Science.gov

Sample records for airborne digital imagery

  1. High Resolution Airborne Digital Imagery for Precision Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herwitz, Stanley R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program is a NASA initiative that seeks to demonstrate the application of cost-effective aircraft and sensor technology to private commercial ventures. In 1997-98, a series of flight-demonstrations and image acquisition efforts were conducted over the Hawaiian Islands using a remotely-piloted solar- powered platform (Pathfinder) and a fixed-wing piloted aircraft (Navajo) equipped with a Kodak DCS450 CIR (color infrared) digital camera. As an ERAST Science Team Member, I defined a set of flight lines over the largest coffee plantation in Hawaii: the Kauai Coffee Company's 4,000 acre Koloa Estate. Past studies have demonstrated the applications of airborne digital imaging to agricultural management. Few studies have examined the usefulness of high resolution airborne multispectral imagery with 10 cm pixel sizes. The Kodak digital camera integrated with ERAST's Airborne Real Time Imaging System (ARTIS) which generated multiband CCD images consisting of 6 x 106 pixel elements. At the designated flight altitude of 1,000 feet over the coffee plantation, pixel size was 10 cm. The study involved the analysis of imagery acquired on 5 March 1998 for the detection of anomalous reflectance values and for the definition of spectral signatures as indicators of tree vigor and treatment effectiveness (e.g., drip irrigation; fertilizer application).

  2. Spatial statistical analysis of tree deaths using airborne digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Mei; Baddeley, Adrian; Wallace, Jeremy; Canci, Michael

    2013-04-01

    High resolution digital airborne imagery offers unprecedented opportunities for observation and monitoring of vegetation, providing the potential to identify, locate and track individual vegetation objects over time. Analytical tools are required to quantify relevant information. In this paper, locations of trees over a large area of native woodland vegetation were identified using morphological image analysis techniques. Methods of spatial point process statistics were then applied to estimate the spatially-varying tree death risk, and to show that it is significantly non-uniform. [Tree deaths over the area were detected in our previous work (Wallace et al., 2008).] The study area is a major source of ground water for the city of Perth, and the work was motivated by the need to understand and quantify vegetation changes in the context of water extraction and drying climate. The influence of hydrological variables on tree death risk was investigated using spatial statistics (graphical exploratory methods, spatial point pattern modelling and diagnostics).

  3. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  4. Statistical correction of lidar-derived digital elevation models with multispectral airborne imagery in tidal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.; Takekawa, John

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) is a valuable tool for collecting large amounts of elevation data across large areas; however, the limited ability to penetrate dense vegetation with lidar hinders its usefulness for measuring tidal marsh platforms. Methods to correct lidar elevation data are available, but a reliable method that requires limited field work and maintains spatial resolution is lacking. We present a novel method, the Lidar Elevation Adjustment with NDVI (LEAN), to correct lidar digital elevation models (DEMs) with vegetation indices from readily available multispectral airborne imagery (NAIP) and RTK-GPS surveys. Using 17 study sites along the Pacific coast of the U.S., we achieved an average root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.072 m, with a 40–75% improvement in accuracy from the lidar bare earth DEM. Results from our method compared favorably with results from three other methods (minimum-bin gridding, mean error correction, and vegetation correction factors), and a power analysis applying our extensive RTK-GPS dataset showed that on average 118 points were necessary to calibrate a site-specific correction model for tidal marshes along the Pacific coast. By using available imagery and with minimal field surveys, we showed that lidar-derived DEMs can be adjusted for greater accuracy while maintaining high (1 m) resolution.

  5. Quantification of gully volume using very high resolution DSM generated through 3D reconstruction from airborne and field digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Carlos; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Laredo, Mario; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    Major advances have been made recently in automatic 3D photo-reconstruction techniques using uncalibrated and non-metric cameras (James and Robson, 2012). However, its application on soil conservation studies and landscape feature identification is currently at the outset. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of a remote sensing technique using a digital camera mounted on an airborne platform, with 3D photo-reconstruction, a method already validated for gully erosion assessment purposes (Castillo et al., 2012). A field survey was conducted in November 2012 in a 250 m-long gully located in field crops on a Vertisol in Cordoba (Spain). The airborne campaign was conducted with a 4000x3000 digital camera installed onboard an aircraft flying at 300 m above ground level to acquire 6 cm resolution imagery. A total of 990 images were acquired over the area ensuring a large overlap in the across- and along-track direction of the aircraft. An ortho-mosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were obtained through automatic aerial triangulation and camera calibration methods. For the field-level photo-reconstruction technique, the gully was divided in several reaches to allow appropriate reconstruction (about 150 pictures taken per reach) and, finally, the resulting point clouds were merged into a unique mesh. A centimetric-accuracy GPS provided a benchmark dataset for gully perimeter and distinguishable reference points in order to allow the assessment of measurement errors of the airborne technique and the georeferenciation of the photo-reconstruction 3D model. The uncertainty on the gully limits definition was explicitly addressed by comparison of several criteria obtained by 3D models (slope and second derivative) with the outer perimeter obtained by the GPS operator identifying visually the change in slope at the top of the gully walls. In this study we discussed the magnitude of planimetric and altimetric errors and the differences observed between the

  6. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  7. Processing Digital Imagery Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, P. K.; Junkin, B. G.; Graham, M. H.; Kalcic, M. T.; Seyfarth, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    Earth Resources Laboratory Applications Software (ELAS) is geobased information system designed for analyzing and processing digital imagery data. ELAS offers user of remotely sensed data wide range of easy to use capabilities in areas of land cover analysis. ELAS system written in FORTRAN and Assembler for batch or interactive processing.

  8. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  9. The ASPRS Digital Imagery Product Guideline Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Kuper, Philip; Stanley, Thomas; Mondello, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) Primary Data Acquisition Division is developing a Digital Imagery Product Guideline in conjunction with NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), academia, and industry. The goal of the guideline is to offer providers and users of digital imagery a set of recommendatons analogous those defined by the ASPRS Aerial Photography 1995 Draft Standard for film-based imagery. This article offers a general outline and description of the Digital Imagery Product Guideline and Digital Imagery Tutorial/Reference documents for defining digital imagery requirements.

  10. Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery for the Detection of Agricultural Crop Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, Philip E.; Perry, Eileen M.; Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2001-01-01

    Multispectral digital imagery from aircraft or satellite is presently being used to derive basic assessments of crop health for growers and others involved in the agricultural industry. Research indicates that narrow band stress indices derived from hyperspectral imagery should have improved sensitivity to provide more specific information on the type and cause of crop stress, Under funding from the NASA Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) we are identifying and evaluating scientific and commercial applications of hyperspectral imagery for the remote characterization of agricultural crop stress. During the summer of 1999 a field experiment was conducted with varying nitrogen treatments on a production corn-field in eastern Nebraska. The AVIRIS (Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) hyperspectral imager was flown at two critical dates during crop development, at two different altitudes, providing images with approximately 18m pixels and 3m pixels. Simultaneous supporting soil and crop characterization included spectral reflectance measurements above the canopy, biomass characterization, soil sampling, and aerial photography. In this paper we describe the experiment and results, and examine the following three issues relative to the utility of hyperspectral imagery for scientific study and commercial crop stress products: (1) Accuracy of reflectance derived stress indices relative to conventional measures of stress. We compare reflectance-derived indices (both field radiometer and AVIRIS) with applied nitrogen and with leaf level measurement of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll concentrations over the experimental plots (4 replications of 5 different nitrogen levels); (2) Ability of the hyperspectral sensors to detect sub-pixel areas under crop stress. We applied the stress indices to both the 3m and 18m AVIRIS imagery for the entire production corn field using several sub-pixel areas within the field to compare the relative

  11. Application of airborne thermal imagery to surveys of Pacific walrus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.; Udevitz, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted tests of airborne thermal imagery of Pacific walrus to determine if this technology can be used to detect walrus groups on sea ice and estimate the number of walruses present in each group. In April 2002 we collected thermal imagery of 37 walrus groups in the Bering Sea at spatial resolutions ranging from 1-4 m. We also collected high-resolution digital aerial photographs of the same groups. Walruses were considerably warmer than the background environment of ice, snow, and seawater and were easily detected in thermal imagery. We found a significant linear relation between walrus group size and the amount of heat measured by the thermal sensor at all 4 spatial resolutions tested. This relation can be used in a double-sampling framework to estimate total walrus numbers from a thermal survey of a sample of units within an area and photographs from a subsample of the thermally detected groups. Previous methods used in visual aerial surveys of Pacific walrus have sampled only a small percentage of available habitat, resulting in population estimates with low precision. Results of this study indicate that an aerial survey using a thermal sensor can cover as much as 4 times the area per hour of flight time with greater reliability than visual observation.

  12. Histopathology reconstruction on digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Lieberman, Rich W.; Nie, Sixiang; Xie, Yihua; Eldred, Michael; Oyama, Jody

    2009-02-01

    Diagnosing cervical cancer in a woman is a multi-step procedure involving examination of the cervix, possible biopsy and follow-up. It is open to subjective interpretation and highly dependent upon the skills of cytologists, colposcopists, and pathologists. In an effort to reduce the subjectiveness of the colposcopist-directed biopsy and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy, we have developed new colposcopic imaging systems with accompanying computer aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to guide a colposcopist in deciding if and where to biopsy. If the biopsy's histopathology, the identification of the disease state at the cellular and near-cellular level, is to be used as the gold standard for CAD, then the location of the histopathologic analysis must match exactly to the location of the biopsy tissue in the digital image. Otherwise, no matter how perfect the histopathology and the quality of the digital imagery, the two data sets cannot be matched and the true sensitivity and specificity of the CAD cannot be ascertained. We report here on new approaches to preserving, continuously, the location and orientation of a biopsy sample with respect to its location in the digital image of the cervix so as to preserve the exact spatial relationship throughout the mechanical aspects of the histopathologic analysis. This new approach will allow CAD to produce a linear diagnosis and pinpoint the location of the tissue under examination.

  13. Benchmarking High Density Image Matching for Oblique Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Haala, N.; Nebiker, S.; Rothermel, M.; Tutzauer, P.

    2014-08-01

    Both, improvements in camera technology and new pixel-wise matching approaches triggered the further development of software tools for image based 3D reconstruction. Meanwhile research groups as well as commercial vendors provide photogrammetric software to generate dense, reliable and accurate 3D point clouds and Digital Surface Models (DSM) from highly overlapping aerial images. In order to evaluate the potential of these algorithms in view of the ongoing software developments, a suitable test bed is provided by the ISPRS/EuroSDR initiative Benchmark on High Density Image Matching for DSM Computation. This paper discusses the proposed test scenario to investigate the potential of dense matching approaches for 3D data capture from oblique airborne imagery. For this purpose, an oblique aerial image block captured at a GSD of 6 cm in the west of Zürich by a Leica RCD30 Oblique Penta camera is used. Within this paper, the potential test scenario is demonstrated using matching results from two software packages, Agisoft PhotoScan and SURE from University of Stuttgart. As oblique images are frequently used for data capture at building facades, 3D point clouds are mainly investigated at such areas. Reference data from terrestrial laser scanning is used to evaluate data quality from dense image matching for several facade patches with respect to accuracy, density and reliability.

  14. Digital rectification of ERTS multispectral imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rifman, S. S.

    1973-01-01

    Rectified ERTS multispectral imagery have been produced utilizing all digital techniques, as the first step toward producing precision corrected imagery. Errors arising from attitude and ephemeris sources have been corrected, and the resultant image is represented in a meter/meter mapping utilizing an intensity resampling technique. Early results from available data indicate negligible degradation of the photometric and resolution properties of the source data as a consequence of the geometric correction process. Work utilizing ground control points to produce precision rectified imagery, and including photometric corrections resulting from available sensor calibration data, is currently in progress.

