two previous publications describing allergic contact dermatitis from carmine could be found. The ingredient in carmine causing these delayed hypersensitivity reactions has not been studied. In contrast, there are numerous reports of immediate hypersensitivity reactions from carmine, mostly from its use in foods and beverages but also from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. These are immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions directed against cochineal proteins.

  11. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  12. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  13. Contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, M; Forsyth, A

    1989-02-01

    125 children under the age of 12 years were patch tested over a period of 7 years. 60 (48%) of the children had 1 or more positive (+ve) reactions, of which 92% (55/60) were considered relevant. The most common allergens were metals (35 + ves), fragrances (24 + ves) and rubber compounds (11 + ves). 40 of the children were also tested for contact urticaria against food additives and fragrances, of whom 20 were positive (benzoic acid 14, cinnamaldehyde 12).

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products. PMID:23259208

  16. Environmental dermatitis. Contact dermatitis from perfumes in soap.

    PubMed

    Burry, J N

    Perfumes in soaps cause nondescript patterns of contact dermatitis. Patch testing with balsam of Peru and a fragrance mixture can confirm a sensitivity to a perfume. The use of additive-free soaps determines its clinical relevance.

  17. Contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Roopal V; Scheman, Andrew J; Gutmanovich, Artem; Hernandez, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    A 31-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of presumed atopic dermatitis. She complained of severe pruritus and the presence of extensive patches of erythema and scale. Her previous treatments included: multiple topical corticosteroids, tacrolimus 0.1% ointment, pimecrolimus 1% cream, and cyclosporine with no improvement of her symptoms. Her past medical history was unremarkable and she was on no other oral medications, including over-the-counter products. On physical examination, multiple erythematous, scaly patches were present on the chest, abdomen,back, and upper extremities. Lichenification of both antecubital fossa was present. Extensive excoriations on her arms and abdomen were also noted. Although the patient had a long-standing history of presumed atopic dermatitis, she had never undergone a skin biopsy. A skin biopsy was performed which demonstrated a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with eosinophils and dermal edema (Figures 1, 2). The biopsy was suggestive of possible hypersensitivity dermatitis. The patient then underwent patch testing. The following patch tests were applied to normal back skin using IQ chambers:North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) expanded standard, textile, fragrance trays, and ingredients found in her products (Chemotechnique, Malmo, Sweden). A total of 89 patches were applied, removed at 48 hours, and read both at 48 and 96 hours. At 48 hours, a total of 70 allergens were positive, 69 of those allergens were in a petrolatum vehicle. There were 50, 3+ reactions to sites of allergens in petrolatum (Figure 3). There were only two sites with petrolatum that were negative: budesonide (a corticosteroid) and melamine formaldehyde. In contrast, all of the sites where there were allergens in liquid vehicles were negative, with the exception of a 1+ reaction to cocamidopropyl betaine. At 48 hours,four additional patch tests were applied to plain petrolatum. Two of these patches were in plastic IQ chambers

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee; Choi, Jun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2004-05-01

    White petrolatum is known for its nonsensitizing and nonirritating properties. Only a few cases of allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum have been reported. Although it is a rare event, the finding of contact sensitization to white petrolatum raises the potential problem of its usage of common topical agents or vehicles for patch testing. We herein report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: part 2.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances.

  20. Systemic Contact Dermatitis from Propolis Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eujin; Lee, Jeong Deuk

    2011-01-01

    Propolis, also known as bee glue, is a substance collected by worker bees and it is used as a material for constructing and maintaining their beehives. It has been used topically and orally by humans for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the growing use of propolis has been paralleled by reports of allergic contact dermatitis as a reaction to the substance. Contact dermatitis with generalized cutaneous manifestations elicited by propolis ingestion has not been previously reported. Here we report on the first case of systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion in a 36-year-old woman. PMID:21738371

  1. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to adhesive bandages.

    PubMed

    Norris, P; Storrs, F J

    1990-01-01

    More than two billion Band-Aid Brand Sheer Strips are used in the United States yearly, yet allergic contact dermatitis resulting from their use is nearly nonexistent. We report four patients with allergic reactions to these strips. One patient reacted to tricresyl phosphate, the plasticizer in the vinyl backing; another patient was allergic to 2,5-di(tertiary-amyl)hydroquinone, the antioxidant in the adhesive. In the other two patients, the allergic contact dermatitis remains unexplained.

  3. [Dermatitis from contact with Agave americana].

    PubMed

    Golan, H; Landau, M; Goldberg, I; Brenner, S

    2000-10-01

    Various plants induce dermatitis in man. There have been only a few published cases of contact dermatitis caused by Agave americana (AA). We report intentional exposure to AA in a soldier seeking sick leave, and review our previously reported cases. Treatment with oral antihistamines and topical saline compresses resulted in subsidence of the systemic symptoms within 24 h and regression of cutaneous manifestations in 7-10 days. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of self-inflicted contact dermatitis induced by exposure to plants, especially to A. americana. Systemic signs may accompany the cutaneous lesions.

  4. Systemic contact dermatitis--kids and ketchup.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise M; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Systemic manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis due to consumption of foods containing balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)-associated chemicals have recently been reported in children. We present seven children with widespread, recalcitrant dermatitis who experienced 60-80% clearance after initiating a diet low in balsam of Peru, specifically the tomato product ketchup. Furthermore, because we have observed a high prevalence of ketchup in our pediatric patients' diets, we recommend consideration of moderate consumption of this product in patients with recalcitrant widespread dermatitis. PMID:22299798

  5. [Allergic contact dermatitis due to prednicarbate].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Kunz, R; Köllner, A; Kunze, J

    1991-01-01

    Two female patients developed an allergic contact dermatitis after using Dermatop cream and -ointment for several weeks. Patch tests were positive with the reagent prednicarbate itself. No cross reactions to other glucocorticosteroids were observed. Type-IV-sensitization to glucocorticosteroids should be considered if chronic dermatitis does not improve, or even becomes worse, in spite of adequate therapy. With regard to possible cross reactions or multiple sensitization, epicutaneous tests with other glucocorticosteroids are necessary.

  6. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.

  7. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  8. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

  9. Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, M.V. )

    1988-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age, sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.

  10. Contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode paste.

    PubMed

    Cochran, R J; Rosen, T

    1980-12-01

    A case of contact dermatitis caused by ECG electrode cream is presented and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Our patient was found to be allergic to propylene glycol. Patch-testing remains an invaluable tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of being allergic to ECG paste, creams, and gels.

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  12. Aeroallergen Patch Testing in Patients of Suspected Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bisen, Nelee; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS) between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8%) showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary. PMID:24891655

  13. Atypical diaper dermatitis: contact allergy to mercapto compounds.

    PubMed

    Onken, Anna Theresa; Baumstark, Julia; Belloni, Benedetta; Ring, Johannes; Schnopp, Christina

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis in an 18-month-old boy caused by type-IV allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole as components of the elastic border of diapers. Allergic contact dermatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of diaper dermatitis, especially in difficult-to-treat cases or atypical clinical presentation.

  14. [Allergic contact dermatitis in beauty parlor clients].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Bezold, G; Peter, R U

    2001-05-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis in hair dressers and beauticians has increased in importance in the past years. Type IV-allergies against glyceryl monothioglycate components of permanent waves are most common. Other occupational allergens include bleach components such as ammonium persulfate and hair dye ingredients such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylene-diamine (PTD) base. Allergies to hair dyes in customers of hair dressers have rarely been observed. Two female patients developed allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp and face after repeated use of Polycolor intensivtönung schwarz and of Movida color. We also review the current literature on type IV-allergies to components of hair dressing products components.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F

    2012-12-01

    Fragrances are a large group of substances and the second most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Spain. These potential allergens are extremely common and the general population is subject to continuous exposure on a daily basis. While the fragrance markers included in the current Spanish standard patch test series are good, there is room for improvement. New markers that have emerged in recent years have proven to be of value in standard series used in other countries. Diagnosing fragrance allergy has taken on even greater importance since the European Union added 26 fragrances to its list of mandatory ingredients to be specified on product labels. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances. We examine the main sources of exposure and clinical manifestations of this condition and propose a diagnostic and treatment protocol.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  17. [Allergic contact dermatitis in beauty parlor clients].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Bezold, G; Peter, R U

    2001-05-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis in hair dressers and beauticians has increased in importance in the past years. Type IV-allergies against glyceryl monothioglycate components of permanent waves are most common. Other occupational allergens include bleach components such as ammonium persulfate and hair dye ingredients such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylene-diamine (PTD) base. Allergies to hair dyes in customers of hair dressers have rarely been observed. Two female patients developed allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp and face after repeated use of Polycolor intensivtönung schwarz and of Movida color. We also review the current literature on type IV-allergies to components of hair dressing products components. PMID:11405157

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis: Sex differences.

    PubMed

    Leyden, J J; Kligman, A M

    1977-12-01

    Using the repeated insult test, Jordan & King (1977) observed that contact sensitization was more readily induced in females than in males. We reviewed data obtained by maximization testing of 185 test substances of which 73 were allergenic. The overall male-female sensitization rates were respectively 9.9 and 9.2%. Only with the weakest allergens (sensitizing one or two subjects of a 25-member panel) was there a possibility of female predominance in that there were twice as many panels having only female reactors as males exclusively. In these instances, the test agents were mainly fragrances. We have concluded that sex differences, in the prevalence of sensitization to particular substances, reflect past exposure and are not due to sex differences.

  19. Occupational contact dermatitis from propacetamol.

    PubMed

    Szczurko, C; Dompmartin, A; Michel, M; Castel, B; Leroy, D

    1996-11-01

    We report 4 cases of contact sensitization to propacetamol. They presented with lesions on the hands, forearms, crease of the elbows, and neck. They were all sensitized to multiple allergens and 2 of them were atopic. Patch tests to Pro-Dafalgan and propacetamol were positive; sodium citrate and paracetamol were negative. Our cases were similar to those published for the first time by Barbaud in 1995. The only allergen was propacetamol; patch tests with diethyglycine and paracetamol were negative. Propacetamol chlorhydrate is composed of a complex paracetamol-diethylglycine, which probably acts like a hapten capable of inducing cutaneous allergy. It is an occupational allergy affecting nurses who work in surgery departments or post-anesthesia recovery rooms, where high doses of analgesics are widely used. The patients were not allergic to oral paracetamol. Despite the usual precautions, the mixture of propacetamol chlorhydrate and solvent leaks onto the nurses' hands, suggesting that health care workers handling propacetamol chlorhydrate should wear gloves. PMID:9007376

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause.

  1. Pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol in a child.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Ali Ihsan; Albayrak, Hulya; Uslu, Esma; Başkan, Elife; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2015-03-01

    Pustular irritant contact dermatitis is rare and unusual clinic form of contact dermatitis. Dexpanthenol is the stable alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid. It is widely used in cosmetics and topical medical products for several purposes. We present the case of 8-year-old girl with pustules over erythematous and eczematous areas on the face and neck. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported that is diagnosed as pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol. PMID:24506320

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate and other salicylates.

    PubMed

    Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Thormann, Henrik; Goossens, An; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from salicylates present in topical products is uncommon. Most publications about ACD from salicylates are case reports describing only a few patients. Cross-reactivity between salicylates is not commonly reported. This article describes allergic contact dermatitis from ethylhexyl salicylate used as an ultraviolet filter and fragrance compound and reviews the published literature on contact allergy to salicylates.

  3. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR.

  4. Oscar Wilde's skin disease: allergic contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Nater, J P

    1992-07-01

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly used a dye to conceal his rapidly graying hair. He sensitized himself to p-phenylenediamine and developed a stubborn allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing, the only proof of such a diagnosis, had not yet been devised.

  5. Contactants in 'Kum-Kum' dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J V; Moideen, R; Murugesh, S B

    1996-01-01

    Twenty patients having contact dermatitis on the forehead due to Kum-Kum were patch tested with the commercially available Kum-Kum used by the patient as such, and also the extended European standard series of allergens, as well as brilliant lake red R, sudan I, aminoazobenzene and canaga oil since analysis of the Kum-Kum by thin-layer chromatography showed presence of these constituents. Patch tests were positive in all the patients with the commercial Kum-Kum and brilliant lake red R, sudan I, aminoazobenzene and canaga oil, but not with the extended European standard series of allergens.

  6. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR. PMID:20487662

  7. Contact dermatitis to biperiden and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist.

    PubMed

    Torinuki, W

    1995-08-01

    A case of contact dermatitis to biperiden, an anti-Parkinson agent, and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist was reported. The patient developed eczematous lesions on exposed area after she had worked at a psychiatric hospital for 6 months. She showed positive patch test reaction to biperiden. In addition, she reacted positively to photopatch testing with ultraviolet A and phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine and perphenazine. To our knowledge, contact dermatitis to biperiden has not been previously reported in the English literature.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from shellac in mascara.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Christophe-J; Leclere, Jean-Marie; Arnoult, Elisabeth; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Vigan, Martine

    2002-03-01

    We report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids due to mascara. Allergy occurred in women aged 17-34 years, between September 1999 and June 2001. The main ingredient responsible for allergy was shellac, which gave positive patch test reactions in 5/5 patients. This resinous substance is mainly used in cosmetics, food and industry. The exact nature of the hapten remains unknown, and its presence and level in shellac can vary with the source and the treatments applied to it. One patient was also sensitized to quaternium-22, a quaternary ammonium compound in the cosmetic. These reports underline the rôle of networks, such as REVIDAL-GERDA, in monitoring the emergence of contact allergens and disseminating such information among the medical community.

  9. STUDIES ON SOME RECOMMENDED AYURVEDIC HERBS FOR CONTACT DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, M.A.; Tripathi, M.; Srinivas, C.R; Nayak, S.G.K

    1997-01-01

    A number of plant drugs are used in topical application meant for medical and cosmetic purposes. Many of such recommended drugs have been reported to cause contact dermatitis which fact is well supported by clinical studies. To find out the role of these plant drugs in the etiology of contact dermatitis, clinical studies of 34 such herbal drugs were carried out. PMID:22556829

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  11. Pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk moskene.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Hirose, O; Arima, Y

    1991-07-01

    Musk moskene is a soft, sweet fragrance resembling musk ambrette which introduces a very desirable creamy powder note for cosmetic fragrance. Because of its advantages, which include low cost, oil solubility, and less sensitive to sunlight, musk moskene has recently increased its share of the market. In this paper, we reported a case with pigmented contact dermatitis from musk moskene in cheek rouges. Patch test positive reactions to cheek rouges resulted in hyperpigmentation. Both the perfume used in the cheek rouges and musk moskene, which was a component of that perfume, showed strongly positive reactions. Residual hyperpigmentation was seen on the regions of the perfume and musk moskene patch testings. Hyperpigmentation on cheeks of the patient gradually diminished after discontinuing use of the causative cheek rouge.

  12. Contact dermatitis to cosmetics, fragrances, and botanicals.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics, fragrances, and botanicals are important causes of allergic contact dermatitis. Identifying and avoiding the causative allergens can pose a challenge to both the patient and the dermatologist. The site of involvement can give the investigator clues to the cause of the eruption in many cases. Fragrances and preservatives are the two most clinically relevant allergens in cosmetics. Botanicals are being added to cosmetics because of consumer demand and are now being recognized as sources of allergy as well. Patch testing allows for the detection of allergens that are potentially relevant in the genesis of the patient's eczema. Common skin-care product allergens, including fragrances and botanicals as well as those found in sunscreen, nail, and hair-care products, are reviewed. Practical methods of allergen avoidance are also discussed.

  13. Mascaras may cause irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M; Wessman, C

    2002-10-01

    The majority of adverse effects of cosmetics have been attributed to soaps in Dutch and English studies, but to eye makeup in a recent Swedish study. The reactions may be caused by irritants or by sensitizing substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of commercially available mascaras. The mascaras were exposed to the skin in aluminium chambers. The skin reaction was evaluated using both visual assessments of erythema and non-invasive measurements of the skin reaction. Seven mascaras were tested on 15 healthy individuals in a randomized and blinded fashion. Two of the seven tested mascaras induced pronounced skin inflammation, when applied to normal skin under occlusion. These two mascaras were based on volatile petroleum distillate, in contrast to the other five mascaras that were conventional emulsions with stearate as the main emulsifier. The findings suggest that solvent-based mascaras might induce contact dermatitis due to its content of irritating substances.

  14. Cell phone allergic contact dermatitis: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Rajpara, Anand; Feldman, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    The combination of increased cell phone ownership and unlimited usage plans has led to a situation in which metal cell phone parts may come into contact with the cell phone user's ear and face for prolonged periods of time. Thus, it is not surprising that recent reports of facial allergic contact dermatitis to cell phone metals have begun to emerge. In this paper we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to cell phone metal and review all other reports on the subject. We also discuss what the implications of cell phone contact dermatitis are for dermatologists and patients.

  15. Proposed ICDRG Classification of the Clinical Presentation of Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruze, Magnus; Diepgen, Thomas L; Elsner, Peter U; Goh, Chee Leok; Goossens, An; Jerajani, Hemangi; Lachapelle, Jean Marie; Lee, Jun Young; Maibach, Howard I; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Nixon, Rosemary; Puangpet, Pailin; Sasseville, Denis; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P

    2016-01-01

    The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group proposes a classification for the clinical presentation of contact allergy. The classification is based primarily on the mode of clinical presentation. The categories are direct exposure/contact dermatitis, mimicking or exacerbation of preexisting eczema, multifactorial dermatitis including allergic contact dermatitis, by proxy, mimicking angioedema, airborne contact dermatitis, photo-induced contact dermatitis, systemic contact dermatitis, noneczematous contact dermatitis, contact urticaria, protein contact dermatitis, respiratory/mucosal symptoms, oral contact dermatitis, erythroderma/exfoliative dermatitis, minor forms of presentation, and extracutaneous manifestations. PMID:27608064

  16. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. PMID:23031377

  17. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel.

  18. Easter egg hunt dermatitis: systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with chocolate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis.

  19. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25782705

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  1. Systematized contact dermatitis and montelukast in an atopic boy.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; González, Mercedes E; Connelly, Elizabeth A; Giordano, Kelly; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-01-01

    Upon ingestion, the artificial sweetener, aspartame is metabolized to formaldehyde in the body and has been reportedly associated with systemic contact dermatitis in patients exquisitely sensitive to formaldehyde. We present a case of a 9-year-old Caucasian boy with a history of mild atopic dermatitis that experienced severe systematized dermatitis after being started on montelukast chewable tablets containing aspartame. Patch testing revealed multiple chemical sensitivities which included a positive reaction to formaldehyde. Notably, resolution of his systemic dermatitis only occurred with discontinuation of the montelukast chewables.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to naftifine. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Tholen, S; Stieler, W; Reinel, D; Hausen, B M

    1989-01-01

    We report on two cases of allergic contact dermatitis due to naftifine, an antimycotic substance. Epicutaneous tests were positive with the reagent itself but not with other compounds of the ointment. Additionally, one of the patients reacted to an ointment containing clotrimazole. Until now, only few cases of contact allergy to naftifine have been described, but an increasing number is expected.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from stearamidoethyl diethylamine phosphate: a cosmetic emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S; Jordan, W P; Maibach, H I

    1984-02-01

    Contact dermatitis to the emulsifier stearamidoethyl diethylamine phosphate was demonstrated in 4 patients. In 3 patients, the emulsifier was present in a commonly used over-the-counter dry skin lotion and in the 4th in a deodorant. In 2 cases, the patients overtly suspected that the product was the cause of the dermatitis. Patch tests to the products were positive. The emulsifier was identified as the contact allergen after testing with coded deletion and/or individual ingredient samples provided by the manufacturer. No apparent cross reactions were found from testing with the standard screening tray of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group or in one case to 2 structurally similar emulsifiers. No other positive reactions to the emulsifier were found after testing it routinely in one patch test clinic for 1 year. Repeated insult (prophetic) patch testing with the final formulation of the dry skin lotion (as performed by the manufacturer) was negative for sensitization and irritation.

  6. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Fernanda; das Graças, Maria; Melo, Mota; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field. PMID:21436967

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to temporary tattoo by p-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Pegas, J R P; Criado, P R; Criado, R F J; Vasconcellos, C; Pires, M C

    2002-01-01

    Temporary tattoos are widely applied today all over the world. The tattoo makers explain that they use "natural henna paint," although in fact they use "black henna," which includes a mixture of many substances, among them p-phenylenediamine (PPD). There have recently been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis because of temporary tattoo with PPD sensitization. We are adding a new case of temporary tattoo with black henna with an extensive reaction, in which a 12-year-old white boy showed contact dermatitis from PPD, followed by cutaneous eruption after corticosteroid topical treatment. PMID:12109535

  8. Atopic dermatitis results in intrinsic barrier and immune abnormalities: Implications for contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gittler, Julia K.; Krueger, James G.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), as well as irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), are common skin diseases. These diseases are characterized by skin inflammation mediated by activated innate immunity or acquired immune mechanisms. Although AD, ICD, and ACD can be encountered in pure forms by allergists and dermatologists, patients with AD often present with increased frequency of ICD and ACD. Although a disturbed barrier alone could potentiate immune reactivity in patients with AD through increased antigen penetration, additional immune mechanisms might explain the increased susceptibility of atopic patients to ICD and ACD. This review discusses cellular pathways associated with increased skin inflammation in all 3 conditions and presents mechanisms that might contribute to the increased rate of ICD and ACD in patients with AD. PMID:22939651

  9. Sensitivity to perfumes and preservatives in patients with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kintziou, H; Papaioannou, G; Rallis, M

    1990-06-01

    Synopsis Patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested for sensitivity to perfumes (perfume mixture, balsam of Peru) and to preservatives (formaldehyde). The percentages of sensitivity in Greek patients with contact dermatitis were 8.1% for the perfume mixture, 3.7% for the balsam of Peru and 2.3% for formaldehyde. It is notable that 1.4% of the patients demonstrated simultaneous sensitivity to the perfume mixture and to balsam of Peru, while no case of simultaneous sensitivity occurred for formaldehyde and the two other compounds. Factors such as sex, age, occupation and anatomic site of the appearance of dermatitis in patients were taken into account and related to the percentages of sensitivity. Comparing with the literature we have concluded that the frequency of appearance of sensitivity by Greek patients is not significantly different from the average observed for patients in Northern or Southern Europe.

  10. Occupational contact dermatitis in manual cloud seeding operations.

    PubMed

    Ng, W T; Koh, D

    2011-05-01

    This is a case report on irritant contact dermatitis secondary to calcium oxide exposure during manual cloud seeding operations. A less hazardous substitute such as sodium chloride should be considered wherever possible. Cloud seeding operations are briefly discussed in this report, and the impact of calcium oxide exposure as an occupational hazard is elaborated. PMID:21633757

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to methacrylates in ECG electrode dots.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Georgina; Nixon, Rosemary

    2013-02-01

    Acrylates are used widely in acrylic nails, dental restorative materials, paint, varnish, printing ink, adhesives, glue, orthopaedic prostheses, bone cement and diathermy pads. This is the first case of allergic contact dermatitis to methacrylates in electrocardiogram electrode dots reported in the literature.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives and fragrances in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tatyana; de Gannes, Gillian C

    2011-04-01

    Cosmetics are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances and preservatives are the two most clinically relevant allergens found in cosmetic products. Patch testing remains the gold standard for identification of causative allergens. Common cosmetic allergens are reviewed. Practical methods of allergen avoidance are also discussed.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from octisalate and cis-3-hexenyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2006-09-01

    A 62-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis from sunscreens containing octisalate (octyl salicylate, 2-ethylhexyl salicylate) and from a fragrance containing cis-3-hexenyl salicylate. Results of patch testing and provocative use testing confirmed that she was allergic to octisalate. Provocative use testing indicated that she was also allergic to cis-3-hexenyl salicylate.

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, S.; Zilmer, K.; Leping, V.; Zilmer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL-) 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01) and TPX (P < 0.0001) were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05) and TAC (P < 0.0001) were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely), as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001), but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies. PMID:25183967

  15. [Contact dermatitis caused by creams containing clobetasol propionate].

    PubMed

    Camarasa, J G; Serra-Baldrich, E

    1988-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to pharmaceutical topical products containing corticosteroids are not uncommon. The study of these cases must combine patch test with standard series, vehicles, special components of each commercial cream and tixocortol pivalate. The importance of these substance is specially emphasized in that paper.

  16. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R

    1994-10-01

    Thiourea compounds are mainly used as accelerators in the rubber industry, but also in other industries, e.g., as antioxidants in the graphics industry. Thiourea compounds may provoke allergic contact dermatitis, although the number of reported cases is relatively low. During 1985-1991, we had 5 patients with allergic patch test reactions caused by thiourea compounds. 1 of our patients had to use a knee brace after an occupational accident. He developed allergic contact dermatitis caused by the knee brace, probably because he had become sensitized to diethylthiourea. 2 patients were probably sensitized by diphenylthiourea in neoprene gloves. A florist had an allergic patch test reaction to diphenylthiourea and might have been sensitized by fungicides or pesticides, which break down into thioureas. It is often difficult, however, to detect the source of thiourea compound sensitization. If the patient has contact dermatitis and has been exposed to products that may contain thiourea compounds (or compounds that break down into thiourea compounds), such as rubber, PVC plastic or adhesive, diazo paper, paints or glue remover, anticorrosive agents, fungicides or pesticides, patch testing with a series of thiourea compounds needs to be performed. If patch testing with thiourea compounds is not performed, allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourea compounds is not likely to be diagnosed. PMID:7842680

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban).

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Lane, P R

    1985-01-01

    Canadian farmers are using increasing amounts of herbicides. Often they do not use adequate skin protection. Two cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis due to the herbicide barban are described. Patch testing with various substances, including barban, confirmed the diagnosis. Sensitization studies in guinea pigs and in one of the authors showed that barban is a potent sensitizer. It is recommended that if skin contact with barban occurs the skin be washed immediately with soap and water. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3971254

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by white petrolatum on damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Tam, Christine C; Elston, Dirk M

    2006-12-01

    Petrolatum rarely causes hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of a 51-year-old white man with allergic contact dermatitis due to white petrolatum on damaged skin. The patient, who presented with a history of hand dermatitis and intolerance to ointments for years, was patch-tested with white petrolatum on scratched skin. Patch tests with the European Standard series, preservatives, steroids, vehicles, and emulsifiers were also performed. The patch-test reaction to white petrolatum on scratched skin was positive at 48 and 96 hours. All other patch-test results were negative.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  1. Eyelid allergic contact dermatitis to black iron oxide.

    PubMed

    Saxena, M; Warshaw, E; Ahmed, D D

    2001-03-01

    Eye cosmetics are a common cause of eyelid dermatitis. These products contain pigments, fragrances, resins, preservatives and vehicles. Mascara might cause either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) of the eyelids. We present the case of a 44-year-old woman with a 10-month history of periorbital and eyelid dermatitis. Epicutaneous patch testing using the TRUE Test, cosmetic series, steroid series, and her personal products yielded a strong reaction to her mascara. Subsequent patch testing to the mascara components provided by the manufacturer revealed a severe reaction only to 5% black iron oxide. This black iron oxide was further tested in 10 normal controls with no reactions produced. There is only one previous report of eyelid ACD secondary to iron oxide that represents a rare cause of eyelid ACD.

  2. Follicular contact dermatitis due to coloured permanent-pressed sheets

    PubMed Central

    Panaccio, François; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester coloured permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4268628

  3. Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Swerdlin, Amy; Rainey, David; Storrs, Frances J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to citrus fruits is rare, but has been reported in cooks and bartenders. We report an interesting case of a bartender with hand dermatitis who had an allergic contact sensitivity to lime peel, fragrance mix I, and fragrance mix II. Most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, which makes up the majority of the peel oil. However, our patient had an allergic reaction to geraniol, which is a minor component of the peel oil and is present in fragrance mix I. It is important to consider a contact sensitivity to citrus in patients who have positive reactions to fragrance mix I and II and who are occupationally exposed to citrus fruits. An initial positive reaction to fragrance mixes should prompt further testing to citrus in these individuals.

  4. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to coconut diethanolamide (cocamide DEA).

    PubMed

    Pinola, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Tarvainen, K; Kanerva, L

    1993-11-01

    Coconut diethanolamide (CDEA), manufactured from coconut oil, is widely used as a surface-active agent in hand gels, hand-washing liquids, shampoos and dish-washing liquids. CDEA has rarely caused allergic contact dermatitis. During 1985-1992, we investigated 6 patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by CDEA. 2 became sensitized from a barrier cream, 3 from a hand-washing liquid, and 1 had been exposed both to a hand-washing liquid and to a metalworking fluid containing CDEA. Leave-on products (hand-protection foams) caused sensitization much more rapidly (2-3 months) than rinse-off products (hand-washing liquids; 5-7 years). Due to the extensive use of CDEA and the lack of proper declaration of products, it is difficult to avoid CDEA exposure. No contact allergy to another coconut-oil-derived sensitizer (cocamidopropyl betaine) was found in the patients.

  5. Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Swerdlin, Amy; Rainey, David; Storrs, Frances J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to citrus fruits is rare, but has been reported in cooks and bartenders. We report an interesting case of a bartender with hand dermatitis who had an allergic contact sensitivity to lime peel, fragrance mix I, and fragrance mix II. Most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, which makes up the majority of the peel oil. However, our patient had an allergic reaction to geraniol, which is a minor component of the peel oil and is present in fragrance mix I. It is important to consider a contact sensitivity to citrus in patients who have positive reactions to fragrance mix I and II and who are occupationally exposed to citrus fruits. An initial positive reaction to fragrance mixes should prompt further testing to citrus in these individuals. PMID:20646673

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis from azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Su, J C; Horton, J J

    1998-02-01

    Contact allergy to textile dyes usually occurs with disperse dyes of the azo or anthraquinone groups. A case is reported of a woman with clinical features of contact allergy to coloured nylon stockings who had multiple sensitivities to dyes of different azo groups.

  7. [Occupational contact dermatitis in metal workers and gender effect].

    PubMed

    Filon, F Larese; Marzioti, G; Fortina, A Belloni; Peserico, A; De Toni, A; Corradini, M T; Carrabba, E; Fiorito, A

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is more frequent among women for anatomical reasons and for extraprofessional exposure to irritants and detergents during homeworks. In addition sensitisation to contact haptens is different in sexes. The aim of our work was to evaluate the association between patch test skin sensitizations and professional exposure to metals analyzing data for gender. Of the 15.217 patients patch tested for dermatitis, 678 were metalworkers. The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between dermatitis and sensitisation to nickel in professional exposed women (OR = 1.68; LC50% 1.11-6.50) while metal sensitisation (Cr.Ni and Co) was not relevant in men: for them a significant association between dermatitis and sensitisation was found to quaternium (OR = 3.91; LC95% 1.18-12.9), to mercaptobenzothiazole (OR = 2.69; LC50% 1.11-6.50) and to ethylendiamine dichloride (OR = 2.53; LC95% 1-6.41). The authors stress the need to evaluate patch test sensitisation considering gender effects.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to quaternium 15 in a moisturizing lotion.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2005-11-01

    A 56-year-old nurse from a rural area presented with a 12-month history of hand dermatitis. She had previously been patch tested by a local medical practitioner with the thin-layer rapid-use epicutaneous test, which had shown allergies to quaternium 15 and formaldehyde. After testing, she was prescribed methylprednisolone aceponate 1 mg/g cream by the medical practitioner, but was not informed that quaternium 15 is contained in the Microshield moisturizing lotion she was using at work. When her dermatitis persisted, she saw a dermatologist, who advised her to avoid the Microshield moisturizing lotion, and use a waterless hand cleanser on return to work. The diagnoses were firstly allergic contact dermatitis from quaternium 15 in the moisturizing lotion, and secondly irritant contact dermatitis from nursing work. This case highlights both the presence of quaternium 15 in a product commonly used in health-care settings in Australia, and the importance of offering informed, appropriate advice to patients following patch testing.

  9. [Contact eczematous dermatitis caused by wheat and oats].

    PubMed

    Calzavara-Pinton, P G; Tosoni, C; Carlino, A; Cattaneo, R

    1989-06-01

    A 58-year old male patient was affected by a chronic dermatitis of the hands, forearms and face. Lesions appeared six months before when he started to work as a pizza-maker and worsened when he touched wheat-fluor and when he washed with an oats-derived detergent. He had a familial but not a personal history of atopic diseases. Both the Prick tests and RAST with oats and wheat flour produced positive responses. Protein contact dermatitis is a rare allergic disease caused by the contact with protein substances. It is often seen in patients working in the food industries or in the kitchens. Many of them have no other signs of atopy.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  11. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    PubMed

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  12. Contact dermatitis from a presumed allergy to paraphenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Daniel; Voutsalath, Melissa

    2009-12-01

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a potent skin allergen found in permanent hair dye and temporary henna tattoo ink. Several cases of adverse skin reactions to PPD have been reported in the literature. Here we present a case involving a patient who acquired a temporary tattoo while vacationing in Mexico and subsequently developed contact dermatitis at the tattoo site. He provided a history of permanent hair dye use in the past with associated cutaneous reaction. Temporary tattoos have become increasingly popular with travelers and as a result so have reports of associated allergic contact dermatitis. Of concern is cross-reaction of PPD to related compounds, severe reactions in younger populations and sequelae including increased sensitization, permanent scarring, and persistent postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. PMID:19958436

  13. An overview of parabens and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and industrial products. However, since the 1960s, controversy has surrounded its use and safety as a potential cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite the cloud of suspicion that has hovered over parabens ever since, these ubiquitous compounds have withstood four decades of extensive skin testing conducted by a variety of organizations, both North American and European, and now, it seems parabens have shown to be one of the least sensitizing preservatives in commercial use. Of the very limited reports of paraben-induced allergic contact dermatitis, these cases are often attributable to the application of parabens on damaged skin.

