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Sample records for airborne culturable fungi

  1. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taekhee; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Adhikari, Atin; Crawford, Carlos M.; Reponen, Tiina

    In this study, the culturability of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi was determined through long-term sampling (24-h) using a Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler. The air samples were collected during three seasons in six Cincinnati area homes that were free from moisture damage or visible mold. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. The geometric means of indoor and outdoor culturable fungal concentrations were 88 and 102 colony-forming units (CFU) m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of the I/ O ratio equal to 0.66. Overall, 26 genera of culturable fungi were recovered from the indoor and outdoor samples. For total fungal spores, the indoor and outdoor geometric means were 211 and 605 spores m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of I/ O ratio equal to 0.32. The identification revealed 37 fungal genera from indoor and outdoor samples based on the total spore analysis. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of culturable and total fungal spores showed significant correlations ( r=0.655, p<0.0001 and r=0.633, p<0.0001, respectively). The indoor and outdoor median viabilities of fungi were 55% and 25%, respectively, which indicates that indoor environment provides more favorable survival conditions for the aerosolized fungi. Among the seasons, the highest indoor and outdoor culturability of fungi was observed in the fall. Cladosporium had a highest median value of culturability (38% and 33% for indoor and outdoor, respectively) followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium (9% and 2%) among predominant genera of fungi. Increased culturability of fungi inside the homes may have important implications because of the potential increase in the release of allergens from viable spores and pathogenicity of viable fungi on immunocompromised individuals.

  2. Prevalence of culturable airborne spores of selected allergenic and pathogenic fungi in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gorman, Céline M.; Fuller, Hubert T.

    2008-06-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in airborne spore concentrations of selected allergenic and pathogenic fungi were examined in Dublin, Ireland, in 2005. Air samples were taken at four outdoor locations in the city every 2 weeks, coupled with measurements of meteorological conditions. Total culturable airborne fungal spore concentrations in Dublin ranged from 30-6800 colony forming units per cubic metre of air (CFU m-3) over the 12-month period. Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria spores were constantly present in the Dublin atmosphere, representing >20% of the total culturable spore count. Concentrations of Cladosporium increased significantly in summer and reached allergenic threshold levels, peaking at over 3200 CFU m-3 in August. Penicillium spore concentrations never reached allergenic threshold levels, with average concentrations of <150 CFU m-3. Alternaria conidia formed only 0.3% of the total culturable fungal spore count and concentrations never exceeded 50 CFU m-3, attributable to the coastal position of Dublin and its low levels of arable production. The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus was present throughout the year in nominal concentrations (<10 CFU m-3), but sporadic high counts were also recorded (300-400 CFU m-3), the potential health implications of which give cause for concern. Spores of neither Cryptococcus neoformans nor Stachybotrys chartarum were detected, but airborne basidiospores of Schizophyllum commune were evidenced by the dikaryotization of monokaryon tester strains following exposure to the air. The relationships between airborne fungal spore concentrations and meteorological factors were analysed by redundancy analysis and revealed positive correlations between temperature and Cladosporium and relative humidity and Penicillium and Aspergillus.

  3. Airborne culturable fungi in naturally ventilated primary school environments in a subtropical climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    There is currently a lack of reference values for indoor air fungal concentrations to allow for the interpretation of measurement results in subtropical school settings. Analysis of the results of this work established that, in the majority of properly maintained subtropical school buildings, without any major affecting events such as floods or visible mould or moisture contamination, indoor culturable fungi levels were driven by outdoor concentration. The results also allowed us to benchmark the "baseline range" concentrations for total culturable fungi, Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Aspergillus spp. in such school settings. The measured concentration of total culturable fungi and three individual fungal genera were estimated using Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Pooling of these estimates provided a predictive distribution for concentrations at an unobserved school. The results indicated that "baseline" indoor concentration levels for indoor total fungi, Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Aspergillus spp. in such school settings were generally ≤1450, ≤680, ≤480 and ≤90 cfu/m3, respectively, and elevated levels would indicate mould damage in building structures. The indoor/outdoor ratio for most classrooms had 95% credible intervals containing 1, indicating that fungi concentrations are generally the same indoors and outdoors at each school. Bayesian fixed effects regression modelling showed that increasing both temperature and humidity resulted in higher levels of fungi concentration.

  4. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  5. Variation of correlations between factors and culturable airborne bacteria and fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Yan, Xu; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Wang, Xuming

    2016-03-01

    Bioaerosols, including their characteristics and overall changes correlated with environmental factors, have the potential to impact human health and influence atmospheric dynamics. In this study, the varying interrelationship between the concentration and diameter of culturable bioaerosols and twelve factors including PM2.5 (AQI), PM10 (AQI), sampling time, sampling season, temperature, relative humidity, dew, pressure, wind, O3, NO2, and SO2 is determined for twelve months during non-haze and haze days in Beijing. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the influence of factors on culturable bioaerosols is mainly associated with haze levels, sampling time, and season. Multiple linear regressions showed that the correlation between PM10 (AQI) or temperature and culturable bioaerosols varied at different haze levels. The seasonal influence of PM2.5 (AQI) was observed in culturable bioaerosol concentrations, but not their diameters. A temporal relationship between PM10 (AQI) and culturable bioaerosol concentration was detected during rush hour. SO2 and NO2 show positive and negative correlations with culturable bioaerosol concentrations in the morning/evening and mid-day, respectively. These results are useful for accurately evaluating the health effects of exposure to bioaerosols.

  6. Seasonal size distribution of airborne culturable bacteria and fungi and preliminary estimation of their deposition in human lungs during non-haze and haze days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Jia, Ruizhi; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Song, Yuan; Wang, Xuming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, haze events in Beijing have significantly increased in frequency. On haze days, airborne microorganisms are considered to be a potential risk factor for various health concerns. However, limited information on bioaerosols has prevented our proper understanding of the possible threat to human health due to these bioaerosols. In this study, we used a six-stage impactor for sampling culturable bioaerosols and the LUDEP 2.07 computer-based model for calculating their deposition on human lungs to investigate seasonal concentration, size distribution, and corresponding deposition efficiency and flux in the human respiratory tract during different haze-level events. The current results of the analysis of 398 samples over four seasons indicate that the concentration of culturable airborne bacteria decreased with increasing haze severity. The bioaerosol concentration ratio was skewed towards larger particle sizes on heavy haze days leading to larger bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters than on non-haze days. During nasal breathing by an adult male engaged in light exercise in an outdoor environment, the total deposition efficiency of culturable bioaerosols is 80-90% including approximately 70% in the upper respiratory tract, 5-7% in the alveoli, and about 3% in the bronchial couple with bronchiolar regions. Although the difference in culturable bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters at different haze levels was not large enough to cause obvious differences in lung deposition efficiency, the deposition fluxes clearly varied with the degree of haze owing to the varied concentration of culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. The results here could improve our understanding of the seasonal health threat due to culturable bioaerosols during non-haze and haze days.

  7. Species-specific profiles of mycotoxins produced in cultures and associated with conidia of airborne fungi derived from biowaste.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Müller, T; Schwalbe, R; Ostrowski, R; Dott, W

    2000-10-01

    The potential to produce mycotoxins and non-volatile secondary metabolites was investigated for approximately 250 freshly isolated fungal strains. Among the eleven most relevant species, viz. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. clavigerum, P. crustosum, and P. polonicum, a wide range of metabolites partly of toxicological relevance was identified. Several unknown metabolites were found for the less frequent species, which were primarily investigated for chemotaxonomic delimitation from closely related species. The spectra of metabolites in conidial extracts and culture extracts (containing also mycelium and medium) were compared for a limited number of relevant fungi. Some mycotoxins, such as sterigmatocystin in Emericella nidulans, were not present in the conidial extracts, though produced by most strains. Fumigaclavine C, tryptoquivaline, and trypacidin, characteristic for A. fumigatus, were found in conidial extracts, but highly toxic compounds such as gliotoxin and fumitremorgens were not present. Finally, compounds such as cyclopenol, cyclopenin, and penitrem A being characteristic for certain penicillia, were found in conidial extracts and are therefore assumed to occur in native bioaerosols. PMID:11109562

  8. Populations and determinants of airborne fungi in large office buildings.

    PubMed

    Chao, H Jasmine; Schwartz, Joel; Milton, Donald K; Burge, Harriet A

    2002-08-01

    Bioaerosol concentrations in office environments and their roles in causing building-related symptoms have drawn much attention in recent years. Most bioaerosol studies have been cross-sectional. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine the characteristics of airborne fungal populations and correlations with other environmental parameters in office environments. We investigated four office buildings in Boston, Massachusetts, during 1 year beginning May 1997, recruiting 21 offices with open workstations. We conducted intensive bioaerosol sampling every 6 weeks resulting in 10 sets of measurement events at each workstation, and recorded relative humidity, temperature, and CO2 concentrations continuously. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to identify groups of culturable fungal taxa that covaried in air. Four major groupings (PCA factors) were derived where the fungal taxa in the same groupings shared similar ecological requirements. Total airborne fungal concentrations varied significantly by season (highest in summer, lowest in winter) and were positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively related to CO2 concentrations. The first and second PCA factors had similar correlations with environmental variables compared with total fungi. The results of this study provide essential information on the variability within airborne fungal populations in office environments over time. These data also provide background against which cross-sectional data can be compared to facilitate interpretation. More studies are needed to correlate airborne fungi and occupants' health, controlling for seasonal effects and other important environmental factors. PMID:12153758

  9. Evaluation of three portable samplers for monitoring airborne fungi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Airborne fungi were monitored at five sample sites with the Burkard portable, the RCS Plus, and the SAS Super 90 air samplers; the Andersen 2-stage impactor was used for comparison. All samplers were calibrated before being used simultaneously to collect 100-liter samples at each site. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved equivalent volumes of airborne fungi; the SAS Super 90 and RCS Plus measurements did not differ from each other but were significantly lower than those obtained with the Andersen or Burkard samplers. Total fungal counts correlated linearly with Cladosporium and Penicillium counts. Alternaria species, although present at all sites, did not correlate with total count or with amounts of any other fungal genera. Sampler and location significantly influenced fungal counts, but no interactions between samplers and locations were found.

  10. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station. PMID:21173524

  11. Airborne fungi in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuraimi, M. S.; Fang, L.; Tan, T. K.; Chew, F. T.; Tham, K. W.

    Fungi exposure has been linked to asthma and allergies among children. To determine the association between fungal exposure and wheeze and rhinitis symptoms, we examined concentrations of culturable indoor and outdoor fungi of various aerodynamic sizes in low and high allergic prevalence child care centers (CCCs) in Singapore. Environmental parameters were also performed for air temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates, while information on CCC characteristics was collected via an inspection. Most commonly recovered fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cladosporium and sterile mycelia with Geotrichum and sterile mycelia amounting to an average of 71.5% of the total airborne culturable fungi studied. Indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi concentrations and those in the size range of 1.1-3.3 μm were significantly higher in high allergic prevalence CCCs. When fungal types/genera were compared, indoor and outdoor Geotrichum and sterile mycelia of aerodynamic sizes 1.1-3.3 μm were found to be significantly elevated in high allergic prevalence CCCs. Indeed, average geometric mean diameters ( Dg, ave) of indoor and outdoor culturable fungi were consistently smaller in CCCs with high prevalence of allergies than those with low prevalence. We found significant associations of higher fungal concentrations, especially those with smaller aerodynamic sizes in CCCs situated near parks. There were no differences in fungal levels between CCCs with respect to their dampness profile mainly due to high CCC ventilation rates. Since particle size is a factor that determines where a fungi particle deposits in the respiratory tract, this study provides useful information in the etiology of wheeze and rhinitis symptoms among the CCC attending children.

  12. A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Li, D W; Kendrick, B

    1995-11-01

    Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes, Cladosporium, Coprinus, unidentified Basidiomycetes, Alternaria and unidentified fungi. Most airborne fungal taxa and highly significant relationship with temperature, but Aspergillus/Penicillium, hyphal fragments were positively associated with wind speed. In comparison with other airborne fungal taxa, Leptosphaeria and unidentified Ascomycetes were more closely correlated with rain and RH during the growing season.

  13. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    PubMed

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  14. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  15. Airborne Cladosporium and other fungi in damp versus reference residences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Niininen, M.; Kalliokoski, P.; Nevalainen, A.; Jantunen, M. J.

    Our previous study (Nevalainen et al., 1991, Envir. Int.17, 299-302) showed that airborne counts of total viable fungal spores in damp residences did not remarkably differ from those in reference residences. The results of the present study confirmed this finding. Indoor air spore counts varied considerably from residence to residence and even within the same residence. Thus, the counts were only occasionally high in the damp residences. Counts of airborne Cladosporium spp. spores and yeast cells were significantly higher in the damp residences than in the reference ones. The difference of yeast cell counts between the residence groups was explained by the difference in outdoor air, whereas Cladosporium spp. spores were mainly derived from indoors. Prevalence of Aspergillus spp. spores was also slightly higher in the damp residences than in the reference ones.

  16. [Occupational exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria in a household recycled container sorting plant ].

    PubMed

    Solans, Xavier; Alonso, Rosa María; Constans, Angelina; Mansilla, Alfonso

    2007-06-01

    Several studies have showed an association between the work in waste treatment plants and occupational health problems such as irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal problems and symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). These symptoms have been related to bioaerosol exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational exposure to biological agents in a plant sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) household waste. Airborne samples were collected with M Air T Millipore sampler. The concentration of total fungi and bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were determined and the most abundant genera were identified. The results shown that the predominant airborne microorganisms were fungi, with counts greater than 12,000 cfu/m(3) and gram-negative bacteria, with a environmental concentration between 1,395 and 5,280 cfu/m(3). In both cases, these concentrations were higher than levels obtained outside of the sorting plant. Among the fungi, the predominant genera were Penicillium and Cladosporium, whereas the predominant genera of gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Serratia. The present study shows that the workers at sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) domestic waste plant may be exposed to airborne biological agents, especially fungi and gram-negative bacteria.

  17. [Occupational exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria in a household recycled container sorting plant ].

    PubMed

    Solans, Xavier; Alonso, Rosa María; Constans, Angelina; Mansilla, Alfonso

    2007-06-01

    Several studies have showed an association between the work in waste treatment plants and occupational health problems such as irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal problems and symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). These symptoms have been related to bioaerosol exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational exposure to biological agents in a plant sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) household waste. Airborne samples were collected with M Air T Millipore sampler. The concentration of total fungi and bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were determined and the most abundant genera were identified. The results shown that the predominant airborne microorganisms were fungi, with counts greater than 12,000 cfu/m(3) and gram-negative bacteria, with a environmental concentration between 1,395 and 5,280 cfu/m(3). In both cases, these concentrations were higher than levels obtained outside of the sorting plant. Among the fungi, the predominant genera were Penicillium and Cladosporium, whereas the predominant genera of gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Serratia. The present study shows that the workers at sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) domestic waste plant may be exposed to airborne biological agents, especially fungi and gram-negative bacteria. PMID:17604432

  18. Airborne Bacterial Communities in Residences: Similarities and Differences with Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel I.; Miletto, Marzia; Lindow, Steven E.; Taylor, John W.; Bruns, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analysis of indoor air has uncovered a rich microbial presence, but rarely have both the bacterial and fungal components been examined in the same samples. Here we present a study that examined the bacterial component of passively settled microbes from both indoor and outdoor air over a discrete time period and for which the fungal component has already been reported. Dust was allowed to passively settle in five common locations around a home − living room, bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, and balcony − at different dwellings within a university-housing complex for a one-month period at two time points, once in summer and again in winter. We amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in these samples and analyzed them with high-throughput sequencing. Like fungal OTU-richness, bacterial OTU-richness was higher outdoors then indoors and was invariant across different indoor room types. While fungal composition was structured largely by season and residential unit, bacterial composition varied by residential unit and room type. Bacteria from putative outdoor sources, such as Sphingomonas and Deinococcus, comprised a large percentage of the balcony samples, while human-associated taxa comprised a large percentage of the indoor samples. Abundant outdoor bacterial taxa were also observed indoors, but the reverse was not true; this is unlike fungi, in which the taxa abundant indoors were also well-represented outdoors. Moreover, there was a partial association of bacterial composition and geographic distance, such that samples separated by even a few hundred meters tended have greater compositional differences than samples closer together in space, a pattern also observed for fungi. These data show that while the outdoor source for indoor bacteria and fungi varies in both space and time, humans provide a strong and homogenizing effect on indoor bacterial bioaerosols, a pattern not observed in fungi. PMID:24603548

  19. Exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria while commuting in passenger cars and public buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    The present study examined airborne microbe levels inside and outside passenger cars and public buses during two seasons (winter and summer). The prevalence level of individual fungal genera depended on the fungi and agar type, whereas a constant higher prevalence (>90%) was found for the total bacteria and total fungi. The four most prevalent fungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria in a descending order. The major parameters associated with the airborne microbe measurements included agar type, vehicle type, and seasonal variation. When compared to the malt extract agar (MEA), the dichloran glycerol 18 agar (DG-18) was found to produce better counts for the target fungi. The summer in-vehicle bacterial concentrations were significantly higher for public buses than for the passenger cars, whereas the reverse was true for summer in-vehicle total fungal concentrations. This pattern was also consistent with summer outdoor results. In contrast, the winter in-vehicle and outdoor airborne microbe levels were similar for cars and buses. Meanwhile, summer was generally found to have higher in-vehicle fungal concentrations than winter. The current in-vehicle airborne microbe concentrations were found to be similar to residential indoor values from other reports, such as bacterial values between 10 and 10 3 CFU m -3 and total fungal aerosol concentrations ranging from 10 to 10 3 CFU m -3. It was suggested that motor vehicles in which many individuals spend a certain percentage of their day or week for travel are also a potential microenvironment for individual exposure to airborne microbes.

  20. A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Wei; Kendrick, Bryce

    1995-06-01

    Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were: total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes, Cladosporium, Coprinus, unidentified Basidiomycetes, Alternaria and unidentified fungi. Most airborne fungal taxa had highly significant relationship with temperature, but Aspergillus/Penicillium, hyphal fragments and Epicoccum did not. Epicoccum and hyphal fragments were positively associated with wind speed. In comparison with other airborne fungal taxa, Leptosphaeria and unidentified Ascomycetes were more closely correlated with rain and RH during the growing season.

  1. Changes in profiles of airborne fungi in flooded homes in southern Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Chen, Pei-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Su, Huey-Jen

    2011-04-01

    In August 2009, the historic Typhoon Morakot brought extreme rainfall and resulted in flooding which spread throughout southern Taiwan. This study compared the difference between fungal concentrations before and after the disaster in selected homes of the Tainan metropolitan area, which were hit hardest by the catastrophe. A group of 83 households available from a prior cohort established with random sampling out of a regional population in southern Taiwan was contacted successfully by telephone. Twenty-five of these reported to have suffered from floods of various degrees at this time. Around 2 weeks after the event, at which time most of the remedial process had been completed by self-efforts and public health endeavours, 14 of these 25 (56%) agreed to participate in measurements of the airborne microbial concentrations. The averages (standard deviation) of the total culturable fungal concentrations in children's bedrooms and flooded rooms were 18,181 (25,854) colony-forming units per cubic metre (CFU/m(3)) and 13,440 (11,033) CFU/m(3), respectively. The airborne fungal spore levels in the 2 above-mentioned indoor sites were 221,536 (169,640) spores/m(3) and 201,582 (137,091) spores/m(3), respectively. The average indoor/outdoor ratios in the children's bedrooms were 4.2 for culturable fungi and 1.4 for fungal spores. These values were higher than the respective values measured in the same homes during the previous year: 1.1 and 0.6. In terms of the specific fungal profile, the percentages of Aspergillus spp. increased significantly in both the indoor and outdoor environments after the event. To this date, this study is among the limited research that has been conducted to quantitatively demonstrate that fungal manifestation is likely to persist in flooded homes even after seemingly robust remedial measures have been put into place. Studies to examine the potential health implications and effectiveness of better remedial technology remain much needed.

  2. Direct growth inhibition assay of total airborne fungi with application of biocide-treated malt extract agar.

    PubMed

    Er, Chin Ming; Sunar, N M; Leman, A M; Othman, N

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution by airborne fungi has risen to become a common issue all over the world and it is hazardous to indoor occupants' health as it is associated with a series of respiratory-related and skin-related diseases. Selected bioactive compounds from the food industry have been suggested to be effective against individual fungus isolated from indoor environment. However, the techniques used to evaluate these compounds were lengthy and unsuitable against total airborne fungi. Therefore, this paper describes an assay to assess the effectiveness of a bioactive compound to inhibit growth of total airborne fungi.•A combination and modification of previous methods and the NIOSH Manual Analytical Standard Method (NMAM 0800) is proposed.•This method concurrently samples the total airborne fungi and evaluates the ability of bioactive compounds (potassium sorbate in this paper), as a biocide, to treat these indoor airborne fungi.•The current method shortens the time of evaluation from 30 days to only 5 days and employs the counting of colony forming units (CFUs) to ease the measurement of the growth of fungi. PMID:27077051

  3. Direct growth inhibition assay of total airborne fungi with application of biocide-treated malt extract agar

    PubMed Central

    Er, Chin Ming; Sunar, N.M.; Leman, A.M.; Othman, N.

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air pollution by airborne fungi has risen to become a common issue all over the world and it is hazardous to indoor occupants’ health as it is associated with a series of respiratory-related and skin-related diseases. Selected bioactive compounds from the food industry have been suggested to be effective against individual fungus isolated from indoor environment. However, the techniques used to evaluate these compounds were lengthy and unsuitable against total airborne fungi. Therefore, this paper describes an assay to assess the effectiveness of a bioactive compound to inhibit growth of total airborne fungi.•A combination and modification of previous methods and the NIOSH Manual Analytical Standard Method (NMAM 0800) is proposed.•This method concurrently samples the total airborne fungi and evaluates the ability of bioactive compounds (potassium sorbate in this paper), as a biocide, to treat these indoor airborne fungi.•The current method shortens the time of evaluation from 30 days to only 5 days and employs the counting of colony forming units (CFUs) to ease the measurement of the growth of fungi. PMID:27077051

  4. Indoor airborne fungi and wheeze in the first year of life among a cohort of infants at risk for asthma.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Paula F; Crawford, Judith A; Anagnost, Susan E; Wang, C J K; Hunt, Andrew; Anbar, Ran D; Hargrave, Teresa M; Hall, E Geralyn; Liu, Chien-Chih; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2010-09-01

    In studies worldwide, respiratory outcomes such as cough, wheeze and asthma have been consistently linked to mold exposure. Young children spend most of their time indoors and may be particularly vulnerable. We evaluated the associations between exposure to airborne fungal levels and episodes of wheezing in a cohort of 103 infants at risk for asthma (due to maternal history of asthma), living primarily in low-income urban settings. Using a new protocol that facilitates identification of rare and slow-growing fungi, we measured the type and concentration of cultured fungi in home air samples taken early in the infant's first year of life. We also inspected the homes for visible mold, water damage and other housing and environmental conditions. All homes had measurable indoor airborne fungi and 73%, had some sign of mold, water damage, dampness or a musty odor. One or more episodes of wheeze during the first year of life were observed in 38% of infants. Multiple logistic regression showed high indoor levels of Penicillium were a significant risk factor for wheeze (OR 6.18; 95% CI: 1.34-28.46) in the first year of life after controlling for season of sampling, smoking, endotoxin levels, day care attendance and confounders. Acrodontium, a rarely reported fungal genus, was detected in 18% of study homes, and was associated with wheeze in unadjusted models (OR 2.75; 95% CI 0.99-7.61), but not after adjustment for confounders. Total fungal levels, visually observed mold, dampness, water damage or musty odors were not significantly associated with wheeze.

  5. Culturable fungi in potting soils and compost.

    PubMed

    Haas, Doris; Lesch, Susanne; Buzina, Walter; Galler, Herbert; Gutschi, Anna Maria; Habib, Juliana; Pfeifer, Bettina; Luxner, Josefa; Reinthaler, Franz F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the spectrum and the incidence of fungi in potting soils and compost was investigated. Since soil is one of the most important biotopes for fungi, relatively high concentrations of fungal propagules are to be expected. For detection of fungi, samples of commercial soils, compost and soils from potted plants (both surface and sub-surface) were suspended and plated onto several mycological media. The resulting colonies were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results from the different sampling series vary, but concentrations on the surface of potted plants and in commercial soils are increased tenfold compared to compost and sub-surface soils. Median values range from 9.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/g to 5.5 × 10(5) CFU/g. The spectrum of fungi also varies in the soils. However, all sampling series show high proportion of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including potentially pathogenic species such as Aspergillus fumigatus. Cladosporium, a genus dominant in the ambient air, was found preferably in samples which were in contact with the air. The results show that potentially pathogenic fungi are present in soils. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid handling soils or potted plants in their immediate vicinity.

  6. Changes in airborne fungi from the outdoors to indoor air; large HVAC systems in nonproblem buildings in two different climates.

    PubMed

    Kemp, P C; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Esposito, B; Lysek, G; Murray, F

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in occurrence and distribution of airborne fungi as they are transported in the airstream from the outdoor air through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to the indoor air. To better understand this, airborne fungi were analyzed in the HVAC systems of two large office buildings in different climate zones. Fungal samples were taken in each of the walk-in chambers of the HVAC systems using a six-stage Andersen Sampler with malt extract agar. Results showed that fungal species changed with different locations in the HVAC systems. The outdoor air intake produced the greatest filtration effect for both the counts and species of outdoor air fungi. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts and species diversity was further reduced in the air directly after the filters. The cooling coils also had a substantial filtration effect. However, in room air the CFU counts were double and the mixture of fungal species was different from the air leaving the HVAC system at the supply air outlet in most locations. Diffusion of outdoor air fungi to the indoors did not explain the changes in the mixture of airborne fungi from the outdoor air to the indoor air, and some of the fungi present in the indoor air did not appear to be transported indoors by the HVAC systems.

  7. Monitoring and identification of airborne fungi at historic locations on Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Shona M.; Farrell, Roberta L.; Jordan, Neville; Jurgens, Joel A.; Blanchette, Robert A.

    2010-08-01

    Air sampling in the ‘Heroic Era’ historic huts on Ross Island, Antarctica confirmed fungal presence, viability and winter survival. Cultivation and consensus sequence-based identification of Cladosporium cladosporioides, Pseudeurotium desertorum, Geomyces sp. and Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus demonstrated that they dominated the air environment within the huts. Cadophora sp. and Thebolus sp. were also isolated from the air and identified by morphological characteristics. Viable fungal colony forming units generally dropped in winter 2007 samplings from levels recorded in summer 2006 but were still substantial and greater than observed in summer 2008 and summer 2009 sampling at some locations. Comparing interior to exterior sampling, at the Hut Point and Cape Evans sites, there were more fungi recovered from the air in the interiors but at Cape Royds location, more fungi were recovered from the outside environment, possibly due to the impact of large amounts of organic material from the nearby Adélie penguin rookery. This research reveals airborne fungal biodiversity in summer and winter and demonstrates spores are widespread particularly in the interiors of the huts. Completed conservation efforts appear to have reduced fungal blooms and spores, which should reduce future adverse impacts to wood, textiles, paper and other artefacts so that this important polar heritage can be preserved.

  8. Performance of photocatalytic lamps on reduction of culturable airborne microorganism concentration.

    PubMed

    Chuaybamroong, Paradee; Thunyasirinon, Chuleewan; Supothina, Sitthisuntorn; Sribenjalux, Pipat; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2011-04-01

    Reduction of viable airborne Staphylococcus epidermidis and Aspergillus niger spore concentrations using two types of photocatalytic fluorescent lamps under controlled environmental conditions (25 vs. 35°C and 55 vs. 75% relative humidity) were investigated. Visible white-light and UVA black light were in-house spray-coated with TiO(2) and then compared with a commercially coated visible white-light for microbial concentration reduction. The white-light photocatalytic lamps reduced the concentration of culturable S. epidermidis up to 92% independent of temperature or humidity change, while the black light photocatalytic lamps completely inactivated the culturable bacteria at 25°C, 55% relative humidity. Humidity seemed to alleviate UVA damage since better bacteria survival was found. For A. niger spores, rising humidity or temperature could lower their concentration or drop their culturabilities so that a difference between the natural decay and photocatalytic disinfection could not be distinguished. Reductions of total bacteria and total fungi concentrations using these lamps were also examined under uncontrolled environmental conditions in an office and a waste-storage room. It was found that photocatalytic lamps could reduce total culturable bacteria concentration from 9 to 97% and total culturable fungi concentration from 3 to 95% within irradiation time of 30-480 min, respectively. Insignificant difference in concentration reduction among these photocatalytic lamps was pronounced.

  9. Size-resolved emission rates of airborne bacteria and fungi in an occupied classroom

    PubMed Central

    Qian, J; Hospodsky, D; Yamamoto, N; Nazaroff, W W; Peccia, J

    2012-01-01

    The role of human occupancy as a source of indoor biological aerosols is poorly understood. Size-resolved concentrations of total and biological particles in indoor air were quantified in a classroom under occupied and vacant conditions. Per-occupant emission rates were estimated through a mass-balance modeling approach, and the microbial diversity of indoor and outdoor air during occupancy was determined via rDNA gene sequence analysis. Significant increases of total particle mass and bacterial genome concentrations were observed during the occupied period compared to the vacant case. These increases varied in magnitude with the particle size and ranged from 3 to 68 times for total mass, 12–2700 times for bacterial genomes, and 1.5–5.2 times for fungal genomes. Emission rates per person-hour because of occupancy were 31 mg, 37 × 106 genome copies, and 7.3 × 106 genome copies for total particle mass, bacteria, and fungi, respectively. Of the bacterial emissions, ∼18% are from taxa that are closely associated with the human skin microbiome. This analysis provides size-resolved, per person-hour emission rates for these biological particles and illustrates the extent to which being in an occupied room results in exposure to bacteria that are associated with previous or current human occupants. Practical Implications Presented here are the first size-resolved, per person emission rate estimates of bacterial and fungal genomes for a common occupied indoor space. The marked differences observed between total particle and bacterial size distributions suggest that size-dependent aerosol models that use total particles as a surrogate for microbial particles incorrectly assess the fate of and human exposure to airborne bacteria. The strong signal of human microbiota in airborne particulate matter in an occupied setting demonstrates that the aerosol route can be a source of exposure to microorganisms emitted from the skin, hair, nostrils, and mouths of other occupants

  10. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children.

  11. Evaluation of portable air samplers for monitoring airborne culturable bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Bell-Robinson, D. M.; Groves, T. O.; Stetzenbach, L. D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne culturable bacteria were monitored at five locations (three in an office/laboratory building and two in a private residence) in a series of experiments designed to compare the efficiency of four air samplers: the Andersen two-stage, Burkard portable, RCS Plus, and SAS Super 90 samplers. A total of 280 samples was collected. The four samplers were operated simultaneously, each sampling 100 L of air with collection on trypticase soy agar. The data were corrected by applying positive hole conversion factors for the Burkard portable, Andersen two-stage, and SAS Super 90 air samplers, and were expressed as log10 values prior to statistical analysis by analysis of variance. The Burkard portable air sampler retrieved the highest number of airborne culturable bacteria at four of the five sampling sites, followed by the SAS Super 90 and the Andersen two-stage impactor. The number of bacteria retrieved by the RCS Plus was significantly less than those retrieved by the other samplers. Among the predominant bacterial genera retrieved by all samplers were Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus.

  12. Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi are seldom encountered in the archaeological record of foodstuffs but there are exceptions, especially for yeast. Excavated vessels contained identifiable residues of fermented beverages. Ancient ovens allow inferences on leavened breads. Mesopotamian clay tablets contain references to truffle...

  13. Airborne Fungi in Sahara Dust Aerosols Reaching the Eastern Caribbean: II. Species Identification Using Molecular Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Mota, A.; Betancourt, C.; Detres, Y.; Armstrong, R.

    2003-12-01

    Fungi samples from filters collected in Castle Bruce, Dominica from March through July 2002, were previously purified and identified to genus level using classic macroscopic and microscopic techniques. A total of 105 isolated colonies were cultured in liquid media and the mycelial mats used for DNA extraction. PCR was used to amplify the ITS region of the rDNA using the ITS1 and ITS4 primers. Both strands of the amplified products were sequenced and the final identification to species level was completed by a GenBank search. Fourteen different species and one fungal endophyte were identified from genders Aspergillus,Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia and Phanerochaete. Some of these species such as A. fumigatus, A. japonicus, P. citrinum and C. cladosporoides are known to cause respiratory disorders in humans. A. fumigatus causes an aggressive pulmonary allergic response that might result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Other species such as F. equiseti and C. brachyspora are plant pathogens affecting economically important crops. Sahara dust is an important source of fungal spores of species that are not common in the Caribbean region.

  14. Sterilisation of Hydroponic Culture Solution Contaminated by Fungi using an Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Kohji; Satoh, Kohki; Kanayama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hidenori; Tagashira, Hiroaki; Shimozuma, Mitsuo; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takasaki, Satoko; Kinoshita, Muneshige

    The hydroponic culture solution contaminated by fungi is sterilised by a DC corona discharge, and the sterilisation characteristics are investigated in this work. A DC streamer corona discharge is generated at atmospheric pressure in air between needle clusters and a water bath containing contaminated solution by fungus such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or Fusarium sp.. It is found that the fungi are killed by the exposure of the corona discharge, and that the death rates of the fungi chiefly depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. It is also found that the number densities of the fungi decrease exponentially with the energy expenditure of the corona discharge, and that damping coefficients of the fungi densities depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. This suggests that the fungi are chiefly inactivated by electroporation.

  15. Airborne fungi and bacteria in child daycare centers and the effectiveness of weak acid hypochlorous water on controlling microbes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nai-Tzu; Su, Yu-Min; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-10-26

    A three-week-long biological sampling scheme was conducted in two child daycare centers (CDCCs) in order to investigate interdiurnal and diurnal variations in indoor airborne microbes as well as the efficiency of weak acid hypochlorous water (WAHW) on disinfecting indoor microbes. During the second week of sampling, WAHW was sprayed using a fogger in the classroom after children had left and before they returned the next morning. An identical cycle of experiments was performed twice in the winter and spring. Without WAHW intervention, the respective mean of the indoor concentrations and I/O ratios were 8732-47581 CFU m(-3) and 0.96-2.53 for fungi, and 6706-28998 CFU m(-3) and 1.10-11.92 for bacteria, showing severe bio-contamination in the CDCCs. Moreover, a relatively high level of bacterial pollution was found at noon, whereas a greater fungal pollution could be detected in the morning and at noon. Among five school days, the fungal and bacterial pollution may be higher on Monday and on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, respectively. Furthermore, with WAHW intervention, the indoor microbial concentrations and I/O ratios were decreased significantly. The reduction of I/O ratios caused by WAHW disinfection was accomplished in the morning for bacteria and in the morning, at noon, and in the afternoon for fungi. In conclusion, this study clearly clarified the risky period during which children may be exposed to hazardous environments, and demonstrated the effectiveness of spraying WAHW the night before on decontaminating indoor airborne microbes on the following day, especially in the case of fungi.

  16. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. PMID:25401065

  17. Keratinolysis and its morphological expression in hair digestion by airborne fungi.

    PubMed

    Filipello Marchisio, V; Fusconi, A; Rigo, S

    1994-08-01

    The morphological expression of keratinolysis in fungi isolated from the air of Torino (98 isolates belonging to 36 species) was studied. Light microscopy on whole material and on semithin sections, as well as scanning electron microscopy was used. There were 19 keratinolytically active species, with seven in the genus Chrysosporium (C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. pannicola, C. tropicum, C. an. Arthroderma cuniculi, C. an. Pectinotrichum llanense, C. an. Renispora flavissima), four in the genus Malbranchea (M. arcuata, M. fulva, M. sulphurea, M. st. Uncinocarpus reesii), and three in the genus Trichophyton (T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. terrestre). In addition there were Aphanoascus fulvescens, Beauveria bassiana, Geomyces pannorum v. pannorum, Gymnoascus umbrinus and Myceliophthora vellerea. Most of these species were capable of developing structures related to surface erosion and radial penetration contemporaneously. However Gymnoascus umbrinus, Myceliophthora vellerea, an isolate of C. indicum, C. tropicum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes demonstrated only surface erosion. Different isolates of one species can vary in their production of invasive structures and in degree of keratinolytic activity. Thus such activity, like many biochemical activities of fungi, does not appear to be a constant or rigorously species-specific character. PMID:7527126

  18. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2013-06-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation. PMID:23416228

  19. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2013-06-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation.

  20. 9 CFR 113.25 - Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Culture media for detection of... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.25 Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi. (a..., shall conform to such standards. In lieu of preparing the media from the individual ingredients,...

  1. 9 CFR 113.25 - Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Culture media for detection of... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.25 Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi. (a..., shall conform to such standards. In lieu of preparing the media from the individual ingredients,...

  2. 9 CFR 113.25 - Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Culture media for detection of... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.25 Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi. (a..., shall conform to such standards. In lieu of preparing the media from the individual ingredients,...

  3. 9 CFR 113.25 - Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Culture media for detection of... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.25 Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi. (a..., shall conform to such standards. In lieu of preparing the media from the individual ingredients,...

  4. 9 CFR 113.25 - Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Culture media for detection of... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.25 Culture media for detection of bacteria and fungi. (a..., shall conform to such standards. In lieu of preparing the media from the individual ingredients,...

  5. Source identification analysis for the airborne bacteria and fungi using a biomarker approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alex K. Y.; Lau, Arthur P. S.; Cheng, Jessica Y. W.; Fang, Ming; Chan, Chak K.

    Our recent studies have reported the feasibility of employing the 3-hydoxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) and ergosterol as biomarkers to determine the loading of the airborne endotoxin from the Gram-negative bacteria and fungal biomass in atmospheric aerosols, respectively [Lee, A.K.Y., Chan, C.K., Fang, K., Lau, A.P.S., 2004. The 3-hydroxy fatty acids as biomarkers for quantification and characterization of endotoxins and Gram-negative bacteria in atmospheric aerosols in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment 38, 6807-6317; Lau, A.P.S., Lee, A.K.Y., Chan, C.K., Fang, K., 2006. Ergosterol as a biomarker for the quantification of the fungal biomass in atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric Environment 40, 249-259]. These quantified biomarkers do not, however, provide information on their sources. In this study, the year-long dataset of the endotoxin and ergosterol measured in Hong Kong was integrated with the common water-soluble inorganic ions for source identification through the principal component analysis (PCA) and backward air mass trajectory analysis. In the coarse particles (PM 2.5-10), the bacterial endotoxin is loaded in the same factor group with Ca 2+ and accounted for about 20% of the total variance of the PCA. This implies the crustal origin for the airborne bacterial assemblage. The fungal ergosterol in the coarse particles (PM 2.5-10) had by itself loaded in a factor group of 10.8% of the total variance in one of the sampling sites with large area of natural vegetative coverage. This suggests the single entity nature of the fungal spores and their independent emission to the ambient air upon maturation of their vegetative growth. In the fine particles (

  6. Species diversity of culturable endophytic fungi from Brazilian mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    de Souza Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza; Romão-Dumaresq, Aline Silva; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Harakava, Ricardo; Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of the diversity of endophytic fungal communities isolated from the leaves and branches of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa trees inhabiting two mangroves in the state of São Paulo, Brazil [Cananeia and Bertioga (oil spill-affected and unaffected)] in the summer and winter. Three hundred and forty-three fungi were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. Differences were observed in the frequencies of fungi isolated from the leaves and branches of these three different plant species sampled from the Bertioga oil spill-affected and the oil-unaffected mangrove sites in the summer and winter; these differences indicate a potential impact on fungal diversity in the study area due to the oil spill. The molecular identification of the fungi showed that the fungal community associated with these mangroves is composed of at least 34 different genera, the most frequent of which were Diaporthe, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Xylaria. The Shannon and the Chao1 indices [H'(95 %) = 4.00, H'(97 %) = 4.22, Chao1(95 %) = 204 and Chao1(97 %) = 603] indicated that the mangrove fungal community possesses a vast diversity and richness of endophytic fungi. The data generated in this study revealed a large reservoir of fungal genetic diversity inhabiting these Brazilian mangrove forests and highlighted substantial differences between the fungal communities associated with distinct plant tissues, plant species, impacted sites and sampling seasons. PMID:23832271

  7. Immune responses to airborne fungi and non-invasive airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Vacher, Gaëlle; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Roger, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Inhalation of fungal particles is a ubiquitous way of exposure to microorganisms during human life; however, this exposure may promote or exacerbate respiratory diseases only in particular exposure conditions and human genetic background. Depending on the fungal species and form, fungal particles can induce symptoms in the lung by acting as irritants, aeroallergens or pathogens causing infection. Some thermophilic species can even act in all these three ways (e.g. Aspergillus, Penicillium), mesophilic species being only involved in allergic and/or non-allergic airway diseases (e.g. Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium). The goal of the present review is to present the current knowledge on the interaction between airborne fungal particles and the host immune system, to illustrate the differences of immune sensing of different fungal species and to emphasise the importance of conducting research on non-conventional mesophilic fungal species. Indeed, the diversity of fungal species we inhale and the complexity of their composition have a direct impact on fungal particle recognition and immune system decision to tolerate or respond to those particles, eventually leading to collateral damages promoting airway pathologies. PMID:25502371

  8. Presence of extracellular NAD(+) and NADH in cultures of wood-degrading fungi.

    PubMed

    Kido, Ryuta; Takeeda, Midori; Manabe, Mitsuhiro; Miyagawa, Yutaka; Itakura, Shuji; Tanaka, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that extracellular glycoproteins produced by some white-rot and brown-rot basidiomycetous fungi reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and O2 to H2O2 and produce hydroxyl radicals. The continuous generation of hydroxyl radicals requires a constant supply of O2 and an electron donor for the reduction of oxidized forms of the glycoproteins to the reduced forms. However, electron donors for this reaction, such as NADH, have not been identified. In this study, the amounts of the extracellular pyridine coenzymes, NAD(+) and NADH, were measured in agar cultures of four white-rot fungi, one brown-rot fungus, and three soft-rot fungi. The sums of NAD(+) and NADH detected in wood-containing cultures of all five basidiomycetes were greater than those in glucose cultures. The amounts of NAD(+) were higher than those of NADH in all wood-containing cultures except that of Irpex lacteus, and NAD(+) was greater than NADH in all glucose cultures except that of Fomitopsis palustris. Significant amounts of pyridine coenzymes were present in glucose and wood-containing cultures of the three soft-rot fungi. The non-wood-degrading fungus, Penicillium funiculosum, did not produce NAD(+) or NADH in either glucose or wood-containing cultures. The extracellular pyridine coenzyme levels were relatively high compared to the rates of extracellular hydroxyl radical generation in wood-degrading fungal cultures. Thus, white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi produce pyridine coenzymes that could serve as electron donors for the production of hydroxyl radicals during wood degradation.

  9. Impacts of flood damage on airborne bacteria and fungi in homes after the 2013 Colorado Front Range flood.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Joanne B; Keady, Patricia B; Brewer, Tess E; Clements, Nicholas; Morgan, Emily E; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Miller, Shelly L; Fierer, Noah

    2015-03-01

    Flood-damaged homes typically have elevated microbial loads, and their occupants have an increased incidence of allergies, asthma, and other respiratory ailments, yet the microbial communities in these homes remain under-studied. Using culture-independent approaches, we characterized bacterial and fungal communities in homes in Boulder, CO, USA 2-3 months after the historic September, 2013 flooding event. We collected passive air samples from basements in 50 homes (36 flood-damaged, 14 non-flooded), and we sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V4-V5 region) and the fungal ITS1 region from these samples for community analyses. Quantitative PCR was used to estimate the abundances of bacteria and fungi in the passive air samples. Results indicate significant differences in bacterial and fungal community composition between flooded and non-flooded homes. Fungal abundances were estimated to be three times higher in flooded, relative to non-flooded homes, but there were no significant differences in bacterial abundances. Penicillium (fungi) and Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (bacteria) were among the most abundant taxa in flooded homes. Our results suggest that bacterial and fungal communities continue to be affected by flooding, even after relative humidity has returned to baseline levels and remediation has removed any visible evidence of flood damage.

  10. Antifungal activity of Artemisia annua endophyte cultures against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, C H; Zou, W X; Lu, H; Tan, R X

    2001-07-12

    Artemisia annua, well recognized for its production of antimalarial drug artemisinin, is seldom attacked by any of phytopathogenic fungi, which could be partially associated with the presence of endophytes. Present investigation is aiming at disclosing whether the endophytes inside A. annua produce antifungal substances. A total of 39 endophytes were isolated and fermented, and the ferment broth was evaluated in vitro for the antifungal activity against crop-threatening fungi Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Rhizoctonia cerealis, Helminthosporium sativum, Fusarium graminearum, Gerlachia nivalis and Phytophthora capsici. These plant pathogens are still causing wheat take-all, sharp eyespot, common rot, scab, snow mould, and pepper phytophthora blight, respectively. Out of 39 endophytes investigated, 21 can produce in vitro substances that are inhibitory to all or a few of the tested phytopathogens whereas the rest yielded nothing active. Moreover, the most active broth of endophyte IV403 was extracted with EtOAc and n-butanol, and comparisons of the antifungal activity of the extracts indicated that the major active metabolites were EtOAc-extractable.

  11. Carbon allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi correlates with belowground allocation in culture studies.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, Erik A

    2006-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbioses with most temperate and boreal tree species, but difficulties in measuring carbon allocation to these symbionts have prevented the assessment of their importance in forest ecosystems. Here, I surveyed allocation patterns in 14 culture studies and five field studies of ectomycorrhizal plants. In culture studies, allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi (NPPf) was linearly related to total belowground net primary production (NPPb) by the equation NPPf = 41.5% x NPPb - 11.3% (r2 = 0.55, P < 0.001) and ranged from 1% to 21% of total net primary production. As a percentage of NPP, allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi was highest at lowest plant growth rates and lowest nutrient availabilities. Because total belowground allocation can be estimated using carbon balance techniques, these relationships should allow ecologists to incorporate mycorrhizal fungi into existing ecosystem models. In field studies, allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi ranged from 0% to 22% of total allocation, but wide differences in measurement techniques made intercomparisons difficult. Techniques such as fungal in-growth cores, root branching-order studies, and isotopic analyses could refine our estimates of turnover rates of fine roots, mycorrhizae, and extraradical hyphae. Together with ecosystem modeling, such techniques could soon provide good estimates of the relative importance of root vs. fungal allocation in belowground carbon budgets.

  12. Airborne Fungi in Sahara Dust Aerosols Reaching the Eastern Caribbean: I. Taxonomic Characterization by Morphological Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Denizard, O.; Betancourt, C.; Armstrong, R. A.; Detres, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A wide variety of microorganisms are dispersed into the Caribbean region due to the input of Saharan dust aerosols during the summer months. These microorganisms can cause diseases in plants and animals, and might be responsible for an increase incidence of asthma and respiratory diseases in this region. A PM 2.5 air sampling station was installed in Castle Bruce, Dominica from March through July of 2002. Fourteen filters were obtained by running the air sampler continuously for 24 hour periods. The samples were collected in sterile Teflon filters (47 mm in diameter, 0.2 um pore size), inoculated in Malt Extract Agar (MEA) with lactic acid and incubated at 29° C. Colonies were counted, isolated and cultured on separate Petri dishes. Fungal classification to the genus level used macroscopic features and microscopic evaluation. The Nomarski light microscopy technique was used for identification of reproductive structures. A total of 105 colonies were isolated. Six genera including Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Curvularia,and Nigrospora were identified. The protocol for the molecular characterization to species level is presented as the second part of this work.

  13. A method to quantify infectious airborne pathogens at concentrations below the threshold of quantification by culture

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy D.; Wang, Chong; Hoff, Steven J.; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    In aerobiology, dose-response studies are used to estimate the risk of infection to a susceptible host presented by exposure to a specific dose of an airborne pathogen. In the research setting, host- and pathogen-specific factors that affect the dose-response continuum can be accounted for by experimental design, but the requirement to precisely determine the dose of infectious pathogen to which the host was exposed is often challenging. By definition, quantification of viable airborne pathogens is based on the culture of micro-organisms, but some airborne pathogens are transmissible at concentrations below the threshold of quantification by culture. In this paper we present an approach to the calculation of exposure dose at microbiologically unquantifiable levels using an application of the “continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model” and the validation of this approach using rhodamine B dye as a surrogate for aerosolized microbial pathogens in a dynamic aerosol toroid (DAT). PMID:24082399

  14. Culturability and toxicity of sick building syndrome-related fungi over time.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen C; Carriker, Curtis G; Brasel, Trevor L; Karunasena, Enusha; Douglas, David R; Wu, Chunfa; Andriychuk, Larysa A; Fogle, Matthew R; Martin, Jared M; Straus, David C

    2004-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted regarding the culturability and toxicity of fungi located on building materials over time and the efficacy of seven laboratory techniques in recovering culturable fungi from sample swabs. In the first experiment, eight sections of drywall were inoculated with Stachybotrys chartarum and stored at 25 +/- 5 degrees Celsius and 20-60% relative humidity (RH) for up to two years. Another eight sections of ceiling tile were stored at 100% RH for 1 year. Six sections of ceiling tile and 15 swabs were also inoculated with Penicillium chrysogenum and S. chartarum respectively and stored under the same conditions for 8 months and 3.3 years. All materials were tested for culturability at the end of the storage period. S. chartarum-inoculated samples were also tested for toxicity. In the second experiment (replicated twice), S. chartarum and Chaetomium globosum were inoculated onto 84 swabs each. Storage was up to 266 days at 25 +/- 5 degrees Celsius and 20-60% RH. Seven techniques were compared regarding the recovery of culturable fungi from the swabs over different time points. Results for Experiment 1 showed that all samples were culturable after the storage period and that the S. chartarum-inoculated drywall samples were toxic. In Experiment 2, all techniques showed high rates of recovery. These data show that despite being without a water source, these organisms can be culturable and toxic after long periods of time under conditions similar to human-occupied dwellings and that a number of preparation techniques are suitable for the recovery of these fungi from inoculated swabs. PMID:15238302

  15. A preliminary survey of non-lichenized fungi cultured from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of Chile.