  15. From Microfilm to Digital Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Donald J.

    The Yale University Library, one of the earliest developers of preservation microfilming practices, is today engaged in the first stages of a long-term and comprehensive effort to develop practical systems for the conversion of microfilm to digital image, and thereby to develop an understanding of the appropriate relationship of the two…

  16. Reconciling In Situ Foliar Nitrogen and Vegetation Structure Measurements with Airborne Imagery Across Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the next 30 years the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will monitor environmental and ecological change throughout North America. NEON will provide a suite of standardized data from several ecological topics of interest, including net primary productivity and nutrient cycling, from 60+ sites across 20 eco-climatic domains when fully operational in 2017. The breadth of sampling includes ground-based measurements of foliar nitrogen and vegetation structure, ground-based spectroscopy, airborne LIDAR, and airborne hyperspectral surveys occurring within narrow overlapping time intervals once every five years. While many advancements have been made in linking and scaling in situ data with airborne imagery, establishing these relationships across dozens of highly variable sites poses significant challenges to understanding continental-wide processes. Here we study the relationship between foliar nitrogen content and airborne hyperspectral imagery at different study sites. NEON collected foliar samples from three sites in 2014 as part of a prototype study: Ordway Swisher Biological Station (pine-oak savannah, with active fire management), Jones Ecological Research Center (pine-oak savannah), and San Joaquin Experimental Range (grass-pine oak woodland). Leaf samples and canopy heights of dominant and co-dominant species were collected from trees located within 40 x 40 meter sampling plots within two weeks of aerial LIDAR and hyperspectral surveys. Foliar canopy samples were analyzed for leaf mass per area (LMA), stable isotopes of C and N, C/N content. We also examine agreement and uncertainty between ground based canopy height and airborne LIDAR derived digital surface models (DSM) for each site. Site-scale maps of canopy nitrogen and canopy height will also be presented.

  17. Airborne imagery of a disintegrating Sargassum drift line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, George O.; Miller, W. D.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

    2011-03-01

    Airborne hyperspectral and thermal infrared imagery collected over the Florida Current provide a view of the disintegration of a Sargassum drift line in 5 m s -1 winds. The drift line consists mostly of rafts 20-80 m 2 in size, though aggregations larger than 1000 m 2 also occur. Rafts tend to be elongated, curved in the upwind direction, and 0.1-0.5 °C warmer than the surrounding ocean surface. Long weed 'trails' extending upwind from the rafts are evidence of plants dropping out and being left behind more rapidly drifting rafts. The raft line may be a remnant of an earlier Sargassum frontal band, which is detectible as an upwind thermal front and areas of submerged weed. Issues are identified that require future field measurements.

  18. Boundary-detection algorithm for locating edges in digital imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Russell, M. J.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Initial development of a computer program which implements a boundary detection algorithm to detect edges in digital images is described. An evaluation of the boundary detection algorithm was conducted to locate boundaries of lakes from LANDSAT-1 imagery. The accuracy of the boundary detection algorithm was determined by comparing the area within boundaries of lakes located using digitized LANDSAT imagery with the area of the same lakes planimetered from imagery collected from an aircraft platform.

  19. Digital techniques for processing Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the basic techniques used to process Landsat images with a digital computer, and the VICAR image processing software developed at JPL and available to users through the NASA sponsored COSMIC computer program distribution center is presented. Examples of subjective processing performed to improve the information display for the human observer, such as contrast enhancement, pseudocolor display and band rationing, and of quantitative processing using mathematical models, such as classification based on multispectral signatures of different areas within a given scene and geometric transformation of imagery into standard mapping projections are given. Examples are illustrated by Landsat scenes of the Andes mountains and Altyn-Tagh fault zone in China before and after contrast enhancement and classification of land use in Portland, Oregon. The VICAR image processing software system which consists of a language translator that simplifies execution of image processing programs and provides a general purpose format so that imagery from a variety of sources can be processed by the same basic set of general applications programs is described.

  20. Evaluating airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...

  1. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  2. USGS QA Plan: Certification of digital airborne mapping products (1)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christopherson, J.

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate acceptance of new digital technologies in aerial imaging and mapping, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners have launched a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Digital Aerial Imagery. This should provide a foundation for the quality of digital aerial imagery and products. It introduces broader considerations regarding processes employed by aerial flyers in collecting, processing and delivering data, and provides training and information for US producers and users alike.

  3. Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public

  4. An Algorithm to Atmospherically Correct Visible and Thermal Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug L.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Schiller, Stephen; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The program Watts implements a system of physically based models developed by the authors, described elsewhere, for the removal of atmospheric effects in multispectral imagery. The band range we treat covers the visible, near IR and the thermal IR. Input to the program begins with atmospheric pal red models specifying transmittance and path radiance. The system also requires the sensor's spectral response curves and knowledge of the scanner's geometric definition. Radiometric characterization of the sensor during data acquisition is also necessary. While the authors contend that active calibration is critical for serious analytical efforts, we recognize that most remote sensing systems, either airborne or space borne, do not as yet attain that minimal level of sophistication. Therefore, Watts will also use semi-active calibration where necessary and available. All of the input is then reduced to common terms, in terms of the physical units. From this it Is then practical to convert raw sensor readings into geophysically meaningful units. There are a large number of intricate details necessary to bring an algorithm or this type to fruition and to even use the program. Further, at this stage of development the authors are uncertain as to the optimal presentation or minimal analytical techniques which users of this type of software must have. Therefore, Watts permits users to break out and analyze the input in various ways. Implemented in REXX under OS/2 the program is designed with attention to the probability that it will be ported to other systems and other languages. Further, as it is in REXX, it is relatively simple for anyone that is literate in any computer language to open the code and modify to meet their needs. The authors have employed Watts in their research addressing precision agriculture and urban heat island.

  5. An improved procedure for detection and enumeration of walrus signatures in airborne thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Douglas M.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Speckman, Suzann G.; Benter, R. Bradley

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, application of remote sensing to marine mammal surveys has been a promising area of investigation for wildlife managers and researchers. In April 2006, the United States and Russia conducted an aerial survey of Pacific walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus divergens) using thermal infrared sensors to detect groups of animals resting on pack ice in the Bering Sea. The goal of this survey was to estimate the size of the Pacific walrus population. An initial analysis of the U.S. data using previously-established methods resulted in lower detectability of walrus groups in the imagery and higher variability in calibration models than was expected based on pilot studies. This paper describes an improved procedure for detection and enumeration of walrus groups in airborne thermal imagery. Thermal images were first subdivided into smaller 200 × 200 pixel "tiles." We calculated three statistics to represent characteristics of walrus signatures from the temperature histogram for each tile. Tiles that exhibited one or more of these characteristics were examined further to determine if walrus signatures were present. We used cluster analysis on tiles that contained walrus signatures to determine which pixels belonged to each group. We then calculated a thermal index value for each walrus group in the imagery and used generalized linear models to estimate detection functions (the probability of a group having a positive index value) and calibration functions (the size of a group as a function of its index value) based on counts from matched digital aerial photographs. The new method described here improved our ability to detect walrus groups at both 2 m and 4 m spatial resolution. In addition, the resulting calibration models have lower variance than the original method. We anticipate that the use of this new procedure will greatly improve the quality of the population estimate derived from these data. This procedure may also have broader applicability to thermal

  6. An improved procedure for detection and enumeration of walrus signatures in airborne thermal imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burn, Douglas M.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Speckman, Suzann G.; Benter, R. Bradley

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, application of remote sensing to marine mammal surveys has been a promising area of investigation for wildlife managers and researchers. In April 2006, the United States and Russia conducted an aerial survey of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) using thermal infrared sensors to detect groups of animals resting on pack ice in the Bering Sea. The goal of this survey was to estimate the size of the Pacific walrus population. An initial analysis of the U.S. data using previously-established methods resulted in lower detectability of walrus groups in the imagery and higher variability in calibration models than was expected based on pilot studies. This paper describes an improved procedure for detection and enumeration of walrus groups in airborne thermal imagery. Thermal images were first subdivided into smaller 200 x 200 pixel "tiles." We calculated three statistics to represent characteristics of walrus signatures from the temperature histogram for each the. Tiles that exhibited one or more of these characteristics were examined further to determine if walrus signatures were present. We used cluster analysis on tiles that contained walrus signatures to determine which pixels belonged to each group. We then calculated a thermal index value for each walrus group in the imagery and used generalized linear models to estimate detection functions (the probability of a group having a positive index value) and calibration functions (the size of a group as a function of its index value) based on counts from matched digital aerial photographs. The new method described here improved our ability to detect walrus groups at both 2 m and 4 m spatial resolution. In addition, the resulting calibration models have lower variance than the original method. We anticipate that the use of this new procedure will greatly improve the quality of the population estimate derived from these data. This procedure may also have broader applicability to thermal infrared

  7. Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery to Distinguish and Map Black Mangrove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the results of studies evaluating color-infrared (CIR) aerial photography, CIR aerial true digital imagery, and high resolution QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery for distinguishing and mapping black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations along the lower Texas g...

  8. Use of Airborne Thermal Imagery to Detect and Monitor Inshore Oil Spill Residues During Darkness Hours.

    PubMed

    GRIERSON

    1998-11-01

    / Trials were conducted using an airborne video system operating in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal wavelengths to detect two known oil spill releases during darkness at a distance of 10 nautical miles from the shore in St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia. The oil spills consisted of two 20-liter samples released at 2-h intervals, one sample consisted of paraffinic neutral material and the other of automotive diesel oil. A tracking buoy was sent overboard in conjunction with the release of sample 1, and its movement monitored by satellite relay. Both oil residues were overflown by a light aircraft equipped with thermal, visible, and infrared imagers at a period of approximately 1 h after the release of the second oil residue. Trajectories of the oil residue releases were also modeled and the results compared to those obtained by the airborne video and the tracking buoy. Airborne imagery in the thermal wavelengths successfully located and mapped both oil residue samples during nighttime conditions. Results from the trial suggest that the most advantageous technique would be the combined use of the tracking beacon to obtain an approximate location of the oil spill and the airborne imagery to ascertain its extent and characteristics.KEY WORDS: Airborne video; Thermal imagery; Global positioning; Oil-spill monitoring; Tracking beacon

  9. Improved Remapping Processor For Digital Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Timothy E.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed digital image processor improved version of Programmable Remapper, which performs geometric and radiometric transformations on digital images. Features include overlapping and variably sized preimages. Overcomes some of limitations of image-warping circuit boards implementing only those geometric tranformations expressible in terms of polynomials of limited order. Also overcomes limitations of existing Programmable Remapper and made to perform transformations at video rate.

  10. Viking image processing. [digital stereo imagery and computer mosaicking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the camera systems capable of recording black and white and color imagery developed for the Viking Lander imaging experiment. Each Viking Lander image consisted of a matrix of numbers with 512 rows and an arbitrary number of columns up to a maximum of about 9,000. Various techniques were used in the processing of the Viking Lander images, including: (1) digital geometric transformation, (2) the processing of stereo imagery to produce three-dimensional terrain maps, and (3) computer mosaicking of distinct processed images. A series of Viking Lander images is included.

  11. Detection of gaseous plumes in airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agassi, Eyal; Hirsch, Eitan; Chamberland, Martin; Gagnon, Marc-André; Eichstaedt, Holger

    2016-05-01

    The thermal hyperspectral sensor Hyper-Cam was mounted on a light aircraft and measured continuous releases of several atmospheric tracers from a height of 2 km. A unique detection algorithm that eliminates the need for clear background estimation was operated over the acquired data with excellent detection results. The data-cubes were acquired in a "target mode", which is a unique method of operation of the Hyper-Cam sensor. This method provides multiple views of the plume which can be exploited to enhance the detection performance. These encouraging results demonstrate the utility of airborne LWIR hyperspectral imaging for efficient detection and mapping of effluent gases for environmental monitoring.

  12. Water turbidity estimation from airborne hyperspectral imagery and full waveform bathymetric LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Glennie, C. L.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in water turbidity are of great interest for the study of fluvial and coastal environments; and for predicting the performance of remote sensing systems that are used to map these. Conventional water turbidity estimates from remote sensing observations have normally been derived using near infrared reflectance. We have investigated the potential of determining water turbidity from additional remote sensing sources, namely airborne hyperspectral imagery and single wavelength bathymetric LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). The confluence area of the Blue and Colorado River, CO was utilized as a study area to investigate the capabilities of both airborne bathymetric LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery for water turbidity estimation. Discrete and full waveform bathymetric data were collected using Optech's Gemini (1064 nm) and Aquarius (532 nm) LiDAR sensors. Hyperspectral imagery (1.2 m pixel resolution and 72 spectral bands) was acquired using an ITRES CASI-1500 imaging system. As an independent reference, measurements of turbidity were collected concurrent with the airborne remote sensing acquisitions, using a WET Labs EcoTriplet deployed from a kayak and turbidity was then derived from the measured backscatter. The bathymetric full waveform dataset contains a discretized sample of the full backscatter of water column and benthic layer. Therefore, the full waveform records encapsulate the water column characteristics of turbidity. A nonparametric support vector regression method is utilized to estimate water turbidity from both hyperspectral imagery and voxelized full waveform LiDAR returns, both individually and as a fused dataset. Results of all the evaluations will be presented, showing an initial turbidity prediction accuracy of approximately 1.0 NTU. We will also discuss our future strategy for enhanced fusion of the full waveform LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery for improved turbidity estimation.