  14. Cheilitis, perioral dermatitis and contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Collet, Evelyne; Jeudy, Géraldine; Dalac, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Cheilitis is a superficial inflammatory condition of the lip. It can occur either alone or be associated with stomatitis or perioral eczema. Contact hypersensitivity reactions are a frequent cause of cheilitis. Cosmetic and hygiene products are the most usual causes. Less frequently, allergic cheilitis is caused by contact with musical instruments, topical medicines or food allergens. Cases of cheilitis induced by dental material are rare and debated. The diagnosis relies on patch tests, which start with the European baseline series and the patient's personal cosmetic and topical products. This investigation will then be completed by the ingredients in the topical products and specific test series.

  15. Contact sensitivity to lichens and compositae in Frullania dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, S

    1987-02-01

    48 patients with allergic contact dermatitis from Frullania were patch tested with a lichen mix, compositae and lichen acids. 27 were sensitive to Frullania and lichens. Parmelia caperata and Parmelia reticulata were positive in all, and in a descending order of positivity: Pseudovernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, Usnea spp, Ramalina lusitanica. d-Usnic and evernic acids and atranorin were the main responsible allergens. PMID:3568642

  16. Seasonal Variation in Contact Hypersensitivity to Parthenium in Patients of Parthenium Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Kaushal K; Singh, Saurabh; Kumar, Pradip; Pandey, R M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Titer of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) is a measure of contact hypersensitivity to an allergen in an individual. Clinical severity of Parthenium dermatitis varies with season. However, the effect of seasonal variation on the TCH as determined by patch test to Parthenium has not been studied. Objective: To study the effect of seasonal variation on TCH to Parthenium hysterophorus in patients with Parthenium dermatitis. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective investigational study on clinically and patch test confirmed patients with airborne contact dermatitis to P. hysterophorus. The TCH values at baseline and after 6 months were recorded. The patients who were recruited in summers (April to September) and whose repeat patch test and TCH were determined in winters (October to March) were identified as Group I and those who were recruited in reverse order were identified as Group II. Results: The study had 47 patients, of which 23 were in Group I and 24 in Group II. Mean TCH in Group, I (summer to winter) in period I (summer) was 0.11 ± 0.28 whereas that in period II (winter), was 0.76± 0.41. Similarly, mean TCH in Group II (winter to summer) in period I (winter) and period II (summer) were 0.34± 0.44 and 0.166± 0.32, respectively. The difference in TCH values (95% confidence interval) in the two groups with a change of season was −0.41 (−0.58, −0.24) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: TCH values in Parthenium dermatitis are lower in the summer season, indicating increased sensitivity to Parthenium allergen in summer. PMID:26955095

  17. [Contact dermatitis caused by bergamot oil].

    PubMed

    Zacher, K D; Ippen, H

    1984-01-01

    This report is on two patients with contact allergy to bergamot oil, which owing to the volatility of its individual components could only be determined by patch tests after skin stripping. One is a case of occupational disease related to the patient's job in a perfume factory warehouse, and the other is obviously a case of sensitization due to cosmetics. In the former instance patch-test results were positive to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, and in the latter to citral and alpha-pinene. As could be expected, contact allergy to turpentine oil was confirmed in the first case, whereas the actual eczematogenic in the second case, in which turpentine oil was negative, may have been citral.

  18. Persistent light reaction associated with photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette and allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance mix.

    PubMed

    Megahed, M; Hölzle, E; Plewig, G

    1991-01-01

    A 57-year-old man suffering from persistent light reaction with photocontact allergy to musk ambrette and contact allergy to fragrance mix was evaluated. A lowered minimal erythema dose to UV-B (MED-UV-B) was seen. Reactions to long-wave UV-A and visible radiation were normal. A skin biopsy from one MED-UV-B, taken 24 h after irradiation, showed acute spongiotic dermatitis.

  19. "Mint" Condition: Contact Dermatitis in an Adolescent Numismatist.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Colleen H; Admani, Shehla E; Jacob, Sharon E; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is common in children and adolescents. A history of persistent rash despite appropriate treatment should raise suspicion of ACD. We present the case of a 16-year-old boy with chronic dermatitis suspected of being a possible nickel allergy. He and his mother denied known common exposures. Patch testing confirmed allergies to multiple metals and several preservatives. A detailed social history revealed that the patient was an avid coin collector. Information about hobbies and activities should be elicited in any patient in whom ACD is suspected to determine exposures they may not initially have considered relevant. This case highlights the importance of pre- and posttest counseling and exposure history. PMID:26758091

  20. "Mint" Condition: Contact Dermatitis in an Adolescent Numismatist.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Colleen H; Admani, Shehla E; Jacob, Sharon E; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is common in children and adolescents. A history of persistent rash despite appropriate treatment should raise suspicion of ACD. We present the case of a 16-year-old boy with chronic dermatitis suspected of being a possible nickel allergy. He and his mother denied known common exposures. Patch testing confirmed allergies to multiple metals and several preservatives. A detailed social history revealed that the patient was an avid coin collector. Information about hobbies and activities should be elicited in any patient in whom ACD is suspected to determine exposures they may not initially have considered relevant. This case highlights the importance of pre- and posttest counseling and exposure history.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  2. The prognosis of occupational contact dermatitis in 2004.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Jennifer; Keegel, Tessa; Nixon, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    The prognosis of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) takes into account the extent of healing, effect on quality of life and employment, and financial costs for both the individual and the wider community. We reviewed 15 studies published between 1958 and 2002, reporting the complete clearance of dermatitis (range of 18-72%). 9 of the 15 studies reported a clearance rate of between 18 and 40%. Improvement was reported as an outcome in 3 studies between 1991 and 2002 (range of 70-84%). A number of common variables were identified as of possible influence. These include age, sex, atopy, patient knowledge, disease aetiology, duration of symptoms and job change; clinical, financial and social issues are also described. All of these factors need to be considered when managing a patient with OCD. Improved patient knowledge and early diagnosis may be associated with improved prognosis, whereas job change does not make a significant difference. Some patients will develop persistent post-occupational dermatitis, which has important implications for prognosis and workers' compensation. Only a small proportion of eligible patients receive workers' compensation, even though financially supported healing time soon after diagnosis may result in an improved prognosis. PMID:15606644

  3. T cell lymphomatoid contact dermatitis: a challenging case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Knackstedt, Thomas J; Zug, Kathryn A

    2015-02-01

    Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis is a pseudolymphoma with clinical and histological features of allergic contact dermatitis and cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to unnecessary testing, unnecessary treatment, or patient harm. The objective of this study is to present a case to demonstrate the diagnostic challenge and overlap between allergic contact dermatitis and cutaneous T cell lymphoma in a patient with lymphomatoid contact dermatitis caused by methylchoroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and paraben mix, and to review the existing literature in order to summarize the demographics, clinical features, allergens and treatments reported for lymphomatoid contact dermatitis. A search of major scientific databases was conducted for English-language articles reporting cases of lymphomatoid contact dermatitis or additional synonymous search headings. Nineteen articles with a total of 23 patients were analysed. Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis was more common in men, with an average age of 58.5 years. Fourteen unique allergens were identified and confirmed by patch testing. However, no single test or study was diagnostic of lymphomatoid contact dermatitis. Allergen avoidance was the most useful management tool, but selected patients required topical or systemic immunosuppression. In conclusion, without specific diagnostic features, evaluation for lymphomatoid contact dermatitis should include a thorough history and examination, patch testing, and biopsy with immunohistochemistry and clonality studies.

  4. Contact dermatitis associated with the use of Always sanitary napkins.

    PubMed Central

    Eason, E L; Feldman, P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report a clinical association between vulvar irritation or contact dermatitis and the use of Always sanitary napkins. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: A gynecology practice in Montreal. PATIENTS: Women presenting between September 1991 and September 1994 with itching or burning of areas that would be in contact with a sanitary napkin (mons pubis, external surfaces of the vulva and perineum) beginning at least 1 day after the use of the napkins was started and less than 5 days after the use was stopped. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women experienced vulvar itching and burning, often associated with eruptions resembling contact dermatitis, of the vulvar and perineal surfaces after using Always sanitary napkins. Twenty-six reported that symptoms disappeared after they stopped using that brand of sanitary napkin. Seven women who later used the same brand again reported a recurrence of the vulvar irritation. CONCLUSION: The findings of this case series reveal Always sanitary napkins as a potentially important cause of recurrent vulvitis. Physician awareness of the association will enable effective advice and relief for a large number of women suffering "chronic vaginitis". PMID:8612252

  5. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails

    PubMed Central

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis: early recognition and diagnosis of important allergens.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2006-10-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an important disease with high quality of life and economic impact. Patch testing is the procedure by which identification of the cause of ACD can be elicited. Proper performance of the test, from taking an appropriate patient history to placing the correct allergens to evaluating and educating the patient, is of utmost importance. The purpose of this article is to highlight common allergens encountered in our environment, to increase awareness for this important disease, and to underscore the importance of this testing modality. An early index of suspicion can lead to appropriate testing, diagnosis, avoidance, and cure.

  7. Purpuric irritant contact dermatitis induced by Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Cherpelis, B S; Fenske, N A

    2000-10-01

    The sap of Agave americana, a popular ornamental plant, may cause irritant contact dermatitis. This rare eruption is typically vesiculopapular; however, a new purpuric variant with evidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis has recently been reported. We report an additional case of a purpuric eruption associated with severe constitutional symptoms further supporting a possible vasculitic component. Both cases resulted from direct exposure to sap propelled by a chainsaw. We speculate that oxalic acid crystals, which are recognized systemic toxins, are embedded in the skin with resulting oxalism, which may result in vascular damage.

  8. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails.

    PubMed

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  9. Textile dye allergic contact dermatitis following paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary tattoo.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Helen; O'Brien, Timothy; Nixon, Rosemary

    2004-11-01

    Textile dye allergy is frequently caused by azo dyes, which can cross-react with structurally similar compounds, including paraphenylenediamine. A case of allergic contact dermatitis to azo textile dyes, presenting principally as a sock dermatitis, is presented. The patient also gave a history of an episode of scalp dermatitis consistent with contact allergy to paraphenylenediamine in hair dye. It is proposed that paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary skin tattoo may have been the primary sensitizing event for these reactions. PMID:15527435

  10. Textile dye allergic contact dermatitis following paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary tattoo.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Helen; O'Brien, Timothy; Nixon, Rosemary

    2004-11-01

    Textile dye allergy is frequently caused by azo dyes, which can cross-react with structurally similar compounds, including paraphenylenediamine. A case of allergic contact dermatitis to azo textile dyes, presenting principally as a sock dermatitis, is presented. The patient also gave a history of an episode of scalp dermatitis consistent with contact allergy to paraphenylenediamine in hair dye. It is proposed that paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary skin tattoo may have been the primary sensitizing event for these reactions.

  11. Evaluation of efficacy of a skin lipid mixture in patients with irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Barbareschi, M; Veraldi, S; Pimpinelli, N

    2001-11-01

    Disturbances of skin barrier function occur in several skin diseases, e.g., atopic dermatitis (AD), irritant/allergic contact dermatitis (ICD, ACD). Skin barrier damage triggers the production of cytokines that stimulate lipogenesis which may also cause inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a topical skin lipid mixture in the treatment of ICD, ACD and AD. 580 consecutive patients suffering from ICD, ACD or AD were treated with a skin lipid mixture containing ceramide-3 and patented nanoparticles. Patients received the lipid mixture alone or in combination with topical corticosteroids until clearance or for 8 weeks. Both treatment groups statistically improved all parameters considered at week 4 and 8 as compared to baseline. Between the 2 treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of combined therapy for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): erythema, pruritus and overall disease severity; erythema and pruritus; erythema, pruritus, fissuring and overall disease severity. No statistically significant difference was found for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): dryness, scaling and fissuring; scaling, fissuring and overall disease severity; dryness and scaling. Between the 2 ACD treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the skin lipid mixture for dryness. In conclusion, the study shows that balanced lipid mixtures are effective in improving barrier properties and the clinical condition of the skin in contact dermatitis. PMID:11722487

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from cetearyl alcohol in Thrombocid® ointment.

    PubMed

    Armengot-Carbo, Miquel Armengot-Carbo1; Rodríguez-Serna, Mercedes; Taberner-Bonastre, Pilar; Miquel-Miquel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocid® ointment (Lacer, Barcelona, Spain) is widely used in Spain and other countries for varicose veins and 22 hematomas. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis following its use. Herein we present 23 two cases of allergic contact dermatitis to Thrombocid® ointment, owing to cetearyl alcohol. PMID:27617733

  13. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  14. Patch testing in suspected allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1-5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21-40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  15. The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities.

    PubMed

    Popple, Amy; Williams, Jason; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is driven by the activation and proliferation of allergen-specific memory T-lymphocytes and is currently diagnosed by patch testing with a selected panel of chemical allergens. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can be used to monitor ex vivo T-lymphocyte responses to antigens, including contact allergens. The LTT is not viewed as being an alternative to patch testing, but it does seek to reflect experimentally skin sensitization to specific chemicals. The LTT is based on stimulation in vitro of antigen-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation. That is, exposure in culture of primed memory T-lymphocytes to the relevant antigen delivered in an appropriate configuration will provoke a secondary response that reflects the acquisition of skin sensitization. The technical aspects of this test and the utility of the approach for investigation of immune responses to contact allergens in humans are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on further development and refinement of the protocol. An important potential application is that it may provide a basis for characterizing those aspects of T-lymphocyte responses to contact allergens that have the greatest influence on skin sensitizing potency and this will be considered in some detail.

  16. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  17. The hardening phenomenon in irritant contact dermatitis: an interpretative update.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon A; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-03-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is common and poses a significant problem in high-risk populations. In most cases, ICD resolves despite continued exposure in a process known as 'hardening', allowing individuals to continue with their work. Those who cannot clear ICD develop chronic ICD, which is a significant source of emotional, physical, and financial distress for affected individuals. While hardening is well known among labourers and clinicians, its mechanism remains to be elucidated. Much can be learned from the study of self-healing processes like the hardening phenomenon. This overview briefly documents the pathogenesis of ICD, focuses on the latest advances pertaining to the hardening phenomenon in ICD, and then highlights potential avenues of productive research. A better understanding of the 'hardening' process in the skin will hopefully lead to advances for the treatment of ICD.

  18. Fragrance contact dermatitis in Korea: a joint study.

    PubMed

    An, Susun; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Cheol Heon; Kim, Do-Won; Hahm, Jeong Hee; Kim, Kea-Jeung; Moon, Kee-Chan; Won, Young Ho; Ro, Young-Suck; Eun, Hee Chul

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrances in patients with suspected fragrance allergy and to evaluate the risk factors. 9 dermatology departments of university hospitals have participated in this study for the past 1 year. To determine allergic response to fragrances, 18 additional fragrances in addition to the Korean standard and a commercial fragrance series were patch-tested in patients with suspecting cosmetic contact dermatitis. Over 80% of the patients were women, and the most common site was the face. Cinnamic alcohol and sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.) showed high frequencies of positive responses. Of the specific fragrances, ebanol, alpha-isomethyl-ionone (methyl ionone-gamma) and Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexane carboxdaldehyde) showed high positive responses. We compared the results obtained during this study with those of other studies and concluded that including additional fragrance allergens may be useful for the detection of fragrance allergy.

  19. Lactase-induced occupational protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Arja; Ruoppi, Pirkko; Remes, Sami; Koistinen, Tiina; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Soili

    2007-08-01

    Enzymes are high-molecular-weight proteins and highly sensitizing occupational allergens used widely in industrial processes. Lactase has been described to cause work-related respiratory and conjunctival immunoglobulin (Ig)-E-mediated sensitizations in workers in the pharmaceutical industry. In these previous reports, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma was confirmed with prick tests but not by challenge tests. Lactase previously has not been described as a cause of immediate or delayed contact skin reaction. Furthermore, there are no previous reports of lactase-specific IgE. We report a case of protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis from occupational exposure to lactase in a pharmaceutical worker. The patient exhibited strong positive responses to lactase in prick tests. In an open application test, lactase elicited whealing, and in patch testing, lactase elicited an eczematous reaction. Serum lactase-specific IgE antibodies were demonstrated in immunospot and radioallergosorbent test assays, and lactase-IgE-binding fractions and their specificities were examined in immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition assays. The chamber challenge test was performed to detect the association between lactase sensitization and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. Our results have confirmed the previous observations that lactase can induce occupational IgE-mediated respiratory and conjunctival sensitizations, but they show that contact skin reactions caused by lactase may also occur.

  20. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD.

  1. Outbreak of caterpillar dermatitis caused by airborne hairs of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi).

    PubMed

    Balit, C R; Ptolemy, H C; Geary, M J; Russell, R C; Isbister, G K

    Caterpillars may be an under-recognised cause of skin and eye reactions. We report a four-month outbreak of recurrent papulourticarial rash among staff and visitors at a community centre. Caterpillar of the mistletoe browntail moth The cause was eventually diagnosed as airborne hairs from (Euproctis edwardsi). caterpillars of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi), which infested a eucalypt tree growing in front of the centre. To our knowledge, this is the first clear case of airborne caterpillar hairs causing dermatitis in an indoor environment.

  2. Outbreak of caterpillar dermatitis caused by airborne hairs of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi).

    PubMed

    Balit, C R; Ptolemy, H C; Geary, M J; Russell, R C; Isbister, G K

    Caterpillars may be an under-recognised cause of skin and eye reactions. We report a four-month outbreak of recurrent papulourticarial rash among staff and visitors at a community centre. Caterpillar of the mistletoe browntail moth The cause was eventually diagnosed as airborne hairs from (Euproctis edwardsi). caterpillars of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi), which infested a eucalypt tree growing in front of the centre. To our knowledge, this is the first clear case of airborne caterpillar hairs causing dermatitis in an indoor environment. PMID:11837874

  3. Halometasone monohydrate (0.05%) in occupational contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar; Shaju, Noel; Hota, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The impact of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is often underestimated because of underreporting, and its management is also inadequate, especially in developing countries. Topical corticosteroids have remained the first line treatment but till date, there is no study on efficacy and safety of halometasone in OCD, and there is a paucity of data on its comparative efficacy in allergic and irritant variety. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of halometasone in OCD and to compare its effect in allergic and irritant types of OCD. Methods: The present study is a prospective, interventional, single arm clinical study conducted on 150 patients of OCD. Detailed history and clinical examination was done at baseline, and all enrolled patients underwent patch test with the Indian Standard Battery of allergens. Eczema severity was assessed by the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) scale, SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, and patient-oriented eczema measure (POEM). Change in quality of life was assessed by using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). After baseline assessments, they were prescribed halometasone 0.05% ointment and were followed up after 4 weeks, and efficacy variables were evaluated. Results: At follow-up, 19 patients were lost, and data of 131 patients were analyzed. After 4 weeks of halometasone therapy, there was statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvement in SCORAD index, IGA, POEM, and DLQI. Considering improvement in IGA as treatment success criteria, treatment was found to be successful in 87.8%. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference in effect of halometasone in allergic and irritant OCD. Conclusions: Halometasone is efficacious with a good safety profile in patients with OCD, and there is no significant difference in efficacy of the drug in allergic and irritant OCD. PMID:27127314

  4. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo. PMID:22181557

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: understanding the chemistry will help our diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Rozas-Muñoz, E; Lepoittevin, J P; Pujol, R M; Giménez-Arnau, A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants is common. Potentially allergenic plants and plant products are found in many everyday environments, such as the home, the garden, the workplace, and recreational settings. By improving our knowledge of allergenic plant-derived chemical compounds, we will be better positioned to identify novel allergens. We review the most relevant chemical allergens that contribute to plant allergic contact dermatitis and propose a clinical classification system based on 5 major families of chemical sensitizers: α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones, quinones, phenol derivatives, terpenes, and miscellaneous structures (disulfides, isothiocyanates, and polyacetylenic derivates). We also describe the different clinical pictures of plant allergic contact dermatitis and review currently available patch test materials. A better understanding of the specific allergens involved in plant allergic contact dermatitis will help to predict cross-reactivity between different plant species or families.

  7. Chlorocresol sensitivity induced by treatment of allergic contact dermatitis with steroid creams.

    PubMed

    Archer, C B; MacDonald, D M

    1984-09-01

    A patient with contact dermatitis from nickel and cobalt developed sensitivity to chlorocresol contained in topical steroid creams. The use of chlorocresol in aqueous creams and topical steroids is reviewed.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer. PMID:16364130

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis from dodecyl maleamic acid in Curad adhesive plastic bandages.

    PubMed

    Heskel, N S; Samour, C M; Storrs, F J

    1982-12-01

    Two patients, who developed eczematous eruptions beneath Curad-brand medical adhesive plastic bandages, were found to have allergic contact dermatitis to N-dodecyl maleamic acid. N-dodecyl maleamic acid is a monomer used in the production of the adhesive in Curad bandages. Our patients were also sensitive to several closely related chemical compounds. We discuss the chemical requisite for allergenicity of these compounds. These are the first documented cases of allergic contact dermatitis from dodecyl maleamic acid.

  10. A Case of Psoriasis Replaced by Allergic Contact Dermatitis in a 12-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Browning, John C

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a significant clinical problem in children and one that the use of essential oils and natural remedies probably exacerbates. We report a case of chronic plaque psoriasis replaced by allergic contact dermatitis in a 12-year-old boy. We suspect that the immunologic response to a hapten in lavender oil disrupted the pathogenesis of psoriasis, causing the psoriasis to temporarily "disappear." PMID:26646574

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Frick, Malin; Björkner, Bert; Hamnerius, Nils; Zimerson, Erik

    2003-06-01

    From August 1999 to April 2001, there was an outbreak of severe eczema at a factory manufacturing medical equipment. A glue, mainly based on the isocyanate dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (DMDI), was suspected as being the cause of the problem. 16 workers with recent episodes of eczema were patch tested with a standard series, an isocyanate series and work material. The latter consisted of, among other things, the glue, DMDI, and an amine, dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diamine (DMDA), which is formed when DMDI reacts with water. 13 patients reacted to DMDI, 9 to 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI) and 4 to isophoronediisocyanate (IPDI), all of which are aliphatic isocyanates. None reacted to the aromatic isocyanates, diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI) or toluenediisocyanate (TDI). One explanation for this pattern could be that aromatic diisocyanates are more reactive than the aliphatic ones and that, therefore, they are inactivated before penetrating the skin. 5 patients reacted to DMDA and 5 to 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA). Concurrent reactions to DMDA and or MDA with DMDI could be due to cross-reactivity. The positive reactions to MDA could also be a marker of MDI exposure. Yet another patient, investigated in 1997 with suspected work-related contact dermatitis from the glue, is described. She, however, showed no positive reactions to any isocyanates.

  12. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  13. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, S; Ghaffar, S

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports' material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication. PMID:26236520

  14. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis. PMID:27373890

  15. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  16. Nickel-induced systemic contact dermatitis and intratubal implants: the baboon syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Bibas, Nathalie; Lassere, Jacques; Paul, Carle; Aquilina, Christian; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Permanent sterilization using intratubal implants is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. We report the first case of a 40-year-old woman presenting a systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel-containing intratubal implants: the Essure system. The diagnosis was confirmed with positive patch test result for nickel and total clearance of dermatitis after removing the implants that contain a metallic spiral of nitinol (alloy of 55% nickel and 45% titanium). Systemic contact dermatitis to the intratubal implants could be explained by the corrosion of nitinol after implantation resulting in the release of nickel. In the literature, no similar case has been reported despite the introduction of intratubal implants since 2002. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be aware of this type of complication. In practice, a thorough assessment for possible nickel contact dermatitis in a woman undergoing sterilization with Essure is recommended. Preoperative patch testing must be carried out if there is any doubt.

  17. [Occupationally-induced contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma in a unusual delayed reaction to hydroxychloroquine].

    PubMed

    Meier, H; Elsner, P; Wüthrich, B

    1999-09-01

    We report the case of a a 60 year-old worker in the pharmaceutical industry who suffered from recurring contact dermatitis. Initially the contact dermatitis was limited to the hands; later on it became generalized. The patient had been working on a drug filling line in a pharmaceutical plant for more than 20 years. Eight years after starting this job he had developed allergic hand dermatitis to 2,6-diaminopyridine (patch test positive); this healed upon cessation of exposure. Ten years later he again developed hand dermatitis which progressed to generalized dermatitis and conjunctivitis. Under systemic and local therapy with corticosteroids and cessation of work, it healed nearly completely. Four months after returning to work, the patient experienced a first episode of severe asthma and generalized dermatitis with conjunctivitis following exposure to hydroxychloroquine the day before. The asthma and dermatitis improved after systemic corticosteroid therapy and stopping work. His condition continued to fluctuate, when though the patient was transferred at work and now wore rubber gloves. Eight months later he again developed a generalized dermatitis. Patch testing revealed delayed-type sensitizations to hydroxychloroquine (tested in concentrations of 0. 1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%). Equivalent tests in five healthy volunteers were negative. The patch test reactions were pustular, while a biopsy was interpreted as a multiform contact dermatitis reaction. Bronchial exposure with hydroxychloroquine dust produced a delayed bronchial obstruction over the next 20 hours, which progressed to fever and generalized erythema (hematogenous contact dermatitis). After removing exposure to 2,6-diaminopyridine and hydroxychloroquine, the patient went on to develop a contact dermatitis to latex (patch test positive). However, skin prick tests with latex and patch tests with rubber additiva were negative. Hydroxychloroquine is well known to cause drug reactions. To our knowledge, contact

  18. Urticarial papular and plaque eruptions. A noneczematous manifestation of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L

    1989-04-01

    A noneczematous eruption associated with allergic contact dermatitis is described. Five patients had disseminated erythematous urticarial papular and plaque eruptions secondary to contact allergy to two substances (four to proflavine and one to a permanent waving lotion). The eruption appeared to be similar to the previously described "erythema multiforme-like eruption" associated with allergic contact dermatitis. A review of the previous report indicated that the eruptions currently being reported do not have the typical clinical and histologic features of erythema multiforme. The term "urticarial papular and plaque eruption of contact allergy" is suggested to describe the eruption. The exact mechanism of the eruption remained speculative.

  19. Result of standard patch test in patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee; Puvabanditsin, Porntip

    2005-09-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common skin disease. Disease was diagnosed by a history of contact substance together with geographic distribution of lesion. Up till now, standard patch test is one of the most reliable test to identify and confirm causative agent of allergic contact dermatitis. To determine the rate of positive standard patch test and to identify the common allergen of contact dermatitis in Thailand, we performed the standard patch test in 129 patients, suspected having allergic contact dermatitis at Department of Dermatology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand from June 1, 2003 to September 1, 2004. The rate of positive standard patch test is 59.7% (n = 77/129). The most 3 common positive allergens were nickel sulfate (18.60%), cobalt chloride (17.05%) and fragrance mix (14.73%), respectively. The chance of positive standard patch test significantly correlated with sex (woman), initial diagnosis as contact dermatitis and history of house-worker (p = 0.017, p = 0.005 and p = 0.023, respectively). Whereas, there were no significant correlation between the chance of positive standard patch test and age of patient, location of lesion, history of recurrence, history of atopy, history of drug and food allergy. In addition, history of metal allergy significantly correlated with the chance of positive nickel sulfate or cobalt chloride in standard patch test (p = 0.017). In conclusion, this study demonstrated the prevalence of causative allergen of contact dermatitis in Thai patients using that standard patch test. Moreover, our data shown that the chance positive standard patch test was greater in patient, who were women or initial diagnosed as contact dermatitis or had history of houseworker or history of metal allergy.

  20. Scalp Psoriasiform Contact Dermatitis with Acute Telogen Effluvium due to Topical Minoxidil Treatment.

    PubMed

    La Placa, Michelangelo; Balestri, Riccardo; Bardazzi, Federico; Vincenzi, Colombina

    2016-02-01

    Topical minoxidil, the only approved treatment for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), has been associated with scalp allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report the case of 2 female patients who developed ACD from minoxidil solution with severe telogen effluvium and psoriasiform scalp dermatitis. Scalp dermoscopy was useful to identify the psoriasiform vascular pattern, whereas patch testing made it possible to differentiate the cause of sensitization. In one case, minoxidil was the sole cause of scalp dermatitis, while in the other patient it was only the vehicle, thus permitting the patient to continue the treatment for FPHL. PMID:27172052

  1. Scalp Psoriasiform Contact Dermatitis with Acute Telogen Effluvium due to Topical Minoxidil Treatment

    PubMed Central

    La Placa, Michelangelo; Balestri, Riccardo; Bardazzi, Federico; Vincenzi, Colombina

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil, the only approved treatment for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), has been associated with scalp allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report the case of 2 female patients who developed ACD from minoxidil solution with severe telogen effluvium and psoriasiform scalp dermatitis. Scalp dermoscopy was useful to identify the psoriasiform vascular pattern, whereas patch testing made it possible to differentiate the cause of sensitization. In one case, minoxidil was the sole cause of scalp dermatitis, while in the other patient it was only the vehicle, thus permitting the patient to continue the treatment for FPHL. PMID:27172052

  2. U.K. standards of care for occupational contact dermatitis and occupational contact urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Adisesh, A; Robinson, E; Nicholson, PJ; Sen, D; Wilkinson, M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) and occupational contact urticaria (OCU) is a process that involves fastidious clinical and occupational history taking, clinical examination, patch testing and skin-prick testing. A temporal relationship of work and/or the presence of a rash on the hands only raises suspicion of an occupational cause, and does not necessarily confirm an occupational causation. The identification of allergy by patch or prick tests is a major objective, as exclusion of an offending allergen from the environment can contribute to clinical recovery in the individual worker and avoidance of new cases of disease. This can be a complex process where allergens and irritants, and therefore allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, may coexist. This article provides guidance to healthcare professionals dealing with workers exposed to agents that potentially cause OCD and OCU. Specifically it aims to summarize the 2010 British Occupational Health Research Foundation (BOHRF) systematic review, and also to help practitioners translate the BOHRF guideline into clinical practice. As such, it aims to be of value to physicians and nurses based in primary and secondary care, as well as occupational health and public health clinicians. It is hoped that it will also be of value to employers, interested workers and those with responsibility for workplace standards, such as health and safety representatives. Note that it is not intended, nor should it be taken to imply, that these standards of care override existing statutory and legal obligations. Duties under the U.K. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, the Equality Act 2010 and other relevant legislation and guidance must be given due consideration, as should laws relevant to other countries. PMID:23374107

  3. Contact dermatitis due to ultrasound gel: A case report and published work review.

    PubMed

    Chasset, François; Soria, Angèle; Moguelet, Philippe; Mathian, Alexis; Auger, Yvain; Francès, Camille; Barete, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Adverse skin reactions with ultrasound gel are rare and related mostly to allergic contact dermatitis or contact urticaria. We report an allergic contact dermatitis with Doppler ultrasound gel applied in a 67-year-old man. The patient developed atypical purpuric cutaneous presentation located on vascular axes. Semi-open test with ultrasound gel and patch test with phenoxyethanol were followed by the same clinical purpuric eruption which strongly suggested the accountability of this later component as allergen. Based on this observation, we present a review of published work with a focus on clinical features and allergens involved in ultrasound gel cutaneous reaction. PMID:26346708

  4. Contact dermatitis due to ultrasound gel: A case report and published work review.

    PubMed

    Chasset, François; Soria, Angèle; Moguelet, Philippe; Mathian, Alexis; Auger, Yvain; Francès, Camille; Barete, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Adverse skin reactions with ultrasound gel are rare and related mostly to allergic contact dermatitis or contact urticaria. We report an allergic contact dermatitis with Doppler ultrasound gel applied in a 67-year-old man. The patient developed atypical purpuric cutaneous presentation located on vascular axes. Semi-open test with ultrasound gel and patch test with phenoxyethanol were followed by the same clinical purpuric eruption which strongly suggested the accountability of this later component as allergen. Based on this observation, we present a review of published work with a focus on clinical features and allergens involved in ultrasound gel cutaneous reaction.

  5. Current Quality-of-Life Tools Available for Use in Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Swietlik, Jacquelyn; Reeder, Margo

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can cause significant impairment in patients' overall quality of life (QoL). This impact is separate and potentially more clinically relevant than one's disease "severity" in contact dermatitis and should be consistently addressed by dermatologists. Despite this, QoL tools specific to contact dermatitis are lacking, and there is little consistency in the literature regarding the tool used to evaluate clinical response to therapies. Measurements currently available to evaluate disease-related QoL in contact dermatitis fit into 1 of the following 3 general types: generic health-related QoL measures, dermatology-related QoL measures, or specific dermatologic disease-related QoL measures. This article reviews the strengths and weaknesses of existing QoL tools used in contact dermatitis including: Short Form Survey 36, Dermatology Life Quality Index, Skindex-29, Skindex-16, Dermatology-Specific Quality of Life, and Fragrance Quality of Life Index.