    PubMed

    Conley, Catharine A; Ishkhanova, Galina; McKay, Christopher P; Cullings, Ken

    2006-08-01

    The Atacama Desert is one of the driest environments on Earth, and has been so for over 200,000 years. Previous reports have suggested that surprisingly low numbers of culturable bacteria, counted as biomass or species diversity, are present in Atacama sands collected from the most hyperarid regions. In previous studies, the presence of eukaryotic organisms was not discussed. In this report, we describe a method of direct plating onto rich media that resulted in culturing a range of fungi from Atacama samples. All fungi identified in this preliminary survey are spore-forming saprobes that are readily dispersed by wind, a likely mechanism that accounts for their presence in the central Atacama Desert.

  16. An Alternative Gelling Agent for Culture and Studies of Nematodes, Bacteria, Fungi, and Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M. P.; Van Gundy, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    Pluronic F127 polyol, a block copolymer of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, was studied as an alternative to agar in culture media for nematodes, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and plant tissues or seedlings, At a polyol concentration of 20% w/v, the culture media, semi-solid at room temperature (22 C) but liquid at lower temperatures, had minimal effects on the test organisms. Most of the fungi and bacteria grew as well in 20% polyol as in 1.5% agar media; however, various species of nematodes and plant seedlings or tissues exhibited differential sensitivities to different concentrations of the polyol. In cases where the organisms were unaffected, the polyol media had certain advantages over agar, including greater transparency and less contamination under nonaseptic conditions. Polyol media have potentially greater ease for recovery of embedded organisms or tissues inside the media by merely shifting to lower temperatures. PMID:19290241

  17. Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Culturable Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Moso Bamboo Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chun-Ju; Fan, Li; Gao, Jian; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0%) and Basidiomycota (2.0%), including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp.), B34 (Curvularia sp.), B35 (undefined genus 1), B38 (Penicillium sp.) and zzz816 (Shiraia sp.) displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816) could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which is

  18. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Ye; Cheng, Yan-Lin; Cai, Chun-Ju; Fan, Li; Gao, Jian; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0%) and Basidiomycota (2.0%), including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp.), B34 (Curvularia sp.), B35 (undefined genus 1), B38 (Penicillium sp.) and zzz816 (Shiraia sp.) displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816) could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which is

  19. Distribution and identification of culturable airborne microorganisms in a Swiss milk processing facility.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Helmut; Fricker-Feer, Claudia; Ziegler, Dominik; Mandal, Jyotshna; Stephan, Roger; Lehner, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Airborne communities (mainly bacteria) were sampled and characterized (concentration levels and diversity) at 1 outdoor and 6 indoor sites within a Swiss dairy production facility. Air samples were collected on 2 sampling dates in different seasons, one in February and one in July 2012 using impaction bioaerosol samplers. After cultivation, isolates were identified by mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight) and molecular (sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes) methods. In general, total airborne particle loads and total bacterial counts were higher in winter than in summer, but remained constant within each indoor sampling site at both sampling times (February and July). Bacterial numbers were generally very low (<100 cfu/m(3) of air) during the different steps of milk powder production. Elevated bacterial concentrations (with mean values of 391 ± 142 and 179 ± 33 cfu/m(3) of air during winter and summer sampling, respectively; n=15) occurred mainly in the "logistics area," where products in closed tins are packed in secondary packaging material and prepared for shipping. However, total bacterial counts at the outdoor site varied, with a 5- to 6-fold higher concentration observed in winter compared with summer. Twenty-five gram-positive and gram-negative genera were identified as part of the airborne microflora, with Bacillus and Staphylococcus being the most frequent genera identified. Overall, the culturable microflora community showed a composition typical and representative for the specific location. Bacterial counts were highly correlated with total airborne particles in the size range 1 to 5 µm, indicating that a simple surveillance system based upon counting of airborne particles could be implemented. The data generated in this study could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the dairy plant's sanitation program and to identify potential sources of airborne contamination, resulting in increased food safety.

  20. Space flight micro-fungi after 27 years storage in water and in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Parent, S L

    1998-01-01

    Four species of micro-fungi were selected for study in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Apollo Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) mycology experiments. Trichophyton terrestre, Rhodotorula rubra, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chaetomium globosum were selected from a series of preflight test fungi for the MEED mycology studies during the 2 years prior to the actual flight (Volz, 1971a, 1972b). Conidia of T. terrestre, ascospores of C. globosum and yeast cells of R. rubra and S. cerevisiae were suspended in sterile distilled water and loaded into wet and dry cuvettes for exposure to specific space flight parameters according to the filters built into the space flight hardware (Volz, 1971b). Living cells were found in the original inocula and phenotype water storage after 27 years. Colony cells were also examined after 27 years of continuous culture. PMID:10093232

  1. Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Mor, Sunil K.; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulizer suspensions, aerosolized, size selected (100 to 450 nm) using a differential mobility analyzer, and collected onto gelatin filters. Uranine was used as a particle tracer. The resulting particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The amounts of infectious virus, total virus, and fluorescence in the collected samples were determined by infectivity assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and spectrofluorometry, respectively. For all nebulizer suspensions, the virus content generally followed a particle volume distribution rather than a number distribution. The survival of airborne MS2 was independent of particle size but was strongly affected by the type of nebulizer suspension. Human saliva was found to be much less protective than cell culture medium (i.e., 3% tryptic soy broth) and artificial saliva. These results indicate the need for caution when extrapolating laboratory results, which often use artificial nebulizer suspensions. To better assess the risk of airborne transmission of viral diseases in real-life situations, the use of natural suspensions such as saliva or respiratory mucus is recommended. PMID:24561592

  2. Diversity of Culturable Soil Micro-fungi along Altitudinal Gradients of Eastern Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Lamabam Sophiya; Khaund, Polashree; Nongkhlaw, Fenella M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have addressed the phylogenetic diversity of fungi from Northeast India under the Eastern Himalayan range. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the phylogenetic diversity of culturable soil fungi along the altitudinal gradients of eastern Himalayas. Soil samples from 24 m above sea level to 2,000 m above sea level altitudes of North-East India were collected to investigate soil micro-fungal community structure and diversity. Molecular characterization of the isolates was done by PCR amplification of 18S rDNA using universal primers. Phylogenetic analysis using BLAST revealed variation in the distribution and richness of different fungal biodiversity over a wide range of altitudes. A total of 107 isolates were characterized belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, corresponding to seven orders (Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Calosphaeriales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales, Mucorales, and Mortierellales) and Incertae sedis. The characterized isolates were analysed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. Fungal diversity had significant correlation with soil physico-chemical parameters and the altitude. Eurotiales and Hypocreales were most diverse and abundant group of fungi along the entire altitudinal stretch. Species of Penicillium (D = 1.44) and Aspergillus (D = 1.288) were found to have highest diversity index followed by Talaromyces (D = 1.26) and Fusarium (D = 1.26). Fungal distribution showed negative correlation with altitude and soil moisture content. Soil temperature, pH, humidity and ambient temperature showed positive correlation with fungal distribution. PMID:23115506

  3. Richness and bioactivity of culturable soil fungi from the Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhuang; Li, Liyuan; Che, Qian; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of penicillin, fungi have been an important source of bioactive natural products. However, as a specific resource, the bioactive potentiality and specificity of fungal metabolites from the Antarctic region have had little attention. In this paper, we investigated the diversity patterns and biological activities of cultivable fungi isolated from soil samples in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. Fungal communities showed low abundance and diversity; a total of 150 cultivable fungi were isolated from eight soil samples. After being dereplicated by morphological characteristics and chemical fingerprints, 47 fungal isolates were identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing. We confirmed that these isolates belonged to at least 11 different genera and clustered into nine groups corresponding to taxonomic orders in the phylogenetic analysis. Using two different fermentation conditions, 94 crude extracts acquired from the abovementioned different metabolite characteristic isolates were screened by bioactivity assay and 18 isolates produced biologically active compounds. Compared with HPLC-DAD-UV fingerprint analysis of culture extracts and standard compounds, two bioactive components secalonic acid and chetracins were identified. Our research suggests that the abundance and diversity of Antarctic cultivable fungal communities exhibit unique ecological characteristics and potential producers of novel natural bioactive products. PMID:27142030

  4. Study of the Vapor Phase Over Fusarium Fungi Cultured on Various Substrates.

    PubMed

    Savelieva, Elena I; Gustyleva, Liudmila K; Kessenikh, Elizaveta D; Khlebnikova, Natalya S; Leffingwell, John; Gavrilova, Olga P; Gagkaeva, Tatiana Yu

    2016-07-01

    The compositions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Fusarium fungi (F. langsethiae, F. sibiricum, F. poae, and F. sporotrichioides) grown on two nutritive substrates: potato sucrose agar (PSA) and autoclaved wheat kernels (WK) were investigated. The culturing of fungi and study of their VOC emissions were performed in chromatographic vials at room temperature (23 - 24 °C) and the VOCs were sampled by a solid-phase microextraction on a 85 μm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber. GC/MS was performed using a 60-m HP-5 capillary column. Components of the VOC mixture were identified by electron impact mass spectra and chromatographic retention indices (RIs). The most abundant components of the VOC mixture emitted by Fusarium fungi are EtOH, AcOH, (i) BuOH, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 2-methylbutan-1-ol, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, terpenes with M 136, sesquiterpenes with M 204 (a total of about 25), and trichodiene. It was found that the strains grown on PSA emit a wider spectrum and larger amount of VOCs compared with those grown on wheat kernels. F. langsethiae strain is the most active VOC producer on both substrates. The use of SPME and GC/MS also offers the potential for differentiation of fungal species and strains.

  5. The capacity of some newly bacteria and fungi for biodegradation of herbicide trifluralin under agiated culture media.

    PubMed

    Erguven, G O; Bayhan, H; Ikizoglu, B; Kanat, G; Nuhoglu, Y

    2016-05-30

    Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms to degrade environmental contaminants (pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons etc.) into less toxic forms or compounds. In this study microbial biodegradation of trifluralin was performed in liquid media with 11 different types of identified fungi and bacteria cultures and their mixtures in agiated culture media. The isolated fungi and bacteria mixtures showed the highest degradation, reaching 93% in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) parameter in four days and 82% as trifluralin active ingredient in five days. Bacteria and fungi mixtures achieved 69% and 66% degradations of trifluralin active ingredient respectively. In the fungi studies, the best removal was achieved by M.Chlamydosporia at 80%, in the bacteria studies, the best removal was achieved by Bacillus simplex about 95% in five days. These different removal rates were due to the microbial differencies.

  6. Culture of eukaryotic cells with macro-reticulate buffers: fermentation of cellulolytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Pompei, R; Lampis, G; Chiari, M; Righetti, P G

    1991-12-01

    Fermentation of fungi for large-scale production of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes requires a strict control of pH. At the lab scale, where bioreactors are not available, a culture in the exponential growth phase requires frequent manual pH adjustments. When fungi are grown in the presence of macroreticulate buffers, the culture is stable and does not require any pH control for as long as two weeks. These insoluble buffers are polyacrylamide beads (e.g., 10%T, 8%C) containing acrylamido weak acids and bases in such ratios as to unequivocally define a single pH value along the pH sale. At such pH, the macroreticulate buffers possess a strong buffering power (up to 100 milliequivalent liter-1 pH-1). In the present example, a Trichoderma sp. strain is grown in the presence of 12% beads (v/v) with an isoelectric point of 5.6, containing 100 mM of a pK 6.2 weak acrylamido base and 89 mM of a pK 4.6 weak acrylamido acid. Enzyme production (exoglucanase, endoglucanase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase) is as good as (and often better than) the control in which the pH is adjusted manually 2-3 times/day. PMID:1809319

  7. The effect of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and luminescence of naturally bioluminescent fungi.

    PubMed

    Weitz, H J; Ballard, A L; Campbell, C D; Killham, K

    2001-08-21

    The effects of temperature, light and pH on mycelial growth and luminescence of four naturally bioluminescent fungi were investigated. Cultures of Armillaria mellea, Mycena citricolor, Omphalotus olearius and Panellus stipticus were grown at 5 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 22 degrees C and 30 degrees C, under 24 h light, 12 h light/12 h dark and 24 h dark, and at a pH ranging from 3.5 to 7 in three separate experiments. Temperature and pH had a significant effect on mycelial growth and bioluminescence, however light did not. Bioluminescence and mycelial growth were optimum at 22 degrees C and pH 3-3.5, the exception being M. citricolor for which bioluminescence and growth were optimum at pH 5-6 and pH 4, respectively. With the exception of M. citricolor, bioluminescence and mycelial growth were greater under 24 h darkness. An understanding of the effect of culture conditions on mycelial growth and luminescence is necessary for the future application of bioluminescent fungi as biosensors.

  8. Culturable microbial groups and thallium-tolerant fungi in soils with high thallium contamination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jialong; Zou, Xiao; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Peng, Jingquan; Xiao, Tangfu

    2012-12-15

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soil exerts a significant threat to the ecosystem health due to its high toxicity. However, little is known about the effect of Tl on the microbial community in soil. The present study aimed at characterizing the culturable microbial groups in soils which experience for a long time high Tl contamination and elevated Hg and As. The contamination originates from As, Hg and Tl sulfide mineralization and the associated mining activities in the Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Our investigation showed the existence of culturable bacteria, filamentous fungi and actinomyces in long-term Tl-contaminated soils. Some fungal groups grow in the presence of high Tl level up to 1000 mg kg⁻¹. We have isolated and identified nine Tl-tolerant fungal strains based on the morphological traits and ITS analysis. The dominant genera identified were Trichoderma, Penicillium and Paecilomyces. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggested that certain microbes were able to face high Tl pollution in soil and maintain their metabolic activities and resistances. The highly Tl-tolerant fungi that we have isolated are potentially useful in the remediation of Tl-contaminated sites.

  9. Cytotoxic metabolites from the cultures of endophytic fungi from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Xu, Li-Li; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Han, Ting; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Ming, Qian-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2013-09-01

    Two strains of endophytic fungi, Penicillium melinii Yuan-25 and Penicillium janthinellum Yuan-27, with strong anti-Pyricularia oryzae activity, were obtained from the roots of Panax ginseng. Based on bioactivity-oriented isolation, a new benzaldehyde derivative, ginsenocin (1), together with six known compounds, methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzoate (2), 3,4,5-trimethyl-1,2-benzenediol (3), penicillic acid (4), mannitol (5), ergosterol (6), and ergosterol peroxide (7), were separated from the EtOAc extract of Yuan-25 culture, while brefeldin A (8) was isolated as the major constituent from the EtOAc extract of Yuan-27 culture. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines. Brefeldin A (8) was the most cytotoxic constituent against all the tested cell lines with IC50 values <0.12 μg/ml, while ginsenocin (1) and penicillic acid (4) also exhibited potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 7.46 μg/ml. Our results suggest that endophytic fungi isolated from P. ginseng are a promising natural source of potential anticancer agents. PMID:23793342

  10. Enzyme Production by Industrially Relevant Fungi Cultured on Coproduct From Corn Dry Grind Ethanol Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ximenes, Eduardo A.; Dien, Bruce S.; Ladisch, Michael R.; Mosier, Nathan; Cotta, Michael A.; Li, Xin-Liang

    Distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) is the major coproduct produced at a dry grind ethanol facility. Currently, it is sold primarily as a ruminant animal feed. DDGS is low cost and relatively high in protein and fiber contents. In this study, DDGS was investigated as carbon source for extracellular hydrolytic enzyme production. Two filamentous fungi, noted for their high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzyme titers, were grown on DDGS: Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and Aspergillus niger NRRL 2001. DDGS was either used as delivered from the plant (untreated) or after being pretreated with hot water. Both microorganisms secreted a broad range of enzymes when grown on DDGS. Higher xylanase titers were obtained when cultured on hot water DDGS compared with growth on untreated DDGS. Maximum xylanase titers were produced in 4 d for A. niger and 8 d for T. reesei in shake flask cultures. Larger amounts of enzymes were produced in bioreactors (5L) either equipped with Rushton (for T. reesei) or updraft marine impellers (A. niger). Initial production titers were lower for bioreactor than for flask cultures, especially for T. reesei cultures. Improvement of enzyme titers were obtained using fed-batch feeding schemes.

  11. Enzyme production by industrially relevant fungi cultured on coproduct from corn dry grind ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Eduardo A; Dien, Bruce S; Ladisch, Michael R; Mosier, Nathan; Cotta, Michael A; Li, Xin-Liang

    2007-04-01

    Distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) is the major coproduct produced at a dry grind ethanol facility. Currently, it is sold primarily as a ruminant animal feed. DDGS is low cost and relatively high in protein and fiber contents. In this study, DDGS was investigated as carbon source for extracellular hydrolytic enzyme production. Two filamentous fungi, noted for their high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzyme titers, were grown on DDGS: Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and Asper gillus niger NRRL 2001. DDGS was either used as delivered from the plant (untreated) or after being pretreated with hot water. Both microorganisms secreted a broad range of enzymes when grown on DDGS. Higher xylanase titers were obtained when cultured on hot water DDGS compared with growth on untreated DDGS. Maximum xylanase titers were produced in 4 d for A. niger and 8 d for T. reesei in shake flask cultures. Larger amounts of enzymes were produced in bioreactors (5 L) either equipped with Rushton (for T. reesei) or updraft marine impellers (A. niger). Initial production titers were lower for bioreactor than for flask cultures, especially for T. reesei cultures. Improvement of enzyme titers were obtained using fed-batch feeding schemes.

  12. Assessment of the presence and dynamics of fungi in drinking water sources using cultural and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Pereira, V J; Fernandes, D; Carvalho, G; Benoliel, M J; San Romão, M V; Barreto Crespo, M T

    2010-09-01

    A comparison of different isolation techniques and culture media for detection of filamentous fungi and yeasts in the aquatic environment revealed that the use of membrane filtration with the media dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) optimized fungi detection in terms of abundance and variety in three untreated water sources with very different characteristics (surface water, spring water, and groundwater). The diversity of the fungi population captured by direct DNA extraction of fungi collected by membrane filtration was compared with the isolates obtained after selective growth using different culture media through amplification of the internal transcribed spacer gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The Czapek-Dox agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar, and DRBC media showed closer similarities to those obtained by the uncultured biomass for the different water sources. Based on these data and the best enumeration results, DRBC is recommended for the assessment of fungi in water sources using culture-based methods. DGGE was also used to monitor temporal variations in the fungal population structure and showed that each water matrix possessed a distinct population profile as well as that changes in the fungal community can be expected in the different matrices throughout the year.

  13. Periodical batch culture of the immobilized growing fungi Sporotrichum cellulophilum producing cellulase in the nonwoven materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, M.; Kasai, N.; Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1986-08-01

    The thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum cellulophilum was immobilized with nonwoven materials for cellulase production. The cellulose powder concentration in the medium was an important factor controlling cellulase production. When the cellulase powder concentration in the nonwoven materials was more than 4%, cellulase production was suppressed. The growth of the immobilized fungi depended on the spaces in the nonwoven materials. Immobilized growing fungi were retained by the nonwoven materials, and the supernatant medium did not contain mycelia. The heat stability of the immobilized growing fungus was higher than that of the free fungus. The immobilized fungus gave the same FPA as the free mycelium, but the lag time for cellulase production in the immobilized fungus was longer. It was necessary for the medium to be changed in order to get the immobilized growing fungus to continue producing cellulase. In this instance there was no difference of lag time in comparsion with the free cells, and the supply of cellulose powder and polypepton was reduced to two-thirds. After 23 exchanges of the medium (2.6 mg cellulose powder/1 cubic cm nonwoven materials) FPA value was maintained. The periodic batch culture was continued for 69 days. 12 references.

  14. Patterns of major metabolites biosynthesis by different mushroom fungi grown on glucose-based submerged cultures.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2014-07-01

    The biosynthetic potential of four basidiomycetes (Agrocybe aegerita, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum and Pleurotus pulmonarius) and one ascomycete (Morchella esculenta) was examined in regard to biomass, intracellular (endopolysaccharides and lipids) and extracellular (exopolysaccharides) compounds' production in liquid media with glucose as substrate, in static and agitated cultures. Exopolysaccharides' production presented significant negative correlation with biomass, endopolysaccharides and lipids, while biomass was positively related to the production of endopolysaccharides and lipids. Maximum values of biomass, endo- and exo-polysaccharides obtained were quite impressive: P. pulmonarius produced 22.5 g/L of biomass, A. aegerita 60.4 % (w/w) of endopolysaccharides and F. velutipes 1.2 g/L of exopolysaccharides. Polysaccharides and lipids synthesized at the early growth stages were subjected to degradation as the fermentation proceeded. Mycelial lipids of all strains were highly unsaturated, dominated by linoleic acid, whereas glucose was the main building block of endopolysaccharides. The ability of the examined mushroom fungi to synthesize in high quantities biomass and polysaccharides, products with biotechnological and medicinal interest, renders these fungi as potential candidates in sugar-based bio-refineries. PMID:24366161

  15. Temporal dynamics of airborne fungi in Havana (Cuba) during dry and rainy seasons: influence of meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Rojas, Teresa I

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine for first time the influence of the main meteorological parameters on the atmospheric fungal spore concentration in Havana (Cuba). This city is characterized by a subtropical climate with two different marked annual rainfall seasons during the year: a "dry season" and a "rainy season". A nonviable volumetric methodology (Lanzoni VPPS-2000 sampler) was used to sample airborne spores. The total number of spores counted during the 2 years of study was 293,594, belonging to 30 different genera and five spore types. Relative humidity was the meteorological parameter most influencing the atmospheric concentration of the spores, mainly during the rainy season of the year. Winds coming from the SW direction also increased the spore concentration in the air. In terms of spore intradiurnal variation we found three different patterns: morning maximum values for Cladosporium, night peaks for Coprinus and Leptosphaeria, and uniform behavior throughout the whole day for Aspergillus/Penicillium."

  16. Temporal dynamics of airborne fungi in Havana (Cuba) during dry and rainy seasons: influence of meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. Javier; Rojas, Teresa I.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine for first time the influence of the main meteorological parameters on the atmospheric fungal spore concentration in Havana (Cuba). This city is characterized by a subtropical climate with two different marked annual rainfall seasons during the year: a "dry season" and a "rainy season". A nonviable volumetric methodology (Lanzoni VPPS-2000 sampler) was used to sample airborne spores. The total number of spores counted during the 2 years of study was 293,594, belonging to 30 different genera and five spore types. Relative humidity was the meteorological parameter most influencing the atmospheric concentration of the spores, mainly during the rainy season of the year. Winds coming from the SW direction also increased the spore concentration in the air. In terms of spore intradiurnal variation we found three different patterns: morning maximum values for Cladosporium, night peaks for Coprinus and Leptosphaeria, and uniform behavior throughout the whole day for Aspergillus/ Penicillium."

  17. Growth responses of two phytopathogenic fungi to fernasan in culture media.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, M H

    1975-06-14

    The toxic effect of fernasan (containing 25% thiram) was tested on Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani in liquid and agar media. The fungicide was more effective in liquid (at 100 p.p.m.) than in solid media, where 400 p.p.m. checked the growth of R. solani, but was ineffective against F. solani. Both fungi exhibited a zone of inversion growth in liquid culture whereby certain intermediate concentrations were less inhibitory than lower or subsequently higher doses. Similar reaction was recorded for F. solani alone in fungicide-containing agar media. Sclerotium formation by R. solani was highly significant, in relation to controls, at 40 p.p.m. The abundance of chlamydospores of F. solani was coupled with cessation of conidium formation increasing fernasan doses.

  18. Application of real-time PCR for total airborne bacterial assessment: Comparison with epifluorescence microscopy and culture-dependent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinsoz, Thomas; Duquenne, Philippe; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine; Oppliger, Anne

    Traditional culture-dependent methods to quantify and identify airborne microorganisms are limited by factors such as short-duration sampling times and inability to count non-culturable or non-viable bacteria. Consequently, the quantitative assessment of bioaerosols is often underestimated. Use of the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to quantify bacteria in environmental samples presents an alternative method, which should overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a real-time Q-PCR assay as a simple and reliable way to quantify the airborne bacterial load within poultry houses and sewage treatment plants, in comparison with epifluorescence microscopy and culture-dependent methods. The estimates of bacterial load that we obtained from real-time PCR and epifluorescence methods, are comparable, however, our analysis of sewage treatment plants indicate these methods give values 270-290 fold greater than those obtained by the "impaction on nutrient agar" method. The culture-dependent method of air impaction on nutrient agar was also inadequate in poultry houses, as was the impinger-culture method, which gave a bacterial load estimate 32-fold lower than obtained by Q-PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR thus proves to be a reliable, discerning, and simple method that could be used to estimate airborne bacterial load in a broad variety of other environments expected to carry high numbers of airborne bacteria.

  19. Identification of mycotoxins by UHPLC-QTOF MS in airborne fungi and fungi isolated from industrial paper and antique documents from the Archive of Bogotá.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Nancy I; Ibáñez, María; Beltrán, Eduardo; Rivera-Monroy, Jhon; Ochoa, Juan Camilo; Páez-Castillo, Mónica; Posada-Buitrago, Martha L; Sulyok, Michael; Hernández, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Mold deterioration of historical documents in archives and libraries is a frequent and complex phenomenon that may have important economic and cultural consequences. In addition, exposure to toxic fungal metabolites might produce health problems. In this work, samples of broths of fungal species isolated from the documentary material and from indoor environmental samples of the Archive of Bogotá have been analyzed to investigate the presence of mycotoxins. High resolution mass spectrometry made possible to search for a large number of mycotoxins, even without reference standards available at the laboratory. For this purpose, a screening strategy based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) under MS(E) mode was applied. A customized home-made database containing elemental composition for around 600 mycotoxins was compiled. The presence of the (de)protonated molecule measured at its accurate mass was evaluated in the samples. When a peak was detected, collision induced dissociation fragments and characteristic isotopic ions were also evaluated and used for tentative identification, based on structure compatibility and comparison with literature data (if existing). Up to 44 mycotoxins were tentatively identified by UHPLC-QTOF MS. 34 of these tentative compounds were confirmed by subsequent analysis using a targeted LC-MS/MS method, supporting the strong potential of QTOF MS for identification/elucidation purposes. The presence of mycotoxins in these samples might help to reinforce safety measures for researchers and staff who work on reception, restoration and conservation of archival material, not only at the Archive of Bogotá but worldwide. PMID:26599591

  20. Identification of mycotoxins by UHPLC-QTOF MS in airborne fungi and fungi isolated from industrial paper and antique documents from the Archive of Bogotá.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Nancy I; Ibáñez, María; Beltrán, Eduardo; Rivera-Monroy, Jhon; Ochoa, Juan Camilo; Páez-Castillo, Mónica; Posada-Buitrago, Martha L; Sulyok, Michael; Hernández, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Mold deterioration of historical documents in archives and libraries is a frequent and complex phenomenon that may have important economic and cultural consequences. In addition, exposure to toxic fungal metabolites might produce health problems. In this work, samples of broths of fungal species isolated from the documentary material and from indoor environmental samples of the Archive of Bogotá have been analyzed to investigate the presence of mycotoxins. High resolution mass spectrometry made possible to search for a large number of mycotoxins, even without reference standards available at the laboratory. For this purpose, a screening strategy based on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) under MS(E) mode was applied. A customized home-made database containing elemental composition for around 600 mycotoxins was compiled. The presence of the (de)protonated molecule measured at its accurate mass was evaluated in the samples. When a peak was detected, collision induced dissociation fragments and characteristic isotopic ions were also evaluated and used for tentative identification, based on structure compatibility and comparison with literature data (if existing). Up to 44 mycotoxins were tentatively identified by UHPLC-QTOF MS. 34 of these tentative compounds were confirmed by subsequent analysis using a targeted LC-MS/MS method, supporting the strong potential of QTOF MS for identification/elucidation purposes. The presence of mycotoxins in these samples might help to reinforce safety measures for researchers and staff who work on reception, restoration and conservation of archival material, not only at the Archive of Bogotá but worldwide.

  1. Airborne fungi and bacteria in indoor and outdoor environment of the Pediatric Unit of Edirne Government Hospital.

    PubMed

    Okten, Suzan; Asan, Ahmet

    2012-03-01

    This study was performed between January 2004 and December 2004 in 13 stations in the Pediatric Unit of Edirne Government Hospital in order to determine the outdoor and indoor airborne microfungal and bacterial contents. The results of air samplings revealed that 1,376 microfungal and 2,429 bacterial colonies in total were isolated. The isolated microfungal specimens were identified and 65 species from 16 genera were determined. Among these, the most frequent genus was Cladosporium with 462 colonies (33.58%) followed by Alternaria with 310 (22.53%) and Penicillium with 280 (20.35%) colonies. The isolated bacterial samples were grouped based on their Gram-staining properties. The most frequent ones were Gram (+) cocci with 1,527 colonies (62.87%) followed by Gram (+) bacilli with 828 colonies (34.09%) and Gram (-) bacilli with 74 colonies (3.05%). Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, and Microccus appeared to be the common genera isolated for all months. Statistical analyses were performed in order to see if there existed a relationship between meteorological conditions and the microfungal and bacterial species and their concentrations.

  2. Exposure to airborne culturable microorganisms and endotoxin in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Paba, Emilia; Chiominto, Alessandra; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Proietto, Anna Rita; Sisto, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Even if slaughterhouses' workers handle large amounts of organic material and are potentially exposed to a wide range of biological agents, relatively little and not recent data are available. The main objective of this study was to characterize indoor concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin mod = Im (endotoxin∼Gram-negative*plant*filter) in two Italian poultry slaughterhouses. Air samples near air handling units inlets were also collected. Since there are not standardized protocols for endotoxin sampling and extraction procedures, an additional aim of the study was to compare the extraction efficiency of three different filter.. The study was also aimed at determining the correlation between concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin. In Plant A bacterial levels ranged from 17.5 to 2.6×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentrations were observed in evisceration area of chickens, between the automatic detachment of the neck and washing offal, and near birds coupling before hair-chilling. The highest mean value of Gram-negative (266.5 CFU/m3) was found near the washing offal of turkeys. In Plant B bacterial concentration ranged from 35 to 8×10(3) CFU/m3. The highest concentration. with the highest value of Gram-negative (248 CFU/m3), was found after defeathering. Fungal concentrations were overall lower than those found for bacteria (range: 0-205 CFU/m3 in Plant A and 0-146.2 CFU/m3 in Plant B). The microbial flora was dominated by Gram-negative and coagulase-negative staphylococci for bacteria and by species belonging to Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera for molds. The highest endotoxin concentrations were measured in washing offal for Plant A (range: 122.7-165.9 EU/m3) and after defeathering for Plant B (range: 0.83-38.85 EU/m3). In this study airborne microorganisms concentrations were lower than those found in similar occupational settings and below the occupational limits proposed by some authors. However, these

  3. Storage of stock cultures of filamentous fungi at -80 degrees C: effects of different freezing-thawing methods.

    PubMed

    Juarros, E; Tortajada, C; García, M D; Uruburu, F

    1993-04-01

    Freezing and storage at -80 degrees C has been applied to the preservation of nonsporulated filamentous fungi Phytophthora, Pythium, Sclerotinia and Rhizoctonia, and the results are presented. We had tested different methods of freezing and thawing, finding that the best results were obtained pre-cooling at 4 degrees C during 1 hour followed by freezing at -80 degrees C. The best thawing method was achieved at 37 degrees C. The technique was found to be simple and reliable for the culture collections labours of fungi maintenance.

  4. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Beatriz de Oliveira; Nahas, Ely

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus , Fusarium verticillioides , and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides . The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides . The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times ( p <0.05) in soils with glucose and inoculated with the fungi (except F. verticillioides ), in relation to soil without glucose. Amylase activity increased 1.3 to 1.5 times due to the addition of glucose in the soil. Increased amylase activity was observed in the DRL soil with glucose and inoculated with A. flavus and Penicillium sp. when compared to control. PMID:24031836

  5. Phylogenetic diversity and antibacterial activity of culturable fungi derived from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Kai-Lin; Li, Jing; Wang, Chang-Yun; Shao, Chang-Lun

    2015-02-01

    Investigation on diversity of culturable fungi mainly focused on sponges and corals, yet little attention had been paid to the fungal communities associated with zoanthid corals. In this study, a total of 193 culturable fungal strains were isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni collected in the South China Sea, of which 49 independent isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses. Thirty-five strains were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on fungal ITS sequences. The results indicated that 18 genera within eight taxonomic orders of two phyla (seven orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) together with one unidentified fungal strain have been achieved, and Cladosporium sp. represented the dominant culturable genus. Particularly, 14 genera were isolated from a zoanthid for the first time. The antibacterial activities of organic extracts of mycelia and fermentation broth of 49 identified fungi were evaluated, and 29 (59.2 %) of the isolates displayed broad-spectrum or selective antibacterial activity. More interestingly, more than 60 % of the active fungal strains showed strong activity against two aquatic pathogenic bacteria Nocardia brasiliensis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, compared with other pathogenic bacteria, indicating that zoanthid-derived fungi may protect its host against pathogens. This is the first report of systematically phylogenetic diversity and extensively antibacterial activity of zoanthid-derived fungi.

  6. Isolation, diversity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi harboured in Huperzia serrata from Jinggang Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Lai, Zheng; Li, Xi-Xi; Yan, Ri-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Hui-Lin; Zhu, Du

    2016-02-01

    Huperzia serrata has many important medicinal properties with proven pharmacological potential. Some of these properties may be mediated by its endophytic fungi. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we provided a first insights into evaluating the species composition and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi of H. serrata from the regional at Jinggang Mountain in southeastern China. A total number of 885 fungal isolates distributed across 44 genera and 118 putative species were obtained from 1422 fragments of fine H. serrata roots, stems and leaves base on ITS-rDNA sequences BLAST analysis. The endophytic fungi were phylogenetically diverse and species-rich, with high rate of colonization and isolation. The assemble of endophytic fungi consisted mainly of Ascomycota (97.15%), followed by Basidiomycota (1.92%) and unknown fungal species (0.90%). Colletotrichum (64.29%), Phyllosticta (3.39%), Hypoxylon (2.81%), Xylaria (2.25%) and Nigrospora (2.04%) were the most abundant genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Although, roots yielded low abundance strains, the diverse and species-rich were both higher than that of stems and leaves. In addition, out of the 247 endophytic fungi strains determinated, 221 fungal extracts showed AChE inhibition activities in vitro. Among them, 22 endophytic fungi strains achieved high inhibitory activity (≥50%) on AChE which belongs to 13 genera and five incertae sedis strains. Four endophytic fungi designated as JS4 (Colletotrichum spp.), FL14 (Ascomycota spp.), FL9 (Sarcosomataceae spp.) and FL7 (Dothideomycetes spp.) were displayed highly active (≥80%) against AChE, which the inhibition effects were even more intense than the positive control. Our findings highlight that H. serrata grown in Jinggang Mountain harbors a rich and fascinating endophytic fungus community with potential AChE inhibitory activity, which could further broaden the natural

  7. Diversity and antioxidant activity of culturable endophytic fungi from alpine plants of Rhodiola crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Long; Guo, Ting-Ting; Ren, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Na-Sha; Wang, Meng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola spp. are rare and endangered alpine plants widely used as medicines and food additives by many civilizations since ancient times. Their main effective ingredients (such as salidroside and p-tyrosol) are praised to exhibit pharmacologic effects on high-altitude sickness and possess anti-aging and other adaptogenic capacities based on their antioxidant properties. In this study, 347 endophytic fungi were isolated from R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, and the molecular diversity and antioxidant activities of these fungi were investigated for the first time. These fungi were categorized into 180 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics, and their rRNA gene ITS sequences were analyzed by BLAST search in the GenBank database. Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%), all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%), Basidiomycota (2.78%), Zygomycota (1.11%), and Glomeromycota (0.56%), which exhibited high abundance and diversity. Antioxidant assay showed that the DPPH radical-scavenging rates of 114 isolates (63.33%) were >50%, and those of five isolates (Rct45, Rct63, Rct64, Rac76, and Rsc57) were >90%. The EC50 values of five antioxidant assays suggested significant potential of these fungi on scavenging DPPH•, O2-•, and OH• radicals, as well as scavenging nitrite and chelating Fe2+, which showed preference and selection between endophytic fungi and their hosts. Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol. Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products.

  8. Diversity and Antioxidant Activity of Culturable Endophytic Fungi from Alpine Plants of Rhodiola crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jin-Long; Guo, Ting-Ting; Ren, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Na-Sha; Wang, Meng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola spp. are rare and endangered alpine plants widely used as medicines and food additives by many civilizations since ancient times. Their main effective ingredients (such as salidroside and p-tyrosol) are praised to exhibit pharmacologic effects on high-altitude sickness and possess anti-aging and other adaptogenic capacities based on their antioxidant properties. In this study, 347 endophytic fungi were isolated from R. crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis, and the molecular diversity and antioxidant activities of these fungi were investigated for the first time. These fungi were categorized into 180 morphotypes based on cultural characteristics, and their rRNA gene ITS sequences were analyzed by BLAST search in the GenBank database. Except for 12 unidentified fungi (6.67%), all others were affiliated to at least 57 genera in 20 orders of four phyla, namely, Ascomycota (88.89%), Basidiomycota (2.78%), Zygomycota (1.11%), and Glomeromycota (0.56%), which exhibited high abundance and diversity. Antioxidant assay showed that the DPPH radical-scavenging rates of 114 isolates (63.33%) were >50%, and those of five isolates (Rct45, Rct63, Rct64, Rac76, and Rsc57) were >90%. The EC50 values of five antioxidant assays suggested significant potential of these fungi on scavenging DPPH•, O2−•, and OH• radicals, as well as scavenging nitrite and chelating Fe2+, which showed preference and selection between endophytic fungi and their hosts. Further research also provided the first evidence that Rac12 could produce salidrosides and p-tyrosol. Results suggested that versatile endophytic fungi associated with Rhodiola known as antioxidants could be exploited as potential sources of novel antioxidant products. PMID:25768014

  9. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable fungi isolated from six species of the South China Sea gorgonians.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Bao, Jie; Wang, Guang-Hua; He, Fei; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2012-10-01

    Fungi in gorgonians are now known to cause gorgonian diseases, but little attention has been paid to the nature of fungal communities associated with gorgonians. The diversity of culturable fungi associated with six species of healthy South China Sea gorgonians were investigated using a culture-dependent method followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences. A total of 121 fungal isolates were recovered and identified using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search program. These belonged to 41 fungal species from 20 genera. Of these, 30 species and 12 genera are new reports for gorgonians, and the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were the most diverse and common in the six gorgonian species. Comparison of the fungal communities in the six gorgonian species, together with results from previous relevant studies, indicated that different gorgonian species and the same gorgonian species living in different geographic locations had different fungal communities. The gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea harbored the most fungal species and isolates, while Echinogorgia aurantiaca had the least fungal diversity. Among the six media used for fungal isolation, potato glucose agar yielded the highest isolates (27 isolates), while glucose peptone starch agar had the best recoverability of fungal species (15 species). The antimicrobial activity of the 121 fungal isolates was tested against three marine bacteria and two marine gorgonian pathogenic fungi. A relatively high proportion (38 %) of fungal isolates displayed distinct antibacterial and antifungal activity, suggesting that the gorgonian-associated fungi may aid their hosts in protection against pathogens. This is the first report comparing the diversity of fungal communities among the South China Sea gorgonians. It contributes to our knowledge of gorgonian-associated fungi and further increases the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  10. Optimization of culture conditions of Arnica montana L.: effects of mycorrhizal fungi and competing plants.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Anna; Ryszka, Przemyslaw; Anielska, Teresa; Waligórski, Piotr; Białońska, Dobroslawa; Góralska, Katarzyna; Tsimilli-Michael, Merope; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2010-06-01

    Arnica montana is a rare plant that needs special protection because of its intensive harvesting for medicinal purposes. The present work was aimed at finding optimal culture conditions for Arnica plants in order to enable their successful reintroduction into their natural stands. Plants were cultivated under controlled greenhouse conditions on substrata with different nitrogen (N) concentration. As Arnica is always colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in nature, a fact that has been overlooked in other similar projects, we, here, applied and tested different inocula. We found that they differed in their effectiveness, both in establishing symbiosis, assessed by the colonization parameters, and in improving the performance of Arnica, evaluated by the photosynthetic parameters derived from the fluorescence transients (JIP-test), with the inocula containing G. intraradices or composed of several Glomus strains being the most effective. The comparison was possible only on substrata with medium N, since high N did not permit the formation of mycorrhiza, while at low N, few nonmycorrhizal plants survived until the measurements and mycorrhizal plants, which were well growing, exhibited a high heterogeneity. Analysis of secondary metabolites showed clearly that mycorrhization was associated with increased concentrations of phenolic acids in roots. For some of the inocula used, a tendency for increase of the level of phenolic acids in shoots and of sesquiterpene lactones, both in roots and in shoots, was also observed. We also studied the interactions between A. montana and Dactylis glomerata, known to compete with Arnica under field conditions. When specimens from both species were cultured together, there was no effect on D. glomerata, but Arnica could retain a photosynthetic performance that permitted survivability only in the presence of AMF; without AMF, the photosynthetic performance was lower, and the plants were eventually totally outcompeted.

  11. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica.

  12. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  13. Anaerobic gut fungi: Advances in isolation, culture, and cellulolytic enzyme discovery for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, Charles H; Solomon, Kevin V; Henske, John K; Theodorou, Michael K; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi are an early branching family of fungi that are commonly found in the digestive tract of ruminants and monogastric herbivores. It is becoming increasingly clear that they are the primary colonizers of ingested plant biomass, and that they significantly contribute to the decomposition of plant biomass into fermentable sugars. As such, anaerobic fungi harbor a rich reservoir of undiscovered cellulolytic enzymes and enzyme complexes that can potentially transform the conversion of lignocellulose into bioenergy products. Despite their unique evolutionary history and cellulolytic activity, few species have been isolated and studied in great detail. As a result, their life cycle, cellular physiology, genetics, and cellulolytic metabolism remain poorly understood compared to aerobic fungi. To help address this limitation, this review briefly summarizes the current body of knowledge pertaining to anaerobic fungal biology, and describes progress made in the isolation, cultivation, molecular characterization, and long-term preservation of these microbes. We also discuss recent cellulase- and cellulosome-discovery efforts from gut fungi, and how these interesting, non-model microbes could be further adapted for biotechnology applications.

  14. SURVEY OF CULTURABLE AIRBORNE BACTERIA AT FOUR DIVERSE LOCATIONS IN OREGON: URBAN, RURAL, FOREST, AND COASTAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the risks of microbial air pollution from microorganisms used for pesticides and bioremediation, or emanating from composting, fermentation tanks, or other agricultural and urban sources, airborne microbial levels must be evaluated. This study surveyed the atmospheri...

  15. Modeling lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungi in chemostat cultures. II: Validation of the chemostat model using yeast culture data from literature.

    PubMed

    Meeuwse, Petra; Tramper, Johannes; Rinzema, Arjen

    2011-10-01

    A model that predicts cell growth, lipid accumulation and substrate consumption of oleaginous fungi in chemostat cultures (Meeuwse et al. in Bioproc Biosyst Eng. doi: 10.1007/s00449-011-0545-8 , 2011) was validated using 12 published data sets for chemostat cultures of oleaginous yeasts and one published data set for a poly-hydroxyalkanoate accumulating bacterial species. The model could describe all data sets well with only minor modifications that do not affect the key assumptions, i.e. (1) oleaginous yeasts and fungi give the highest priority to C-source utilization for maintenance, second priority to growth and third priority to lipid accumulation, and (2) oleaginous yeasts and fungi have a growth rate independent maximum specific lipid production rate. The analysis of all data showed that the maximum specific lipid production rate is in most cases very close to the specific production rate of membrane and other functional lipids for cells growing at their maximum specific growth rate. The limiting factor suggested by Ykema et al. (in Biotechnol Bioeng 34:1268-1276, 1989), i.e. the maximum glucose uptake rate, did not give good predictions of the maximum lipid production rate.

  16. HPLC analysis of midodrine and desglymidodrine in culture medium: evaluation of static and shaken conditions on the biotransformation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Barth, Thiago; Aleu, Josefina; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli; Collado, Isidro G

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is presented for the simultaneous determination of midodrine and desglymidodrine (DMAE) in Czapek-Dox culture medium, to be used in biotransformation studies by fungi. The HPLC analysis was conducted using a Lichrospher 100 RP18 column, acetonitrile-40 mmol/L formic acid solution (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase, and ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. The sample preparation was conducted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate as extractor solvent. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.4-40.0 µg/mL for midodrine (r ≥ 0.9997) and DMAE (r ≥ 0.9998). Within-day and between-day precision and accuracy were evaluated by relative standard deviations (≤ 8.2%) and relative errors (-7.3 to 7.4%), respectively. The validated method was used to assess midodrine biotransformation by the fungi Papulaspora immersa Hotson SS13, Botrytis cinerea UCA 992 and Botrytis cinerea 2100 under static and shaken conditions. Under shaken conditions, the biotransformation of midodrine to DMAE was more efficient for all studied fungi, especially for the fungus Botrytis cinerea 2100, which converted 42.2% of midodrine to DMAE.

  17. Diversity and antibacterial activities of culturable fungi associated with coral Porites pukoensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhong, Min; Lei, Xiaoling; Xiao, Shenglan; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    The diversity of coral associated fungi is not enough understood, especially for scleractinian corals. Members of Porites are common and dominant species of scleractinian corals. To date, the fungal communities associated with coral Porites pukoensis have been not reported. In this paper, the diversity and activity of coral associated fungi in P. pukoensis were explored, 23 fungal strains were isolated, belonging to 10 genera and Aspergillus sp. (30.4 %) was predominant fungal genera. The sequence of isolate C1-23 in GenBank was only 90 % similarity to the most closely related sequences. It is concluded that rich fungal symbionts are attached to P. pukoensis, the rate of isolates with antibacterial activity was up to 30 %, particularly some isolates showed stronger bioactivities to gram-negative bacteria. It is included that the diversity of coral associated fungi in P. pukoensis is abundant and its activity is obviously. So the activities of fungi in P. pukoensis were deserved for further study.

  18. Semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage from airborne laser scanning using deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Due Trier, Øivind; Salberg, Arnt-Børre; Holger Pilø, Lars; Tonning, Christer; Marius Johansen, Hans; Aarsten, Dagrun

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes to use deep learning to improve semi-automatic mapping of cultural heritage from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. Automatic detection methods, based on traditional pattern recognition, have been applied in a number of cultural heritage mapping projects in Norway for the past five years. Automatic detection of pits and heaps have been combined with visual interpretation of the ALS data for the mapping of deer hunting systems, iron production sites, grave mounds and charcoal kilns. However, the performance of the automatic detection methods varies substantially between ALS datasets. For the mapping of deer hunting systems on flat gravel and sand sediment deposits, the automatic detection results were almost perfect. However, some false detections appeared in the terrain outside of the sediment deposits. These could be explained by other pit-like landscape features, like parts of river courses, spaces between boulders, and modern terrain modifications. However, these were easy to spot during visual interpretation, and the number of missed individual pitfall traps was still low. For the mapping of grave mounds, the automatic method produced a large number of false detections, reducing the usefulness of the semi-automatic approach. The mound structure is a very common natural terrain feature, and the grave mounds are less distinct in shape than the pitfall traps. Still, applying automatic mound detection on an entire municipality did lead to a new discovery of an Iron Age grave field with more than 15 individual mounds. Automatic mound detection also proved to be useful for a detailed re-mapping of Norway's largest Iron Age grave yard, which contains almost 1000 individual graves. Combined pit and mound detection has been applied to the mapping of more than 1000 charcoal kilns that were used by an iron work 350-200 years ago. The majority of charcoal kilns were indirectly detected as either pits on the circumference, a central mound, or both

  19. Diversity and distribution of cultured endolichenic fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Endolichenic fungi within 17 lichen species in the area near Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard, High Arctic) were studied by a culture-based method. The 247 fungal isolates were obtained from 2712 lichen thallus segments. The colonization rate of endolichenic fungi ranged from 1.6 to 26.5 %, respectively. These isolates were identified to 40 fungal taxa, including 35 Ascomycota (10 orders), 4 Basidiomycota (3 orders), and 1 unidentified fungus. Thelebolales was the most abundant order, while Sordariales were the most diverse order. The common fungal taxa shared by more than 3 lichen species were Thelebolus microsporus (93 isolates), Coniochaeta hoffmannii (7 isolates), Sarocladium kiliense (33 isolates), Coniochaeta sp. 1 (5 isolates), Coniochaeta sp. 4 (28 isolates), and Coniochaeta sp. 2 (5 isolates). Low Sorenson's similarity coefficients were observed among different lichen species, indicating that host-related factor may shape the endolichenic fungal communities in this region. In addition, no endolichenic fungal taxa were previously found in the Antarctica and Austrian Alps, suggesting endolichenic fungal communities in this region might be also shaped by the Arctic climate. The results demonstrate the existence of specific cultured endolichenic fungal species, which may be suitable objects for further study of their possible functional roles in the lichen thalli. PMID:27240672

  20. Exposure of workers to airborne microorganisms in open-air swine houses.

    PubMed

    Chang, C W; Chung, H; Huang, C F; Su, H J

    2001-01-01

    This study quantified the levels of airborne microorganisms in six swine farms with more than 10,000 pigs in subtropical Taiwan. We evaluated breeding, growing, and finishing stalls, which were primarily open-air buildings, as well as partially enclosed farrowing and nursery piggeries. Airborne culturable bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi were placed on appropriate media by using an all-glass impinger or single-stage Andersen microbial sampler. Results showed that mean concentrations of culturable bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were 3.3 x 10(5) and 143.7 CFU/m(3), respectively. The concentration of airborne culturable fungi was about 10(3) CFU/m(3), with Cladosporium the predominant genus. The highest airborne levels of culturable bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were identified in the finishing units. The air of the nursery stalls was the least contaminated with culturable and gram-negative bacteria. Irregular and infrequent cleaning, high pig density, no separation of wastes from pen floors, and accumulation of water as a result of the processes for cleaning and reducing pig temperature possibly compromise the benefits of the open characteristic of the finishing units with respect to airborne bacterial concentration.