  13. Identification of landslides in clay terrains using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Malcolm; Giles, David; Murphy, William

    2002-01-01

    The slopes of the Cotswolds Escarpment in the United Kingdom are mantled by extensive landslide deposits, including both relict and active features. These landslides pose a significant threat to engineering projects and have been the focus of research into the use of airborne remote sensing data sets for landslide mapping. Due to the availability of extensive ground investigation data, a test site was chosen on the slopes of the Cotswolds Escarpment above the village of Broadway, Worcestershire, United Kingdom. Daedalus Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) imagery was subsequently acquired by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to provide high-resolution multispectral imagery of the Broadway site. This paper assesses the textural enhancement of ATM imagery as an image processing technique for landslide mapping at the Broadway site. Results of three kernel based textural measures, variance, mean euclidean distance (MEUC) and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) entropy are presented. Problems encountered during textural analysis, associated with the presence of dense woodland within the project area, are discussed and a solution using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is described. Landslide features in clay dominated terrains can be identified through textural enhancement of airborne multispectral imagery. The kernel based textural measures tested in the current study were all able to enhance areas of slope instability within ATM imagery. Additionally, results from supervised classification of the combined texture-principal component dataset show that texture based image classification can accurately classify landslide regions and that by including a Principal Component image, woodland and landslide classes can be differentiated successfully during the classification process.

  14. Assessing canopy PRI from airborne imagery to map water stress in maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Cogliati, S.; Meroni, M.; Marchesi, A.; Panigada, C.; Giardino, C.; Busetto, L.; Migliavacca, M.; Amaducci, S.; Colombo, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a method for mapping water stress in a maize field using hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. An airborne survey using AISA (Specim, Finland) was performed in July 2008 over an experimental farm in Italy. Hyperspectral data were acquired over a maize field with three different irrigation regimes. An intensive field campaign was also conducted concurrently with imagery acquisition to measure relative leaf water content (RWC), active chlorophyll fluorescence (ΔF/Fm‧), leaf temperature (Tl) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). The analysis of the field data showed that at the time of the airborne overpass the maize plots with irrigation deficits were experiencing a moderate water stress, affecting the plant physiological status (ΔF/Fm‧, difference between Tl and air temperature (Tair), and RWC) but not the canopy structure (LAI). Among the different Vegetation Indices (VIs) computed from the airborne imagery the Photochemical Reflectance Index computed using the reflectance at 570 nm as the reference band (PRI570) showed the strongest relationships with ΔF/Fm‧ (r2 = 0.76), Tl - Tair (r2 = 0.82) and RWC (r2 = 0.64) and the red-edge Chlorophyll Index (CIred-edge) with LAI (r2 = 0.64). Thus PRI has been proven to be related to water stress at early stages, before structural changes occurred.

  15. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. Use of airborne thermal imagery to detect and monitor inshore oil spill residues during darkness hours

    SciTech Connect

    Grierson, I.T.

    1998-11-01

    Trials were conducted using an airborne video system operating in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal wavelengths to detect two known oil spill releases during darkness at a distance of 10 nautical miles from the shore in St. Vincent`s Gulf, South Australia. The oil spills consisted of two 20-liter samples released at 2-h intervals, one sample consisted of paraffinic neutral material and the other of automotive diesel oil. A tracking buoy was sent overboard in conjunction with the release of sample 1, and its movement monitored by satellite relay. Both oil residues were overflown by a light aircraft equipped with thermal, visible, and infrared imagers at a period of approximately 1 h after the release of the second oil residue. Trajectories of the oil residue releases were also modeled and the results compared to those obtained by the airborne video and the tracking buoy. Airborne imagery in the thermal wavelengths successfully located and mapped both oil residue samples during nighttime conditions. Results from the trial suggest that the most advantageous technique would be the combined use of the tracking beacon to obtain an approximate location of the oil spill and the airborne imagery to ascertain its extent and characteristics.

  17. Testing different classification methods in airborne hyperspectral imagery processing.

    PubMed

    Kozoderov, Vladimir V; Dmitriev, Egor V

    2016-05-16

    To enhance the efficiency of machine-learning algorithms of optical remote sensing imagery processing, optimization techniques are evolved of the land surface objects pattern recognition. Different methods of supervised classification are considered for these purposes, including the metrical classifier operating with Euclidean distance between any points of the multi-dimensional feature space given by registered spectra, the K-nearest neighbors classifier based on a majority vote for neighboring pixels of the recognized objects, the Bayesian classifier of statistical decision making, the Support Vector Machine classifier dealing with stable solutions of the mini-max optimization problem and their different modifications. We describe the related techniques applied for selected test regions to compare the listed classifiers. PMID:27409968

  18. Multisensor airborne imagery collection and processing onboard small unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linne von Berg, Dale; Anderson, Scott A.; Bird, Alan; Holt, Niel; Kruer, Melvin; Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.

    2010-04-01

    FEATHAR (Fusion, Exploitation, Algorithms, and Targeting for High-Altitude Reconnaissance) is an ONR funded effort to develop and test new tactical sensor systems specifically designed for small manned and unmanned platforms (payload weight < 50 lbs). This program is being directed and executed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in conjunction with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). FEATHAR has developed and integrated EyePod, a combined long-wave infrared (LWIR) and visible to near infrared (VNIR) optical survey & inspection system, with NuSAR, a combined dual band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. These sensors are being tested in conjunction with other ground and airborne sensor systems to demonstrate intelligent real-time cross-sensor cueing and in-air data fusion. Results from test flights of the EyePod and NuSAR sensors will be presented.

  19. Digital Motion Imagery, Interoperability Challenges for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    With advances in available bandwidth from spacecraft and between terrestrial control centers, digital motion imagery and video is becoming more practical as a data gathering tool for science and engineering, as well as for sharing missions with the public. The digital motion imagery and video industry has done a good job of creating standards for compression, distribution, and physical interfaces. Compressed data streams can easily be transmitted or distributed over radio frequency, internet protocol, and other data networks. All of these standards, however, can make sharing video between spacecraft and terrestrial control centers a frustrating and complicated task when different standards and protocols are used by different agencies. This paper will explore the challenges presented by the abundance of motion imagery and video standards, interfaces and protocols with suggestions for common formats that could simplify interoperability between spacecraft and ground support systems. Real-world examples from the International Space Station will be examined. The paper will also discuss recent trends in the development of new video compression algorithms, as well likely expanded use of Delay (or Disruption) Tolerant Networking nodes.

  20. Satellite imagery and airborne geophysics for geologic mapping of the Edembo area, Eastern Hoggar (Algerian Sahara)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamri, Takfarinas; Djemaï, Safouane; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Zoheir, Basem; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Amara, Massinissa

    2016-03-01

    Satellite imagery combined with airborne geophysical data and field observations were employed for new geologic mapping of the Edembo area in the Eastern Hoggar (Tuareg Shield, Sahara). Multi-spectral band fusion, filtering, and transformation techniques, i.e., band combination, band-rationing and principal component analysis of ETM+ and ASTER data are used for better spectral discrimination of the different rocks units. A thematic map assessed by field data and available geologic information is compiled by supervised classification of satellite data with high overall accuracy (>90%). The automated extraction technique efficiently aided the detection of the structural lineaments, i.e., faults, shear zones, and joints. Airborne magnetic and Gamma-ray spectrometry data showed the pervasiveness of the large structures beneath the Paleozoic sedimentary cover and aeolian sands. The aeroradiometric K-range is used for discrimination of the high-K granitoids of Djanet from the peralumineous granites of Edembo, and to verify the Silurian sediments with their high K-bearing minerals. The new geological map is considered to be a high resolution improvement on all pre-existing maps of this hardly accessible area in the Tuareg Shield. Integration of the airborne geophysical and space-borne imagery data can hence provide a rapid means of geologically mapping areas hitherto poorly known or difficult to access.

  1. Detection of tropical landslides using airborne lidar data and multi imagery: A case study in genting highland, pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamsin, I.; Zulkarnain, M.; Razak, K. A.; Rizal, S.

    2014-02-01

    The landslide geomorphological system in a tropical region is complex, and its understanding often depends on the completeness and correctness of landslide inventorization. In mountainous regions, landslides pose a significant impact and are known as an important geomorphic process in shaping major landscape in the tropics. A modern remote sensing based approach has revolutionized the landslide investigation in a forested terrain. Optical satellite imagery, aerial photographs and synthetic aperture radar images are less effective to create reliable tropical DTMs for landslide recognition, and even so in the forested equatorial regions. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have been used to construct the digital terrain model (DTM) under dense vegetation, but its reliability for landslide recognition in the tropics remains surprisingly unknown. The present study aims at providing better insight into the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. For the bare-earth extraction, several prominent filtering algorithms and surface interpolation methods, i.e. progressive TIN densitification, morphological, and command prompt from Lastool are evaluated in a qualitative analysis, aiming at removing non-ground points while preserving important landslide features. As a result, a large landslide can be detected using OOA. Small landslides remain unrecognized. Three out of five landslides can be detected, with a 60 percent overall accuracy.

  2. A geologic analysis of the Side-Looking Airborne Radar imagery of southern New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Paul T.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of the side looking airborn radar imagery of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island indicates that radar shows the topography in great detail. Since bedrock geologic features are frequently expressed in the topography the radar lends itself to geologic interpretation. The radar was studied by comparisons with field mapped geologic data first at a scale of approximately 1:125,000 and then at a scale of 1:500,000. The larger scale comparison revealed that faults, minor faults, joint sets, bedding and foliation attitudes, lithology and lithologic contacts all have a topographic expression interpretable on the imagery. Surficial geologic features were far less visible on the imagery over most of the area studied. The smaller scale comparisons revealed a pervasive, near orthogonal fracture set cutting all types and ages of rock and trending roughly N40?E and N30?W. In certain places the strike of bedding and foliation attitudes and some lithologic Contacts were visible in addition to the fractures. Fracturing in southern New England is apparently far more important than has been previously recognized. This new information, together with the visibility of many bedding and foliation attitudes and lithologic contacts, indicates the importance of radar imagery in improving the geologic interpretation of an area.

  3. Extraction, modelling, and use of linear features for restitution of airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changno; Bethel, James S.

    This paper presents an approach for the restitution of airborne hyperspectral imagery with linear features. The approach consisted of semi-automatic line extraction and mathematical modelling of the linear features. First, the line was approximately determined manually and refined using dynamic programming. The extracted lines could then be used as control data with the ground information of the lines, or as constraints with simple assumption for the ground information of the line. The experimental results are presented numerically in tables of RMS residuals of check points as well as visually in ortho-rectified images.

  4. EROS Data Center Landsat digital enhancement techniques and imagery availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohde, Wayne G.; Lo, Jinn Kai; Pohl, Russell A.