  6. Contact dermatitis following sustained exposure to pecans (Carya illinoensis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Kathleen M; Boyd, Jason; Viernes, Jay L

    2006-04-01

    Type I hypersensitivity reactions following ingestion of peanuts and tree nuts are well characterized. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are less well characterized, yet they remain the second most common reaction pattern to contact with or ingestion of such nuts. We present a case of a patient who experienced an acute vesicular cutaneous reaction after prolonged contact with pecans. This case illustrates the salient features of contact dermatitis and serves as a reminder that contact with allergenic foods can lead to hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:16706235

  7. Irritant contact dermatitis due to ammonium bifluoride in two infant twins.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Fernando; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Cuesta, Laura; Bañuls, José

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium bifluoride is one of the most corrosive acids that may produce severe chemical burns when in contact with skin. This hazardous chemical is widely used in household products. We report two pediatric cases of irritant contact dermatitis after exposure to a rust remover, which contained ammonium bifluoride.

  8. Irritant contact dermatitis due to ammonium bifluoride in two infant twins.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Fernando; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Cuesta, Laura; Bañuls, José

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium bifluoride is one of the most corrosive acids that may produce severe chemical burns when in contact with skin. This hazardous chemical is widely used in household products. We report two pediatric cases of irritant contact dermatitis after exposure to a rust remover, which contained ammonium bifluoride. PMID:22211467

  9. Airborne chemicals cause respiratory symptoms in individuals with contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Mosbech, H; Dirksen, A; Menné, T; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F; Frølund, L; Johansen, J Duus

    2005-02-01

    Exposure to fragrance chemicals causes various eye and airway symptoms. Individuals with perfume contact allergy report these symptoms more frequently than individuals with nickel allergy or no contact allergies. However, the associations between contact allergy and respiratory symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals other than perfumes are unclear. The study aimed to investigate the association between eye and airway symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals (other than perfumes) and contact allergy in a population-based sample. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was posted, in 2002, to 1189 individuals who participated in 1997/1998 in a Danish population-based study of allergic diseases. Questions about eye and airway symptoms elicited by different airborne chemicals and airborne proteins were included in the questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were compared with data on patch testing and prick testing. Having at least 1 positive patch test (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5) was associated with the symptoms, and the odds ratio increased with the number of positive patch tests (P-value for test for trend <0.05). Bronchial hyperreactivity, female sex and psychological vulnerability were independently associated with symptoms, but no association was found between prick test reactivity to proteins and the symptoms elicited by airborne chemicals.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to copolymers in cosmetics--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Quartier, Sarah; Garmyn, Marjan; Becart, Sophie; Goossens, An

    2006-11-01

    Copolymers or heteropolymers are large molecules with high molecular weights (>1000 D). They have been underestimated for a long time as to their sensitizing capacities. Allergic contact dermatitis to 6 copolymers in cosmetics and 1 in a medical dressing has been described; however, the nature of the hapten is still unknown. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hexadecene copolymer in a purple-colored lipstick and review the literature on allergic contact dermatitis to 7 copolymers: PVP/hexadecene, PVP/eicosene, PVP/1-triacontene, methoxy polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-22/dodecyl glycols, methoxy PEG-17/dodecyl glycols, phthalic anhydride/trimellitic anhydride/glycols, and polyvinyl methyl/maleic acid anhydride. PMID:17026690

  11. Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis associated with textile dye at an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Uzunçakmak, Tuğba Kevser; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Türkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru Itır; Ka Radağ, Ayşe Serap

    2015-12-01

    Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis (LCD) is a rare variant of noneczematous allergic contact dermatitis, which can mimick parapsoriasis or early-stage mycosis fungoides with its atypical clinical and histopathological manifestation. Many different haptens have been reported to be associated with this reaction. Histopathological examination, immunhistochemistry, clonality tests, and patch tests are mandatory for diagnosis and differential diagnosis. We present a 48-year-old male with a four years history of a relapsing erythematous plaque on the glans penis. Topical corticosteroids had been prescribed but he complained of relapse upon withdrawal. Histopathological examination was consistent with LCD. Thin layer rapid use epicutaneous patch test result was (++) for disperse blue and nickel sulfate. We present this case because of its rarity and unusual localization. This kind of allergic contact dermatitis should be remembered in differential diagnosis of nonspesific pruritic plaques over the genital region. PMID:26904444

  12. Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis associated with textile dye at an unusual location

    PubMed Central

    Uzunçakmak, Tuğba Kevser; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Türkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru Itır; Ka Radağ, Ayşe Serap

    2015-01-01

    Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis (LCD) is a rare variant of noneczematous allergic contact dermatitis, which can mimick parapsoriasis or early-stage mycosis fungoides with its atypical clinical and histopathological manifestation. Many different haptens have been reported to be associated with this reaction. Histopathological examination, immunhistochemistry, clonality tests, and patch tests are mandatory for diagnosis and differential diagnosis. We present a 48-year-old male with a four years history of a relapsing erythematous plaque on the glans penis. Topical corticosteroids had been prescribed but he complained of relapse upon withdrawal. Histopathological examination was consistent with LCD. Thin layer rapid use epicutaneous patch test result was (++) for disperse blue and nickel sulfate. We present this case because of its rarity and unusual localization. This kind of allergic contact dermatitis should be remembered in differential diagnosis of nonspesific pruritic plaques over the genital region. PMID:26904444

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to sodium benzoate chloroacetamide in a sorbolene lotion.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Tina; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-08-01

    Sodium benzoate chloroacetamide is sometimes used as a combination preservative in cosmetics to prevent the growth of bacteria, mould, fungi and yeasts. A case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis to this preservative is described in a 32-year-old female personal care assistant, who was found to have allergic contact dermatitis involving the hands, caused by the sorbolene lotion supplied in her workplace. Patch testing to chloroacetamide, sodium benzoate chloroacetamide and the sorbolene lotion was positive. Patch testing to sodium benzoate alone was negative. She had been found to react to chloroacetamide 12 months earlier, but the relevance of the reaction had not been ascertained.

  14. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by temporary black henna tattoos in two siblings].

    PubMed

    Hjuler, Kasper F; Otkjær, Aksel

    2014-06-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in black henna tattoo mixes is widely recognised as a cause of type-IV allergic contact dermatitis. Legislation in Western countries prohibits the use of PPD on the skin and limits the use in hairdye. In this report, we present a case of two brothers aged five and eight years with classical sensitization and illustrative contact dermatitis after repeatedly exposure to black henna. The hyper-sensitivity reaction to PPD was confirmed in later patch testing. The case serves as a reminder on the potential consequences of a seemingly harmless skin drawing.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins in surgical uniforms and nonwoven textile masks.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Jeff; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy

    2007-03-01

    Despite a trend for reduction in the concentration of free formaldehyde in textiles, formaldehyde textile resin (FTR) allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains an important clinical issue and is likely underdiagnosed. Patients with FTR ACD may react to formaldehyde released from the resin or to the resin itself. Screening with formaldehyde and ethyleneurea/melamine formaldehyde resin will uncover most cases. Patch testing with the suspected offending fabric most often leads to false-negative results. We present a case of a 49-year-old pediatrician who developed a severe widespread dermatitis caused by contact with FTRs from her hospital "greens" ("scrubs") and mask.

  16. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis to fiberglass in a factory worker of wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana; Morais, Paulo; Cunha, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-09-01

    Fiberglass is extensively used due to its properties of thermal, acoustic and electrical insulation, and also to reinforce other materials such as plastics. Irritant contact dermatitis to fiberglass is a well established occupational dermatose and is due to penetration of small fragments in the cornified layer of the skin. On the other hand, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is rare and is more often triggered by sensitivity to the additives and resins used in the manufacture of fiberglass products. We report a case of ACD to fiberglass in a factory worker of fiberglass reinforced products. PMID:21190399

  17. Contact sensitivity to flavourings and perfumes in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Abifadel, R; Mortureux, P; Perromat, M; Ducombs, G; Taieb, A

    1992-07-01

    16 children with atopic dermatitis and 4 nonatopics were skin tested with flavourings and perfumes. Immediate reactions to balsam of Peru and fragrance-mix were found in 9 atopics, and none among nonatopics. An irritant is more probable than an immunologic mechanism. Allergen solutions should probably be assayed at a lower concentration in atopic patients. This study points to a possible aggravating factor from perfumes and flavourings ingested, inhaled, or used as cosmetics.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hugh; Williams, Jason; Tate, Bruce

    2006-12-01

    Dexpanthenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid (the water-soluble vitamin B(5)). Although it is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, contact allergy is relatively uncommon. Cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate is a phospholipid complex derived from pure coconut oil, and contact allergy is rare. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

  19. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to normal skin and psoriasis, a significant enhancement of perforin and granzyme B gene expression and immunoreactivity was observed in the mononuclear cell infiltrate of allergic contact dermatitis. Immunoreactivity for perforin and granzyme B was mainly found in the cytoplasm of lymphocytic cells, which were located in the dense perivascular infiltrate as well as at sites of marked spongiosis in the epidermis. Double immunostaining revealed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are capable of expressing perforin and granzyme B. In conclusion, our data suggest that T-cell-mediated mechanisms involving cytotoxic granule proteins may elicit epidermal cell injury in vivo and thereby strongly contribute to the development of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. PMID:11238028

  20. Formaldehyde-negative allergic contact dermatitis from melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, K; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

    2003-10-01

    Melamine-formaldehyde resin (MFR) is used as a textile finish, in tableware, in surface coatings, and in glues in the furniture and wood industry. MFR is considered to be an infrequent sensitizer. Contact allergy to MFR is often combined with formaldehyde allergy. Patients allergic to textile finish often react to MFR, although other finishes are nowadays more commonly used. Besides allergy to textile finish, allergic contact dermatitis from MFR has been described in workers in composite production and in an orthopaedic plaster technician. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of contact allergy in the plywood industry from MFR. We describe 3 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from MFR without contact allergy to formaldehyde, 1 in the plywood industry, 1 in the production of melamine-laminated chipboard and 1 in laboratory work.

  1. [Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from color developers used in automatic developing].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Alvarez-Ruiz, Sara; Ballesteros, Marta; García-Díez, Amaro

    2005-05-01

    The color developers CD2, CD3 and CD4 and the black-and-white developer TSS are well known contact allergens that affect those who work in photographic processing. The frequency of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from color developers has decreased in recent years because of the fact that most photo developing takes place automatically, reducing exposure to different chemicals used in developing. We present a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a non-atopic male who had worked for the last 5 years in a photography shop equipped with an automatic developing machine. The clinical morphology of the lesions was eczematous, and the patch tests showed contact sensitization to CD2, CD3, CD4 and TSS. The clinical symptoms cleared up when direct contact with the developing product containing CD3 and CD4 was avoided.

  2. [Vesicular contact dermatitis due to Paederus in Cameroon and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, C; Le Gall, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2015-12-01

    This irritant blister dermatitis is caused by the genus Paederus whose geographical distribution is worldwide, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. It is induced by direct skin contact with pederin, a blistering and caustic substance found in the abdomen (coelome) of Paederus insects (insect order Coleoptera: family Staphylinidae). The diagnosis is based on the presence of typical clinical features combined with compatible epidemiological features. Our goal is to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of this irritant contact dermatitis in Cameroon through a retrospective study conducted at the end of the rainy season at the Oku Hospital in Northwest Cameroon and to also include cases reported at the medical center of the French Embassy in Yaounde during this same timeframe. In addition, we conducted a literature review of paederus dermatitis. Nineteen patients were included in this study. More than half of the patients presented with more than two lesions predominantly localized to the face or the neck; less than half had complications manifesting as either localized or respiratory reactions and three patients presented periorbital involvement. This study confirms the presence of paederus dermatitis in Cameroon. It is mainly localized in the unusual geoclimatic region of the western high mountains within the country, as well as the usual warm, moist areas of Yaounde. The clinical evolution of this dermatitis is usually one of spontaneous and uneventful resolution with complications being rare. Curative treatment is one of localized topical therapies while oral antibiotic therapy should be reserved for more complicated cases.

  3. [Contact dermatitis caused by perfumes and essences contained in various preparations for topical use].

    PubMed

    Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F; Vilaplana, J; Mascaro, J M

    1987-01-01

    Regarding two cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by geraniol, containing in two different pharmaceutical products, a revision has been made of the preparations of topical application which contain this and other fragrances. At the same time the clinical picture and examination of these cause is reported.

  4. A diagnostic pearl in allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances: the atomizer sign.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; Castanedo-Tarden, Mari Paz

    2008-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) reactions to fragrances may present in a variety of ways because of exposure to these allergens from a wide range of sources. We describe a diagnostic pearl for this common ACD, primarily seen overlying the prominentia laryngea (Adam's apple) both in women and girls, which we have called the atomizer sign.

  5. Topical application of Scutellaria baicalensis suppresses 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Choi, Jae-Mook; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Son, Hwa-Young; Lim, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a prototypic T-cell-mediated cutaneous inflammatory response. In the present study we describe the anti-allergic effect of topically applied Scutellaria bacalensis aqueous extract (WSBE) in suppressing 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced ACD in BALB/c mice. Topically applied WSBE attenuated the epidermal thickness and mast cell infiltration into the skin in DNCB-induced contact dermatitis. Furthermore, WSBE suppressed DNCB-induced production of serum IgE as well as IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the skin. Topical application of WSBE also ameliorated the significant decrease in dermal glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. Moreover, present results demonstrated that the baicalin, bioactive compound of WSBE, was able to penetrate into the skin following topical application, which was confirmed by the HPLC analysis using rat model. Taken together, topical application of WSBE exerts beneficial effects in contact dermatitis model, suggesting that WSBE might be a candidate for the treatment of contact dermatitis.

  6. Videodermoscopy Does Not Enhance Diagnosis of Scalp Contact Dermatitis Due to Topical Minoxidil

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella; Donati, Aline; Vincenzi, Colombina; Fabbrocini, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Background: Videodermoscopy (VD) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that provides useful information for the differential diagnosis of scalp disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate if dermoscopy may help the clinician in the diagnosis of contact dermatitis of the scalp. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the dermoscopic images taken from 7 patients with contact dermatitis due to topical minoxidil, 6 patients complaining of intense scalp itching during treatment with topical minoxidil but with negative patch tests and 19 controls. The following dermoscopic patterns described for scalp diseases were evaluated: Vascular patterns (simple loops, twisted loops and arborizing lines), follicular/perifollicular patterns (yellow dots, empty ostia, white dots, peripilar signs), white scales, yellow scales, follicular plugging, hair diameter diversity, honeycomb pattern and short regrowing hairs. Findings were graded from 0-4, according to severity in 20-fold magnifications. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis and Chi-square test by SPSS version 12. Results: There were no statistical differences in the analysis of the vascular patterns and scales between the 3 groups. Conclusions: We were not able to detect dermoscopic features that can help the clinician in distinguishing scalp contact dermatitis due to topical minoxidil from other conditions that cause severe scalp itching. In particular, minoxidil contact dermatitis does not produce increase or alterations in the morphology of the scalp vessels or significant scalp scaling when evaluated with dermoscopy. PMID:20927236

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  8. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis to cigarettes: smoked/unsmoked components and formaldehyde factors.

    PubMed

    Carew, Benjamin; Muir, Jim

    2014-08-01

    A patient with hand dermatitis reported that switching her smoking hand resulted in reduced symptoms. When allergy to cigarettes is suspected the literature supports standard allergy testing as well as testing the individual components of cigarettes. Initial standard patch testing revealed an allergy to formaldehyde and the formaldehyde releasing agent, quaternium-15. The patient did not react to her usual roll-your-own cigarette components but reacted to the smoked filter paper of a particular brand of cigarette she frequently borrowed from a friend. Possible explanations include either a variation of ingredients between cigarettes that alters the formaldehyde concentration or another unidentified allergen in the branded cigarette causing allergic contact dermatitis.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis from the synthetic fragrances Lyral and acetyl cedrene in separate underarm deodorant preparations.

    PubMed

    Handley, J; Burrows, D

    1994-11-01

    The case is reported of a 28-year-old man who developed allergic contact dermatitis from 2 synthetic fragrance ingredients, Lyral (3- and 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene-1-aldehyde) and acetyl cedrene, in separate underarm deodorant preparations. The implications of the patient's negative patch test reactions to the European standard series (Trolab) and cosmetics and fragrance series (both Chemotechnique Diagnostics) are discussed. The importance is stressed of patch testing with the patient's own preparations when cosmetic dermatitis is suspected, and of identifying and reporting offending fragrance ingredients, with a view possibly to updating the European standard series and commercially available cosmetics and fragrance series.

  10. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected.

  11. Pruritus ani as a manifestation of systemic contact dermatitis: resolution with dietary nickel restriction.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Dianne L; Barmettler, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Pruritus ani is a common distressing problem with numerous possible causes. When locally applied agents trigger irritation or allergic response, skin changes of dermatitis usually accompany the itch. Focal pruritus in the absence of dermatitis is not generally considered to be a manifestation of contact allergy. Furthermore, focal pruritus is not listed among the possible diverse presentations of the systemic delivery of a proven contact allergen. We report a case of a gentleman with a 1.5-year history of treatment-resistant pruritus ani. When patch testing revealed a positive reaction to nickel sulfate, he admitted to daily peanut butter consumption. His symptoms resolved with dietary nickel restriction. Patch testing may be useful in patients with pruritus of the anogenital region, not only to elucidate potential contact exposures contributing to the symptom but also to suggest possible dietary precipitants.

  12. A clinical and patch test study of contact dermatitis from traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

    PubMed

    Li, L F

    1995-12-01

    Putative allergens in, clinical manifestations of, and patch tests with traditional Chinese medicinal materials (CMM) causing contact dermatitis (CD) were studied. 14 patients with CMM CD and 351 controls were patch tested with the standard series of allergens of Beijing Medical University and the suspected drug, as is. It was found that most CMM CD was caused by the CMM frequently used topically for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. All patients patch tested with the suspected drug gave positive results. Some patients also reacted to fragrance mix, colophony, rubber mix and ammoniated mercury. The positivity rates of fragrance mix and colophony in CMM CD patients were significantly higher than in controls (55.6% versus 16.5% for fragrance mix, chi 2 = 11.86, p < 0.01; and 55.6% versus 5.1% for colophony, chi 2 = 29.35, p < 0.01), while not those of rubber mix and ammoniated mercury. Results indicated that the topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory CMM, especially those containing fragrance, may cause contact sensitization. Clinical findings in CMM CD included cutaneous irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, immediate contact reactions and systemic contact dermatitis. CMM CD can be diagnosed by patch testing the putative drug, as is.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis associated with reactive dyes in a dark garment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Linda; Goossens, An

    2005-09-01

    In this study, we present a case of a patient who has not been occupationally exposed to reactive dyes, but did present with a dermatitis from wearing a dark cotton garment. The patient experienced reactivation of his dermatitis when rewearing a new unwashed dark T-shirt made of 100% cotton (in fact, the patient reported that it had to be washed at least 3 times before the skin reaction disappeared). He presented positive patch tests to 6 reactive dyes from Chemotechnique textile series. The clothing could not be proved as the true cause of the dermatitis, but resolution occurred upon removal of the suspected garment. This suggests that contact allergy to the reactive dyes (he did not react to any other dyes and his garment was a natural fabric) was likely responsible. With this report, we would like to emphasize that reactive dyes, as a class, should be considered as potential allergens, both occupationally and from non-occupational exposure such as garments. If garments containing reactive dyes are not properly rinsed in the manufacturing process, we believe that excess of dye can be retained that may cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). As the reactive dyes and their hydrolysis products are very water-soluble, they can be easily washed off to prevent ACD.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to the perfume in Mycolog cream.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    1979-08-01

    Mycolog contact allergy is due primarily to its ethylenediamine and fragrance components. In the evaluation of Mycolog-sensitive patients, the major constituents, including the perfume at 5% or 10% in petrolatum, should be tested.

  15. Nipple Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem including: Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Thrush (oral yeast infection) An allergic reaction (contact dermatitis) Local irritation ... Breast-feeding women with a previous history of yeast vaginitis or whose infants also use a bottle ...

  16. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis due to benzalkonium chloride in plaster of Paris.

    PubMed

    Wong, D A; Watson, A B

    2001-02-01

    Plaster of Paris (POP) bandages are extensively used for splinting and casting injured or surgically repaired body parts. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by POP has been reported only rarely in the medical literature. An 81-year-old woman developed multiple large, tense, haemorrhagic bullae on the palm, and an acute vesicular eczematous eruption on the forearm, after the application of a POP splint. Subsequent patch testing revealed positive reactions to both the POP bandage used and to benzalkonium chloride, a component of the POP formulation. Patch tests to two other POP products without benzalkonium chloride were negative. These results confirm those of previous studies which have implicated the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride as the allergen responsible for POP-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  18. Contact dermatitis to topical acne drugs: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Borghi, Alessandro; Angelini, Gianni; Bonamonte, Domenico; Corazza, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatological disorder that affects the majority of teenagers in the Western world. Topical therapy is widely used to treat mild-moderate acne and is known as well-tolerated thanks to its low systemic toxicity, although associated to skin adverse effects. Acne seems to be associated also to an intrinsic alteration of the epidermal barrier, regarding both the upper and the follicular stratum corneum that promotes the onset of such local side effects. The commonest one is irritant contact dermatitis, an event of frequent observation occurring with erythema, burning, dryness, scaling, and itching, usually characterized by low severity and limited duration. Among topical acne drugs, retinoids are the most irritating ones. Another side effect is allergic contact dermatitis: it is rare and mainly associated to benzoyl peroxide.

  19. Decreasing allergic contact dermatitis frequency through dermatotoxicologic and epidemiologic based intervention?

    PubMed

    Wesley, Naissan O; Maibach, Howard I

    2003-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) affects millions of people worldwide. In an attempt to decrease the incidence of contact dermatitis, several countries have implemented legislations to reduce the population's exposure to known sensitizers. To determine whether these legislations have been effective, we reviewed several studies examining trends in patch test reactivity before and after implementation of these legislations. Common sensitizers studied include nickel, gluceryl monothioglycolate fragrances, chromate, and thiuram. Overall, the evidence suggests a decreasing trend of ACD with appropriate formulation changes, however some of the data may be confounded by biases, and additionally, exposure to the sensitizer may still exist via non-compliance to regulations by small manufacturers. In the future population based studies should be conducted to more accurately assess trends in ACD.

  20. Fiddler's Neck Accompanied by Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Nickel in a Viola Player

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Mihn Sook; Kim, Yong Seok

    2010-01-01

    "Fiddler's neck" is an irritant contact dermatitis that frequently affects violin and viola players. The etiology of the skin changes associated with this condition are probably attributable to a combination of factors--including increased pressure, friction, poor hygiene, and excessive perspiration. Clinically, the lesions generally consist of a localized area of lichenification on the left side of the neck just below the angle of the jaw. Herein, we report a case of fiddler's neck in a viola player, attended by allergic contact dermatitis to the nickel in the metal fixtures of a viola. We hope that our case report draws the attention of dermatologists toward this, and many other skin problems that affect musicians. PMID:20548892

  1. Systemic contact dermatitis in children: how an avoidance diet can make a difference.

    PubMed

    Matiz, Catalina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis is an under-recognized skin reaction that occurs secondary to systemic (oral, intravenous, intramuscular, inhaled, or subcutaneous) exposure to a hapten in a previously sensitized individual. Medicaments are the most common cause of SCD in the adult population, but other chemicals like nickel, cobalt, balsam of Peru, and formaldehyde have been implicated as well. Few reports in children exist to date. Dietary restriction has shown to be of some benefit in managing some adult patients. We present a case series of 8 pediatric patients diagnosed with SCD from the contact dermatology clinic, who showed marked improvement of their dermatitis after adequate dietary avoidance. We review common presentations of chemicals causing SCD in children and potential dietary modifications.

  2. Suspected allergic contact dermatitis to iodopropynyl butylcarbamate in an alcohol hand rub commonly used in Australian health-care settings.

    PubMed

    Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of suspected allergic contact dermatitis to the preservative and uncommon allergen iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, found in Microshield Angel hand gel, a skin cleanser commonly used in Australian health-care settings. PMID:24433373

  3. Human skin safety test of green tea cell extracts in condition of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Choi, Sun Young; Chang, Hui Kyoung; Baek, Seok Yun; Chung, Jin Oh; Rha, Chan Su; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2012-06-01

    Various kinds of positive effects of green tea extracts had been studied for long time which included anti-inflammation, anti-aging, and cardiometabolic effects. Although topical steroid and non-steroidal calcineurin inhibitors may control clinical symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis, some of patients also present allergic reaction to these topical agents. Therefore, we have tried green tea extracts for managing this skin disorder with expectation of anti-inflammatory effect without potential side effects including skin irritation and toxic responses. The toxicity test of green tea extract also did not show any sign of irritation in the skin throughout the test period. Moderate severity of allergic contact dermatitis presented satisfactory clinical outcome at second week follow-up which was final visit of outpatient. This result mean that green tea extract has a positive effect for managing allergic contact dermatitis but its potency and efficacy seem to be so not strong enough to control moderate severity allergy skin lesion. In this pilot study, we were able to conclude that green tea cell extracts might be applied for potential anti-inflammatory soaking without skin toxicity.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis in venous leg ulcer patients.

    PubMed

    Tavadia, S; Bianchi, J; Dawe, R S; McEvoy, M; Wiggins, E; Hamill, E; Urcelay, M; Strong, A M M; Douglas, W S

    2003-05-01

    Our aim was to determine the frequency and nature of contact sensitivity in venous leg ulcer patients in Lanarkshire. We performed patch testing with the European standard series, antimicrobials and medicaments on 200 patients referred to our leg ulcer clinics. Positive patch tests were found in 136 (68%) patients. Multiple allergies occurred in 102 (51%). The most frequent allergen groups were fragrances (30.5%), antimicrobials (19.5%), topical excipients (19.5%), rubber accelerators (13.5%) and topical corticosteroids (8%). We also found a high prevalence of positive patch tests to Intrasite gel (9.5%) and Hioxyl cream (8.5%), medicaments which are commonly used to treat leg ulcers in our area. Contact sensitivity is common in venous leg ulcer patients and has important implications for patient management. The allergens involved vary depending on local nursing practice. We suggest that all venous leg ulcer patients be patch tested with a locally relevant patch test series.

  5. Dermatoses of the neck affecting violin and viola players ("fiddler's neck", and contact dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, D; Cromphaut, P; Dooms-Goossens, A; Lachapelle, J M

    1979-01-01

    Skin lesions occurring on the neck of violin or viola players are described, in the light of two personal observations. The lesions can be divided into two types: 1. Lesions described as "fiddler's neck", i.e. an area of erythematous, sometimes pigmented or scaly lichenification on the left side of the neck, just below the angle of the jaw, where the chin rest of the instrument is in contact with the skin. Histopathologic features of the lesions are described. 2. Allergic contact dermatitis to wooden or metallic parts of the violin. The recent literature is reviewed.

  6. Allergie acute contact dermatitis due to Arnica tincture self-medication.

    PubMed

    Hörmann, H P; Korting, H C

    1995-04-01

    After repeated intermittent use of Arnica tincture for rosacea a 66-year-old patient developed acute allergic contact dermatitis with blistering upon the single application of Arnica tincture to the dorsum of the right hand for minor swelling. Contact allergy of the delayed type to Arnica tincture could be proven by patch testing. Early diagnosis and treatment prevented exacerbation and spreading of the disease. In view of the wide use of Arnica preparations, particularly for self-medication, and the notable sensitizing potential, Arnica tincture should be a regular component of patch test series, at least when drug allergy is suspected.

  7. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

    PubMed Central

    Gambichler, Thilo; Boms, Stefanie; Freitag, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis) due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists), woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists), and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters), include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods) and irritant (physical-chemical noxae) skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin"). Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads") more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological investigations have

  8. Update on allergic contact dermatitis due to methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Salinas, M; Francés, L; Silvestre, J F

    2014-11-01

    The combination of methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, household, and industrial products. Furthermore, MI at a concentration of 100 ppm has been permitted in cosmetic products since 2005. Recently, a considerable increase in cases of contact dermatitis to both MCI and MI have been noted, and this warrants closer monitoring by relevant authorities and, probably, stricter legislation. In fact, MI at a test concentration of 2000 ppm was recently included in the European baseline patch test series. The clinical manifestations of allergy to MCI/MI and MI are highly variable and diagnosis is often missed. In the standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), MCI/MI is tested at 100 ppm, but at this concentration, up to 50% of cases might go undetected. Furthermore, our data indicate that MCI/MI at 200 ppm would make it possible to diagnose more cases of contact allergy to MI. To improve the diagnosis of contact allergy to MCI/MI and MI, we believe that the test concentration of MCI/MI should be increased to 200 ppm in the GEIDAC standard series and that MI should be added in the GEIDAC standard series.

  9. Perfume dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    1985-01-01

    The most common reaction to fragrance materials seen by practicing dermatologists is allergic contact dermatitis. Photodermatitis is occasionally seen, as is contact urticaria, irritation, and depigmentation. Fragrances are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics. The fragrance mixture can cause false-positive reactions; therefore, it is more desirable to test with a separate series of fragrance materials.

  10. In vivo nickel allergic contact dermatitis: human model for topical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Chang, Y C; Singh, M; Maibach, H I

    1999-04-01

    Techniques to determine efficacy of topical agents on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may benefit from refinement. The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo human model system for the bioengineering and visual quantification of the effect of topical agents on nickel ACD, and to correlate ACD parameters. 14 nickel patch-test-positive subjects were included in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study after a pre-screening procedure with a standard diagnostic patch test with nickel sulfate in 54 healthy human volunteers. 5% nickel sulfate in petrolatum in a Finn Chamber was applied on forearm skin for 48 h to create a standardized dermatitis. Thereafter, the dermatitis was treated with a model topical agent and a placebo control while recording endpoint parameters daily for 10 days. Resolution was quantified with 4 parameters: visual scoring (VS), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (Tewameter), skin blood flow volume (BFV) (laser Doppler flowmeter), and skin color (a* value) (Colorimeter). The model agent reduced cutaneous allergic reactions, especially on day 8 to 10, in comparison with the placebo control. A highly significant linear relationship exists among all parameters, except between a* and BFV. This model may provide robust biometrics for determining the efficacy of topical therapeutics on experimentally induced ACD. PMID:10208508

  11. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line.

  12. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line. PMID:18413102

  13. The time-dose-response relationship for elicitation of contact dermatitis in isoeugenol allergic individuals.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D; Bruze, M; Frosch, P J; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P; Rastogi, S; White, I; Menné, T

    2001-02-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis is dose dependent, but the time-concentration relationship for elicitation has not previously been described. In this study 27 isoeugenol-sensitive patients participated in serial dilution patch tests with isoeugenol and a double-blinded Repeated Open Application Test (ROAT) using two concentrations of isoeugenol, 0.2 and 0.05%. Seven controls without isoeugenol allergy were also included. The participants applied 3.72 +/- 1.57 (mean +/- SD) mg/cm(2) of coded isoeugenol solutions twice a day to a 3 x 3 cm(2) area on the volar aspect of the right and left arm, respectively. For each test site the applications continued until a reaction appeared or for a maximum of 28 days. The minimal criteria for a positive reaction regarded as allergic contact dermatitis was persistent erythema at the ROAT test site. All controls were negative and 16/24 (66.7%) of the included isoeugenol-sensitive subjects showed a positive ROAT to the 0.2% solution within the study period (Fisher's test, p = 0.0024). Ten of the positive patients also reacted to the 0.05% solution. The median number of days until a positive reaction to the 0.2% solution was 7 days and was 15 days for the 0.05% solution. There was a highly significant correlation between the patients' patch test threshold and the number of days until a positive ROAT. In conclusion, the time until an isoeugenol allergic individual reacts in a ROAT depends on the individual sensitivity as well as the exposure concentrations; for low concentrations of the allergen or low degree of sensitivity, the allergic contact dermatitis may develop after several weeks of exposure. Therefore, a negative ROAT after 7 days may be a false negative.

  14. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  15. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-04-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.

  16. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M Craig; McAlexander, M Allen; Herrick, Christina A; Jordt, Sven E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1(-/-) mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  17. Prosthetic Arteriovenous Graft Contact Dermatitis Masquerading as an Arteriovenous Graft Infection in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ramagiri-Vinod, Nagadarshini; Tahir, Hassan; Narukonda, Sandhya; Joshi, Medha

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) graft is the second most common vascular access of choice in hemodialysis patients. Rare complications of such grafts are increasingly seen due to rising population of patients on hemodialysis. Infections and thrombosis are the most common complications. Though metallic implants are known to cause hypersensitivity skin reactions, prosthetic AV grafts are rarely known to cause such kind of reactions due to inert nature of materials used in their preparation. We present a case of 54-year-old male who developed contact dermatitis after AV graft creation which was mistreated initially as infection. PMID:27493977

  18. Macular pigmentation complicating irritant contact dermatitis and viral warts in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhoyrul, B; Paulus, J

    2016-04-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is a rare acquired disorder characterized by macu-lar pigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa, with frequent longitudinal melanonychia. Involvement of other areas, such as the genitalia and fingers, has rarely been described. LHS is a benign condition with no known systemic manifestations. We report the case of a woman who developed melanotic macules on her fingers and elbow 16 years after the onset of pigmentation of her lips. This unusual feature of LHS in our patient was associated with irritant contact dermatitis and viral warts. Only two cases of an association with an inflammatory dermatosis have been reported previously in the literature.