  1. Evaluation of cellulases produced from four fungi cultured on furfural residues and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Qin; Feng, Yue; Zhao, Dan-Qing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2012-06-01

    Four fungal strains-Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningii, and Trichoderma reesei-were selected for cellulase production using furfural residues and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as the substrates. The filter paper activity (FPA) of the supernatant from each fungus was measured, and the performance of the enzymes from different fungal strains was compared. Moreover, the individual activities of the three components of the cellulase system, i.e., β-glucosidase, endoglucanase, and exoglucanase were evaluated. T. koningii showed the highest activity (27.81 FPU/ml) on furfural residues, while T. viride showed an activity of 21.61 FPU/ml on MCC. The FPA of the crude enzyme supernatant from T. koningii was 30% higher on furfural residues than on MCC. T. koningii and T. viride exhibited high stability and productivity and were chosen for cellulases production. The crystallinity index (CrI) of the furfural residues varied after digested by the fungi. The results indicated differences in the functioning of the cellulase system from each fungus. In the case of T. koningii, T. reesei and T. viride, furfural residues supported a better environment for cellulase production than MCC. Moreover, the CrI of the furfural residues decreased, indicating that this material was largely digested by the fungi. Thus, our results suggest that it may be possible to use the cellulases produced from these fungi for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic materials in ethanol production.

  2. Evaluation of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation in reducing the airborne cultural bacteria concentrations in an elementary school in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunxiao; Lau, Josephine; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-05-01

    This article describes a casestudythe authors conducted in an elementary school in the Midwest. The objective was to evaluate the performance of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UGVI) to reduce the bioaerosol concentration in a classroom. Two fourth grade classrooms with the same dimensions were studied. One classroom was designated as the UVGI group and the other as the control group. Two-stage Tisch culturable impactors were utilized for collecting airborne bacteria with monthly samples collected from October 2012 to January 2013. Nonparametric methods were applied and p-values smaller than .05 were deemed significant. The concentrations of airborne cultural bacteria with a smaller size (1-8 pm) and the total bacterial concentrations from the UVGI classroom were significantly lower than those of the control room in three of four sampling months. These results could provide the preliminary results necessary to determine the effectiveness of upper-room UVGI in reducing the concentration of airborne cultural bacteria in classrooms and other buildings.

  3. Cadmium-nickel toxicity interactions towards a bacterium, filamentous fungi, and a cultured mammalian cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Shopsis, C.; Borenfreund, E.

    1986-10-01

    The response of the biota to exposure to individual metals may differ from its response to multiple metals, as mixtures of metals may interact antagonistically or synergistically in their resultant toxicity. The present study evaluated the effects of a combination of Cd and Ni on the freshwater bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila, the terrestrial fungi, Trichodema viride and Aspergillus niger, and the mammalian cell line, BALB/c mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. This particular spectrum of target cells was selected because studies in the literature show a wide variety of possible interactions between Cd and Ni in their combined toxicities towards bacteria cyanobacteria, slime molds, isolated rat hepatocytes, and rats.

  4. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  5. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 “Bunker C” fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  6. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable endophytic fungi in Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff), detection of polyketide synthase gene and their antagonistic activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Gao, Bo Liang; Li, Xi Xi; Zhang, Zhi Bin; Yan, Ri Ming; Yang, Hui Lin; Zhu, Du

    2015-11-01

    The biodiversity of plant endophytic fungi is enormous, numerous competent endophytic fungi are capable of providing different forms of fitness benefits to host plants and also could produce a wide array of bioactive natural products, which make them a largely unexplored source of novel compounds with potential bioactivity. In this study, we provided a first insights into revealing the diversity of culturable endophytic fungi in Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) from China using rDNA-ITS phylogenetic analysis. Here, the potential of fungi in producing bioactive natural products was estimated based on the beta-ketosynthase detected in the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster and on the bioassay of antagonistic activity against two rice phytopathogens Thanatephorus cucumeris and Xanthomonas oryzae. A total of 229 endophytic fungal strains were validated in 19 genera. Among the 24 representative strains, 13 strains displayedantagonistic activity against the phytopathogens. Furthermore, PKS genes were detected in 9 strains, indicating their potential for synthesising PKS compounds. Our study confirms the phylogenetic diversity of endophytic fungi in O. rufipogon G. and highlights that endophytic fungi are not only promising resources of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens of rice plants, but also of bioactive natural products and defensive secondary metabolites.

  8. Characterisation of allergens and airborne fungi in low and middle-income homes of primary school children in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jafta, Nkosana; Batterman, Stuart A.; Gqaleni, Nceba; Naidoo, Rajen N.; Robins, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    The South Durban Health Study is a population-based study that examined the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory disease among school children with high prevalence of asthma who resided in two purposely-selected communities in north and south Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From these participants, a subgroup of 135 families was selected for investigation of household characteristics potentially related to respiratory health. In these households, a walkthrough investigation was conducted, and settled dust and air samples were collected for allergen and fungal measurements using standardised techniques. Asp f1 allergen was detected in all homes, and Bla g1 allergen was detected in half of the homes. House dust allergens, Der f1 and Der p1 exceeded concentrations associated with risk of sensitization and exacerbation of asthma in 3 and 13%, respectively, of the sampled homes, while Bla g1 exceeded guidance values in 13% of the homes. Although airborne fungal concentrations in sleep areas and indoors were lower than outdoor concentrations, they exceeded 1000 CFU/m3 in 29% of the homes. Multivariate analyses identified several home characteristics that were predictors of airborne fungal concentrations, including moisture, ventilation, floor type and bedding type. Airborne fungal concentrations were similar indoors and outdoors, which likely reduced the significance of housing and indoor factors as determinants of indoor concentrations. Conclusion Allergen concentrations were highly variable in homes, and a portion of the variability can be attributed to easily-recognised conditions. PMID:22674665

  9. Revealing Natural Relationships among Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Culture Line BEG47 Represents Diversispora epigaea, Not Glomus versiforme

    PubMed Central

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Manuela; Walker, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms underlying biological phenomena, such as evolutionarily conservative trait inheritance, is predicated on knowledge of the natural relationships among organisms. However, despite their enormous ecological significance, many of the ubiquitous soil inhabiting and plant symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, phylum Glomeromycota) are incorrectly classified. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we focused on a frequently used model AMF registered as culture BEG47. This fungus is a descendent of the ex-type culture-lineage of Glomus epigaeum, which in 1983 was synonymised with Glomus versiforme. It has since then been used as ‘G. versiforme BEG47’. We show by morphological comparisons, based on type material, collected 1860–61, of G. versiforme and on type material and living ex-type cultures of G. epigaeum, that these two AMF species cannot be conspecific, and by molecular phylogenetics that BEG47 is a member of the genus Diversispora. Conclusions This study highlights that experimental works published during the last >25 years on an AMF named ‘G. versiforme’ or ‘BEG47’ refer to D. epigaea, a species that is actually evolutionarily separated by hundreds of millions of years from all members of the genera in the Glomerales and thus from most other commonly used AMF ‘laboratory strains’. Detailed redescriptions substantiate the renaming of G. epigaeum (BEG47) as D. epigaea, positioning it systematically in the order Diversisporales, thus enabling an evolutionary understanding of genetical, physiological, and ecological traits, relative to those of other AMF. Diversispora epigaea is widely cultured as a laboratory strain of AMF, whereas G. versiforme appears not to have been cultured nor found in the field since its original description. PMID:21853113

  10. Influence of Culturing Conditions on Bioprospecting and the Antimicrobial Potential of Endophytic Fungi from Schinus terebinthifolius.

    PubMed

    Tonial, Fabiana; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Gomes-Figueiredo, Josiane A; Sobottka, Andrea M; Bertol, Charise D; Nepel, Angelita; Savi, Daiani C; Vicente, Vânia A; Gomes, Renata R; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial activity of extracts harvested from 17 endophytic fungi isolated from the medicinal plant Schinus terebinthifolius. Morphological and molecular analyses indicated that these fungal species belonged to the genera Alternaria, Bjerkandera, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Penicillium, and Xylaria. Of the endophytes analyzed, 64.7 % produced antimicrobial compounds under at least one of the fermentation conditions tested. Nine isolates produced compounds that inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, four produced compounds that inhibited Candida albicans, and two that inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fermentation conditions of the following endophytes were optimized: Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626, Xylaria sp.-LGMF673, and Bjerkandera sp.-LGMF713. Specifically, the carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH, temperature, and length of incubation were varied. In general, production of antimicrobial compounds was greatest when galactose was used as a carbon source, and acidification of the growth medium enhanced the production of compounds that inhibited C. albicans. Upon large-scale fermentation, Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626 produced an extract containing two fractions that were active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. One of the extracts exhibited high activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 18.52 µg/mL), and the other exhibited moderate activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 55.55 µg/mL). The compounds E-2-hexyl-cinnamaldehyde and two compounds of the pyrrolopyrazine alkaloids class were identified in the active fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  11. Two new cyclopeptides from the co-culture broth of two marine mangrove fungi and their antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan; Cox, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The strategy that co-cultivation two microorganisms in a single confined environment were recently developed to generate new active natural products. In the study, two new cyclic tetrapeptides, cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr-L-Pro-L-Tyr) (1) and cyclo (Gly-L-Phe-L-Pro-L-Tyr) (2) were isolated from the co-culture broth of two mangrove fungi Phomopsis sp. K38 and Alternaria sp. E33. Their antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Gaeumannomyces graminis, Rhzioctonia cerealis, Helminthosporium sativum and Fusarium graminearum was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Different column chromatographic techniques with different solvent systems were used to separate the constituents of the n-butyl alcohol extract of the culture broth. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were identified by analysis of spectroscopic data (one-dimensional, two-dimensional - nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry) and Marfey's analytic method. Dilution method was used for the evaluation of antifungal activity. Results: Compounds 1 and 2 were identified as cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr-L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (Gly-L-Phe-L-Pro-L-Tyr), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate to high antifungal activities as compared with the positive control. Conclusions: Compounds 1 and 2 are new cyclopeptides with moderate antifungal activity being worthy of consideration for the development and research of antifungal agents. PMID:25422539

  12. Recovery and phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi associated with marine sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bo; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2011-08-01

    Sponge-associated fungi represent an important source of marine natural products, but little is known about the fungal diversity and the relationship of sponge-fungal association, especially no research on the fungal diversity in the South China Sea sponge has been reported. In this study, a total of 111 cultivable fungi strains were isolated from two South China Sea sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. using eight different media. Thirty-two independent representatives were selected for analysis of phylogenetic diversity according to ARDRA and morphological characteristics. The culturable fungal communities consisted of at least 17 genera within ten taxonomic orders of two phyla (nine orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) including some potential novel marine fungi. Particularly, eight genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Davidiella, Didymocrea, Lentomitella, Marasmius, Pestalotiopsis, and Rhizomucor were isolated from sponge for the first time. Sponge C. luteoculcitella has greater culturable fungal diversity than sponge Holoxea sp. Five genera of Aspergillus, Davidiella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were isolated from both sponges, while 12 genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Candida, Marasmius, Cladosporium, Didymocrea, Hypocrea, Lentomitella, Nigrospora, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor, and Scopulariopsis were isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella only. Order Eurotiales especially genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and order Hypocreales represented the dominant culturable fungi in these two South China Sea sponges. Nigrospora oryzae strain PF18 isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella showed a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activities suggesting the potential for antimicrobial compounds production.

  13. Culturability of Bacillus spores on aerosol collection filters exposed to airborne combustion products of Al, Mg, and B·Ti.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Yermakov, Michael; Indugula, Reshmi; Reponen, Tiina; Driks, Adam; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2016-05-01

    Destruction of bioweapon facilities due to explosion or fire could aerosolize highly pathogenic microorganisms. The post-event air quality assessment is conducted through air sampling. A bioaerosol sample (often collected on a filter for further culture-based analysis) also contains combustion products, which may influence the microbial culturability and, thus, impact the outcome. We have examined the interaction between spores deposited on collection filters using two simulants of Bacillus anthracis [B. thuringiensis (Bt) and B. atrophaeus (referred to as BG)] and incoming combustion products of Al as well as Mg and B·Ti (common ingredient of metalized explosives). Spores extracted from Teflon, polycarbonate, mixed cellulose ester (MCE), and gelatin filters (most common filter media for bioaerosol sampling), which were exposed to combustion products during a short-term sampling, were analyzed by cultivation. Surprisingly, we observed that aluminum combustion products enhanced the culturability of Bt (but not BG) spores on Teflon filters increasing the culturable count by more than an order of magnitude. Testing polycarbonate and MCE filter materials also revealed a moderate increase of culturability although gelatin did not. No effect was observed with either of the two species interacting on either filter media with products originated by combustion of Mg and B·Ti. Sample contamination, spore agglomeration, effect of a filter material on the spore survival, changes in the spore wall ultrastructure and germination, as well as other factors were explored to interpret the findings. The study raises a question about the reliability of certain filter materials for collecting airborne bio-threat agents in combustion environments. PMID:26914458

  14. Culturability of Bacillus spores on aerosol collection filters exposed to airborne combustion products of Al, Mg, and B·Ti.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Yermakov, Michael; Indugula, Reshmi; Reponen, Tiina; Driks, Adam; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2016-05-01

    Destruction of bioweapon facilities due to explosion or fire could aerosolize highly pathogenic microorganisms. The post-event air quality assessment is conducted through air sampling. A bioaerosol sample (often collected on a filter for further culture-based analysis) also contains combustion products, which may influence the microbial culturability and, thus, impact the outcome. We have examined the interaction between spores deposited on collection filters using two simulants of Bacillus anthracis [B. thuringiensis (Bt) and B. atrophaeus (referred to as BG)] and incoming combustion products of Al as well as Mg and B·Ti (common ingredient of metalized explosives). Spores extracted from Teflon, polycarbonate, mixed cellulose ester (MCE), and gelatin filters (most common filter media for bioaerosol sampling), which were exposed to combustion products during a short-term sampling, were analyzed by cultivation. Surprisingly, we observed that aluminum combustion products enhanced the culturability of Bt (but not BG) spores on Teflon filters increasing the culturable count by more than an order of magnitude. Testing polycarbonate and MCE filter materials also revealed a moderate increase of culturability although gelatin did not. No effect was observed with either of the two species interacting on either filter media with products originated by combustion of Mg and B·Ti. Sample contamination, spore agglomeration, effect of a filter material on the spore survival, changes in the spore wall ultrastructure and germination, as well as other factors were explored to interpret the findings. The study raises a question about the reliability of certain filter materials for collecting airborne bio-threat agents in combustion environments.

  15. Changes in communities of Fusarium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as related to different asparagus cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Vujanovic, Vladimir; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2006-07-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a high-value perennial vegetable crop that has shown a marked decline in productivity after many years of continuous harvesting. This decline is caused by an increase in both abiotic (autotoxicity, harvesting pressure) and biotic stresses [fungal infections, mainly Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR)]. To gain insight into disease development and possible mitigation strategies, we studied the effects of harvesting, time in the growing season, and field age on FCRR development, Fusarium species composition, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in both a controlled field experiment and an ecological survey of commercial fields. In one experiment, a 3-year-old asparagus field was subdivided into plots that were harvested or not and sampled throughout the growing season to assess short-term dominant Fusarium species shifts. In addition, diseased and healthy asparagus plants sampled from six commercial fields in the same geographical region were used to assess Fusarium and AMF communities in relation to different parameters. Fusarium and AMF communities were described by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach, and results were analyzed by mainly correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed that dominant Fusarium taxa assemblages changed throughout the growing season. Harvested plots had significantly more FCRR symptomatic plants at the end of the growing season, but this effect was not related with any trend in Fusarium community structure. Sampling site and plant age significantly influenced AMF community structure, whereas only sampling site consistently influenced the Fusarium community. Diseased and healthy plants harbored similar Fusarium and AMF communities. Shifts in Fusarium community might not be responsible for different disease incidence because they are ubiquitous regardless of plant health status or harvesting regime

  16. Culturable fungi of stored 'golden delicious' apple fruits: a one-season comparison study of organic and integrated production systems in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Granado, José; Thürig, Barbara; Kieffer, Edith; Petrini, Liliane; Fliessbach, Andreas; Tamm, Lucius; Weibel, Franco P; Wyss, Gabriela S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of organic and integrated production systems on the culturable fungal microflora of stored apple fruits from five matched pairs of certified organic and integrated 'Golden Delicious' farms were studied at five representative production sites in Switzerland. Isolated fungi were identified morphologically. Colonization frequency (percentage of apples colonized), abundance (colony numbers), and diversity (taxon richness) were assessed for each orchard. The standard quality of the stored fruits was comparable for both organic and integrated apples and complied with national food hygiene standards. Yeasts (six taxa) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were the dominant epiphytes, filamentous fungi (21 taxa) the dominant endophytes. The most common fungi occurred at all sites and belonged to the "white" and "pink" yeasts, yeast-like A. pullulans, filamentous fungi Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., and sterile filamentous fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis of the total fungal community revealed a clear differentiation among production systems and sites. Compared to integrated apples, organic apples had significantly higher frequencies of filamentous fungi, abundance of total fungi, and taxon diversity. The effects of the production system on the fungal microflora are most likely due to the different plant protection strategies. The incidence of potential mycotoxin producers such as Penicillium and Alternaria species was not different between production systems. We suggest that higher fungal diversity may generally be associated with organic production and may increase the level of beneficial and antagonistically acting species known for their potential to suppress apple pathogens, which may be an advantage to organic apples, e.g., in respect to natural disease control. PMID:18473135

  17. [Resistant fungi].

    PubMed

    Vehreschild, M J G T; Cornely, O A

    2015-11-01

    Particularly in the area of hematology/oncology and intensive care medicine, infections due to resistant fungi are to be expected. Emergence of resistance in fungi is a less dynamic process than in bacteria; it can, however, have an equally important impact on treatment strategies. In the following article, the most important resistance patterns of yeasts and molds (Candida albicans , Aspergillus fumigatus, the order Mucorales and the genus Fusarium) will be presented and discussed. Their diagnosis mostly being based on blood cultures, resistance testing for yeasts is usually readily available. Culture-based therapeutic adjustments in mold infections are, however, only rarely possible, as most antifungal therapies for these infections are initiated on an empirical basis after identification of typical infiltrates on a CT scan. Response to therapy is then evaluated on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms in combination with follow-up CT scans. In case of therapeutic failure or appearance of suspicious infiltrates under antifungal prophylaxis, an open or CT-guided biopsy is recommended to allow efficient adaptation of antifungal treatment. In individual cases, particularly in patients diagnosed with mucormycosis, resection of the focus of infection may be necessary to achieve a satisfactory treatment response.

  18. Utility of four strains of white-rot fungi for the detoxification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in liquid culture

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.C.; Chen, J.C.; Huebner, H.J.; Brown, K.W.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of four different strains of white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, Phlebia brevispora, and Cyathus stercoreus) to degrade 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in liquid medium. Loss of TNT from the culture medium was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the mutagenicity of the medium residues were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome bioassay. The data indicate that within 21 d of incubation, all fungi were able to reduce the TNT concentration in the liquid medium to below detection limits. In this study, P. sordida showed a relatively high growth rate and the fastest rate of TNT degradation. The fungal treatment also produced a significant reduction of TNT mutagenicity. Treatment with C. stercoreus, P. brevispora, P. sordida, and P. chrysosporium resulted in the elimination of 94%, 90%, 87%, and 67% of the initial TNT-amended medium mutagenicity, respectively. The data also demonstrate that during incubation, TNT was eliminated from the culture medium two to eight times faster than the reduction in mutagenic potential. These results suggest that TNT disappearance alone cannot be used as the sole criterion in TNT remediation. Chemical analysis revealed that the major metabolites in the initial transformation of TNT were the monoamino-dinitrotoluenes, which were also degraded by the selected white-rot fungi. The study demonstrated that the white-rot fungi are capable of metabolizing and detoxifying TNT under aerobic conditions in nonligninolytic liquid medium.

  19. Growth of AM fungi on in vitro root organ culture of Sorghum vulgare and Saccharum officinarum.

    PubMed

    Raman, N; Sahadevan, C; Srinivasan, V

    2001-12-01

    Spores of Gl mosseae and Gig gigantea germinated on minimal medium produced extraradical mycelium. Gl. mosseae infected roots of S. officinarum in in vitro condition were inoculated in M medium with in vitro cultured roots of Sorghum vulgare (test roots). From the infected root of S. officinarum, the mycelium developed and it infected the test roots. The roots developed new mycelia and further the mycelia produced a few hyaline spores. In MS medium combined with soil extract, root exudate, thiamine HCl and inositol combination, spore germination and germ tube growth were higher when compared with other media. PMID:12018527

  20. Production and Characterization of Melanin by Submerged Culture of Culinary and Medicinal Fungi Auricularia auricula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Gongnian; Thring, Ronald W; Chen, Wan; Zhou, Huabin; Yang, Hailong

    2015-05-01

    Natural melanin is of great potential value and application in the fields of pharmacology, cosmetics, and functional foods. In the present study, statistically designed experiments were conducted for the optimization of the media to enhance the production of melanin by submerged culture of Auricularia auricula. Glucose, tyrosine, peptone, and CaCO3 were found to have significant effects (P < 0.015) on melanin biosynthesis by a Plackett-Burman experimental design and subsequently optimized using response surface methodology. Optimal media were obtained at the following concentrations: glucose, 0.90 g/L; tyrosine, 6.68 g/L; peptone, 6.99 g/L; and CaCO3, 6.75 g/L. The validity of the optimum media was verified in separate experiments in which the melanin yield of 1008.08 mg/L was obtained under optimum conditions, compared with 306.52 mg/L at other conditions, i.e., a 3.29-fold increase. Furthermore, the important physical and chemical properties of A. auricula melanin were determined. The findings from the present study indicate that large-scale production of natural melanin by submerged culture of A. auricular could be a useful approach.

  1. Comparative study of the fungicide Benomyl toxicity on some plant growth promoting bacteria and some fungi in pure cultures

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Awad G.; Sherif, Ashraf M.; Elhussein, Adil A.

    2014-01-01

    Six laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the fungicide Benomyl on pure cultures of some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and some fungi. The highest LD50 was recorded for Bacillus circulans and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide, followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Penicillium sp. was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for the affected microorganisms were in 21–240 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with the LD50 value for Azospirillum braziliense. The results indicate a strong selectivity for Benomyl against Rhizobium meliloti and Penicillium sp. when compared to other microorganisms tested. The highest safety coefficient was recorded for Bacillus circulans followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Rhizobium meliloti, showed the lowest safety coefficient value compared to other bacteria. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Bacillus circulans and Azospirillum braziliense. The slope of the curves for Bacillus sp. and Rhizobium meliloti was steeper than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. In conclusion, Benomyl could be applied without restriction when using inocula based on growth promoting bacteria such as symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Rhizobium meliloti), non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Azospirillum braziliense) or potassium solibilizers (Bacillus circulans), given that the fungicide is applied within the range of the recommended field dose. PMID:26038670

  2. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  3. Filamentous fungi and media for cellulase production in solid state cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kilikian, B.V.; Afonso, L.C.; Souza, T.F.C.; Ferreira, R.G.; Pinheiro, I.R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellulase production was evaluated in two reference strains (T. reesei Rut-C30 and T. reesei QM9414), two strains isolated from a sugarcane cultivation area (Trichoderma sp. IPT778 and T. harzianum rifai IPT821) and one strain isolated in a program for biodiversity preservation in São Paulo state (Myceliophthora thermophila M77). Solid state cultures were performed using sugarcane bagasse (C), wheat bran (W) and/or soybean bran (S). The highest FPA was 10.6 U/gdm for M77 in SC (10:90) at 80% moisture, which was 4.4 times higher than production in pure W. C was a strong inducer of cellulase production, given that the production level of 6.1 U/gdm in WC (40:60) was 2.5 times higher than in pure W for strain M77; T. reesei Rut-C30 did not respond as strongly with about 1.6-fold surplus production. S advantageously replaced W, as the surplus production on SC (20:80) was 2.3 times relative to WC (20:80) for M77. PMID:24948946

  4. A mixed culture of endophytic fungi increases production of antifungal polyketides.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Fernanda O; Dias, Luís G; Pupo, Mônica T

    2013-10-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by endophytic microorganisms can provide benefits to host plants, such as stimulating growth and enhancing the plant's resistance toward biotic and abiotic factors. During its life, a host plant may be inhabited by many species of endophytes within a restrictive environment. This condition can stimulate secondary metabolite production that improves microbial competition and may consequently affect both the neighboring microorganisms and the host plant. The interactions between the endophytes that co-habit the same host plant have been studied. However, the effect of these interactions on the host plant has remained neglected. When using mixed microbial cultures, we found that the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima significantly increased the production of some polyketides, including antifungal stemphyperylenol in response to the endophytic Nigrospora sphaerica. Biological activity assays revealed that stemphyperylenol can cause cytotoxic effects against N. sphaerica, although no phytotoxicity was observed in the host plant Smallanthus sonchifolius, even at concentrations much higher than those toxic to the fungus. The polyketides produced by A. tenuissima may be important for the ecological relationships between endophyte-endophyte and endophytes-host plants in the natural environment.

  5. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology. PMID:22222837

  6. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Jena, Santanu K; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C; Parida, Debraj

    2015-03-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1-6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 (4) -2.1 × 10 (5) and 5.1 × 10 (4) -4.7 × 10 (5) cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher's alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  7. Isolation of airborne oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from culturable air samples of urban residences.

    PubMed

    Perez, Hernando R; Johnson, Rachel; Gurian, Patrick L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Taylor, Jennifer; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-02-01

    Culturable single-stage impactor samples were collected onto nutrient agar in kitchen and bedroom areas of eight urban and four suburban residences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Staphylococcus aureus colonies were identified by replica plating of the original impactor samples onto Chapman Stone medium followed by isolation of up to eight colonies for coagulase testing. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was utilized to evaluate S. aureus resistance to both oxacillin and cefaclor. The median concentrations of total culturable bacteria observed in bedrooms and trash areas were 300 CFU/m(3) and 253 CFU/m(3), respectively. Median culturable Staphylococcus spp. concentrations in bedrooms and trash areas were 142 CFU/m(3) and 204 CFU/m(3), respectively. A total of 148 individual S. aureus colonies were isolated and tested for antibiotic resistance. Cefaclor resistance was encountered among only 6 of the 148 (4%) colonies. Nearly one-quarter of all S. aureus isolates tested displayed resistance (n = 30) or intermediate resistance (n = 5) to oxacillin. Twenty-six percent (n = 20) of trash area isolates and 21% (n = 15) of bedroom isolates displayed resistance or intermediate resistance to oxacillin. The median difference in percent resistance between trash and bedroom areas was 10% (p = 0.1). Results suggest that there may be a systematic difference in bacterial populations between downtown and suburban residences. Storage of household waste and handling of food may contribute to presence of the organism in the air of residences.

  8. Preservation at ultra-low temperature of in vitro cultured arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi via encapsulation-drying.

    PubMed

    Lalaymia, Ismahen; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Draye, Xavier; Declerck, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    At present, over 300 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been identified, most of which being stored in international collections. Their maintenance is mostly achieved in greenhouse via continuous culture on trap plants or in vitro in association with excised root organs. Both methods are work-intensive and for the former present the risk of unwanted contaminations. The in vitro root organ culture of AMF has become an alternative preventing contamination. Nevertheless, the risk for somaclonal variation during the sub-cultivation process cannot be excluded. A method for the long-term conservation that guarantees the stability of the biological material is thus highly demanded to preserve the microorganisms and their genetic stability. Here, 12 AMF isolates cultured in vitro in association with excised carrot roots were encapsulated in alginate beads and subsequently cryopreserved. Several protocols were tested taking into consideration culture age, alginate bead pre-drying, and rate of decrease in temperature. The viability of the AMF isolates was estimated by the percentage of potentially infective beads (%PIB) that measure the % of beads that contain at least one germinated propagule. Thermal behaviour of alginate beads was analysed by a differential thermal calorimeter before and after drying to estimate the frozen and unfrozen water during the cryopreservation process. It was shown that the spore damage was directly related to ice formation during cryopreservation. The encapsulation and culture age were also determinant parameters for the successful cryopreservation. Irrespective of the AMF isolate, the optimal procedure for cryopreservation comprised five steps: (1) the encapsulation of propagules (i.e. spores and mycorrhizal root pieces) isolated from 5m old cultures, (2) the incubation overnight in trehalose (0.5M), (3) the drying during 48h at 27°C, (4) the cryopreservation in the freezer at -130°C following a two-step decrease in

  9. Evaluation of airborne thermal-infrared image data for monitoring aquatic habitats and cultural resources within the Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined thermal-infrared (TIR) image data acquired using the airborne Advanced Thematic Mapper (ATM) sensor in the afternoon of July 25th, 2000 over a portion of the Colorado River corridor to determine the capability of these 100-cm resolution data to address some biologic and cultural resource requirements for GCMRC. The requirements investigated included the mapping of warm backwaters that may serve as fish habitats and the detection (and monitoring) of archaeological structures and natural springs that occur on land. This report reviews the procedure for calibration of the airborne TIR data to obtain surface water temperatures and shows the results for various river reaches within the acquired river corridor. With respect to mapping warm backwater areas, our results show that TIR data need to be acquired with a gain setting that optimizes the range of temperatures found within the water to increase sensitivity of the resulting data to a level of 0.1 °C and to reduce scan-line noise. Data acquired within a two-hour window around maximum solar heating (1:30 PM) is recommended to provide maximum solar heating of the water and to minimize cooling effects of late-afternoon shadows. Ground-truth data within the temperature range of the warm backwaters are necessary for calibration of the TIR data. The ground-truth data need to be collected with good locational accuracy. The derived water-temperature data provide the capability for rapid, wide-area mapping of warm-water fish habitats using a threshold temperature for such habitats. The collected daytime TIR data were ineffective in mapping (detecting) both archaeological structures and natural springs (seeps). The inability of the daytime TIR data to detect archaeological structures is attributed to the low thermal sensitivity (0.3 °C) of the collected data. The detection of subtle thermal differences between geologic materials requires sensitivities of at least 0.1 °C, which can be obtained by most TIR

  10. Differing Alterations of Two Esca Associated Fungi, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on Transcriptomic Level, to Co-Cultured Vitis vinifera L. calli

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jochen; Compant, Stéphane; Pierron, Romain J. G.; Gorfer, Markus; Jacques, Alban; Thines, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Phaeoacremonium aleophilum (P.al, Teleomorph: Togninia minima) and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (P.ch) are believed to be causal agents of wood symptoms associated with the Esca associated young vine decline. The occurrence of these diseases is dramatically increasing in vineyards all over the world whereas efficient therapeutic strategies are lacking. Both fungi occupy the same ecological niche within the grapevine trunk. We found them predominantly within the xylem vessels and surrounding cell walls which raises the question whether the transcriptional response towards plant cell secreted metabolites is comparable. In order to address this question we co-inoculated grapevine callus culture cells with the respective fungi and analyzed their transcriptomes by RNA sequencing. This experimental setup appears suitable since we aimed to investigate the effects caused by the plant thereby excluding all effects caused by other microorganisms omnipresent in planta and nutrient depletion. Bioinformatics analysis of the sequencing data revealed that 837 homologous genes were found to have comparable expression pattern whereas none of which was found to be differentially expressed in both strains upon exposure to the plant cells. Despite the fact that both fungi induced the transcription of oxido- reductases, likely to cope with reactive oxygen species produced by plant cells, the transcriptomics response of both fungi compared to each other is rather different in other domains. Within the transcriptome of P.ch beside increased transcript levels for oxido- reductases, plant cell wall degrading enzymes and detoxifying enzymes were found. On the other hand in P.al the transcription of some oxido- reductases was increased whereas others appeared to be repressed. In this fungus the confrontation to plant cells results in higher transcript levels of heat shock and chaperon-like proteins as well as genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism. PMID

  11. Comparison of Gas Chromatography and Mineralization Experiments for Measuring Loss of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Cultures of White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Beaudette, Lee A.; Davies, Stephen; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Ward, Owen P.; Pickard, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Two methods were used to compare the biodegradation of six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by 12 white rot fungi. Four fungi were found to be more active than Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725. Biodegradation of the following congeners was monitored by gas chromatography: 2,3-dichlorobiphenyl, 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4′,5-trichlorobiphenyl (2,4′,5-TCB), 2,2′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl. The congener tested for mineralization was 2,4′,5-[U-14C]TCB. Culture supernatants were also assayed for lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities. Of the fungi tested, two strains of Bjerkandera adusta (UAMH 8258 and UAMH 7308), one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (UAMH 7964), and Trametes versicolor UAMH 8272 gave the highest biodegradation and mineralization. P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725, a strain frequently used in studies of PCB degradation, gave the lowest mineralization and biodegradation activities of the 12 fungi reported here. Low but detectable levels of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activity were present in culture supernatants, but no correlation was observed among any combination of PCB congener biodegradation, mineralization, and lignin peroxidase or manganese peroxidase activity. With the exception of P. chrysosporium, congener loss ranged from 40 to 96%; however, these values varied due to nonspecific congener binding to fungal biomass and glassware. Mineralization was much lower, ≤11%, because it measures a complete oxidation of at least part of the congener molecule but the results were more consistent and therefore more reliable in assessment of PCB biodegradation. PMID:9603809

  12. Production of a lignocellulolytic enzyme system for simultaneous bio-delignification and saccharification of corn stover employing co-culture of fungi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at improving the efficiency of transferring corn stover into sugars, an efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme system was developed and investigated by co-cultivation of the Coprinus comatus with Trichoderma reesei in a single bioreactor. The results showed that the lignocellulolytic enzyme activities of the co-culture exceeded that of the monoculture, suggesting synergistic interaction between two fungi. The highest laccase activity from the co-culture was 2.6-fold increase over that of the C. comatus monoculture and reached a peak 3days earlier. The maximum delignification obtained was 66.5% and about 82% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars by simultaneous bio-delignification and saccharification process. Correlation analysis showed that sugar yields were directly proportional to the lignin degradation. Our results suggested that co-fungi cultivation was a valuable technique for corn stover bioconversion, which could produce high efficiency of lignocellulolytic enzyme system as a cheaper alternative to commercial enzymes for industrial utilization. PMID:25459871

  13. Marine Fungi: Their Ecology and Molecular Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Thomas A.; Jones, Meredith D. M.; Leonard, Guy; Bass, David

    2012-01-01

    Fungi appear to be rare in marine environments. There are relatively few marine isolates in culture, and fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences are rarely recovered in marine clone library experiments (i.e., culture-independent sequence surveys of eukaryotic microbial diversity from environmental DNA samples). To explore the diversity of marine fungi, we took a broad selection of SSU rDNA data sets and calculated a summary phylogeny. Bringing these data together identified a diverse collection of marine fungi, including sequences branching close to chytrids (flagellated fungi), filamentous hypha-forming fungi, and multicellular fungi. However, the majority of the sequences branched with ascomycete and basidiomycete yeasts. We discuss evidence for 36 novel marine lineages, the majority and most divergent of which branch with the chytrids. We then investigate what these data mean for the evolutionary history of the Fungi and specifically marine-terrestrial transitions. Finally, we discuss the roles of fungi in marine ecosystems.

  14. Airborne fungal and bacterial components in PM1 dust from biofuel plants.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olsen, Tina; Sigsgaard, Torben; Avci, Hediye

    2009-10-01

    Fungi grown in pure cultures produce DNA- or RNA-containing particles smaller than spore size (<1.5 microm). High exposures to fungi and bacteria are observed at biofuel plants. Airborne cultivable bacteria are often described to be present in clusters or associated with larger particles with an aerodynamic diameter (d(ae)) of 2-8 microm. In this study, we investigate whether airborne fungal components smaller than spore size are present in bioaerosols in working areas at biofuel plants. Furthermore, we measure the exposure to bacteria and fungal components in airborne particulate matter (PM) with a D(50) of 1 microm (called PM(1) dust). PM(1) was sampled using Triplex cyclones at a working area at 14 Danish biofuel plants. Millipore cassettes were used to sample 'total dust'. The PM(1) particles (29 samples) were analysed for content of 11 different components and the total dust was analysed for cultivable fungi, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans. In the 29 PM(1) samples, cultivable fungi were found in six samples and with a median concentration below detection level. Using microscopy, fungal spores were identified in 22 samples. The components NAGase and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans, which are mainly associated with fungi, were present in all PM(1) samples. Thermophilic actinomycetes were present in 23 of the 29 PM(1) samples [average = 739 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3)]. Cultivable and 'total bacteria' were found in average concentrations of, respectively, 249 CFU m(-3) and 1.8 x 10(5) m(-3). DNA- and RNA-containing particles of different lengths were counted by microscopy and revealed a high concentration of particles with a length of 0.5-1.5 microm and only few particles >1.5 microm. The number of cultivable fungi and beta-glucan in the total dust correlated significantly with the number of DNA/RNA-containing particles with lengths of between 1.0 and 1.5 microm, with DNA/RNA-containing particles >1.5 microm, and with other

  15. Use of HPLC for the detection of iron chelators in cultures of bacteria, fungi, and algae. [E. coli; Bacillus megaterium; Ustilago sphaerogena; Anabaena flos-aqua

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, G.L.; Speirs, R.J.; Morse, P.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Iron is essential for the growth of living cells. To meet biochemical needs, microorganisms, including algae, produce high affinity chelators termed siderophores. These compounds solubilize Fe and increase its bioavailability. We have developed a new method to study siderophore formation in cultured and natural environments. Based on the fact siderophores tightly bind 55-Fe, the radioactive complexes can be separated by HPLC using an inert PRP-1 column and detected by scintillation counting. This method cleanly resolves several known siderophores, including ferrichrome A, ferrichrome, desferal, and rhodotorulic acid. The optimization of the method and its use for analysis of siderophore formation in bacteria (E. coli, and Bacillus megaterium), fungi (Ustilago sphaerogena), and cyanobacteria (Anabaena flos-aqua UTEX 1444 and Anabaena sp. ATCC 27898) will be presented.

  16. Structure revision and cytotoxic activity of marinamide and its methyl ester, novel alkaloids produced by co-cultures of two marine-derived mangrove endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Guangying; Wu, Jingshu; Pan, Jiahui

    2013-01-01

    Marinamide (1) and its methyl ester (2) have been previously reported as pyrrolyl 1-isoquinolone alkaloids, which were produced by co-cultures of two marine-derived mangrove endophytic fungi from the South China Sea coast. Recrystallisation of methyl marinamide (2) from pyridine forms the known pesticide, quinolactacide (3). Treatment of 3 with methyl iodide to afford N-methyl quinolactacide (4) was identified by X-ray crystallography. Thus, the structures of 1 and 2 were revised from the previously reported pyrrolyl 1-isoquinolone structures to pyrrolyl 4-quinolone analogues. In the MTT assays, both 1 and 2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HepG2, 95-D, MGC832 and HeLa tumour cell lines.

  17. Gut fungi.

    PubMed

    Brent Heath, I

    1988-07-01

    Herbivores consume large quantities of cellulose and other plant cell wall (fibre) carbohydrates yet generally lack the enzymes to digest them. This has led to the evolution of specialized portions of the gut, such as the rumen and caecum, which contain large populations of digestive anaerobic microorganisms. Diverse bacteria and protists from this environment have been studied for over a hundred years but it is only recently that a significant population of highly specialized flagellate fungi have been identified. These fungi are important in fibre digestion. Their diversity, properties, activities, phylogeny and possible economic significance are the subjects of this review.

  18. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  19. Characterization of Airborne Microbial Communities at a High-Elevation Site and Their Potential To Act as Atmospheric Ice Nuclei▿

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Robert M.; Lauber, Christian L.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Hamady, Micah; Hallar, Anna G.; Fall, Ray; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. The diversity and abundance of airborne microbes may be strongly influenced by atmospheric conditions or even influence atmospheric conditions themselves by acting as ice nucleators. However, few comprehensive studies have described the diversity and dynamics of airborne bacteria and fungi based on culture-independent techniques. We document atmospheric microbial abundance, community composition, and ice nucleation at a high-elevation site in northwestern Colorado. We used a standard small-subunit rRNA gene Sanger sequencing approach for total microbial community analysis and a bacteria-specific 16S rRNA bar-coded pyrosequencing approach (4,864 sequences total). During the 2-week collection period, total microbial abundances were relatively constant, ranging from 9.6 × 105 to 6.6 × 106 cells m−3 of air, and the diversity and composition of the airborne microbial communities were also relatively static. Bacteria and fungi were nearly equivalent, and members of the proteobacterial groups Burkholderiales and Moraxellaceae (particularly the genus Psychrobacter) were dominant. These taxa were not always the most abundant in freshly fallen snow samples collected at this site. Although there was minimal variability in microbial abundances and composition within the atmosphere, the number of biological ice nuclei increased significantly during periods of high relative humidity. However, these changes in ice nuclei numbers were not associated with changes in the relative abundances of the most commonly studied ice-nucleating bacteria. PMID:19502432

  20. Impact of Biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and a Genetically Modified Derivative on the Diversity of Culturable Fungi in the Cucumber Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Girlanda, M.; Perotto, S.; Moenne-Loccoz, Y.; Bergero, R.; Lazzari, A.; Defago, G.; Bonfante, P.; Luppi, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day

  1. Effect of nitrogen sources and vitamins on ligninolytic enzyme production by some white-rot fungi. Dye decolorization by selected culture filtrates.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura; Melignani, Eliana; Ramos, Araceli Marcela

    2010-06-01

    The effect of amino acids, complex nitrogen sources and vitamin addition on Trametes trogii, Trametes villosa and Coriolus versicolor var. antarcticus ligninolytic enzyme production, was evaluated. Dye decolorization by their culture filtrates was compared. Glutamic acid followed by peptone, were the best N sources for laccase and manganese peroxidase production. The three fungi produced two laccase isoenzymes (molecular weights from 38 up to 150 kDa); their pattern of production was not affected by medium composition. Although the response was not uniform, vitamin addition sometimes stimulated ligninolytic enzyme production, but never inhibited it. Thiamine induced manganese peroxidase production. T. trogii grown in glutamic acid produced culture filtrates with the highest laccase (188.3 U/ml) and manganese peroxidase activities (4.5 U/ml), rendering the best results in decolorization. These crude filtrates were able to decolorize in half hour (at pH 4.5, 30 degrees C): 13%, 23%, 40%, 46%, 82%, 94% and 95% of Gentian Violet, Xylidine, Congo Red, Malachite Green, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Indigo Carmine and Anthraquinone Blue, respectively.

  2. [Phylogenetic diversity of airborne microbes in Qingdao downtown in autumn].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Song, Zhi-wen; Xu, Ai-ling; Wu, Deng-deng; Xia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    To determine the community structure of airborne microbes in Qingdao downtown in autumn, the airborne bacteria and fungi were collected by the KC-6120 air sampler and analyzed using the 16S/18S rDNA gene clone library method. Phylogenetic analysis of airborne bacteria showed that they belonged to six major phylogenetic groups: Proteobacteria (78. 8%), Firmicutes (14.6%), Actinobacteria (4.0%), Planctomycetes (1.3%), Cyanobacteria (0.7%), and Deinococcus-Thermus (0.7%). The dominant genera of airborne bacteria included Acinetobacter (39.7%), Staphylococcus (11.3%), Sphingomonas (8.6%), Paracoccus (6.0%) and Massilia (5.3%). The main types of airborne fungi were Ascomycota (97.5%) and Basidiomycota (2.5%). Dominant genera of airborne fungi included Pyrenophora (76.5%), Xylaria (13.6%) and Exophiala (2.5%). The pathogens or conditioned pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, or Sphingomonas were detected in the airborne bacteria, whereas certain kinds of fungi, such as P. graminea, X. hypoxylon and Zasmidium angulare that could cause a variety of crop diseases were also detected. PMID:26259454

  3. Methyl Halide Production by Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, G. D.; Varner, R. K.; Blanchard, R. O.; Sive, B. C.; Crill, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl iodide (CH3I) are methyl halide gases that contribute significant amounts of halogen radicals to the atmosphere. In an effort to better understand the global budget of methyl halides and their impact on the atmosphere, we need to identify the natural sources in addition to the known anthropogenic sources of these compounds. We are investigating the role of fungi in the production of methyl halides in the soils and wetlands in southern New Hampshire, USA. Previous research has shown that wood decay fungi and ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are within a group of fungi called basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. In our study, measurements of headspace gas extracted from flasks containing fungi grown in culture demonstrate that a variety of fungi, including basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. Our research sites include four ecosystems: an agricultural field, a temperate forest, a fresh water wetland, and coastal salt marshes. We have collected and isolated fungi at each site by culturing tissue samples of fruiting bodies and plant material, by using wood baits, and from the direct culture of soil. We compared the rates of methyl halide emissions from the fungi in the four ecosystems. In addition, we measured emissions from previously assayed fungal isolates after reintroducing them to sterilized soils that were collected from their original environments. Fungal biomass was determined by substrate-induced respiration (SIR). The emission rate by the fungus was determined by a linear regression of the concentration of methyl halide in the sample headspace over time divided by the fungal biomass.

  4. A novel method to harvest microalgae via co-culture of filamentous fungi to form cell pellets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2012-06-01

    While current approaches have limitations for efficient and cost-effective microalgal biofuel production, new processes, which are financially economic, environmentally sustainable, and ecologically stable, are needed. Typically, microalgae cells are small and grow individually. Harvest of these cells is technically difficult and it contributes to 20-30% of the total cost of biomass production. A new process of pelletized cell cultivation is described in this study to co-culture a filamentous fungal species with microalgae so that microalgae cells can be co-pelletized into fungal pellets for easier harvest. This new process can be applied to microalgae cultures in both autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions to allow microalgae cells attach to each other. The cell pellets, due to their large size, can be harvested through sieve, much easier than individual cells. This method has the potential to significantly decrease the processing cost for generating microagal biofuel or other products.

  5. Eelgrass slabs, a soilless culture substrate that inhibits adhesion of fungi and oomycetes and enhances antioxidant activity in tomato.

    PubMed

    Meot-Duros, Laetitia; Le Floch, Gaëtan; Meot, Benoit; Letousey, Patricia; Jacob, Bruno; Barbier, Georges

    2011-10-26

    Composed of a marine plant, Zostera sp., eelgrass slabs are a novel organic substrate for soilless cultures used in tomato production. The benefit of using eelgrass slabs for growing tomatoes was assessed by comparing it with coconut fiber slabs in regard to contamination by Pythium spp. and to the antioxidant properties of tomato fruits. First, tomato root contamination by Pythium spp. was studied by direct plate counting, and a molecular comparison of fungal and oomycete communities was conducted using PCR-DHPLC. Second, the antioxidant properties of tomato fruits were analyzed by measuring total phenol and carotenoid contents and by evaluating radical scavenging activity. Compared to plants grown on coconut fiber slabs, those on eelgrass slabs presented a lower rate of Pythium spp. root contamination. Moreover, culture on eelgrass slabs produced fruits with better radical scavenging activity and higher total phenol content compared to controls. Carotenoid content was not affected by the type of substrate. This study highlights the value of detrital leaves of Zostera sp. as a substrate for soilless culture that reduces root contamination and also promotes the production of tomato fruits with better nutritional value.