    1978-01-01

    The US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) is experimenting with the production of digitally enhanced Landsat imagery. Advanced digital image processing techniques are used to perform geometric and radiometric corrections and to perform contrast and edge enhancements. The enhanced image product is produced from digitally preprocessed Landsat computer compatible tapes (CCTs) on a laser beam film recording system. Landsat CCT data have several geometric distortions which are corrected when NASA produces the standard film products. When producing film images from CCT's, geometric correction of the data is required. The EDC Digital Image Enhancement System (EDIES) compensates for geometric distortions introduced by Earth's rotation, variable line length, non-uniform mirror scan velocity, and detector misregistration. Radiometric anomalies such as bad data lines and striping are common to many Landsat film products and are also in the CCT data. Bad data lines or line segments with more than 150 contiguous bad pixels are corrected by inserting data from the previous line in place of the bad data. Striping, caused by variations in detector gain and offset, is removed with a destriping algorithm applied after digitally enhancing the data. Image enhancement is performed by applying a linear contrast stretch and an edge enhancement algorithm. The linear contrast enhancement algorithm is designed to expand digitally the full range of useful data recorded on the CCT over the range of 256 digital counts. This minimizes the effect of atmospheric scattering and saturates the relative brightness of highly reflecting features such as clouds or snow. It is the intent that no meaningful terrain data are eliminated by the digital processing. The edge enhancement algorithm is designed to enhance boundaries between terrain features that exhibit subtle differences in brightness values along edges of features. After the digital data have been processed, data for each Landsat band

  5. GeoEarthScope Airborne LiDAR and Satellite InSAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. A.; Jackson, M. E.; Meertens, C.

    2008-12-01

    UNAVCO has successfully acquired a significant volume of aerial and satellite geodetic imagery as part of GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility project funded by the National Science Foundation. All GeoEarthScope acquisition activities are now complete. Airborne LiDAR data acquisitions took place in 2007 and 2008 and cover a total area of more than 5000 square kilometers. The primary LiDAR survey regions cover features in Northern California, Southern/Eastern California, the Pacific Northwest, the Intermountain Seismic Belt (including the Wasatch and Teton faults and Yellowstone), and Alaska. We have ordered and archived more than 28,000 scenes (more than 81,000 frames) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data suitable for interferometric analyses covering most of the western U.S. and parts of Alaska and Hawaii from several satellite platforms, including ERS-1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT. In addition to ordering data from existing archives, we also tasked the ESA ENVISAT satellite to acquire new SAR data in 2007 and 2008. GeoEarthScope activities were led by UNAVCO, guided by the community and conducted in partnership with the USGS and NASA. Processed imagery products, in addition to formats intended for use in standard research software, can also be viewed using general purpose tools such as Google Earth. We present a summary of these vast geodetic imagery datasets, totaling tens of terabytes, which are freely available to the community.

  6. Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.

  7. Optimal attributes for the object based detection of giant reed in riparian habitats: A comparative study between Airborne High Spatial Resolution and WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Giant reed is an aggressive invasive plant of riparian ecosystems in many sub-tropical and warm-temperate regions, including Mediterranean Europe. In this study we tested a set of geometric, spectral and textural attributes in an object based image analysis (OBIA) approach to map giant reed invasions in riparian habitats. Bagging Classification and Regression Tree were used to select the optimal attributes and to build the classification rules sets. Mapping accuracy was performed using landscape metrics and the Kappa coefficient to compare the topographical and geometric similarity between the giant reed patches obtained with the OBIA map and with a validation map derived from on-screen digitizing. The methodology was applied in two high spatial resolution images: an airborne multispectral imagery and the newly WorldView-2 imagery. A temporal coverage of the airborne multispectral images was radiometrically calibrated with the IR-Mad transformation and used to assess the influence of the phenological variability of the invader. We found that optimal attributes for giant reed OBIA detection are a combination of spectral, geometric and textural information, with different scoring selection depending on the spectral and spatial characteristics of the imagery. WorldView-2 showed higher mapping accuracy (Kappa coefficient of 77%) and spectral attributes, including the newly yellow band, were preferentially selected, although a tendency to overestimate the total invaded area, due to the low spatial resolution (2 m of pixel size vs. 50 cm) was observed. When airborne images were used, geometric attributes were primarily selected and a higher spatial detail of the invasive patches was obtained, due to the higher spatial resolution. However, in highly heterogeneous landscapes, the low spectral resolution of the airborne images (4 bands instead of the 8 of WorldView-2) reduces the capability to detect giant reed patches. Giant reed displays peculiar spectral and geometric

  8. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Cover Using Fused Airborne LIDAR and Satellite Imagery Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmehr, Ebadat G.; Amati, Marco; Fraser, Clive S.

    2016-06-01

    Urban green spaces, particularly urban trees, play a key role in enhancing the liveability of cities. The availability of accurate and up-to-date maps of tree canopy cover is important for sustainable development of urban green spaces. LiDAR point clouds are widely used for the mapping of buildings and trees, and several LiDAR point cloud classification techniques have been proposed for automatic mapping. However, the effectiveness of point cloud classification techniques for automated tree extraction from LiDAR data can be impacted to the point of failure by the complexity of tree canopy shapes in urban areas. Multispectral imagery, which provides complementary information to LiDAR data, can improve point cloud classification quality. This paper proposes a reliable method for the extraction of tree canopy cover from fused LiDAR point cloud and multispectral satellite imagery data. The proposed method initially associates each LiDAR point with spectral information from the co-registered satellite imagery data. It calculates the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) value for each LiDAR point and corrects tree points which have been misclassified as buildings. Then, region growing of tree points, taking the NDVI value into account, is applied. Finally, the LiDAR points classified as tree points are utilised to generate a canopy cover map. The performance of the proposed tree canopy cover mapping method is experimentally evaluated on a data set of airborne LiDAR and WorldView 2 imagery covering a suburb in Melbourne, Australia.

  9. An analysis task comparison of uncorrected vs. geo-registered airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yihang; Kerekes, John

    2015-05-01

    Geo-registration is the task of assigning geospatial coordinates to the pixels of an image and placing them in a geographic coordinate system. However, the process of geo-registration can impair the quality of the image. This paper studies this topic by applying a comparison methodology to uncorrected and geo-registered airborne hyperspectral images obtained from the RIT SHARE 2012 data set. The uncorrected image was analyzed directly as collected by the sensor without being treated, while the geo-registered image was corrected using the nearest neighbor resampling approach. A comparison of performance was done for the analysis tasks of spectral unmixing and subpixel target detection, which can represent a measure of utility. The comparison demonstrates that the geo-registration process can affect the utility of hyperspectral imagery to a limited extent.

  10. Vehicle tracking in wide area motion imagery from an airborne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; van Huis, Jasper R.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Baan, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Airborne platforms, such as UAV's, with Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) sensors can cover multiple square kilometers and produce large amounts of video data. Analyzing all data for information need purposes becomes increasingly labor-intensive for an image analyst. Furthermore, the capacity of the datalink in operational areas may be inadequate to transfer all data to the ground station. Automatic detection and tracking of people and vehicles enables to send only the most relevant footage to the ground station and assists the image analysts in effective data searches. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting and tracking vehicles in high-resolution WAMI images from a moving airborne platform. For the vehicle detection we use a cascaded set of classifiers, using an Adaboost training algorithm on Haar features. This detector works on individual images and therefore does not depend on image motion stabilization. For the vehicle tracking we use a local template matching algorithm. This approach has two advantages. In the first place, it does not depend on image motion stabilization and it counters the inaccuracy of the GPS data that is embedded in the video data. In the second place, it can find matches when the vehicle detector would miss a certain detection. This results in long tracks even when the imagery is of low frame-rate. In order to minimize false detections, we also integrate height information from a 3D reconstruction that is created from the same images. By using the locations of buildings and roads, we are able to filter out false detections and increase the performance of the tracker. In this paper we show that the vehicle tracks can also be used to detect more complex events, such as traffic jams and fast moving vehicles. This enables the image analyst to do a faster and more effective search of the data.

  11. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Reeves, James B.; Lang, Megan W.; Oesterling, Robert A.; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400–2450 nm, ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n = 315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R2 > 0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 × 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  12. Urban Building Collapse Detection Using Very High Resolution Imagery and Airborne LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Li, P.

    2013-07-01

    The increasing availability of very high resolution (VHR) remotely sensed images makes it possible to detect and assess urban building damages in the aftermath of earthquake disasters by using these data. However, the accuracy obtained using spectral features from VHR data alone is comparatively low, since both undamaged and collapsed buildings are spectrally similar. The height information provided by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data is complementary to VHR imagery. Thus, combination of these two datasets will be beneficial to the automatic and accurate extraction of building collapse. In this study, a hierarchical multi-level method of building collapse detection using bi-temporal (pre- and post-earthquake) VHR images and postevent airborne LiDAR data was proposed. First, buildings, bare ground, vegetation and shadows were extracted using post-event image and LiDAR data and masked out. Then building collapse was extracted using the bi-temporal VHR images of the remaining area with a one-class classifier. The proposed method was evaluated using bi-temporal VHR images and LiDAR data of Port au Prince, Haiti, which was heavily hit by an earthquake in January 2010. The method was also compared with some existing methods. The results showed that the method proposed in this study significantly outperformed the existing methods, with improvement range of 47.6% in kappa coefficient. The proposed method provided a fast and reliable way of detecting urban building collapse, which can also be applied to relevant applications.

  13. Discriminating plant species across California's diverse ecosystems using airborne VSWIR and TIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerdink, S.; Roberts, D. A.; Roth, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of the spatial distribution of plant species is required for many research and management agendas that track ecosystem health. Because of this, there is continuous development of research focused on remotely-sensed species classifications for many diverse ecosystems. While plant species have been mapped using airborne imaging spectroscopy, the geographic extent has been limited due to data availability and spectrally similar species continue to be difficult to separate. The proposed Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) space-borne mission, which includes a visible near infrared/shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared (TIR) multi-spectral imager, would present an opportunity to improve species discrimination over a much broader scale. Here we evaluate: 1) the capability of VSWIR and/or TIR spectra to discriminate plant species; 2) the accuracy of species classifications within an ecosystem; and 3) the potential for discriminating among species across a range of ecosystems. Simulated HyspIRI imagery was acquired in spring/summer of 2013 spanning from Santa Barbara to Bakersfield, CA with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) instruments. Three spectral libraries were created from these images: AVIRIS (224 bands from 0.4 - 2.5 µm), MASTER (8 bands from 7.5 - 12 µm), and AVIRIS + MASTER. We used canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) as a dimension reduction technique and then classified plant species using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Our results show the inclusion of TIR spectra improved species discrimination, but only for plant species with emissivities departing from that of a gray body. Ecosystems with species that have high spectral contrast had higher classification accuracies. Mapping plant species across all ecosystems resulted in a classification with lower accuracies than a single ecosystem due to the complex nature of

  14. Bayesian classifier applications of airborne hyperspectral imagery processing for forested areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozoderov, Vladimir; Kondranin, Timofei; Dmitriev, Egor; Kamentsev, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Pattern recognition problem is outlined in the context of textural and spectral analysis of remote sensing imagery processing. Main attention is paid to Bayesian classifier that can be used to realize the processing procedures based on parallel machine-learning algorithms and high-productive computers. We consider the maximum of the posterior probability principle and the formalism of Markov random fields for the neighborhood description of the pixels for the related classes of objects with the emphasis on forests of different species and ages. The energy category of the selected classes serves to account for the likelihood measure between the registered radiances and the theoretical distribution functions approximating remotely sensed data. Optimization procedures are undertaken to solve the pattern recognition problem of the texture description for the forest classes together with finding thin nuances of their spectral distribution in the feature space. As a result, possible redundancy of the channels for imaging spectrometer due to their correlations is removed. Difficulties are revealed due to different sampling data while separating pixels, which characterize the sunlit tops, shaded space and intermediate cases of the Sun illumination conditions on the hyperspectral images. Such separation of pixels for the forest classes is maintained to enhance the recognition accuracy, but learning ensembles of data need to be agreed for these categories of pixels. We present some results of the Bayesian classifier applicability for recognizing airborne hyperspectral images using the relevant improvements in separating such pixels for the forest classes on a test area of the 4 × 10 km size encompassed by 13 airborne tracks, each forming the images by 500 pixels across the track and from 10,000 to 14,000 pixels along the track. The spatial resolution of each image is near to 1 m from the altitude near to 2 km above the ground level. The results of the hyperspectral imagery

  15. Developing Mental Imagery Using a Digital Camera: A Study of Adult Vocational Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryba, Ken; Selby, Linda; Brown, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the use of a digital camera for mental imagery training of a vocational task with two young adult men with Down syndrome. The results indicate that these particular men benefited from the use of a collaborative training process that involved mental imagery for learning a series of photocopying operations. An…

  16. Use of spectral vegetation indices derived from airborne hyperspectral imagery for detection of European corn borer infestation in Iowa corn plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery and evaluated in 2004 and 2005 for their ability to detect experimental plots of corn manually inoculated with Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) neonate larvae. ...