  19. The rising trend in allergic contact dermatitis to acrylic nail products.

    PubMed

    Le, Quynh; Cahill, Jennifer; Palmer-Le, Amanda; Nixon, Rosemary

    2015-08-01

    Shellac is a newly available type of long-wearing nail polish, which is becoming increasingly popular. We describe four cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to acrylates found in Shellac nail products, involving three beauticians and one consumer who purchased the product over the internet. Increasing use of these new acrylic nail products means that dermatologists need to be aware of the possibility of ACD occurring. Testing with hydroxyethyl methacrylate alone, which is included in the Australian Baseline Series, is adequate for screening for acrylate allergy. PMID:25752641

  20. A case of generalized allergic contact dermatitis after laser tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, Ahu; Onan, Duru Tabanlioglu; Artuz, Ferda; Gunes, Ridvan

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are popular body decorations mainly done for cosmetic purposes. Regarded as a form of self-expression, tattoos reflect the character of the person wearing it. However, as tatoos are persistent visual markings on the body, frequently misperceived by the others causing tattooed to seek removal. Today most of the tattoos can be successfully treated with laser ablation. Here we present a case of generalized allergic contact dermatitis after laser tattoo removal which is a rare adverse reaction of laser tattoo removal. PMID:25068999

  1. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods and drinks) Fabrics and clothing Fragrances in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and moisturizers Nail polish, hair dyes, ... These include: Shaving lotions Sunscreens Sulfa ointments Some perfumes Coal tar products Oil from the skin of ...

  2. Sophoricoside isolated from Sophora japonica ameliorates contact dermatitis by inhibiting NF-κB signaling in B cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Kyung; Kim, Hyung Sook; Kim, Yeon Jin; Kim, Ji Sung; Park, Yoon Soo; Kang, Jong Soon; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2013-03-01

    Sophoricoside (SOPH) is an isoflavone isolated from Sophora japonica (Leguminosae). In this study, the inhibitory effect of SOPH on contact dermatitis was investigated. At dosages of 3 and 10 mg/kg, SOPH ameliorated 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced acute and chronic contact dermatitis by 50-70%. As cellular targets, SOPH mainly affected the functions of B cells rather than T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. As signaling targets, SOPH inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα/β and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in B cells, but not in dendritic cells and macrophages. SOPH did not affect the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK MAPKs, in B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that SOPH ameliorates contact dermatitis by inhibiting mainly NF-κB signaling in B cells. PMID:23415872

  3. A Case of Chromium Contact Dermatitis due to Exposure from a Golf Glove

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong Ho; Kim, Hei Sung; Park, Young Min; Lee, Jun Young

    2010-01-01

    Chromium is a transition metal and has been shown to elicit contact dermatitis. Although leather products have been known to be the most significant source of chromium exposure these days, the majority of reports have been related to exposure from shoe products. We herein report a professional golfer who became allergic to golf gloves made of chromium-tanned leather. A 27-year-old woman golfer presented with recurrent, pruritic, erythematous plaques that had been occurring on both hands for several years. The lesions developed whenever she had worn golf gloves for an extended period of time, especially during tournament season. To identify the causative agent, patch tests were performed and the results demonstrated a strong positive reaction to potassium dichromate 0.5% and to her own glove. The amount of chromium in her golf glove was analyzed to be 308.91 ppm and based on this, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis due to a chromium-tanned leather glove was made. She was treated with oral antihistamines combined with topical steroids and advised to wear chromium-free leather gloves. There has been no evidence of recurrence during a six month follow-up period. PMID:20548885

  4. A Case of Chromium Contact Dermatitis due to Exposure from a Golf Glove.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jong Ho; Kim, Hei Sung; Park, Young Min; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2010-02-01

    Chromium is a transition metal and has been shown to elicit contact dermatitis. Although leather products have been known to be the most significant source of chromium exposure these days, the majority of reports have been related to exposure from shoe products. We herein report a professional golfer who became allergic to golf gloves made of chromium-tanned leather. A 27-year-old woman golfer presented with recurrent, pruritic, erythematous plaques that had been occurring on both hands for several years. The lesions developed whenever she had worn golf gloves for an extended period of time, especially during tournament season. To identify the causative agent, patch tests were performed and the results demonstrated a strong positive reaction to potassium dichromate 0.5% and to her own glove. The amount of chromium in her golf glove was analyzed to be 308.91 ppm and based on this, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis due to a chromium-tanned leather glove was made. She was treated with oral antihistamines combined with topical steroids and advised to wear chromium-free leather gloves. There has been no evidence of recurrence during a six month follow-up period. PMID:20548885

  5. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette. Clinical report of two patients with persistent light reactor patterns.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, V J; Harber, L C; Armstrong, R B; Kochevar, I E

    1980-10-01

    Two male patients with photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette, 2-methoxy-3,5-dinitro-4-methyl-t-butylbenzene, are reported. Musk ambrette is a synthetic fragrance material commonly used in foods and cosmetics. The clinical distribution of lesions presented by these patients strongly suggested an adverse reaction to light. Over a period of several years no etiology had been determined in these cases despite extensive testing and hospitalization. Photopatch tests to musk ambrette were positive. No other etiology for photosensitivity was found. This report emphasizes that exposure to household or cosmetic products represents a potential source of contact photosensitivity. Patients presenting with dermatoses of unknown origin confined to the light-exposed areas should have fragrances considered as possible etiologic agents.

  6. A study of chromium induced allergic contact dermatitis with 54 volunteers: implications for environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J; Paustenbach, D; Adams, R; Fowler, J; Marks, J; Morton, C; Taylor, J; Horowitz, S; Finley, B

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, dose-response patch test studies by various methods have been conducted in an attempt to identify the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) that produces an allergic response in Cr(VI) sensitive subjects. These data are not adequate, however, to provide an accurate estimate of the MET because of the variability in the patch testing techniques and the variability in diagnostic criteria used. Furthermore, the data were not reported in terms of mass of allergen per surface area of skin (mg Cr/cm2-skin), which is necessary for conducting occupational or environmental health risk assessments. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine the MET (mg allergen/cm2) for Cr(VI) and trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by patch testing techniques. A patch test method that delivers a controlled amount of allergen per surface area of skin was used. A group of 54 Cr(VI) sensitised volunteers were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) to determine the cumulative response rate at several concentrations. The results indicate that the 10% MET for Cr(VI) based on the cumulative response was 0.089 micrograms Cr(VI)/cm2-skin. Only one of the 54 volunteers may have responded to 33 micrograms Cr(III)/cm2-skin, otherwise Cr(III) was unable to produce allergic contact dermatitis in these highly sensitive volunteers. Two supplemental studies were also conducted to assess whether the surface area of the patch and the concentration of Cr(VI) in the patch (related to patch thickness) were likely to influence the results. The data from these studies were used to assess the risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis due to contact with Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in soil. The findings indicated that soil concentrations at least as high as 450 ppm Cr(VI) and 165,000 ppm Cr(III) should not pose an allergic contact dermatitis hazard for at least 99.99% of the people in the community who might be exposed. PMID:8044228

  7. Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients. PMID:24420805

  8. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Background Metal-working fluids contain complex mixtures of chemicals and metal workers constitute a potential risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis. Case presentation Two metal workers developed allergic contact dermatitis on the hands and lower arms from exposure to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin in the standard series. Conclusions These cases emphasize that well-known contact allergens may show up from unexpected sources of exposure. Further, it can be a long-lasting, laborious process to detect an occupational contact allergen and cooperation from the patient and the manufacturer of the sensitizing product is essential. PMID:12685935

  9. Contact dermatitis to a rubber allergen with both dithiocarbamate and benzothiazole structure.

    PubMed

    Bergendorff, Ola; Hansson, Christer

    2007-05-01

    Contact dermatitis to rubber products are often caused by additives used during manufacture, and diagnosed from patch test with established rubber allergen series. In these series the compounds are divided into separate groups such as thiurams, dithiocarbamates and mercaptobenzothiazoles. The objectives were to investigate the substances with allergenic structures present in a diving mask giving rise to facial dermatitis, also those substances including structures from different groups of rubber chemicals. The rubber material was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and diode-array detector. The patient was tested by epicutaneous tests using pure substances, extracts and authentic rubber material. 2-Benzothiazolyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamylsulfide, was found in the diving mask and the patient showed positive reaction to the pure compound and to extracts of the diving mask. This compound has structures of both mercaptobenzothiazole and thiuram/dithiocarbamate in its formulae. Besides the established groups of rubber accelerators, uncommon allergens with structures from more than one group can be formed or added at vulcanization. Chemical analysis of the product is needed to find these allergens. PMID:17441851

  10. Is there evidence that methyl heptine carbonate causes allergic contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Hostynek, Jurij J; Maibach, Howard I

    2006-01-01

    The fragrance material methyl heptine carbonate has been cited as a moderately frequent cause of cosmetics-related allergic contact dermatitis. A review of the literature shows that when the underlying clinical data are analyzed, there is only one published case where a possible causal link to a cosmetic product has been established. Predictive tests in a computational model, in animal systems, and in volunteers have demonstrated a significant sensitization potential for this substance but reports of clinical cases of allergy are rare with no new reports appearing in the last two decades. The infrequence of reported cases of allergy may be linked to risk management procedures put in place by the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) more than 20 years ago.

  11. Contact dermatitis from electrocardiograph-monitoring electrodes: role of p-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Avenel-Audran, M; Goossens, A; Zimerson, E; Bruze, M

    2003-02-01

    Three cases of allergic contact dermatitis localized to the sites of electrocardiograph-monitoring electrodes are reported. All patients had positive patch tests to both the gel and the adhesive part of the Red Dot 2239 3M monitoring electrode used and to the p-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (PTBP-F-R) of the standard series. Two patients had a history of possible exposition to the resin previously but there was no explanation for the third. No information about the presence of PTBP-F-R in the electrodes could be obtained from the manufacturers. Chemical analysis of samples of the electrode, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical system, demonstrated the presence of several PTBP-F-R derivatives in both the gel and the adhesive part.

  12. Surgery for a tree surgeon? Acute presentation of contact dermatitis due to Ailanthus altissima.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Warren O; Paget, James T; Mackenzie, Duncan

    2013-03-01

    A tree surgeon presented to hospital with multiple blackening, non-blanching regions of skin on both forearms, following exposure to sap from the 'tree of heaven' (Ailanthus altissima). A referral to plastic surgery was made to consider debridement. Following input from the national poisons centre and dermatology, conservative management with emollient was undertaken. The lesions blistered and exfoliated and were treated with topical steroid and oral antihistamines. Resolving erythema was the only symptom at three weeks. A. altissima, also known as the 'tree of heaven' has known toxins in its bark, leaves and flowers but is also commonly used in folk medicine. Two previous cases of contact dermatitis are reported in the literature but not with acute photo documentation of the lesions or with surgical referral. This demonstrates an important lesson that debridement would not be the appropriate management despite the initial presentation. PMID:23273642

  13. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases.

  14. Quantitative risk assessment for the induction of allergic contact dermatitis: uncertainty factors for mucosal exposures.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Bjerke, Donald L; Mahony, Catherine; Blackburn, Karen L; Gerberick, G Frank

    2003-09-01

    The quantitative risk assessment (QRA) paradigm has been extended to evaluating the risk of induction of allergic contact dermatitis from consumer products. Sensitization QRA compares product-related, topical exposures to a safe benchmark, the sensitization reference dose. The latter is based on an experimentally or clinically determined 'no observable adverse effect level' (NOAEL) and further refined by incorporating 'sensitization uncertainty factors' (SUFs) that address variables not adequately reflected in the data from which the threshold NOAEL was derived. A critical area of uncertainty for the risk assessment of oral care or feminine hygiene products is the extrapolation from skin to mucosal exposures. Most sensitization data are derived from skin contact, but the permeability of vulvovaginal and oral mucosae is greater than that of keratinized skin. Consequently, the QRA for some personal products that are exposed to mucosal tissue may require the use of more conservative SUFs. This article reviews the scientific basis for SUFs applied to topical exposure to vulvovaginal and oral mucosae. We propose a 20-fold range in the default uncertainty factor used in the contact sensitization QRA when extrapolating from data derived from the skin to situations involving exposure to non-keratinized mucosal tissue.

  15. Specific immunotherapy in atopic dermatitis--Four-year treatment in different age and airborne allergy type subgroups.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory disease involving the skin and frequently other organs and systems such as respiratory system. The recently recognized atopic nature of the skin inflammation in AD has raised a growing interest in the treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). In this study, the efficacy of SIT was evaluated in a group of 37 AD patients aged 5-44 years: 14 allergic to house dust mites (HDM), 17 to grass pollen allergens, and 6 allergic to grass and mugwort pollen allergens. IgE-mediated airborne allergy was well documented in all cases. SIT was performed with Novo Helisen Depot allergy vaccines of appropriate composition. Control group included 29 patients with AD and confirmed IgE-mediated airborne allergy to analogous allergens: HDM, 14 patients; grass pollen allergens, 11 patients; and grass and mugwort pollen allergens, 4 patients. Conventional methods of AD treatment were used in the control group. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed with W-AZS index after 12, 24, 36 and 48 months of therapy. SIT was found to be an efficacious and safe method of treatment for selected patients with AD and IgE-mediated airborne allergy. The efficacy of this therapeutic method was significantly higher than that recorded by conventional methods used in the control group in all 3 age subgroups and all 3 types of airborne allergy (HDM, grass pollen, and grass and mugwort pollen). It is concluded that SIT may be highly promising method of controlling skin inflammation in AD with the potential to prevent the development of AD into respiratory allergy.

  16. Paederus Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a peculiar, irritant contact dermatitis characterized by a sudden onset of erythematobullous lesions on exposed areas of the body. The disease is provoked by an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. This beetle does not bite or sting, but accidental brushing against or crushing the beetle over the skin provokes the release of its coelomic fluid, which contains paederin, a potent vesicant agent. This article describes this dermatitis, which occurred in three healthcare personnel aboard a medical mission boat on the Amazon River. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of paederus dermatitis is reviewed as well its treatment and prevention. PMID:22125660

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic Acid and hydrogenated castor oil.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old male experienced severe allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic acid in a lip balm and from hydrogenated castor oil in an underarm deodorant. He also had a positive patch-test reaction to bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2, which is present in the implicated lip balm and which itself contains 12-hydroxystearic acid. He was also incidentally found to have contact allergy to ricinoleic acid and castor oil. Ricinoleic acid is the principal fatty acid in castor oil, whereas 12-hydroxystearic acid is the principal fatty acid in hydrogenated castor oil. These two fatty acids are each 18-carbon 12-hydroxylated fatty acids, differing only in degree of saturation. The lack of patch-test reactivity to the analogous nonhydroxylated fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) indicates that 12-hydroxylation was required for allergenicity in this patient. In addition, serial dilution testing demonstrated that saturation of the hydroxylated C18 fatty acid enhanced its allergenicity.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  19. Histamine suppresses regulatory T cells mediated by TGF-β in murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tamaka, Kyoko; Seike, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Tamio; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress effector T cells and ameliorate contact hypersensitivity (CH); however, the role of Tregs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) has not been assessed. Repeated elicitation of CH has been used to produce CACD models in mice. We previously showed that the presence of histamine facilitates the creation of eczematous lesions in this model using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) (-/-) mice. Therefore, the effects of histamine on Tregs in the CACD model were investigated in this study. CACD was developed by repeated epicutaneous application of 2, 4, 6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) murine skin to assess the effects of histamine in CACD. Histamine aggravated CACD in the murine model and suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin. Histamine also suppressed the level of TGF-β1 in this model. Recombinant TGF-β1 or anti-TGF-β1 antibody was injected into the dorsal dermis of HDC (+/+) mice daily just before TNCB challenge to determine the effects of histamine-regulated TGF-β on the Treg population in CACD. Recombinant TGF-β1 injection promoted the infiltration of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10; however, anti-TGF-β1 antibody injection suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10. Histamine suppresses the number of Tregs in CACD, and this effect is mediated by TGF-β.

  20. Detection of contact hypersensitivity to corticosteroids in allergic contact dermatitis patients who do not respond to topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Gül, Ulker

    2005-08-01

    The delayed hypersensitivity development against topical corticosteroids which are used in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) treatment is an important clinical problem. In our study, 41 ACD patients who did not show any response to topical corticosteroid treatment were patch tested with corticosteroid series and the commercial preparations of corticosteroids and their vehicles. In corticosteroid series, there were budesonide, bethametasone-17-valerate, triamcinolone acetonide, tixocortol pivalate, alclomethasone-17-21-dipropionate, clobetasole-17-propionate, dexamethasone-21-phosphate disodium and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate. We detected positive reaction to corticosteroids in 9 of our cases (22%) (5 single and 4 multiple). The sensitivity was mostly produced by tixocortol pivalate (6 patients). This was followed by triamcinolone acetonide (2 patients) budesonide (2 patients), alclomethasone dipropionate (2 patients), dexamethasone 21 phosphate disodium (2 patients) and betamethasone-17-valerate (1 patient). As a result, it should not be forgotten that the corticosteroids used to treat ACD patients may cause ACD themselves. In ACD patients who did not respond to corticosteroid treatment, routinely applying patch test with corticosteroids should be helpful in directing the treatment.

  1. Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation. PMID:19349256

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to 1,4-bis(isopropylamino)anthraquinone. Caused by a felt-tip marker pen.

    PubMed

    Miller, M M; Goldberg, H S; Wilkerson, W G

    1978-12-01

    Adult allergic contact dermatitis to the black ink of a felt-tip marker pen occurred in two adult subjects. In both subjects the cutaneous reaction did not require photoactivation. Patch testing with the ingredients in the black ink demonstrated cutaneous sensitivity to the black dye. Further patch testing with the components of the black dye revealed cutaneous sensitivity in both subjects to the blue component, 1,4-bis(isopropylamino)anthraquinone, commonly known as Colour Index Solvent Blue 36. PMID:736588

  3. Application of the risk assessment paradigm to the induction of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Felter, Susan P; Ryan, Cindy A; Basketter, David A; Gilmour, Nicola J; Gerberick, G Frank

    2003-02-01

    The National Academy of Science (NAS) risk assessment paradigm has been widely accepted as a framework for estimating risk from exposure to environmental chemicals (NAS, 1983). Within this framework, quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) serve as the cornerstone of health-based exposure limits, and have been used routinely for both cancer and noncancer endpoints. These methods have focused primarily on the extrapolation of data from laboratory animals to establish acceptable levels of exposure for humans. For health effects associated with a threshold, uncertainty and variability inherent in the extrapolation process is generally dealt with by the application of "uncertainty factors (UFs)." The adaptation of QRA methods to address skin sensitization is a natural and desirable extension of current practices. Based on our chemical, cellular and molecular understanding of the induction of allergic contact dermatitis, one can conduct a QRA using established methods of identifying a NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) or other point of departure, and applying appropriate UFs. This paper describes the application of the NAS paradigm to characterize risks from human exposure to skin sensitizers; consequently, this method can also be used to establish an exposure level for skin allergens that does not present an appreciable risk of sensitization.

  4. The guinea pig as a model for predicting photoallergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, W P

    1982-03-01

    This report describes modifications in the techniques used for both the induction and elicitation of photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) in the guinea pig. These changes have improved the reliability of this animal as the model of choice for screening chemicals or products for their tendency to produce PACD. The induction period consists of 15 exposures of the test substance to shoulder skin that has been abraded with a nylon brush rotating at 13,000 rpm. One hour later, the test site is irradiated with broadband UVA from a source having some irradiance below 320 nm (UVA/b). The animals receive 450 J/cm2 of UVA during the three-week induction period. The elicitation (challenge) test is repeated for two consecutive days. Each day, the test material, if a liquid, is applied to two sites every 30 to 60 min for 6 h; then one of the sites receives 20 J/cm2 of UVA. These photo-induction and photo-induction and photo-elicitation procedures have demonstrated that low-level concentrations (0.25% range) of 6-methyl coumarin or musk ambrette will both induce and elicit PACD in the guinea pig. This report adds more evidence that the induction of PACD in the guinea pig is dependent on broadband UVA.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by gum rosin and wood rosin in Tako-no-Suidashi ointment.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Daisuke; Sowa, Junko; Tsuruta, Kyoko; Ishii, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hiromi

    2011-10-01

    Tako-no-Suidashi ointment (TSO) is an old Japanese over-the-counter drug, used for the drainage of infectious pustular disease, such as furuncles, carbuncles and infectious atheroma, although whether it works well or not is unknown. The ingredients of the TSO compound commonly include rapeseed oil, gum rosin, wood rosin, Japanese wax, paraffin, petrolatum, copper sulfate, Peru balsam, acetic acid, salicylic acid and trace amounts of Guinea green B. We report a case of contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old Japanese woman caused by TSO. The patient presented to our hospital with pruritic erythema on her left cheek. In order to remove a subcutaneous tumor, she had applied TSO 4 days prior to presentation. Clinical examination showed a well-demarcated exudative erythematous macule with yellowish crusts and scales on her left cheek. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to TSO (++), gum rosin (++) and wood rosin (++) at 72 h. As TSO includes highly allergenic material, caution should be made in applying this topical therapy.

  6. Acrylate-induced allergic contact dermatitis in a car windscreen repairer.

    PubMed

    Fremlin, G; Sansom, J

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an allergic skin reaction to ultraviolet-cured acrylates in a windscreen repair worker. The patient presented with a 6 month history of fingertip dryness, vesicles and desquamation. He had worked as a self-employed car windscreen repairer for 19 years. Previous management with vinyl glove protection and treatment with clobetasol propionate ointment had produced little improvement. He was patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard and preservatives series and to the two acrylates used in his work environment, identified using safety data sheets, methyl methacrylate 2% pet and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) 2% pet. A positive reaction was seen at Day 4 to 2-HEMA, but all other patch tests were negative. An occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2-HEMA was diagnosed. The patient was given avoidance advice and advised to use nitrile gloves. Although he was unable to give up his current work, he has continued his job using nitrile gloves with marked improvement.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Kochia scoparia fruit on contact dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, Suzy; Ryu, Junghyun; Han, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Geumsan; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kim, Hyungwoo

    2016-02-01

    The mature fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. is widely administered in China and Korea as a medicinal herb for treatment of skin diseases, diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. The present study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of K. scoparia dried fruit (MEKS) on ear swelling, histopathological changes (such as epidermal acanthosis, spongiosis and immune cell infiltration) and cytokine production in 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis mice. Topical application of MEKS inhibited DNFB-induced ear thickness and weight increases, as well as DNFB-induced epidermal acanthosis, spongiosis and immune cell infiltration. In addition, treatment with MEKS significantly decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in inflamed tissues. These data indicate that the mature fruit of K. scoparia has the potential to be administered for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases and that the anti-inflammatory action of K. scoparia is involved in the inhibition of type 1 T helper cell skewing reactions. PMID:26707133

  8. Isolation of human skin-derived lymph: flow and output of cells following sodium lauryl sulphate-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brand, C U; Hunziker, T; Braathen, L R

    1992-01-01

    By means of microsurgery a peripheral subcutaneous lymph vessel draining a defined skin area was isolated and cannulated on the lower leg of six healthy volunteers. Lymph was collected over a period of 8 days. During the first 2 days baseline values for lymph flow and output of cells were established. A contact dermatitis was then induced in the drained skin area by the application of 10% sodium lauryl sulphate. All six probands developed a mild to moderate irritant contact dermatitis. Lymph flow as well as output of cells increased with the intensity of the skin reaction. Subsequent local treatment with clobetasol propionate decreased the cell output, but the lymph flow increased further. Neither lymph flow nor output of cells returned to the initial baseline values at the end of the study, when the clinical signs of contact dermatitis had completely disappeared. During the experiment significant individual variations were found, with means ranging from 0.10 to 0.48 ml/h for lymph flow and from 8700 to 174000/h for cells, which probably depended mainly on the different topographies and calibres of the cannulated lymph vessels. PMID:1503494

  9. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26771600

  10. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  11. Patch test results with the metalworking fluid series of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG).

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Dickel, Heinrich; Frosch, Peter J; Koch, Patrick; Becker, Detlef; Jappe, Uta; Aberer, Werner; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2004-09-01

    Based on the information of the interdisciplinary task force on allergy diagnostics in the metal branch, in 2001, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) compiled two metalworking fluid (MWF) test series with currently and previously used components, respectively. After 2 years of patch testing, we present results obtained with these series, based on data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). 251 metalworkers who were patch tested because of suspected MWF dermatitis in 2002 and 2003 were included in this retrospective data analysis. Of these, 206 were tested with the current MWF series and 155 with the historical MWF series. Among the current MWF allergens, monoethanolamine ranked 1st with 11.6% positive reactions. Diethanolamine (3.0%), triethanolamine (1.1%), and diglycolamine (1.9%) elicited positive reactions far less frequently. Allergic reactions to p-aminoazobenzene were frequently observed (6.0%), but the relevance of these reactions is still obscure. Positive reactions to biocides ranged from 4.5% for Bioban CS 1135 to 0.5% for iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and 2-phenoxyethanol. Concomitant reactions to formaldehyde, which caused positive reactions in 3.3%, and formaldehyde releasers occurred to varying extents without conclusive pattern. No positive reactions were seen to dibutyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, tricresyl phosphate, isopropyl myristate or benzotriazole. With the historical MWF test series, positive reactions to methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) were observed most frequently. However, sensitization via allergen sources other than MWF seems likely, as MDBGN, during the study period, has been one of the most frequent preservative allergens in cosmetics and body care products. Other historical MWF allergens comprised morpholinyl mercaptobenzothiazole (3.3%), benzisothiazolinone (BIT; 2.0%) and Bioban P 1487(1.3%). BIT is currently used in MWF again, so it was shifted to the current MWF test series

  12. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to Myroxylon pereirae (Balsam of Peru) in papaw ointment causing cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Stephanie; Tam, Mei Mui; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2011-08-01

    Two patients presented with cheilitis and perioral dermatitis. Patch testing revealed positive reactions to both Myroxylon pereirae (MP; formerly known as Balsam of Peru) and Lucas Papaw Ointment (LPO; Lucas Papaw Remedies, Bisbane, Qld, Australia). MP was not listed as an ingredient in LPO, however the manufacturer confirmed that a small amount of MP was present in LPO and we believe this to be the cause of the patients' dermatitis. PMID:21834822

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the clothing dye, disperse blue 106, an important contact allergen that may be frequently missed.

    PubMed

    Dawes-Higgs, Elizabeth; Freeman, Susanne

    2004-02-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with a history of dermatitis in a somewhat linear pattern under her breasts, across her back and around her waist. This dermatitis occurred after wearing a new blue dress with a blue lining. Patch testing showed an allergy to disperse blue 106 dye and also to her dress lining. However, she was not positive to p-phenylene-diamine, a dye in the standard patch test series. We recommend that any patient even slightly suspected of having an allergy to a textile dye should be tested with disperse blue, in addition to the standard series.

  15. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit on contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jung; Jo, Suzy; Ryu, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Guemsan; Ryu, Mi Heon; Jung, Myeong Ho; Kim, Hyungwoo; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit is widely used to treat skin diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of S. chinensis (MESC) on 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) in mice. The effects of MESC on ear thickness and weight, histopathological changes, immune cell filtration and cytokine production were investigated in DNFB-induced CD mice. Topical application of MESC effectively inhibited ear swelling (30 or 300 μg on the left ear, P<0.001; 30 μg on the right ear, P<0.001). MESC also inhibited hyperplasia, spongiosis (100 μg/ear, P<0.05 and 300 μg/ear, P<0.001, respectively) and immune cell infiltration (100 μg/ear, P<0.05; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001) induced by DNFB. In addition, MESC suppressed increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels (100 or 300 μg/ear, P<0.05), interferon (INF)-γ (30 μg/ear, P<0.05; 100 μg/ear, P<0.01; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (300 μg/ear, P<0.05) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (30 μg/ear, P<0.05; 100 μg/ear, P<0.01; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001). These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MESC are mediated by the reduced production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and MCP-1, and that MESC has potential use for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  16. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Anja; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Mundhenk, Lars; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Lademann, Jürgen; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days.

  17. Occupational contact dermatitis to nickel: experience of the British dermatologists (EPIDERM) and occupational physicians (OPRA) surveillance schemes

    PubMed Central

    Shum, K; Meyer, J; Chen, Y; Cherry, N; Gawkrodger, D

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine, from occupational surveillance reporting data, whether scheme reporters considered nickel exposure to play a role in occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) in the UK. Methods: Data on occupational skin disease in the UK are collected by two occupational disease surveillance schemes, EPIDERM and OPRA. Cases of OCD believed to have relevant nickel exposure reported to EPIDERM or OPRA from February 1993 to January 1999 were studied. Results: An estimate of 1190 cases of occupational contact dermatitis thought to have relevant nickel exposure (12% of total estimated OCD) was derived from reports by dermatologists, an average of 198 per year. The highest incidence rates were seen in hairdressers (23.9/100 000 workers/year), bar staff (4.7), chefs and cooks (4.4), retail cash and checkout operators (2.8), and catering assistants (2.5). From May 1994 to January 1999, 158 cases of nickel associated dermatitis (1.9% of total OCD cases) were estimated; the most frequently reported occupations were electronic assemblers, nurses, sales assistants, and general assemblers. From July 1997 to January 1999, 547 positive patch tests to nickel were reported; in 195 cases (36%), nickel was felt to be a relevant occupational allergen (for example, coin handling). In hairdressers, nurses, cooks, and beauticians, nickel was usually considered, if relevant at all, to be only one of several causes of dermatitis. Conclusions: Up to 12% of total estimated cases of OCD were thought to be due in part to nickel. Results suggest that nickel hypersensitivity is one of several contributors to OCD in subjects with multiple occupational exposures. Coin handling may be a source of OCD to nickel. PMID:14634188

  18. Immunological parameters in the sera of patients with atopic dermatitis and airborne allergy treated with allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Patients with atopic disorders present an increased production of IgE, which is usually limited to specific antibodies against various environmental allergens. It has also been suggested that the production of these antibodies may be influenced by effective specific immunotherapy (SIT). Of course, a decline of serum antigen specific IgE in the course of such a treatment cannot explain the clinical efficacy of SIT and is probably not a key mechanism. However, SIT may at least participate in the final clinical result. In this study, 37 patients with atopic dermatitis were treated with allergy vaccines (Novo-Helisen Depot) for a time period of 48 months. The control group consisted of 29 patients with atopic dermatitis who were treated with classical methods. The clinical score (W-AZS), total IgE and antigen specific IgE (asIgE) in the sera of patients were assessed before treatment and after 24 and 48 months of therapy (FEIA CAP System, Pharmacia). There was a significant difference between the two investigated groups from both the clinical and immunological standpoints after 2 and 4 years of observation. There was a significant decrease of serum total IgE and asIgE (directed against airborne allergens) in the course of specific immunotherapy. In the control group, the total IgE level tended to increase, and this tendency was also recorded in case of asIgE measurements. We also evaluated the influence of specific immunotherapy on the serum level of IFN-G, sIL-2R, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 before treatment and after 4 years of therapy with the quantitative 2-step colorimetric sandwich ELISA method (R and D Systems). In the group of patients treated with allergy vaccines, a significant decrease of the serum sIL-2R level was observed after 48 months of therapy (p<0.01). In the control group, a significant increase of serum IL-4 (p<0.01) as well as IL-5 (p<0.05) was registered at the end of the observation period. There was no significant correlation between the clinical

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Cassano, Nicoletta; Conserva, Anna; Vena, Gino A

    2010-05-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances. PMID:20546226

  20. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    PubMed

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization.

  1. Effect of topical preparation of mycophenolic acid on experimental allergic contact dermatitis of guinea-pigs induced by dinitrofluorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Y; Fukumura, T; Kudo, M; Yanagawa, A; Shimada, J; Mizushima, Y

    1994-08-01

    The effects of a topical preparation of mycophenolic acid on the experimental allergic contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene was investigated. Visual assessment of skin reactions showed significant efficacy of a topical preparation of mycophenolic acid. This efficacy appeared from the early stage and endured up to 3 days. Morphological changes in the epidermis and dermis layers of animals treated with a mycophenolic acid cream were moderate compared with that in animals treated with vehicle only. In particular, hyperkeratosis was strongly suppressed. Since suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration was also observed, this efficacy might reach to the epidermis and dermis layer.

  2. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette. Histopathologic features of photobiologic reactions observed in a persistent light reactor.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, V J; Harber, L C; Bickers, D R; Armstrong, R B; Silvers, D N

    1981-06-01

    Studies concerning a patient with contact photosensitivity to musk ambrette, a commonly used fragrance, are reported. The patient had a persistent light reaction. The patient's history, clinical appearance, and phototest and photopatch test results are described. The observed patterns of these were identical to those previously noted in patients who had persistent light reactions after exposure to other photosensitizers such as the halogenated salicylanilides. The histopathologic findings in the phototest and photopatch test sites were those of an acute spongiotic dermatitis. No abnormal change was seen with ultraviolet A radiation exposure alone.