  6. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  7. Residential Culturable Fungi, (1–3, 1–6)-β-D-glucan, and Ergosterol Concentrations in Dust Are Not Associated with Asthma, Rhinitis or Eczema Diagnoses in Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Byrne, Sam; Larsen, Lisbeth Suldrup; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S.; Larsson, Lennart; Sebastian, Aleksandra; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative reporting of home indoor moisture problems predicts respiratory diseases. However, causal agents underlying such qualitative markers remain unknown. Methods In the homes of 198 multiple allergic case children and 202 controls in Sweden, we cultivated culturable fungi by directly plating dust, and quantified(1–3, 1–6)-β-D-glucan, and ergosterol in dust samples from the child’s bedroom. We examined the relationship between these fungal agents and degree of parent or inspector reported home indoor dampness, and microbiological laboratory’s mold index. We also compared the concentrations of these agents between multiple allergic cases and healthy controls, as well as IgE-sensitization among cases. Results The concentrations of culturable fungal agents were comparable between houses with parent and inspector reported mold issues and those without. There were no differences in concentrations of the individual or the total summed culturable fungi, (1–3, 1–6)-β-D-glucan, and ergosterol between the controls and the multiple allergic case children, or individual diagnosis of asthma, rhinitis or eczema. Conclusion Culturable fungi, (1–3, 1–6)-β-D-glucan, and ergosterol in dust were not associated with qualitative markers of indoor dampness or mold or indoor humidity. Furthermore, these agents in dust samples were not associated with any health outcomes in the children. PMID:24016225

  8. Residential culturable fungi, (1-3, 1-6)-β-d-glucan, and ergosterol concentrations in dust are not associated with asthma, rhinitis, or eczema diagnoses in children.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Byrne, S; Larsen, L S; Sigsgaard, T; Thorne, P S; Larsson, L; Sebastian, A; Bornehag, C-G

    2014-04-01

    Qualitative reporting of home indoor moisture problems predicts respiratory diseases. However, causal agents underlying such qualitative markers remain unknown. In the homes of 198 multiple allergic case children and 202 controls in Sweden, we cultivated culturable fungi by directly plating dust, and quantified (1-3, 1-6)-β-D-glucan and ergosterol in dust samples from the child's bedroom. We examined the relationship between these fungal agents and degree of parent or inspector-reported home indoor dampness, and microbiological laboratory's mold index. We also compared the concentrations of these agents between multiple allergic cases and healthy controls, as well as IgE-sensitization among cases. The concentrations of culturable fungal agents were comparable between houses with parent and inspector-reported mold issues and those without. There were no differences in concentrations of the individual or the total summed culturable fungi, (1-3, 1-6)-β-D-glucan, and ergosterol between the controls and the multiple allergic case children, or individual diagnosis of asthma, rhinitis, or eczema. Culturable fungi, (1-3, 1-6)-β-D-glucan, and ergosterol in dust were not associated with qualitative markers of indoor dampness or mold or indoor humidity. Furthermore, these agents in dust samples were not associated with any health outcomes in the children.

  9. Exposure to aerosolized bacteria and fungi among collectors of commercial, mixed residential, recyclable and compostable waste.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jacques; Dunkerley, Christopher J; Kosatsky, Tom; Dufresne, Andre

    2006-10-15

    Biological hazards associated with the collection of solid and compostable waste have not been well characterized in North America. This is an issue because workers who handle such materials may be exposed to bioaerosols (airborne bacteria and fungi) and dusts resulting in infections or allergic diseases. We conducted a personal sampling campaign for culturable bacteria and fungi in the breathing zones of waste collectors in a variety of typical work settings (scenarios) in the province of Quebec, Canada. Total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were analyzed and compared to ambient environmental levels (background) to determine the degree of incremental exposure among workers. In several scenarios, worker exposure counts were significantly (p < or = 0.05) higher than ambient levels measured upwind, with the highest personal exposures to bacteria observed for urban compostable waste collectors (median = 50,300 Colony Forming Units/m(3) of air (CFU/m(3))). On the other hand, fungal counts collected on an every-other-week cycle were highest among a group of rural compostable waste collectors (median = 101,700 CFU/m(3)). Similar exposures to culturable bacteria and fungi have been reported in European workers who showed such adverse health effects as nausea, diarrhea, upper respiratory tract irritation, and allergy. Therefore, it may be necessary to modify certain work practices in order to minimize exposure. Recommendations include automation of waste and compost collection, use of personal protective equipment including goggles, gloves, and disposable masks, and meticulous personal hygiene.

  10. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi--Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine white-rot strains belonging to 38 species of Basidiomycota were evaluated for olive-mill wastewater (OMW) degradation. Almost all fungi caused high total phenolics (>60%) and color (⩽ 70%) reduction, while COD and phytotoxicity decreased to a lesser extent. Culture extracts from selected Agrocybe cylindracea, Inonotus andersonii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor strains showed non-altered physicochemical and enzymatic activity profiles when applied to raw OMW in the presence or absence of commercial catalase, indicating no interaction of the latter with fungal enzymes and no competition for H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide's addition resulted in drastic OMW's decolorization, with no effect on phenolic content, suggesting that oxidation affects colored components, but not necessarily phenolics. When fungal extracts were heat-treated, no phenolics decrease was observed demonstrating thus their enzymatic rather than physicochemical oxidation. Laccases added to OMW were reversibly inhibited by the effluent's high phenolic load, while peroxidases were stable and active during the entire process. PMID:25879179

  11. Characterization of community structure of culturable endophytic fungi in sweet cherry composite trees and their growth-retarding effect against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Haddadderafshi, Neda; Pósa, Tímea Borbála; Péter, Gábor; Gáspár, László; Ladányi, Márta; Hrotkó, Károly; Lukács, Noémi; Halász, Krisztián

    2016-09-01

    Endophytic fungi have the potential to protect their host plants in stress situations. Characterizing the ecology and complex interaction between these endophytes and their host plants is therefore of great practical importance, particularly in horticultural plants. Among horticultural plants, fruit trees form a special category because of their longevity and because they are composites of rootstock and scion, which often belong to different plant species. Here we present the first characterization of culturable endophytic fungal community of sweet cherry. Samples from the Hungarian cultivar 'Petrus' grafted on 11 different rootstocks were collected in autumn and in spring in a bearing orchard and the dependence of colonization rate and endophyte diversity on rootstock, organ and season was analysed. On the basis of their ITS sequences 26 fungal operational taxonomic units were identified at least down to the genus level. The dominant genus, comprising more than 50% of all isolates, was Alternaria, followed by different Fusarium and Epicoccum species. We observed some organ-specificity amongst endophytes, and organs showed more sizeable differences in colonization rates and endophyte diversity than rootstocks. Most dynamic endophyte populations, strongly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management, were observed in leaves. The potential of selected endophytes to confer protection against Monilinia laxa was also analysed and 7 isolates were found to inhibit the growth of this pathogen in vitro.

  12. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi--Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine white-rot strains belonging to 38 species of Basidiomycota were evaluated for olive-mill wastewater (OMW) degradation. Almost all fungi caused high total phenolics (>60%) and color (⩽ 70%) reduction, while COD and phytotoxicity decreased to a lesser extent. Culture extracts from selected Agrocybe cylindracea, Inonotus andersonii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor strains showed non-altered physicochemical and enzymatic activity profiles when applied to raw OMW in the presence or absence of commercial catalase, indicating no interaction of the latter with fungal enzymes and no competition for H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide's addition resulted in drastic OMW's decolorization, with no effect on phenolic content, suggesting that oxidation affects colored components, but not necessarily phenolics. When fungal extracts were heat-treated, no phenolics decrease was observed demonstrating thus their enzymatic rather than physicochemical oxidation. Laccases added to OMW were reversibly inhibited by the effluent's high phenolic load, while peroxidases were stable and active during the entire process.

  13. Characterization of community structure of culturable endophytic fungi in sweet cherry composite trees and their growth-retarding effect against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Haddadderafshi, Neda; Pósa, Tímea Borbála; Péter, Gábor; Gáspár, László; Ladányi, Márta; Hrotkó, Károly; Lukács, Noémi; Halász, Krisztián

    2016-09-01

    Endophytic fungi have the potential to protect their host plants in stress situations. Characterizing the ecology and complex interaction between these endophytes and their host plants is therefore of great practical importance, particularly in horticultural plants. Among horticultural plants, fruit trees form a special category because of their longevity and because they are composites of rootstock and scion, which often belong to different plant species. Here we present the first characterization of culturable endophytic fungal community of sweet cherry. Samples from the Hungarian cultivar 'Petrus' grafted on 11 different rootstocks were collected in autumn and in spring in a bearing orchard and the dependence of colonization rate and endophyte diversity on rootstock, organ and season was analysed. On the basis of their ITS sequences 26 fungal operational taxonomic units were identified at least down to the genus level. The dominant genus, comprising more than 50% of all isolates, was Alternaria, followed by different Fusarium and Epicoccum species. We observed some organ-specificity amongst endophytes, and organs showed more sizeable differences in colonization rates and endophyte diversity than rootstocks. Most dynamic endophyte populations, strongly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management, were observed in leaves. The potential of selected endophytes to confer protection against Monilinia laxa was also analysed and 7 isolates were found to inhibit the growth of this pathogen in vitro. PMID:27630050

  14. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  15. REVIEW OF CONCENTRATION STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR FUNGI IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews and compares existing guidelines for indoor airborne fungi, discusses limitations of existing guidelines, and identifies research needs that should contribute to the development of realistic and useful guidelines for these important air pollutants. (NOTE: Exposu...

  16. Comparison of background levels of culturable fungal spore concentrations in indoor and outdoor air in southeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Luxner, J.; Galler, H.; Zarfel, G.; Schlacher, R.; Friedl, H.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    2014-12-01

    Background concentrations of airborne fungi are indispensable criteria for an assessment of fungal concentrations indoors and in the ambient air. The goal of this study was to define the natural background values of culturable fungal spore concentrations as reference values for the assessment of moldy buildings. The concentrations of culturable fungi were determined outdoors as well as indoors in 185 dwellings without visible mold, obvious moisture problems or musty odor. Samples were collected using the MAS-100® microbiological air sampler. The study shows a characteristic seasonal influence on the background levels of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Cladosporium sp. had a strong outdoor presence, whereas Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were typical indoor fungi. For the region of Styria, the median outdoor concentrations are between 100 and 940 cfu/m³ for culturable xerophilic fungi in the course of the year. Indoors, median background levels are between 180 and 420 cfu/m³ for xerophilic fungi. The I/O ratios of the airborne fungal spore concentrations were between 0.2 and 2.0. For the assessment of indoor and outdoor air samples the dominant genera Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus should receive special consideration.

  17. The potential of a new air cleaner to reduce airborne microorganisms in pig house air: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Bao, Endong; Clauss, Marcus; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for technical solutions to reduce the concentrations of bioaerosols in the air and in the exhaust air of livestock buildings. A prototype of an air washer combined with a UV-irradiation system was positioned in a commercial pig fattening unit to test its efficiency of reducing culturable airborne microorganisms. No significant reduction in airborne bacteria and fungi was observed when untreated air passed through the device. However, when the air washer or the UV-irradiation system was activated, the concentrations of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic aerotolerant cocci were reduced significantly (p < 0.01). Washing the air reduced bacteria by 84 to 96% and the relative reduction due to UV-irradiation ranged between 55 and 90%. The highest relative reduction in airborne bacteria (90 to 99%) was detected when the air washer and the UV-irradiation systems were in simultaneous operation. The concentration of total airborne fungi was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) only when the air was washed and UV-irradiated. Although these preliminary results provided significant and comprehensible findings, long-term studies are required to assess the efficiency of the device in more detail.The combination of air washing and UV-irradiation seem to be a useful technique for abating airborne microorganisms within or emitting from piggery buildings. However, some technical problems remain, such as the deposition of particulate matter on the surface of UV-irradiators and the consumption of fresh water by the air washer. These issues must be resolved before the system may be implemented for general practice. PMID:23540197

  18. The presence of fungi associated with sick building syndrome in North American zoological institutions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S C; Straus, D C

    2002-12-01

    A total of 110 sites from five zoological institutions were examined to determine whether fungi associated with sick building syndrome (SBS) were prevalent in the exhibits or night-time holding facilities and to investigate whether the presence of these organisms was associated with declining breeding rates or increases in morbidity and mortality (or both). Each site was sampled with an Andersen two-stage air sampler using Sabourauds dextrose agar media and a Burkard personal volumetric air sampler. Suspect surfaces were also sampled. High levels of airborne Penicillium chrysogenum, a fungal species associated with poor indoor air quality, were recovered from 16 sites out of all five institutions. Five culturable growth sites of Stachybotrys chartarum, a species strongly associated with SBS and commonly known as "black mold," were recovered from surfaces at two institutions. A wide range of other fungal species was recovered in low numbers from all institutions. A Fisher exact test analysis showed a significant nonrandom association between high levels of P. chrysogenum and sites with records of poor animal health. This study indicated that significant numbers of airborne fungi associated with SBS and poor indoor air quality are present in zoological institutions and that they could affect animal health and reproduction rates and zoo staff.

  19. Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions Are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices

    PubMed Central

    Pellissier, Loïc; Oppliger, Anne; Hirzel, Alexandre H.; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Mbayo, Guilain; Mascher, Fabio; Kellenberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to airborne fungi has been associated with different respiratory symptoms and pathologies in occupational populations, such as grain workers. However, the homogeneity in the fungal species composition of these bioaerosols on a large geographical scale and the different drivers that shape these fungal communities remain unclear. In this study, the diversity of fungi in grain dust and in the aerosols released during harvesting was determined across 96 sites at a geographical scale of 560 km2 along an elevation gradient of 500 m by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Associations between the structure of fungal communities in the grain dust and different abiotic (farming system, soil characteristics, and geographic and climatic parameters) and biotic (wheat cultivar and previous crop culture) factors were explored. These analyses revealed a strong relationship between the airborne and grain dust fungal communities and showed the presence of allergenic and mycotoxigenic species in most samples, which highlights the potential contribution of these fungal species to work-related respiratory symptoms of grain workers. The farming system was the major driver of the alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity values of fungal communities. In addition, elevation and soil CaCO3 concentrations shaped the alpha diversity, whereas wheat cultivar, cropping history, and the number of freezing days per year shaped the taxonomic beta diversity of these communities. PMID:26826229

  20. Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions Are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, Loïc; Oppliger, Anne; Hirzel, Alexandre H; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Mbayo, Guilain; Mascher, Fabio; Kellenberger, Stefan; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exposure to airborne fungi has been associated with different respiratory symptoms and pathologies in occupational populations, such as grain workers. However, the homogeneity in the fungal species composition of these bioaerosols on a large geographical scale and the different drivers that shape these fungal communities remain unclear. In this study, the diversity of fungi in grain dust and in the aerosols released during harvesting was determined across 96 sites at a geographical scale of 560 km(2) along an elevation gradient of 500 m by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Associations between the structure of fungal communities in the grain dust and different abiotic (farming system, soil characteristics, and geographic and climatic parameters) and biotic (wheat cultivar and previous crop culture) factors were explored. These analyses revealed a strong relationship between the airborne and grain dust fungal communities and showed the presence of allergenic and mycotoxigenic species in most samples, which highlights the potential contribution of these fungal species to work-related respiratory symptoms of grain workers. The farming system was the major driver of the alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity values of fungal communities. In addition, elevation and soil CaCO3 concentrations shaped the alpha diversity, whereas wheat cultivar, cropping history, and the number of freezing days per year shaped the taxonomic beta diversity of these communities. PMID:26826229

  1. A culture-based survey of fungi in soil from bat hibernacula in the eastern United States and its implications for detection of Geomyces destructans, the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Gargas, Andrea; Muller, Laura K.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing unprecedented mortality among hibernating bats of eastern North America, has revealed a knowledge gap regarding fungal communities associated with bats and their hibernacula. We used culture-based techniques to investigate the diversity of fungi in soil samples collected from 24 bat hibernacula in the eastern United States. Ribosomal RNA regions (internal transcribed spacer and partial intergenic spacer) were sequenced to preliminarily characterize isolates. Geomyces species were one of the most abundant and diverse groups cultured, representing approximately 33% of all isolates. Geomyces destructans was isolated from soil samples from three hibernacula in states where WNS is known to occur, and many of the other cultured Geomyces isolates likely represent undescribed taxa. Further characterization of the diversity of fungi that occur in hibernacula will both facilitate an improved understanding of the ecology of G. destructans within this complex fungal community and provide an opportunity to identify characteristics that differentiate G. destructans from non-pathogenic relatives.

  2. A culture-based survey of fungi in soil from bat hibernacula in the eastern United States and its implications for detection of Geomyces destructans, the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lindner, Daniel L; Gargas, Andrea; Muller, Laura K; Minnis, Andrew M; Blehert, David S

    2013-01-01

    The recent emergence of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing unprecedented mortality among hibernating bats of eastern North America, has revealed a knowledge gap regarding fungal communities associated with bats and their hibernacula. We used culture-based techniques to investigate the diversity of fungi in soil samples collected from 24 bat hibernacula in the eastern United States. Ribosomal RNA regions (internal transcribed spacer and partial intergenic spacer) were sequenced to preliminarily characterize isolates. Geomyces species were one of the most abundant and diverse groups cultured, representing approximately 33% of all isolates. Geomyces destructans was isolated from soil samples from three hibernacula in states where WNS is known to occur, and many of the other cultured Geomyces isolates likely represent undescribed taxa. Further characterization of the diversity of fungi that occur in hibernacula both will facilitate an improved understanding of the ecology of G. destructans within this complex fungal community and provide an opportunity to identify characteristics that differentiate G. destructans from non-pathogenic relatives. PMID:23074174

  3. Beneficial effect of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth of Eucalyptus globulus co-cultured with Glycine max in soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Cesar A; Herrera, Miguel A; Ocampo, Juan A

    2007-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chlorophyll and N, P and K content of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. growing in soil contaminated by heavy metals in the presence or absence of Glycine max were investigated. Glomus mosseae and Glomus deserticola increased dry weight, shoot length, total N, P and K concentration and the quantity of chlorophyll in E. globulus shoots. The protection of Eucalyptus by AM fungi against the action of the heavy metals was more evident when this plant grew as an intercrop with soybean than as a monoculture. The presence of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii further enhanced shoot dry weight, N, P and K content of AM Eucalyptus. The co-inoculation of Eucalyptus with Glomus deserticola and T. koningii was more effective for Cd uptake. In addition, Glomus deserticola enhanced the amount of Pb absorbed by Eucalyptus plants. We showed that it is important to select the most efficient AM and saprobe fungi to stimulate plant growth in heavy-metal-contaminated soil and that the combination of both plays an important role in metal tolerance of Eucalyptus plants.

  4. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    PubMed

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  5. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    PubMed

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology. PMID:26038303

  6. Lipid biomarker analysis for the quantitative analysis of airborne microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Macnaughton, S.J.; Jenkins, T.L.; Cormier, M.R.

    1997-08-01

    There is an ever increasing concern regarding the presence of airborne microbial contaminants within indoor air environments. Exposure to such biocontaminants can give rise to large numbers of different health effects including infectious diseases, allergenic responses and respiratory problems, Biocontaminants typically round in indoor air environments include bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and dust mites. Mycotoxins, endotoxins, pollens and residues of organisms are also known to cause adverse health effects. A quantitative detection/identification technique independent of culturability that assays both culturable and non culturable biomass including endotoxin is critical in defining risks from indoor air biocontamination. Traditionally, methods employed for the monitoring of microorganism numbers in indoor air environments involve classical culture based techniques and/or direct microscopic counting. It has been repeatedly documented that viable microorganism counts only account for between 0.1-10% of the total community detectable by direct counting. The classic viable microbiologic approach doe`s not provide accurate estimates of microbial fragments or other indoor air components that can act as antigens and induce or potentiate allergic responses. Although bioaerosol samplers are designed to damage the microbes as little as possible, microbial stress has been shown to result from air sampling, aerosolization and microbial collection. Higher collection efficiency results in greater cell damage while less cell damage often results in lower collection efficiency. Filtration can collect particulates at almost 100% efficiency, but captured microorganisms may become dehydrated and damaged resulting in non-culturability, however, the lipid biomarker assays described herein do not rely on cell culture. Lipids are components that are universally distributed throughout cells providing a means to assess independent of culturability.

  7. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  9. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi in the blood, to identify the type present, ... blood cultures to detect and identify bacteria and fungi. Other related tests that may be performed include: ...

  10. Genetics of Cordyceps and related fungi.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peng; Xia, Yongliang; Zhang, Siwei; Wang, Chengshu

    2013-04-01

    Ascomycete Cordyceps sensu lato consists of hundreds of species of fungi capable of infecting different insects. Species of these fungi are either valued traditional Chinese medicines or used for biocontrol of insect pests. Phylogenomic analysis indicated that fungal entomopathogenicity has evolved for multiple times, and the species of Cordyceps were diverged from the mycoparasite or plant endophyte. Relative to plant pathogens and saprophytes, Cordyceps species demonstrate characteristic genome expansions of proteases and chitinases that are used by the fungi to target insect cuticles. Only a single mating-type gene identified in the sequenced species of Cordyceps sensu lato indicates that these fungi are sexually heterothallic, but the gene structure of the mating-type loci and frequency in performing sexual cycle are considerably different between different species. Similar to the model fungus Neurospora crassa, Cordyceps and related fungi contain the full components for RNA interference pathways. However, the mechanism of repeat-induced point mutation varies between different fungi. Epigenetic rather than genetic alterations are majorly responsible for the frequent occurrence of culture degeneration in Cordyceps-related species. Future genetic and epigenetic studies of fungal sexuality controls and culture degeneration mechanisms will benefit the cost-effective applications of Cordyceps and related fungi in pharmaceuticals and agriculture. PMID:23435902

  11. Airborne Fungal and Bacterial Components in PM1 Dust from Biofuel Plants

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olsen, Tina; Sigsgaard, Torben; Avci, Hediye

    2009-01-01

    Fungi grown in pure cultures produce DNA- or RNA-containing particles smaller than spore size (<1.5 μm). High exposures to fungi and bacteria are observed at biofuel plants. Airborne cultivable bacteria are often described to be present in clusters or associated with larger particles with an aerodynamic diameter (dae) of 2–8 μm. In this study, we investigate whether airborne fungal components smaller than spore size are present in bioaerosols in working areas at biofuel plants. Furthermore, we measure the exposure to bacteria and fungal components in airborne particulate matter (PM) with a D50 of 1 μm (called PM1 dust). PM1 was sampled using Triplex cyclones at a working area at 14 Danish biofuel plants. Millipore cassettes were used to sample ‘total dust’. The PM1 particles (29 samples) were analysed for content of 11 different components and the total dust was analysed for cultivable fungi, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucans. In the 29 PM1 samples, cultivable fungi were found in six samples and with a median concentration below detection level. Using microscopy, fungal spores were identified in 22 samples. The components NAGase and (1 → 3)-β-D-glucans, which are mainly associated with fungi, were present in all PM1 samples. Thermophilic actinomycetes were present in 23 of the 29 PM1 samples [average = 739 colony-forming units (CFU) m−3]. Cultivable and ‘total bacteria’ were found in average concentrations of, respectively, 249 CFU m−3 and 1.8 × 105 m−3. DNA- and RNA-containing particles of different lengths were counted by microscopy and revealed a high concentration of particles with a length of 0.5–1.5 μm and only few particles >1.5 μm. The number of cultivable fungi and β-glucan in the total dust correlated significantly with the number of DNA/RNA-containing particles with lengths of between 1.0 and 1.5 μm, with DNA/RNA-containing particles >1.5 μm, and with other fungal components in PM1

  12. A new diimide derivative from the co-culture broth of two mangrove fungi (strain no. E33 and K38).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yuan; Ding, Wei-Jia; Shao, Chang-Lun; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

    2010-09-01

    A new diimide derivative, named (-)-byssochlamic acid bisdiimide (1), was isolated from the mixed broth of two mangrove fungi (strain no. K38 and E33) from the South China sea coast. The structure of 1 was determined by comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and semi-synthesis. Primary bioassays showed that 1 had weak cytotoxic activity against Hep-2 and HepG2 cells.

  13. Antagonism of some aquatic hyphomycetes against plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Sati, S C; Arya, P

    2010-01-01

    The antagonistic activity of five aquatic hyphomycetes, viz., Heliscus lugdunensis, Tetrachaetum elegans, Tetracladium breve, T. marchalianum, and T. nainitalense, against seven plant pathogenic fungi was studied using a dual culture technique. Inhibitory activity of tested aquatic hyphomycetes was determined by measuring the radial growth of plant pathogenic fungi on dual culture plates. Tetrachaetum elegans showed antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum falcatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Pyricularia oryzae, Sclerotium sclerotiorum, and Tilletia indica. Heliscus lugdunensis showed antagonism against only two plant pathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotrichum falcatum. Tetracladium breve, T. marchalianum, and T. nainitalense showed no response towards tested plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:20454756

  14. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20°C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62°C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45°C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62°C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and cellulase have been cloned and

  15. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  16. Biosynthesis, characterization and biological evalutation of Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes of neoaspergillic acid, a hydroxamate siderophore produced by co-cultures of two marine-derived mangrove epiphytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Wu, Jingshu; Chen, Guangying; Lu, Weihong; Pan, Jiahui

    2011-08-01

    A hydroxamate siderophore, neoaspergillic acid (1), and a red pigment, ferrineoaspergillin (2) which is an Fe(III) complex of 1, were produced by co-cultures of two epiphytic fungi from a rotten fruit of the mangrove Avicennia marina from the South China Sea, and a new Cu(II) complex of 1, designated as cuprineoaspergillin (3), was also prepared by treatment of 1 with cupric acetate. All the compounds (1-3) were characterized by physical and chemical techniques, including 1H NMR, ESIMS, and photoelectron energy spectra. In the bioassays, compounds 1-3 showed significant inhibitory activities against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and compound 1 also exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against human cancer cell lines SPC-A-1, BEL-7402, SGC-7901 and K562.

  17. Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of an Alveolar Epithelial Cell Line to Airborne Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface: A Comparison with Conventional, Submerged Cell-Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Karg, Erwin; Brendel, Ellen; Hinze-Heyn, Helga; Maier, Konrad L.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stoeger, Tobias; Schmid, Otmar

    2013-01-01

    The biological effects of inhalable nanoparticles have been widely studied in vitro with pulmonary cells cultured under submerged and air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions. Submerged exposures are experimentally simpler, but ALI exposures are physiologically more realistic and hence potentially biologically more meaningful. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of human alveolar epithelial-like cells (A549) to airborne agglomerates of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles at the ALI, compared it to the response under submerged culture conditions, and provided a quantitative comparison with the literature data on different types of particles and cells. For ZnO nanoparticle doses of 0.7 and 2.5 μg ZnO/cm2 (or 0.09 and 0.33 cm2 ZnO/cm2), cell viability was not mitigated and no significant effects on the transcript levels of oxidative stress markers (HMOX1, SOD-2 and GCS) were observed. However, the transcript levels of proinflammatory markers (IL-8, IL-6, and GM-CSF) were induced to higher levels under ALI conditions. This is consistent with the literature data and it suggests that in vitro toxicity screening of nanoparticles with ALI cell culture systems may produce less false negative results than screening with submerged cell cultures. However, the database is currently too scarce to draw a definite conclusion on this issue. PMID:23484138

  18. [Species composition of food-spoiling mycelial fungi].

    PubMed

    Feofilova, E P; Kuznetsova, L S; Sergeeva, Ia E; Galanina, L A

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the composition of the microflora that spoils foodstuffs (the surface of hard cheeses and sausages) at agribusiness factories. Mycelial fungi, mostly ascomycetes of the order Eurotiales belonging to the genus Penicillium play the main role in spoiling food. Most representatives of these fungi are mesophiles and possess the capacity for utilizing nutrient substrates in surface and submerged cultures.

  19. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  20. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    PubMed

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  1. Natural plasmids of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, A J

    1995-01-01

    Among eukaryotes, plasmids have been found in fungi and plants but not in animals. Most plasmids are mitochondrial. In filamentous fungi, plasmids are commonly encountered in isolates from natural populations. Individual populations may show a predominance of one type, but some plasmids have a global distribution, often crossing species boundaries. Surveys have shown that strains can contain more than one type of plasmid and that different types appear to be distributed independently. In crosses, plasmids are generally inherited maternally. Horizontal transmission is by cell contact. Circular plasmids are common only in Neurospora spp., but linear plasmids have been found in many fungi. Circular plasmids have one open reading frame (ORF) coding for a DNA polymerase or a reverse transcriptase. Linear plasmids generally have two ORFs, coding for presumptive DNA and RNA polymerases with amino acid motifs showing homology to viral polymerases. Plasmids often attain a high copy number, in excess of that of mitochondrial DNA. Linear plasmids have a protein attached to their 5' end, and this is presumed to act as a replication primer. Most plasmids are neutral passengers, but several linear plasmids integrate into mitochondrial DNA, causing death of the host culture. Inferred amino acid sequences of linear plasmid ORFs have been used to plot phylogenetic trees, which show a fair concordance with conventional trees. The circular Neurospora plasmids have replication systems that seem to be evolutionary intermediates between the RNA and the DNA worlds. PMID:8531891

  2. Endophytic fungi as a source of biofuel precursors.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fo, Florisvaldo; Fill, Taicia Pacheco; Nakamura, Joanita; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2011-07-01

    Endophytic fungi, isolated from a number of different species of tropical plants, were investigated for lipid biodiesel precursor production. The extracts produced from liquid cultures of these fungi were subjected to acidcatalyzed transesterification reactions with methanol producing methyl esters and then analyzed through chromatographic (GC-FID) and spectrometric techniques (MS, NMR ¹H). The European Standard Method, EN 14103, was used for the quantification of methyl esters extracted from the fungi of the species and genera studied. Xylariaceous fungi exhibited the highest concentrations of methyl esters (91%), and hence may be a promising source for biofuel.

  3. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. PMID:26725152

  4. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group.

  5. Evaluation of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for the detection of fungi directly from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with suspected invasive mycoses.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Roberto Moreira; Da Silva Neto, João Ricardo; Santos, Carla Silvana; Frickmann, Hagen; Poppert, Sven; Cruz, Kátia Santana; Koshikene, Daniela; De Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2015-01-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of in-house FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation) procedures for the direct identification of invasive fungal infections in blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and to compare these FISH results with those obtained using traditional microbiological techniques and PCR targeting of the ITS1 region of the rRNA gene. In total, 112 CSF samples and 30 positive blood cultures were investigated by microscopic examination, culture, PCR-RFLP and FISH. The sensitivity of FISH for fungal infections in CSF proved to be slightly better than that of conventional microscopy (India ink) under the experimental conditions, detecting 48 (instead of 46) infections in 112 samples. The discriminatory powers of traditional microbiology, PCR-RFLP and FISH for fungal bloodstream infections were equivalent, with the detection of 14 fungal infections in 30 samples. However, the mean times to diagnosis after the detection of microbial growth by automated blood culture systems were 5 hours, 20 hours and 6 days for FISH, PCR-RFLP and traditional microbiology, respectively. The results demonstrate that FISH is a valuable tool for the identification of invasive mycoses that can be implemented in the diagnostic routine of hospital laboratories.

  6. Fungi, Water Supply and Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Costa, Damien; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Even though it has been studied for many years, water-related infectious risk still exists in both care and community environments due to the possible presence of numerous microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protists. People can be exposed directly to these microorganisms either through aerosols and water, after ingestion, inhalation, skin contact and entry through mucosal membranes, or indirectly usually due to pre-treatment of some medical devices. Species belonging to genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pseudallesheria, Fusarium, Cuninghamella, Mucor and in some particular cases Candida have been isolated in water from health facilities and their presence is particularly related to the unavoidable formation of a polymicrobial biofilm in waterlines. Fungi isolation methods are based on water filtration combined with conventional microbiology cultures and/or molecular approaches; unfortunately, these are still poorly standardized. Moreover, due to inappropriate culture media and inadequate sampling volumes, the current standardized methods used for bacterial research are not suitable for fungal search. In order to prevent water-related fungal risk, health facilities have implemented measures such as ultraviolet radiation to treat the input network, continuous chemical treatment, chemical or thermal shock treatments, or microfiltration at points of use. This article aims to provide an overview of fungal colonization of water (especially in hospitals), involvement of biofilms that develop in waterlines and application of preventive strategies. PMID:27167410

  7. Fungi, Water Supply and Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Costa, Damien; Imbert, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Even though it has been studied for many years, water-related infectious risk still exists in both care and community environments due to the possible presence of numerous microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protists. People can be exposed directly to these microorganisms either through aerosols and water, after ingestion, inhalation, skin contact and entry through mucosal membranes, or indirectly usually due to pre-treatment of some medical devices. Species belonging to genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pseudallesheria, Fusarium, Cuninghamella, Mucor and in some particular cases Candida have been isolated in water from health facilities and their presence is particularly related to the unavoidable formation of a polymicrobial biofilm in waterlines. Fungi isolation methods are based on water filtration combined with conventional microbiology cultures and/or molecular approaches; unfortunately, these are still poorly standardized. Moreover, due to inappropriate culture media and inadequate sampling volumes, the current standardized methods used for bacterial research are not suitable for fungal search. In order to prevent water-related fungal risk, health facilities have implemented measures such as ultraviolet radiation to treat the input network, continuous chemical treatment, chemical or thermal shock treatments, or microfiltration at points of use. This article aims to provide an overview of fungal colonization of water (especially in hospitals), involvement of biofilms that develop in waterlines and application of preventive strategies.

  8. Oxidative stress in industrial fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Harvey, Linda M; McNeil, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Fungi are amongst the most industrially important microorganisms in current use within the biotechnology industry. Most such fungal cultures are highly aerobic in nature, a character that has been frequently referred to in both reactor design and fungal physiology. The most fundamentally significant outcome of the highly aerobic growth environment in fermenter vessels is the need for the fungal culture to effectively combat in the intracellular environment the negative consequences of high oxygen transfer rates. The use of oxygen as the respiratory substrate is frequently reported to lead to the development of oxidative stress, mainly due to oxygen-derived free radicals, which are collectively termed as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there has been extensive research on the occurrence, extent, and consequences of oxidative stress in microorganisms, and the underlying mechanisms through which cells prevent and repair the damage caused by ROS. In the present study, we critically review the current understanding of oxidative stress events in industrially relevant fungi. The review first describes the current state of knowledge of ROS concisely, and then the various antioxidant strategies employed by fungal cells to counteract the deleterious effects, together with their implications in fungal bioprocessing are also discussed. Finally, some recommendations for further research are made. PMID:19514862

  9. [Antibiotic activity of some fungi].

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Ia I; Tsyganenko, K S; Zaĭchenko, O M

    2013-01-01

    Biological activity of pure extracts of cultural filtrates of Aspergillus niveus 2411, Myrothecium cinctum 910, Ulocladium consortiale 960, Penicillium sp. 10-51 concerning wide spectrum of test-organisms was investigated. It was shown that the extracts had high levels of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms, especially against Bacillus genus. But their activity against Gram-negative bacteria was a bit lower. On the other hand, metabolites of M. cinctum 910 and Penicillium sp. 10-51 did show the activity concerning phytopathogenic bacteria. Extracts of fungi showed fungistatic activity against yeasts, but they were not so active concerning fungal test-cultures. Extracts of A. niveus 2411, Penicillium sp. 10-51 suppressed the growth of Phoma betae. The highest level of fungistatic activity was shown by metabolites of M. cinctum 910. They showed activity against Aspergillus genus strains and phytopathogenic isolates of Fusarium lactis, Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea. PMID:24479314

  10. Adaptive immunity to fungi.

    PubMed

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce

    2014-11-06

    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases.

  11. Adaptive immunity to fungi.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George S; Klein, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of the more than 100,000 fungal species on our planet cause disease in humans, yet the number of life-threatening fungal infections in patients has recently skyrocketed as a result of advances in medical care that often suppress immunity intensely. This emerging crisis has created pressing needs to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi, with the ultimate goal of therapeutic applications. Herein, we describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses deployed against pathogenic fungi. The review focuses on adaptive immune responses to the major medically important fungi and emphasizes how dendritic cells and subsets in various anatomic compartments respond to fungi, recognize their molecular patterns, and signal responses that nurture and shape the differentiation of T cell subsets and B cells. Also emphasized is how the latter deploy effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these nasty invaders while also constraining collateral damage to vital tissue.

  12. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  13. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A; Després, Viviane R; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 microm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

  14. Production of arachidonic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid from glycerol by oil-producing filamentous fungi, Mortierella in the ARS culture collection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ching T

    2008-06-01

    The filamentous fungi of the genus Mortierella are known to produce arachidonic acid from glucose, and the species alpina is currently used in industrial production of arachidonic acid in Japan. In anticipation of a large excess of the co-product glycerol from the national biodiesel program, we are trying to find new uses for bioglycerin. We screened 12 Mortierella species: M. alpina NRRL 6302, M. claussenii NRRL 2760, M. elongata NRRL 5246, M. epigama NRRL 5512, M. humilis NRRL 6369, M. hygrophila NRRL 2591, M. minutissima NRRL 6462, M. multidivaricata NRRL 6456, M. nantahalensis NRRL 5216, M. parvispora NRRL 2941, M. sepedonioides NRRL 6425, and M. zychae NRRL 2592 for their production of arachidonic acid (AA) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) from glycerol. With glucose as substrate all of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA. The total fatty acid content of 125 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and fatty acid composition for AA (19.63%) and DGLA (5.95%) in the mycelia of M. alpina grown on glucose were comparable with those reported by Takeno et al. (Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5124-5128, 2005). With glycerol as substrate all species tested grew on glycerol and produced AA and DGLA except M. nantahalensis NRRL 5216, which could not grow on glycerol. The amount of AA and DGLA produced were comparable with those obtained with glucose-grown mycelia. The top five AA producers (mg AA/CDW) from glycerol were in the following order: M. parvispora>M. claussenii>M. alpina>M. zychae>M. minutissima. The top five dry mycelia weights were: M. zychae>M. epigama>M. hygrophila>M. humilis>M. minutissima. The top five species for total fatty acids production (mg/g CDW) were: M. claussenii>M. parvispora>M. minutissima>M. hygrophila>M. maltidivaricata. We selected two species, M. alpina and M. zychae for further studies with glycerol substrate. Their optimum production conditions were determined. Time course studies showed that the maximum cell growth and AA production for both

  15. Clonal reproduction in fungi.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John W; Hann-Soden, Christopher; Branco, Sara; Sylvain, Iman; Ellison, Christopher E

    2015-07-21

    Research over the past two decades shows that both recombination and clonality are likely to contribute to the reproduction of all fungi. This view of fungi is different from the historical and still commonly held view that a large fraction of fungi are exclusively clonal and that some fungi have been exclusively clonal for hundreds of millions of years. Here, we first will consider how these two historical views have changed. Then we will examine the impact on fungal research of the concept of restrained recombination [Tibayrenc M, Ayala FJ (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (48):E3305-E3313]. Using animal and human pathogenic fungi, we examine extrinsic restraints on recombination associated with bottlenecks in genetic variation caused by geographic dispersal and extrinsic restraints caused by shifts in reproductive mode associated with either disease transmission or hybridization. Using species of the model yeast Saccharomyces and the model filamentous fungus Neurospora, we examine intrinsic restraints on recombination associated with mating systems that range from strictly clonal at one extreme to fully outbreeding at the other and those that lie between, including selfing and inbreeding. We also consider the effect of nomenclature on perception of reproductive mode and a means of comparing the relative impact of clonality and recombination on fungal populations. Last, we consider a recent hypothesis suggesting that fungi thought to have the most severe intrinsic constraints on recombination actually may have the fewest.

  16. Clonal reproduction in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John W.; Hann-Soden, Christopher; Branco, Sara; Sylvain, Iman; Ellison, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past two decades shows that both recombination and clonality are likely to contribute to the reproduction of all fungi. This view of fungi is different from the historical and still commonly held view that a large fraction of fungi are exclusively clonal and that some fungi have been exclusively clonal for hundreds of millions of years. Here, we first will consider how these two historical views have changed. Then we will examine the impact on fungal research of the concept of restrained recombination [Tibayrenc M, Ayala FJ (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (48):E3305–E3313]. Using animal and human pathogenic fungi, we examine extrinsic restraints on recombination associated with bottlenecks in genetic variation caused by geographic dispersal and extrinsic restraints caused by shifts in reproductive mode associated with either disease transmission or hybridization. Using species of the model yeast Saccharomyces and the model filamentous fungus Neurospora, we examine intrinsic restraints on recombination associated with mating systems that range from strictly clonal at one extreme to fully outbreeding at the other and those that lie between, including selfing and inbreeding. We also consider the effect of nomenclature on perception of reproductive mode and a means of comparing the relative impact of clonality and recombination on fungal populations. Last, we consider a recent hypothesis suggesting that fungi thought to have the most severe intrinsic constraints on recombination actually may have the fewest. PMID:26195774

  17. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    PubMed

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  18. [Airborne fungal community composition in indoor environments in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhi-guo; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Liu, Peng; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiao-yong

    2013-05-01

    Indoor environmental quality has significant effects on human health. It is reported that adults in China spent about 80%-90% of their time in indoor environments, and a number of physically handicapped people such as the elderly and infants stayed in the room even up to 95% of their total time. Moreover, air conditioner in indoor environments becomes more and more important in modern life, and a closed circulatory system can be formed among human body, room and air conditioner in indoor environments with an air conditioner, which can make the microbes such as bacteria, viruses and mold indoors propagate rapidly or abundantly. Therefore, studies on the microbial pollution in the air at places such as mall, classroom, office, and family home have been the research hotspots recently. In the present study, the community composition and concentration variation pattern of airborne fungi were investigated from Nov 2009 to Oct 2010 in 31 family homes with children in Beijing. Results showed that 24 generas of airborne fungi in family homes were identified from 225 isolates. The most common fungi were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Phoma. The frequency of Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Monilia was much higher than those of other fungal genera in family home, and the frequency of Penicillium was more than 90%. As for the concentration percentage, airborne fungi with most high concentrations were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, No-sporing, and Alternaria, and totally accounted for more than 65.0%. Penicillium contributed to 32.2% of the total airborne fungi in family homes. In the 31 family homes selected, the fungal concentration in the air ranged from 62-3 498 CFU x m(-3), and the mean concentration was 837 CFU x m(-3). Seasonal variation pattern of total fungi, and Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria concentration was consistent, and the highest fungal concentration was observed in summer, followed by spring and

  19. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  20. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  1. Respiratory protection provided by N95 filtering facepiece respirators against airborne dust and microorganisms in agricultural farms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-An; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A; McKay, Roy; Shukla, Rakesh; Zeigler, Haoyue Li; Reponen, Tiina

    2005-11-01

    A new system was used to determine the workplace protection factors (WPF) for dust and bioaerosols in agricultural environments. The field study was performed with a subject wearing an N95 filtering facepiece respirator while performing animal feeding, grain harvesting and unloading, and routine investigation of facilities. As expected, the geometric means (GM) of the WPFs increased with increasing particle size ranging from 21 for 0.7-1 microm particles to 270 for 5-10 microm particles (p < 0.001). The WPF for total culturable fungi (GM = 35) was significantly greater than for total culturable bacteria (GM = 9) (p = 0.01). Among the different microorganism groups, the WPFs of Cladosporium, culturable fungi, and total fungi were significantly correlated with the WPFs of particles of the same sizes. As compared with the WPFs for dust particles, the WPFs for bioaerosols were found more frequently below 10, which is a recommended assigned protection factor (APF) for N95 filtering facepiece respirators. More than 50% of the WPFs for microorganisms (mean aerodynamic diameter < 5 microm) were less than the proposed APF of 10. Even lower WPFs were calculated after correcting for dead space and lung deposition. Thus, the APF of 10 for N95 filtering facepiece respirators seems inadequate against microorganisms (mean aerodynamic size < 5 microm). These results provide useful pilot data to establish guidelines for respiratory protection against airborne dust and microorganisms on agricultural farms. The method is a promising tool for further epidemiological and intervention studies in agricultural and other similar occupational and nonoccupational environments. PMID:16234218

  2. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:27131325

  3. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests.

  4. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age≥16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

  5. Bioprospecting--fuels from fungi.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Gary Allan

    2015-05-01

    The world has a continuing demand and utility for liquid fuels to power its societies. The utilization of crude oil based fuels is leading to a dramatic increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere which is being related to a dangerously warming earth. Having liquid fuels that are derived from biological sources is one solution to this growing problem since the carbon being utilized is only from recycled sources. Presently, the microbes, having the greatest impact on the world's economies, producing liquid fuel are various yeasts producing ethanol. Other microbial sources need to be sought since ethanol is not the most desirable fuel and yeasts require simple sugars to carry out the fermentation processes. Recently, several endophytic fungi have been described that make hydrocarbons with fuel potential (Mycodiesel). Among others the compounds found in the volatile phases of these cultures include alkanes, branched alkanes, cyclohexanes, cyclopentanes, and alkyl alcohols/ketones, benzenes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Most importantly, generally these organisms make hydrocarbons while utilizing complex carbohydrates found in all plant-based agricultural wastes. Also discussed in this review is a rationale for finding hydrocarbon producing endophytes as well as examples of other promising hydrocarbon producers-Nodulisporium spp. which make 1,8-cineole and families of other hydrocarbons. Extremely favorable results of engine and fuel testing experiments recently completed on cineole and other products of Nodulisporium sp. are also presented. Finally, there is a brief discussion on the main limiting steps in the domestication of these fungi.

  6. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  7. Mycotoxins of Aspergillus fumigatus in pure culture and in native bioaerosols from compost facilities.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Müller, T; Ostrowski, R; Dott, W

    1999-04-01

    Exposure to secondary metabolites of airborne fungi in waste handling facilities is discussed in regard to potential toxic impacts on human health. The relevance of mycotoxins has been intensely studied in connection with contamination of food and feed. Toxic secondary metabolites are expected to be present in airborne spores, but exposure to mycotoxins in bioaerosols has not been studied sufficiently. Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most frequent species in the air of compost plants. A wide range of secondary metabolites was found in pure cultures of freshly isolated strains of A. fumigatus. Tryptoquivaline, a compound with tremorgenic properties, and trypacidin, for which no toxic properties are described, were found in native bioaerosols in a compost facility. The highly toxic metabolites gliotoxin and verruculogen were not found in the bioaerosols. PMID:10101846

  8. Fungi in Bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadd, G. M.

    2001-12-01

    Bioremediation research has concentrated on organic pollutants, although the range of substances that can be transformed or detoxified by microorganisms includes both natural and synthetic organic materials and inorganic pollutants. The majority of applications developed to date involve bacteria, with a distinct lack of appreciation of the potential roles and involvement of fungi in bioremediation, despite clear evidence of their metabolic and morphological versatility. This book highlights the potential of filamentous fungi, including mycorrhizas, in bioremediation and discusses the physiology and chemistry of pollutant transformations.

  9. CARBOHYDRATE USE AND ASSIMILATION BY LITTER AND SOIL FUNGI ASSESSED BY CARBON ISOTOPES AND BIOLOG ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil fungi are integral to decomposition in forests, yet identification of probable functional roles of different taxa is problematic. Here, we compared carbohydrate assimilation patterns derived from stable isotope analyses on cultures with those produced from cultures on Biolo...

  10. REGULATION OF COAL POLYMER DEGRADATION BY FUNGI

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-11-30

    A variety of lignin degrading fungi mediate solubilization and subsequent biodegradation of coal macromolecules (a.k.a. coal polymer) from highly oxidized low rank coals such as leonardites. It appears that oxalate or possibly other metal chelators (i.e., certain Krebs Cycle intermediates) mediate solubilization of low rank coals while extracellular oxidases have a role in subsequent oxidation of solubilized coal macromolecule. These processes are under nutritional control. For example, in the case of P. chrysosporium, solubilization of leonardite occurred when the fungi were cultured on most but not all nutrient agars tested and subsequent biodegradation occurred only in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures. Lignin peroxidases mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule in a reaction that is dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic evidence suggests that veratryl alcohol is oxidized to the veratryl alcohol cation radical which then mediates oxidation of the coal macromolecule. Results by others suggest that Mn peroxidases mediate formation of reactive Mn{sup 3+} complexes which also mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule. A biomimetic approach was used to study solubilization of a North Dakota leonardite. It was found that a concentration {approximately}75 mM sodium oxalate was optimal for solubilization of this low rank coal. This is important because this is well above the concentration of oxalate produced by fungi in liquid culture. Higher local concentrations probably occur in solid agar cultures and thus may account for the observation that greater solubilization occurs in agar media relative to liquid media. The characteristics of biomimetically solubilized leonardite were similar to those of biologically solubilized leonardite. Perhaps our most interesting observation was that in addition to oxalate, other common Lewis bases (phosphate/hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate/carbonate ions) are able to mediate

  11. Fun with Fungi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  12. [Fungi at the beach].

    PubMed

    Szepetiuk, G; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2010-01-01

    Fungi responsible for dermatomycoses survive in a resting phase inside diverse parts of the environment. Sand in the wet, partly wet and dry portions of the beaches frequently contains dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds. These microorganisms possibly infect skin and nails during summertime.

  13. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  14. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  15. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  16. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  17. [Airborne Fungal Aerosol Concentration and Distribution Characteristics in Air- Conditioned Wards].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ling; Feng, He-hua; Fang, Zi-liang; Wang, Ben-dong; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of airborne fungus on human health in the hospital environment are related to not only their genera and concentrations, but also their particle sizes and distribution characteristics. Moreover, the mechanisms of aerosols with different particle sizes on human health are different. Fungal samples were obtained in medicine wards of Chongqing using a six-stage sampler. The airborne fungal concentrations, genera and size distributions of all the sampling wards were investigated and identified in detail. Results showed that airborne fungal concentrations were not correlated to the diseases or personnel density, but were related to seasons, temperature, and relative humidity. The size distribution rule had roughly the same for testing wards in winter and summer. The size distributions were not related with diseases and seasons, the percentage of airborne fungal concentrations increased gradually from stage I to stage III, and then decreased dramatically from stage V to stage VI, in general, the size of airborne fungi was a normal distribution. There was no markedly difference for median diameter of airborne fungi which was less 3.19 μm in these wards. There were similar dominant genera in all wards. They were Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp and Alternaria spp. Therefore, attention should be paid to improve the filtration efficiency of particle size of 1.1-4.7 μm for air conditioning system of wards. It also should be targeted to choose appropriate antibacterial methods and equipment for daily hygiene and air conditioning system operation management.