  17. Towards 3D Matching of Point Clouds Derived from Oblique and Nadir Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming

    Because of the low-expense high-efficient image collection process and the rich 3D and texture information presented in the images, a combined use of 2D airborne nadir and oblique images to reconstruct 3D geometric scene has a promising market for future commercial usage like urban planning or first responders. The methodology introduced in this thesis provides a feasible way towards fully automated 3D city modeling from oblique and nadir airborne imagery. In this thesis, the difficulty of matching 2D images with large disparity is avoided by grouping the images first and applying the 3D registration afterward. The procedure starts with the extraction of point clouds using a modified version of the RIT 3D Extraction Workflow. Then the point clouds are refined by noise removal and surface smoothing processes. Since the point clouds extracted from different image groups use independent coordinate systems, there are translation, rotation and scale differences existing. To figure out these differences, 3D keypoints and their features are extracted. For each pair of point clouds, an initial alignment and a more accurate registration are applied in succession. The final transform matrix presents the parameters describing the translation, rotation and scale requirements. The methodology presented in the thesis has been shown to behave well for test data. The robustness of this method is discussed by adding artificial noise to the test data. For Pictometry oblique aerial imagery, the initial alignment provides a rough alignment result, which contains a larger offset compared to that of test data because of the low quality of the point clouds themselves, but it can be further refined through the final optimization. The accuracy of the final registration result is evaluated by comparing it to the result obtained from manual selection of matched points. Using the method introduced, point clouds extracted from different image groups could be combined with each other to build a

  18. Potential of Multi-Temporal Oblique Airborne Imagery for Structural Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrivel, A.; Duarte, D.; Nex, F.; Gerke, M.; Kerle, N.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Quick post-disaster actions demand automated, rapid and detailed building damage assessment. Among the available technologies, post-event oblique airborne images have already shown their potential for this task. However, existing methods usually compensate the lack of pre-event information with aprioristic assumptions of building shapes and textures that can lead to uncertainties and misdetections. However, oblique images have been already captured over many cities of the world, and the exploitation of pre- and post-event data as inputs to damage assessment is readily feasible in urban areas. In this paper, we investigate the potential of multi-temporal oblique imagery for detailed damage assessment focusing on two methodologies: the first method aims at detecting severe structural damages related to geometrical deformation by combining the complementary information provided by photogrammetric point clouds and oblique images. The developed method detected 87% of damaged elements. The failed detections are due to varying noise levels within the point cloud which hindered the recognition of some structural elements. We observed, in general that the façade regions are very noisy in point clouds. To address this, we propose our second method which aims to detect damages to building façades using the oriented oblique images. The results show that the proposed methodology can effectively differentiate among the three proposed categories: collapsed/highly damaged, lower levels of damage and undamaged buildings, using a computationally light-weight approach. We describe the implementations of the above mentioned methods in detail and present the promising results achieved using multi-temporal oblique imagery over the city of L'Aquila (Italy).

  19. Geometric rectification of radar imagery using digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W.; Daily, M.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic analysis of radar imagery requires accurate spatial rectification to allow rock type discrimination and meaningful exploitation of multisensor data files. A procedure is described which removes distortions produced by most sources including the heretofore elusive problem of terrain induced effects. Rectified imagery is presented which displays geologic features not apparent in the distorted data.

  20. Analysis of airborne multi-spectral imagery of an oil spill field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, V.J.; Freemantle, J.R.; Brown, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A field trial was conducted at Canadian Forces Base Petawawa in May 1993 by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada to test the effectiveness of remote sensing systems to detect oil spills. Shallow test pools covered with various thicknesses and types of oil were overflown by a number of sensors. Imagery from one of the sensors used, the Multi-element Electro-optical Imaging Scanner (MEIS), has recently been transcribed from high density digital tape and analyzed. The MEIS sensor was flown on a Falcon 20 jet and collected data at 7 different wavelengths from 518 nm to 873 nm. Preliminary results show that one of the slicks, Hydraulic Fluid, can be readily identified by its distinctive color in the visible region. The oil slicks, at least under these very controlled conditions, presented unique spectral signatures which could be identified using normal image processing classification techniques.

  1. Choosing a DIVA: a comparison of emerging digital imagery vegetation analysis techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Stutzman, Ryan J.; Anderson, Lars C.; Decker, Suzanne E.; Powell, Larkin A.; Schacht, Walter H.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Question: What is the precision of five methods of measuring vegetation structure using ground-based digital imagery and processing techniques? Location: Lincoln, Nebraska, USA Methods: Vertical herbaceous cover was recorded using digital imagery techniques at two distinct locations in a mixed-grass prairie. The precision of five ground-based digital imagery vegetation analysis (DIVA) methods for measuring vegetation structure was tested using a split-split plot analysis of covariance. Variability within each DIVA technique was estimated using coefficient of variation of mean percentage cover. Results: Vertical herbaceous cover estimates differed among DIVA techniques. Additionally, environmental conditions affected the vertical vegetation obstruction estimates for certain digital imagery methods, while other techniques were more adept at handling various conditions. Overall, percentage vegetation cover values differed among techniques, but the precision of four of the five techniques was consistently high. Conclusions: DIVA procedures are sufficient for measuring various heights and densities of standing herbaceous cover. Moreover, digital imagery techniques can reduce measurement error associated with multiple observers' standing herbaceous cover estimates, allowing greater opportunity to detect patterns associated with vegetation structure.

  2. Estimating Leaf Water Potential of Giant Sequoia Trees from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, E. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought-induced forest dieback events have motivated research on the mechanisms of tree survival and mortality during drought. Leaf water potential, a measure of the force exerted by the evaporation of water from the leaf surface, is an indicator of plant water stress and can help predict tree mortality in response to drought. Scientists have traditionally measured water potentials on a tree-by-tree basis, but have not been able to produce maps of tree water potential at the scale of a whole forest, leaving forest managers unaware of forest drought stress patterns and their ecosystem-level consequences. Imaging spectroscopy, a technique for remote measurement of chemical properties, has been used to successfully estimate leaf water potentials in wheat and maize crops and pinyon-pine and juniper trees, but these estimates have never been scaled to the canopy level. We used hyperspectral reflectance data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) to map leaf water potentials of giant sequoia trees (Sequoiadendron giganteum) in an 800-hectare grove in Sequoia National Park. During the current severe drought in California, we measured predawn and midday leaf water potentials of 48 giant sequoia trees, using the pressure bomb method on treetop foliage samples collected with tree-climbing techniques. The CAO collected hyperspectral reflectance data at 1-meter resolution from the same grove within 1-2 weeks of the tree-level measurements. A partial least squares regression was used to correlate reflectance data extracted from the 48 focal trees with their water potentials, producing a model that predicts water potential of giant sequoia trees. Results show that giant sequoia trees can be mapped in the imagery with a classification accuracy of 0.94, and we predicted the water potential of the mapped trees to assess 1) similarities and differences between a leaf water potential map and a canopy water content map produced from airborne hyperspectral data, 2

  3. Hurricane Georges' Landfall in the Dominican Republic: Detailed Airborne Doppler Radar Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geerts, B.; Heymsfield, G. M.; Tian, L.; Halverson, J. B.; Guillory, A.; Mejia, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    Current understanding of landfalling tropical cyclones is limited, especially with regard to convective scale processes. On 22 September 1998 Hurricane Georges made landfall on the island of Hispaniola, leaving behind a trail of death and devastation, largely the result of excessive rainfall, not sea level surge or wind. Detailed airborne measurements were taken as part of the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). Of Particular interest are the ER-2 nadir X-band Doppler radar (EDOP) data, which provide a first-time high-resolution view of the precipitation and airflow changes as a hurricane interacts with mountainous terrain. The circulation of hurricane Georges underwent an obvious transition during landfall, evident in the rapid increase in minimum sea-level pressure, the subsidence of the eyewall anvil, and a decrease in average ice concentrations in the eyewall. The eye, as seen in satellite imagery, disappeared, but contrary to current understanding, this was not due to eyewall contraction but rather to convective eruption within the eye. The main convective event within the eye, with upper-level updraft magnitudes near 20 m/s and 89 GHz brightness temperatures below 100 K, occurred when the eye moved over the Cordillera Central, the island's main mountain chain. The location, intensity and evolution of this convection indicate that it was coupled to the surface orography. It is likely that surface rain rates increased during landfall, because of effective droplet collection, both in the convection and in the more widespread stratiform rainfall areas over the island. Evidence for this is the increase in radar reflectivity below the bright band of 1-2 dB/km down to ground-level. Such increase was absent offshore. Such low-level rain enhancement, which cannot be detected in satellite images of upwelling infrared or microwave radiation, must be due to the ascent of boundary-layer air over the topography.

  4. Forest Stand Segmentation Using Airborne LIDAR Data and Very High Resolution Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechesne, Clément; Mallet, Clément; Le Bris, Arnaud; Gouet, Valérie; Hervieu, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Forest stands are the basic units for forest inventory and mapping. Stands are large forested areas (e.g., ≥ 2 ha) of homogeneous tree species composition. The accurate delineation of forest stands is usually performed by visual analysis of human operators on very high resolution (VHR) optical images. This work is highly time consuming and should be automated for scalability purposes. In this paper, a method based on the fusion of airborne laser scanning data (or lidar) and very high resolution multispectral imagery for automatic forest stand delineation and forest land-cover database update is proposed. The multispectral images give access to the tree species whereas 3D lidar point clouds provide geometric information on the trees. Therefore, multi-modal features are computed, both at pixel and object levels. The objects are individual trees extracted from lidar data. A supervised classification is performed at the object level on the computed features in order to coarsely discriminate the existing tree species in the area of interest. The analysis at tree level is particularly relevant since it significantly improves the tree species classification. A probability map is generated through the tree species classification and inserted with the pixel-based features map in an energetical framework. The proposed energy is then minimized using a standard graph-cut method (namely QPBO with α-expansion) in order to produce a segmentation map with a controlled level of details. Comparison with an existing forest land cover database shows that our method provides satisfactory results both in terms of stand labelling and delineation (matching ranges between 94% and 99%).

  5. Vineyard zonal management for grape quality assessment by combining airborne remote sensed imagery and soil sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, I.; Martínez De Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Vineyard variability within the fields is well known by grape growers, producing different plant responses and fruit characteristics. Many technologies have been developed in last recent decades in order to assess this spatial variability, including remote sensing and soil sensors. In this paper we study the possibility of creating a stable classification system that better provides useful information for the grower, especially in terms of grape batch quality sorting. The work was carried out during 4 years in a rain-fed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). NDVI was extracted from airborne imagery, and soil conductivity (EC) data was acquired by an EM38 sensor. Fifty-four vines were sampled at véraison for vegetative parameters and before harvest for yield and grape analysis. An Isocluster unsupervised classification in two classes was performed in 5 different ways, combining NDVI maps individually, collectively and combined with EC. The target vines were assigned in different zones depending on the clustering combination. Analysis of variance was performed in order to verify the ability of the combinations to provide the most accurate information. All combinations showed a similar behaviour concerning vegetative parameters. Yield parameters classify better by the EC-based clustering, whilst maturity grape parameters seemed to give more accuracy by combining all NDVIs and EC. Quality grape parameters (anthocyanins and phenolics), presented similar results for all combinations except for the NDVI map of the individual year, where the results were poorer. This results reveal that stable parameters (EC or/and NDVI all-together) clustering outcomes in better information for a vineyard zonal management strategy.

  6. An introduction to the interim digital SAR processor and the characteristics of the associated Seasat SAR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.; Barkan, B.; Huneycutt, B.; Leang, C.; Pang, S.

    1981-01-01

    Basic engineering data regarding the Interim Digital SAR Processor (IDP) and the digitally correlated Seasat synthetic aperature radar (SAR) imagery are presented. The correlation function and IDP hardware/software configuration are described, and a preliminary performance assessment presented. The geometric and radiometric characteristics, with special emphasis on those peculiar to the IDP produced imagery, are described.

  7. BOREAS Level-0 TIMS Imagery: Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the TIMS imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. The level-0 TIMS images cover the time periods of 16-Apr-1994 to 20-Apr-1994 and 06-Sep-1994 to 17-Sep-1994. The images are available in their original uncalibrated format.