  3. A qualitative exploration of social contact patterns relevant to airborne infectious diseases in northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Sabiena G; Nahar, Quamrun; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2013-12-01

    In South Asia, the burden of infectious diseases is high. Socioeconomically and culturally-defined social interaction patterns are considered to be an important determinant in the spread of diseases that are transmitted through person-to-person contact. Understanding of the contact patterns in this region can be helpful to develop more effective control measures. Focus group discussions were used in exploring social contact patterns in northwest Bangladesh. The patterns were assessed for perceived relevance to the spread of airborne infectious diseases, with special focus on diseases, like leprosy and tuberculosis, in which the role of social determinants is well-recognized. Highly-relevant social contact patterns inside the home and the neighbourhood, across age and sex groups, were reported in all group discussions. Outside the home, women and girls reported relevant contacts limited to the close neighbourhood while men mentioned high relevant contacts beyond. This implies that, in theory, infectious diseases can easily be transmitted across age and sex groups in and around the home. Adult men might play a role in the transmission of airborne infectious diseases from outside this confined area since only this group reported highly-relevant social contacts beyond the home. This concept needs further exploration but control programmes in the South Asian region could benefit from considering differences in social contact patterns by gender for risk assessments and planning of preventive interventions. PMID:24592583

  4. A Qualitative Exploration of Social Contact Patterns Relevant to Airborne Infectious Diseases in Northwest Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Quamrun; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    In South Asia, the burden of infectious diseases is high. Socioeconomically and culturally-defined social interaction patterns are considered to be an important determinant in the spread of diseases that are transmitted through person-to-person contact. Understanding of the contact patterns in this region can be helpful to develop more effective control measures. Focus group discussions were used in exploring social contact patterns in northwest Bangladesh. The patterns were assessed for perceived relevance to the spread of airborne infectious diseases, with special focus on diseases, like leprosy and tuberculosis, in which the role of social determinants is well-recognized. Highly-relevant social contact patterns inside the home and the neighbourhood, across age and sex groups, were reported in all group discussions. Outside the home, women and girls reported relevant contacts limited to the close neighbourhood while men mentioned high relevant contacts beyond. This implies that, in theory, infectious diseases can easily be transmitted across age and sex groups in and around the home. Adult men might play a role in the transmission of airborne infectious diseases from outside this confined area since only this group reported highly-relevant social contacts beyond the home. This concept needs further exploration but control programmes in the South Asian region could benefit from considering differences in social contact patterns by gender for risk assessments and planning of preventive interventions. PMID:24592583

  5. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel. PMID:16426285

  6. Detection of endogenous and food-derived collagen dipeptide prolylhydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) in allergic contact dermatitis-affected mouse ear.

    PubMed

    Kusubata, Masashi; Koyama, Yoh-Ichi; Tometsuka, Chisa; Shigemura, Yasutaka; Sato, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Generation of collagen dipeptides and deposition of orally administered prolylhydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) in local inflammatory sites were examined in mice with hapten (2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene)-induced dermatitis in the ear. Pro-Hyp content in the hapten-treated ear was significantly higher in the chronic phase of contact dermatitis than the vehicle control. In contrast, hydroxyprolylglycine contents remained at lower levels in all cases compared to Pro-Hyp. Four hours after the ingestion of [(13)C5,(15)N]Pro and [(13)C5,(15)N]Pro-Hyp, labeled-Pro-Hyp and Pro, respectively, appeared only in the ear with dermatitis. Thus, Pro-Hyp is generated and degraded as part of the rapid synthesis and degradation of collagen in the ear with dermatitis. In addition to the endogenously generated Pro-Hyp, the orally administered Pro-Hyp was deposited in the ears.

  7. Review of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from an ingredient in a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21603165

  8. Review of Allergic and Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis from an Ingredient in a Medicament Vehicle Consisting of a Compress, Poultice, Plaster, and Tape

    PubMed Central

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21603165

  9. Review of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from an ingredient in a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis.

  10. Impact of Selected Factors on the Occurrence of Contact Dermatitis in Turkeys on Commercial Farms in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Bergmann, Shana; Erhard, Michael H.; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Hübel, Jens; Ludewig, Martina; Mitterer-Istyagin, Heike; Ziegler, Nina; Bartels, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In two extensive field studies in Germany, the influence of husbandry on health and fitness of fattening turkeys was investigated in living animals of various ages as well as carcasses shortly after slaughter. Already in the early rearing phase, contact dermatitis of foot pads was observed as a relevant problem in turkey farming. Litter quality and condition as well as management must be coordinated at all rearing stages of turkeys to prevent the appearance of high litter moisture values in order to minimize the prevalence of foot pad dermatitis. Abstract In a long term research project in Germany the influence of husbandry on the health of fattening turkeys (Study 1) as well as the influence of practiced rearing conditions on the health of turkey poults (Study 2) was examined in 24 farms and at the meat processing plant. In all examined rearing farms, litter samples for the determination of litter moisture were taken. This paper summarizes the results obtained by our working group from 2007 until 2012. The results elucidate the universal problem of foot pad dermatitis (FPD). Nearly 100% of the observed turkeys showed a clinically apparent FPD at the meat processing plant. Furthermore, skin lesions of the breast, especially breast buttons were diagnosed, particularly at the slaughterhouse. FPD was detected in the first week of the rearing phase. Prevalence and degree showed a progressive development up to the age of 22–35 days, whereas 63.3% of the poults had foot pad alterations. As even mild alterations in the foot pad condition can be indicators for suboptimal design of the rearing environment, especially high litter moisture, it is important to focus on the early rearing phase. PMID:26479524

  11. Patch test results in schoolchildren. Results from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) and the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG)

    PubMed

    Brasch, J; Geier, J

    1997-12-01

    Our aim was to explore the current spectrum of contact allergens in schoolchildren, as a basis for diagnosis and prevention of allergic contact dermatitis. Results of patch tests in children 6-15 years old, performed in the years 1990-1995 by 22 centres of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group and filed by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, were analysed and evaluated retrospectively, including epidemiologic data. Children with positive tests (62 out of 156 boys and 108 out of 260 girls tested) had a higher frequency of allergic contact dermatitis and a lower frequency of atopic dermatitis than patch test negative ones. 16 distinct allergens elicited positive reactions in > or = 1% of the children tested. Reactions to nickel sulfate occurred in 15.9% of all children tested, but in 25.0% of girls 14/15 years old, and in only 4.5% of boys 6-13 years old. Double-sensitizations with cobalt salts, potassium dichromate and palladium were seen. Mercury compounds were found in 2nd place (thimerosal: all children: 11.3%; 6-13 years old: 14.3%; 14/15 years old: 8.0%), followed by fragrance allergens. We conclude that contact allergy in children is related to their sex and age. Prophylaxis against nickel, mercury, and fragrance allergy needs to be improved. A shortened standard series may be sufficient for testing children.

  12. An effective immunization strategy for airborne epidemics in modular and hierarchical social contact network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhichao; Ge, Yuanzheng; Luo, Lei; Duan, Hong; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2015-12-01

    Social contact between individuals is the chief factor for airborne epidemic transmission among the crowd. Social contact networks, which describe the contact relationships among individuals, always exhibit overlapping qualities of communities, hierarchical structure and spatial-correlated. We find that traditional global targeted immunization strategy would lose its superiority in controlling the epidemic propagation in the social contact networks with modular and hierarchical structure. Therefore, we propose a hierarchical targeted immunization strategy to settle this problem. In this novel strategy, importance of the hierarchical structure is considered. Transmission control experiments of influenza H1N1 are carried out based on a modular and hierarchical network model. Results obtained indicate that hierarchical structure of the network is more critical than the degrees of the immunized targets and the modular network layer is the most important for the epidemic propagation control. Finally, the efficacy and stability of this novel immunization strategy have been validated as well.

  13. Yuletide dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Barkley, A

    1989-12-15

    An unwelcome aspect of the festive season is contact dermatitis. This may be a gift of cosmetics, jewellery or clothing, or may be food related. It is important to be aware of the possible causative agents as the mainstay of management is withdrawal.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis due to rosin (colophony) in eyeshadow and mascara.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A

    1988-12-01

    Three patients are reported with allergic reactions to rosin in eye makeup: two to eyeshadow and one to mascara. In each instance, the dermatitis was bilateral and symmetrical. Several popular eyeshadow and mascara preparations contain rosin, while the Almay products are free of this ingredient. Rosin-sensitive patients should be instructed to read cosmetic ingredient labels before using any product and should realize that the European term "colophony" is a synonym for rosin. The numerous products that rosin-sensitive persons must avoid will be discussed in a future article.

  15. A case of contact dermatitis, erythema multiforme, and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J A; Wansker, B A

    1981-12-01

    A young adult female patient, on prolonged corticosteroid therapy for nephrotic syndrome, developed erythema multiforme and toxic epidermal necrolysis following a double exposure to a locally applied perfume. We believe that this route of exposure should be re-emphasized. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, or the scalded skin syndrome, has become a well-recognized entity which may be divided into three distinct subgroups: the staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, nonstaphylococcal or drug-induced scalded skin syndrome, and idiopathic. We present a patient who developed a dermatitis on her chest and abdomen after using a spray cologne, which resulted in the development of erythema multiforme with progression toxic epidermal necrolysis and, ultimately, her death.

  16. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill. PMID:25600644

  17. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L.

  18. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

  19. Occupational asthma and contact dermatitis in a spray painter after introduction of an aziridine cross-linker.

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, C T; Milton, D K

    1999-01-01

    A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. This case illustrates the importance of using appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment to minimize exposure. Occupational asthma is diagnosed by a history of work-related symptoms and exposure to known causative agents. The diagnosis is confirmed by serial pulmonary function testing or inhalational challenge testing. The risk of asthma attributable to occupational exposures is probably underappreciated due to underreporting and to inappropriate use of narrow definitions of exposure in epidemiologic studies of attributable risk. Images Figure 1 PMID:10379008

  20. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important.

  1. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. PMID:21882101

  2. The "Jewelry Addict": Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Repetitive Multiple Children's Jewelry Exposures.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis developed persistent plaques on the lips, hands, and fingers that were unresponsive to topical steroids. Her mother reported that she was "addicted" to costume jewelry and developed rashes in reaction to a number of adornments, ranging from rubber bracelets to costume metal jewelry and belt buckles. A careful history of jewelry exposures was taken and patch testing was performed to identify allergenic sources. Patch testing revealed allergy to nickel, gold, and thiuram mix. The case illustrates the importance of investigating a range of different types of allergens when evaluating for jewelry sensitivity in children with frequent use of accessories, including rubber jewelry, plastics, dyed yarns, beads, metals, and ceramics. This article provides an overview of jewelry allergies and the potential allergens requiring screening.

  3. Assessment of airborne exposure and dermal contact to acrylamide during chemical grouting operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, J.M.

    1987-07-22

    Acrylamide exposure may occur by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption; acrylamide is a neurotoxin and an irritant. The report details the results of field studies to assess airborne exposure and dermal contact to acrylamide during chemical grouting operations. Occupational exposures to acrylamide were characterized for sewer mainline, lateral line, and manhole maintenance operations. The objective of the study was to collect exposure data based on observations and measurements to be used as an integral part of a quantitative risk assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances.

  4. Risk Assessment of residual monomer migrating from acrylic polymers and causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis during normal handling and use.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Mark A; Lohmann, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. The risk of induction of contact allergy in consumers was determined using a method based upon the Exposure-based Quantitative Risk Assessment approach developed for fragrance ingredients. The No Expected Sensitization Induction Level (NESIL) was based on the threshold to induction of sensitization (EC3) in the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) since no Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) data were available. Categorical estimation of Consumer Exposure Level was substituted with a worst case assumption based upon the quantitative determination of MMA monomer migration into simulants. Application of default and Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors results in a Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR) of 10,000 and a high Margin of Safety for induction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in consumers handling polymers under conservative exposure conditions. Although there are no data available to derive a RCR for elicitation of ACD it is likely to be lower than that for induction. PMID:24859074

  5. Positive lymphocyte transformation test in a patient with allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp after short-term use of topical minoxidil solution.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Tobias; Schlütter-Böhmer, Brigitte; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija

    2005-07-01

    Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options. PMID:15982234

  6. [Occupational contact dermatitis induced by allergens present in rubber. I. Allergy to rubber accelerators].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M

    1994-01-01

    During the period between January 1989 and 15 April 1994 allergy to chemical compounds present in rubber was found in 51 (15%) out of 339 patients with occupational dermatitis. In this group (20 workers of the metallurgical industry, 15 health service workers, 6 workers of the building and 3 of the rubber industries, 2 farmers and 5 drivers) the frequency of allergy to 15 accelerators of the thiuram group, thiocarbamates, thiazoles as well as derivatives of diphenylguanidine and thiocarbamide was investigated. Thiurams caused over-sensitivity in 52.9% of patients, thiocarbamates in 41.2%, thiazoles in 35.3%, guanidine derivatives in 11.8% and thiocarbamide in 9.8%. In general, allergy to thiocarbamates was concomitant with allergy to thiurams (20 out of 21 patients allergic to carbamates) and over-sensitivity to thiazoles was very often parallel to allergy to thiurams (8 out of 18 patients allergic to thiazoles). Accelerators present in the rubber of protective gloves proved to be the most frequent source of allergy especially in health service workers. PMID:7968498

  7. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    PubMed

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. PMID:26916211

  9. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - Part 3: Mentha × piperita - Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2015)(†) called a European Union herbal monograph - has been produced. Part 3: Mentha × piperita L.-Solanum dulcamara L. PMID:26563681

  10. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - Part 3: Mentha × piperita - Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2015)(†) called a European Union herbal monograph - has been produced. Part 3: Mentha × piperita L.-Solanum dulcamara L.

  11. PLANT DERMATITIS: ASIAN PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Goon, Anthony Teik Jin; Goh, Chee Leok

    2011-01-01

    Occupational and recreational plant exposure on the skin is fairly common. Plant products and extracts are commonly used and found extensively in the environment. Adverse reactions to plants and their products are also fairly common. However, making the diagnosis of contact dermatitis from plants and plant extracts is not always simple and straightforward. Phytodermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by a plant. The clinical patterns may be allergic phytodermatitis, photophytodermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, pharmacological injury, and mechanical injury. In this article, we will focus mainly on allergy contact dermatitis from plants or allergic phytodermatitis occurring in Asia. PMID:22345775

  12. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-05-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-05-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be “mild” and “natural” are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to “stronger” allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  15. Pustular psoriasis and the Kobner phenomenon caused by allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Ho-Sun; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Oh, Chang-Keun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kwon, Kyung-Sool

    2005-03-01

    Zinc pyrithione is a shampoo ingredient that has been shown to be safe and effective for dandruff and scalp psoriasis. It is thought to decrease the cell turnover rate in hyperproliferative dermatoses such as psoriasis, and also has fungistatic and antimicrobial activity, although its exact mode of action is unknown. In psoriasis, external factors, such as trauma, infection and drugs, may provoke aggravated manifestations of psoriatic skin lesions. Rarely, irritant or allergic mechanisms are likely causes of psoriatic flare and Kobnerization. A patient had had stable psoriasis for 25 years and no any other skin disease. Within 20 days, she developed an aggravated scaly erythematous patch on the scalp, where a shampoo had been applied, and simultaneously developed pustular psoriasis on both forearms. Patch testing showed a relevant sensitization to zinc pyrithione, and we observed symptomatic aggravation by provocation testing with zinc pyrithione shampoo. We report a rare case of psoriasis aggravated by the induction of allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione after using antidandruff shampoo.

  16. Patch Testing for Evaluation of Hypersensitivity to Implanted Metal Devices: A Perspective From the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Peter C; Crawford, Glen; Nedorost, Susan; Scheinman, Pamela L; Atwater, Amber Reck; Mowad, Christen; Brod, Bruce; Ehrlich, Alison; Watsky, Kalman L; Sasseville, Denis; Silvestri, Dianne; Worobec, Sophie M; Elliott, John F; Honari, Golara; Powell, Douglas L; Taylor, James; DeKoven, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society recognizes the interest in the evaluation and management of metal hypersensitivity reactions. Given the paucity of robust evidence with which to guide our practices, we provide reasonable evidence and expert opinion-based guidelines for clinicians with regard to metal hypersensitivity reaction testing and patient management. Routine preoperative evaluation in individuals with no history of adverse cutaneous reactions to metals or history of previous implant-related adverse events is not necessary. Patients with a clear self-reported history of metal reactions should be evaluated by patch testing before device implant. Patch testing is only 1 element in the assessment of causation in those with postimplantation morbidity. Metal exposure from the implanted device can cause sensitization, but a positive metal test does not prove symptom causality. The decision to replace an implanted device must include an assessment of all clinical factors and a thorough risk-benefit analysis by the treating physician(s) and patient. PMID:27649347

  17. Not only oxidized R-(+)- but also S-(-)-limonene is a common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients in Europe.

    PubMed

    Matura, Mihaly; Sköld, Maria; Börje, Anna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Frosch, Peter; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne D; Svedman, Cecilia; White, Ian R; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2006-11-01

    Limonene, one of the most often used fragrance terpenes in any kind of scented products, is prone to air-oxidation. The oxidation products formed have a considerable sensitizing potential. In previous patch test studies on consecutively tested dermatitis patients, oxidized R-limonene has been proven to be a good and frequent indicator of fragrance-related contact allergy. The current study extends these investigations to 6 European clinics of dermatology, where the oxidation mixture of both enantiomers of limonene (R and S) have been tested in 2411 dermatitis patients. Altogether, 63 out of 2411 patients tested (2.6%) reacted to 1 or both the oxidized limonene preparations. Only 2.3% reacted to the oxidized R-limonene and 2.0% to the oxidized S-limonene. In 57% of the cases, simultaneous reactions were observed to both oxidation mixtures. Concomitant reactions to the fragrance mix, colophonium, Myroxylon pereirae, and fragrance-related contact allergy were common in patients reacting to 1 or both the oxidized limonene enantiomers. Our study provides clinical evidence for the importance of oxidation products of limonene in contact allergy. It seems advisable to screen consecutive dermatitis patients with oxidized limonene 3% petrolatum, although this patch test material is not yet commercially available.

  18. Roseotoxin B Improves Allergic Contact Dermatitis through a Unique Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Involving Excessive Activation of Autophagy in Activated T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingqi; Hu, Chunhui; Wu, Xingxin; Wang, Shiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Chen, Wei; Shen, Yan; Tan, Renxiang; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    An immunosuppressant agent with negligible or acceptable toxicity may provide a better therapeutic strategy for treatment of allergic contact dermatitis. We identified a natural cyclopeptide, roseotoxin B, that effectively suppressed cell proliferation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated T cells but exhibited little naive T-cell toxicity at concentrations of 0.3-1 μmol/L. In addition, roseotoxin B inhibited the activation of AKT and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, suppressed cell cycle-related signaling, caused G0/G1 phase arrest, reduced ribosomal protein-S3 (RPS3)-dependent NF-κB-mediated IL-2 production, and increased autophagy in activated T cells. Furthermore, picryl chloride-induced allergic contact dermatitis was significantly ameliorated by roseotoxin B in mice. The effects of roseotoxin B were inhibited in LC3-knockout mice, indicating that roseotoxin B acts in an autophagy-dependent manner in T-cell-mediated skin diseases. Overall, this study showed a mechanism for roseotoxin B-induced autophagic cell death and provided a unique perspective on autophagy-mediated down-regulation of NF-κB signaling in activated T cells. The unique anti-inflammatory mechanism of roseotoxin B against activated T lymphocytes in allergic contact dermatitis suggests that it could be a potential target for the treatment of immune-related skin diseases.

  19. Rapid development of allergic contact dermatitis from dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Jeff C H; Kudla, Irena; DeKoven, Joel G

    2009-01-01

    Isocyanates are widely used in the manufacturing of rigid and flexible foams, fibers, and coatings such as paints, varnishes, and elastomers but are rarely reported as contact sensitizers. The aliphatic diisocyanate dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (DMDI) is known to be a strong cutaneous sensitizer. We report a 27-year-old woman who developed a severe eczematous eruption on the arms, trunk, and abdomen within 2 weeks of employment at a company using the product Chem-Dec 808 isocyanate (containing 40-70% weight per weight DMDI). Patch testing was performed with the North American screening series, an isocyanate series, and 1% Chem-Dec 808 isocyanate. At day 7, a +++ reaction to Chem-Dec 808 isocyanate and a ++ reaction to the aromatic isocyanate diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate were observed. DMDI has strong sensitizing potential and requires rigorous safety monitoring in the workplace.

  20. Evaluation of a Self-Test Device Used in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter; Bjarnøe, Henriette; Aberer, Werner; Brasch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Considering the scarcity of dermatologic resources in many parts of the world, self-testing by patients is not only of interest for internal medicine but also for dermatology. In this open, nonrandomized, multicenter diagnostic trial involving subjects with suspected contact sensitization to nickel and/or a fragrance mix, we assessed the agreement of self-testing by subjects with readings made by dermatologists. The self-test product (Nixema(TM)) is based on Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test (TRUE Test®) technology. One hundred and sixty-five subjects self-tested the ready-made patch-test product. The test was applied for 48 h and then read after 3 or 4 days. It was also evaluated independently by experienced dermatologists after 3 or 4 days. In the 162 evaluable subjects, the proportion of agreement for both allergens together was 89.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83.7-93.8], the sensitivity was 97.5 % (95% CI 86.8-99.9) and the specificity was 86.9% (95% CI 79.6-92.3). Cohen's kappa was also high at 0.749 (95% CI 0.637-0.862). Discrepancies between the subjects' readings and the dermatologists' readings were mainly due to the subjects interpreting reactions of 'irritant' or 'doubtful' as 'positive'. Apart from itching and burning sensations and tape irritation, no side effects were observed. In conclusion, this study showed a high rate of agreement between the self-reading of the upper arm and the readings made by the dermatologists. The upper arm proved to be an appropriate area for self-testing. Self-testing may improve the screening for contact sensitization for patients, particularly where dermatologic health resources are scarce.

  1. Evaluation of a Self-Test Device Used in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter; Bjarnøe, Henriette; Aberer, Werner; Brasch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Considering the scarcity of dermatologic resources in many parts of the world, self-testing by patients is not only of interest for internal medicine but also for dermatology. In this open, nonrandomized, multicenter diagnostic trial involving subjects with suspected contact sensitization to nickel and/or a fragrance mix, we assessed the agreement of self-testing by subjects with readings made by dermatologists. The self-test product (Nixema(TM)) is based on Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test (TRUE Test®) technology. One hundred and sixty-five subjects self-tested the ready-made patch-test product. The test was applied for 48 h and then read after 3 or 4 days. It was also evaluated independently by experienced dermatologists after 3 or 4 days. In the 162 evaluable subjects, the proportion of agreement for both allergens together was 89.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83.7-93.8], the sensitivity was 97.5 % (95% CI 86.8-99.9) and the specificity was 86.9% (95% CI 79.6-92.3). Cohen's kappa was also high at 0.749 (95% CI 0.637-0.862). Discrepancies between the subjects' readings and the dermatologists' readings were mainly due to the subjects interpreting reactions of 'irritant' or 'doubtful' as 'positive'. Apart from itching and burning sensations and tape irritation, no side effects were observed. In conclusion, this study showed a high rate of agreement between the self-reading of the upper arm and the readings made by the dermatologists. The upper arm proved to be an appropriate area for self-testing. Self-testing may improve the screening for contact sensitization for patients, particularly where dermatologic health resources are scarce. PMID:26183752

  2. Perspectives on Non-Animal Alternatives for Assessing Sensitization Potential in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nripen S; Jindal, Rohit; Mitra, Bhaskar; Lee, Serom; Li, Lulu; Maguire, Tim J; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin L

    2012-03-01

    Skin sensitization remains a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Animal models have been used as the gold standard method of choice for estimating chemical sensitization potential. However, a growing international drive and consensus for minimizing animal usage have prompted the development of in vitro methods to assess chemical sensitivity. In this paper, we examine existing approaches including in silico models, cell and tissue based assays for distinguishing between sensitizers and irritants. The in silico approaches that have been discussed include Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) and QSAR based expert models that correlate chemical molecular structure with biological activity and mechanism based read-across models that incorporate compound electrophilicity. The cell and tissue based assays rely on an assortment of mono and co-culture cell systems in conjunction with 3D skin models. Given the complexity of allergen induced immune responses, and the limited ability of existing systems to capture the entire gamut of cellular and molecular events associated with these responses, we also introduce a microfabricated platform that can capture all the key steps involved in allergic contact sensitivity. Finally, we describe the development of an integrated testing strategy comprised of two or three tier systems for evaluating sensitization potential of chemicals.

  3. The clinical effect of percutaneous histamine on allergic contact dermatitis elicited to fragrance mix.

    PubMed

    Lijnen, R L; Van Joost, T

    1995-02-01

    Histamine (2-(4-imidazol)ethylamine) has been shown to downregulate cell-mediated reactions in vitro. However, the rôle of such downregulation in vivo has not yet extensively been studied in humans. In an attempt to gain more insight into this, we studied in vivo the effect of percutaneous histamine on an allergic contact reaction elicited to fragrance mix in 28 human volunteers with previously-known sensitization (patch tests) to this allergen. Histamine (0.1 mg/ml) was administered either via subcutaneous injections or by scratching at the site of patch tests to one concentration (8% pet.) of fragrance mix at different times. Histamine and control solution were administered immediately before patch testing (0 hours) or 2x at 0 and 24 h (after application). No significant differences were observed in the grade of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) to fragrance mix (8% pet.) by visual reading when histamine or control solution was administered. This study did not exclude the possibility that histamine could inhibit DTHR to lower concentrations of the allergen used, and therefore additional in vivo studies are required.

  4. An update on diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Klunk, Christopher; Domingues, Erik; Wiss, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis leads to approximately 20% of all childhood dermatology visits. There have been several technologic advances in diaper design the last several years; however, due to the unique environment of the diaper area, many children continue to suffer from a variety of dermatologic conditions of this region. Common causes include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, infection, and psoriasis. Treatments include allergen avoidance, barrier protection, parent education, and topical therapies.

  5. Occupational dermatitis from IPPD in tires.

    PubMed

    Ancona, A; Monroy, F; Fernández-Diez, J

    1982-03-01

    A tire assembler developed contact dermatitis from IPPD, a rubber antioxidant. The lichenoid clinical pattern corresponded histologically to lichenified dermatitis. Tire assemblers appear to acquire contact dermatitis to this aromatic amine more frequently than any other workers in the tire manufacturing industry. Possible adjuvant factors and preventive measures are discussed.

  6. Milk tester's dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Herzog, J; Dunne, J; Aber, R; Claver, M; Marks, J G

    1988-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is a frequent problem among workers in milk testing laboratories. An epidemiologic study was conducted at the Pennsylvania Dairy Herd Improvement Association Milk Testing Laboratory, where more than 300,000 milk samples are examined monthly for protein, butterfat, and "somatic" cells. These samples are preserved with potassium dichromate for transport from the farm to the laboratory. A survey of the laboratory was conducted and workers were interviewed. Eight of 16 subjects reported a history of occupationally exacerbated hand dermatitis. Three of 16 subjects had positive patch test results to potassium dichromate. Two of 15 subjects who underwent patch testing to milk preserved with potassium dichromate had positive reactions. None reacted to milk alone, bronopol, or Kathon CG. Two workers are receiving workers' compensation because of severe allergic contact dermatitis of the hands to potassium dichromate. We conclude that milk testing laboratory workers are at substantial risk for acquiring allergic contact dermatitis from milk preserved with potassium dichromate. PMID:2971694

  7. Hand dermatitis: an allergist's nightmare.

    PubMed

    Wold, Lindsey; Chen, Jennifer K; Lampel, Heather P

    2014-11-01

    Hand dermatitis is a common skin complaint. We use our hands to explore our environment; subsequently, our hands are in frequent contact with potential allergens and irritants. Patients with hand dermatitis may present to their allergist with this complaint. Approaching the diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis can be challenging, as both internal and external factors may contribute to the overall condition. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis of hand dermatitis is broad and the cause often multifactorial. Obtaining a thorough history and performing a focused examination may help the clinician differentiate between multiple causes of hand dermatitis. Numerous treatment options exist for hand dermatitis, and new potential treatments are in development as well. We aim to provide the allergist with a streamlined toolkit for help in the diagnosis and management of hand dermatitis.

  8. Sofa dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schad, Karin; Nobbe, Stephan; French, Lars E; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    Furniture components can cause contact allergies. In the last years several cases of eczema after sofa contact have been reported. Typically the skin lesions develop on the back, the buttocks, the dorsal aspects of the thighs and arms and are often very resistant to topical corticoid therapy. Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is postulated to be the causative agent for this Type IV hypersensitivity reaction. DMF is an antimicrobial substance, which is used in asian upholstered furniture industry amongst others. We report the case of a 65-year old patient with generalised severely itching maculopapular, partly eczematous skin lesions on the buttocks, back, abdomen and arms. The resistance to therapy, several relapses after discharge from hospital as well as the detailed history lead us to the tentative diagnosis. The sofa dermatitis was proven by positive patch testing with furniture material and dimethylfumarate.

  9. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  10. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  11. Purpuric agave dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricks, M R; Vogel, P S; Elston, D M; Hivnor, C

    1999-02-01

    Agave americana is a low growing, thick, long-leaved, subtropical plant used for medicinal, commercial, and ornamental purposes. The plant's sap contains calcium oxalate crystals, acrid oils, saponins, and other compounds. Despite these known irritants, Agave-induced irritant dermatitis has rarely been reported. Previous case reports have noted a papulovesicular eruption consistent with an irritant contact dermatitis. We report a case of Agave-induced purpura in an otherwise healthy patient. Histopathology was consistent with an evolving leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  12. Objective assessment of topical anti-inflammatory drug activity on experimentally induced nickel contact dermatitis: comparison between visual scoring, colorimetry, laser Doppler velocimetry and transepidermal water loss.

    PubMed

    Queille-Roussel, C; Duteil, L; Padilla, J M; Poncet, M; Czernielewski, J

    1990-01-01

    Four topical anti-inflammatory drugs were investigated for their effect on allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel dermatitis was chosen for its high incidence in European healthy volunteers. Experimental lesions were treated twice daily with two steroids, two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a blank base for 4.5 days without occlusion. The influence of treatments was assessed by daily visual grading and one site was left untreated for comparison over the same period. To quantify drug activities objectively, skin colour (colorimetry), skin blood flow (laser Doppler velocimetry) and transepidermal water loss (evaporimetry) were measured before drugs were first applied, then 6 hr after the last application. As expected, only Dermoval cream significantly improved the spontaneous clinical evolution in comparison with the other creams (Hydrocortisone Aster à 1%. Parfenac, indomethacin 2.5% and Skinbase) and the untreated site. Colorimetric parameter a* (redness) and L* (luminance) showed more differences between treatments than the other criteria and a close relationship was obtained between these two parameters and skin blood flow, all three being highly correlated to visual grading. Transepidermal water loss appeared less related to clinical improvement but this parameter could prove helpful for detecting compounds which could be irritant to diseased skin.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of water-soluble complex of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate with highly branched β-1,3-glucan on contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiawei; Aizawa, Yui; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Kasahara, Emiko; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikeda, Atsushi; Azuma, Hideki; Nagasaki, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect on contact dermatitis of the water solubilized 1'-Acetoxychavicol Acetate (ACA) by complexation with β-1,3-glucan isolated form Aureobasidium pullulans black yeast is reported. It is well-known that ACA possesses a function to inhibit the activation of NF-κB by which genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors are regulated. However, because ACA is quite insoluble in water, its usefulness has been extremely limited. On the other hand, a triple-helical polysaccharide β-1,3-glucan can include hydrophobic compounds into intrastrand hydrophobic cavity and solubilize poorly water-soluble compounds. In this study, solubilization of ACA by complexation with highly branched β-1,3-glucan was achieved. The effect of anti-inflammatory response of water-soluble ACA complex with β-1,3-glucan was confirmed in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Stoma dermatitis: prevalent but often overlooked.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shilpa; Ehrlich, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Peristomal dermatoses commonly afflict the area around stoma openings in ostomy patients. These complications, however, are often unreported by patients and remain untreated for years, thus affecting maintenance and recovery from the surgery. These dermatoses can have chemical, mechanical, irritant, bacterial, immunologic, or disease-related etiologies. Examples of common forms of dermatitis that occur peristomally include fecal or urine irritant contact dermatitis, chronic papillomatous dermatitis, mechanical dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. This article summarizes various skin irritations that can occur after an ostomy and also reviews previously published reports of peristomal allergic contact dermatitis. In addition, the clinical importance of identifying these dermatoses (most important, their effects on the patient's quality of life), risk factors for the skin irritations, the importance of patch testing, treatment of stoma dermatitis, and the importance of patient education and patient-doctor communication are also discussed.