  18. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  19. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  20. Sex in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Min; Feretzaki, Marianna; Sun, Sheng; Wang, Xuying; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction enables genetic exchange in eukaryotic organisms as diverse as fungi, animals, plants, and ciliates. Given its ubiquity, sex is thought to have evolved once, possibly concomitant with or shortly after the origin of eukaryotic organisms themselves. The basic principles of sex are conserved, including ploidy changes, the formation of gametes via meiosis, mate recognition, and cell-cell fusion leading to the production of a zygote. Although the basic tenants are shared, sex determination and sexual reproduction occur in myriad forms throughout nature, including outbreeding systems with more than two mating types or sexes, unisexual selfing, and even examples in which organisms switch mating type. As robust and diverse genetic models, fungi provide insights into the molecular nature of sex, sexual specification, and evolution to advance our understanding of sexual reproduction and its impact throughout the eukaryotic tree of life. PMID:21942368

  1. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  2. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  3. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them.

  4. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani’s, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them. PMID:24948912

  5. Functional diversity in resource use by fungi.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Krista L; Bent, Elizabeth; Borneman, James; Majumder, Arundhati; Allison, Steven D; Tresederi, Kathleen K

    2010-08-01

    Fungi influence nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, as they are major regulators of decomposition and soil respiration. However, little is known about the substrate preferences of individual fungal species outside of laboratory culture studies. If active fungi differ in their substrate preferences in situ, then changes in fungal diversity due to global change may dramatically influence nutrient cycling in ecosystems. To test the responses of individual fungal taxa to specific substrates, we used a nucleotide-analogue procedure in the boreal forest of Alaska (USA). Specifically, we added four organic N compounds commonly found in plant litter (arginine, glutamate, lignocellulose, and tannin-protein) to litterbags filled with decomposed leaf litter (black spruce and aspen) and assessed the responses of active fungal species using qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction), oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes, and sequencing. We also compared the sequences from our experiment with a concurrent warming experiment to see if active fungi that targeted more recalcitrant compounds would respond more positively to soil warming. We found that individual fungal taxa responded differently to substrate additions and that active fungal communities were different across litter types (spruce vs. aspen). Active fungi that targeted lignocellulose also responded positively to experimental warming. Additionally, resource-use patterns in different fungal taxa were genetically correlated, suggesting that it may be possible to predict the ecological function of active fungal communities based on genetic information. Together, these results imply that fungi are functionally diverse and that reductions in fungal diversity may have consequences for ecosystem functioning.

  6. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  7. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  8. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  9. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  10. Mycorrhizal fungi of Vanilla: diversity, specificity and effects on seed germination and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Bayman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the germination of orchid seeds. However, the specificity of orchids for their mycorrhizal fungi and the effects of the fungi on orchid growth are controversial. Mycorrhizal fungi have been studied in some temperate and tropical, epiphytic orchids, but the symbionts of tropical, terrestrial orchids are still unknown. Here we study diversity, specificity and function of mycorrhizal fungi in Vanilla, a pantropical genus that is both terrestrial and epiphytic. Mycorrhizal roots were collected from four Vanilla species in Puerto Rico, Costa Rica and Cuba. Cultured and uncultured mycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA (nrITS) and part of the mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU), and by counting number of nuclei in hyphae. Vanilla spp. were associated with a wide range of mycorrhizal fungi: Ceratobasidium, Thanatephorus and Tulasnella. Related fungi were found in different species of Vanilla, although at different relative frequencies. Ceratobasidium was more common in roots in soil and Tulasnella was more common in roots on tree bark, but several clades of fungi included strains from both substrates. Relative frequencies of genera of mycorrhizal fungi differed significantly between cultured fungi and those detected by direct amplification. Ceratobasidium and Tulasnella were tested for effects on seed germination of Vanilla and effects on growth of Vanilla and Dendrobium plants. We found significant differences among fungi in effects on seed germination and plant growth. Effects of mycorrhizal fungi on Vanilla and Dendrobium were similar: a clade of Ceratobasidium had a consistently positive effect on plant growth and seed germination. This clade has potential use in germination and propagation of orchids. Results confirmed that a single orchid species can be associated with several mycorrhizal fungi with different functional consequences for the plant.

  11. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel I; Miletto, Marzia; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea). Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins of the indoor

  12. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel I; Miletto, Marzia; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea). Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins of the indoor

  13. The Diversity and Distribution of Fungi on Residential Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel I.; Miletto, Marzia; Taylor, John W.; Bruns, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. “Weedy” genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents’ foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea). Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear – to varying degrees – to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins of the

  14. Mechanisms of humic substances degradation by fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Hadar, Y.; Grinhut, T.

    2012-04-01

    . These strains were used throughout this study. This research shows that WRF are able to degrade different HA and under different culture conditions. We found that significant degradation occurred in high C/N media - conditions which are commonly present in the natural habitats of WRF. We suggest that in addition to lignin, these fungi play a crucial role during HS degradation in the environment. This work raises additional questions that are worth investigating in the future: what is the role of these fungi in dissolved organic matter degradation and its relationship to HA degradation? What is the detailed mechanism of iron reduction in Trametes sp. M23 as well as in other WRF? What is the exact involvement of hydroxyl radicals during degradation and what are the mechanisms of H2O2 production in Trametes sp. M23?

  15. Fusarium toxins and fungi associated with handling of grain on eight Finnish farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Sanna; Nikulin, Marjo; Berg, Seija; Parikka, Päivi; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa

    Farmers' exposure to airborne dust, fungi and possibly also to Fusarium toxins during the drying and milling of grain and feeding of cattle was studied on eight Finnish farms. Airborne viable and total spores were collected on polycarbonate filters. Spore concentrations and fungal flora were determined by cultivation and epifluorescence microscope counting. Eighteen airborne dust samples were taken on glass-fiber filters with a high-volume sampler, and biological toxicity was tested from those samples. In toxic dust samples, Fusarium toxins were analyzed with a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Fungi and Fusarium toxins were also analyzed in ten grain samples collected from the farms during the air sampling. Yeasts, as well as species of Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Absidia and Fusarium occurred in the air at all three stages of grain handling. Airborne spore concentrations ranged from 103 to 10 6 cfu m -3 for viable fungi and from 10 5 to 10 7 spores m -3 for total spores; airborne dust concentrations varied from 0.04 to 81.1 mg m -3. Low deoxynivalenol concentrations (3 and 20 ng m -3) were found in two air samples collected during milling. Fusarium spp. were identified in eight grain samples, and DON concentrations of 0.004-11 mg kg -1 were detected in all samples analyzed. Although any conclusion on Finnish farmers' exposure to mycotoxins cannot be done on the basis of this small data, it can be assumed that toxigenic fungi and Fusarium toxins may occur in the air and inhalation exposure of farmers to Fusarium toxins is possible in agricultural environment.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties.

  17. The isolation of fungi from laboratory dental pumice.

    PubMed

    Williams, H N; Falkler, W A; Smith, A G; Hasler, J F

    1986-12-01

    Samples of used dental laboratory pumice from the two dental laboratories were cultured for the isolation of fungi. The resulting supernatant fluid from sedimentation of each pumice sample after suspension in sterile saline was serially diluted and plated onto Sabouraud agar. After incubation, fungal colonies observed were enumerated, isolated, and identified. The mean number of fungal colonies recovered from 10 pumice samples in laboratories I and II was 51.0 X 10(2) and 22.6 X 10(2), respectively. In both laboratories the predominant fungi recovered were Aspergillus niger and Fusarium sp. Other fungi recovered included Cephalosporium and Penicillium species and A. flavus. Many of these organisms have been involved in human disease. It is suggested that the presence of fungi in used dental laboratory pumice presents an unhygienic condition in the dental laboratory and may place dental laboratory technicians and denture patients at increased risk of fungal sensitization and disease.

  18. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  19. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi. PMID:25192611

  20. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi.

  1. Rapid System to Quantitatively Characterize the Airborne Microbial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macnaughton, Sarah J.

    1998-01-01

    Bioaerosols have been linked to a wide range of different allergies and respiratory illnesses. Currently, microorganism culture is the most commonly used method for exposure assessment. Such culture techniques, however, generally fail to detect between 90-99% of the actual viable biomass. Consequently, an unbiased technique for detecting airborne microorganisms is essential. In this Phase II proposal, a portable air sampling device his been developed for the collection of airborne microbial biomass from indoor (and outdoor) environments. Methods were evaluated for extracting and identifying lipids that provide information on indoor air microbial biomass, and automation of these procedures was investigated. Also, techniques to automate the extraction of DNA were explored.

  2. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Leff, Jonathan W; Pollard, Katherine S; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Robert R; Fierer, Noah

    2015-05-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  3. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Barberán, Albert; Ladau, Joshua; Pollard, Katherine S.; Menninger, Holly L.; Dunn, Robert R.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for centuries that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, where they are capable of long-distance dispersal. Likewise, it is well-established that these airborne bacteria and fungi can have myriad effects on human health, as well as the health of plants and livestock. However, we have a limited understanding of how these airborne communities vary across different geographic regions or the factors that structure the geographic patterns of near-surface microbes across large spatial scales. We collected dust samples from the external surfaces of ∼1,200 households located across the United States to understand the continental-scale distributions of bacteria and fungi in the near-surface atmosphere. The microbial communities were highly variable in composition across the United States, but the geographic patterns could be explained by climatic and soil variables, with coastal regions of the United States sharing similar airborne microbial communities. Although people living in more urbanized areas were not found to be exposed to distinct outdoor air microbial communities compared with those living in more rural areas, our results do suggest that urbanization leads to homogenization of the airborne microbiota, with more urban communities exhibiting less continental-scale geographic variability than more rural areas. These results provide our first insight into the continental-scale distributions of airborne microbes, which is information that could be used to identify likely associations between microbial exposures in outdoor air and incidences of disease in crops, livestock, and humans. PMID:25902536

  4. How neutrophils kill fungi.

    PubMed

    Gazendam, Roel P; van de Geer, Annemarie; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the prevention of invasive fungal infections. Whereas mouse studies have demonstrated the role of various neutrophil pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), signal transduction pathways, and cytotoxicity in the murine antifungal immune response, much less is known about the killing of fungi by human neutrophils. Recently, novel primary immunodeficiencies have been identified in patients with a susceptibility to fungal infections. These human 'knock-out' neutrophils expand our knowledge to understand the role of PRRs and signaling in human fungal killing. From the studies with these patients it is becoming clear that neutrophils employ fundamentally distinct mechanisms to kill Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus. PMID:27558342

  5. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  6. Abundance of airborne Penicillium CFU in relation to urbanization in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, I; Calderón, C; Ulloa, M; Lacey, J

    1993-01-01

    Air was sampled simultaneously at three localities in Mexico City differing in urbanization index and air pollution level on 22 days during a period covering both dry and rainy seasons. An Andersen two-stage microbial sampler was used for 15 min at 28 liters min-1 to isolate culturable fungi on malt extract agar. After exposure, plates were incubated at 25 degrees C for 48 to 72 h before colonies were counted and identified to give concentrations of total fungal spores and of Penicillium spp., expressed as CFU per cubic meter of air. Total fungi numbered 91 to 602 CFU m-3 in Tlalpan Borough (southern area), 40 to 264 CFU m-3 in Cuauhtémoc Borough (downtown), and 26 to 495 CFU m-3 in Gustavo A. Madero Borough (northern area). Although Penicillium spp. were the second most frequently isolated fungal genus, concentrations were small, with a maximum of only 133 CFU m-3. Twice as many colonies were isolated in the southern area, with an urbanization index of 0.25 (arithmetic mean, 41 CFU m-3), as at other sampling stations with greater urbanization indices (arithmetic means, 19 and 20 CFU m-3). In the downtown area, with an urbanization index of 1.0, Penicillium spp. were more numerous than any other genus and formed 25% of the total fungal count compared with 14 and 17% in the other areas. Concentrations of airborne Penicillium spp. did not differ significantly between rainy and dry seasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8368852

  7. Fungi, β-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Thilsing, Trine; Frederiksen, Margit W.; Baelum, Jesper; Hansen, Jørgen V.

    2013-01-01

    The nose and mouth are the first regions of the respiratory tract in contact with airborne microorganisms. Occupational exposures to airborne microorganisms are associated with inflammation and different symptoms of the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between occupational exposure to fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n = 135) were taken Monday morning and Thursday at noon and personal exposure to inhalable bioaerosols was measured during a working day. The content of fungi and β-glucan in NAL of men was affected by their exposure to fungi and β-glucan. The content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL was higher Thursday at noon than Monday morning. The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, β-glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of β-glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL than in the air. This indicates that mainly the larger fungal spores or pollen grains deposit in the nose. The difference between genders and the fact that the content of fungi in NAL was significantly affected by the exposure indicate that the two genders are affected by the same exposure level differently. PMID:23749501

  8. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  9. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  10. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  11. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  12. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    PubMed

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens.

  13. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    PubMed

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens. PMID:26022406

  14. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  15. Mycoparasitism of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a pathway for the entry of saprotrophic fungi into roots.

    PubMed

    De Jaeger, Nathalie; Declerck, Stéphane; de la Providencia, Ivan E

    2010-08-01

    Within the rhizosphere, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi interact with a cohort of microorganisms, among which is the biological control agent, Trichoderma spp. This fungus parasitizes a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, a phenomenon also reported in the extraradical mycelium (ERM) of AM fungi. Here, we question whether the mycoparasitism of the ERM could be extended to the intraradical mycelium (IRM), thus representing a pathway for the entry of Trichoderma harzianum within the root. Microcosm experiments allowing interactions between Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 placed in a clade that contains the recently described species Glomus irregulare and T. harzianum were set up under in vitro autotrophic culture conditions using potato as a host. A microscope camera-imaging system, coupled with succinate dehydrogenase staining, was used to assess the mycoparasitism in the ERM and IRM. Trichoderma harzianum colonized the ERM of the AM fungus and spread into the IRM, before exiting into the root cells. Intrahyphal growth of T. harzianum caused protoplasm degradation, decreasing the ERM and IRM viability. ERM of the AM fungus represented a pathway for the entry of T. harzianum into the roots of potato. It further sets off the debate on the susceptibility of the AM fungi of being infected by microorganisms from the rhizosphere. PMID:20533946

  16. Scientists observe fungi-dissolving minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) live in moist dark recesses and never see daylight. They cling to the roots of trees in boreal forests, break down soil minerals and supply essential elements and nutrients to the trees. Along the way, they play a distinct but not yet well-understood role in bioweathering, a process in which water, air, and organisms interact to break down soil minerals within the first few meters of Earth's surface. In a synthetically designed and controlled laboratory environment, Gazzè et al. cultured EMF; the researchers monitored the process as the fungi colonized a soil mineral on a petri dish over a period of 7 months. The authors then extracted individual grains of chlorite, a common soil-forming clay mineral, and cleaned the mineral surfaces to look at how the fungi had affected the mineral surfaces they came in contact with. Using atomic force microscopy, a specialized process that allows observations of three-dimensional features at nanometer (10-9 meter) scales, the authors found numerous primary channels, of the order of a micron (10-6 meters) in width and up to 50 nanometers in depth, from which smaller secondary channels extended outward. The network of channels resembled a herringbone-like pattern—evidence of dissolution by EMF.

  17. Molecular Systematics of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect parasitism has multiple and diverse origins within the Kingdom Fungi, with shifts to trophic specialization on insects having evolved one or more times in each of the four traditionally recognized phyla of fungi, the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. The rich legacy ...

  18. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  19. Keratinolysis by poultry farm soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Kaul, S; Sumbali, G

    1997-01-01

    Species of Chrysosporium, Malbranchea, Scopulariopsis, Microascus, and Gliocladium isolated from poultry farm soils were grown on two keratin media. All the test fungi could grow on keratin (human hair) and degrade it, releasing sulphydryl-containing compounds detected as extracellular keratinase, cysteine and total proteins. Glucose supplemented keratin medium supported maximum keratinolysis. Keratinase activity also changed the pH of the medium towards alkalinity and species with strong keratinolytic ability were noted to render the culture medium more alkaline than those that were less kiratinolytic.

  20. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  1. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24270074

  2. Endophytic fungi: expanding the arsenal of industrial enzyme producers.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes; Rhoden, Sandro Augusto; Mota, Thatiane Rodrigues; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2014-10-01

    Endophytic fungi, mostly belonging to the Ascomycota, are found in the intercellular spaces of the aerial plant parts, particularly in leaf sheaths, sometimes even within the bark and root system without inducing any visual symptoms of their presence. These fungi appear to have a capacity to produce a wide range of enzymes and secondary metabolites exhibiting a variety of biological activities. However, they have been only barely exploited as sources of enzymes of industrial interest. This review emphasizes the suitability and possible advantages of including the endophytic fungi in the screening of new enzyme producing organisms as well as in studies aiming to optimize the production of enzymes through well-known culture processes. Apparently endophytic fungi possess the two types of extracellular enzymatic systems necessary to degrade the vegetal biomass: (1) the hydrolytic system responsible for polysaccharide degradation consisting mainly in xylanases and cellulases; and (2) the unique oxidative ligninolytic system, which degrades lignin and opens phenyl rings, comprises mainly laccases, ligninases and peroxidases. The obvious ability of endophytic fungi to degrade the complex structure of lignocellulose makes them useful in the exploration of the lignocellulosic biomass for the production of fuel ethanol and other value-added commodity chemicals. In addition to this, endophytic fungi may become new sources of industrially useful enzymes such as lipases, amylases and proteases.

  3. Secondary Metabolites from Higher Fungi: Discovery, Bioactivity, and Bioproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    Medicinal higher fungi such as Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum have been used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity for people in China and other regions of the world since ancient times. Nowadays there is an increasing public interest in the secondary metabolites of those higher fungi for discovering new drugs or lead compounds. Current research in drug discovery from medicinal higher fungi involves a multifaceted approach combining mycological, biochemical, pharmacological, metabolic, biosynthetic and molecular techniques. In recent years, many new secondary metabolites from higher fungi have been isolated and are more likely to provide lead compounds for new drug discovery, which may include chemopreventive agents possessing the bioactivity of immunomodulatory, anticancer, etc. However, numerous challenges of secondary metabolites from higher fungi are encountered including bioseparation, identification, biosynthetic metabolism, and screening model issues, etc. Commercial production of secondary metabolites from medicinal mushrooms is still limited mainly due to less information about secondary metabolism and its regulation. Strategies for enhancing secondary metabolite production by medicinal mushroom fermentation include two-stage cultivation combining liquid fermentation and static culture, two-stage dissolved oxygen control, etc. Purification of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as ganoderic acids from G. lucidum, is also very important to pharmacological study and future pharmaceutical application. This review outlines typical examples of the discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction of secondary metabolites of higher fungi origin.

  4. Isolation of fungi from bats of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W Y; Luizão, R C; Barreto da Silva, M do S

    1982-01-01

    A total of 2,886 bats captured in the Amazon Basin of Brazil were processed for the isolation of fungi. From the livers, spleens, and lungs of 155 bats (5.4%), 186 fungal isolates of the genera Candida (123 isolates), Trichosporon (26 isolates), Torulopsis (25 isolates), Kluyveromyces (11 isolates), and Geotrichum (1 isolate) were recovered. Seven known pathogenic species were present: Candida parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis, Trichosporon beigelii, and Torulopsis glabrata. Twenty-three culture-positive bats showed identical fungal colonization in multiple organs or mixed colonization in a single organ. The fungal isolation rates for individual bat species varied from 1 fungus per 87 bats to 3 fungi per 13 bats, and the mycoflora diversity for members of an individual fungus-bearing bat species varied from 16 fungi per 40 bats to 7 fungi per 6 bats. Of the 38 fungal species isolated, 36 had not been previously described as in vivo bat isolates. Of the 27 culture-positive bat species, 21 had not been previously described as mammalian hosts for medically or nonmedically important fungi. PMID:6890326

  5. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  6. Characteristics of airborne bacteria in Mumbai urban environment.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, S

    2014-08-01

    Components of biological origin constitute small but a significant proportion of the ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). However, their diversity and role in proinflammatory responses of PM are not well understood. The present study characterizes airborne bacterial species diversity in Mumbai City and elucidates the role of bacterial endotoxin in PM induced proinflammatory response in ex vivo. Airborne bacteria and endotoxin samples were collected during April-May 2010 in Mumbai using six stage microbial impactor and biosampler. The culturable bacterial species concentration was measured and factors influencing the composition were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). The biosampler samples were used to stimulate immune cells in whole blood assay. A total of 28 species belonging to 17 genera were identified. Gram positive and spore forming groups of bacteria dominated the airborne culturable bacterial concentration. The study indicated the dominance of spore forming and human or animal flora derived pathogenic/opportunistic bacteria in the ambient air environment. Pathogenic and opportunistic species of bacteria were also present in the samples. TNF-α induction by PM was reduced (35%) by polymyxin B pretreatment and this result was corroborated with the results of blocking endotoxin receptor cluster differentiation (CD14). The study highlights the importance of airborne biological particles and suggests need of further studies on biological characterization of ambient PM.

  7. Characterization of Airborne Molds, Endotoxins, and Glucans in Homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita▿

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Carol Y.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Chew, Ginger L.; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Van Sickle, David; Dunn, Kevin H.; Brown, Clive

    2007-01-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused breeches in the New Orleans, LA, levee system, resulting in catastrophic flooding. The city remained flooded for several weeks, leading to extraordinary mold growth in homes. To characterize the potential risks of mold exposures, we measured airborne molds and markers of molds and bacteria in New Orleans area homes. In October 2005, we collected air samples from 5 mildly water-damaged houses, 15 moderately to heavily water-damaged houses, and 11 outdoor locations. The air filters were analyzed for culturable fungi, spores, (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans, and endotoxins. Culturable fungi were significantly higher in the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses (geometric mean = 67,000 CFU/m3) than in the mildly water-damaged houses (geometric mean = 3,700 CFU/m3) (P = 0.02). The predominant molds found were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma, and Paecilomyces. The indoor and outdoor geometric means for endotoxins were 22.3 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 and 10.5 EU/m3, respectively, and for (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans were 1.7 μg/m3 and 0.9 μg/m3, respectively. In the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses, the geometric means were 31.3 EU/m3 for endotoxins and 1.8 μg/m3 for (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans. Molds, endotoxins, and fungal glucans were detected in the environment after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans at concentrations that have been associated with health effects. The species and concentrations were different from those previously reported for non-water-damaged buildings in the southeastern United States. PMID:17209066

  8. Characterization of airborne molds, endotoxins, and glucans in homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Rao, Carol Y; Riggs, Margaret A; Chew, Ginger L; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Van Sickle, David; Dunn, Kevin H; Brown, Clive

    2007-03-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused breeches in the New Orleans, LA, levee system, resulting in catastrophic flooding. The city remained flooded for several weeks, leading to extraordinary mold growth in homes. To characterize the potential risks of mold exposures, we measured airborne molds and markers of molds and bacteria in New Orleans area homes. In October 2005, we collected air samples from 5 mildly water-damaged houses, 15 moderately to heavily water-damaged houses, and 11 outdoor locations. The air filters were analyzed for culturable fungi, spores, (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans, and endotoxins. Culturable fungi were significantly higher in the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses (geometric mean=67,000 CFU/m3) than in the mildly water-damaged houses (geometric mean=3,700 CFU/m3) (P=0.02). The predominant molds found were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma, and Paecilomyces. The indoor and outdoor geometric means for endotoxins were 22.3 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 and 10.5 EU/m3, respectively, and for (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans were 1.7 microg/m3 and 0.9 microg/m3, respectively. In the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses, the geometric means were 31.3 EU/m3 for endotoxins and 1.8 microg/m3 for (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans. Molds, endotoxins, and fungal glucans were detected in the environment after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans at concentrations that have been associated with health effects. The species and concentrations were different from those previously reported for non-water-damaged buildings in the southeastern United States.

  9. Investigating the Endobacteria Which Thrive in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    PubMed

    Desirò, Alessandro; Salvioli, Alessandra; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The study of the so-called unculturable bacteria is still considered a challenging task. However, given recent improvements in the sensitivity of culture-free approaches, the identification and characterization of such microbes in complex biological samples is now possible. In this chapter we report how endobacteria thriving inside arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are themselves obligate biotrophs of plants, can be studied using a combination of in vitro culture, molecular biology, and microscopy techniques. PMID:26791495

  10. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  11. Genetic engineering of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, W E; Marshall, M A

    1989-06-16

    Filamentous fungi are important in medicine, industry, agriculture, and basic biological research. For example, some fungal species are pathogenic to humans, whereas others produce beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and cephalosporin). Industrial strains produce large amounts of enzymes, such as glucoamylase and proteases, and low molecular weight compounds, such as citric acid. The largest and most economically important group of plant pathogens are fungi. Several fungal species have biological properties and genetic systems that make them ideally suited for basic biological research. Recently developed techniques for genetic engineering of filamentous fungi make it possible to alter their detrimental and beneficial activities in novel ways.

  12. Comparative performance of three sampling techniques to detect airborne Salmonella species in poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Adell, Elisa; Moset, Verónica; Zhao, Yang; Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Cerisuelo, Alba; Cambra-López, María

    2014-01-01

    Sampling techniques to detect airborne Salmonella species (spp.) in two pilot scale broiler houses were compared. Broilers were inoculated at seven days of age with a marked strain of Salmonella enteritidis. The rearing cycle lasted 42 days during the summer. Airborne Salmonella spp. were sampled weekly using impaction, gravitational settling, and impingement techniques. Additionally, Salmonella spp. were sampled on feeders, drinkers, walls, and in the litter. Environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration) were monitored during the rearing cycle. The presence of Salmonella spp. was determined by culture-dependent and molecular methods. No cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered from the poultry houses' surfaces, the litter, or the air before inoculation. After inoculation, cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered from the surfaces and in the litter. Airborne cultivable Salmonella spp. Were detected using impaction and gravitational settling one or two weeks after the detection of Salmonella spp. in the litter. No cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered using impingement based on culture-dependent techniques. At low airborne concentrations, the use of impingement for the quantification or detection of cultivable airborne Salmonella spp. is not recommended. In these cases, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods is recommended. These data are valuable to improve current measures to control the transmission of pathogens in livestock environments and for optimising the sampling and detection of airborne Salmonella spp. in practical conditions.

  13. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  14. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  15. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  16. Isolation of fungi from local bread of Chhindwara.

    PubMed

    Rai, M K; Upadhyaya, S; Andeo, R M

    1990-04-01

    In the present paper, fungi isolated from bread samples are being reported. Out of 150 samples of bread, only 20 samples appeared to be infected but when cultured all the samples could not give positive results, except, A. fumigatus. Ten fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. glaucous, A. carnous, A. terreus, A. ochraceous, Rhizophus stolonifer, Trichoderma harrianua, and Trichothecium roseum were recovered from the bread samples. Among these A. fumigatus and A. niger were dominant which are known to cause toxicity and pulmonary aspergillosis in human beings.

  17. On-site application of air cleaner emitting plasma ion to reduce airborne contaminants in pig building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Man Su; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Ki Youn

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this field study is to evaluate temporal reduction efficiency of air cleaner emitting plasma ion on airborne pollutants emitted from pig building. The operation principle of air cleaner based on plasma ion is that hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions combine to form hydroperoxyl radicals (HOO-), which surround and attach to surface of airborne microorganisms and eliminate them by breaking the hydrogen bond in their protein structure. In gaseous pollutants, it was found that there is no reduction effect of the air cleaner on ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (p > 0.05). In particulate pollutants, the air cleaner showed mean 79%(±6.1) and 78%(±3.0) of reduction efficiency for PM2.5. and PM1, respectively, compared to the control without air cleaner (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in TSP and PM10 between the treatment with air cleaner and the control without air cleaner (p > 0.05). In biological pollutants, the mean reduction efficiencies for airborne bacteria and fungi by application of air cleaner were 22%(±6.6) and 25%(±8.7), respectively (p < 0.05). Based on the results obtained from this study, it was concluded that the air cleaner had a positive reduction effect on PM2.5, PM1, airborne bacteria and airborne fungi among airborne pollutants distributed in pig building while it did not lead to significant reduction of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Fungi: Strongmen of the Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Patricia D.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that stresses the role of fungi and decomposers, highlights the rapidity by which they complete this process, and allows students to experiment with ways to control the rate of decomposition. (CCM)

  19. Centromeres of filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kristina M.; Galazka, Jonathan M.; Phatale, Pallavi A.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Freitag, Michael

    2012-01-01

    How centromeres are assembled and maintained remains one of the fundamental questions in cell biology. Over the past 20 years the idea of centromeres as precise genetic loci has been replaced by the realization that it is predominantly the protein complement that defines centromere localization and function. Thus, placement and maintenance of centromeres are excellent examples of epigenetic phenomena in the strict sense. In contrast, the highly derived “point centromeres” of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its close relatives are counterexamples for this general principle of centromere maintenance. While we have learned much in the past decade, it remains unclear if mechanisms for epigenetic centromere placement and maintenance are shared amongst various groups of organisms. For that reason it seems prudent to examine species from many different phylogenetic groups with the aim to extract comparative information that will yield a more complete picture of cell division in all eukaryotes. This review addresses what has been learned by studying the centromeres of filamentous fungi, a large, heterogeneous group of organisms that includes important plant, animal and human pathogens, saprobes and symbionts that fulfill essential roles in the biosphere, as well as a growing number of taxa that have become indispensable for industrial use. PMID:22752455

  20. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  1. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  2. A Foray into Fungal Ecology: Understanding Fungi and Their Functions Across Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, N.; Dunkirk, N. C.; Peay, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their incredible diversity and importance to terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are not included in a standard high school science curriculum. This past summer, however, my work for the Stanford EARTH High School Internship program introduced me to fungal ecology through experiments involving culturing, genomics and root dissections. The two fungal experiments I worked on had very different foci, both searching for answers to broad ecological questions of fungal function and physiology. The first, a symbiosis experiment, sought to determine if the partners of the nutrient exchange between pine trees and their fungal symbionts could choose one another. The second experiment, a dung fungal succession project, compared the genetic sequencing results of fungal extractions from dung versus fungal cultures from dung. My part in the symbiosis experiment involved dissection, weighing and encapsulation of root tissue samples characterized based on the root thickness and presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The dung fungi succession project required that I not only learn how to culture various genera of dung fungi but also learn how to extract DNA and RNA for sequencing from the fungal tissue. Although I primarily worked with dung fungi cultures and thereby learned about their unique physiologies, I also learned about the different types of genetic sequencing since the project compared sequences of cultured fungi versus Next Generation sequencing of all fungi present within a dung pellet. Through working on distinct fungal projects that reassess how information about fungi is known within the field of fungal ecology, I learned not only about the two experiments I worked on but also many past related experiments and inquiries through reading scientific papers. Thanks to my foray into fungal research, I now know not only the broader significance of fungi in ecological research but also how to design and conduct ecological experiments.

  3. Assessment of airborne microorganisms by real-time PCR: optimistic findings and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Oppliger, Anne; Masclaux, Frederic G; Niculita-Hirzel, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Most airborne microorganisms are natural components of our ecosystem. Soil, vegetation and animals, including humans, are sources for aerial release of these living or dead cells. In the past, assessment of airborne microorganisms was mainly restricted to occupational health concerns. Indeed, in several occupations, exposure to very high concentrations of non-infectious airborne bacteria and fungi, result in allergenic, toxic or irritant reactions. Recently, the threat of bioterrorism and pandemics have highlighted the urgent need to increase knowledge of bioaerosol ecology. More fundamentally, airborne bacterial and fungal communities begin to draw much more consideration from environmental microbiologists, who have neglected this area for a long time. This increased interest of scientists is to a great part due to the development and use of real-time PCR techniques to identify and quantify airborne microorganisms. Even if the advantages of the PCR technology are obvious, researchers are confronted with new problems. This review describes the methodological state of the art in bioaerosols field and emphasizes the future challenges and perspectives of the real-time PCR-based methods for airborne microorganism studies. PMID:21196388

  4. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic airborne microorganisms as tracers of microclimatic changes in the underground (Postojna Cave, Slovenia).

    PubMed

    Mulec, Janez; Vaupotič, Janja; Walochnik, Julia

    2012-10-01

    Bioaerosols in cave air can serve as natural tracers and, together with physical parameters, give a detailed view of conditions in the cave atmosphere and responses to climatic changes. Airborne microbes in the Postojna Cave system indicated very dynamic atmospheric conditions, especially in the transitory seasonal periods between winter and summer. Physical parameters of cave atmosphere explained the highest variance in structure of microbial community in the winter and in the summer. The airborne microbial community is composed of different microbial groups with generally low abundances. At sites with elevated organic input, occasional high concentrations of bacteria and fungi can be expected of up to 1,000 colony-forming units/m(3) per individual group. The most abundant group of airborne amoebozoans were the mycetozoans. Along with movements of air masses, airborne algae also travel deep underground. In a cave passage with elevated radon concentration (up to 60 kBq/m(3)) airborne biota were less abundant; however, the concentration of DNA in the air was comparable to that in other parts of the cave. Due to seasonal natural air inflow, high concentrations of biological and inanimate particles are introduced underground. Sedimentation of airborne allochthonous material might represent an important and continuous source of organic material for cave fauna. PMID:22570119

  5. Growth rate inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by characterized chitosans

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Junior, Enio N.; Gueddari, Nour E. El; Moerschbacher, Bruno. M.; Franco, Telma T.

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of fifteen chitosans with different degrees of polymerization (DP) and different degrees of acetylation (FA) on the growth rates (GR) of four phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer) were examined using a 96-well microtiter plate and a microplate reader. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the chitosans ranged from 100 μg ×mL-1 to 1,000 μg ×mL-1 depending on the fungus tested and the DP and FA of the chitosan. The antifungal activity of the chitosans increased with decreasing FA. Chitosans with low FA and high DP showed the highest inhibitory activity against all four fungi. P. expansum and B. cinerea were relatively less susceptible while A. alternata and R. stolonifer were relatively more sensitive to the chitosan polymers. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi grown on culture media amended with chitosan revealed morphological changes. PMID:24031893

  6. Growth rate inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by characterized chitosans.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Junior, Enio N; Gueddari, Nour E El; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Franco, Telma T

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of fifteen chitosans with different degrees of polymerization (DP) and different degrees of acetylation (FA) on the growth rates (GR) of four phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer) were examined using a 96-well microtiter plate and a microplate reader. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the chitosans ranged from 100 μg ×mL(-1) to 1,000 μg ×mL(-1) depending on the fungus tested and the DP and FA of the chitosan. The antifungal activity of the chitosans increased with decreasing FA. Chitosans with low FA and high DP showed the highest inhibitory activity against all four fungi. P. expansum and B. cinerea were relatively less susceptible while A. alternata and R. stolonifer were relatively more sensitive to the chitosan polymers. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi grown on culture media amended with chitosan revealed morphological changes.

  7. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  8. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Espejo, E.; Agosin, E. )

    1991-07-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to CO{sub 2} during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize {sup 14}C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi.

  9. Production and Degradation of Oxalic Acid by Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Eduardo; Agosin, Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi. PMID:16348522

  10. Sources of airborne microorganisms in the built environment.

    PubMed

    Prussin, Aaron J; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-01-01

    Each day people are exposed to millions of bioaerosols, including whole microorganisms, which can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. The next chapter in understanding the airborne microbiome of the built environment is characterizing the various sources of airborne microorganisms and the relative contribution of each. We have identified the following eight major categories of sources of airborne bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the built environment: humans; pets; plants; plumbing systems; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; mold; dust resuspension; and the outdoor environment. Certain species are associated with certain sources, but the full potential of source characterization and source apportionment has not yet been realized. Ideally, future studies will quantify detailed emission rates of microorganisms from each source and will identify the relative contribution of each source to the indoor air microbiome. This information could then be used to probe fundamental relationships between specific sources and human health, to design interventions to improve building health and human health, or even to provide evidence for forensic investigations. PMID:26694197

  11. Sources of airborne microorganisms in the built environment.

    PubMed

    Prussin, Aaron J; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-12-22

    Each day people are exposed to millions of bioaerosols, including whole microorganisms, which can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. The next chapter in understanding the airborne microbiome of the built environment is characterizing the various sources of airborne microorganisms and the relative contribution of each. We have identified the following eight major categories of sources of airborne bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the built environment: humans; pets; plants; plumbing systems; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; mold; dust resuspension; and the outdoor environment. Certain species are associated with certain sources, but the full potential of source characterization and source apportionment has not yet been realized. Ideally, future studies will quantify detailed emission rates of microorganisms from each source and will identify the relative contribution of each source to the indoor air microbiome. This information could then be used to probe fundamental relationships between specific sources and human health, to design interventions to improve building health and human health, or even to provide evidence for forensic investigations.

  12. Airborne trace contaminants of possible interest in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garavelli, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    One design goal of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) for long duration space missions is to maintain an atmosphere which is healthy for all the desirable biological species and not deleterious to any of the mechanical components in that atmosphere. CELESS design must take into account the interactions of at least six major components; (1) humans and animals, (2) higher plants, (3) microalgae, (4) bacteria and fungi, (5) the waste processing system, and (6) other mechanical systems. Each of these major components can be both a source and a target of airborne trace contaminants in a CELSS. A range of possible airborne trace contaminants is discussed within a chemical classification scheme. These contaminants are analyzed with respect to their probable sources among the six major components and their potential effects on those components. Data on airborne chemical contaminants detected in shuttle missions is presented along with this analysis. The observed concentrations of several classes of compounds, including hydrocarbons, halocarbons, halosilanes, amines and nitrogen oxides, are considered with respect to the problems which they present to CELSS.

  13. Stability of airborne microbes in the Louvre Museum over time.

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, C; Moletta-Denat, M; Blanquart, H; Ferreira, S; Moularat, S; Godon, J-J; Robine, E

    2014-02-01

    The microbial content of air has as yet been little described, despite its public health implications, and there remains a lack of environmental microbial data on airborne microflora in enclosed spaces. In this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the diversity and dynamics of airborne microorganisms in the Louvre Museum using high-throughput molecular tools and to underline the microbial signature of indoor air in this human-occupied environment. This microbial community was monitored for 6 month during occupied time. The quantitative results revealed variations in the concentrations of less than one logarithm, with average values of 10(3) and 10(4) Escherichia coli/Aspergillus fumigatus genome equivalent per m(3) for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Our observations highlight the stability of the indoor airborne bacterial diversity over time, while the corresponding eukaryote community was less stable. Bacterial diversity characterized by pyrosequencing 454 showed high diversity dominated by the Proteobacteria which represented 51.1%, 46.9%, and 38.4% of sequences, for each of the three air samples sequenced. A common bacterial diversity was underlined, corresponding to 58.4% of the sequences. The core species were belonging mostly to the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and to the genus Paracoccus spp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enhydrobacter sp., Sphingomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus sp.

  14. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  15. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  16. LTR Retrotransposons in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Muszewska, Anna; Hoffman-Sommer, Marta; Grynberg, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs) are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (<50 elements), others demonstrate huge expansions (>8000 elements). The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other. PMID:22242120

  17. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  18. Fungi in the cystic fibrosis lung: bystanders or pathogens?

    PubMed

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H; McElvaney, Noel G

    2014-07-01

    Improvement to the life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis (PWCF) brings about novel challenges including the need for evaluation of the role of fungi in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. To determine if such organisms represent bystanders or pathogens affecting clinical outcomes we review the existing knowledge from a clinical, biochemical, inflammatory and immunological perspective. The prevalence and importance of fungi in the CF airway has likely been underestimated with the most frequently isolated filamentous fungi being Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium apiospermum and the major yeast Candida albicans. Developing non-culture based microbiological methods for fungal detection has improved both our classification and understanding of their clinical consequences including localized, allergic and systemic infections. Cross-kingdom interaction between bacteria and fungi are discussed as is the role of biofilms further affecting clinical outcome. A combination of host and pathogen-derived factors determines if a particular fungus represents a commensal, colonizer or pathogen in the setting of CF. The underlying immune state, disease severity and treatment burden represent key host variables whilst fungal type, form, chronicity and virulence including the ability to evade immune recognition determines the pathogenic potential of a specific fungus at a particular point in time. Further research in this emerging field is warranted to fully elucidate the spectrum of disease conferred by the presence of fungi in the CF airway and the indications for therapeutic interventions.

  19. Nitrogen isotopes link mycorrhizal fungi and plants to nitrogen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, Erik A; Högberg, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In this review, we synthesize field and culture studies of the 15N/14N (expressed as δ15N) of autotrophic plants, mycoheterotrophic plants, parasitic plants, soil, and mycorrhizal fungi to assess the major controls of isotopic patterns. One major control for plants and fungi is the partitioning of nitrogen (N) into either 15N-depleted chitin, ammonia, or transfer compounds or 15N-enriched proteinaceous N. For example, parasitic plants and autotrophic hosts are similar in δ15N (with no partitioning between chitin and protein), mycoheterotrophic plants are higher in δ15 N than their fungal hosts, presumably with preferential assimilation of fungal protein, and autotrophic, mycorrhizal plants are lower in 15N than their fungal symbionts, with saprotrophic fungi intermediate, because mycorrhizal fungi transfer 15N-depleted ammonia or amino acids to plants. Similarly, nodules of N2-fixing bacteria transferring ammonia are often higher in δ15N than their plant hosts. N losses via denitrification greatly influence bulk soil δ15N, whereas δ15N patterns within soil profiles are influenced both by vertical patterns of N losses and by N transfers within the soil-plant system. Climate correlates poorly with soil δ15N; climate may primarily influence δ15N patterns in soils and plants by determining the primary loss mechanisms and which types of mycorrhizal fungi and associated vegetation dominate across climatic gradients.

  20. Subsurface Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: A New Source of Atmospheric Methyl Halides?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treseder, K. K.; Redeker, K. R.; Allen, M. F.

    2001-12-01

    Incomplete source budgets for methyl halides---compounds that release inorganic halogen radicals which, in turn, catalyze atmospheric ozone depletion---limit our abilities to predict the fate of the stratospheric ozone layer. We tested the ability ectomycorrhizal fungi to produce methyl bromide and methyl iodide. These fungi are abundant in temperate forests, where they colonize tree roots and provide nutrients to their symbiotic plants in exchange for carbon compounds. The observed range of emissions from seven different species in culture is 0.001- to 100-μ g g-1 fungi d-1 for methyl bromide, and 0.5- to 500-μ g g-1 fungi d-1 for methyl iodide. While methyl chloride was not specifically tested, large emissions were observed from several species with little to no emissions observed from others. Further analyses of the effects of substrate concentration, headspace concentration, and temperature were performed on the species Cenococcum geophilum, one of the most abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi. Our results suggest that subsurface fungal emissions may be a significant global source of methyl halides.

  1. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  2. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  3. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites. PMID:26644135

  4. Troubleshooting methods for toxicity testing of airborne chemicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Toxicology studies of adverse effects induced by inhaled chemicals are technically challenging, due to the requirement of highly controlled experimental conditions needed to achieve reproducible and comparable results. Therefore, many considerations must be fulfilled before adopting in vitro bioassay test systems for toxicity screening of airborne materials. However, recent methodological and technical breakthroughs of in vitro methods have the potential to fulfil the essential requirements of toxicity testing for airborne chemicals. Technology has now become available that allows cells to be cultured on permeable microporous membranes in transwell or snapwell inserts providing a very close contact between target cells and test atmospheres to study the cellular interactions caused by airborne chemical exposures without any interfering culture medium. Using a direct exposure technique at the air-liquid interface, target cells can be continuously exposed to airborne chemicals on their apical side, while being nourished from their basolateral side. Test atmospheres with different physicochemical characteristics such as gases, vapours, solid and liquid aerosols and more recently nanoaerosols, can be delivered into human target cells using static and/or direct dynamic exposure methods. Therefore, toxicological risk assessments of airborne chemicals and even complex atmospheres can be achieved using in vitro test methods in parallel with real-time air monitoring techniques to fulfil the general regulatory requirements of newly developed chemical or pharmaceutical products with the potential for inhalational exposure. In this review current toxicological methods for toxicity testing of inhaled chemicals are presented. Further, to demonstrate the potential application of in vitro methods for studying inhalation toxicity, more advanced exposure techniques developed for toxicity screening of airborne chemicals are discussed.

  5. Assessment and determinants of airborne bacterial and fungal concentrations in different indoor environments: Homes, child day-care centres, primary schools and elderly care centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João Cavaleiro; Pereira, Cristiana; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    Until now the influence of risk factors resulting from exposure to biological agents in indoor air has been far less studied than outdoor pollution; therefore the uncertainty of health risks, and how to effectively prevent these, remains. This study aimed (i) to quantify airborne cultivable bacterial and fungal concentrations in four different types of indoor environment as well as to identify the recovered fungi; (ii) to assess the impact of outdoor bacterial and fungal concentrations on indoor air; (iii) to investigate the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and relative humidity on bacterial and fungal concentrations; and (iv) to estimate bacterial and fungal dose rate for children (3-5 years old and 8-10 years old) in comparison with the elderly. Air samples were collected in 68 homes, 9 child day-care centres, 20 primary schools and 22 elderly care centres, in a total of 264 rooms with a microbiological air sampler and using tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar culture media for bacteria and fungi growth, respectively. For each building, one outdoor representative location were identified and simultaneously studied. The results showed that child day-care centres were the indoor microenvironment with the highest median bacterial and fungal concentrations (3870 CFU/m3 and 415 CFU/m3, respectively), whereas the lowest median concentrations were observed in elderly care centres (222 CFU/m3 and 180 CFU/m3, respectively). Indoor bacterial concentrations were significantly higher than outdoor concentrations (p < 0.05); whereas the indoor/outdoor ratios for the obtained fungal concentrations were approximately around the unit. Indoor CO2 levels were associated with the bacterial concentration, probably due to occupancy and insufficient ventilation. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most frequently occurring fungi. Children's had two times higher dose rate to biological pollutants when compared to adult individuals. Thus, due to children

  6. Examination of fungi in domestic interiors by using factor analysis: Correlations and associations with home factors. [Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Aureobasidium, Aspergillus; Penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Su, H.J.; Rotnitzky, A.; Spengler, J.D. ); Burge, H.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Factor analysis was utilized to investigate correlations among airborne microorganisms collected with Andersen samplers from homes in Topeka, Kans., during the winter of 1987 to 1988. The factors derived were used to relate microbial concentrations with categorical, questionnaire-derived descriptions of housing conditions. This approach successfully identified groups of common aboveground decay fungi including Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, and Aureobasidium spp. The common soil fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. were also separated as a group. These previously known ecological groupings were confirmed with air sampling data by a quantitative evaluation technique. The above ground decay fungi sampled indoors in winter were present at relatively high concentrations in homes with gas stoves for cooking, suggesting a possible association between these fungi and increased humidity from the combustion process. Elevated concentrations of the soil fungi were significantly associated with the dirt floor, crawl-space type of basement. Elevated concentrations of water-requiring fungi, such as Fusarium spp., were shown to be associated with water collection in domestic interiors. Also, elevated mean concentrations for the group of fungi including Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Aureobasidium, and yeast spp. were found to be associated with symptoms reported on a health questionnaire. This finding was consistent with the authors previous study of associations between respiratory health and airborne microorganisms by univariate logistic regression analysis.

  7. Chamber for Growing and Observing Fungi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Molina, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    A chamber has been designed to enable growth and observation of microcolonies of fungi in isolation from the external environment. Unlike prior fungus-growing apparatuses, this chamber makes it possible to examine a fungus culture without disrupting it. Partly resembling a small picture frame, the chamber includes a metal plate having a rectangular through-thethickness opening with recesses for a top and a bottom cover glass, an inlet for air, and an inlet for water. The bottom cover glass is put in place and held there by clips, then a block of nutrient medium and a moisture pad are placed in the opening. The block is inoculated, then the top cover glass is put in place and held there by clips. Once growth is evident, the chamber can be sealed with tape. Little (if any) water evaporates past the edges of the cover glasses, and, hence there is little (if any) need to add water. A microscope can be used to observe the culture through either cover glass. Because the culture is sealed in the chamber, it is safe to examine the culture without risking contamination. The chamber can be sterilized and reused.