  8. A simple method for vignette correction of airborne digital camera data

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, A.T.; Stow, D.A.; Hope, A.S.

    1996-11-01

    Airborne digital camera systems have gained popularity in recent years due to their flexibility, high geometric fidelity and spatial resolution, and fast data turn-around time. However, a common problem that plagues these types of framing systems is vignetting which causes falloff in image brightness away from principle nadir point. This paper presents a simple method for vignetting correction by utilizing laboratory images of a uniform illumination source. Multiple lab images are averaged and inverted to create digital correction templates which then are applied to actual airborne data. The vignette correction was effective in removing the systematic falloff in spectral values. We have shown that the vignette correction is a necessary part of the preprocessing of raw digital airborne remote sensing data. The consequences of not correcting for these effects are demonstrated in the context of monitoring of salt marsh habitat. 4 refs.

  9. An atlas of November 1978 synthetic aperture radar digitized imagery for oil spill studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E.; Oderman, W.; Crosswell, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A data set is described which consists of digitized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery plus correlative data and some preliminary analysis results. This data set should be of value to experimenters who are interested in the SAR instrument and its application to the detection and monitoring of oil on water and other distributed targets.

  10. BOREAS Level-0 AOCI Imagery: Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The level-0 AOCI imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information about radiant energy over the primary BOREAS study areas. The AOCI was the only remote sensing instrument flown with wavelength bands specific to the investigation of various aquatic parameters such as chlorophyll content and turbidity. Only one flight of the AOCI instrument was made onboard the ER-2 aircraft on 21-Jul-1994 over the SSA.

  11. Reexamination of Faulting in the Tahoe Basin Using Airborne LiDAR Data and Seismic CHIRP Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmauder, G. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Driscoll, N. W.; Maloney, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Faulting across the Tahoe basin has been mapped using a combination of multibeam sonar, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and high-resolution seismic CHIRP imagery. In August 2010, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) collected 941 square kilometers of airborne LiDAR data in the Tahoe basin using a Leica ALS50 Phase II Laser system mounted on a Cessna Caravan 208B aircraft; our group was involved with data specification, selection of contractor and data QC. These data have a resolution of 11.82 points per square meter and a vertical accuracy of 3.5 centimeters. The high data resolution has allowed us to map with ease the many fault scarps associated with the three major active fault zones in the Tahoe basin, which include the West Tahoe-Dollar Point fault zone, the Stateline fault, and the Incline Village fault. By using the airborne LiDAR data, we were able to identify previously unmapped fault segments throughout the Tahoe basin. Future application of terrestrial LiDAR using an I-Site 4400 laser scanner at selected sites will provide better control and resolution of the fault scarp characteristics. This will allow us to not only ground truth the airborne LiDAR, but also look for subtle features that may be indicative of dextral motion on faults otherwise displaying predominantly normal displacement. Finally, to refine fault locations beneath Lake Tahoe, Fallen Leaf Lake and Cascade Lake, we collected additional CHIRP imagery using an Edgetech Subscan system, in some cases to groundtruth the new LiDAR fault data (i.e., Cascade Lake). By combining these images with the LiDAR, multibeam data and new multispectral imagery, we were able to link previously unknown segments of the faults and identify continuity in the individual fault systems. From our results, we have developed a much-improved model of the fault systems within the Lake Tahoe basin. Our model provides us with a better understanding of the tectonic environment of the basin and may help

  12. Digital analysis of wind tunnel imagery to measure fluid thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Enge, James

    1992-01-01

    Documented here are the procedure and results obtained from the application of digital image processing techniques to the problem of measuring the thickness of a deicing fluid on a model airfoil during simulated takeoffs. The fluid contained a fluorescent dye and the images were recorded under flash illumination on photographic film. The films were digitized and analyzed on a personal computer to obtain maps of the fluid thickness.

  13. A color-communication scheme for digital imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acosta, Alex

    1987-01-01

    Color pictures generated from digital images are frequently used by geologists, foresters, range managers, and others. These color products are preferred over black and white pictures because the human eye is more sensitive to color differences than to various shades of gray. Color discrimination is a function of perception, and therefore colors in these color composites are generally described subjectively, which can lead to ambiguous color communication. Numerous color-coordinate systems are available that quantitively relate digital triplets representing amounts of red, free, and blue to the parameters of hue, saturation, and intensity perceived by the eye. Most of these systems implement a complex transformation of the primary colors to a color space that is hard to visualize, thus making it difficult to relate digital triplets to perception parameters. This paper presents a color-communcation scheme that relates colors on a color triangle to corresponding values of "hue" (H), "saturation" (S), and chromaticity coordinates (x,y,z). The scheme simplifies the relation between red, green, and blue (RGB) digital triplets and the color generated by these triplets. Some examples of the use of the color-communication scheme in digital image processing are presented.

  14. Mapping tree health using airborne full-waveform laser scans and hyperspectral imagery: a case study for floodplain eucalypt forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendryk, I.; Tulbure, M. G.; Broich, M.

    2014-12-01

    Barmah-Millewa Forest (BMF), the largest River Red Gum forest in the world, located in south-eastern Australia is suffering from severe dieback, thus diminishing its ecological and economical value. Previous research showed that dieback is a good predictor of the forest health and stressed the need for BMF health mapping and change monitoring. In this respect, airborne laser scanning and hyperspectral imaging offer extensive spatial and spectral coverage of measurements and represent an ideal tool for forest health mapping at individual tree scale. The aim of this project is to quantify the health of individual, structurally complex floodplain eucalypt trees by integrating airborne hyperspectral imagery, full-waveform laser scans and field measurements. An aerial survey, conducted in May 2014, was designed to provide a representative sample of BMF tree health. The positioning of 17 flight lines aimed to capture the heterogeneity of the forest health and flood frequency. Preliminary analysis of the aerial remote sensing data with regards to chlorophyll concentrations, dieback levels and canopy densities allowed us to target our field campaign (conducted in June 2014). Field measurements included accurate position measurements, LAI, visual assessment, spectral measurement and mensuration of individual trees in 30 m2 plots. For detection of individual tree trunks from airborne laser scans we used a novel approach based on Euclidean distance clustering, taking advantage of the intensity and pulse width difference between woody and leaf tree compartments. The detected trunks were used to seed a minimum cut algorithm for tree crown delineation. In situ measurements confirmed the high structural diversity of the forest and allowed the calibration of the tree detection algorithm. An overall accuracy of the tree detection of 54% and 67% was achieved for trees with circumference over 40 cm and over 100 cm respectively. As a further step, 3D point clusters representing

  15. Estimating Carbon STOCK Changes of Mangrove Forests Using Satellite Imagery and Airborne LiDAR Data in the South Sumatra State, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Y.; Fukushima, A.; Imai, Y.; Tanahashi, Y.; Nakama, E.; Ohta, S.; Kawazoe, K.; Akune, N.

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to estimate the biomass in the mangrove forests using satellite imagery and airborne LiDAR data, and 2) to estimate the amount of carbon stock changes using biomass estimated. The study area is located in the coastal area of the South Sumatra state, Indonesia. This area is approximately 66,500 ha with mostly flat land features. In this study, the following procedures were carried out: (1) Classification of types of tree species using Satellite imagery in the study area, (2) Development of correlation equations between spatial volume based on LiDAR data and biomass stock based on field survey for each types of tree species, and estimation of total biomass stock and carbon stock using the equation, and (3) Estimation of carbon stock change using Chronological Satellite Imageries. The result showed the biomass and the amount of carbon stock changes can be estimated with high accuracy, by combining the spatial volume based on airborne LiDAR data with the tree species classification based on satellite imagery. Quantitative biomass monitoring is in demand for projects related to REDD+ in developing countries, and this study showed that combining airborne LiDAR data with satellite imagery is one of the effective methods of monitoring for REDD+ projects.

  16. Processing Digital Imagery to Enhance Perceptions of Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn A.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2003-01-01

    Multi-scale retinex with color restoration (MSRCR) is a method of processing digital image data based on Edwin Land s retinex (retina + cortex) theory of human color vision. An outgrowth of basic scientific research and its application to NASA s remote-sensing mission, MSRCR is embodied in a general-purpose algorithm that greatly improves the perception of visual realism and the quantity and quality of perceived information in a digitized image. In addition, the MSRCR algorithm includes provisions for automatic corrections to accelerate and facilitate what could otherwise be a tedious image-editing process. The MSRCR algorithm has been, and is expected to continue to be, the basis for development of commercial image-enhancement software designed to extend and refine its capabilities for diverse applications.

  17. A system to geometrically rectify and map airborne scanner imagery and to estimate ground area. [by computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, M. M.; Wolf, J. M.; Schall, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    A system of computer programs were developed which performs geometric rectification and line-by-line mapping of airborne multispectral scanner data to ground coordinates and estimates ground area. The system requires aircraft attitude and positional information furnished by ancillary aircraft equipment, as well as ground control points. The geometric correction and mapping procedure locates the scan lines, or the pixels on each line, in terms of map grid coordinates. The area estimation procedure gives ground area for each pixel or for a predesignated parcel specified in map grid coordinates. The results of exercising the system with simulated data showed the uncorrected video and corrected imagery and produced area estimates accurate to better than 99.7%.

  18. Digital Elevation Models of Greenland based on combined radar and laser altimetry as well as high-resolution stereoscopic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, J. F.; Smith, B. E.; Sandberg Sorensen, L.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Simonsen, S. B.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    A number of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of Greenland exist, each of which are applicable for different purposes. This study presents two such DEMs: One developed by merging contemporary radar and laser altimeter data, and one derived from high-resolution stereoscopic imagery. All products are made freely available. The former DEM covers the entire Greenland. It is specific to the year 2010, providing it with an advantage over previous models suffering from either a reduced spatial/ temporal data coverage or errors from surface elevation changes (SEC) occurring during data acquisition. Radar data are acquired with Envisat and CryoSat-2, and laser data with the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite, the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor, and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Correcting radar data for errors from slope effects and surface penetration of the echoes, and merging these with laser data, yields a DEM capable of resolving both surface depressions as well as topographic features at higher altitudes. The spatial resolution is 2 x 2 km, making the DEM ideal for application in surface mass balance studies, SEC detection from radar altimetry, or for correcting such data for slope-induced errors. The other DEM is developed in a pilot study building the expertise to map all ice-free parts of Greenland. The work combines WorldView-2 and -3 as well as GeoEye1 imagery from 2014 and 2015 over the Disko, Narsaq, Tassilaq, and Zackenberg regions. The novelty of the work is the determination of the product specifications after elaborate discussions with interested parties from government institutions, the tourist industry, etc. Thus, a 10 m DEM, 1.5 m orthophotos, and vector maps are produced. This opens to the possibility of using orthophotos with up-to-date contour lines or for deriving updated coastlines to aid, e.g., emergency management. This allows for a product development directly in line with the needs of parties with specific interests in Greenland.

  19. Projection of Stabilized Aerial Imagery Onto Digital Elevation Maps for Geo-Rectified and Jitter-Free Viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansar, Adnan I.; Brennan, Shane; Clouse, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    As imagery is collected from an airborne platform, an individual viewing the images wants to know from where on the Earth the images were collected. To do this, some information about the camera needs to be known, such as its position and orientation relative to the Earth. This can be provided by common inertial navigation systems (INS). Once the location of the camera is known, it is useful to project an image onto some representation of the Earth. Due to the non-smooth terrain of the Earth (mountains, valleys, etc.), this projection is highly non-linear. Thus, to ensure accurate projection, one needs to project onto a digital elevation map (DEM). This allows one to view the images overlaid onto a representation of the Earth. A code has been developed that takes an image, a model of the camera used to acquire that image, the pose of the camera during acquisition (as provided by an INS), and a DEM, and outputs an image that has been geo-rectified. The world coordinate of the bounds of the image are provided for viewing purposes. The code finds a mapping from points on the ground (DEM) to pixels in the image. By performing this process for all points on the ground, one can "paint" the ground with the image, effectively performing a projection of the image onto the ground. In order to make this process efficient, a method was developed for finding a region of interest (ROI) on the ground to where the image will project. This code is useful in any scenario involving an aerial imaging platform that moves and rotates over time. Many other applications are possible in processing aerial and satellite imagery.