  15. Quercetin Is More Effective than Cromolyn in Blocking Human Mast Cell Cytokine Release and Inhibits Contact Dermatitis and Photosensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Shahrzad; Sismanopoulos, Nikolaos; Butcher, Alan; Fu, Xueyan; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra; Antoniou, Christina; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are immune cells critical in the pathogenesis of allergic, but also inflammatory and autoimmune diseases through release of many pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF. Contact dermatitis and photosensitivity are skin conditions that involve non-immune triggers such as substance P (SP), and do not respond to conventional treatment. Inhibition of mast cell cytokine release could be effective therapy for such diseases. Unfortunately, disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn), the only compound marketed as a mast cell “stabilizer”, is not particularly effective in blocking human mast cells. Instead, flavonoids are potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds with mast cell inhibitory actions. Here, we first compared the flavonoid quercetin (Que) and cromolyn on cultured human mast cells. Que and cromolyn (100 µM) can effectively inhibit secretion of histamine and PGD2. Que and cromolyn also inhibit histamine, leukotrienes and PGD2 from primary human cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs) stimulated by IgE/Anti-IgE. However, Que is more effective than cromolyn in inhibiting IL-8 and TNF release from LAD2 mast cells stimulated by SP. Moreover, Que reduces IL-6 release from hCBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Que inhibits cytosolic calcium level increase and NF-kappa B activation. Interestingly, Que is effective prophylactically, while cromolyn must be added together with the trigger or it rapidly loses its effect. In two pilot, open-label, clinical trials, Que significantly decreased contact dermatitis and photosensitivity, skin conditions that do not respond to conventional treatment. In summary, Que is a promising candidate as an effective mast cell inhibitor for allergic and inflammatory diseases, especially in formulations that permit more sufficient oral absorption. PMID:22470478

  16. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-03

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of the consumer open skin allergy test as a method of prediction of contact dermatitis to hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Maya; Cottin, Martin; Cristaudo, Antonio; Lainé, Gérard; Nohynek, Gerhard; Orton, David; Toutain, Hervé; Severino, Vincenzo; Wilkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    To prevent contact dermatitis to oxidative hair colouring products, a consumer test (skin allergy test, SAT) consisting of the open application of the colourant base prior to mixing with the developer is recommended 48 hours before hair colouring. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the SAT to detect and prevent contact allergy to oxidative hair colouring products that contained a range of concentrations of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and corresponded to different shades (light, medium and dark). Test colouring products containing increasing concentrations of PPD (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5%) were applied to 34 PPD-positive hair dye-allergic individuals and to 49 non-allergic control subjects. Allergic reactions were elicited in all PPD-positive subjects whereas none occurred in control PPD-negative subjects. For each subject the eliciting concentration of PPD in the SAT was compared with the PPD concentration range of the group of commercial shades reported as causing reactions by the consumer. In all PPD-positive subjects the eliciting concentrations of PPD in the SAT was within or lower than the range of PPD concentrations in the reported eliciting colourant base of commercial products. In conclusion, our results confirm the excellent predictive value of the SAT over the entire range of PPD concentrations used in oxidative hair colouring products and suggest that the test is a suitable tool for the secondary prevention of contact allergic reactions to hair colouring products. PMID:15701588

  18. Dermatitis in rubber manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    White, I.R.

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the history of rubber technology and the manufacturing techniques used in rubber manufacturing industries. The important aspects of the acquisition of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis within the industry are presented for the reader.

  19. Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis: a complication of adult urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Van, Livia; Harting, Mandy; Rosen, Ted

    2008-07-01

    Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis is typically described as a severe irritant dermatitis of the perianal region. However, Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis, perianal pseudoverrucous papules and nodules, and granuloma gluteale infantum/ adultorum have been regarded as discrete entities or all part of the same clinical spectrum, representing the result of chronic, severe, irritant contact dermatitis. We present a case of Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis and a discussion of the clinical spectrum of diseases to which it belongs.

  20. The Role of Textiles in Dermatitis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Mobolaji-Lawal, Motunrayo; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Dermatitis has important implications for individuals who are affected. It can significantly impair function and quality of life. Dermatitis is multi-factorial and often includes elements of atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and irritant contact dermatitis in a co-existent manner. Textiles are in contact with the human skin for extended periods of time and as a result, they are an important part of the cutaneous environment. Thus, it is not surprising that textiles play a major role in both the etiology and the treatment of various types of dermatitis. This review discusses the role of textiles in dermatitis with an emphasis on interesting and recent advances, trends, perspectives, gaps, and conflicts in the field. In addition, we mention other disease processes to be aware of as they can often mimic textile pattern dermatitis. Lastly, we provide a diagnostic approach for patients presenting with textile pattern dermatitis.

  1. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Foti, C; Bonamonte, D; Conserva, A; Stingeni, L; Lisi, P; Lionetti, N; Rigano, L; Angelini, G

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and photo-ACD are cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reactions of the skin caused by a wide range of substances. Topical ketoprofen (KP), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can induce ACD and photo-ACD. Patients with ACD and/or photo-ACD to KP frequently show concomitant sensitization to other substances. The aim of this study was to identify the substances most frequently associated with sensitization to KP, and to evaluate, by means of computerized conformational analysis, whether this association could be due to cross-allergy. 15 subjects with ACD and photo-ACD to KP were tested with the SIDAPA (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Allergologica Professionale ed Ambientale) patch test standard series, including fragrance mix and its components (eugenol, isoeugenol, oak moss, geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, amylcinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamaldehyde) and with the SIDAPA photopatch test series. Allergic reactions to cinnamyl alcohol were noted in all patients, whereas some patients also showed positive reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10. Computerized conformational analysis demonstrated that the structure of cinnamyl alcohol is similar to that of KP, whereas the structures of benzophenone-10, octocrylene and fenticlor are completely different. These results suggest that in patients with contact allergy to KP, concomitant positive reactions to cinnamyl alcohol are due to cross-sensitization, whereas simultaneous allergic reactions to fenticlor, octocrylene and benzophenone-10 should be regarded as co-sensitizations.

  2. Contact reactions to food.

    PubMed

    Killig, Claudia; Werfel, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Cutaneous adverse reactions to foods, spices, and food additives can occur both in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Because spices are also utilized in cosmetics and perfumes, other exposures are encountered that can result in adverse cutaneous reactions. This article describes the reaction patterns that can occur upon contact with foods, including irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. The ingestion of culprit foods by sensitized individuals can provoke a generalized eczematous rash, referred to as systemic contact dermatitis. Other contact reactions to food include contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis provoked by high-molecular-weight food proteins often encountered in patients with atopic dermatitis. Phototoxic and photoallergic contact dermatitis are also considered.

  3. Impact of Selected Factors on the Occurrence of Contact Dermatitis in Turkeys on Commercial Farms in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Bergmann, Shana; Erhard, Michael H; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Hübel, Jens; Ludewig, Martina; Mitterer-Istyagin, Heike; Ziegler, Nina; Bartels, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a long term research project in Germany the influence of husbandry on the health of fattening turkeys (Study 1) as well as the influence of practiced rearing conditions on the health of turkey poults (Study 2) was examined in 24 farms and at the meat processing plant. In all examined rearing farms, litter samples for the determination of litter moisture were taken. This paper summarizes the results obtained by our working group from 2007 until 2012. The results elucidate the universal problem of foot pad dermatitis (FPD). Nearly 100% of the observed turkeys showed a clinically apparent FPD at the meat processing plant. Furthermore, skin lesions of the breast, especially breast buttons were diagnosed, particularly at the slaughterhouse. FPD was detected in the first week of the rearing phase. Prevalence and degree showed a progressive development up to the age of 22-35 days, whereas 63.3% of the poults had foot pad alterations. As even mild alterations in the foot pad condition can be indicators for suboptimal design of the rearing environment, especially high litter moisture, it is important to focus on the early rearing phase. PMID:26479524

  4. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics.

  5. Textile dye dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K L; Maibach, H I

    1995-04-01

    The literature concerning textile dye dermatitis published during the last decade was reviewed. Sixty-one cases of dye-allergic contact dermatitis in which the presentation or course of the dermatitis was unusual or the dye allergen was one not previously reported have been described. The four new dye allergens discovered were Disperse Blue 106, Disperse Blue 85, Disperse Brown 1, and Basic Red 46. The incidence of dye dermatitis varied from 1% to 15.9% depending on the country, patient sample, and number of dyes in the patch test series. The 10 new dye allergens discovered in these studies were Disperse Blue 153, Disperse Orange 13, Basic Black 1, Basic Brown 1, the acid dyes Supramine Yellow and Supramine Red, the direct dye Diazol Orange, the basic dye Brilliant Green, Turquoise Reactive, and Neutrichrome Red. Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 were shown to be the strongest clothing dye sensitizers to date. Standard screening patch test series were found to be inadequate for the detection of textile dye sensitivity; therefore textile dye patch test series should be used. It is difficult to determine whether the incidence of dye dermatitis is increasing or decreasing because controlled epidemiologic studies are lacking, but data suggest that textile dye sensitivity is more common than previously believed.

  6. Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tadashi; Shiura, Takehumi; Masuda, Megumi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Gato, Takeshi; Fumuro, Masahiko; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Utsunomiya, Naoki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of Citrus unshiu (CU-ext) on type IV allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) in mice. Oral administration of CU-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CU-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of PC-CD were more potent than those of CU-ext alone and prednisolone alone. Successive oral administration of hesperidin, a major flavanone glycoside of CU-ext, inhibited ear swelling during induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of hesperidin (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) were more potent than those of hesperidin alone and prednisolone alone. These results indicated that the combinations of prednisolone and CU-ext or hesperidin exerted a synergistic effect. PMID:18404324

  7. Protective effects of different marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and rosemary cream preparations against sodium-lauryl-sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S M; Schliemann-Willers, S; Fischer, T W; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the protective action of cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts in vivo in healthy volunteers with experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Marigold and rosemary extracts in base cream DAC (Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex = German Pharmaceutical Codex) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The effect was evaluated visually and quantified by noninvasive bioengineering methods, namely chromametry and tewametry. When the test products were applied parallel to the induction period of ICD, a statistically significant protective effect of all cream preparations was observed by all methods. This effect, although not statistically significant, was superior to control by undyed marigold und faradiol ester-enriched extracts in chromametry and by dyed and undyed rosemary extracts in tewametry. The sequential treatment (postirritation) once a day for 5 days was without any effect. Thus, a protective effect of some marigold and rosemary extracts against ICD could be shown in the elicitation phase.

  8. Conctact dermatitis: some important topics.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, P D

    2015-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred patients with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6%. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up.

  9. Common contact sensitizers in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Singhal, V; Reddy, B S

    2000-07-01

    Seventy-five patients of both sexes with clinically suspected contact dermatitis were patch tested with the Indian Standard Series and indigenous antigens. The results were compared with the data from other centers. Most of these patients were young adults between 20 and 39 yrs old with the mean age of 36.63 +/- 5.6 yrs. Their occupational profiles included household workers (17.33%), masons (10.66%), farmers (6.66%), factory workers (4%), medical personnel (4%), lab workers (2.66%), and miscellaneous (17.33%). Itching and burning were two of the most common complaints, and chronic dermatitis was the predominant morphologic pattern of the lesions observed. Frequent sites involved included the hands (40.83%), airborne type (22.44%), hands and feet (12.24%), feet (12.24%), face (10.2%), and neck (2.04%). Patch test analysis of these patients revealed that, out of 75 subjects tested, 49 (65.3%) reacted to one or more allergens. Parthenium (20%) is the most common contact sensitizer followed by potassium dichromate (16%), xanthium (13.33%), nickel sulphate (12%), chrysanthemum (8%), mercaptobenzothiazole, and garlic (6.66% each). These findings are in broad conformity with those in other reports. We concluded that the Indian Standard Series of antigens with the addition of a few more (such as garlic, onion and chlorheximide of local relevance) is suitable for detecting the allergens responsible for the contact dermatitis prevailing in this region. PMID:10935340

  10. [Occupational dermatitis in health care personnel].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick

    2002-09-01

    Occupational dermatosis are frequent among healthcare workers. Irritant hand dermatitis is more common than allergic contact dermatitis. It is enhanced by the exposure to irritants: water, detergents, disinfectants and a history of atopic dermatitis. Natural rubber latex contained in rubber gloves can induce contact urticaria or generalized immediate allergic reactions. Contact eczema can be induced by rubber accelerators such as thiurams, disinfectants (glutaraldehyde, dodecyldimethylammonium). Nurses can become sensitized to handled drugs (antibiotics, propacetamol...). These occupational allergies have to be diagnosed, because sensitized nurses can develop severe generalized cutaneous adverse drug reactions if they are systemically exposed to the same drug than those that has previously induced an occupational contact allergy. PMID:12385152

  11. Nummular Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggers such as frequent bathing, irritating and drying soaps, and exposure to irritating fabrics such as wool. ... dermatitis. Moisturizing skin-care routines are essential. Non-soap cleansers, such as Cetaphil®, or moisturizing soaps, such ...

  12. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... red patches on the skin. The normal skin yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, lives in oil-rich skin regions ... due to the body's inflammatory response to the yeast found on the skin. Seborrheic dermatitis seems to ...

  13. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. This condition is known as steroid-induced rosacea. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp may include ... Information for Patients All About Rosacea Faces of Rosacea Treatment Photos Rosacea FAQ Management Options Medical Therapy When ...

  14. Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2014-04-01

    This article presents an overview of diaper dermatitis for the pediatric community. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of this common condition in infancy are reviewed. This information will assist in making the appropriate diagnosis and managing this irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper area. With conservative management, most cases of irritant diaper dermatitis are self-limited. When the condition persists, one must consider other diagnoses.

  15. Diagnosis and management of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2014-04-01

    This article presents an overview of diaper dermatitis for the pediatric community. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of this common condition in infancy are reviewed. This information will assist in making the appropriate diagnosis and managing this irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper area. With conservative management, most cases of irritant diaper dermatitis are self-limited. When the condition persists, one must consider other diagnoses. PMID:24636651

  16. Pre-administration of PepFect6-microRNA-146a nanocomplexes inhibits inflammatory responses in keratinocytes and in a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Urgard, Egon; Lorents, Annely; Klaas, Mariliis; Padari, Kärt; Viil, Janeli; Runnel, Toomas; Langel, Kent; Kingo, Külli; Tkaczyk, Eric; Langel, Ülo; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar; Pooga, Margus; Rebane, Ana

    2016-08-10

    The skin is a difficult to access tissue for efficient delivery of large and/or charged macromolecules, including therapeutic DNA and RNA oligonucleotides. Cell-penetrating peptide PepFect6 (PF6) has been shown to be suitable transport vehicle for siRNAs in cell culture and systemically in vivo in mice. MiR-146a is known as anti-inflammatory miRNA that inhibits multiple factors from the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway in various cell types, including keratinocytes. In this study, PF6 was shown to form unimodal nanocomplexes with miR-146a mimic that entered into human primary keratinocytes, where miR-146a inhibited the expression of its direct targets from the NF-κB pathway and the genes known to be activated by NF-κB, C-C motif ligand (CCL)5 and interleukin (IL)-8. The transfection of miR-146a mimic with PF6 was more efficient in sub-confluent keratinocyte cultures, affected keratinocyte proliferation less and had similar effect on cell viability when compared with a lipid based agent. Subcutaneous pre-administration of PF6-miR-146a nanocomplexes attenuated ear-swelling and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-6, CCL11, CCL24 and C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) in a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis. Our data demonstrates that PF6-miR-146a nanoparticles might have potential in the development of therapeutics to target inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27269729

  17. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Syed Nurul Rasool; Raza, Naeem; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2006-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis, a type of irritant contact dermatitis attributed to a Staphylinid beetle, is prevalent in most parts of the world. We studied 50 cases of Paederus dermatitis at the United Nations Hospital at Koidu Sierra Leone (West Africa), over a period of 6 months from Oct 2003 to Mar 2004. The objectives of the study were to determine clinical patterns of dermatitis and its response to topical steroids, with and without antibiotics. Patients with a definite history of contact with the insect were included in the study. Amongst these, 14 of the more severe cases were treated with oral prednisolone or intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. The remainder of the 36 patients were divided in two equal groups A and B. Patients in Group A were treated with topical diflucortolone valerate 0.001 percent and oral cetirizine hydrochloride; patients in group B were given oral ciprofloxacin in addition. In 50 patients studied, 43 (86%) were males and 7 (14%) were females. The neck was the most common site involved followed by face. Healing time ranged from 14 to 28 days and lesions in all the patients healed with residual dyschromia. Healing time was shorter in Group B patients in comparison with those in Group A. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone is a relatively severe form of this dermatitis. The better response to a combination of topical steroids and oral antibiotics may indicate concurrent bacterial infection. PMID:17459295

  18. Atopic dermatitis: allergic dermatitis or neuroimmune dermatitis?*

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil; Aidé, Márcia Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in knowledge of neurocellulars relations have provided new directions in the understanding and treatment of numerous conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is known that emotional, physical, chemical or biological stimuli can generate more accentuated responses in atopic patients than in non-atopic individuals; however, the complex network of control covered by these influences, especially by neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and their genetic relations, still keep secrets to be revealed. Itching and airway hyperresponsiveness, the main aspects of atopy, are associated with disruption of the neurosensory network activity. Increased epidermal innervation and production of neurotrophins, neuropeptides, cytokines and proteases, in addition to their relations with the sensory receptors in an epidermis with poor lipid mantle, are the aspects currently covered for understanding atopic dermatitis. PMID:27579744

  19. Atopic dermatitis: allergic dermatitis or neuroimmune dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil; Aidé, Márcia Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in knowledge of neurocellulars relations have provided new directions in the understanding and treatment of numerous conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is known that emotional, physical, chemical or biological stimuli can generate more accentuated responses in atopic patients than in non-atopic individuals; however, the complex network of control covered by these influences, especially by neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and their genetic relations, still keep secrets to be revealed. Itching and airway hyperresponsiveness, the main aspects of atopy, are associated with disruption of the neurosensory network activity. Increased epidermal innervation and production of neurotrophins, neuropeptides, cytokines and proteases, in addition to their relations with the sensory receptors in an epidermis with poor lipid mantle, are the aspects currently covered for understanding atopic dermatitis. PMID:27579744

  20. Berloque dermatitis induced by "Florida water".

    PubMed

    Wang, Lena; Sterling, Barton; Don, Philip

    2002-07-01

    Phytophotodermatitis is a phototoxic dermatitis resulting from contact with psoralen-containing plants such as celery, limes, parsley, figs, and carrots. Berloque dermatitis is a variant of phytophotodermatitis and is caused by high concentrations of psoralen-containing fragrances, most commonly oil of bergamot. Berloque dermatitis is rarely seen today because of the removal of these fragrances from most cosmetic products in the United States. We report, however, a group of patients still at risk for berloque dermatitis. These patients use the colognes "Florida Water" and "Kananga Water," which are popular in Hispanic, African American, and Caribbean populations. These fragrant waters are used for spiritual blessing, treating headaches, and personal hygiene.

  1. Case report: Diaper dermatitis presenting as pustules.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ann T; Emerson, Ashley N; Wyatt, Julie P; Brodell, Robert T

    2014-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common dermatologic disorder of infancy. Its cause can often be determined clinically based on the clinical presentation. Primary diaper dermatitis is associated with irritants and spares the deep skin folds. Secondary diaper dermatitis is most often caused by Candida yeast overgrowth and typically presents as a well-defined area of beefy red erythema covering the diaper area and including the deep folds of skin with hallmark satellite pustules. Other causes include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, acrodermatitis enteropathica, allergic contact dermatitis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and, in the setting of a primarily pustular eruption, bacterial folliculitis. A simple potassium hydroxide preparation (KOH) can confirm the diagnosis of candida diaper dermatitis and guide proper treatment.

  2. Seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 10% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation by still poorly defined mechanisms. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and body in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bifonazole, emollients, ketoconazole, lithium succinate, selenium sulphide, tar shampoo, terbinafine, and topical corticosteroids (betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, hydrocortisone, mometasone furoate). PMID:21418692

  3. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, M.; Rai, Reena; Raj, Anju

    2012-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA) is a psychocutaneous disorder where the skin lesions are self self-induced to satisfy an unconscious psychological or emotional need. We report a case of DA where we video recorded the patient self-inducing the lesions. PMID:23130292

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to superglue.

    PubMed

    Sornakumar, L; Shanmugasekar, C; Rai, Reena; Priya, S

    2013-01-01

    Wigs are commonly used to cover baldness. A 28 year old male presented with itchy oozy eythematous lesions on the forehead where the wig was afixed to the scalp. Patch testing with indian standard seies and dental series revealed positivity to 2-hydroxy ethyl meta acrylate present in superglue. We report this case for its clinical rarity.

  5. [Blister beetle dermatitis: Dermatitis linearis].

    PubMed

    Dieterle, R; Faulde, M; Erkens, K

    2015-05-01

    Several families of beetles cause toxic reactions on exposed human skin. Cantharidin provokes nearly asymptomatic vesicles and blisters, while pederin leads to itching and burning erythema with vesicles and small pustules, later crusts. Paederi are attracted by fluorescent light especially after rain showers and cause outbreaks in regions with moderate climate. Clinical findings and patient history lead to the diagnosis: dermatitis linearis.

  6. Prevention, Treatment and Parent Education for Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common cutaneous condition characterized by an acute inflammatory eruption of the skin in the diaper area of an infant. Although this condition is relatively common, it can cause considerable pain and stress for infants and can be troublesome for their caregivers. In the United States, the frequency of diaper dermatitis is substantial and accounts for a high number of visits to health care providers. The three most common types of diaper dermatitis are chafing dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and diaper candidiasis. This article reviews common causes, differential diagnosis, current prevention and treatment recommendations, nursing implications and practical tips for families to utilize while caring for their infants at home.

  7. Bindi dermatitis to 'chandan' bindi.

    PubMed

    Tewary, M; Ahmed, I

    2006-12-01

    Bindi (meaning dot in Sanskrit) is a mark worn by most Indian women on their forehead for religious and social purposes. Traditionally it was worn by only Hindu women to signify their marital status. Nowadays, it is a huge fashion accessory, being worn in different sizes, shapes, designs and colours. The variety includes sequined designs, motifs dusted with gold and silver powder, studded with beads, or even surrounded by glittering gems. Stick-on and liquid ranges are both equally in demand. We report a case of bindi dermatitis with 'chandan' (sandalwood) bindi. To our knowledge this is the first report of contact allergic dermatitis to 'chandan' (sandalwood) bindi. PMID:17101021

  8. Dermatitis papulosa adultorum.

    PubMed

    Kraigher, O; Brenner, S

    2009-12-01

    Dermatitis papulosa juvenilis, also referred to as frictional lichenoid eruption, summertime lichenoid dermatitis of the elbows, Sutton's summer prurigo, recurrent papular eruption of childhood, and sandbox dermatitis, has been reported previously only in children. We describe three cases of DPJ in adults, which were confirmed by clinical and histology investigations. The term 'dermatitis papulosa adultorum' is suggested for this condition in adults.

  9. Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Yalçın; Wolf, Ronni; Bağlam, Süleyman; Engin, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial.

  10. Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Yalçın; Wolf, Ronni; Bağlam, Süleyman; Engin, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial. PMID:26051065

  11. Loss of expression of TGF-βs and their receptors in chronic skin lesions induced by sulfur mustard as compared with chronic contact dermatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is a blister-forming agent that has been used as a chemical weapon. Sulfur mustard can cause damage in various organs, especially the skin, respiratory system, and eyes. Generally, the multiple complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency; it reacts with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipid membranes. TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine with multiple biological effects ranging from cell differentiation and growth inhibition to extracellular matrix stimulation, immunosuppression, and immunomodulation. TGF-β has 3 isoforms (TGF-β 1, 2, 3) and its signaling is mediated by its receptors: R1, R2 and intracellular Smads molecules. TGF-β has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. TGF-βs and their receptors also have an important role in modulation of skin inflammation, proliferation of epidermal cells, and wound healing, and they have been implicated in different types of skin inflammatory disorders. Methods Seventeen exposed SM individuals (48.47 ± 9.3 years), 17 chronic dermatitis patients (46.52 ± 14.6 years), and 5 normal controls (44.00 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of TGF-βs and their receptors expressions was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Only TGF1was analyzed immunohistochemically. Results Our results showed significant decreases in the expression percentages of TGF-β 1, 2 and R1, R2 in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal subjects and significant decreases in the intensity of R1 and R2 expressions in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal controls. (P value < 0.05) Conclusions TGF-βs and their receptors appear to have a noticeable role in chronic inflammatory skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard. PMID:21235789

  12. [Adulthood atopic dermatitis: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, provoking and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis. PMID:17344114

  13. Hand dermatitis--differential diagnoses, diagnostics, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hand dermatitis is multifactorial, and includes factors such as genetic predisposition and exposure. A high incidence rate is associated with female gender, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. The most important risk factors for the persistence of hand dermatitis include its extent, contact allergic or atopic etiology, childhood dermatitis, and early onset (before the age of 20). The cost of illness of hand dermatitis corresponds to this seen in moderate to severe psoriasis. The diagnostic workup of hand dermatitis and its differential diagnoses requires a detailed assessment of occupational and recreational exposure. In case of possible work-related triggers, early notification of the accident insurer should be sought (via the dermatologist's report). Exposure to a contact allergen is a contributing factor in one-half of all cases of hand dermatitis. It is therefore imperative that all patients with hand dermatitis persisting for more than three months undergo patch testing. Successful and sustainable treatment of hand dermatitis starts with the proper identification and elimination of individual triggers, including the substitution of identified contact allergens and irritants, as well as optimizing preventive measures. Graded therapy taking the clinical severity into account is essential. Validated instruments may be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Contact sensitivity to proflavine.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L

    1986-09-01

    Proflavine lotion is a commonly used topical antiseptic in the tropics, but its sensitizing potential was never emphasized and many who developed allergic contact dermatitis were never aware of it. In a study of 45 patients, most presented with acute or subacute dermatitis which started on the arms and legs. Concomitant cutaneous sensitivity to other medicaments and lanolin occurred in 66% of the patients.

  15. Polyvinyl chloride work boots in the management of shoe dermatitis in industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G; Maibach, H I

    1979-07-01

    A sugar refinery worker developed allergic contact dermatitis of his feet secondary to rubber accelerators in his work boots. The dermatitis resolved when polyvinyl chloride work boots were substituted. The importance of controlling hyperhidrosis in the management of foot dermatitis in workers is discussed. PMID:498770

  16. Atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin disorder that can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals as well as their families. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood, it appears to result from the complex interplay between defects in skin barrier function, environmental and infectious agents, and immune abnormalities. There are no specific diagnostic tests for AD; therefore, the diagnosis is based on specific clinical criteria that take into account the patient’s history and clinical manifestations. Successful management of the disorder requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, optimal skin care practices, anti-inflammatory treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), the use of first-generation antihistamines to help manage sleep disturbances, and the treatment of skin infections. Systemic corticosteroids may also be used, but are generally reserved for the acute treatment of severe flare-ups. Topical corticosteroids are the first-line pharmacologic treatments for AD, and evidence suggests that these agents may also be beneficial for the prophylaxis of disease flare-ups. Although the prognosis for patients with AD is generally favourable, those patients with severe, widespread disease and concomitant atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are likely to experience poorer outcomes. PMID:22166055

  17. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  18. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:26191377

  19. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangmi

    2015-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed.

  20. Positive patch- and photopatch-test reactions to methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol in patients with both atopic dermatitis and chronic actinic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mercedes E; Soter, Nicholas A; Cohen, David E

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet filters are the most common topical photoallergens. Although currently not available on the US market, methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (referred to as bisoctrizole on product labels) represents a new class of UV filters that have both organic and inorganic properties and are widely available in different preparations in Europe, South America, and Asia. We report two patients with atopic dermatitis and chronic actinic dermatitis who had positive patch- and photopatch-test reactions, which suggested both an allergic contact and a photoallergic contact dermatitis from bisoctrizole. Neither patient could identify previous or current contact with the chemical; nonetheless, it is possible that either the allergic contact or photoallergic contact dermatitis from bisoctrizole led to their chronic actinic dermatitis.

  1. Contact and photocontact allergy to musk ambrette.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowska, F; Calnan, C D

    1986-06-01

    Musk ambrette, a contact and photocontact allergen, is a synthetic fragrance present in aftershave lotions and many toiletries. Thirty-four patients with contact and photocontact allergy to musk ambrette were studied. All had a facial eczema. Four distinctive clinical pictures were seen. These were plaques of eczema, jawline (mandibular) dermatitis, acute contact dermatitis and chronic actinic dermatitis. Twenty-six patients were light sensitive by history and 10 were diagnosed by clinical criteria as having chronic actinic dermatitis. Patch and photopatch testing to musk ambrette showed that seven patients had pure photocontact dermatitis to musk ambrette. Eight patients had contact dermatitis to musk ambrette but this was exacerbated by irradiation. Cross reaction with moskene occurred. Scrupulous avoidance of musk ambrette has resulted in clinical resolution in most patients.

  2. Caterpillar dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, K; Freeman, S

    1997-11-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with recurrent urticarial eruptions presumed due to infestation of her garden with Euproctis edwardsi, Euproctis edwardsi, the mistletoe browntail moth is a variety of hairy caterpillar widely distributed in south-eastern Australia. They are often called 'woolly bears' by children. These caterpillars possess barbed hairs that fragment readily and are difficult to extract from the skin in one piece. Itching urticarial wheals and papular eruptions can follow contact with the caterpillars or their detached hairs. The hairlets may be identified by microscopy from skin scrapings and can be removed by tape stripping or with the aid of fine forceps. The skin lesions are treated symptomatically with calamine lotion, sodium bicarbonate solution and antihistamines. Infestation with Euproctis edwardsi can be minimized by removal of mistletoe from eucalyptus trees and by spraying affected areas with white oil or carbaryl 0.1%.

  3. Caterpillar dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, K; Freeman, S

    1997-11-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with recurrent urticarial eruptions presumed due to infestation of her garden with Euproctis edwardsi, Euproctis edwardsi, the mistletoe browntail moth is a variety of hairy caterpillar widely distributed in south-eastern Australia. They are often called 'woolly bears' by children. These caterpillars possess barbed hairs that fragment readily and are difficult to extract from the skin in one piece. Itching urticarial wheals and papular eruptions can follow contact with the caterpillars or their detached hairs. The hairlets may be identified by microscopy from skin scrapings and can be removed by tape stripping or with the aid of fine forceps. The skin lesions are treated symptomatically with calamine lotion, sodium bicarbonate solution and antihistamines. Infestation with Euproctis edwardsi can be minimized by removal of mistletoe from eucalyptus trees and by spraying affected areas with white oil or carbaryl 0.1%. PMID:9431713

  4. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuka; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Rehman, Mati Ur; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitaichi, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO), MIF transgenic (Tg) and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW) pollen or Japanese cedar (JC) pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  5. [Clinical presentation and treatment of diaper dermatitis--part II].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Juliana Dumet; Machado, Maria Cecília Rivitti; Oliveira, Zilda Najjar Prado de

    2009-01-01

    Diaper irritant contact dermatitis is the most prevalent diaper dermatitis and, probably, the most common cause of cutaneous disease in infants. Wearing diapers causes over-hydration and increase of local temperature and humidity. As a consequence, the skin becomes susceptible to friction from movement under the diaper. Occlusion, maceration and possibly Candida and bacteria may all play a role. Oils, soaps and powders can be irritants and aggravate the eruption. The best thing to do is prevention. Treatment is simple and depends on dermatitis type and severity.

  6. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  7. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Asthma Food Allergy Immune System Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ​ Javascript ... atopic dermatitis. Bacterial Infections Scanning electron micrograph of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Credit: NIAID A major health risk ...

  8. Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... extra ingredients. A good, cheap moisturizer is plain petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline). Use moisturizers that are ... a flare-up? SourceSome information taken from: National Institutes of Health. Handout on Health: Atopic Dermatitis. Accessed ...

  9. Flagellate shiitake mushroom dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Luber, Adam J; Ackerman, Lindsay S

    2015-08-15

    An 84-year-old woman presented with 5 days of a pruritic skin eruption that formed arciform and linear patterns. She was diagnosed with flagellate shiitake mushroom dermatitis related to shiitake mushroom consumption the day prior symptom onset.

  10. Clinicians Discuss Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Mary; McGuire, Stephanie; Merrill, Lisa; Rossing, Francine; Sayaseng, Kammi

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis in infants is commonly seen by clinicians in both primary care and acute care settings. The condition can cause significant discomfort for infants and distress for their parents and caregivers. Nursing for Women's Health convened a group of nursing clinicians who work in a variety of settings to discuss the issues and challenges related to preventing and treating diaper dermatitis in both healthy term newborns and premature newborns.

  11. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum.

  12. Common misconceptions in contact dermatitis counseling.

    PubMed

    Katta, Rajani

    2008-01-01

    Both physicians and patients hold many misconceptions when it comes to allergen avoidance. Ten commonly held misconceptions are exposed, allowing more accurate approach to the individual with cutaneous allergies.

  13. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to men's perfumes.

    PubMed

    Raugi, G J; Storrs, F J; Larsen, W G

    1979-07-01

    Three patients with photosensitive eruptions related to the use of different men's perfumes were evaluated. We found that they were photoallergic to musk ambrette, an inexpensive, readily available synthetic perfume ingredient. Studies of cross-reactivity with other perfumed colognes and after-shave lotions suggest that musk ambrette is present in clinically significant concentration in large numbers of other cosmetic products.