  8. Melanized Fungi in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Revankar, Sanjay G.; Sutton, Deanna A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Melanized or dematiaceous fungi are associated with a wide variety of infectious syndromes. Many are soil organisms and are generally distributed worldwide, though certain species appear to have restricted geographic ranges. Though they are uncommon causes of disease, melanized fungi have been increasingly recognized as important pathogens, with most reports occurring in the past 20 years. The spectrum of diseases with which they are associated has also broadened and includes allergic disease, superficial and deep local infections, pneumonia, brain abscess, and disseminated infection. For some infections in immunocompetent individuals, such as allergic fungal sinusitis and brain abscess, they are among the most common etiologic fungi. Melanin is a likely virulence factor for these fungi. Diagnosis relies on careful microscopic and pathological examination, as well as clinical assessment of the patient, as these fungi are often considered contaminants. Therapy varies depending upon the clinical syndrome. Local infection may be cured with excision alone, while systemic disease is often refractory to therapy. Triazoles such as voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole have the most consistent in vitro activity. Further studies are needed to better understand the pathogenesis and optimal treatment of these uncommon infections. PMID:20930077

  9. Genome and Proteome Analysis of Industrial Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Wend, Christopher F.; Martinez, Antonio D.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Dai, Ziyu; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Daly, Don S.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2007-09-06

    In order to decrease dependence on petroleum, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Office of the Biomass Program (OBP) is investing in research and development to enable its vision of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will decrease the use of petroleum through conversion of biomass such as crops or agricultural waste into fuels and products. How do fungi fit into the biorefinery? Analysis of the “Top Ten” study indicates that nine of the top twelve chemical building blocks are currently produced or may potentially be produced by fungal fermentation processes. However, a significant barrier to the use of bio-based products is the economic feasibility – fuels and products must be price-competitive with those derived from petroleum. An obvious way to decrease the costs of biobased products from fungi is to make fermentation strains more productive and processes more efficient. Traditional strain improvement programs typically span a time scale measured in decades and process development done through the use of batch cultures is extremely labor intensive.

  10. A Brief Review of Bioactive Metabolites Derived from Deep-Sea Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Ting; Xue, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fungi, the fungi that inhabit the sea and the sediment at depths of over 1000 m below the surface, have become an important source of industrial, agricultural, and nutraceutical compounds based on their diversities in both structure and function. Since the first study of deep-sea fungi in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of 4450 m was conducted approximately 50 years ago, hundreds of isolates of deep-sea fungi have been reported based on culture-dependent methods. To date more than 180 bioactive secondary metabolites derived from deep-sea fungi have been documented in the literature. These include compounds with anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities. In this review, we summarize the structures and bioactivities of these metabolites to provide help for novel drug development. PMID:26213949

  11. A Brief Review of Bioactive Metabolites Derived from Deep-Sea Fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ting; Xue, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chang-Hong

    2015-07-23

    Deep-sea fungi, the fungi that inhabit the sea and the sediment at depths of over 1000 m below the surface, have become an important source of industrial, agricultural, and nutraceutical compounds based on their diversities in both structure and function. Since the first study of deep-sea fungi in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of 4450 m was conducted approximately 50 years ago, hundreds of isolates of deep-sea fungi have been reported based on culture-dependent methods. To date more than 180 bioactive secondary metabolites derived from deep-sea fungi have been documented in the literature. These include compounds with anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antiviral activities. In this review, we summarize the structures and bioactivities of these metabolites to provide help for novel drug development.

  12. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  13. Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNaughton, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A method of characterization of airborne micro-organisms in a given location involves (1) large-volume filtration of air onto glass-fiber filters; (2) accelerated extraction of membrane lipids of the collected micro-organisms by use of pressurized hot liquid; and (3) identification and quantitation of the lipids by use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This method is suitable for use in both outdoor and indoor environments; for example, it can be used to measure airborne microbial contamination in buildings ("sick-building syndrome"). The classical approach to analysis of airborne micro-organisms is based on the growth of cultureable micro-organisms and does not provide an account of viable but noncultureable micro-organisms, which typically amount to more than 90 percent of the micro-organisms present. In contrast, the present method provides an account of all micro-organisms, including cultureable, noncultureable, aerobic, and anaerobic ones. The analysis of lipids according to this method makes it possible to estimate the number of viable airborne micro-organisms present in the sampled air and to obtain a quantitative profile of the general types of micro-organisms present along with some information about their physiological statuses.

  14. Proteome Studies of Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2011-04-20

    The continued fast pace of fungal genome sequence generation has enabled proteomic analysis of a wide breadth of organisms that span the breadth of the Kingdom Fungi. There is some phylogenetic bias to the current catalog of fungi with reasonable DNA sequence databases (genomic or EST) that could be analyzed at a global proteomic level. However, the rapid development of next generation sequencing platforms has lowered the cost of genome sequencing such that in the near future, having a genome sequence will no longer be a time or cost bottleneck for downstream proteomic (and transcriptomic) analyses. High throughput, non-gel based proteomics offers a snapshot of proteins present in a given sample at a single point in time. There are a number of different variations on the general method and technologies for identifying peptides in a given sample. We present a method that can serve as a “baseline” for proteomic studies of fungi.

  15. PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, P.K.; Fletcher, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    Since 1976 the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the U.S. Prior to this, commercial mixtures (Aroclors) had been used extensively as an industrial lubricant because of their nonflammable, nonreactive properties. These same properties are responsible for their persistent in the environment where they bind to soil particles and resist biodegradation. Decontamination of PCB-laden soil is expensive with excavation followed by either storage or incineration as the primary means of remediation. The use of microorganisms for PCB bioremediation has been gaining popularity in the past few years. Bacteria and/or fungi isolated from environmental samples have been used to degrade PCBs under laboratory conditions, but in field trials they have not been as effective. The most common explanation for the poor performance of PCB-degrading organisms introduced at contaminated sites is that they do not compete well with the existing populations. Plant-ectomycorrhizal systems may overcome this problem. Introduction and cultivation of a known host plant at a contaminated site has the potential of providing a survival advantage for ectomycorrhizal fungi that normally colonize the roots of the introduced plant. Ectomycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in the soil and normally grow in association with the roots of a host plant in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. Preliminary in vitro examination of this group of fungi for their ability to enzymatically degrade xenobiotics is very promising. In vivo studies have shown that some of these fungi have the ability to degrade chlorinated, aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-D and atrazine. The aspect of ectomycorrhizal metabolism was investigated further in the current study by determining the ability of 21 different fungi to metabolize 19 different PCB congeners with varying chlorine content and substitution patterns. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Antifungal Potential of Extracellular Metabolites Produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kuekulvong, Chutima; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils were assessed for in vitro antagonism against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Sclerotium rolfsii. A potent antagonist against both plant pathogenic fungi, designated SRA14, was selected and identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The strain SRA14 highly produced extracellular chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. Culture filtrates collected from the exponential and stationary phases inhibited the growth of both the fungi tested, indicating that growth suppression was due to extracellular antifungal metabolites present in culture filtrates. The percentage of growth inhibition by the stationary culture filtrate was significantly higher than that of exponential culture filtrate. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and abnormal shapes were observed in fungi grown on potato dextrose agar that contained the culture filtrates. However, the antifungal activity of exponential culture filtrates against both the experimental fungi was significantly reduced after boiling or treatment with proteinase K. There was no significant decrease in the percentage of fungal growth inhibition by the stationary culture filtrate that was treated as above. These data indicated that the antifungal potential of the exponential culture filtrate was mainly due to the presence of extracellular chitinase enzyme, whereas the antifungal activity of the stationary culture filtrate involved the action of unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s). PMID:18825279

  17. Antifungal potential of extracellular metabolites produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kuekulvong, Chutima; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2008-01-01

    Indigenous actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soils were assessed for in vitro antagonism against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Sclerotium rolfsii. A potent antagonist against both plant pathogenic fungi, designated SRA14, was selected and identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The strain SRA14 highly produced extracellular chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. Culture filtrates collected from the exponential and stationary phases inhibited the growth of both the fungi tested, indicating that growth suppression was due to extracellular antifungal metabolites present in culture filtrates. The percentage of growth inhibition by the stationary culture filtrate was significantly higher than that of exponential culture filtrate. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and abnormal shapes were observed in fungi grown on potato dextrose agar that contained the culture filtrates. However, the antifungal activity of exponential culture filtrates against both the experimental fungi was significantly reduced after boiling or treatment with proteinase K. There was no significant decrease in the percentage of fungal growth inhibition by the stationary culture filtrate that was treated as above. These data indicated that the antifungal potential of the exponential culture filtrate was mainly due to the presence of extracellular chitinase enzyme, whereas the antifungal activity of the stationary culture filtrate involved the action of unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s). PMID:18825279

  18. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  19. Melanins and resistance of fungi to lysis.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, B J; Alexander, M

    1967-04-01

    Hyphal walls of Aspergillus phoenicis and Sclerotium rolfsii are composed of large amounts of glucose- and N-acetylhexosamine-containing polysaccharides, and the walls are extensively digested by streptomycete culture filtrates or by a mixture of purified chitinase and beta-(1 --> 3) glucanase preparations with the release of the monomeric units. A. phoenicis conidial walls also contain polymers of glucose and N-acetylhexosamine, but these walls are resistant to digestion by microorganisms or the enzyme combination active on the hyphae. When the melanin-containing spicules were removed from the spore surface, however, the chitinase and glucanase partially digested the underlying structural components. Microorganisms decomposing hyphal walls of S. rolfsii did not attack the melanin-covered sclerotia produced by this fungus. No microorganism capable of lysing two fungi, Rhizoctonia solani and Cladosporium sp., producing hyphae containing abundant melanin was found. The ecological significance of these findings and possible mechanisms for the protective influence associated with melanins are discussed.

  20. Observations on the use of membrane filtration and liquid impingement to collect airborne microorganisms in various atmospheric environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Gonzalez, C.; Teigell, N.; Petrosky, T.; Northup, D.E.; Lyles, M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of sample-collection-time on the recovery of culturable airborne microorganisms using a low-flow-rate membrane-filtration unit and a high-flow-rate liquid impinger were investigated. Differences in recoveries were investigated in four different atmospheric environments, one mid-oceanic at an altitude of ~10.0 m, one on a mountain top at an altitude of ~3,000.0 m, one at ~1.0 m altitude in Tallahassee, Florida, and one at ~1.0 m above ground in a subterranean-cave. Regarding use of membrane filtration, a common trend was observed: the shorter the collection period, the higher the recovery of culturable bacteria and fungi. These data also demonstrated that lower culturable counts were common in the more remote mid-oceanic and mountain-top atmospheric environments with bacteria, fungi, and total numbers averaging (by sample time or method categories) <3.0 colony-forming units (CFU) m -3. At the Florida and subterranean sites, the lowest average count noted was 3.5 bacteria CFU m-3, and the highest averaged 140.4 total CFU m-3. When atmospheric temperature allowed use, the high-volume liquid impinger utilized in this study resulted in much higher recoveries, as much as 10?? greater in a number of the categories (bacterial, fungal, and total CFU). Together, these data illustrated that (1) the high-volume liquid impinger is clearly superior to membrane filtration for aeromicrobiology studies if start-up costs are not an issue and temperature permits use; (2) although membrane filtration is more cost friendly and has a 'typically' wider operational range, its limits include loss of cell viability with increased sample time and issues with effectively extracting nucleic acids for community-based analyses; (3) the ability to recover culturable microorganisms is limited in 'extreme' atmospheric environments and thus the use of a 'limited' methodology in these environments must be taken into account; and (4) the atmosphere culls, i.e., everything is not

  1. Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.

    PubMed

    Tuininga, Amy R; Miller, Jessica L; Morath, Shannon U; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C

    2009-05-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment.

  2. Production of hydrocarbon compounds by endophytic fungi Gliocladium species grown on cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Aftab; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2011-10-01

    Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Gliocladium are able to degrade plant cellulose and synthesize complex hydrocarbons under microaerophilic conditions. These fungi could thus be used to produce biofuels from cellulosics without the need for hydrolytic pretreatments. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-solid-phase micro-extraction (GC-MS-SPME) of head space gases from Gliocladium cultures demonstrated the production of C(6)-C(19) hydrocarbons including hexane, benzene, heptane, 3,4-dimethyl hexane, 1-octene, m-xylene, 3-methyl nonane, dodecane, tridecane, hexadecane and nonadecane directly from the cellulosic biomass. Hydrocarbon production was 100-fold higher in co-cultures of Gliocladium and Escherichia coli than in pure Gliocladium cultures. The dry mycelia weight is stable at stationary period in co-culture condition which may lead to synthesize more hydrocarbons. These fungi could potentially be developed into cost-effective biocatalysts for production of biofuels.

  3. Wood-rotting fungi of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The biology of wood-rotting fungi is reviewed. Discussions are presented in taxonomy, species diversity, North American distribution, developmental response to environmental factors, edibility and toxicity, medical uses, relationships of fungi with insects and birds, the role of fungi as mycorrhiza, pathological relationships with trees, role in wood decay, and ecology. Threats to the continuing existence of these fungi as a result of increased utilization of wood as fuel are also discussed. (ACR)

  4. Systematic Search for Cultivatable Fungi That Best Deconstruct Cell Walls of Miscanthus and Sugarcane in the Field ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prachand; Szaro, Timothy M.; Bruns, Thomas D.; Taylor, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of our project were to document the diversity and distributions of cultivable fungi associated with decaying Miscanthus and sugarcane plants in nature and to further assess biodegradation of host plant cell walls by these fungi in pure cultures. Late in 2008 and early in 2009 we collected decaying Miscanthus and Saccharum from 8 sites in Illinois and 11 sites in Louisiana, respectively. To recover fungi that truly decay plants and to recover slow-growing fungi, we washed the plant material repeatedly to remove spores and cultivated fungi from plant fragments small enough to harbor at most one mycelium. We randomly selected 950 fungal colonies out of 4,560 microwell colonies and used molecular identification to discover that the most frequently recovered fungal species resided in Hypocreales (Sordariomycetes), Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes), and Chaetothryiales (Eurotiomycetes) and that only a few weedy species were recovered. We were particularly interested in Pleosporales and Chaetothyriales, groups that have not been mined for plant decay fungi. To confirm that we had truly recovered fungi that deconstruct plant cell walls, we assayed the capacity of the fungi to consume whole, alkali-pretreated, ground Miscanthus. Solid substrate cultures of the nine most commonly encountered Ascomycota resulted in Miscanthus weight loss of 8 to 13% over 4 weeks. This is the first systematic, high-throughput, isolation and biodegradation assessment of fungi isolated from decaying bioenergy grasses. PMID:21685162

  5. Systematic search for cultivatable fungi that best deconstruct cell walls of Miscanthus and sugarcane in the field.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prachand; Szaro, Timothy M; Bruns, Thomas D; Taylor, John W

    2011-08-01

    The goals of our project were to document the diversity and distributions of cultivable fungi associated with decaying Miscanthus and sugarcane plants in nature and to further assess biodegradation of host plant cell walls by these fungi in pure cultures. Late in 2008 and early in 2009 we collected decaying Miscanthus and Saccharum from 8 sites in Illinois and 11 sites in Louisiana, respectively. To recover fungi that truly decay plants and to recover slow-growing fungi, we washed the plant material repeatedly to remove spores and cultivated fungi from plant fragments small enough to harbor at most one mycelium. We randomly selected 950 fungal colonies out of 4,560 microwell colonies and used molecular identification to discover that the most frequently recovered fungal species resided in Hypocreales (Sordariomycetes), Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes), and Chaetothryiales (Eurotiomycetes) and that only a few weedy species were recovered. We were particularly interested in Pleosporales and Chaetothyriales, groups that have not been mined for plant decay fungi. To confirm that we had truly recovered fungi that deconstruct plant cell walls, we assayed the capacity of the fungi to consume whole, alkali-pretreated, ground Miscanthus. Solid substrate cultures of the nine most commonly encountered Ascomycota resulted in Miscanthus weight loss of 8 to 13% over 4 weeks. This is the first systematic, high-throughput, isolation and biodegradation assessment of fungi isolated from decaying bioenergy grasses.

  6. [Alternative oxidase in industrial fungi].

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; He, Hao; Li, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have been used in industrial fermentation extensively. Based on non-phosphorylating electron transport process, alternative respiration pathway (ARP) acts as an energy overflow, which can balance carbon metabolism and electron transport, allow the continuance of tricarboxylic acid cycle without the formation of ATP, and permit the turnover of carbon skeletons. Alternative respiration pathway also plays an important role in the stress response of fungi and the physiological function of conditioned pathogen. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase responsible for the activity of alternative respiration pathway, which exists widely in higher plants, parts of fungi and algae. Owing to the property that alternative oxidase (AOX) is sensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and insensitive to conventional inhibitors of cytochrome respiration, alternative respiration pathway by AOX is also named as cyanide-resistant respiration (CRR). In recent years, the study of the alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase has been a hot topic in the area involving cellular respiration metabolism. In this review we summarized the latest research advances about the functions of alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase in industrial fungi.

  7. Generic aspects of the airborne spread of human pathogens indoors and emerging air decontamination technologies.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, M Khalid; Zargar, Bahram; Wright, Kathryn E; Rubino, Joseph R; Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air can be an important vehicle for a variety of human pathogens. This review provides examples of airborne transmission of infectious agents from experimental and field studies and discusses how airborne pathogens can contaminate other parts of the environment to give rise to secondary vehicles leading air-surface-air nexus with possible transmission to susceptible hosts. The following groups of human pathogens are covered because of their known or potential airborne spread: vegetative bacteria (staphylococci and legionellae), fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp and Stachybotrys chartarum), enteric viruses (noro- and rotaviruses), respiratory viruses (influenza and coronaviruses), mycobacteria (tuberculous and nontuberculous), and bacterial spore formers (Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis). An overview of methods for experimentally generating and recovering airborne human pathogens is included, along with a discussion of factors that influence microbial survival in indoor air. Available guidelines from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other global regulatory bodies for the study of airborne pathogens are critically reviewed with particular reference to microbial surrogates that are recommended. Recent developments in experimental facilities to contaminate indoor air with microbial aerosols are presented, along with emerging technologies to decontaminate indoor air under field-relevant conditions. Furthermore, the role that air decontamination may play in reducing the contamination of environmental surfaces and its combined impact on interrupting the risk of pathogen spread in both domestic and institutional settings is discussed. PMID:27590695

  8. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  9. Health hazards caused by fungi in stored wood chips

    SciTech Connect

    Thoernquist, T.; Lundstroem, H.

    1982-11-01

    In connection with using wood chips for fuel in heating buildings, a number of people in Sweden were taken ill with a respiratory allergy similar to wood trimmer's disease and farmer's lung. The disease is presumably caused by airborne fungal particles (spores and hyphae) which are inhaled when working with infected wood chips. The occurrence of fungal particles in the air in wood chip storage rooms, halls, and kitchens was studied in 64 buildings heated by chips. Sampling was carried out by exposing 9-cm petri dishes containing malt agar. In the chip storage rooms of 10 of the 64 buildings examined, more than 500 fungal colonies were recorded before disturbing the chips. After disturbance the number of buildings with more than 500 colonies increased to 28. In the halls in three of the buildings and in the kitchens of two, more than 500 fungal colonies were recorded. The number of fungal particles in wood chip storage is mainly dependent on the condition of the raw material before chipping, tree species, and the final storage period. To reduce the risk of large numbers of fungal particles in stored chips, the trees should be limbed before chipping and the stems preferably dried. Hardwood chips are more easily infected by fungi than chips of coniferous wood. The storage of wood chips for periods longer than 3 months should be avoided and a Class 2B protective mask should always be worn when handling chips feared to be infected by fungi. (Refs. 5).

  10. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  11. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  12. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  13. Diverse fungi associated with partial irregular heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera.

    PubMed

    Sun, Sisheng; Zeng, Xu; Zhang, Dawei; Guo, Shunxing

    2015-02-16

    Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen is a medium-sized evergreen tree that produces purple-brown heartwood called JiangXiang in traditional Chinese medicine, the formation process of which takes several decades. In this study, a standard culture method was used to isolate fungi from the wounded and normal stems of D. odorifera aiming to investigate the difference between the two types of wood. To characterize the spatial colonisation of endophytic fungi, an anatomical study was undertaken using the two different types of wood of D. odorifera. A total of 320 wood segments were placed on PDA plates and 87 fungal isolates were obtained. Only two fungi were isolated from the healthy white wood tissue, whereas 85 fungi were found in the purple-brown wounded-wood tissues. The two isolates from 160 white healthy wood tissues were assigned to Bionectriaceae sp., and the rest in wounded wood tissues were analyzed to 12 fungal species, indicating both a high fungal diversity and colonization rate in the purple-brown wounded wood. There was a difference in fungal species composition between coloured and white wood samples collected from the same tree. Eutypa sp. was the most commonly isolated species in the purple-brown wounded wood.

  14. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito

    2005-10-15

    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  15. Occurrence of airborne vancomycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria in various hospital wards in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirhoseini, Seyed Hamed; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Airborne transmission of pathogenic resistant bacteria is well recognized as an important route for the acquisition of a wide range of nosocomial infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airborne vancomycin and gentamicin (VM and GM) resistant bacteria in different wards of four educational hospitals. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 air samples were collected from operating theater (OT), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), surgery ward, and internal medicine ward of four educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Airborne culturable bacteria were collected using all glass impingers. Samples were analyzed for the detection of VM- and GM-resistant bacteria. Results: The average level of bacteria ranged from 99 to 1079 CFU/m3. The highest level of airborne bacteria was observed in hospital 4 (628 CFU/m3) and the highest average concentration of GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were found in hospital 3 (22 CFU/m3). The mean concentration of airborne bacteria was the lowest in OT wards and GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were not detected in this ward of hospitals. The highest prevalence of antibiotic-resistant airborne bacteria was observed in ICU ward. There was a statistically significant difference for the prevalence of VM-resistant bacteria between hospital wards (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Our finding showed that the relatively high prevalence of VM- and GM-resistant airborne bacteria in ICUs could be a great concern from the point of view of patients' health. These results confirm the necessity of application of effective control measures which significantly decrease the exposure of high-risk patients to potentially airborne nosocomial infections. PMID:27656612

  16. Occurrence of airborne vancomycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria in various hospital wards in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirhoseini, Seyed Hamed; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Airborne transmission of pathogenic resistant bacteria is well recognized as an important route for the acquisition of a wide range of nosocomial infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of airborne vancomycin and gentamicin (VM and GM) resistant bacteria in different wards of four educational hospitals. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 air samples were collected from operating theater (OT), Intensive Care Unit (ICU), surgery ward, and internal medicine ward of four educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. Airborne culturable bacteria were collected using all glass impingers. Samples were analyzed for the detection of VM- and GM-resistant bacteria. Results: The average level of bacteria ranged from 99 to 1079 CFU/m3. The highest level of airborne bacteria was observed in hospital 4 (628 CFU/m3) and the highest average concentration of GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were found in hospital 3 (22 CFU/m3). The mean concentration of airborne bacteria was the lowest in OT wards and GM- and VM-resistant airborne bacteria were not detected in this ward of hospitals. The highest prevalence of antibiotic-resistant airborne bacteria was observed in ICU ward. There was a statistically significant difference for the prevalence of VM-resistant bacteria between hospital wards (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Our finding showed that the relatively high prevalence of VM- and GM-resistant airborne bacteria in ICUs could be a great concern from the point of view of patients' health. These results confirm the necessity of application of effective control measures which significantly decrease the exposure of high-risk patients to potentially airborne nosocomial infections.

  17. Dynamic size spectrometry of airborne microorganisms: Laboratory evaluation and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yinge; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    Bioaerosol samplers need to be calibrated for the microorganisms of interest. The Aerosizer, a relatively new aerodynamic size spectrometer, is shown to be a suitable dynamic instrument for the evaluation and calibration of such samplers in the laboratory, prior to their use in the field. It provides the necessary reference count against which the microbiological response of the sampler can be compared. It measures the health-significant aerodynamic diameters of microorganisms down to 0.5 μm, thus including most of the bacteria, fungi and pollen found in outdoor and indoor air environments. Comparison tests with a laser size spectrometer indicate that the suspension of microorganisms needs to be washed several times before aerosolization to avoid coating of the airborne microorganisms with nutrients and microbial slime from the suspension, and to reduce the residue particles to sizes below the lowest size of the aerosolized microorganisms.

  18. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  19. Factors Affecting Vegetable Growers’ Exposure to Fungal Bioaerosols and Airborne Dust

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Vinni M.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    We have quantified vegetable growers’ exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1→3)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers’ exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust. Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers’ exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants. Also removing strings in cucumber greenhouses caused a lower exposure to bioaerosols than harvest of cucumbers while removal of old plants caused the highest exposure. In general, the exposure was higher in greenhouses than in open fields. The exposures to β-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m−3) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers’ exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked, the investigated work tasks, and the vegetable crop. PMID:22003240

  20. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  1. Some coprophilous fungi from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Caretta, G; Piontelli, E; Savino, E; Bulgheroni, A

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of coprophilous fungi on samples of antelope, buffalo, zebra and hippopotamus dung collected from the Marula Estates in Kenya was recorded. A hundred and seventy three fungal isolates representative of 40 genera and 59 species were identified. Among these species, 23 were Ascomycetes (39%), 30 Deuteromycetes (50.8%), 5 Zygomycetes (8.5%) and 1 Basidiomycete (1.7%). Ascobolus immersus, Coprotus niveus, Iodophanus carneus, Lasiobolus lasioboloides, Podospora anserina, P. australis and Sporormiella minima were the dominant species occurring in the dung of these animals. Notes on infrequent or interesting Ascomycetes include Kernia nitida, Saccobolus versicolor, Sordaria fimicola and others. The interdependence of the vegetation of this area with the fungi occurring on the dung of these animals is discussed. PMID:16284849

  2. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    González-Fernández, Raquel; Prats, Elena; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V.

    2010-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular) and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection. PMID:20589070

  3. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers

  4. Ambrosia fungi in the insect-fungi symbiosis in relation to cork oak decline.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Joana; Inácio, Maria Lurdes; Sousa, Edmundo

    2006-09-01

    Ambrosia fungi live associated with beetles (Scolytidae and Platypodidae) in host trees and act as a food source for the insects. The symbiotic relation is important to the colonizing strategies of host trees by beetles. Ambrosia fungi are dimorphic: they grow as ambrosial form and as mycelium. The fungi are highly specialized, adapted to a specific beetle and to the biotope where they both live. In addition other fungi have been found such as tree pathogenic fungi that may play a role in insects host colonization success. Saprophytic fungi are also present in insects galleries. These may decompose cellulose and/or be antagonistic to other less beneficial fungi. This paper summarizes the importance of ambrosia fungi and the interaction with insects and hosts. The possibility of the transport of pathogenic fungi by Platypus cylindrus to cork oak thus contributing for its decline is discussed.

  5. Fungi and bacteria in mould-damaged and non-damaged office environments in a subarctic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Lappalainen, Sanna; Lindroos, Outi; Harju, Riitta; Reijula, Kari

    The fungi and bacterial levels of the indoor air environments of 77 office buildings were measured in winter and a comparison was made between the buildings with microbe sources in their structures and those without such sources. Penicillium, yeasts, Cladosporium and non-sporing isolates were the commonest fungi detected in the indoor air and in settled dust, in both the mould-damaged and control buildings. Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus glaucus and Stachybotrys chartarium were found only in environmental samples from the mould-damaged buildings. Some other fungi, with growth requiring of water activity, aw, above 0.85, occurred in both the reference and mould-damaged buildings, but such fungi were commoner in the latter type of buildings. The airborne concentrations of Penicillium, Aspergillus versicolor and yeasts were the best indicators of mould damage in the buildings studied. Penicillium species and A. versicolor were also the most abundant fungi in the material samples. This study showed that the fungi concentrations were very low (2-45 cfu m -3 90% of the concentrations being <15 cfu m -3) in the indoor air of the normal office buildings. Although the concentration range of airborne fungi was wider for the mould-damaged buildings (2-2470 cfu m -3), only about 20% of the samples exceeded 100 cfu m -3. The concentrations of airborne bacteria ranged from 12 to 540 cfu m -3 in the control buildings and from 14 to 1550 cfu m -3 in the mould-damaged buildings. A statistical analysis of the results indicated that bacteria levels are generally <600 cfu m -3 in office buildings in winter and fungi levels are <50 cfu m -3. These normal levels are applicable to subarctic climates for urban, modern office buildings when measurements are made using a six-stage impactor. These levels should not be used in evaluations of health risks, but elevated levels may indicate the presence of abnormal microbe sources in indoor air and a need for additional environmental

  6. Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, Robert L.; Bumpus, John A.

    1996-12-01

    Several investigations have demonstrated that oxalate anion secreted by fungi is able to mediate solubilization of Ieonardite, a highly oxidized lignite. During this reporting period, we have used a biomimetic approach to study oxalate mediated solubilization of several Argonne Premium Coals. Results showed that, relative to Ieonardite, oxalate solubilized minimal amounts of these coals. Other studies showed that pH has a dramatic effect on solubilization of Ieonardite by several Lewis bases. In general, solubilization appeared to be a function of ionization of the Lewis base. Coal solubilization is estimated by an increase in the visible spectrum of aqueous solutions containing coal and a solubilizing agent. Because Ieonardite solubilization was studied over a broad pH range, it was necessary to determine if pH has a substantial effect on the absorbance of soluble coal macromolecule. Results showed that absorbance at 600 nm increased by {approx}56% between pH 4.5 and pH 12.0. Clearly, this increase must be considered when interpreting coal solubilization data. The decolonization of soluble coal macromolecule in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was also studied. In stationary and agitated cultures, respectively, 83.8% {+-} 2.3% and 89.6% {+-} 1.0% of the coal macromolecule was decolorized during 8 days of incubation.

  7. [Synergy between fungi and bacteria in fungi-bacteria augmented remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Long; Tang, Jing; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min-Lian; Liu, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    A new bioaugmentation technique for petroleum contaminated soil utilizing the synergistic function between bacteria and fungi in both growth and metabolism of petroleum was proposed and investigated using E. cloacae and Cun. echinulata, both of which were isolated from Zhongyuan Oil Field, Henan, China. The maximum biomass of E. cloacae and Cun. echinulata obtained in the mixed slurry culture were 3- and 20-fold as much as their respective counterpart obtained in the pure cultures. The decrease of cell activity was considerably postponed, as compared to the pure cultures. The removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) by the mixture was higher than the sum of the individual removal obtained in the pure culture, which could be further enhanced by repeated inoculation of fresh fungal and bacterial inocula. The optimal parameters of the in situ bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil sampled in Zhongyuan Oil Field were determined as follows: 25% (m/m) soil humidity, 6% (m/m) of wood scraps, 2.5 x 10(4) CFU/g of E. cloacae and 2.5 x 10(7) CFU/g dry soil of Cun. echinulata. It was demonstrated that the growth behavior of the inocula and the degradation of TPH were not inhibited by the indigenous microorganisms. The in situ remediation via inoculating the fungal-bacterial consortia removed 65% of TPH in 40 days while the control experiment with the indigenous microorganisms removed 16%.

  8. Vesicular transport systems in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H; Casadevall, Arturo; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Canonical and unconventional mechanisms of secretion in many eukaryotic cells are relatively well known. In contrast to the situation in animal cells, mechanisms of secretion in fungi must include the capacity for trans-cell wall passage of macromolecules to the extracellular space. Although these mechanisms remain somewhat elusive, several studies in recent years have suggested that vesicular transport is required for trans-cell wall secretion of large molecules. Several fungal molecules, including proteins, lipids, polysaccharides and pigments, are released to the extracellular space in vesicles. In pathogenic fungi, a number of these vesicular components are associated with fungal virulence. Indeed, extracellular vesicles produced by fungi can interfere with the immunomodulatory activity of host cells. Fungal vesicles share many functional aspects with mammalian exosomes and extracellular vesicles produced by bacteria, plants and protozoa, but their cellular origin remains unknown. Here, we discuss the involvement of vesicular transport systems in fungal physiology and pathogenesis, making parallels with the mammalian, bacterial, protozoan and plant cell literature. PMID:22082294

  9. Transport Systems in Halophilic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Plemenitaš, Ana; Konte, Tilen; Gostinčar, Cene; Cimerman, Nina Gunde

    2016-01-01

    Fungi that tolerate very high environmental NaCl concentrations are good model systems to study mechanisms that enable them to endure osmotic and salinity stress. The whole genome sequences of six such fungal species have been analysed: Hortaea werneckii, Wallemia ichthyophaga and four Aureobasidium spp.: A. pullulans, A. subglaciale, A. melanogenum and A. namibiae. These fungi show different levels of halotolerance, with the presence of numerous membrane transport systems uncovered here that are believed to maintain physiological intracellular concentrations of alkali metal cations. Despite some differences, the intracellular cation contents of H. werneckii, A. pullulans and W. ichthyophaga remain low even under extreme extracellular salinities, which suggests that these species have efficient cation transport systems. We speculate that cation transporters prevent intracellular accumulation of Na(+), and thus avoid the toxic effects that such Na(+) accumulation would have, while also maintaining the high K(+)/Na(+) ratio that is required for the full functioning of the cell - another crucial task in high-Na(+) environments. This chapter primarily summarises the cation transport systems of these selected fungi, and it also describes other membrane transporters that might be involved in their mechanisms of halotolerance.

  10. Dye removal by immobilised fungi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Couto, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Dyes are widely used within the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, textile and leather industries. This has resulted in the discharge of highly coloured effluents that affect water transparency and gas solubility in water bodies. Furthermore, they pose a problem because of their carcinogenicity and toxicity. Therefore, removal of such dyes before discharging them into natural water streams is essential. For this, appropriate treatment technologies are required. The treatment of recalcitrant and toxic dyes with traditional technologies is not always effective or may not be environmentally friendly. This has impelled the search for alternative technologies such as biodegradation with fungi. In particular, ligninolytic fungi and their non-specific oxidative enzymes have been reported to be responsible for the decolouration of different synthetic dyes. Thus, the use of such fungi is becoming a promising alternative to replace or complement the current technologies for dye removal. Processes using immobilised growing cells seem to be more promising than those with free cells, since the immobilisation allows using the microbial cells repeatedly and continuously. This paper reviews the application of fungal immobilisation to dye removal. PMID:19211032

  11. Diagnosis of filamentous fungi on tissue sections by immunohistochemistry using anti-aspergillus antibody.

    PubMed

    Challa, Sundaram; Uppin, Shantveer G; Uppin, Megha S; Pamidimukkala, Umabala; Vemu, Lakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Identification based on histology alone has limitations as Aspergillus species share morphology with other filamentous fungi. Differentiation of Aspergillus species from hyalohyphomycetes and dematiaceous fungi is important as the antifungal susceptibility varies among different species and genera. Given these problems, ancillary techniques are needed to increase specificity. Our aim was to study the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) with anti-Aspergillus antibody in the identification of Aspergillus species and to differentiate them from other filamentous fungi. Fifty formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections including 47 from cases of culture proven filamentous fungi, 3 from colonies of cultures of hyalohyphomycetes, and 11 smears from cultures were subjected to IHC studies using polyclonal rabbit anti-Aspergillus antibody (Abcam, UK) after antigen retrieval. The IHC on tissue sections was positive in 88% cases involving culture proven Aspergillus species. There was no cross reactivity with Mucorales species, Candida species, dematiaceous fungi and hyalohyphomycetes. Hence immunohistochemistry can be used as an ancillary technique for the diagnosis of Aspergillus species.

  12. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  13. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  14. Airborne chemicals and forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, J.N.; Cowling, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  16. Characterization of airborne fungal levels after mold remediation.

    PubMed

    Kleinheinz, G T; Langolf, B M; Englebert, E

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to evaluate levels of airborne fungi present after a mold remediation project and determine the effectiveness of this remediation using airborne mold levels to determine the success of these projects. Andersen N6 (viable) and Air-O-Cell (non-viable) sampling techniques were utilized. Both test methodologies demonstrated that levels of mold in the successfully remediated portions of buildings were significantly different (p<0.05) from the levels found in non-complaint and outdoor samples from the same building, respectively. Conversely, levels in unsuccessful remediation projects were not significantly different (p>0.05) to non-complaint and outdoor samples. Both techniques showed high variability in the overall mold levels found between sites; however, the ratios of specific mold groups in each area tested, within the same site, were remarkably similar. The use of either viable or non-viable mold sampling techniques after mold remediation is essential for determining the success of such projects. This project demonstrates the relationship between mold levels and the success of a mold remediation projects, and will assist in the interpretation of data collected at the conclusion of a mold remediation project.

  17. Capillary electrophoresis of conidia from cultivated microscopic filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; Růzicka, Filip; Kubesová, Anna; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2009-05-15

    In immunocompromised people fungal agents are able to cause serious infections with high mortality rate. An early diagnosis can increase the chances of survival of the affected patients. Simultaneously, the fungi produce toxins and they are frequent cause of allergy. Currently, various methods are used for detection and identification of these pathogens. They use microscopic examination and growth characteristic of the fungi. New methods are based on the analysis of structural elements of the target microorganisms such as proteins, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, nucleic acids, etc. for the construction of antibodies, probes, and primers for detection. The above-mentioned methods are time-consuming and elaborate. Here hydrophobic conidia from the cultures of different strains of the filamentous fungi were focused and separated by capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing. The detection was optimized by dynamic modifying of conidia by the nonionogenic tenside on the basis of pyrenebutanoate. Down to 10 labeled conidia of the fungal strains were fluorometrically detected, and isoelectric points of conidia were determined. The observed isoelectric points were compared with those obtained from the separation of the cultured clinical samples, and they were found to be not host-specific.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in terms of symbiosis-parasitism continuum.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B; Gaşpar, S; Camen, D; Ciobanu, I; Sumălan, R

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are forming the most wide-spread mycorrhizal relationships on Earth. Mycorrhiza contributes to phosphorous acquisition, water absorption and resistance to diseases. The fungus promotes the absorption of nutrients and water from soil, meanwhile the host plant offers photosynthetic assimilates in exchange, like carbohydrates, as energy source. The plant benefits from the contribution of symbiotic partner only when nutrients are in low concentrations in soil and the root system would not be able to absorb sufficiently the minerals. When the help of mycorrhizal fungi is not necessarily needed, the host plant is making an economy of energy, suppressing the development of fungi in the internal radicular space. In this moment, the nature of relationship turns from symbiotic to parasitic, triggering a series of defensive reactions from the plant. Also, there were several cases reported when the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi negatively influenced the host plant. For example, in adverse environmental conditions, like very high temperatures, instead of determining a higher plant biomass and flowering, the mycorrhiza reduces the growth of the host plant. We conducted a pot experiment with hydroponic culture to examine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on development of French marigold as a host plant. As experimental variants, the phosphorous content in nutrient medium and temperature varied. Plants were artificially infected with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using a commercial inoculum containing three fungal species, as following: Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus claroideum. Colonization intensity and arbuscular richness were checked using root staining with aniline blue and estimation with the Trouvelot method. To observe the differences between plants from the experimental variants, we examined the number of side shoots, flower buds and fully developed flowers, fresh biomass and total leaf area. Results show that

  19. Psychrophilic and mesophilic fungi in frozen food products.

    PubMed

    KUEHN, H H; GUNDERSON, M F

    1963-07-01

    The mold flora of certain frozen pastries and chicken pies was investigated. Molds were determined qualitatively or quantitatively, or both, by preparing pour plates of the blended product and incubating the plates at various temperatures. The mesophilic fungal flora developed on plates incubated at 10 and 20 C, whereas psychrophilic fungi were obtained on plates incubated at 0 and 5 C. About 2,000 cultures of fungi, representing about 100 different species, were isolated from various products. Four different brands of blueberry, two brands of cherry pastries, two brands of apple, and one brand of raspberry pastries were examined. In addition, two brands of chicken pies were studied. Blueberry pastries had a much higher total fungal population than the other products, although different brands of blueberry pastries varied considerably. Blueberry pastries had from 347 to 1,586 psychrophilic fungi per g. Cherry pastries had about 70 to 110 psychrophiles per g, and apple pastries had 19 to 92 psychrophiles per g. Chicken pies contained very few psychrophilic fungi, about 15 per g. Aureobasidium pullulans was recovered most frequently. About 90% of the psychrophilic fungi found in blueberry products was A. pullulans. Depending upon the brand of cherry pastry, either Phoma spp. or A. pullulans was the most common fungus present. Apple pastries also displayed brand variation, but were unique in having many mesophilic aspergilli. This genus was generally absent from other products. The Penicillium content of apple pastries was also rather high; 50% of the psychrophilic flora was represented by this genus. The psychrophilic fungal flora of chicken pies was composed primarily of penicillia (50%) and Chrysosporium pannorum (46%). PMID:13927344

  20. Molecular mechanisms underlying the close association between soil Burkholderia and fungi.

    PubMed

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Zühlke, Daniela; Carlier, Aurélien; Barberán, Albert; Fierer, Noah; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial species belonging to the genus Burkholderia have been repeatedly reported to be associated with fungi but the extent and specificity of these associations in soils remain undetermined. To assess whether associations between Burkholderia and fungi are widespread in soils, we performed a co-occurrence analysis in an intercontinental soil sample collection. This revealed that Burkholderia significantly co-occurred with a wide range of fungi. To analyse the molecular basis of the interaction, we selected two model fungi frequently co-occurring with Burkholderia, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani, and analysed the proteome changes caused by cultivation with either fungus in the widespread soil inhabitant B. glathei, whose genome we sequenced. Co-cultivation with both fungi led to very similar changes in the B. glathei proteome. Our results indicate that B. glathei significantly benefits from the interaction, which is exemplified by a lower abundance of several starvation factors that were highly expressed in pure culture. However, co-cultivation also gave rise to stress factors, as indicated by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps and proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Our data suggest that the ability of Burkholderia to establish a close association with fungi mainly lies in the capacities to utilize fungal-secreted metabolites and to overcome fungal defense mechanisms. This work indicates that beneficial interactions with fungi might contribute to the survival strategy of Burkholderia species in environments with sub-optimal conditions, including acidic soils. PMID:25989372

  1. Molecular mechanisms underlying the close association between soil Burkholderia and fungi.

    PubMed

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Zühlke, Daniela; Carlier, Aurélien; Barberán, Albert; Fierer, Noah; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial species belonging to the genus Burkholderia have been repeatedly reported to be associated with fungi but the extent and specificity of these associations in soils remain undetermined. To assess whether associations between Burkholderia and fungi are widespread in soils, we performed a co-occurrence analysis in an intercontinental soil sample collection. This revealed that Burkholderia significantly co-occurred with a wide range of fungi. To analyse the molecular basis of the interaction, we selected two model fungi frequently co-occurring with Burkholderia, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani, and analysed the proteome changes caused by cultivation with either fungus in the widespread soil inhabitant B. glathei, whose genome we sequenced. Co-cultivation with both fungi led to very similar changes in the B. glathei proteome. Our results indicate that B. glathei significantly benefits from the interaction, which is exemplified by a lower abundance of several starvation factors that were highly expressed in pure culture. However, co-cultivation also gave rise to stress factors, as indicated by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps and proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Our data suggest that the ability of Burkholderia to establish a close association with fungi mainly lies in the capacities to utilize fungal-secreted metabolites and to overcome fungal defense mechanisms. This work indicates that beneficial interactions with fungi might contribute to the survival strategy of Burkholderia species in environments with sub-optimal conditions, including acidic soils.

  2. Seasonal Trends in Airborne Fungal Spores in Coastal California Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfin, J.; Crandall, S. G.; Gilbert, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne fungal spores cause disease in plants and animals and may trigger respiratory illnesses in humans. In terrestrial systems, fungal sporulation, germination, and persistence are strongly regulated by local meteorological conditions. However, few studies investigate how microclimate affects the spatio-temporal dynamics of airborne spores. We measured fungal aerospora abundance and microclimate at varying spatial and time scales in coastal California in three habitat-types: coast redwood forest, mixed-evergreen forest, and maritime chaparral. We asked: 1) is there a difference in total airborne spore concentration between habitats, 2) when do we see peak spore counts, and 3) do spore densities correlate with microclimate conditions? Fungal spores were caught from the air with a volumetric vacuum air spore trap during the wet season (January - March) in 2013 and 2014, as well as monthly in 2014. Initial results suggest that mixed-evergreen forests exhibit the highest amounts of spore abundance in both years compared to the other habitats. This may be due to either a higher diversity of host plants in mixed-evergreen forests or a rich leaf litter layer that may harbor a greater abundance of saprotrophic fungi. Based on pilot data, we predict that temperature and to a lesser degree, relative humidity, will be important microclimate predictors for high spore densities. These data are important for understanding when and under what weather conditions we can expect to see high levels of fungal spores in the air; this can be useful information for managers who are interested in treating diseased plants with fungicides.

  3. Size and seasonal distributions of airborne bioaerosols in commuting trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Wang, Che-Hsu; Hsu, Kai-Lin

    2010-11-01

    Aerobiological studies in commuting trains in northern Taiwan were carried out from August, 2007 until July, 2008. Two six-stage (>7 μm, 4.7˜7 μm, 3.3˜4.7 μm, 2.1˜3.3 μm, 1.1˜2.1 μm, 0.65˜1.1 μm) cascade impactors of 400 orifices were used to collect viable bacteria and fungi, respectively. The levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), formaldehyde (HCHO), temperature, and relative humidity in the commuting trains were also recorded during the sampling period. Results show that bacterial concentrations ranged from 25 to 1530 CFU m -3, and averaged 417 CFU m -3. The fungal concentrations ranged from 45 to 1906 CFU m -3, and averaged 413 CFU m -3. Additionally, the highest fractions occurred in the fifth stage (1.1˜2.1 μm) for both bacteria and fungi. The respirable fractions, Rb and Rf, for bacteria and fungi were 62.8% and 81.4%, respectively, which are higher than those in other studies. Furthermore, the bacterial concentration reached its highest level in autumn, and its lowest level in winter. However, the fungal concentration was highest in spring and lowest in winter. Though the total bacterial or fungal concentration did not exceed the recommendation standard in Taiwan, the relatively high respirable fraction in commuting trains probably implies a higher adverse health risk for sensitive commuters. This study further conducted multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship of various stage fractions of airborne bacteria and fungi with indoor air pollutants (CO and HCHO) and environmental parameters (CO 2, temperature, and relative humidity). The correlation coefficients of multiple regression analysis for total bacteria and fungi concentrations with indoor air pollutants and environmental parameters were 0.707 ( p < 0.00376) and 0.612 ( p < 0.00471), respectively. There are currently no formally regulated laws for indoor air quality (IAQ) in Taiwan, and this preliminary study can provide references to the Taiwan

  4. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  5. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  6. Biological Control of the Nematode Infective larvae of Trichostrongylidae Family With Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Zarrin, Majid; Rahdar, Mahmoud; Gholamian, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biological control of parasitic nematodes by microorganisms is a promising approach to control such parasites. Microorganisms such as fungi, viruses and bacteria are recognized as biocontrol agents of nematodes. Objectives: The current study mainly aimed to evaluate the in vitro Potential of various saprophyte soil-fungi in reducing the infective larvae stage of parasitic nematode Trichostrongylidae family. Materials and Methods: Sheep feces were employed to provide the required third stage larvae source for the experiments. The nematode infective larvae of Trichostrongylidae family including three species of Ostertagia circumcincta, Marshalgia marshali and Heamonchos contortus were collected by Berman apparatus. Fifteen isolates of filamentous fungi were tested in the current study. One milliliter suspension containing 200 third stage larvae of Trichostrongylidae family was separately added to the fungal cultures in 2% water-agar medium Petri-dishes. Every day the live larvae were counted with light microscope (10X) and the number of captured larvae was recorded on different days. Results: Significant differences were observed in the results of co-culture of nematodes larva and fungi after seven days. The most effective fungi against the nematodes larvae were Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium equisetti, after seven days of incubation. Conclusions: The studies on fungi could be applied as suitable tools in biocontrol of nematode infections. However, additional surveys are required to select efficient with the ability to reduce the nematode larvae in the environment. PMID:25893084

  7. Bioweathering Potential of Cultivable Fungi Associated with Semi-Arid Surface Microhabitats of Mayan Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Morales, Benjamín O.; Narváez-Zapata, José; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Quintana, Patricia; De la Rosa-García, Susana del C.; Bullen, Heather; Gómez-Cornelio, Sergio; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and rock surfaces support microbial communities involved in mineral weathering processes. Using selective isolation, fungi were obtained from limestone surfaces of Mayan monuments in the semi-arid climate at Yucatan, Mexico. A total of 101 isolates representing 53 different taxa were studied. Common fungi such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Trichoderma, and Penicillium were associated with surfaces and were, probably derived from airborne spores. In contrast, unusual fungi such as Rosellinia, Annulohypoxylon, and Xylaria were predominantly identified from mycelium particles of biofilm biomass. Simulating oligotrophic conditions, agar amended with CaCO3 was inoculated with fungi to test for carbonate activity. A substantial proportion of fungi, in particular those isolated from mycelium (59%), were capable of solubilizing calcium by means of organic acid release, notably oxalic acid as evidenced by ion chromatography. Contrary to our hypothesis, nutrient level was not a variable influencing the CaCO3 solubilization ability among isolates. Particularly active fungi (Annulohypoxylon stygium, Penicillium oxalicum, and Rosellinia sp.) were selected as models for bioweathering experiments with limestone-containing mesocosms to identify if other mineral phases, in addition to oxalates, were linked to bioweathering processes. Fungal biofilms were seen heavily covering the stone surface, while a biomineralized front was also observed at the stone-biofilm interface, where network of hyphae and mycogenic crystals was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) identified calcite as the main phase, along with whewellite and wedellite. In addition, lower levels of citrate were detected by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Overall, our results suggest that a diverse fungal community is associated with limestone surfaces insemi-arid climates. A subset of this community is geochemically active, excreting organic acids under quasi

  8. Bioweathering Potential of Cultivable Fungi Associated with Semi-Arid Surface Microhabitats of Mayan Buildings.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Benjamín O; Narváez-Zapata, José; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Quintana, Patricia; De la Rosa-García, Susana Del C; Bullen, Heather; Gómez-Cornelio, Sergio; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    Soil and rock surfaces support microbial communities involved in mineral weathering processes. Using selective isolation, fungi were obtained from limestone surfaces of Mayan monuments in the semi-arid climate at Yucatan, Mexico. A total of 101 isolates representing 53 different taxa were studied. Common fungi such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Trichoderma, and Penicillium were associated with surfaces and were, probably derived from airborne spores. In contrast, unusual fungi such as Rosellinia, Annulohypoxylon, and Xylaria were predominantly identified from mycelium particles of biofilm biomass. Simulating oligotrophic conditions, agar amended with CaCO3 was inoculated with fungi to test for carbonate activity. A substantial proportion of fungi, in particular those isolated from mycelium (59%), were capable of solubilizing calcium by means of organic acid release, notably oxalic acid as evidenced by ion chromatography. Contrary to our hypothesis, nutrient level was not a variable influencing the CaCO3 solubilization ability among isolates. Particularly active fungi (Annulohypoxylon stygium, Penicillium oxalicum, and Rosellinia sp.) were selected as models for bioweathering experiments with limestone-containing mesocosms to identify if other mineral phases, in addition to oxalates, were linked to bioweathering processes. Fungal biofilms were seen heavily covering the stone surface, while a biomineralized front was also observed at the stone-biofilm interface, where network of hyphae and mycogenic crystals was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) identified calcite as the main phase, along with whewellite and wedellite. In addition, lower levels of citrate were detected by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Overall, our results suggest that a diverse fungal community is associated with limestone surfaces insemi-arid climates. A subset of this community is geochemically active, excreting organic acids under quasi

  9. Bioweathering Potential of Cultivable Fungi Associated with Semi-Arid Surface Microhabitats of Mayan Buildings.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Benjamín O; Narváez-Zapata, José; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Quintana, Patricia; De la Rosa-García, Susana Del C; Bullen, Heather; Gómez-Cornelio, Sergio; Chan-Bacab, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    Soil and rock surfaces support microbial communities involved in mineral weathering processes. Using selective isolation, fungi were obtained from limestone surfaces of Mayan monuments in the semi-arid climate at Yucatan, Mexico. A total of 101 isolates representing 53 different taxa were studied. Common fungi such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Trichoderma, and Penicillium were associated with surfaces and were, probably derived from airborne spores. In contrast, unusual fungi such as Rosellinia, Annulohypoxylon, and Xylaria were predominantly identified from mycelium particles of biofilm biomass. Simulating oligotrophic conditions, agar amended with CaCO3 was inoculated with fungi to test for carbonate activity. A substantial proportion of fungi, in particular those isolated from mycelium (59%), were capable of solubilizing calcium by means of organic acid release, notably oxalic acid as evidenced by ion chromatography. Contrary to our hypothesis, nutrient level was not a variable influencing the CaCO3 solubilization ability among isolates. Particularly active fungi (Annulohypoxylon stygium, Penicillium oxalicum, and Rosellinia sp.) were selected as models for bioweathering experiments with limestone-containing mesocosms to identify if other mineral phases, in addition to oxalates, were linked to bioweathering processes. Fungal biofilms were seen heavily covering the stone surface, while a biomineralized front was also observed at the stone-biofilm interface, where network of hyphae and mycogenic crystals was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) identified calcite as the main phase, along with whewellite and wedellite. In addition, lower levels of citrate were detected by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Overall, our results suggest that a diverse fungal community is associated with limestone surfaces insemi-arid climates. A subset of this community is geochemically active, excreting organic acids under quasi

  10. Lysine catabolism in Rhizoctonia leguminicola and related fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F P; Broquist, H P

    1976-01-01

    The catabolism of lysine was studied in several yeasts and fungi. Results with cell-free extracts of Rhizoctonia leguminicola support a proposed pathway involving (D- and L-) EPSILON-N-acetyllysine, alpha-keto-epsilon-acetamidohexanoic acid, delta-acetamidovaleric acid, and delta-aminovaleric acid in the conversion of L-lysine to shortchain organic acids. Label from radioactive L-lysine was found to accumulate in D- and L-epsilon-N-acetyllysine, delta-acetamidovaleric acid, delta-aminovaleric acid, and glutaric acid in cultures of R. leguminicola, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hansenula saturnus, suggesting that the proposed omega-acetyl pathway of lysine catabolism is generalized among yeasts and fungi. In N. crassa, as is the case in R. leguminicola, the major precursor of L-pipecolic acid was the L-isomer of lysine; 15N experiments were consistent with delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylic acid as an intermediate in the transformation. PMID:131119

  11. Abiotic factors affecting the toxicity of lead to fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, H; Stotzky, G

    1979-01-01

    The toxicity of lead (Pb) to fungi in pure culture was influenced by several abiotic factors: pH, inorganic anions, clay minerals, and particulate (humic acid) and soluble organic matter. The toxicity of Pb was potentiated under acidic conditions (pH 5 and 6), and phosphate or carbonate anions reduced the toxicity, apparently as a result of the formation of sparingly soluble Pb salts. Clay minerals (montmorillonite greater than attapulgite greater than kaolinite) and particulate humic acid protected against the toxicity of Pb, presumably as the result of sorption, by cation exchange of the Pb to the exchange complexes, which reduced its availability for uptake by the fungi. Soluble organics, such as tryptone, yeast extract, cysteine, succinic acid, and increasing concentrations of neopeptone, also reduced the toxicity of Pb. PMID:43707

  12. [EFFECT OF MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ON COMPONENT COMPOSITION OF RUBBER SCN-18].