  20. Integration of airborne optical and thermal imagery for archaeological subsurface structures detection: the Arpi case study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, C.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fasulli, L.; Palombo, A.; Pascucci, S.; Santini, F.; Pignatti, S.

    2009-04-01

    The application of Remote Sensing data for detecting subsurface structures is becoming a remarkable tool for the archaeological observations to be combined with the near surface geophysics [1, 2]. As matter of fact, different satellite and airborne sensors have been used for archaeological applications, such as the identification of spectral anomalies (i.e. marks) related to the buried remnants within archaeological sites, and the management and protection of archaeological sites [3, 5]. The dominant factors that affect the spectral detectability of marks related to manmade archaeological structures are: (1) the spectral contrast between the target and background materials, (2) the proportion of the target on the surface (relative to the background), (3) the imaging system characteristics being used (i.e. bands, instrument noise and pixel size), and (4) the conditions under which the surface is being imaged (i.e. illumination and atmospheric conditions) [4]. In this context, just few airborne hyperspectral sensors were applied for cultural heritage studies, among them the AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer), the CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager), the HyMAP (Hyperspectral MAPping) and the MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer). Therefore, the application of high spatial/spectral resolution imagery arise the question on which is the trade off between high spectral and spatial resolution imagery for archaeological applications and which spectral region is optimal for the detection of subsurface structures. This paper points out the most suitable spectral information useful to evaluate the image capability in terms of spectral anomaly detection of subsurface archaeological structures in different land cover contexts. In this study, we assess the capability of MIVIS and CASI reflectances and of ATM and MIVIS emissivities (Table 1) for subsurface archaeological prospection in different sites of the Arpi

  1. Registering Thematic Mapper imagery to digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frew, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problems encountered when attempting to register Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to U.S. geological survey digital elevation models (DEMs) are examined. It is shown that TM and DEM data are not available in the same map projection, necessitating geometric transformation of one of the data type, that the TM data are not accurately located in their nominal projection, and that TM data have higher resolution than most DEM data, but oversampling the DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Further work needed in this area is discussed.

  2. MAJOR SOURCE OF SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR IMAGERY FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION: THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kover, Allan N.; Jones, John Edwin; ,

    1985-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) instituted a program in 1980 to acquire side-looking airbore radar (SLAR) data and make these data readily available to the public in a mosaic format comparable to the USGS 1:250,000-scale topographic map series. The SLAR data are also available as strip images at an acquisition scale of 1:250,000 or 1:400,000 (depending on the acquisition system), as a variety of print products and indexes, and in a limited amount in digital form on computer compatible tapes. Three different commercial X-band (3-cm) systems were used to acquire the imagery for producing the mosaics.

  3. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for estimating grain sorghum yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both multispectral and hyperspectral images are being used to monitor crop conditions and map yield variability, but limited research has been conducted to compare the differences between these two types of imagery for assessing crop growth and yields. The objective of this study was to compare airb...

  4. Mapping giant reed along the Rio Grande using airborne and satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in the Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande Basin. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview on the use of aerial photography, airborne multispectral a...

  5. Using mosaicked airborne imagery to assess cotton root rot infection on a regional basis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease in many of the cotton production areas in Texas. Since 2012, many cotton growers in Texas have used the Topguard fungicide to control this disease in their fields under Section 18 emergency exemptions. Airborne images have been used to monitor the...

  6. Lysimetric evaluation of SEBAL using high resolution airborne imagery from BEAREX08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the SEBAL was evaluated for its ability to derive aerodynamic components and surface energy fluxes from high resolution airborne remote sensing data acquired during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment 2008 in Texas, USA. Issues related to hot and...

  7. Comparison of different detection methods for citrus greening disease based on airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating disease spread in many citrus groves since first found in 2005 in Florida. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were taken to detect citrus greening infected trees in 2007 and 2010. Ground truthi...

  8. Digital data from the Great Sand Dunes airborne gravity gradient survey, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, B.J.; Abraham, J.D.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Labson, V.F.; Hodges, G.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains digital data and supporting explanatory files describing data types, data formats, and survey procedures for a high-resolution airborne gravity gradient (AGG) survey at Great Sand Dunes National Park, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, south-central Colorado. In the San Luis Valley, the Great Sand Dunes survey covers a large part of Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. The data described were collected from a high-resolution AGG survey flown in February 2012, by Fugro Airborne Surveys Corp., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. Scientific objectives of the AGG survey are to investigate the subsurface structural framework that may influence groundwater hydrology and seismic hazards, and to investigate AGG methods and resolution using different flight specifications. Funding was provided by an airborne geophysics training program of the U.S. Department of Defense's Task Force for Business & Stability Operations.

  9. A general framework of TOPSIS method for integration of airborne geophysics, satellite imagery, geochemical and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the promising application of three variants of TOPSIS method (namely the conventional, adjusted and modified versions) as a straightforward knowledge-driven technique in multi criteria decision making processes for data fusion of a broad exploratory geo-dataset in mineral potential/prospectivity mapping. The method is implemented to airborne geophysical data (e.g. potassium radiometry, aeromagnetic and frequency domain electromagnetic data), surface geological layers (fault and host rock zones), extracted alteration layers from remote sensing satellite imagery data, and five evidential attributes from stream sediment geochemical data. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt in Kerman province at the SE of Iran that is embedded in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage arc (UDMA) is chosen to integrate broad evidential layers in the region of prospect. The studied area has high potential of ore mineral occurrences especially porphyry copper/molybdenum and the generated mineral potential maps aim to outline new prospect zones for further investigation in future. Two evidential layers of the downward continued aeromagnetic data and its analytic signal filter are prepared to be incorporated in fusion process as geophysical plausible footprints of the porphyry type mineralization. The low values of the apparent resistivity layer calculated from the airborne frequency domain electromagnetic data are also used as an electrical criterion in this investigation. Four remote sensing evidential layers of argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations were extracted from ASTER images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry type deposits, whilst the ETM+ satellite imagery data were used as well to map iron oxide layer. Since potassium alteration is generally the mainstay of porphyry ore mineralization, the airborne potassium radiometry data was used. The geochemical layers of Cu/B/Pb/Zn elements and the first component of PCA

  10. Estimating Evapotranspiration over Heterogeneously Vegetated Surfaces using Large Aperture Scintillometer, LiDAR, and Airborne Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M.; Neale, C. M.; Pack, R. T.; Watts, D. R.; Osterberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) over heterogeneous areas is challenging especially in water-limited sparsely vegetated environments. New techniques such as airborne full-waveform LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and high resolution multispectral and thermal imagery can provide enough detail of sparse canopies to improve energy balance model estimations as well as footprint analysis of scintillometer data. The objectives of this study were to estimate ET over such areas and develop methodologies for the use of these airborne data technologies. Because of the associated heterogeneity, this study was conducted over the Cibola National wildlife refuge, southern California on an area dominated with tamarisk (salt cedar) forest (90%) interspersed with arrowweed and bare soil (10%). A set of two large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were deployed over the area to provide estimates of sensible heat flux (HLAS). The LASs were distributed over the area in a way that allowed capturing different surface spatial heterogeneity. Bowen ratio systems were used to provide hydrometeorological variables and surface energy balance fluxes (SEBF) (i.e. Rn, G, H, and LE) measurements. Scintillometer-based estimates of HLAS were improved by considering the effect of the corresponding 3D footprint and the associated displacement height (d) and the roughness length (z0) following Geli et al. (2011). The LiDAR data were acquired using the LASSI Lidar developed at Utah State University (USU). The data was used to obtain 1-m spatial resolution DEM's and vegetation canopy height to improve the HLAS estimates. The BR measurements of Rn and G were combined with LAS estimates, HLAS, to provide estimates of LELASas a residual of the energy balance equation. A thermal remote sensing model namely the two source energy balance (TSEB) of Norman et al. (1995) was applied to provide spatial estimates of SEBF. Four airborne images at 1-4 meter spatial resolution acquired using the USU airborne

  11. Airborne digital holographic system for cloud particle measurements.

    PubMed

    Fugal, Jacob P; Shaw, Raymond A; Saw, Ewe Wei; Sergeyev, Aleksandr V

    2004-11-10

    An in-line holographic system for in situ detection of atmospheric cloud particles [Holographic Detector for Clouds (HOLODEC)] has been developed and flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 research aircraft. Clear holograms are obtained in daylight conditions at typical aircraft speeds of 100 m s(-1). The instrument is fully digital and is interfaced to a control and data-acquisition system in the aircraft via optical fiber. It is operable at temperatures of less than -30 degrees C and at typical cloud humidities. Preliminary data from the experiment show its utility for studies of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of cloud particles and ice crystal shapes.

  12. Photogrammetric Processing of IceBridge DMS Imagery into High-Resolution Digital Surface Models (DEM and Visible Overlay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Dotson, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    The DMS (Digital Mapping System) has been a sensor component of all DC-8 and P-3 IceBridge flights since 2009 and has acquired over 3 million JPEG images over Arctic and Antarctic land and sea ice. The DMS imagery is primarily used for identifying and locating open leads for LiDAR sea-ice freeboard measurements and documenting snow and ice surface conditions. The DMS is a COTS Canon SLR camera utilizing a 28mm focal length lens, resulting in a 10cm GSD and swath of ~400 meters from a nominal flight altitude of 500 meters. Exterior orientation is provided by an Applanix IMU/GPS which records a TTL pulse coincident with image acquisition. Notable for virtually all IceBridge flights is that parallel grids are not flown and thus there is no ability to photogrammetrically tie any imagery to adjacent flight lines. Approximately 800,000 Level-3 DMS Surface Model data products have been delivered to NSIDC, each consisting of a Digital Elevation Model (GeoTIFF DEM) and a co-registered Visible Overlay (GeoJPEG). Absolute elevation accuracy for each individual Elevation Model is adjusted to concurrent Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) Lidar data, resulting in higher elevation accuracy than can be achieved by photogrammetry alone. The adjustment methodology forces a zero mean difference to the corresponding ATM point cloud integrated over each DMS frame. Statistics are calculated for each DMS Elevation Model frame and show RMS differences are within +/- 10 cm with respect to the ATM point cloud. The DMS Surface Model possesses similar elevation accuracy to the ATM point cloud, but with the following advantages: · Higher and uniform spatial resolution: 40 cm GSD · 45% wider swath: 435 meters vs. 300 meters at 500 meter flight altitude · Visible RGB co-registered overlay at 10 cm GSD · Enhanced visualization through 3-dimensional virtual reality (i.e. video fly-through) Examples will be presented of the utility of these advantages and a novel use of a cell phone camera for

  13. Detection of salmonid thermal refugia from airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugdale, S. J.; Bergeron, N.; Rousseau, M.

    2010-12-01

    During elevated summer temperatures, salmonid species seek out areas of cool, well-oxygenated river water to alleviate thermal stress. Collectively known as ‘thermal refugia’, these are of great significance to the ability of salmonids to survive increased water temperatures, and a better understanding of their spatial and temporal characteristics may aid mitigation strategies against the possible effects of climate change on rivers. However, thermal refugia are traditionally hard to detect, and their in-river abundance and spatial patterns are largely unknown. Although previous research has examined TIR imaging as a means to sense river temperatures, few have achieved a resolution amenable to the detection of small thermal anomalies typically used by salmonids, with the majority of literature focusing on the general application of thermal imaging to river temperature detection and analysis. From preliminary research, we note that riverine thermal anomalies (as viewed from TIR imagery) can comprise a number of different forms resulting from a diverse range of sources. Given that the structural, spatial and temporal dynamics of thermal refugia in gravel bed rivers are a presumably a function of the complex geomorphological processes within a catchment, the ability to discriminate multi-scale thermal refugia may aid our comprehension not only of the behaviour of salmonids during high temperature events, but also of the geomorphological phenomena that are fundamental in governing river temperature heterogeneity. Initial thermal infrared imagery acquired in August 2009 suggested that while it is possible to manually detect riverine temperature anomalies, the creation of a dedicated remote sensing platform capable of obtaining both TIR and RGB photography easily and with a resolution amenable to refugia detection would greatly aid our ability to discriminate true refugia from other thermal anomalies (false positives). To this end, we have developed a system able to

  14. Estimation of Evapotraspiration of Tamarisk using Energy Balance Models with High Resolution Airborne Imagery and LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M.; Taghvaeian, S.; Neale, C. M.; Pack, R.; Watts, D. R.; Osterberg, J.