  14. [Propacetamol and new occupational contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Breuil, K; Remblier, C

    1998-05-01

    We describe the cases of three hospital nurses who presented eczematous lesions on the hands and eyelids. They worked in surgery department or in post anaesthesia recovery room, all preparing syringes of Pro-Dafalgan (propacetamol: parenteral paracetamol form). They were not sensitive to oral paracetamol or occupational products and latex. During week-end or holidays when they stopped handling Pro-Dafalgan, the eczema recovered but relapsed on working. A few cases are described in the literature so precautions begin to be preconized for healthcare workers but they are not usually in practice. Test performed with solvent, paracetamol, latex, formol and other hospital allergen tests were negative. The only allergen would be propacetamol because all tests performed with it were strongly positive. Following the official evaluation method in pharmacovigilance, based on chronologic and semiologic criterias, considering the positivity of rechallenge and specific tests, propacetamol imputability was probable in all our cases. It is preconized to declare cases to Regional Pharmacovigilance Centers to complete information about handling risks of this very usual analgesic. PMID:9657023

  15. Serum antibodies to Malassezia yeasts in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, T J; Halliwell, R E

    2001-12-01

    Significant numbers of humans with atopic dermatitis develop Malassezia-specific IgE. Immediate skin-test reactivity to Malassezia has been demonstrated in atopic dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum IgG and IgE response to Malassezia in atopic dogs with and without clinical evidence of Malassezia dermatitis and/or otitis, nonatopic dogs with clinical evidence of Malassezia dermatitis and/or otitis and healthy dogs. Cytology was used to diagnose clinically significant Malassezia dermatitis and otitis. Contact plate cultures confirmed the validity of this technique. Reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Malassezia-specific IgG and IgE in canine serum were established. Atopic dogs had significantly higher serum IgG and IgE levels than either healthy dogs or nonatopic dogs with clinical evidence of Malassezia dermatitis and/or otitis. There was no significant difference in IgG and IgE levels between atopic dogs with and without clinical evidence of Malassezia dermatitis and/or otitis. The implications of these findings in the pathogenesis and management of canine atopic dermatitis are discussed. PMID:11844222

  16. Common environmental contact allergens in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, S K

    1990-12-01

    Contact allergens produce three types of reactions. The commonest reaction is allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The commonest contactants in Singapore causing ACD are, in decreasing order of importance, nickel, fragrances, neomycin, lanolin, colophony, flavine, rubber chemicals, paraphenylenediamine, clioquinol and chromates. Another type of allergic contact reaction is immunologic contact urticaria (ICU). ICU is an IgE mediated mechanisms. Contact allergens causing ICU in Singapore are proteinaceous foodstuffs and rubber latex products. Photoallergic contact dermatitis is occasionally seen in Singapore. The commonest agent is Musk Ambrette, a perfume fixature found in male colognes.

  17. Pattern of occupational allergic dermatitis in the Dermatology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Rohna, R; Ganesapillai, T; Salbiah, D; Zaiton, I

    1999-03-01

    A two years retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed as contact allergic dermatitis with positive patch test attending the Dermatology clinic was performed. Of the 346 patients with a positive patch test, 14% had occupational dermatitis. This condition affected mainly young and inexperienced workers. An inverse relationship was seen between age and prevalence of occupational allergic dermatitis. Allergic hand dermatitis was the commonest presentation in occupational allergic dermatitis. This was followed by dermatitis of the exposed skin (face, neck, hands and forearms). The common sensitising agents identified were rubber chemicals and nickel. The two main groups at risk were factory workers and medical personnel. The common allergens found in factory workers were epoxy resin, pewter, nickel and rubber chemicals. Exposure dermatitis occurred in patients working in the pewter industry. Two thirds of medical personnel with hand dermatitis were allergic to rubber gloves. One year follow up after patch testing showed that 19% of patients still suffered from chronic dermatitis. Dermatitis improved in 34% of patients. Forty-seven percent were cured and stopped attending the clinic after patch testing and adequate counselling.

  18. Pattern of occupational allergic dermatitis in the Dermatology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Rohna, R; Ganesapillai, T; Salbiah, D; Zaiton, I

    1999-03-01

    A two years retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed as contact allergic dermatitis with positive patch test attending the Dermatology clinic was performed. Of the 346 patients with a positive patch test, 14% had occupational dermatitis. This condition affected mainly young and inexperienced workers. An inverse relationship was seen between age and prevalence of occupational allergic dermatitis. Allergic hand dermatitis was the commonest presentation in occupational allergic dermatitis. This was followed by dermatitis of the exposed skin (face, neck, hands and forearms). The common sensitising agents identified were rubber chemicals and nickel. The two main groups at risk were factory workers and medical personnel. The common allergens found in factory workers were epoxy resin, pewter, nickel and rubber chemicals. Exposure dermatitis occurred in patients working in the pewter industry. Two thirds of medical personnel with hand dermatitis were allergic to rubber gloves. One year follow up after patch testing showed that 19% of patients still suffered from chronic dermatitis. Dermatitis improved in 34% of patients. Forty-seven percent were cured and stopped attending the clinic after patch testing and adequate counselling. PMID:10972018

  19. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them.

  20. Seborrheic dermatitis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert A; Janusz, Christopher A; Janniger, Camila K

    2006-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis affects the scalp, central face, and anterior chest. In adolescents and adults, it often presents as scalp scaling (dandruff). Seborrheic dermatitis also may cause mild to marked erythema of the nasolabial fold, often with scaling. Stress can cause flare-ups. The scales are greasy, not dry, as commonly thought. An uncommon generalized form in infants may be linked to immunodeficiencies. Topical therapy primarily consists of antifungal agents and low-potency steroids. New topical calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators) sometimes are administered. PMID:16848386

  1. [Three cases of dry cleaning dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Kageyama, R

    1989-08-01

    Acute irritant dermatitis caused by contact with dry cleaned clothes (slacks, jacket, and skirt) was observed in three young females. Irritant sensations were noticed within an hour after wearing the clothes in all cases, but two patients thought that stocking were the cause. All patients continued wearing the clothes for various reasons. When they took off the clothes 3 to 9 hours later, erythema, edema, and bullae were noted on the posterior aspect of the thighs, the inner side of the right upper arm or the belt portion of the waist. Dry cleaning solvents used were not perchloroethylene, but were so-called new petrolatum solvents in all three cases. They were composed of paraffins in one case and paraffins plus naphtens in the other two cases. All solvents contained practically no aromatic substances. No spontaneous flare up was noted in any case. Therefore, dry cleaning solvents remaining in the clothes were thought to be the causative agent of this acute irritant contact dermatitis. This seems to be the first published report of dry cleaning dermatitis in Japan. PMID:2601111

  2. Gypsy moth-induced dermatitis: a hospital review and community survey.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Ken; Sakata, Kiyomi; Akasaka, Toshihide

    2012-01-01

    Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth [GM]) is found in most temperate forests. Although GM caterpillars are known to cause outbreaks of dermatitis, there have been few clinical/epidemiological studies of this problem. Here, we investigated GM caterpillar-induced health problems in a heavily infested area. We reviewed the records of 229 GM caterpillar-induced dermatitis patients treated at Kuzumaki Hospital and conducted a questionnaire survey covering all 2,891 households (7,770 residents) in Kuzumaki town. Affected areas were located primarily on the neck and arms. 180 patients (79%) did not notice direct contact with GM caterpillars on their affected areas. There were no significant differences in demographics, history, and symptoms between the group of patients with direct contact and those without direct contact. In the questionnaire survey, of the 4,871 people who responded (63%), 2039 people (42%) reported having dermatitis. When the data were adjusted for age, gender was not associated with dermatitis; however, the age groups 70-79 years and ≥80 years showed lower incidences of dermatitis. Those experiencing similar dermatitis the previous year had a significantly higher occurrence of dermatitis: odds ratio (OR)=42.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 33.5-53.6. Thus, when GM infestation occurs, physicians should expect an outbreak of dermatitis.

  3. [Contact allergy from cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Rat, J P; Larregue, M

    1987-04-01

    Usually, recorded cases of allergic contact dermatitis to tobacco are confined to occupational diseases and involve agricultural workers and those engaged in manufacturing or selling the products, all of whom are in contact with tobacco leaves. We have found three cases of contact dermatitis caused by cigarette smoke, which are not occupational disease. We do not know what offending agent is, but in one case the patient is allergic to perfume and this may be the factor responsible, since she smokes only flavoured cigarettes. In addition, we need to know whether the allergen only appears during combustion and is therefore present only in cigarette smoke.

  4. Genetics of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Caroline; Weidinger, Stephan; Novak, Natalija

    2011-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial disease, with a strong genetic predisposition. Genome-wide studies as well as candidate gene studies revealed several susceptibility loci. Since the observation of a strong association of "loss of function" mutations in the filaggrin gene with AD, the epidermal barrier was rediscovered as important pathophysiological co-factor of this disease. PMID:21518425

  5. Fabrics for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    The type of fabric worn by sufferers from atopic dermatitis should not exacerbate the condition but, if possible, help to control it. Synthetic fabrics and wool tend to produce itching and irritate the skin. Cotton is traditionally recommended but its structure contains short fibres which expand and contract, causing a rubbing movement that can irritate delicate skin. Dyes used in cotton garments can increase the potential of a sensitivity reaction. Cotton is also prone to bacterial and fungal attack. Silk garments are often closely woven which impedes the flow of air, and some people are allergic to the sericin protein in silk. Published studies suggest that a specially treated silk material (DermaSilk), which is loosely knitted, has had the sericin removed and has a microbial agent (AEM 5772/5) permanently bonded to it, is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the skin of children and adults with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis often becomes infected, commonly with Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have investigated the use of clothing materials impregnated with substances such as silver, which has antimicrobial properties. However, these are still unproven and there are concerns about bacterial resistance and the local and environmental effects of silver. The use of the antimicrobial AEM 5772/5, which does not transfer to the skin of the patient, is a new development in the control of atopic dermatitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether an antimicrobial shield bonded to clothing material will reduce the colonisation of atopic skin by S. aureus.

  6. Recalcitrant atopic dermatitis due to allergy to Compositae.

    PubMed

    Wintzen, M; Donker, A S; van Zuuren, E J

    2003-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is often complicated by allergic contact dermatitis, although patch testing may reveal positive reactions of uncertain relevance. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis, with a positive patch-test reaction to Compositae mix (CM). Initially, sensitization appeared to be of past relevance only, due to use of calendula. However, it turned out that she followed a self-devised diet consisting largely of food products of the Compositae family. On excluding these food products her skin condition improved quickly. This case report underscores the difficulty in determining the relevance of positive patch tests, and shows that thorough analysis of positive patch tests, by both patient and physician, may reveal unexpected or less common sources of contact allergens.

  7. [Etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Oehling, A; Jerez, J

    1975-01-01

    There is a wide variety of criteria in regard to the etiology of atopic dermatitis of neurodermitis. The allergic factor may play a very important role in its etiology. There is neither a general agreement on the importance of food allergy in this regard. Broadly considered, these patients may evoke intense positive reactions to intradermal tests to food and inhalative allergens, nevertheless it will be possible to establish that the lesions appear or disappear after the exposure of suppression of the antigens which evoked the positive reaction. On this basis, many dermatologists deny the allergic etiology in atopic dermatitis, even though in most instances no food skin tests are performed. In this study, 110 patients, both children and adults of both sexes, suffering from atopic dermatitis are investigated. The onset in most of the cases is before the age of six months, following the ages between 1-10 years; the groups between 6 months and one year, and 10-20 years followed a descending order per decade until 70 years. 60.9% of the cases showed food allergy to one or more food items. In 39% of the cases, no food allergy was found. The food-stuffs more commonly involved were: milk (37.7%), egg (26.3%) and fish (20.9%), followed by coca, wheat flour, seafood, fruits, vegetables and meat. A remission of the reaction followed the suppression of the allergen. Intestinal parasitosis is evaluated in relation to atopic dermatitis. 30.9% of the 110 cases were affected with intestinal parasitosis, being the most common the flagelates (lamblias), protozoa (amoeba) and nematodes (ascaris, tricocephalus and oxijrus). Finally, a concurrence is found between atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases in 81 cases (73.6%), being bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis the most frequent, and allergic rhinitis, urticaria and Quincke's edema less frequent. PMID:1180202

  8. Contact urticaria due to phenoxyethanol in an aftershave.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Dunia; Hernandez-Machin, Buenaventura; Peñate, Yeray; Borrego, Leopoldo

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of pruritus immediately after application of an aftershave product is usually due to irritant contact dermatitis. We report a case of contact urticaria in a male patient, produced by an aftershave product containing phenoxyethanol.

  9. Treatment of Paederus Dermatitis with Sambucus ebulus Lotion.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Rafati, Mohammad Reza; Damchi, Maryam; Golpur, Mosoud; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is an irritant contact dermatitis due to accidental contact by a beetle belonging to the genus paederus. In this study, clinical efficacies of S. ebulus fruit extract solution in patients affected by paederus dermatitis were evaluated. A randomized double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 62 patients with clinical symptoms and sings of dermatitis due to paederus beetles. The patients received either a topical solution of palemolin (a 5% S. ebulus fruit extract in ethanol 70%) or ethanol 70% topical solution thrice a day. Topical hydrocortisone ointment was prescribed for all patients. Palemolin was statistically more effective in controlling of burning, pain, inflammation, drying the wound, infections and acceleration of healing than control group (p ≤ 0.05). Specially in controlling of inflammation, palemolin had more significant efficacy (p < 0.001) than control group. About 63.6% of patients in palemolin group cured during first 24 h (versus 27.4% in control groups). The problems related to lesions in 93.9% of patients were eliminated completely during 48 hours after the beginning of the treatment by palemolin (versus 65.4% in control groups). Topical 5% solution of S. ebulus fruit extract is an effective pharmaceutical preparation in treatment of paederus dermatitis.

  10. Berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Lisa Moed; Chang, Mary Wu

    2002-11-01

    Berloque dermatitis is a type of photocontact dermatitis. It occurs after perfumed products containing bergamot (or a psoralen) are applied to the skin followed by exposure to sunlight. Striking linear patterns of hyperpigmentation are characteristic, corresponding to local application of the scented product. In the acute phase, erythema and even blistering can be seen. We report a case of berloque dermatitis in a 9-year-old girl that was initially reported as child abuse. To our knowledge, this is the first report of berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse. Questioning to elicit a history of perfume application coupled with sunlight exposure should help to prevent this misdiagnosis in children.

  11. Dermatitis artefacta: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Pichardo, A; García Bravo, B

    2013-12-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rarely diagnosed disorder that is often a source of perplexity and anxiety for dermatologists because they know less about the cause of this self-inflicted condition than the patients themselves. It differs from other skin disorders in that diagnosis is made by exclusion rather than on the basis of histologic and biochemical findings and therefore involves a considerable investment of time and resources. Based on the findings of a study of 201 patients diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta between 1976 and 2006, we review the different clinical presentations of this skin disorder and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. The series analyzed comprised 152 women and 49 men (female to male ratio of 3.1:1) with a mean age of 31.2 years. The patients were mostly single and had a low educational level and few or no job qualifications or skills.

  12. Colophony in mascara as a cause of eyelid dermatitis. Chemical analyses and patch testing.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, A T; Lidén, C; Ehrin, E

    1991-01-01

    Contact allergy to various components in cosmetics may cause eyelid dermatitis. Of 8 mascaras analysed with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), 3 contained colophony. Patients with contact allergy to colophony showed positive patch test reactions when tested with the two mascaras with the highest content of colophony. One mascara without colophony but containing nickel, gave positive reactions in persons with contact allergy to nickel.

  13. Etiology and pathophysiology of diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Berg, R W

    1988-01-01

    Common diaper dermatitis is a group of skin disorders that result from attack of the skin by physical, chemical, enzymatic, and microbial factors in the diaper environment. The integrity of healthy skin is compromised by the very nature of the diaper environment, and normal intact skin therefore remains an elusive goal of current diapering practices. Moist occlusion promotes miliaria, and causes an increase in the coefficient of skin friction. Skin hydration and an increase in skin pH result in impaired barrier function, and fecal enzymes begin to attack the skin, further degrading its normal ability to cope with its environment. Skin in this weakened state is susceptible to a variety of biological, chemical, and physical insults that can cause or aggravate diaper dermatitis. These include attack of the skin by fecal enzymes and other irritants in urine and feces, mechanical abrasion, and infection by C. albicans. Diapering is unquestionably an effective and convenient way of localizing an infant's excreta. Unfortunately, infant skin was not designed to operate continuously in the resulting environment, and is frequently unable to weather this assault. However, by improving the inherently adverse relationship between diapers and diapered skin, one can have a significant effect on the incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis. A diaper that keeps skin drier will result in skin that is less permeable to irritants, supports less microbial growth, is less susceptible to chafing damage, and has less contact with irritants in urine and feces. A diaper that maintains the environment closer to the normal acidic pH of skin will promote skin that is less permeable to irritants, and reduce the irritancy of fecal enzymes. Finally, a diaper that limits the mixing and spreading of urine and feces will result in less potentiation of enzyme activity and less contact of the skin with fecal irritants. Diaper dermatitis, by definition, cannot exist in the absence of diapers

  14. [How I prevent...exacerbation of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is under the influence of series of environmental factors. The contact with unsuited cleaning agents and rough textiles can exacerbate pruritus and inflammation. Preventive and adjuvant measures can thus help the care procedures of the disease. Appropriate hygiene measures and the use of emollients are particularly helpful. Clothing measures are also in place. Undergarments and pyjamas made of knitted natural silk are available. Other measures, sometimes corresponding to anecdotal claims--antihistamines, thermal cures, unconventional medicine, probiotics, chinese herbals, essential fatty acids--have not proven their preventive efficacy in atopic dermatitis. PMID:17020235

  15. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  16. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  17. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients: Clinical Recommendations Based on Expert Consensus Opinion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T; Hanifin, Jon M; Simpson, Eric L; Boguniewicz, Mark; Watsky, Kalman L; Lugo-Somolinos, Aida; Hamann, Carsten R; Eberting, Cheryl Lee; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure to patch test when appropriate may result in overlooking an important and potentially curable complicating comorbidity. In this article, we present consensus recommendations regarding when to perform patch testing in the AD patient, best practices, and common pitfalls. Patch testing should be considered in AD patients with dermatitis that fails to improve with topical therapy; with atypical/changing distribution of dermatitis, or pattern suggestive of ACD; with therapy-resistant hand eczema in the working population; with adult- or adolescent-onset AD; and/or before initiating systemic immunosuppressants for the treatment of dermatitis. A suggested patch testing algorithm for AD patients is provided.

  18. A Pragmatic Approach to Patch Testing Atopic Dermatitis Patients: Clinical Recommendations Based on Expert Consensus Opinion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer K; Jacob, Sharon E; Nedorost, Susan T; Hanifin, Jon M; Simpson, Eric L; Boguniewicz, Mark; Watsky, Kalman L; Lugo-Somolinos, Aida; Hamann, Carsten R; Eberting, Cheryl Lee; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may complicate the clinical course of atopic dermatitis (AD), and patch testing remains the criterion standard for diagnosing ACD. To date, there have been no guidelines or consensus recommendations on when and how to patch test individuals with AD. Failure to patch test when appropriate may result in overlooking an important and potentially curable complicating comorbidity. In this article, we present consensus recommendations regarding when to perform patch testing in the AD patient, best practices, and common pitfalls. Patch testing should be considered in AD patients with dermatitis that fails to improve with topical therapy; with atypical/changing distribution of dermatitis, or pattern suggestive of ACD; with therapy-resistant hand eczema in the working population; with adult- or adolescent-onset AD; and/or before initiating systemic immunosuppressants for the treatment of dermatitis. A suggested patch testing algorithm for AD patients is provided. PMID:27427820

  19. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. PMID:23233303

  20. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands.

  1. Atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, L G; Esterly, N B

    1994-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis remains a common skin problem in the pediatric age group. General approaches to management focus on reducing inflammation and pruritus as well as preventing xerosis. Ichthyosis vulgaris is the most common form of the ichthyoses and often is associated with atopic dermatitis. Recognition of these conditions is necessary to institute therapy that will alleviate the discomfort experienced by affected individuals.

  2. Livedoid Dermatitis Treated With Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Wheless, Lee; Zhu, Lilly; Mashayekhi, Mona; Fissell, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous injection of buprenorphine as a cause of livedoid dermatitis is a recently described phenomenon. This report reviews the brief literature of this finding, and presents a case of livedoid dermatitis of both heels following injection more than one day prior, and thesuccessful treatment with nifedipine monotherapy. PMID:26885536

  3. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  4. Malassezia dermatitis and otitis.

    PubMed

    Morris, D O

    1999-11-01

    The incidence of dermatitis and otitis resulting from overgrowth of M. pachydermatis is great enough that cytological sampling techniques should be considered a routine part of the dermatological examination. Because most cases of MD and Malassezia otitis cannot be grossly distinguished from bacterial pyoderma and otitis, respectively, efficiency in performing cytology testing of skin and ear canal exudate is essential to the successful diagnosis and management of pruritic skin diseases and otitis. Although Malassezia infections are rarely primary, therapy can be instituted to remove the yeast as a confounding factor while a differential diagnosis is pursued in evaluating the underlying disease process. PMID:10563001

  5. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  6. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.

  7. Atopic dermatitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 5. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Atopic dermatitis, eczema, and noninfectious immunodeficiency disordersIn: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the ...

  8. What is intrinsic atopic dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Roguedas-Contios, Anne-Marie; Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Many authors favor a distinction between the extrinsic and intrinsic forms of atopic dermatitis. In this review, the controversy is discussed and several definitions are presented. After reviewing many papers on this topic, it is our opinion that it is useful to separate the intrinsic and extrinsic forms of atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema and atopiform dermatitis because the pathophysiology appears to be different between them. However, these terms require concrete definition and clarification of the distinction between these two concepts. This debate is a new step in the history of atopic dermatitis. It is possible that a single patient could suffer from one form and then from another but genetic differences suggest that two types could really exist.

  9. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is elevated in mice with atopic dermatitis. The factors involved in this regulation, however, aren’t well understood. Past work led by Dr. Arup Indra at Oregon State University showed that COUP-TF interacting protein 2 (Ctip2) ...

  10. Phototherapy for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rodenbeck, Dorothy L; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is a second-line treatment for moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) that effectively decreases cutaneous inflammation with minimal or no systemic side effects. Children in grade school, adolescents, and adults may benefit from phototherapy, when they have chronic AD refractory to first-line topical treatments. This review focuses on six approaches for phototherapy in AD: (1) broadband ultraviolet B (UVB), (2) Goeckerman regimen (coal tar + broadband UVB), (3) narrowband UVB, (4) excimer lasers for targeted areas, (5) combination UVA/UVB, and (6) UVA-1. Phototherapy can be very effective in some individuals, but it is limited by inconvenience and adverse effects, including limited access to in-office treatment, difficulty adhering to thrice-weekly schedule, flaring from excessive heat, and increased risk of skin cancer. Dosing regimen and treatment concerns are reviewed. PMID:27638440

  11. Dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z

    1983-01-01

    22 patients with dermatitis from propolis were studied. In all the 21 tests with propolis were positive, and in 19 they were also positive to balsam of Peru. The chromatogram of the balsam and propolis show marked similarity and 3 identical peaks could be recognised in both substances. Among the patients sensitive to balsam of Peru and propolis, 12 were tested with some common components; 3 were positive to cinnamyl cinnamate, 2 to vanillin and 1 to benzyl cinnamate. Chromatograms of the 3 propolis samples from the Warsaw region were very similar, but not identical. Some of the patients were tested with 35 essential oils and eugenol. Sensitivity to clove oil was common. PMID:6220861

  12. [Atopic dermatitis and allergy].

    PubMed

    Karila, C

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.

  13. Perioral dermatitis: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bendl, B J

    1976-05-01

    Ninety-five patients with perioral dermatitis were studied from an epidemiological aspect. Consistent clearing of the eruption was obtained with oral tetracycline in combination with a topical sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur-hydro-cortisone lotion. Comparison of the study group of patients to a group of 50 control patients revealed highly significant quantitative differences in the cosmetic preparations used by the two groups. This latter finding would suggest that lubricating and moisturizing products play some part in the etiology of perioral dermatitis.

  14. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  15. A forgotten complication of diaper dermatitis: Granuloma gluteale infantum.

    PubMed

    Al-Faraidy, Nadya A; Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2010-05-01

    Granuloma Gluteale Infantum (GGI) is a rare condition of unclear etiology,[1] presenting as asymptomatic cherry red nodules in the diaper area appearing in the setting of primary irritant contact dermatitis.[2] A 50 day old infant with GGI is presented to emphasize that the condition may be easily missed, and that it may result from the misuse of fluorinated topical steroids used to treat a rash in the diaper area. This is the first case reported from Saudi Arabia.

  16. A forgotten complication of diaper dermatitis: Granuloma gluteale infantum

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faraidy, Nadya A.; Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2010-01-01

    Granuloma Gluteale Infantum (GGI) is a rare condition of unclear etiology,[1] presenting as asymptomatic cherry red nodules in the diaper area appearing in the setting of primary irritant contact dermatitis.[2] A 50 day old infant with GGI is presented to emphasize that the condition may be easily missed, and that it may result from the misuse of fluorinated topical steroids used to treat a rash in the diaper area. This is the first case reported from Saudi Arabia. PMID:21359035

  17. Incorporation of a Barrier Protection Cream in the Management of Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A commonly encountered skin disorder in outpatient dermatology practice is hand dermatitis. In a considerable subset of patients, hand dermatitis can be a major source of prolonged distress when a pattern of chronicity develops due to repeated exposure to a variety of potential etiological factors. Most of the etiological factors are exogenous in nature. Hand dermatitis is an equal opportunity disease that affects both genders and occurs in individuals from all ethnic and cultural backgrounds. It is important to note that the term hand dermatitis does not refer to one specific diagnostic entity. Rather, hand dermatitis refers to multiple patterns of clinical disease that can be induced by a variety of exogenous sources. Occupational exposures with inadequate hand protection may be an important cause of epidermal barrier disruption, and in some cases contact allergy may be the primary cause or contribute to chronic hand dermatitis. In certain individuals, endogenous sources, such as atopic skin, cutaneous allergy (eczematous pattern), or skin hypersensitivity (urticarial pattern), may innately create predisposition to the development of hand dermatitis. Hand dermatitis can become a chronic problem that is often difficult to manage effectively. As consistency with hand protection and avoidance of irritant and allergenic contactants are integral to the effective treatment of chronic hand dermatitis, there is a high dependence on consistent patient adherence. Regardless of the etiological factors causing chronic hand dermatitis, lack of consistent hand protection is often a major reason why therapeutic results are suboptimal in some cases as exposure to the causes of the hand dermatitis are not adequately prevented. Regular wearing of protective gloves is not always feasible depending on the occupation, and although topically applied skin barrier protectants may be helpful in some cases, scientific data are generally limited with many products. This article provides an

  18. Cosmetic dermatitis due to a perfume.

    PubMed

    Larsen, W G

    1975-06-01

    A patient with perfume dermatitis was patch-tested to 94 constituents of perfume and was found to have positive reactions to 12 components. An approach with regard to reducing the prevalence of perfume dermatitis is suggested.

  19. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  20. [Atopic dermatitis: pathophysiology update].

    PubMed

    Taieb, Alain

    2012-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is very common in industrialized countries, where it affects 15% to 30% of children and 2% to 10% of adults. AD has a complex determinism, combining environmental influences and genetic predisposition, hitherto dominated by an immunological perspective, particularly after the discovery of associated high IgE serum levels. DA is a possible mode of onset of asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergies, resulting in the poorly understood "atopic march". The discovery of mutations in the filaggrin gene, a key protein for stratum corneum maturation, have refocused attention on the skin and operated a Copernican revolution in our understanding of this group of disorders. AD has become a prototype of inflammatory epithelial barrier diseases. The epidermal barrier has three major elements: the stratum corneum, which provides an air-liquid barrier, tight junctions in the granular layer (liquid-liquid barrier), and Langerhans cells that capture antigens (immunological barrier). Better knowledge of the molecular events underlying epidermal barrier function and its dysfunction in AD should lead to ways of preventing and eventually curing this group of disorders. PMID:23472351

  1. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function.

  2. Neem oil: an herbal therapy for alopecia causes dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Reutemann, Patricia; Ehrlich, Alison

    2008-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, the neem tree has been considered one of the most useful and versatile plants in the world. Neem oil has been used for both homeopathic remedies and as a pesticide. Both systemic and contact reactions have occurred with the use of neem oil. We report a patient who presented with an acute case of contact dermatitis on the scalp and face after the use of neem oil for alopecia and present a review of the literature regarding its uses, toxicity, and regulation. PMID:18627678

  3. Crystal deodorant dermatitis: irritant dermatitis to alum-containing deodorant.

    PubMed

    Gallego, H; Lewis, E J; Crutchfield, C E

    1999-07-01

    Two patients developed an irritant dermatitis of the axillae shortly after using an over-the-counter "natural deodorant crystal" product containing alum. We discuss this previously unreported, untoward reaction to alum, an ancient agent with newfound popularity as an alternative health product. PMID:10431678

  4. Trabeculectomy trapdoor separation with allergic periorbital dermatitis: an unusual late-onset complication of guarded filtration surgery.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Kenneth G-J; Adler, Paul A; Goldberg, Ivan

    2007-08-01

    Hypotony post trabeculectomy may be the result of excessive aqueous outflow. Herein a case of an elderly man with excessive filtration 2 years post trabeculectomy resulting from trapdoor separation associated with allergic periorbital dermatitis is presented. Quaternary ammonium compounds are a significant cause of allergic periorbital dermatitis. Chronic rubbing associated with allergies to multiple topical quaternary ammonium compound-containing ophthalmic preparations is likely to have contributed to the trapdoor autotrauma and separation in this man with a background of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:17760641

  5. [Role of Langerhans cells in the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bieber, T

    1995-12-01

    The demonstration of IgE receptors on the surface of epidermal dendritic cells and on other antigen presenting cells is a crucial element in the understanding of the pathophysiological role of these cells in the genesis of atopic disease, and especially the atopic dermatitis (AD). The sensibilisation phase to an aeroallergen at the level of nasal or bronchial mucosa and even at the skin may be mediated by dendritic cells expressing Fc epsilon RI. Distinct forms of AD may then represent the equivalent of the ellicitation phase of the classical allergic contact dermatitis. Fc epsilon RI would lead, via specific IgE, to an efficient antigen capture, to the activation of the dendritic cells and finally to an antigen presentation. Thus, AD may represent the paradigma of an IgE-mediated type IV reaction. PMID:8786892

  6. [Role of Langerhans cells in the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bieber, T

    1995-12-01

    The demonstration of IgE receptors on the surface of epidermal dendritic cells and on other antigen presenting cells is a crucial element in the understanding of the pathophysiological role of these cells in the genesis of atopic disease, and especially the atopic dermatitis (AD). The sensibilisation phase to an aeroallergen at the level of nasal or bronchial mucosa and even at the skin may be mediated by dendritic cells expressing Fc epsilon RI. Distinct forms of AD may then represent the equivalent of the ellicitation phase of the classical allergic contact dermatitis. Fc epsilon RI would lead, via specific IgE, to an efficient antigen capture, to the activation of the dendritic cells and finally to an antigen presentation. Thus, AD may represent the paradigma of an IgE-mediated type IV reaction.

  7. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition. PMID:18976564

  8. [Contact allergy to essential oils].

    PubMed

    Selvåg, E; Holm, J O; Thune, P

    1995-11-10

    Ethereal oils are widely used, in food, toothpaste, as flavouring agents in perfumes and cosmetics, and in dermatological treatment, as antiseptics, adstringenta, antipruritic tinctures, lotions and pomades. The use of ethereal oils seems to have increased in recent years, probably due to a growing interest in alternative medicine, and especially aromatherapy. By describing the cases of three patients with allergic contact dermatitis, we wish to point out possible unwanted side effects of using ethereal oils.

  9. Occupational dermatitis in a milk industry worker due to Kathon CG.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Toribio, Jaime

    2004-06-01

    The allergenic properties of the preservative Kathon CG have been well known since 1980. Kathon CG is regularly used in many industrial processes because of its germicidal powers. The most common sources of exposure for people are cosmetics and toiletries. Occupational contact dermatitis is unusual among milk industry workers because of the high level of factory automation. PMID:15473332

  10. Occupational dermatitis in a milk industry worker due to Kathon CG.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Toribio, Jaime

    2004-06-01

    The allergenic properties of the preservative Kathon CG have been well known since 1980. Kathon CG is regularly used in many industrial processes because of its germicidal powers. The most common sources of exposure for people are cosmetics and toiletries. Occupational contact dermatitis is unusual among milk industry workers because of the high level of factory automation.

  11. Itch in Atopic Dermatitis Management.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Yayoi; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from chronic inflammatory dermatitis and antihistamine-resistant itch. The management of intractable pruritus in AD is important, requiring the development of new therapeutic approaches. At present, the standard treatments for AD include topical anti-inflammatory drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids. Topical emollient treatment is recommended to moisten the skin and to restore and maintain barrier function. Phototherapy is also effective in reducing the number of epidermal nerve fibers, normalizing imbalances in the levels of expression of axon guidance molecules, and inhibiting pruritus. Systemic treatments such as cyclosporine A and aprepitant are used to treat severe and intractable pruritus in AD. Clinical trials of dupilumab and CIM331 have displayed a significant reduction of pruritus in patients with AD. New antipruritic approaches are targeted to the central nervous system such as spinal interneurons and glial cells. This chapter describes therapeutic approaches for attenuating intractable itch in AD. PMID:27578076

  12. Therapeutic perspectives in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Therapy of atopic dermatitis should comprise emollients, topical glucocorticosteroids, or calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapies, immunosuppressants like cyclosporin A, and other treatments. All these treatments should be improved, thanks to research. But new therapeutic perspectives should be given by topical anti-inflammatory substances, selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists, probiotics, interferon γ, TNFα inhibitors, inhibition of T cells or B cells, inhibition of IgE binding, and many other possibilities.