    PubMed

    Chuienko, A I; Subbota, A G; Ostapyuk, S M

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to the action of microscopic fungi of the material SCN-18, which had been characterized by high resistance to microscopic fungi was idefenited. It has been noted that in the case of using of test cultures of fungi isolated from the rubber substrates, the intensity of damage of the SCN-18 was higher than in the case of using of species proposed by GOST 9.049-91. During 1-year trial of resistance to the action of microscopic fungi of SCN-18 it had been set decreasing of the amount of ester groups in the studied material, which indicated about gradual degradation of the plasticizer dibutylphthalate, which was included to the component composition of SCN-18.

  13. [Contribution of fungi to soil nitrous oxide emission and their research methods: a review].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Long, Xi-En

    2014-04-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas. Soil is one major emission source of N2O, which is a by-product of microorganisms-driven nitrification and denitrification processes. Extensive research has demonstrated archaea and bacteria are the predominant contributors in nitrification and denitrification. However, fungi may play a predominant role in the N transformation in a certain soil ecosystem. The fungal contribution to N2O production has been rarely investigated. Here, we reviewed the mechanism of N2O production by soil fungi. The mechanisms of denitrification, autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification and their key microbes and functional genes were described, respectively. We discriminated the differences in denitrification between bacteria and fungi and discussed the methods being used to determine the contribution of fungi to soil N2O emission, including selective inhibitors, 15N stable isotope probing, isolation and pure culturing and uncultured molecular detection methods. The existing problems and research prospects were also presented.

  14. [EFFECT OF MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ON COMPONENT COMPOSITION OF RUBBER SCN-18].

    PubMed

    Chuienko, A I; Subbota, A G; Ostapyuk, S M

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to the action of microscopic fungi of the material SCN-18, which had been characterized by high resistance to microscopic fungi was idefenited. It has been noted that in the case of using of test cultures of fungi isolated from the rubber substrates, the intensity of damage of the SCN-18 was higher than in the case of using of species proposed by GOST 9.049-91. During 1-year trial of resistance to the action of microscopic fungi of SCN-18 it had been set decreasing of the amount of ester groups in the studied material, which indicated about gradual degradation of the plasticizer dibutylphthalate, which was included to the component composition of SCN-18. PMID:26422922

  15. Distribution and abundance of fungi in the soils of Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Rodriguez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of culturable fungi in Taylor Valley, Antarctica was assessed in terms of soil habitat. Soil transects throughout the valley revealed differential habitat utilization between filamentous and non-filamentous (yeast and yeast-like) fungi. In addition, there were significant differences in species distribution patterns with respect to soil pH, moisture, distance from marine coastline, carbon, chlorophyll a, salinity, elevation and solar inputs. Filamentous fungal abundance is most closely associated with habitats having higher pH, and soil moistures. These close associations were not found with yeast and yeast-like fungi demonstrating that yeast and yeast-like fungi utilize a broader range of habitat. An intensive survey of the Victoria Land is necessary to gain a better understanding of their role in soil functioning and nutrient cycling processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    generate flights enables humans to assess and analyze complex tradeoffs between fuel consumption, estimated science quality and the percentage of scheduled observations. Due to the changing nature of SOFIA scheduling problems, this functionality will play a crucial role in optimizing science and minimizing costs during operations. In the full paper, we will summarize the technical challenges that have been met in order to build this system. These include: design of the search algorithm, design of appropriate heuristics and approximations, and reduction in the size of the search space. We will also describe technical challenges that are currently being addressed, including the extension of the existing approach to handle new solution criteria. Finally, we will describe a variety of cultural challenges that the astronomical community must address in order to successfully use SOFIA, and describe how the AFT can be used to address some of these challenges. Specifically, many of the intended science users are accustomed to using ground-based or space-based observatories; we will identify some differences that arise due to the nature of airborne observatories, and how the AFT can be extended to provide useful services to ease these cultural differences.

  17. Solubilization of insoluble phosphates by thermophilic fungi.

    PubMed

    Singh, C P; Mishra, M M; Yadav, K S

    1980-01-01

    The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate and rock phosphate and assimilation of solubilized P by thermophilic fungi isolated from compost were studied. The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate was greater than that of rock phosphate on inoculation with fungi in liquid medium, but growth of most of the fungi was greater in rock phosphate. Torula thermophila solubilized tricalcium phosphate maximally. There was solubilization of rock phosphate in semi-solid lignocellulose medium by Aspergillus fumigatus.

  18. Potential sources of airborne Alternaria spp. spores in South-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sadyś, Magdalena; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Maya-Manzano, José María; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2015-11-15

    Fungi belonging to the genus of Alternaria are recognised as being significant plant pathogens, and Alternaria allergens are one of the most important causes of respiratory allergic diseases in Europe. This study aims to provide a detailed and original analysis of Alternaria transport dynamics in Badajoz, SW Spain. This was achieved by examining daily mean and hourly observations of airborne Alternaria spores recorded during days with high airborne concentrations of Alternaria spores (>100 s m(-3)) from 2009 to 2011, as well as four inventory maps of major Alternaria habitats, the overall synoptic weather situation and analysis of air mass transport using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model and geographic information systems. Land use calculated within a radius of 100 km from Badajoz shows that crops and grasslands are potentially the most important local sources of airborne Alternaria spores recorded at the site. The results of back trajectory analysis show that, during the examined four episodes, the two main directions where Alternaria source areas were located were: (1) SW-W; and (2) NW-NE. Regional scale and long distance transport could therefore supplement the airborne catch recorded at Badajoz with Alternaria conidia originating from sources such as crops and orchards situated in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:26156135

  19. Potential sources of airborne Alternaria spp. spores in South-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sadyś, Magdalena; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Maya-Manzano, José María; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2015-11-15

    Fungi belonging to the genus of Alternaria are recognised as being significant plant pathogens, and Alternaria allergens are one of the most important causes of respiratory allergic diseases in Europe. This study aims to provide a detailed and original analysis of Alternaria transport dynamics in Badajoz, SW Spain. This was achieved by examining daily mean and hourly observations of airborne Alternaria spores recorded during days with high airborne concentrations of Alternaria spores (>100 s m(-3)) from 2009 to 2011, as well as four inventory maps of major Alternaria habitats, the overall synoptic weather situation and analysis of air mass transport using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model and geographic information systems. Land use calculated within a radius of 100 km from Badajoz shows that crops and grasslands are potentially the most important local sources of airborne Alternaria spores recorded at the site. The results of back trajectory analysis show that, during the examined four episodes, the two main directions where Alternaria source areas were located were: (1) SW-W; and (2) NW-NE. Regional scale and long distance transport could therefore supplement the airborne catch recorded at Badajoz with Alternaria conidia originating from sources such as crops and orchards situated in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula.

  20. Frugal Fun with Fungal Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Marshall D.

    2001-01-01

    A home kitchen can serve as a stockroom to provide the supplies needed to culture fungi for classroom use. Provides some alternative media and cultural techniques along with two alternative classroom investigations that can be employed in elementary through college-level classrooms. (Author/SAH)

  1. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  2. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  3. Intervention study of airborne fungal spora in homes with portable HEPA filtration units.

    PubMed

    Cheong, C D; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Dingle, P W; Hardy, G St J

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations and composition of airborne fungal spores in homes fitted with portable HEPA filtration units were examined to provide information to evaluate the importance of varying levels of fungal spores in residential environments in Perth, Australia. A novel method for simulating activity/impaction on carpeted environments was also investigated. Reductions in fungal (35%) and particulate (38%) levels were achieved in the air filter homes. Penicillium, Cladosporium and yeasts were the most common and widespread fungi recovered indoors and outdoors. Fungal range decreased over the study period but this could be due to an overall reduced dissemination of spores (less spores in the air). PMID:15536499

  4. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  5. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  6. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 81-138-1563, Fillmore Dole Mushrooms, Castle and Cooke Foods, Fillmore, Utah. [Analyses for bacteria, fungi, formaldehyde, and vapona

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, B.J.; Thoburn, T.W.; Lockey, J.E.; Kullman, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for bacteria, fungi, formaldehyde, and 2,2-dichlorovinyldimethylphosphate (vapona) at Fillmore Dole Mushrooms, Castle and Cooke Foods, Fillmore, Utah in June, 1981. The survey was requested by the workers to evaluate respiratory problems. A total of 111 workers, including 59 Southeast Asians, were interviewed by questionnaire. There were 48 English-speaking and 18 Asian comparisons. The authors conclude that a potential hazard exists due to exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria. Formaldehyde and vapona are not a problem. Recommendations include conducting more intensive medical studies of the exposed workers and repeating the survey in about 5 years.

  7. Rust fungi and global change.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Stephan

    2014-02-01

    Rust fungi are important components of ecological communities and in ecosystem function. Their unique life strategies as biotrophic pathogens with complicated life cycles could make them vulnerable to global environmental change. While there are gaps in our knowledge, especially in natural plant–rust systems, this review of the exposure of rust fungi to global change parameters revealed that some host–rust relationships would decline under predicted environmental change scenarios, whereas others would either remain unchanged or become more prevalent. Notably, some graminicolous rusts are negatively affected by higher temperatures and increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2. An increase of atmospheric O3 appears to favour rust diseases on trees but not those on grasses. Combined effects of CO2 and O3 are intermediary. The most important global drivers for the geographical and host plant range expansion and prevalence of rusts, however, are global plant trade, host plant genetic homogenization and the regular occurrence of conducive environmental conditions, especially the availability of moisture. However, while rusts thrive in high-humidity environments, they can also survive in desert habitats, and as a group their environmental tolerance is large, with no conclusive change in their overall prevalence predictable to date.

  8. Fungi: the neglected allergenic sources.

    PubMed

    Crameri, R; Garbani, M; Rhyner, C; Huitema, C

    2014-02-01

    Allergic diseases are considered the epidemics of the twentieth century estimated to affect more than 30% of the population in industrialized countries with a still increasing incidence. During the past two decades, the application of molecular biology allowed cloning, production and characterization of hundreds of recombinant allergens. In turn, knowledge about molecular, chemical and biologically relevant allergens contributed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reactions. It has been largely demonstrated that fungi are potent sources of allergenic molecules covering a vast variety of molecular structures including enzymes, toxins, cell wall components and phylogenetically highly conserved cross-reactive proteins. Despite the large knowledge accumulated and the compelling evidence for an involvement of fungal allergens in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, fungi as a prominent source of allergens are still largely neglected in basic research as well as in clinical practice. This review aims to highlight the impact of fungal allergens with focus on asthma and atopic dermatitis.

  9. Toxigenic fungi: which are important?

    PubMed

    Pitt, J I

    2000-01-01

    Growth of commonly occurring filamentous fungi in foods may result in production of mycotoxins, which can cause a variety of ill effects in humans, from allergic responses to immunosuppression and cancer. According to experts, five kinds of mycotoxins are important in human health around the world: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, certain trichothecenes, and zearalenone. These toxins are produced by only a few species of fungi, in a limited range of commodities. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in peanuts, maize and some other nuts and oilseeds. Ochratoxin A is a kidney toxin and probable carcinogen. It is produced by Penicillium verrucosum in cereal grains in cold climates, by A. carbonarius in grapes, wines and vine fruits, and by A. ochraceus sometimes in coffee beans. Fumonisins, which may cause oesophageal cancer, are formed by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, but only in maize. Trichothecenes are highly immunosuppressive and zearalenone causes oestrogenic effects; both are produced by F. graminearum and related species. Current reporting probably underestimates the effect of mycotoxins as a cause of human mortality. PMID:11204142

  10. Ethanol production from cellulose by two lignocellulolytic soil fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Durrant, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    The present work examines the production of ethanol via direct fermentation of pure celluloses and lignocellulosic wastes by two soil fungi isolated under anaerobic conditions. The strains were cultured on a defined medium containing filter paper slurry as the carbon source under anaerobic, microaerophilic, and aerobic conditions. After complete degradation of the cellulose, lignocellulases and fermentation products were determined. Highest activities for Trichocladium canadense (strain Q10) and the basidiomycete strain (strain H2), were obtained when cultures were incubated under microaerophilic conditions and air, respectively. Laccase activity was present in the culture supernatants of both strains, but peroxidase was only produced by strain H2. Ethanol was the major nongaseous fermentation product. Highest conversion of available cellulose to ethanol was obtained with strain Q10 (90-96%), under microaerophilic conditions. Ethanol production decreased when microcrystalline cellulose and lignocellulosic substrates were used. 29 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Detection and characterization of mycoviruses in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by deep-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Ikeda, Yoji; Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) often have a significant impact not only on phenotypic expression of the host fungus but also on higher order biological interactions, e.g., conferring plant stress tolerance via an endophytic host fungus. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the phylum Glomeromycota associate with most land plants and supply mineral nutrients to the host plants. So far, little information about mycoviruses has been obtained in the fungi due to their obligate biotrophic nature. Here we provide a technical breakthrough, "two-step strategy" in combination with deep-sequencing, for virological study in AM fungi; dsRNA is first extracted and sequenced using material obtained from highly productive open pot culture, and then the presence of viruses is verified using pure material produced in the in vitro monoxenic culture. This approach enabled us to demonstrate the presence of several viruses for the first time from a glomeromycotan fungus.

  12. Use of an electronic nose for the early detection and differentiation between spoilage fungi.

    PubMed

    Keshri, G; Magan, N; Voysey, P

    1998-11-01

    Six spoilage fungi (four Eurotium species, a Penicillium sp. and Wallemia sebi) were grown as spore lawn surface cultures at 0.95 water activity and 25 degrees C. Prior to and during visible growth (24 and 48, and 72 h), single cultures were enclosed in polyethylene bags, the head space was sampled with an electronic nose unit, consisting of 14 polymer sensors, and the data analysed. There was good replication between volatile patterns of the same species and using principal component, discriminant function and cluster analyses it was possible to differentiate between the agar blanks, three Eurotium spp., the Penicillium sp. and W. sebi during microscopic growth for the first time. This suggests that there is potential for the early detection of the activity of spoilage fungi in general, as well as possible differentiation between related xerophilic spoilage fungi, by detection of the patterns of volatile odours produced using an electronic nose system.

  13. Production of gluconic Acid by some local fungi.

    PubMed

    Shindia, A A; El-Sherbeny, G A; El-Esawy, A E; Sheriff, Y M M M

    2006-03-01

    Forty-one fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera isolated from Egyptian soil and sugar cane waste samples were tested for their capacity of producing acidity and gluconic acid. For the tests, the fungi were grown on glucose substrate and culture filtrates were examined using paper chromatography analysis. Most of the tested fungi have a relative wide potentiality for total acid production in their filtrates. Nearly 51% of them showed their ability of producing gluconic acid. Aspergillus niger was distinguishable from other species by its capacity to produce substantial amounts of gluconic acid when it was cultivated on a selective medium. The optimized cultural conditions for gluconic acid yields were using submerged culture at 30℃ at initial pH 6.0 for 7 days of incubation. Among the various concentrations of substrate used, glucose (14%, w/v) was found to be the most suitable carbon source for maximal gluconic acid during fermentation. Maximum values of fungal biomass (10.02 g/l) and gluconic acid (58.46 g/l) were obtained when the fungus was grown with 1% peptone as sole nitrogen source. Influence of the concentration of some inorganic salts as well as the rate of aeration on the gluconic acid and biomass production is also described.

  14. Production of Gluconic Acid by Some Local Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Shindia, A. A.; El-Esawy, A. E.; Sheriff, Y. M. M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera isolated from Egyptian soil and sugar cane waste samples were tested for their capacity of producing acidity and gluconic acid. For the tests, the fungi were grown on glucose substrate and culture filtrates were examined using paper chromatography analysis. Most of the tested fungi have a relative wide potentiality for total acid production in their filtrates. Nearly 51% of them showed their ability of producing gluconic acid. Aspergillus niger was distinguishable from other species by its capacity to produce substantial amounts of gluconic acid when it was cultivated on a selective medium. The optimized cultural conditions for gluconic acid yields were using submerged culture at 30℃ at initial pH 6.0 for 7 days of incubation. Among the various concentrations of substrate used, glucose (14%, w/v) was found to be the most suitable carbon source for maximal gluconic acid during fermentation. Maximum values of fungal biomass (10.02 g/l) and gluconic acid (58.46 g/l) were obtained when the fungus was grown with 1% peptone as sole nitrogen source. Influence of the concentration of some inorganic salts as well as the rate of aeration on the gluconic acid and biomass production is also described. PMID:24039465

  15. Aflatoxins B and g contamination and aflatoxigenic fungi in nutmeg.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kiyoshi; Tomita, Tsuneyoshi; Ohzu, Yuji; Takai, Mitsuhiro; Ose, Ayaka; Kotsuka, Akiko; Ikeda, Naoko; Sakata, Junko; Kumeda, Yuko; Nakamura, Nobuya; Ichinoe, Masakatsu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the distribution of aflatoxigenic fungi in 25 imported Indonesian nutmeg samples contaminated with aflatoxins Bs or Bs and Gs. The incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi in the samples contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin was significantly higher than that in the samples with low levels of the toxins(r=0.752). The aflatoxin production of isolates from the samples in cultures of YES broth was examined by means of TLC and HPLC analyses. The ability of isolates to produce aflatoxins did not necessarily correlate with the contamination levels of aflatoxin in the samples. We isolated aflatoxins B and G-producing fungi from 3 samples contaminated with the high levels of aflatoxins B and G. The aflatoxigenic isolates were identified as Aspergillus nomius and A. bombycis based on morphological characters, growth rates at 37°C and 42°C and also molecular-genetic methods. Our results indicate that these two species are mainly responsible for aflatoxin G contamination in nutmeg products.

  16. Exploration of industrially important pigments from soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, P; Pradeep, B V

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide interest of the current era is to increase tendency towards the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones. So, alternative and effective environment friendly sustainable technologies are highly needed. Due to a broad range of biological activities, fungi are considered as a significant source of pigments. Among the fungal species in the soil, the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma are dominant. The pigments commonly produced by fungi belong to aromatic polyketide groups such as melanins, quinones, flavins, ankaflavin, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The use of fungal pigments has benefits which comprise easy and fast growth in the cheap culture medium and different color shades being independent of weather conditions and would be useful in various industrial applications. In relation to the toxic effects of the synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are easily degradable since they cause no detrimental effects. Thus, the study of pigments produced by soil fungi has tremendous use in medical, textile coloring, food coloring, and cosmetics.

  17. Exploration of industrially important pigments from soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, P; Pradeep, B V

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide interest of the current era is to increase tendency towards the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones. So, alternative and effective environment friendly sustainable technologies are highly needed. Due to a broad range of biological activities, fungi are considered as a significant source of pigments. Among the fungal species in the soil, the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma are dominant. The pigments commonly produced by fungi belong to aromatic polyketide groups such as melanins, quinones, flavins, ankaflavin, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The use of fungal pigments has benefits which comprise easy and fast growth in the cheap culture medium and different color shades being independent of weather conditions and would be useful in various industrial applications. In relation to the toxic effects of the synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are easily degradable since they cause no detrimental effects. Thus, the study of pigments produced by soil fungi has tremendous use in medical, textile coloring, food coloring, and cosmetics. PMID:26701360

  18. Biocontrol: Fungi as Nematode Control Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mankau, R.

    1980-01-01

    The fungal antagonists of nematodes consist of a great variety of organisms belonging to widely divergent orders and families of fungi. They include the nematode-trapping fungi, endoparasitic fungi, parasites of nematode eggs and cysts, and fungi which produce metabolites toxic to nematodes. The diversity, adaptations, and distribution of nematode-destroying fungi and taxonomic problems encountered in their study are reviewed. The importance of nemato-phagous fungi in soil biology, with special emphasis on their relationship to populations of plant-parasitic nematodes, is considered. While predacious fungi have long been investigated as possible biocontrol agents and have often exhibited spectacular results in vitro, their performance in field studies has generated little enthusiasm among nematologists. To date no species has demonstrated control of any plant pest to a degree achieved with nematicides, but recent studies have provided a much clearer concept of possibilities and problems in the applied use of fungal antagonists. The discovery of new species, which appear to control certain pests effectively under specific conditions, holds out some promise that fungi may be utilized as alternatives to chemical control after a more thorough and expanded study of their biology and ecology. PMID:19300699

  19. [Extracellular proteinases of filamentous fungi as potential markers of phytopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Gruban', T N; Beliakova, G A; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2006-01-01

    The presence of proteins in the culture liquid of filamentous fungi under study was found to induce the secretion of proteinases. The inhibitory analysis of the major extracellular proteinases of the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata showed that they both belong to the group of serine proteinases. The substrate specificity of these proteinases and their sensitivity to inhibitors suggest that the enzyme of T. harzianum is a subtilisin-like proteinase and the enzyme of A. alternata is a trypsin-like proteinase. This difference between the proteinases may reflect the physiological difference between their producers (saprotroph and phytopathogen). PMID:17205798

  20. [Study on secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Penicillium dangeardii].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hai-ning; Ding, Guang-zhi; Liu, Yun-bao; Qu, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Endophytic fungi Penicillium dangeardii, isolated from Lysidice rhodostegia Hance root, was fermented and the secondary metabolites were studied. By means of Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, ODS column chromatography and PHPLC over the fermented culture, 5 compounds were isolated. By using ESI-MS and NMR, the structures of the compounds were determined as N-[9-(β- D-ribofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]-L-aspartic acid (1), 3-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (3), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 3-hydroxy-benzoic acid-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5).

  1. [Extracellular proteinases of filamentous fungi as potential markers of phytopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Gruban', T N; Beliakova, G A; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2006-01-01

    The presence of proteins in the culture liquid of filamentous fungi under study was found to induce the secretion of proteinases. The inhibitory analysis of the major extracellular proteinases of the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata showed that they both belong to the group of serine proteinases. The substrate specificity of these proteinases and their sensitivity to inhibitors suggest that the enzyme of T. harzianum is a subtilisin-like proteinase and the enzyme of A. alternata is a trypsin-like proteinase. This difference between the proteinases may reflect the physiological difference between their producers (saprotroph and phytopathogen).

  2. Is blood agar an alternative to sabouraud dextrose agar for the isolation of fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Brahmaiah, Upputuri; Narayen, Nitesh; Reddy, Ravi Kumar; Reddy, Rupak Kumar; Chitta, Meghraj; Prasad, Srinivas; Swarup, Rishi; Mohiuddin, Syed Maaz; Reddy, Madhukar; Aasuri, Murali K; Murthy, B S R; Bhide, Milind; Ahmed, Sajid

    2013-06-01

    To compare the blood agar (BA), sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and chocolate agar (CA) for the isolation of fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis. Corneal Scrapings of 229 patients with clinically diagnosed microbial keratitis were inoculated on BA, SDA, CA. The culture media were evaluated for the rate and time taken for the fungal growth. Seventy six of 229 patients had fungal keratitis. Fungus grew on BA in 60/76(78.9 %), on SDA in 76/76 (100 %), on CA in 40/76(52.6 %) patients. The fungi which grew on BA (60/76) also grown on SDA at the same time. The colony morphologies of different fungi were better on SDA than BA/CA. Among the different culture media, SDA is essential for the isolation fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis.

  3. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The isolates were grouped into 35 distinct operational taxonomic units, based on the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer regions in the rRNA gene. The colonization frequency and the dominant fungi percentage of these endophytic fungi were calculated. A dual culture technique was adopted to investigate the antifungal activity of these endophytes. Results: Tamarix nilotica showed the highest endophytic diversity with a relative frequency of 27.27%, followed by Cressa cretica with a relative frequency of 19.27%. The most frequently isolated species was Penicillium chrysogenum with an overall colonization rate of 98.57%. Seven out of 35 endophytic fungi exhibited strong antifungal activity to all plant fungal pathogens tested. P. chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. nygamai exhibited the highest inhibition against the human pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aspergillus sydowii, P. chrysogenum, and Eupenicillium crustaceum showed strong antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of these endophytic microorganisms could be exploited in biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. PMID:27099679

  4. Distribution of Keratinophilic Fungi in Soil Across Tunisia: A Descriptive Study and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Anane, Sonia; Al-Yasiri, Mohammed Hashim Yasir; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Data on the frequency and distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil of Tunisia are scanty. The present survey aimed to describe the distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soils collected in Tunisia. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated using Vanbreuseghem's hair-baiting technique from 354 soil samples collected in 15 governorates of Tunisia and identified according to their morphology with further DNA and MALDI-TOF analysis when necessary. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 46.3 % of the samples from 14 governorates. Chrysosporium keratinophilum was the predominant species (30.5 %) followed by Microsporum gypseum (27.4 %). Other isolated species included C. tropicum (14.0 %), C. indicum (11.0 %), Chaetomium sp. (4.9 %), Arthroderma curreyi, Arthroderma cuniculi (3.7 % each), C. merdarium (3.1 %), Anixiopsis stercoraria, C. parvum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Auxarthron zuffianum (2.4 % each), Fusarium oxysporum, Aphanoascus verrucosus, Gymnascella dankaliensis (1.2 % each) and 12 other species (0.6 % each). Two to five distinct fungal species were associated with 11.5 % of the positive samples. Keratinophilic fungi were more frequently isolated in rural (54.8 %) than in urban (41.1 %) areas (p = 0.012). The highest (100 %) positive culture rate was noted in soil collected in stables. Keratinophilic fungi are frequent throughout Tunisian territory, particularly in soils with a high organic matter content that should be regarded as humans and animals mycoses reservoir.

  5. Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying; Wang, Sishuo; Sekimoto, Satoshi; Aerts, Andrea L; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; LaButti, Kurt M; Lindquist, Erika A; Yee Ngan, Chew; Ohm, Robin A; Salamov, Asaf A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W; Berbee, Mary L

    2015-05-14

    As decomposers, fungi are key players in recycling plant material in global carbon cycles. We hypothesized that genomes of early diverging fungi may have inherited pectinases from an ancestral species that had been able to extract nutrients from pectin-containing land plants and their algal allies (Streptophytes). We aimed to infer, based on pectinase gene expansions and on the organismal phylogeny, the geological timing of the plant-fungus association. We analyzed 40 fungal genomes, three of which, including Gonapodya prolifera, were sequenced for this study. In the organismal phylogeny from 136 housekeeping loci, Rozella diverged first from all other fungi. Gonapodya prolifera was included among the flagellated, predominantly aquatic fungal species in Chytridiomycota. Sister to Chytridiomycota were the predominantly terrestrial fungi including zygomycota I and zygomycota II, along with the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that comprise Dikarya. The Gonapodya genome has 27 genes representing five of the seven classes of pectin-specific enzymes known from fungi. Most of these share a common ancestry with pectinases from Dikarya. Indicating functional and sequence similarity, Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture. Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodya provide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage. This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya.

  6. Ericoid mycorrhizal root fungi and their multicopper oxidases from a temperate forest shrub

    PubMed Central

    Wurzburger, Nina; Higgins, Brian P; Hendrick, Ronald L

    2012-01-01

    Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ERM) may specialize in capturing nutrients from their host's litter as a strategy for regulating nutrient cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. In spite of their potential significance, we know little about the structure of ERM fungal communities and the genetic basis of their saprotrophic traits (e.g., genes encoding extracellular enzymes). Rhododendron maximum is a model ERM understory shrub that influences the nutrient cycles of montane hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians (North Carolina, USA). We sampled ERM roots of R. maximum from organic and mineral soil horizons and identified root fungi by amplifying and sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) collected from cultures and clones. We observed 71 fungal taxa on ERM roots, including known symbionts Rhizoscyphus ericae and Oidiodendron maius, putative symbionts from the Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Sebacinales, ectomycorrhizal symbionts, and saprotrophs. Supporting the idea that ERM fungi are adept saprotrophs, richness of root-fungi was greater in organic than in mineral soil horizons. To study the genetic diversity of oxidative enzymes that contribute to decomposition, we amplified and sequenced a portion of genes encoding multicopper oxidases (MCOs) from ERM ascomycetes. Most fungi possessed multiple copies of MCO sequences with strong similarities to known ferroxidases and laccases. Our findings indicate that R. maximum associates with a taxonomically and ecologically diverse fungal community. The study of MCO gene diversity and expression may be useful for understanding how ERM root fungi regulate the cycling of nutrients between the host plant and the soil environment. PMID:22408727

  7. Effects of Mycorrhizal and Endophytic Fungi on Plant Community: a Microcosm Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant community structure in experimental microcosms containing an assemblage of five species of plants (Oenothera odorata, Plantago asiatica, Trifolium repens, Isodon japonicas and Aster yomena). Leaves of Sasa borealis, Potentilla fragarioides, and Viola mandshurica were collected in Chungbuk, Korea. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized leaves and identified to species level using molecular and morphological techniques. Four isolates of the endophytic fungi were inoculated to the leaves of host plants in the microcosms. Also, three species of AMF spores were extracted from pure cultures and the mixture of the three species inoculated to the roots of the plants. After four months of growth in a green house, effects of both symbiotic fungi on plant species diversity, community composition and productivity were examined. The plant species diversity showed significant differences with inoculation of the symbiotic fungi. Results indicate that AMF significantly affect plant productivity and plant community structure. PMID:24015095

  8. Effects of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi on plant community: a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant community structure in experimental microcosms containing an assemblage of five species of plants (Oenothera odorata, Plantago asiatica, Trifolium repens, Isodon japonicas and Aster yomena). Leaves of Sasa borealis, Potentilla fragarioides, and Viola mandshurica were collected in Chungbuk, Korea. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized leaves and identified to species level using molecular and morphological techniques. Four isolates of the endophytic fungi were inoculated to the leaves of host plants in the microcosms. Also, three species of AMF spores were extracted from pure cultures and the mixture of the three species inoculated to the roots of the plants. After four months of growth in a green house, effects of both symbiotic fungi on plant species diversity, community composition and productivity were examined. The plant species diversity showed significant differences with inoculation of the symbiotic fungi. Results indicate that AMF significantly affect plant productivity and plant community structure. PMID:24015095

  9. Spores of many common airborne fungi reveal no ice nucleation activity in oil immersion freezing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Grothe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Fungal spores are ubiquitous biological aerosols, which are considered to act as ice nuclei. In this study the ice nucleation (IN) activity of spores harvested from 29 fungal strains belonging to 21 different species was tested in the immersion freezing mode by microscopic observation of water-in-oil emulsions. Spores of 8 of these strains were also investigated in a microdroplet freezing array instrument. The focus was laid on species of economical, ecological or sanitary significance. Besides common molds (Ascomycota), some representatives of the widespread group of mushrooms (Basidiomycota) were also investigated. Fusarium avenaceum was the only sample showing IN activity at relatively high temperatures (about 264 K), while the other investigated fungal spores showed no freezing above 248 K. Many of the samples indeed froze at homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures (about 237 K). In combination with other studies, this suggests that only a limited number of species may act as atmospheric ice nuclei. This would be analogous to what is already known for the bacterial ice nuclei. Apart from that, we selected a set of fungal strains from different sites and exposed them to occasional freezing stress during their cultivation. This was in order to test if the exposure to a cold environment encourages the expression of ice nuclei during growth as a way of adaptation. Although the total protein expression was altered by this treatment, it had no significant impact on the IN activity.

  10. Spores of most common airborne fungi reveal no ice nucleation activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

    2013-06-01

    Fungal spores are ubiquitous biological aerosols, which are considered to show ice nucleation (IN) activity. In this study the respective IN activity was tested in oil emulsion in the immersion freezing mode. The focus was laid on species of economical, ecological or sanitary significance. For the first time, not only common moulds, but also edible mushrooms (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) were investigated, as they contribute massively to the total amount of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Only Fusarium avenaceum showed freezing events at low subzero-temperatures, while the other investigated fungal spores showed no significant IN activity. Furthermore, we selected a set of fungal strains from different sites and exposed them to occasional freezing stress during cultivation. Although the total protein expression was altered by this treatment, it had no significant impact on the IN activity.

  11. Accuracy, precision, and method detection limits of quantitative PCR for airborne bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Hospodsky, Denina; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Peccia, Jordan

    2010-11-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for rapid and specific enumeration of microbial agents is finding increased use in aerosol science. The goal of this study was to determine qPCR accuracy, precision, and method detection limits (MDLs) within the context of indoor and ambient aerosol samples. Escherichia coli and Bacillus atrophaeus vegetative bacterial cells and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores loaded onto aerosol filters were considered. Efficiencies associated with recovery of DNA from aerosol filters were low, and excluding these efficiencies in quantitative analysis led to underestimating the true aerosol concentration by 10 to 24 times. Precision near detection limits ranged from a 28% to 79% coefficient of variation (COV) for the three test organisms, and the majority of this variation was due to instrument repeatability. Depending on the organism and sampling filter material, precision results suggest that qPCR is useful for determining dissimilarity between two samples only if the true differences are greater than 1.3 to 3.2 times (95% confidence level at n = 7 replicates). For MDLs, qPCR was able to produce a positive response with 99% confidence from the DNA of five B. atrophaeus cells and less than one A. fumigatus spore. Overall MDL values that included sample processing efficiencies ranged from 2,000 to 3,000 B. atrophaeus cells per filter and 10 to 25 A. fumigatus spores per filter. Applying the concepts of accuracy, precision, and MDL to qPCR aerosol measurements demonstrates that sample processing efficiencies must be accounted for in order to accurately estimate bioaerosol exposure, provides guidance on the necessary statistical rigor required to understand significant differences among separate aerosol samples, and prevents undetected (i.e., nonquantifiable) values for true aerosol concentrations that may be significant.

  12. Airborne fungi in child day care centers in Edirne City, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Halide; Asan, Ahmet

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration, in terms of monthly and seasonal distribution and in relation to meteorological factors, of indoor and outdoor microfungi at selected sites in several child day care centers in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Samples were collected at one month intervals over a period of 12 months between January-December 2004, by exposing petri plates containing Peptone Dextrose Agar with Rose-Bengal and Streptomycin medium to the air for 10-15 min. A total of 2,071 microfungal colonies were counted on 192 petri plates. Thirty microfungal genera (Acremonium, Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bahusakala, Beauveria, Ceuthospora, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mycotypha, Myrotechium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Ramichloridium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Stachybotrys, Stemphylium, Torula, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Ulocladium, Verticillium) and 75 microfungal species were isolated from the air indoor and outdoor of the day care centers. The dominant microfungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria (44.11%, 18.94%, 14.67% of the total respectively), while the genus with the most species richness was Penicillium (26 species). Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium and non-sporulating microfungi were found every month. Cladosporium was the dominant genus in both indoor and outdoor air. Although the predominant genus was the same in both indoor and outdoor air, Cladosporium was followed by Penicillium, Alternaria and Aspergillus genera in indoor air and by Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera in outdoor air. While a positive correlation was found between the concentration of monthly outdoor microfungi and monthly average temperature, a negative correlation was found between the concentration of monthly outdoor microfungi and monthly average wind velocity. Also, some relationships were found between the monthly concentrations of the most predominant microfungal genera (Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria) and various meteorological factors.

  13. Dielectrophoretic separation of airborne microbes and dust particles using a microfluidic channel for real-time bioaerosol monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hui-Sung; Nam, Yun-Woo; Park, Jae Chan; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2009-08-01

    Airborne microbes such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses are a threat to public health. Robust and real-time detection systems are necessary to prevent and control such dangerous biological particles in public places and dwellings. For direct and real-time detection of airborne microbes, samples must be collected and typically resuspended in liquid prior to detection; however, environmental particles such as dust are also trapped in such samples. Therefore, the isolation of target bacteria or a selective collection of microbes from unwanted nonbiological particles prior to detection is of great importance. Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the translational motion of charge neutral matter in nonuniform electric fields, is an emerging technique that can rapidly separate biological particles in microfluidics because low voltages produce significant and contactless forces on particles without any modification or labeling. In this paper, we propose a new method for the separation of airborne microbes using DEP with a simple and novel curved electrode design for separating bacteria in a solution containing beads or dust that are taken from an airborne environmental sample. Using this method, we successfully isolated 90% of the airborne bacterium Micrococcus luteus from a mixture of bacteria and dust using a microfluidic device, consisting of novel curved electrodes that attract bacteria and repel or leave dust particles. As there has been little research on analyzing environmental samples using microfluidics and DEP, this work describes a novel strategy for a rapid and direct bioaerosol monitoring system.

  14. Clarification of generic and species boundaries for Metarhizium and related fungi through multigene phylogenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Metarhizium traditionally refers to green-spored asexual insect pathogenic fungi. Through culturing and molecular methods, Metarhizium has been linked to Metacordyceps sexual states. Historically, fungal nomenclature has allowed separate names for the different life-stages of pleomorphic...

  15. Entomopathogenic Fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chengqun; Huang, Baoling; Qiao, Mengji; Wei, Jiguang; Ding, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control. PMID:21901126

  16. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution.

  17. Species Richness and Adaptation of Marine Fungi from Deep-Subseafloor Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Rédou, Vanessa; Navarri, Marion; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbier, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The fungal kingdom is replete with unique adaptive capacities that allow fungi to colonize a wide variety of habitats, ranging from marine habitats to freshwater and terrestrial habitats. The diversity, importance, and ecological roles of marine fungi have recently been highlighted in deep-subsurface sediments using molecular methods. Fungi in the deep-marine subsurface may be specifically adapted to life in the deep biosphere, but this can be demonstrated only using culture-based analyses. In this study, we investigated culturable fungal communities from a record-depth sediment core sampled from the Canterbury Basin (New Zealand) with the aim to reveal endemic or ubiquist adapted isolates playing a significant ecological role(s). About 200 filamentous fungi (68%) and yeasts (32%) were isolated. Fungal isolates were affiliated with the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, including 21 genera. Screening for genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis also revealed their bioactive compound synthesis potential. Our results provide evidence that deep-subsurface fungal communities are able to survive, adapt, grow, and interact with other microbial communities and highlight that the deep-sediment habitat is another ecological niche for fungi. PMID:25769836

  18. Species richness and adaptation of marine fungi from deep-subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Rédou, Vanessa; Navarri, Marion; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbier, Georges; Burgaud, Gaëtan

    2015-05-15

    The fungal kingdom is replete with unique adaptive capacities that allow fungi to colonize a wide variety of habitats, ranging from marine habitats to freshwater and terrestrial habitats. The diversity, importance, and ecological roles of marine fungi have recently been highlighted in deep-subsurface sediments using molecular methods. Fungi in the deep-marine subsurface may be specifically adapted to life in the deep biosphere, but this can be demonstrated only using culture-based analyses. In this study, we investigated culturable fungal communities from a record-depth sediment core sampled from the Canterbury Basin (New Zealand) with the aim to reveal endemic or ubiquist adapted isolates playing a significant ecological role(s). About 200 filamentous fungi (68%) and yeasts (32%) were isolated. Fungal isolates were affiliated with the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, including 21 genera. Screening for genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis also revealed their bioactive compound synthesis potential. Our results provide evidence that deep-subsurface fungal communities are able to survive, adapt, grow, and interact with other microbial communities and highlight that the deep-sediment habitat is another ecological niche for fungi.

  19. Organic acids induce tolerance to zinc- and copper-exposed fungi under various growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Sazanova, Katerina; Osmolovskaya, Natalia; Schiparev, Sergey; Yakkonen, Kirill; Kuchaeva, Ludmila; Vlasov, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals, Zn and Cu, in high concentration (2 mM for Zn and 0.5 mM for Cu) have some inhibiting effect on the growth of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum. Toxic effects of these metals considerably depend on cultivation conditions including nitrogen sources, pH of nutrient media, and its consistency (presence or absence of agar). In general, nitrate media provides less inhibiting effect on fungal growth under heavy metal exposure than ammonium-containing media. Adding of Zn in nitrate media induces oxalic acid production by fungi. Importance of oxalic acid production in detoxification of heavy metals is confirmed by the formation of Zn-containing crystals in fungal cultures. Cu bringing to the cultural media had no stimulating effect on oxalic acid production as well as no copper-containing crystals were observed. But proceeding from essential increase in oxalic acid production during a long-term fungi adaptation to Cu, it may be proposed that oxalic acid plays some functional role in Cu tolerance of fungi as well. It may be concluded that the role of organic acids and oxalate, in particular, in fungi tolerance and adaptation to heavy metals can be determined by the nature of the metal and its ability to form stable complexes with an acid anion. Stimulating effect of metals on acid production is not universal for all species of fungi and largely depends on metal concentration, nitrogen form in a medium, and other cultivation conditions.

  20. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  1. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  2. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  3. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  4. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  5. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  6. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  7. Toolsets for Airborne Data - URS and New Documentation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-23

    ... airborne field missions, documentation, and EOSDIS User Registration System (URS) authentication. This web application features an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies and ...

  8. New species of ice nucleating fungi in soil and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Janine; Hill, Tom; Franc, Gary; Poeschl, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere (1). Several types of PBAP have been identified as ice nuclei (IN) that can initiate the formation of ice at relatively high temperatures (2, 3). The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is due to a surface protein on the outer cell membrane that catalyses ice formation, for which the corresponding gene has been identified and detected by DNA analysis (2). Fungal spores or hyphae can also act as IN, but the biological structures responsible for their IN activity have not yet been elucidated. Furthermore, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, properties, and effects of fungal IN in the atmosphere have neither been characterized nor quantified. Recent studies have shown that airborne fungi are highly diverse (1), and that atmospheric transport leads to efficient exchange of species among different ecosystems (4, 5). The results presented in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. 2012 (6) clearly demonstrate the presence of geographic boundaries in the global distribution of microbial taxa in air, and indicate that regional differences may be important for the effects of microorganisms on climate and public health. Thus, the objective of this study is the identification and quantification of ice nuclei-active fungi in and above ecosystems, and the unraveling of IN-active structures in fungi. Results obtained from the analysis of various soil and air samples and the presence of new fungal ice active species will be revealed. Thanks for collaboration and support to M.O. Andreae, J.-D. Förster, I. Germann-Müller, L.E. Hanson, S. Lelieveld, J. Odhiambo Obuya, T. Pooya, and C. Ruzene-Nespoli. The Max Planck Society (MPG), Ice Nuclei research UnIT (INUIT), and the German Research Foundation (PO1013/5-1) are acknowledged for financial support. 1. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2009) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 106, 12814-12819 2. Georgakopoulos

  9. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p < 0.01), NO2 (p < 0.01), PM10 (p < 0.01), SO2(p < 0.01), CO (p < 0.01), and relative humidity (p < 0.05) were significant factors that determine airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing.

  10. Diversity and Composition of Airborne Fungal Community Associated with Particulate Matters in Beijing during Haze and Non-haze Days

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Li; Wang, Hao; Fang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diversity and composition of airborne fungi associated with particulate matters (PMs) in Beijing, China, a total of 81 PM samples were collected, which were derived from PM2.5, PM10 fractions, and total suspended particles during haze and non-haze days. The airborne fungal community in these samples was analyzed using the Illumina Miseq platform with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the large subunit rRNA gene. A total of 797,040 reads belonging to 1633 operational taxonomic units were observed. Of these, 1102 belonged to Ascomycota, 502 to Basidiomycota, 24 to Zygomycota, and 5 to Chytridiomycota. The dominant orders were Pleosporales (29.39%), Capnodiales (27.96%), Eurotiales (10.64%), and Hypocreales (9.01%). The dominant genera were Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Sporisorium, and Aspergilus. Analysis of similarities revealed that both particulate matter sizes (R = 0.175, p = 0.001) and air quality levels (R = 0.076, p = 0.006) significantly affected the airborne fungal community composition. The relative abundance of many fungal genera was found to significantly differ among various PM types and air quality levels. Alternaria and Epicoccum were more abundant in total suspended particles samples, Aspergillus in heavy-haze days and PM2.5 samples, and Malassezia in PM2.5 samples and heavy-haze days. Canonical correspondence analysis and permutation tests showed that temperature (p < 0.01), NO2 (p < 0.01), PM10 (p < 0.01), SO2(p < 0.01), CO (p < 0.01), and relative humidity (p < 0.05) were significant factors that determine airborne fungal community composition. The results suggest that diverse airborne fungal communities are associated with particulate matters and may provide reliable data for studying the responses of human body to the increasing level of air pollution in Beijing. PMID:27148180

  11. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  12. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  13. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  14. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  15. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  16. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  17. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  18. Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, J B; St Leger, R J; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors. PMID:27131323

  19. Biodiversity of Fungi : Inventory and Monitoring Methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.M.; Bills, G.F.; Foster, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biodiversity of Fungi is essential for anyone collecting and/or monitoring any fungi. Fascinating and beautiful, fungi are vital components of nearly all ecosystems and impact human health and our economy in a myriad of ways. Standardized methods for documenting diversity and distribution have been lacking. An wealth of information, especially regrading sampling protocols, compiled by an international team of fungal biologists, make Biodiversity of Fungi an incredible and fundamental resource for the study of organismal biodiversity. Chapters cover everything from what is a fungus, to maintaining and organizing a permanent study collection with associated databases; from protocols for sampling slime molds to insect associated fungi; from fungi growing on and in animals and plants to mushrooms and truffles. The chapters are arranged both ecologically and by sampling method rather than by taxonomic group for ease of use. The information presented here is intended for everyone interested in fungi, anyone who needs tools to study them in nature including naturalists, land managers, ecologists, mycologists, and even citizen scientists and sophiscated amateurs. Fungi are among the most important organisms in the world; they play vital roles in ecosystem functions and have wide-ranging effects, both positive and negative, on humans and human-related activities. There are about 1.5 million species of fungi. The combination of fungal species and abundances in an ecosystem are often used as indicators of ecosystem health and as indicators of the effects of pollution and of different management and use plans. Because of their significance, it is important that these organisms be monitored. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of fungal inventory and monitoring, including standardized sampling protocols as well as information on study design, sample preservation, and data analysis.

  20. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  1. Airborne cw Doppler lidar (ADOLAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Stefan; Werner, Christian; Nagel, E.; Herrmann, H.; Klier, M.; Knott, H. P.; Haering, R.; Wildgruber, J.

    1994-12-01

    During the last 10 years the DLR container LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer) was used for many wind related measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The experience out of this were used to construct an airborne Doppler lidar ADOLAR. Based on the available Doppler lidars it is now proposed to perform a campaign to demonstrate the concept of the spaceborne sensor ALADIN, and to answer some questions concerning the signal quality from clouds, water and land. For the continuous wave CO2 laser, the energy is focused by the telescope into the region of investigation. Some of the radiation is back scattered by small aerosol particles drifting with the wind speed through the sensing volume. The back scattered radiation is collected by the telescope and detected by coherent technique. With the laser Doppler method one gets the radial wind component. To determine the magnitude and direction of the horizontal wind, some form of scanning in azimuth and elevation is required. To keep the airborne system compact, the transceiver optics is directly coupled to a wedge scanner which provides the conical scan with the axis in Nadir direction from the aircraft. The system ADOLAR was tested in 1994. Results of the flight over the lake Ammersee are presented and are compared with the data of the inertial reference system of the aircraft.

  2. Airborne thermography applications in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Selles, Eduardo J.; Costanzo, Marcelo; Franco, Oscar; Diaz, Jose

    2002-03-01

    Forest fires in summer and sheep buried under the snow in winter have become important problems in the south of our country, in the region named Patagonia. We are studying to find a solution by means of an airborne imaging system whose construction we have just finished. It is a 12 channel multispectral airborne scanner system that can be mounted in a Guarani airplane or in a Learjet; the first is a non- pressurized aircraft for flight at low height and the second is a pressurized one for higher flights. The scanner system is briefly described. Their sensors can detect radiation from the ultra violet to the thermal infrared. The images are visualized in real time in a monitor screen and can be stored in the hard disc of the PC for later processing. The use of this scanner for some applications that include the prevention and fighting of forest fires and the study of the possibility of detection of sheep under snow in the Patagonia is now being accomplished. Theoretical and experimental results in fire detection and a theoretical model for studying the possibility of detection of the buried sheep are presented.

  3. [Progress in lignocellulose deconstruction by fungi].

    PubMed

    Tian, Chaoguang; Ma, Yanhe

    2010-10-01

    Inefficient degradation of lignocellulose is one of the main barriers for the utilization of renewable plant biomass for biofuel production. The bottleneck of the biorefinery process is the generation of fermentable sugars from complicated biomass polymers. In nature, the main microbes of lignocelluloses deconstruction are fungi. Therefore, elucidating the mechanism of lignocelluloses degradation by fungi is of critical importance for the commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels. This review focuses on the progress in lignocelluloses degradation pathways in fungi, especially on the advances made by functional genomics studies.

  4. Spore sensitivity to sunlight and freezing can restrict dispersal in wood-decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Norros, Veera; Karhu, Elina; Nordén, Jenni; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2015-08-01

    Assessment of the costs and benefits of dispersal is central to understanding species' life-history strategies as well as explaining and predicting spatial population dynamics in the changing world. While mortality during active movement has received much attention, few have studied the costs of passive movement such as the airborne transport of fungal spores. Here, we examine the potential of extreme environmental conditions to cause dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi. These fungi play a key role as decomposers and habitat creators in forest ecosystems and the populations of many species have declined due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We measured the effect of simulated solar radiation (including ultraviolet A and B) and freezing at -25°C on the spore germinability of 17 species. Both treatments but especially sunlight markedly reduced spore germinability in most species, and species with thin-walled spores were particularly light sensitive. Extrapolating the species' laboratory responses to natural irradiance conditions, we predict that sunlight is a relevant source of dispersal mortality at least at larger spatial scales. In addition, we found a positive effect of spore size on spore germinability, suggesting a trade-off between dispersal distance and establishment. We conclude that freezing and particularly sunlight can be important sources of dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi which can make it difficult for some species to colonize isolated habitat patches and habitat edges. PMID:26380666

  5. Melting glacier impacts community structure of Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi in a Chilean Patagonia fjord.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Galand, Pierre E; Moffat, Carlos; Pantoja, Silvio

    2015-10-01

    Jorge Montt glacier, located in the Patagonian Ice Fields, has undergone an unprecedented retreat during the past century. To study the impact of the meltwater discharge on the microbial community of the downstream fjord, we targeted Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi communities during austral autumn and winter. Our results showed a singular microbial community present in cold and low salinity surface waters during autumn, when a thicker meltwater layer was observed. Meltwater bacterial sequences were related to Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes previously identified in freshwater and cold ecosystems, suggesting the occurrence of microorganisms adapted to live in the extreme conditions of meltwater. For Fungi, representative sequences related to terrestrial and airborne fungal taxa indicated transport of allochthonous Fungi by the meltwater discharge. In contrast, bottom fjord waters from autumn and winter showed representative Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) related to sequences of marine microorganisms, which is consistent with current models of fjord circulation. We conclude that meltwater can significantly modify the structure of microbial communities and support the development of a major fraction of microorganisms in surface waters of Patagonian fjords. PMID:25856307

  6. Melting glacier impacts community structure of Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi in a Chilean Patagonia fjord.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Galand, Pierre E; Moffat, Carlos; Pantoja, Silvio

    2015-10-01

    Jorge Montt glacier, located in the Patagonian Ice Fields, has undergone an unprecedented retreat during the past century. To study the impact of the meltwater discharge on the microbial community of the downstream fjord, we targeted Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi communities during austral autumn and winter. Our results showed a singular microbial community present in cold and low salinity surface waters during autumn, when a thicker meltwater layer was observed. Meltwater bacterial sequences were related to Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes previously identified in freshwater and cold ecosystems, suggesting the occurrence of microorganisms adapted to live in the extreme conditions of meltwater. For Fungi, representative sequences related to terrestrial and airborne fungal taxa indicated transport of allochthonous Fungi by the meltwater discharge. In contrast, bottom fjord waters from autumn and winter showed representative Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) related to sequences of marine microorganisms, which is consistent with current models of fjord circulation. We conclude that meltwater can significantly modify the structure of microbial communities and support the development of a major fraction of microorganisms in surface waters of Patagonian fjords.

  7. Spore sensitivity to sunlight and freezing can restrict dispersal in wood-decay fungi

    PubMed Central

    Norros, Veera; Karhu, Elina; Nordén, Jenni; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the costs and benefits of dispersal is central to understanding species' life-history strategies as well as explaining and predicting spatial population dynamics in the changing world. While mortality during active movement has received much attention, few have studied the costs of passive movement such as the airborne transport of fungal spores. Here, we examine the potential of extreme environmental conditions to cause dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi. These fungi play a key role as decomposers and habitat creators in forest ecosystems and the populations of many species have declined due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We measured the effect of simulated solar radiation (including ultraviolet A and B) and freezing at −25°C on the spore germinability of 17 species. Both treatments but especially sunlight markedly reduced spore germinability in most species, and species with thin-walled spores were particularly light sensitive. Extrapolating the species' laboratory responses to natural irradiance conditions, we predict that sunlight is a relevant source of dispersal mortality at least at larger spatial scales. In addition, we found a positive effect of spore size on spore germinability, suggesting a trade-off between dispersal distance and establishment. We conclude that freezing and particularly sunlight can be important sources of dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi which can make it difficult for some species to colonize isolated habitat patches and habitat edges. PMID:26380666

  8. Biodegradation and bioconversion of coals by fungi: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.

    1988-03-07

    The project obtained in laboratory culture new varieties of fungi capable of bioconverting solid coals directly to liquid products, and characterized the rate and extent of bioconversion activity on a variety of coal types. Several hundred fungal isolates were screened for bioconversions of weathered lignite. At least 30 apparently unique strains displayed lignite biconversion activity. Each of the new lignite-solubilizing strains was assayed for comparative activity on three different weathered, Gulf Coast lignites. Different strains exhibited differing degrees of activity on the different lignites. Degeree of natural weathering appeared to be positively correlated with biosolubility of the three lignites. Taxonomic studies were made on selected fungal isolates; identifications to level of genus were made where possible. Cultures of some of the selected strains were sent to several research laboratories where the new strains have been applied to coal bioconversion research. Selected fungal strains were tested for bioconversions of other coals. Some of the highly weathered, higher-ranked coals were solubilized; others, even though weathered, were resistant to bioconversion. A quantitative assay technique was developed and, applied to selected fungi acting on several coals. Time-course measurements revealed marked differences in pattern, rate, and degree of solubilization of different coals by different organisms. 15 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. The influence of the petroleum ferrofluids upon the cellulosolytic fungi Chaetomium globosum Kunze:Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoliu, Al.; Antohe, Lacramioara; Creanga, Dorina E.; Cotae, C.

    1999-07-01

    We present a study on the development of the cellulosolytic fungi Chaetomium globosum Kunze:Fr. under the influence of a petroleum ferrofluid, added at various concentrations to the culture medium. A positive influence of the ferrofluid was revealed at the level of the growth rate during the first week of the experiment. Further, the biomass accumulation rate was diminished in the sample in comparison to the control without the addition of ferrofluid. The ubiquitous capacity of the fungi for iron internalization under the form of complex combinations known as siderophores, is probably related to the observed behavior of Chaetomium globosum Kunze:Fr.

  10. Methods for large-scale production of AM fungi: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Ijdo, Marleen; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Many different cultivation techniques and inoculum products of the plant-beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been developed in the last decades. Soil- and substrate-based production techniques as well as substrate-free culture techniques (hydroponics and aeroponics) and in vitro cultivation methods have all been attempted for the large-scale production of AM fungi. In this review, we describe the principal in vivo and in vitro production methods that have been developed so far. We present the parameters that are critical for optimal production, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods, and highlight their most probable sectors of application. PMID:20803040

  11. [THE MYCOBIOTA IN STUDYING THE RESISTANCE OF GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD TO MICROSCOPIC FUNGI].

    PubMed

    Pysmenna, Yu B; Subbota, A G; Nakonechna, L T

    2015-01-01

    The resistance of two types of gypsum plasterboard: ordinary and water-resistant to microscopic fungi was studied. It was found that under conditions of high relative humidity and direct influence of water at constant temperature (29 ± 2) degrees C all samples of plasterboard were not resistant to fungi. Furthermore, the contaminating mycobiota of uninfected fragments of plasterboard was revealed under these conditions. It was discovered that the test cultures Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma viride were the most active at the stage of developed mycelium. PMID:26638485

  12. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of valerian roots on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during various stages of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) roots processing by herb farmers and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 15 farms owned by valerian cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air showed a marked variability and were within a range of 0.95-7,966.6 x 10(3) cfu/m (3). Though median was relatively low (10.75 x 10(3) cfu/m (3)), on 4 farms the concentrations exceeded the level of 10(5) cfu/m (3) and on 1 farm the level of 10(6) cfu/m (3). During the processing of valerian roots, distinct changes could be observed in the composition of airborne microflora. In the first stages of processing, the freshly dug and washed roots until shaking in the drying room, the most numerous were Gram-negative bacteria of the family Pseudomonadaceae (mostly Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens). After drying, the dominant organisms were thermo-resistant endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and fungi, among which prevailed Aspergillus fumigatus. Altogether, 29 species or genera of bacteria and 19 species or genera of fungi were identified in the farm air during valerian processing, of these, 10 and 12 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin on the examined farms were very large and ranged from 10.0-776.7 mg/m (3), and from 0.15-24,448.2 microg/m (3), respectively (medians 198.3 mg/m (3) and 40.48 microg/m (3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating valerian could be exposed during processing of valerian roots to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work

  13. Arsenate sensitivity in ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Sharples, J.M.; Meharg, A.A.; Chambers, S.M.; Cairney, J.W.G.

    1999-08-01

    Isolates of the endomycorrhizal fungus Hymenoscyphus ericae and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme from soils uncontaminated with AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, were compared with regard to their sensitivity to AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} in solution culture. When grown in liquid media amended with a range of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} concentrations, H. ericae demonstrated reduced sensitivity to AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} compared to H. crustuliniforme. The concentrations causing 50% inhibition of growth (EC50) were 1.33 mol/m{sup 3} and 0.33 mol/m{sup 3}, respectively, for H. ericae and H. crustuliniforme. The compound AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} is a PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} analogue for the plasmalemma PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} transporter. The presence of PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} in the media at high concentrations ameliorated the toxic effects of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} in both the ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi. This could be due to both suppression of the PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} transporter under high phosphorus status and competition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} with AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} for the transport protein. The kinetics of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} influx in H. ericae and H. crustuliniforme were also investigated. Hymenoscyphus ericae demonstrated a high K{sub m} value, 0.071 mol/m{sup 3}, consistent with values obtained for AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}-tolerant plants. The authors suggest that the high K{sub m} value may be a mechanism used by H. ericae to express reduced AsO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}} sensitivity. The ecological significance of this reduced sensitivity is also discussed.

  14. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by selected species of white rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to examine the potential for using white rot fungi to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water. Experiments were designed to determine the optimum growth conditions for 4 species of fungi, quantify toxicity of PCP to 18 species, and examine PCP degradation by both extracellular enzymes and whole cultures of 4 species. Optimum growth temperatures ranged from 25C for G. oregonense to 40C from P. chrysosporium with I. dryophilus and T. versicolor at approximately 30C. Optimum growth pH were 4.5 for P. chrysosporium and 6.0 for the other 3 species. Eighteen species tested for PCP sensitivity were inhibited by 10 mg-PCP/L when grown on agar plates. Within 2 weeks, 17 of the 18 species grew in the inhibition zones. In liquid phase toxicity experiments, all 18 species were killed by 5 mg-PCP/L. Further liquid testing showed that P. chrysosporium and G. oregonense were among the most sensitive species while I. dryophilus and T. versicolor were more tolerant species, having lethal dosages of 17-34, 25-50, > 41, and > 85 {mu}g-PCP/mg-biomass, respectively. Extracellular enzymes produced in shallow batch cultures by P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor, degraded up to 50% and 75% of the PCP, respectively, when 40 mg-PCP/L was added to mycelia free culture broth. The pattern of chloride ion release resulting from dehalogenation of PCP was bimodal for both species. PCP was degraded by 10 species when PCP was added to whole cultures. Further testing with 4 species showed P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor were the more efficient at reducing aqueous organic chlorine concentrations.

  15. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  16. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  17. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi.

    PubMed

    Krings, M; Taylor, T N; Dotzler, N

    2013-06-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved Carboniferous and Triassic fossils interpreted as zygosporangium-gametangia complexes and resembling those of modern Endogonales. Enigmatic microfossils from the Precambrian to Cenozoic that have variously been interpreted as, or compared to, zygomycetous fungi are also discussed. Among these, the spherical structures collectively termed 'sporocarps' are especially interesting because of their complex investments and abundance in certain Carboniferous and Triassic rocks. Circumstantial evidence suggests that at least some 'sporocarp' types represent mantled zygosporangia. Zygomycetous fungi probably were an important element in terrestrial paleoecosystems at least by the Carboniferous. PMID:24027344

  18. Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase in phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Khan, A J; Minocha, S C

    1989-01-01

    It has been reported that while bacteria and higher plants possess two different pathways for the biosynthesis of putrescine, via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC); the fungi, like animals, only use the former pathway. We found that contrary to the earlier reports, two of the phytopathogenic fungi (Ceratocystis minor and Verticillium dahliae) contain significant levels of ADC activity with very little ODC. The ADC in these fungi has high pH optimum (8.4) and low Km (0.237 mM for C. minor, 0.103 mM for V. dahliae), and is strongly inhibited by alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), putrescine and spermidine, further showing that this enzyme is probably involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and not in the catabolism of arginine as in Escherichia coli. The growth of these fungi is strongly inhibited by DFMA while alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has little effect.

  19. Gravisensing in plants and fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    The principle of establishing and maintaining a gravitropic set point angle depends on gravisensing and a subsequent cascade of events that result in differential elongation of the responsive structures. Since gravity acts upon masses, the gravisensing mechanisms of all biological systems must follow the same principle, namely the sensing of some force due to differential acceleration of the perceiving entity and a reference structure. This presentation will demonstrate that gravisensing can be accomplished by various means, ranging from cytoskeletal organization, mechano-elastic stress to perturbation of electric signals. However, several arguments indicate that sedimentation of either dense plastids (statoliths), the entire protoplast, or a combination of these represents the primary step in graviperception in plants. In fungi, nuclei and cytoskeletal proteins are believed to form a network capable of gravisensing but sedimenting organelles that may function as statoliths have been identified. Theoretical and practical limitations of gravisensing and detection of acceleration forces necessitate microgravity experiments to identify the primary perceptor, subsequent biochemical mechano-transduction, and biological response processes.

  20. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review. PMID:26042616

  1. Growth and survival of rumen fungi.

    PubMed

    Trinci, A P; Lowe, S E; Milne, A; Theodorou, M K

    1988-01-01

    The life cycle and growth kinetics of an anaerobic rumen fungus (Neocallimastix R1) in liquid and solid media are described, together with its response to light, temperature and oxygen. These results are discussed in relation to the survival of rumen fungi in saliva and faeces of sheep, and the possible routes for the transfer of anaerobic fungi between ruminants. The thallus and life cycle of Neocallimastix R1 are compared with those of aerobic chytrids.

  2. Fungi genus and concentration in the air of onion fields and their opportunistic action related to mycotic keratitis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Chen, Zuei-Ching; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Shao-Taun; Chen, Mei-Ju; Chen, Mao-Yen

    2002-01-01

    The authors determined fungi concentrations and genera from onion fields located in monsoon and nonmonsoon areas of Taiwan, as well as concentrations from a county housing location, which served as the comparison site. The authors explored the relationship(s) among onion harvesting, monsoon characteristics, airborne fungal levels, and mycotic eye infection. Airborne fungal levels in the onion field in the nonmonsoon area were the highest, followed by decreasing levels in the monsoon area and control sites, regardless of the sampling periods. The geometric mean of airborne fungal concentrations was the highest during onion harvesting. Cladosporium was the most dominant fungus during pre- and postharvest seasons, whereas Aspergillus, Fusraium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Monilia, Mycelia, and Rhizopus were increased significantly during harvesting. Although fungal concentrations in monsoon onion fields were lower than concentrations measured in the nonmonsoon area, the invasion of dangerous fungal pathogens following eye trauma by airborne sharp exotics (e.g., onion flakes) dispersed in high wind may account for the increase in corneal ulcer cases that occur in the monsoon area. PMID:12530603

  3. Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Bidartondo, Martin I; Redecker, Dirk; Hijri, Isabelle; Wiemken, Andres; Bruns, Thomas D; Domínguez, Laura; Sérsic, Alicia; Leake, Jonathan R; Read, David J

    2002-09-26

    Over 400 non-photosynthetic species from 10 families of vascular plants obtain their carbon from fungi and are thus defined as myco-heterotrophs. Many of these plants are epiparasitic on green plants from which they obtain carbon by 'cheating' shared mycorrhizal fungi. Epiparasitic plants examined to date depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for carbon transfer and exhibit exceptional specificity for these fungi, but for most myco-heterotrophs neither the identity of the fungi nor the sources of their carbon are known. Because many myco-heterotrophs grow in forests dominated by plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Glomeromycota), we proposed that epiparasitism would occur also between plants linked by AMF. On a global scale AMF form the most widespread mycorrhizae, thus the ability of plants to cheat this symbiosis would be highly significant. We analysed mycorrhizae from three populations of Arachnitis uniflora (Corsiaceae, Monocotyledonae), five Voyria species and one Voyriella species (Gentianaceae, Dicotyledonae), and neighbouring green plants. Here we show that non-photosynthetic plants associate with AMF and can display the characteristic specificity of epiparasites. This suggests that AMF mediate significant inter-plant carbon transfer in nature.

  4. The frequency of sex in fungi.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P S; James, Timothy Y

    2016-10-19

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with a huge variation in reproductive strategy. While almost all species can reproduce sexually, many reproduce asexually most of the time. When sexual reproduction does occur, large variation exists in the amount of in- and out-breeding. While budding yeast is expected to outcross only once every 10 000 generations, other fungi are obligate outcrossers with well-mixed panmictic populations. In this review, we give an overview of the costs and benefits of sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi, and the mechanisms that evolved in fungi to reduce the costs of either mode. The proximate molecular mechanisms potentiating outcrossing and meiosis appear to be present in nearly all fungi, making them of little use for predicting outcrossing rates, but also suggesting the absence of true ancient asexual lineages. We review how population genetic methods can be used to estimate the frequency of sex in fungi and provide empirical data that support a mixed mode of reproduction in many species with rare to frequent sex in between rounds of mitotic reproduction. Finally, we highlight how these estimates might be affected by the fungus-specific mechanisms that evolved to reduce the costs of sexual and asexual reproduction.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'.

  5. The frequency of sex in fungi.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P S; James, Timothy Y

    2016-10-19

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with a huge variation in reproductive strategy. While almost all species can reproduce sexually, many reproduce asexually most of the time. When sexual reproduction does occur, large variation exists in the amount of in- and out-breeding. While budding yeast is expected to outcross only once every 10 000 generations, other fungi are obligate outcrossers with well-mixed panmictic populations. In this review, we give an overview of the costs and benefits of sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi, and the mechanisms that evolved in fungi to reduce the costs of either mode. The proximate molecular mechanisms potentiating outcrossing and meiosis appear to be present in nearly all fungi, making them of little use for predicting outcrossing rates, but also suggesting the absence of true ancient asexual lineages. We review how population genetic methods can be used to estimate the frequency of sex in fungi and provide empirical data that support a mixed mode of reproduction in many species with rare to frequent sex in between rounds of mitotic reproduction. Finally, we highlight how these estimates might be affected by the fungus-specific mechanisms that evolved to reduce the costs of sexual and asexual reproduction.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. PMID:27619703

  6. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others.

  7. The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC) is a small, modular, high performance, multiprocessor computer originally designed for aerospace applications. It can use a combination of Motorola 68020 and 68040 based processor modules along with AT&T DSP32C based signal processing modules. The system is designed to use up to 15 processors in almost any combination and a complete system can include up to 20 modules. Depending on the mix of processors, total computational throughput can range from 2.5 to greater than 225 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS). The system is designed so that processors can access all resources in the machine and the inter-processor communication details are completely transparent to the software. In addition to processors, the system includes input/output, memory, and special function modules. Because of its ease of use, small size, durability, and configuration flexibility, SANDAC has been used on applications ranging from missile navigation, guidance, and control systems to medical imaging systems.

  8. Modis-N airborne simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    All required work associated with the above referenced contract has been successfully completed at this time. The Modis-N Airborne Simulator has been developed from existing AB184 Wildfire spectrometer parts as well as new detector arrays, optical components, and associated mechanical and electrical hardware. The various instrument components have been integrated into an operational system which has undergone extensive laboratory calibration and testing. The instrument has been delivered to NASA Ames where it will be installed on the NASA ER-2. The following paragraphs detail the specific tasks performed during the contract effort, the results obtained during the integration and testing of the instrument, and the conclusions which can be drawn from this effort.

  9. Distribution and Diversity of Planktonic Fungi in the West Pacific Warm Pool

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Singh, Purnima; Gao, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaobo; Johnson, Zackary I.; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contribute substantially to biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine habitats by decomposing matter and recycling nutrients. Yet, the diversity of their planktonic forms in the open ocean is poorly described. In this study, culture-independent and molecular approaches were applied to investigate fungal diversity and abundance derived from samples collected from a broad swath of the Pacific Warm Pool across major environmental gradients Our results revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse and their diversity patterns were related to major phytoplankton taxa and various nutrients including nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate and silicic acid. Over 400 fungal phylotypes were recovered across this region and nearly half of them grouped into two major fungal lineages of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, whose abundance varied among stations. These results suggest that planktonic fungi are a diverse and integral component of the marine microbial community and should be included in future marine microbial ecosystem models. PMID:24992154

  10. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-02-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP.

  11. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP. PMID:26857605

  12. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP. PMID:26857605

  13. Increased Sporulation of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi by Manipulation of Nutrient Regimens †

    PubMed Central

    Douds, David D.; Schenck, N. C.

    1990-01-01

    Adjustment of pot culture nutrient solutions increased root colonization and sporulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Paspalum notatum Flugge and VAM fungi were grown in a sandy soil low in N and available P. Hoagland nutrient solution without P enhanced sporulation in soil and root colonization of Acaulospora longula, Scutellospora heterogama, Gigaspora margarita, and a wide range of other VAM fungi over levels produced by a tap water control or nutrient solutions containing P. However, Glomus intraradices produced significantly more spores in plant roots in the tap water control treatment. The effect of the nutrient solutions was not due solely to N nutrition, because the addition of NH4NO3 decreased both colonization and sporulation by G. margarita relative to levels produced by Hoagland solution without P. PMID:16348115

  14. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  15. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  16. Cultivation and diversity of fungi buried in the Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, N.

    2015-12-01

    @font-face { "MS 明朝"; }@font-face { "Century"; }@font-face { "Century"; }@font-face { "@MS 明朝"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0mm 0mm 0.0001pt; text-align: justify; font-size: 12pt; ; }.MsoChpDefault { ; }div.WordSection1 { page: WordSection1; } Studies on molecular biological and cultivation have been done for the prokaryotic microbial community in the deep biosphere. Compare to the prokaryotic community, few attempts have been done for eukaryotic microbial community. Here we report the study on fungi buried in deep-subsurface sediments by approaches of both cultivation and molecular diversity survey. Cultivation targeting fungi has been done using a sequential sediment samples obtained from the Baltic Sea, Landsort Deep site during the IODP expedition 347. 6 culture media with different nutrition and salt concentration have been tried for the fungi cultivation. 50 isolates of fungi were obtained from the sediment samples. The surface sediments showed richness of fungi strains but not for the deep sediments. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of RNA genes were amplified and for the identification of the isolates. The isolates were classified to 11 different genera. Pseudeurotium bakeri was the dominant strain throughout the glacial and interglacial sediments. We also found different representative fungal strains from glacial and interglacial sediments, suggesting the cultivated strains are buried from different sources. The survey of fungal diversity was done by sequencing the 18S RNA genes in the total DNA extracted from selected sediment samples. Fungi community showed different cluster in the glacial and interglacial sediments.Our results revealed the presence and activity of fungi in the deep biosphere of the Baltic sea and provided evidence of fungal community response to the climate change.

  17. Community analysis reveals close affinities between endophytic and endolichenic fungi in mosses and lichens.

    PubMed

    U'ren, Jana M; Lutzoni, François; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Endolichenic fungi live in close association with algal photobionts inside asymptomatic lichen thalli and resemble fungal endophytes of plants in terms of taxonomy, diversity, transmission mode, and evolutionary history. This similarity has led to uncertainty regarding the distinctiveness of endolichenic fungi compared with endophytes. Here, we evaluate whether these fungi represent distinct ecological guilds or a single guild of flexible symbiotrophs capable of colonizing plants or lichens indiscriminately. Culturable fungi were sampled exhaustively from replicate sets of phylogenetically diverse plants and lichens in three microsites in a montane forest in southeastern Arizona (USA). Intensive sampling combined with a small spatial scale permitted us to decouple spatial heterogeneity from host association and to sample communities from living leaves, dead leaves, and lichen thalli to statistical completion. Characterization using data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and partial large subunit (ITS-LSU rDNA) provided a first estimation of host and substrate use for 960 isolates representing five classes and approximately 16 orders, 32 families, and 65 genera of Pezizomycotina. We found that fungal communities differ at a broad taxonomic level as a function of the phylogenetic placement of their plant or lichen hosts. Endolichenic fungal assemblages differed as a function of lichen taxonomy, rather than substrate, growth form, or photobiont. In plants, fungal communities were structured more by plant lineage than by the living vs. senescent status of the leaf. We found no evidence that endolichenic fungi are saprotrophic fungi that have been "entrapped" by lichen thalli. Instead, our study reveals the distinctiveness of endolichenic communities relative to those in living and dead plant tissues, with one notable exception: we identify, for the first time, an ecologically flexible group of symbionts that occurs both as endolichenic fungi and as

  18. Fungi in deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damare, Samir; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Raghukumar, S.

    2006-01-01

    Although a great amount of information is available on bacteria inhabiting deep-sea sediments, the occurrence of fungi in this environment has been poorly studied and documented. We report here the occurrence of fungi in deep-sea sediments from ˜5000 m depth in the Central Indian Basin (9-16°S and 73-76°E). A total of 181 cultures of fungi, most of which belong to terrestrial sporulating species, were isolated by a variety of isolation techniques. Species of Aspergillus and non-sporulating fungi were the most common. Several yeasts were also isolated. Maximum species diversity was observed in 0-2 cm sections of the sediment cores. Direct staining of the sediments with Calcofluor, a fluorescent optical brightener, revealed the presence of fungal hyphae in the sediments. Immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies raised against a deep-sea isolate of Aspergillus terreus (# A 4634) confirmed its presence in the form of hyphae in the sub-section from which it was isolated. A total of 25 representative species of fungi produced substantial biomass at 200 bar pressure at 30° as well as at 5 °C. Many fungi showed abnormal morphology at 200 bar/5 °C. A comparison of terrestrial isolates with several deep-sea isolates indicated that the former could grow at 200 bar pressure when growth was initiated with mycelial inocula. However, spores of a deep-sea isolate A. terreus (# A 4634), but not the terrestrial ones, showed germination at 200 bar pressure and 30 °C. Our results suggest that terrestrial species of fungi transported to the deep sea are initially stressed but may gradually adapt themselves for growth under these conditions.

  19. High Diversity and Low Specificity of Chaetothyrialean Fungi in Carton Galleries in a Neotropical Ant–Plant Association

    PubMed Central

    Nepel, Maximilian; Voglmayr, Hermann; Schönenberger, Jürg; Mayer, Veronika E.

    2014-01-01

    New associations have recently been discovered between arboreal ants that live on myrmecophytic plants, and different groups of fungi. Most of the – usually undescribed – fungi cultured by the ants belong to the order Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes). Chaetothyriales occur in the nesting spaces provided by the host plant, and form a major part of the cardboard-like material produced by the ants for constructing nests and runway galleries. Until now, the fungi have been considered specific to each ant species. We focus on the three-way association between the plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Salicaceae), the ant Azteca brevis (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and various chaetothyrialean fungi. Azteca brevis builds extensive runway galleries along branches of T. macrophyllum. The carton of the gallery walls consists of masticated plant material densely pervaded by chaetothyrialean hyphae. In order to characterise the specificity of the ant–fungus association, fungi from the runway galleries of 19 ant colonies were grown as pure cultures and analyzed using partial SSU, complete ITS, 5.8S and partial LSU rDNA sequences. This gave 128 different fungal genotypes, 78% of which were clustered into three monophyletic groups. The most common fungus (either genotype or approximate species-level OTU) was found in the runway galleries of 63% of the investigated ant colonies. This indicates that there can be a dominant fungus but, in general, a wider guild of chaetothyrialean fungi share the same ant mutualist in Azteca brevis. PMID:25398091

  20. Development of the dichlorvos-ammonia (DV-AM) method for the visual detection of aflatoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Kimiko; Hatabayashi, Hidemi; Ikehata, Akifumi; Zheng, Yazhi; Kushiro, Masayo

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are carcinogenic and toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. To monitor and regulate the AF contamination of crops, a sensitive and precise detection method for these toxigenic fungi in environments is necessary. We herein developed a novel visual detection method, the dichlorvos-ammonia (DV-AM) method, for identifying AF-producing fungi using DV and AM vapor on agar culture plates, in which DV inhibits the esterase in AF biosynthesis, causing the accumulation of anthraquinone precursors (versiconal hemiacetal acetate and versiconol acetate) of AFs in mycelia on the agar plate, followed by a change in the color of the colonies from light yellow to brilliant purple-red by the AM vapor treatment. We also investigated the appropriate culture conditions to increase the color intensity. It should be noted that other species producing the same precursors of AFs such as Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus versicolor could be discriminated from the Aspergillus section Flavi based on the differences of their phenotypes. The DV-AM method was also useful for the isolation of nonaflatoxigenic fungi showing no color change, for screening microorganisms that inhibit the AF production by fungi, and for the characterization of the fungi infecting corn kernels. Thus, the DV-AM method can provide a highly sensitive and visible indicator for the detection of aflatoxigenic fungi.

  1. High diversity and low specificity of chaetothyrialean fungi in carton galleries in a neotropical ant-plant association.

    PubMed

    Nepel, Maximilian; Voglmayr, Hermann; Schönenberger, Jürg; Mayer, Veronika E

    2014-01-01

    New associations have recently been discovered between arboreal ants that live on myrmecophytic plants, and different groups of fungi. Most of the - usually undescribed - fungi cultured by the ants belong to the order Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes). Chaetothyriales occur in the nesting spaces provided by the host plant, and form a major part of the cardboard-like material produced by the ants for constructing nests and runway galleries. Until now, the fungi have been considered specific to each ant species. We focus on the three-way association between the plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Salicaceae), the ant Azteca brevis (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and various chaetothyrialean fungi. Azteca brevis builds extensive runway galleries along branches of T. macrophyllum. The carton of the gallery walls consists of masticated plant material densely pervaded by chaetothyrialean hyphae. In order to characterise the specificity of the ant-fungus association, fungi from the runway galleries of 19 ant colonies were grown as pure cultures and analyzed using partial SSU, complete ITS, 5.8S and partial LSU rDNA sequences. This gave 128 different fungal genotypes, 78% of which were clustered into three monophyletic groups. The most common fungus (either genotype or approximate species-level OTU) was found in the runway galleries of 63% of the investigated ant colonies. This indicates that there can be a dominant fungus but, in general, a wider guild of chaetothyrialean fungi share the same ant mutualist in Azteca brevis. PMID:25398091

  2. Hydrophilic Fungi and Ergosterol Associated with Respiratory Illness in a Water-Damaged Building

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Kreiss, Kathleen; White, Sandra K.; Rao, Carol Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background Damp building–related respiratory illnesses are an important public health issue. Objective We compared three respiratory case groups defined by questionnaire responses [200 respiratory cases, 123 of the respiratory cases who met the epidemiologic asthma definition, and 49 of the epidemiologic asthma cases who had current physician-diagnosed asthma with post-occupancy onset] to a comparison group of 152 asymptomatic employees in an office building with a history of water damage. Methods We analyzed dust samples collected from floors and chairs of 323 cases and comparisons for culturable fungi, ergosterol, endotoxin, and cat and dog allergens. We examined associations of total fungi, hydrophilic fungi (requiring water activity ≥ 0.9), and ergosterol with the health outcomes using logistic regression models. Results In models adjusted for demographics, respiratory illnesses showed significant linear exposure–response relationships to total culturable fungi [interquartile range odds ratios (IQR-OR) = 1.37–1.72], hydrophilic fungi (IQR-OR = 1.45–2.19), and ergosterol (IQR-OR = 1.54–1.60) in floor and chair dusts. Of three outcomes analyzed, current asthma with postoccupancy physician diagnosis was most strongly associated with exposure to hydrophilic fungi in models adjusted for ergosterol, endotoxin, and demographics (IQR-OR = 2.09 for floor and 1.79 for chair dusts). Ergosterol levels in floor dust were significantly associated with epidemiologic asthma independent of culturable fungi (IQR-OR = 1.54–1.55). Conclusions Our findings extend the 2004 conclusions of the Institute of Medicine [Human health effects associated with damp indoor environments. In: Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. Washington DC:National Academies Press, 183–269] by showing that mold levels in dust were associated with new-onset asthma in this damp indoor environment. Hydrophilic fungi and ergosterol as measures of fungal biomass may have promise as markers of risk of

  3. Heat tolerant fungi and applied research: Addition to the previously treated group of strictly thermotolerant species.

    PubMed

    Mouchacca, Jean

    2007-12-01

    Heat tolerant fungi are organisms that may perform bioconversion processes and produce industrially important metabolites. They may either be obligate thermophiles or simple thermotolerants. The present document is the continuation of a critical note on thermotolerant fungi erroneously reported in the literature as possessing thermophilic attributes. Fifty strictly thermotolerant taxa are here considered. Some of their binomials have only recently been introduced in the scientific literature. The reported thermotolerant species are grouped according to broad taxonomic categories. The nomenclature of zygomycetous taxa and anamorphic fungi is straightforward, as usually only one binomial is available or only one state is produced in culture respectively. For Ascomycetes regularly producing in culture a conidial state, the name of the sexual state (teleomorph) should be used to designate the organism even when a binomial is available for the anamorph; this prevents the practice of interchangeably using the name of either states of the same fungus. When ascomycetous taxa produce the anamorph regularly and the teleomorph only under specific cultural conditions, the name of the anamorph could be preferentially selected. The goal is to introduce uniformity in name citations of fungi, particularly in the literature of applied research. Each species is reported under its taxonomically correct name, either the original binomial or the latest combined binomial after generic transfer(s). Known synonyms are also specified. Maximum efforts were undertaken to trace updated information on the taxonomic position of these fifty strict thermotolerant species. For each, information on the type material, morphological features distinguishing it from related members of the genus (and when necessary a generic taxonomic assessment) and, finally, salient ecological features including heat tolerance levels are given. For some information on their biotechnological use is also provided

  4. Comparison of phenanthrene and pyrene degradation by different wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Sack, U; Heinze, T M; Deck, J; Cerniglia, C E; Martens, R; Zadrazil, F; Fritsche, W

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene was investigated by using five different wood-decaying fungi. After 63 days of incubation in liquid culture, 13.8 and 4.3% of the [ring U-14C]phenantherene and 2.4 and 1.4% of the [4,5,9,10-14C]pyrene were mineralized by Trametes versicolor and Kuehneromyces mutabilis, respectively. No 14CO2 evolution was detected in either [14C]phenanthrene or [14C]pyrene liquid cultures of Flammulina velutipes, Laetiporus sulphureus, and Agrocybe aegerita. Cultivation in straw cultures demonstrated that, in addition to T. versicolor (15.5%) and K. mutabilis (5.0%), L. sulphureus (10.7%) and A. aegerita (3.7%) were also capable of mineralizing phenanthrene in a period of 63 days. Additionally, K. mutabilis (6.7%), L. sulphureus (4.3%), and A. aegerita (3.3%) mineralized [14C]pyrene in straw cultures. The highest mineralization of [14C] pyrene was detected in straw cultures of T. versicolor (34.1%), which suggested that mineralization of both compounds by fungi may be independent of the number of aromatic rings. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by UV absorption, mass, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Fungi capable of mineralizing phenanthrene and pyrene in liquid culture produced enriched metabolites substituted in the K region (C-9,10 position of phenanthrene and C-4,5 position of pyrene), whereas all other fungi investigated produced metabolites substituted in the C-1,2, C-3,4, and C-9,10 positions of phenanthrene and the C-1 position of pyrene. PMID:9327556

  5. Resistant Pathogens, Fungi, and Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Guidry, Christopher A.; Mansfield, Sara A.; Sawyer, Robert G.; Cook, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    The first reports of antibiotic pathogens occurred a few short years after the introduction of these powerful new agents, heralding a new kind of war between medicine and pathogens. Although originally described in Staphylococcus aureus, resistance among bacteria has now become a grim race to determine which classes of bacteria will become more resistant, pitting the Gram positive staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci against the increasingly resistant Gram negative pathogens, e. g., carbapenemase-resistant enterobacteriaceae. In addition, the availability of antibacterial agents has allowed the development of whole new kinds of diseases caused by non-bacterial pathogens, related largely to fungi that are inherently resistant to antibacterials. All of these organisms are becoming more prevalent and, ultimately, more clinically relevant for surgeons. It is ironic that despite their ubiquity in our communities, there is seldom a second thought given to viral infections in patients with surgical illness. The extent of most surgeon’s interest in viral infections ends with hepatitis and HIV, no doubt related to transmissibility as well as the implications that these viruses might have in a patient’s hepatic or immune functions. There are chapters and even textbooks written about these viruses so these will not be considered here. Instead, we will present the growing body of knowledge of the herpes family viruses and their occurrence and consequences in patients with concomitant surgical disease or critical illness. We have also chosen to focus this chapter on previously immune competent patients, as the impact of herpes family viruses in immunosuppressed patients such as transplant or AIDS patients has received thorough treatment elsewhere. PMID:25440119

  6. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Mishra, A; Kushwaha, Rks

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266, A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137, Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081, Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270, C. indicum ITCC 5269, C. pannicola GPCK 1022, C. tropicum GPCK 1269, Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267, Gymnoascus reessii ITCC 5265, Malbranchea fulva GPCK 1075, Malbranchea pulchella ITCC 5268, Micosporum gypseum GPCK 1038 , Microsporum cookei GPCK 2001, M. fulvum GPCK 2002, Paecilomyces lilacinum GPCK 1080, Penicillium expansum GPCK 1082, Trichophyton mentagrophytes GPCK 2003 and T. terrestre GPCK 2004. In hospitals, the minimum frequency was of Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 while the maximum frequency was of Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275. In houses, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 and C. tropicum GPCK 1269 were with minimum and maximum frequencies respectively. This makes the first report of these fungi with keratinolytic ability in the indoor dust of hospitals and houses. PMID:19584506

  7. Systematic analyses reveal uniqueness and origin of the CFEM domain in fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Na; Wu, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Zhu, Yue-Yan; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Zhen; Zou, Cheng-Gang

    2015-08-10

    CFEM domain commonly occurs in fungal extracellular membrane proteins. To provide insights for understanding putative functions of CFEM, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of CFEM domains by systematic comparative genomic analyses among diverse animals, plants, and more than 100 fungal species, which are representative across the entire group of fungi. We here show that CFEM domain is unique to fungi. Experiments using tissue culture demonstrate that the CFEM-containing ESTs in some plants originate from endophytic fungi. We also find that CFEM domain does not occur in all fungi. Its single origin dates to the most recent common ancestors of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, instead of multiple origins. Although the length and architecture of CFEM domains are relatively conserved, the domain-number varies significantly among different fungal species. In general, pathogenic fungi have a larger number of domains compared to other species. Domain-expansion across fungal genomes appears to be driven by domain duplication and gene duplication via recombination. These findings generate a clear evolutionary trajectory of CFEM domains and provide novel insights into the functional exchange of CFEM-containing proteins from cell-surface components to mediators in host-pathogen interactions.

  8. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.

  9. Assimilation of organic and inorganic nutrients by Erica root fungi from the fynbos ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bizabani, Christine; Dames, Joanna Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Erica dominate the fynbos ecosystem, which is characterized by acidic soils that are rich in organic matter. The ericaceae associate with ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi for survival. In this study fungal biomass accumulation in vitro was used to determine nutrient utilisation of various inorganic and organic substrates. This is an initial step towards establishment of the ecological roles of typical ERM fungi and other root fungi associated with Erica plants, with regard to host nutrition. Meliniomyces sp., Acremonium implicatum, Leohumicola sp., Cryptosporiopsis erica, Oidiodendron maius and an unidentified Helotiales fungus were selected from fungi previously isolated and identified from Erica roots. Sole nitrogen sources ammonium, nitrate, arginine and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) were tested. Meliniomyces and Leohumicola species were able to utilise BSA effectively. Phosphorus nutrition was tested using orthophosphate, sodium inositol hexaphosphate and DNA. Most isolates preferred orthophosphate. Meliniomyces sp. and A. implicatum were able to accumulate significant biomass using DNA. Carbon utilisation was tested using glucose, cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, pectin and tannic acid substrates. All fungal isolates produced high biomass on glucose and cellobiose. The ability to utilize organic nutrient sources in culture, illustrates their potential role of these fungi in host nutrition in the fynbos ecosystem.

  10. Assimilation of organic and inorganic nutrients by Erica root fungi from the fynbos ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bizabani, Christine; Dames, Joanna Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Erica dominate the fynbos ecosystem, which is characterized by acidic soils that are rich in organic matter. The ericaceae associate with ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi for survival. In this study fungal biomass accumulation in vitro was used to determine nutrient utilisation of various inorganic and organic substrates. This is an initial step towards establishment of the ecological roles of typical ERM fungi and other root fungi associated with Erica plants, with regard to host nutrition. Meliniomyces sp., Acremonium implicatum, Leohumicola sp., Cryptosporiopsis erica, Oidiodendron maius and an unidentified Helotiales fungus were selected from fungi previously isolated and identified from Erica roots. Sole nitrogen sources ammonium, nitrate, arginine and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) were tested. Meliniomyces and Leohumicola species were able to utilise BSA effectively. Phosphorus nutrition was tested using orthophosphate, sodium inositol hexaphosphate and DNA. Most isolates preferred orthophosphate. Meliniomyces sp. and A. implicatum were able to accumulate significant biomass using DNA. Carbon utilisation was tested using glucose, cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, pectin and tannic acid substrates. All fungal isolates produced high biomass on glucose and cellobiose. The ability to utilize organic nutrient sources in culture, illustrates their potential role of these fungi in host nutrition in the fynbos ecosystem. PMID:26895865

  11. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Maryam; Bayat, Mansour; Hashemi, Seyed J.; Zia, Mohammadali; Pestechian, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured. Identification of C. neoformans was performed on bird seed agar, presence of a capsule on India ink preparation, urease production on urea agar medium and RapID yeast plus system. The identification of candida species was based on micro-morphological analysis on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, RapID yeast plus system and growth in CHROMagar candida. The identification of other fungi was based on macromorphologic, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: The highest frequency of yeasts and mold fungi were observed in Candida albicans 6.6% and Penicillium spp. 25%. The frequency rate of C. neoformans isolation was 2.5%. Conclusion: Several types of fungi are present in pigeon droppings that can spread in environment and transmit to children and elderly as well as immunocompromised patients who are at increased risk of contracting opportunistic diseases. PMID:23901339

  12. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Maria; Rojas-Flores, Teresa I

    2015-01-01

    The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 - October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores) and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 - 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores) and the lowest in December (7,314 spores). Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores) was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores).

  13. Phylogenomics of zygomycete fungi: impacts on a phylogenetic classification of Kingdom Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The zygomycetous fungi (”zygomycetes”) mark the major transition from zoosporic life histories of the common ancestor of Fungi and the earliest diverging chytrid lineages (Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota). Their ecological and economic importance range from the earliest documented symbionts o...

  14. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  15. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  16. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  17. Parasitism of Xiphinema rivesi and X. americanum by Zoosporic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Jafee, B A

    1986-01-01

    Living Xiphinema americanum (Xa) and X. rivesi (Xr) extracted from soil samples and stored for 1-5 days at 4 or 20 C contained aseptate fungal hyphae. The fungi directly penetrated the nematode's cuticle from spores encysted near the head. Penetration through the stoma, vulva, or anus was rare. Catenaria anguillulae (Cat), Lagenidium caudatura (Lag), Aphanomyces sp. (Aph), and Leptolegnia sp. (Lep) were isolated into pure culture from infected nematodes. The pathogenicity of these zoosporic fungi was determined by incubating mixed freshly extracted Xa and Xr in 2% soil extract (pH = 6.7, conductivity = 48 mumhos, 20 +/- 2 C) containing zoospores obtained from single-spore isolates. After 4 days, Cat, Lag, Aph, and Lep had infected 78, 18, 13, and 22%, respectively, of the nematodes. Both Xa and Xr were infected by every fungus; however, the relative susceptibility of Xa and Xr to these fungi was not determined. All noninoculated control nematodes remained uninfected and alive. In a second experiment, parasitism of Xa and Xr by Aph and Lep was increased when nematodes were incubated in 2% soil extract for 4 days before exposure to zoospores. In a third experiment, parasitism of Xa and Xr by Cat was greater in diluted saturation soil extract (conductivity = 100-400 mumhos) than in undiluted saturation extract (conductivity = 780 mumhos). Cat produced small zoospores (4-mum-d), bulbous infection hyphae, and assimilative hyphae of varying diameters in nematodes, whereas Lag, Aph, and Lep produced large zoospores (8-mum-d) and tubular, uniform infection and assimilative hyphae in nematodes.

  18. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  19. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  20. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766