  13. [New concepts about atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Sosa Vázquez, M; Orea, M; Flores, G

    2001-01-01

    The atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin illness, with remissions and exacerbations, itch, and association with allergic rhinitis and asthma. There is a complex interrelationship of genetic, environmental, pharmacological and psychological factors that contribute to the development and severity of the illness: Different manifestations of immunological disorders are an increment in the number of IgE antibodies toward common antigens, an increment in the liberation of proinflammatory mediators by basophils and mast cells, peripheral and local eosinophilia, biphasic activity Th1/Th2 with the liberation of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), GM-CSF and the IFN-gamma caused by the cells Th1. an increment in the liberation of major basic protein, eosinophil cationic protein besides the expression of chemotactic factors by the monocytes (RANTES, eotaxin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, etc.). In 1980, Hanifin and Rajka made public the diagnostic criteria for the atopic dermatitis and it has been universally accepted as an standard for the diagnosis. Leung reported that a knowledge about the immunopathological bases of the atopic dermatitis has important clinical implications for the diagnosis and possible treatment there are multiple choices for a treatment because of the complexity of the illness. Among these are thalidomide and transfer factor as an immunomodulator treatment with acceptable safety and clinical efficacy.

  14. Ornithonyssus (Acari: Macronyssidae) mite dermatitis in poultry field-workers in Almarg, Qalyobiya governorate.

    PubMed

    Mazyad, Said A; Abel El-Kadi, Mohamed

    2005-04-01

    Cutaneous manifestations of bird and rat mite infestation in man are not easily recognized by physicians or patients. Clinical signs and symptoms are developed secondary to bites of mites that have infested rats, domestic poultry or birds nesting in or near human habitation and comes into contact with man. This study details 4 cases of pruritic dermatitis developed in four field workers in poultry farms in Al-Marg district, Qalyobia governorate, Egypt. The zoonotic species of Ornithoyssus sp., (Family Macronyssidae) was isolated from all samples collected from patients' habitat and the role played by Ornithonyssus mites in causing dermatitis in man was discussed. PMID:15881008

  15. Harmful Effects of Synthetic Surface-Active Detergents against Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Hajime; Aoyama, Riho; Takahashi, Hideaki; Isobe, Yoshinari; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We report herein two cases of intractable atopic dermatitis successfully treated by simply avoiding the contact with surface-active detergents in the daily life and living. The detergents were closely related to the exacerbation and remission of the disease. Steroid ointment was no longer used. We discuss that the removal of horny layer lipids by surface-active detergents accelerates the transepidermal water loss and disturbs the barrier function of the epidermis and thus is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. PMID:25648414

  16. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  17. Contact dermatitis to a canine anti-dandruff shampoo.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius; Barker, Scott

    2007-02-01

    A 40-year-old teacher presented after her third episode of acute facial oedema within 4 months. Each episode occurred 1-2 days after visiting her mother's house. Patch testing showed positive reactions to miconazole and econazole nitrate. The patient denied use of any antifungal creams, but it transpired that her mother's dog was being shampooed weekly with an antifungal shampoo containing miconazole. No further episodes were recorded after discontinuing the antifungal shampoo.

  18. Nappy (diaper) rash: what else besides irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira; Robl, Renata; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Marinoni, Leide Parolin; Presa, Juliana Gomes Loyola

    2015-08-01

    Nappy (diaper) rash is a common cutaneous disorder of infancy, and diverse dermatoses may affect this region. To perform a differential diagnosis can be challenging. We present four cases to emphasise the importance of clinical diagnosis.

  19. Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part II).

    PubMed

    Larsen, W; Nakayama, H; Fischer, T; Elsner, P; Frosch, P; Burrows, D; Jordan, W; Shaw, S; Wilkinson, J; Marks, J; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, M; Nethercott, J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients who were fragrance sensitive. 178 patients were evaluated in 8 centers worldwide with a fragrance mix (FM) and 20 other fragrance materials. Reaction to the fragrance mixture (FM) occurred in 78.7% of the subjects. Substances reacting at a rate of 2% or higher included jasmine absolute, geranium oil bourbon, l-citronellol, spearmint oil, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyran, omega-6-hexadecenlactone, dimethyltetrahydrobenzaldehyde (isomer mixture), and alpha-amylcinnamaldehyde. These chemicals should be furthur evaluated to corroborate their allergenicity. We are constantly looking for new fragrance allergens to extend the diagnostic capability of the fragrance mix (FM).

  20. Fragrance contact dermatitis - a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part III).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Walter; Nakayama, Hideo; Fischer, Torkil; Elsner, Peter; Frosch, Peter; Burrows, Desmond; Jordan, William; Shaw, Stephanie; Wilkinson, John; Marks, James; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, Marc; Nethercott, James

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients who were fragrance sensitive. 218 fragrance sensitive subjects were evaluated in eight centres worldwide with a fragrance mixture (FM) and 17 less well-studied fragrance materials. Reaction to the fragrance mixture (FM) occurred in 76% of the subjects. The (FM) detected all reactions to nerol and hydroxycitronellol and 93% of the reactions to clove bud oil. Ten fragrance materials were not detected by the FM and deserve further study: benzenepropanol, beta, beta, 3-trimethyl, hexyl-salicylate, dl-citronellol, synthetic ylang ylang oil, benzyl mixture, cyclohexyl-acetate, eugenyl methyl ether, isoeugenyl methyl ether, 3-phenyl-1-propanol, and 3, 7-dimethyl-7-methoxyoctan-2-ol.

  1. Fragrance contact dermatitis - a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part III).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Walter; Nakayama, Hideo; Fischer, Torkil; Elsner, Peter; Frosch, Peter; Burrows, Desmond; Jordan, William; Shaw, Stephanie; Wilkinson, John; Marks, James; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, Marc; Nethercott, James

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients who were fragrance sensitive. 218 fragrance sensitive subjects were evaluated in eight centres worldwide with a fragrance mixture (FM) and 17 less well-studied fragrance materials. Reaction to the fragrance mixture (FM) occurred in 76% of the subjects. The (FM) detected all reactions to nerol and hydroxycitronellol and 93% of the reactions to clove bud oil. Ten fragrance materials were not detected by the FM and deserve further study: benzenepropanol, beta, beta, 3-trimethyl, hexyl-salicylate, dl-citronellol, synthetic ylang ylang oil, benzyl mixture, cyclohexyl-acetate, eugenyl methyl ether, isoeugenyl methyl ether, 3-phenyl-1-propanol, and 3, 7-dimethyl-7-methoxyoctan-2-ol. PMID:12000321

  2. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis from beryllium.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Grimalt, F

    1992-05-01

    There are various references to sensitization to beryllium in the literature. Since introducing a patch testing series for patients with suspected sensitization to metals, we have found 3 cases of sensitization to beryllium. Of these 3 cases, we regard the first 2 as having relevant sensitization. Beryllium chloride (1% pet.) was positive in 3 patients and negative in 150 controls.

  3. Nappy (diaper) rash: what else besides irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira; Robl, Renata; Uber, Marjorie; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Marinoni, Leide Parolin; Presa, Juliana Gomes Loyola

    2015-08-01

    Nappy (diaper) rash is a common cutaneous disorder of infancy, and diverse dermatoses may affect this region. To perform a differential diagnosis can be challenging. We present four cases to emphasise the importance of clinical diagnosis. PMID:25368136

  4. Contact dermatitis to a canine anti-dandruff shampoo.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius; Barker, Scott

    2007-02-01

    A 40-year-old teacher presented after her third episode of acute facial oedema within 4 months. Each episode occurred 1-2 days after visiting her mother's house. Patch testing showed positive reactions to miconazole and econazole nitrate. The patient denied use of any antifungal creams, but it transpired that her mother's dog was being shampooed weekly with an antifungal shampoo containing miconazole. No further episodes were recorded after discontinuing the antifungal shampoo. PMID:17222309

  5. ATOPIC DERMATITIS: EXPRESSION OF IMMUNOLOGICAL IMBALANCE.

    PubMed

    Manti, S; Chimenz, R; Salpietro, A; Colavita, L; Pennisi, P; Pidone, C; Sturiale, M; Arrigo, T; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory skin condition, characterized by a skin barrier dysfunction resulting in epidermal damage and altered permeability to allergens and microbes. Although pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is complex and still not fully understood, it has been hypothesized that genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and skin barrier dysfunction are involved. Innate and adaptive immune system has also a pivotal role in the development, maintenance and flare-up of atopic dermatitis. The immune-pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is determined by the impairment of different T helper cells, of their cytokine secretion profiles as well as of their specific receptor. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of the etiopathogenetic pathways of atopic dermatitis in relationship to the critical role of the innate and adaptive immune system, providing a unifying view. PMID:26634582

  6. Psychoneuroimmunology of psychological stress and atopic dermatitis: pathophysiologic and therapeutic updates.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Andrea L; Feramisco, Jamison D; Koo, John; Steinhoff, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by impaired epidermal barrier function, inflammatory infiltration, extensive pruritus and a clinical course defined by symptomatic flares and remissions. The mechanisms of disease exacerbation are still poorly understood. Clinical occurrence of atopic dermatitis is often associated with psychological stress. In response to stress, upregulation of neuropeptide mediators in the brain, endocrine organs, and peripheral nervous system directly affect immune and resident cells in the skin. Lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis demonstrates increased mast cells and mast cell-nerve fiber contacts. In the setting of stress, sensory nerves release neuromediators that regulate inflammatory and immune responses, as well as barrier function. Progress towards elucidating these neuroimmune connections will refine our understanding of how emotional stress influences atopic dermatitis. Moreover, psychopharmacologic agents that modulate neuronal receptors or the amplification circuits of inflammation are attractive options for the treatment of not only atopic dermatitis, but also other stress-mediated inflammatory skin diseases.

  7. Psychoneuroimmunology of Psychological Stress and Atopic Dermatitis: Pathophysiologic and Therapeutic Updates

    PubMed Central

    SUÁREZ, Andrea L.; FERAMISCO, Jamison D.; KOO, John; STEINHOFF, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by impaired epidermal barrier function, inflammatory infiltration, extensive pruritus and a clinical course defined by symptomatic flares and remissions. The mechanisms of disease exacerbation are still poorly understood. Clinical occurrence of atopic dermatitis is often associated with psychological stress. In response to stress, upregulation of neuropeptide mediators in the brain, endocrine organs, and peripheral nervous system directly affect immune and resident cells in the skin. Lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis demonstrates increased mast cells and mast cell-nerve fiber contacts. In the setting of stress, sensory nerves release neuromediators that regulate inflammatory and immune responses, as well as barrier function. Progress towards elucidating these neuroimmune connections will refine our understanding of how emotional stress influences atopic dermatitis. Moreover, psychopharmacologic agents that modulate neuronal receptors or the amplification circuits of inflammation are attractive options for the treatment of not only atopic dermatitis, but also other stress-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:22101513

  8. Munchausen Syndrome as Dermatitis Simulata

    PubMed Central

    Hariharasubramony, Ambika; Chankramath, Sujatha; Srinivasa, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with many dermatological disorders. It may be the cause for skin problem or may be the effect of a skin problem as skin being a visual organ. A 28-year-old female presented with multiple red lesions on the skin with unusual morphology and was diagnosed as dermatitis simulata. She gave history of multiple episodes of similar illnesses with admissions in various hospitals and being evaluated and dropping off in between treatments. After detailed psychological evaluation, patient was diagnosed as case of Munchausen syndrome. PMID:22661819

  9. Oxidative Stress in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongxiu; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic skin disorder affecting many people especially young children. It is a disease caused by the combination of genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, and skin barrier defect. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests oxidative stress may play an important role in many skin diseases and skin aging, possibly including AD. In this review, we give an update on scientific progress linking oxidative stress to AD and discuss future treatment strategies for better disease control and improved quality of life for AD patients. PMID:27006746

  10. Clinical and immunological effects of a forest trip in children with asthma and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sung Chul; Park, Su Jin; Park, Chan-Woo; Yoon, Won Suck; Choung, Ji Tae; Yoo, Young

    2015-02-01

    Asthma and atopic dermatitis are common allergic diseases, and their prevalence has increased in urban children. Recently, it is becoming understood that forest environment has favorable health effects in patients with chronic diseases. To investigate favorable clinical and immunologic effects of forest, we examined changes in clinical symptoms, indirect airway inflammatory marker, and serum chemokines before and after a short-term forest trip. The forest trips were performed with 21 children with asthma and 27 children with atopic dermatitis. All participating children were living in air polluted urban inner-city. We measured spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in children with asthma and measured scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index and Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (TARC)/CCL17 and Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC)/CCL22 levels in children with atopic dermatitis before and after the forest trip. Indoor air pollutants such as indoor mold, particulate matter 10 (PM10) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) of each child's home and the accommodations within forest were measured. A significant increase in forced vital capacity (FVC) and a significant decrease in FeNO were observed after the forest trip in children with asthma. SCORAD indices and MDC/CCL22 levels were significantly decreased after the forest trip in children with atopic dermatitis. Airborne mold and PM10 levels in indoor were significantly lower in the forest accommodations than those of children's homes; however, TVOC levels were not different between the two measured sites. Short-term exposure to forest environment may have clinical and immunological effects in children with allergic diseases who were living in the urban community.

  11. Essential Oils, Part IV: Contact Allergy.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 80 essential oils (including 2 jasmine absolutes) have caused contact allergy. Fifty-five of these have been tested in consecutive patients suspected of contact dermatitis, and nine (laurel, turpentine, orange, tea tree, citronella, ylang-ylang, sandalwood, clove, and costus root) showed greater than 2% positive patch test reactions. Relevance data are generally missing or inadequate. Most reactions are caused by application of pure oils or high-concentration products. The clinical picture depends on the responsible product. Occupational contact dermatitis may occur in professionals performing massages. The (possible) allergens in essential oils are discussed. Several test allergens are available, but patients should preferably be tested with their own products. Co-reactivity with other essential oils and the fragrance mix is frequent, which may partly be explained by common ingredients. Patch test concentrations for essential oils are suggested. PMID:27427818

  12. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis with Eosinophilic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall and variable gastrointestinal manifestations. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for EG when faced with gastrointestinal symptoms and peripheral eosinophilia to avoid incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatments. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and a laparoscopic appendectomy performed for a presumed diagnosis of an acute appendicitis. However, the procedure revealed bowel edema and a moderate amount of ascites without evidence of a suppurative appendicitis. Postoperatively, she showed persistent and progressive eosinophilia, exudative eosinophilic ascites, eosinophilic infiltration of the resected appendix wall, and eosinophilic infiltration of gastroduodenal mucosa. A punch biopsy of the abdominal skin also revealed inflammation with marked eosinophilic infiltration of the skin. She recovered after the treatment with a low dose of steroid for the EG with eosinophilic dermatitis. EG with eosinophilic dermatitis has not been reported yet and is considered fortuitous in this case. PMID:20046530

  13. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  14. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  15. Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Boyvat, Ayse; Akyol, Aynur; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of contact sensitivity to 14 common preservatives among patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey. From 2000 to 2004, 308 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested in the Department of Dermatology, Ankara University School of Medicine. All patients were patch tested with European standard series. In addition to the four preservatives included in the standard series, patients were also tested with DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, bromonitropropane diol, diazolidinyl urea, thimerosal, propylene glycol, chlorocresol, chloroxylenol, methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (MDBGN/PE) and benzalkonium chloride. Out of the 308 patients suspected of having contact dermatitis, 23 patients were found to have positive reactions to one or more preservatives. Preservatives that were the most frequent cause of positive reactions were thimerosal (1.6%), benzalkonium chloride (1.6%), formaldehyde (1.3%) and MDBGN/PE (0.9%). In our study, 65% of the positive reactions were caused by allergens not present in the standard series, such as thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride and MDBGN/PE. Although thimerosal caused a high rate of contact sensitivity, it may not be considered as an important allergen, because clinical relevance could not be found in any of the patients.

  16. Nickel dermatitis provoked by buttons in blue jeans.

    PubMed

    Brandrup, F; Larsen, F S

    1979-05-01

    A total of 79 nickel-sensitive patients (65 women, 14 men) were examined with regard to a present or past eczema corresponding to contact with metallic buttons in blue jeans; 63% of the women and 64% of the men had or had had eczema of this kind. Among 40% of the women below 30 years this was the primary site of manifestation. The seriousness of this sensitivity is illustrated by the fact that two-thirds of the nickel sensitive patients with button dermatitis had or had had eczema of the hands. The conclusion is that blue jean buttons should be made of a material which does not contain nickel, for instance zinc alloys which are presently used for some metallic buttons, or they should be designed in such a way that the button does not directly contact the skin.

  17. [Management of atopic dermatitis: practical guidelines suggested by the conclusion of systematic assessment in 500 children].

    PubMed

    Guillet, M H; Guillet, G

    2000-10-01

    Allergic management of AD may be worthwhile since allergy may trigger the disease. A systematic evaluation of sensitizations overtime and study of their clinical involvement in 500 children with AD was carried out, including minor, moderate, and severe patients (defined by clinical scores). Standardized methods assessed the possibility of contact dermatitis as well as IgE dependant allergies. Contact dermatitis concerned fragrances and nickel. Contact dermatitis was observed in minor and moderate AD with a progressive increase: 11% of children under 2 years and 58% in those over 15 years of age. Later in older children, sensitization to cosmetics and occupational allergens occurred in close connection with the specific environment. As for IgE sensitization, investigation should be electived advised in moderate and severe AD. Inhalant allergen sensitization was observed in 66% in moderate AD and 93% in severe AD in the group of 7 or 15 years. Clinical confrontation was a better indicator of cutaneous involvement than atopen patch-test. It mainly concerned respiratory symptoms. In severe AD, food allergy was constantly observed and presented as a marker for severe atopic dermatitis. The main trophallergen differ according to the age and cultural habits: in children under 2 years of age, eggs, peanuts, milk, fish were the main offending agents. Later, main trophallergens were wheat flour, shellfish. Although spontaneous decrease of food allergy is sometimes observed, it must be pointed out that food allergy may still persist as a triggering factor in teenagers as well as in adult-hood. The allergologic diagnosis of atopic dermatitis should not focus on IgE dependent sensitization without patch testing.

  18. Collembola are Unlikely to Cause Human Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, CSH; Lim, SL; Chew, FT; Ong, TC; Deharveng, L

    2009-01-01

    There have been several unconfirmed case reports of dermatitis caused by Collembola (springtails). We recently investigated two nurses with dermatitis suspected to be caused by Drepanura Schött (Collembola: Entomobryidae). IgE antibodies to Collembola proteins were not detected in sera from the nurses and skin tests with the Collembola extract and crushed whole Collembola were negative in both the nurses and volunteers. This study suggests that the springtail Drepanura may not cause human dermatitis and that other organisms and organic matter that are also found in the moist environment inhabited by Collembola might instead be responsible. PMID:19611235

  19. [Immunomodulation by tacrolimus in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Orozco, Alain R; Ruiz Reyes, Héctor

    2004-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic disease, in which the treatment is extremely complex; even when several immunological abnormalities have been described in atopic dermatitis, the immune response to drugs remains unclear for both: conventional and unconventional therapies. The present review is centered on clinical efficacy and safety of tacrolimus, one of the immunomodulators proposed to treat atopic dermatitis. There are clinical evidences to support that tacrolimus have considerable impact on expression of inflammatory markers, despite of clinical assays could be necessary to demonstrate its profiles of toxicity and efficacy, during long-time periods.

  20. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  1. Cytopathology of parasitic dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

    2012-04-01

    Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis. PMID:23543297

  2. Footwear dermatitis: pathogenesis--part I.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Rasool, Farhan; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok; Verma, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Footwear dermatitis is an important aspect of contemporary dermatology. The causative factors are constantly changing just as the footwear industry is continually changing. These range from the leather itself to rubber accelerators and from dyes to even metal trim.

  3. Atopic dermatitis in the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M

    2016-01-01

    Dogs may develop a syndrome of spontaneous, inflammatory, pruritic dermatitis that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis, including a young age of onset, characteristic lesion distribution, immunoglobulin E sensitization to common environmental allergen sources, and evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction. There are also several important differences between canine and human atopic dermatitis. Although dogs may suffer from multiple-organ hypersensitivity syndromes, there is no evidence that this species experiences the progressive evolution from cutaneous to respiratory allergy characteristic of the human atopic march. Despite the presence of epidermal barrier derangement, there is no significant association between canine atopic dermatitis and mutations in filaggrin. Finally, treatment of canine disease relies much less heavily on topical therapy than does its human counterpart, while allergy testing and allergen-specific immunotherapy provide an often essential component of effective clinical management of affected dogs. PMID:26903192

  4. Canine atopic dermatitis - what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Uri, Maarja; Halliwell, Richard

    2013-02-23

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a complex multifactorial disease. Here, Tim Nuttall, Maarja Uri and Richard Halliwell, representing three generations of veterinary dermatologists, describe the research underpinning our understanding of the condition and highlight its relevance to clinical practice.

  5. Patch-test reaction patterns in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2003-10-01

    Patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis often need to be patch tested in order to detect possible contact sensitization. However, it is unknown whether immunologic or other peculiarities of atopic skin are related to altered patch-test reaction patterns. Our study was aimed at answering this question, because patch-test reaction patterns are of considerable practical importance in the reading and interpretation of patch tests. Therefore, we compared patterns of patch-test reactions in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis and in control patients matched for sex, age, reason for testing and test centre. Patch-test results from 9 centres (2322 patients with a disposition to atopic dermatitis and 2126 matched controls) were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were tested with nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, potassium dichromate, lanolin alcohol, formaldehyde and mercury ammonium chloride. Patch tests applied for 1 day with readings on days 1, 2 and 3 were evaluated in order to cover the early phase of the reactions. Not unexpectedly, we found that, compared to the matched controls, patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis tended to have more doubtful and irritant reactions on day 1. As a new observation, it turned out that they had less reactions of crescendo pattern and more strong reactions on day 3. All these differences were slight/insignificant. A higher skin irritability in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis is a likely explanation. In conclusion, standard methods for patch testing can be applied in patients with a predisposition to atopic dermatitis, but minor differences in reaction patterns should be considered.

  6. Atopic Dermatitis: Update for Pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine; Maguiness, Sheilagh

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disorder present in up to 20% of children. Recent advances implicate skin barrier dysfunction as central to disease pathogenesis. Genetic defects in the filaggrin gene, the product of which is important for maintaining the epidermal barrier, are a strong predisposing factor in the development of AD. In addition to reducing identifiable triggers, treatment should focus on the four clinical characteristics of eczema: emollients for dry skin, topical anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and itch, and strategies to reduce infection/colonization, which can include diluted bleach baths. New studies demonstrate that early emollient application from birth may prevent development of AD. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e280-e286.]. PMID:27517355

  7. Radiation Recall Dermatitis Secondary to Dactinomycin.

    PubMed

    Prindaville, Brea; Horii, Kimberly A; Canty, Kristi M

    2016-09-01

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an uncommon reaction typically triggered by the use of chemotherapeutic agents in the months after treatment with radiation therapy. It usually presents as dermatitis in the irradiated field with prominent intertriginous involvement, and because internal involvement occurs in up to one-third of cases, early recognition is important. RRD has rarely been reported in the pediatric literature. We report the case of a 15-month-old boy with RRD to dactinomycin. PMID:27377050

  8. Diaper dermatitis that does not quit.

    PubMed

    Shin, Helen T

    2005-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in infants. The humid, moist environment under the diaper makes the skin more susceptible to injury from exposure to irritants particularly related to urine and feces. A gentle cleansing routine, frequent diaper changes, and a thick barrier cream help control this condition. Irritant diaper dermatitis should be distinguished from other skin conditions that may develop in this sensitive area.

  9. Diaper Dermatitis: Differential Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kellen, Philippa E.

    1990-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common dermatoses occurring in infancy. It is an irritant dermatitis, in which a variety of factors act in concert to produce inflammation of the diapered skin. The differential diagnosis includes many common and some uncommon conditions. Successful treatment requires detailed instructions to caregivers regarding simple hygienic procedures and diapering practices. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:21233927

  10. Ciclopirox shampoo for treating seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Bluhm, R

    2004-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease, affecting between 1% and 3% of immunocompetent adults. While its cause is unknown, a number of predisposing factors have been reported, including the implications of Malassezia yeasts. Various treatment options are available, such as ciclopirox shampoo, which combines anti-Malassezia activity with an anti-inflammatory action. This agent has been shown to be an effective and safe treatment for seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.

  11. An outbreak of phototoxic dermatitis due to limes.

    PubMed

    Gross, T P; Ratner, L; de Rodriguez, O; Farrell, K P; Israel, E

    1987-03-01

    During the week beginning July 29, 1984, 12 children in a day camp in a suburb of Baltimore, Maryland, were noted to have skin eruptions consistent with phototoxic dermatitis. These eruptions were confined to the hands, wrists, and forearms, and appeared as discrete and confluent polymorphous patches and linear streaks. These eruptions were also macular, hyperpigmented, and nonpruritic. Clinical examination revealed that 97 (16%) of 622 children, seven (7%) of 104 counselors, and no adult staff members had a similar rash. Onsets of the rash ranged from July 19-August 11, with peak occurrence on July 25-27. All camp members were white. Sex did not vary significantly between those affected and not affected. The mean age (5.3 years) of affected children was significantly different from the mean age (6.9 years) of unaffected children (p less than 0.001). Attack rates for the eight camp units were highest in two units (57% and 74%, respectively) and ranged between 0-6% for the other six units. Activities involving work with hands by various camp units were investigated. Only exposure to making pomander balls (sachets) in arts and crafts class (when other activities were controlled for) was significantly associated with illness (p less than 0.03). In making pomander balls, children punctured the skin of limes (the principal component) with scissors, releasing oils known to contain photoreactive furocoumarin (psoralen) compounds. These compounds evidently coated the children's skin and, upon exposure to the sun, caused a phototoxic dermatitis. An environmental and botanical survey of the camp did not reveal other phototoxic agents with which campers may have had contact. This is one of the largest reported outbreaks of phototoxic dermatitis and the first in which a citrus fruit was implicated on a large scale. PMID:3812457

  12. [New treatments of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Taïeb, A; Boralevi, F

    2005-04-01

    Topical steroids are still used suboptimally, but remain the mainstay of atopic dermatitis treatment. Topical steroid phobia is rampant in many countries, a real advantage for the entry on the market of topical immunomodulators (TIMs), which inhibit both antigen specific and non-specific T cell activation in the skin, by blockade of gene transcription of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL2 and TNF alpha. Topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus have the most advanced clinical development. Tacrolimus, already used orally in transplantation medicine, is already available in France since 2003 as a 0.03% ointment for children (Protopic, Fujisawa). Its introduction on the market has substantially changed prescription habits in atopic dermatitis. Recalcitrant adolescent and adult head and neck lesions are the major target, but the drug is is also widely used in children, with a good safety profile. The risk of herpes virus superinfections did not increase significantly in clinical trials but needs further monitoring. Long-term prescription will need a closer look at a still much debated increased skin cancer risk. The marked efficacy on thin skin sites and absence of atrophogenic properties of the drug balance its side effects at the first applications on inflamed skin (pruritus, burning sensation). Clinical studies using pimecrolimus (Elidel, Novartis), marketed as a 1% cream, show a satisfactorily efficacy profile in adults and children including infants. The drug is better tolerated and is already widely introduced on the international market since 2002 with a pediatric positioning, but is nor available yet in 2004 in France. Besides phototherapy, systemic immunosuppressants remain useful drugs in severe disease especially in older children and adolescents, cyclosporin remaining the leading drug. Preventive immunomodulation modifying the intestinal microflora is very promising approach which deserves a large-scale assessment. PMID:15808446

  13. Optimizing Treatment Approaches in Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson’s disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment. PMID:23441240

  14. Optimizing treatment approaches in seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gary, Goldenberg

    2013-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson's disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment. PMID:23441240

  15. Improving the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Ee Ting; Tidman, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis usually starts at puberty with a peak incidence at 40 years of age and is more common in males. Patients develop symmetrical, well demarcated, dull or yellowish red patches and plaques with overlying adherent, yellowish greasy scales. Seborrhoeic dermatitis has a distinctive distribution in areas rich in sebaceous glands - the scalp, eyebrows, glabella, nasolabial and nasofacial folds, cheeks, peri-auricular skin, pre-sternal and interscapular areas. It may occur in flexures, especially the axillae, groin, anogenital skin, infra-mammary skin and the umbilicus. Some patients may develop blepharitis with erythematous eyelids and destruction of eyelash follicles. Patients with HIV infection, neurological diseases, including parkinsonism and cranial nerve palsies, have a higher incidence of seborrhoeic dermatitis. Patients presenting with sudden onset severe seborrhoeic dermatitis should be screened for risk factors for HIV. Patients should be referred in the following situations: diagnostic uncertainty - consider other differential diagnoses; failure to respond to first-line treatment after four weeks - consider secondary changes e.g. bacterial infection, flexural intertrigo, lichenification, otitis externa; and severe/widespread disease. Patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis have a good prognosis, particularly infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, which usually remits within a few weeks or months and does not recur. PMID:24689165

  16. [Contact allergy for perfume ingredients in cosmetics and toilet articles].

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C

    1997-03-22

    Fragrance materials are not only present in products primarily used for their scent such as perfume, eau de toilette, deodorant and aftershave, but also in cosmetics, toiletries, household products and industrial materials. Of the general population, approximately one percent are allergic to fragrance materials, men nearly as frequent as women. Of patients consulting the dermatologist because of dermatitis, 6-11% have a positive patch test to the fragrance mix. Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually consists of erythema and desquamation, often localized in the neck, behind the ears, in the arm-pits or around the eyes. It can worsen pre-existing dermatoses such as hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, perianal dermatitis or vulvar dermatitis. The diagnosis of contact allergy to fragrances is made by epicutaneous tests with the European standard series (including some markers for fragrance sensitivity: the fragrance mix, balsam of Peru and colophony) and the patient's own contact materials. A positive patch test reaction must be followed by evaluation of its relevance. Advice to the patient is directed towards avoidance of fragranced products, if possible, and explanation of how use tests can identify fragranced products which can be used without ill effects.

  17. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  18. [Propolis-induced contact allergy].

    PubMed

    Schuler, T M; Frosch, P J

    1988-03-01

    Six patients with contact dermatitis to propolis are reported (3 women, 3 men; mean age 57 years). All three men had eczema on their hands and had acquired their sensitization in the course of bee keeping. The women had been sensitized by propolis contained in ointments of various kinds. Upon patch testing all six patients reacted to propolis and four also to Peruvian balsam. While ten flavonoids were test-negative, a cinnamic acid ester (1.1-dimethylallyl-3',4'-dihydroxy cinnamic acid ester) isolated both from propolis and from poplar buds was positive in two out of three patients; this may be the major allergen.

  19. Vulvar dermatitis from allergy to moist flushable wipes.

    PubMed

    Foote, Caitlyn A; Brady, Sean P; Brady, Kimberly L; Clark, Nancy S; Mercurio, Mary Gail

    2014-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products, and is a common ingredient in moist toilet paper. It is a well-known allergen and is capable of causing allergic contact dermatitis.We present the case of a 58-year-old white woman with a cutaneous vulvar eruption with associated discomfort and pruritus of 6 months in duration. She had been treated with antibiotic and antifungal agents without improvement of symptoms. Careful history taking revealed that the patient was using moist toilet paper. Patch testing confirmed an allergy to methylchloroisothiazolinone, a preservative in the moist toilet paper. After discontinuation of the product and treatment with potent topical steroids, the eruption completely cleared.With the growing use of moist toilet paper among adults, the risk of exposure and potential sensitization is increasing. Health care providers should be aware of the risks of moist toilet paper containing potential allergens because perianal and perineal dermatitis caused by these products may be unrecognized or misdiagnosed. After proper treatment, patients must be educated about alternatives and the importance of label reading.

  20. Incontinence-associated dermatitis and pressure ulcers in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kottner, J; Beeckman, D

    2015-12-01

    The key characteristics of geriatric patients are advanced age, multimorbidity, a decrease of psychical performance and care dependency. In addition, advanced age, chronic and acute diseases and treatments (e.g. polypharmacy) lead, either directly or indirectly, to a wide range of skin and tissue problems. Incontinence-associated dermatitis and pressure ulcers (PUs) belong to the most prevalent in geriatric settings. Prolonged exposure of the skin to urine and/or stool can cause an irritant contact dermatitis. Skin surface 'wetness', increased skin surface pH, digestive intestinal enzymes, repeated skin cleansing activities, and a possible occlusive environment contribute to irritation and inflammation. Prevention and treatment includes activities to maintain and to enhance continence and to limit, to reduce exposure of the skin to urine and stool, and to promote healing and reepithelialisation. In frail aged skin, it is recommended to use incontinence products with smooth and breathable materials with maximum absorption capacity. Immediate skin cleansing after soiling using mild cleansers and protective and caring leave-on products are recommended. PUs are localized injuries to the skin and/or underlying tissue caused by sustained deformations of skin and underlying soft tissues. PUs management includes risk assessment, repositioning and mobilization, and the use of appropriate support surfaces. Patients must be never positioned directly on an existing PU. Especially at end of life, the PU closure and wound healing may not be the primary therapeutic goal.