    2010-12-01

    The wide uncontrolled spread of the invasive species of Tamarisk (Salt Cedar) in the riparian areas of the southwest of the United States has become a source of concern to the water resource management community. This tree which was imported for ornamental purposes and to control bank erosion during the 1800’s later became problematic and unwanted due to its biophysical properties: Its vigorous growth out-competes native species for moisture, lowering water tables, increasing the soil salinity and hence becomes the dominant riparian vegetation especially over arid to semi-arid floodplain environments. Most importantly they consume large amounts of water leading to reduction of river flows and lowering the groundwater table. We implemented this study in an effort to provide reliable estimates of the amount of water consumed or “lost” by such species through evapotranspiration (ET) as well as to a better understand of the related land surface and near atmosphere interactions. The recent advances in remote sensing techniques and the related data quality made it possible to provide spatio-temporal estimates of ET at a considerably higher resolution and reliable accuracy over a wide range of surface heterogeneity. We tested two different soil-vegetation atmosphere transfer models (SVAT) that are based on thermal remote sensing namely: the two source model (TSM) of Norman et al. (1995) with its recent modifications and the Surface Energy balance algorithm (SEBAL) of Bastiaanssen et al. (1998) to estimate the different surface energy balance components and the evapotranspiration (ET) spatially. We used high resolution (1.0 meter pixel size) shortwave reflectance and longwave thermal airborne imagery acquired by the research aircraft at the Remote Sensing Services Lab at Utah State University (USU) and land use map classified from these images as well as a detailed vegetation height image acquired by the LASSI Lidar also developed at USU. We also compared estimates

  15. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil-plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran's Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1-ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s-T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index-Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s-T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping.

  16. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil–plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran’s Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1–ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s–T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index–Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s–T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  17. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil-plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran's Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1-ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s-T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index-Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s-T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  18. Radargrammetric Digital Surface Models Generation from Terrasar-X Imagery: Case Studies, Problems and Potentialities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaldo, P.; Crespi, M.; Fratarcangeli, F.; Nascetti, A.; Pieralice, F.

    2012-07-01

    The interest for the radargrammetric approach to Digital Surface Models (DSMs) generation has been growing in last years thanks to the availability of very high resolution imagery acquired by new SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, Radarsat-2 and TerraSAR-X, which are able to supply imagery up to 1 m ground resolution. DSMs radargrammetric generation approach consists of two basic steps, as for the standard photogrammetry applied to optical imagery: the imagery (at least a stereo pair) orientation and the image matching for the generation of the points cloud. The steps of the radargrammetric DSMs generation have been implemented into SISAR (Software per Immagini Satellitari ad Alta Risoluzione), a scientific software developed at Geodesy and Geomatics Institute of the University of Rome "La Sapienza". Moreover, starting from the radargrammetric orientation model, a tool for the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs) for SAR images have been implemented. The possibility to generate RPCs, re-parametrizing a rigorous orientation model through a standardized set of coefficients which can be managed by a Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPFs) model (similarly to optical high resolution imagery) sounds of particular interest since, at present, the most part of SAR imagery (except from Radarsat-2) is not supplied with RPCs, although the corresponding RPFs model is available in several commercial software. In particular the RPCs model has been used in the matching process and in the stereo restitution for the DSMs generation, with the advantage of shorter computational time. This paper discusses the application and the results of the implemented algorithm for radargrammetric DSMs generation from TerraSAR-X SpotLight imagery, acquired in Spotlight mode over Trento (Northern Italy). Urban and extra-urban (forested, cultivated) areas were considered in two different tiles, and a final overall accuracy ranging from 4.5 to 6 meters was achieved as regards

  19. NASA's Astromaterials Curation Digital Repository: Enabling Research Through Increased Access to Sample Data, Metadata and Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Todd, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the designated facility for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Today, the suite of collections includes the lunar samples from the Apollo missions, cosmic dust particles falling into the Earth's atmosphere, meteorites collected in Antarctica, comet and interstellar dust particles from the Stardust mission, asteroid particles from Japan's Hayabusa mission, solar wind atoms collected during the Genesis mission, and space-exposed hardware from several missions. To support planetary science research on these samples, JSC's Astromaterials Curation Office hosts NASA's Astromaterials Curation digital repository and data access portal [http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/], providing descriptions of the missions and collections, and critical information about each individual sample. Our office is designing and implementing several informatics initiatives to better serve the planetary research community. First, we are re-hosting the basic database framework by consolidating legacy databases for individual collections and providing a uniform access point for information (descriptions, imagery, classification) on all of our samples. Second, we continue to upgrade and host digital compendia that summarize and highlight published findings on the samples (e.g., lunar samples, meteorites from Mars). We host high resolution imagery of samples as it becomes available, including newly scanned images of historical prints from the Apollo missions. Finally we are creating plans to collect and provide new data, including 3D imagery, point cloud data, micro CT data, and external links to other data sets on selected samples. Together, these individual efforts will provide unprecedented digital access to NASA's Astromaterials, enabling preservation of the samples through more specific and targeted requests, and supporting new planetary science research and collaborations on the samples.

  20. Using airborne thermal infrared imagery and helicopter EM conductivity to locate mine pools and discharges in the Kettle Creek watershed, north-central Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Love, E.; Hammack, R.W.; Harbert, W.P.; Sams, J.I.; Veloski, G.A.; Ackman, T.E.

    2005-11-01

    The Kettle Creek watershed contains 50–100-year-old surface and underground coal mines that are a continuing source of acid mine drainage (AMD). To characterize the mining-altered hydrology of this watershed, an airborne reconnaissance was conducted in 2002 using airborne thermal infrared imagery (TIR) and helicopter-mounted electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. TIR uses the temperature differential between surface water and groundwater to locate areas where groundwater emerges at the surface. TIR anomalies located in the survey included seeps and springs, as well as mine discharges. In a follow-up ground investigation, hand-held GPS units were used to locate 103 of the TIR anomalies. Of the sites investigated, 26 correlated with known mine discharges, whereas 27 were previously unknown. Seven known mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery were documented. HEM surveys were used to delineate the groundwater table and also to locate mine pools, mine discharges, and groundwater recharge zones. These surveys located 12 source regions and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing (conductive) mine drainage; areas containing acid-generating mine spoil; and areas of groundwater recharge and discharge, as well as identifying potential mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery by nondeciduous vegetation. Follow-up ground-based electromagnetic surveys verified the results of the HEM survey. Our study suggests that airborne reconnaissance can make the remediation of large watersheds more efficient by focusing expensive ground surveys on small target areas.

  1. Using airborne thermal infrared imagery and helicopter EM conductivity to locate mine pools and discharges in the Kettle Creek watershed, north-central Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Love, E.; Hammack, R.; Harbert, W.; Sams, J.; Veloski, G.; Ackman, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Kettle Creek watershed contains 50-100-year-old surface and underground coal mines that are a continuing source of acid mine drainage (AMD). To characterize the mining-altered hydrology of this watershed, an airborne reconnaissance was conducted in 2002 using airborne thermal infrared imagery (TIR) and helicopter-mounted electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. TIR uses the temperature differential between surface water and groundwater to locate areas where groundwater emerges at the surface. TIR anomalies located in the survey included seeps and springs, as well as mine discharges. In a follow-up ground investigation, hand-held GPS units were used to locate 103 of the TIR anomalies. Of the sites investigated, 26 correlated with known mine discharges, whereas 27 were previously unknown. Seven known mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery were documented. HEM surveys were used to delineate the groundwater table and also to locate mine pools, mine discharges, and groundwater recharge zones. These surveys located 12 source regions and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing (conductive) mine drainage; areas containing acid-generating mine spoil; and areas of groundwater recharge and discharge, as well as identifying potential mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery by nondeciduous vegetation. Follow-up ground-based electromagnetic surveys verified the results of the HEM survey. Our study suggests that airborne reconnaissance can make the remediation of large watersheds more efficient by focusing expensive ground surveys on small target areas.

  2. Reach scale floodplain inundation dynamics observed using airborne synthetic aperture radar imagery: Data analysis and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul D.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Mason, David C.; Holden, Nick; Currie, Anthony

    2006-08-01

    SummaryIn this paper, we use an airborne synthetic aperture radar to map river flood inundation synoptically at fine spatial resolution (1.2 m) along a ˜16 km reach of the River Severn, west-central England. Images were obtained at four times through a large flood event between 8th and 17th November 2000 and processed using a statistical active contour algorithm to yield the flood shoreline at each time. Intersection of these data with a high vertical accuracy survey of floodplain topography obtained from airborne laser altimetry permitted the calculation of dynamic changes in inundated area, total reach storage and rates of reach dewatering. In addition, comparison of the data to gauged flow rates, the measured floodplain topography and map data giving the location of embankments and drainage channels on the floodplain yields new insights into the factors controlling the development of inundation patterns at a variety of scales. Finally, the data were used to assess the performance of a simple two-dimensional flood inundation model, LISFLOOD-FP, and allows us, for the first time, to validate the dynamic performance of the model. This process is shown to give new information into structural weaknesses of the model and suggests possible future developments, including the incorporation of a better description of floodplain hydrological processes in the hydraulic model to represent more accurately the dewatering of the floodplain.

  3. Bundle block adjustment of airborne three-line array imagery based on rotation angles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjun; Zheng, Maoteng; Huang, Xu; Xiong, Jinxin

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of the rapid developments in electronic instruments and remote sensing technologies, airborne three-line array sensors and their applications are being widely promoted and plentiful research related to data processing and high precision geo-referencing technologies is under way. The exterior orientation parameters (EOPs), which are measured by the integrated positioning and orientation system (POS) of airborne three-line sensors, however, have inevitable systematic errors, so the level of precision of direct geo-referencing is not sufficiently accurate for surveying and mapping applications. Consequently, a few ground control points are necessary to refine the exterior orientation parameters, and this paper will discuss bundle block adjustment models based on the systematic error compensation and the orientation image, considering the principle of an image sensor and the characteristics of the integrated POS. Unlike the models available in the literature, which mainly use a quaternion to represent the rotation matrix of exterior orientation, three rotation angles are directly used in order to effectively model and eliminate the systematic errors of the POS observations. Very good experimental results have been achieved with several real datasets that verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed adjustment models. PMID:24811075

  4. Monitoring land degradation in southern Tunisia: A test of LANDSAT imagery and digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellden, U.; Stern, M.

    1980-01-01

    The possible use of LANDSAT imagery and digital data for monitoring desertification indicators in Tunisia was studied. Field data were sampled in Tunisia for estimation of mapping accuracy in maps generated through interpretation of LANDSAT false color composites and processing of LANDSAT computer compatible tapes respectively. Temporal change studies were carried out through geometric registration of computer classified windows from 1972 to classified data from 1979. Indications on land degradation were noted in some areas. No important differences, concerning results, between the interpretation approach and the computer processing approach were found.

  5. Implementation of Waveform Digitization In A Small Footprint, Airborne Lidar Topographic Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Crawford, M. M.; Liadsky, J.

    2004-12-01

    Accurate mapping is critical for applications ranging from geodesy, geomorphology, and forestry to urban planning and natural hazards monitoring. While airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) has had a revolutionary impact on three-dimensional imaging of the earth's surface, there is great potential for developing new capability by replacing the laser range and backscatter intensity information recorded by conventional lidar systems with full waveform digitization. The University of Texas at Austin (UT) owns and operates an Optech ALTM 1225, a small footprint lidar system. In response to an initiative from UT, Optech has developed a module which samples the analog waveform of a laser pulse and converts these samples into digital measurements. The waveform digitizer specifications include a 1-nanosecond sampling interval, 440 samples per return laser waveform (approximately 65 meters of vertical extent), and waveform digitization at the 25kHz laser pulse repetition rate. The digitizer also records the initial T0 pulse that starts the timing cycle. The digitizer unit is an independent module supported by a Pentium-4 computer, two hard drives, and a high-speed data recording system. The digitizer is integrated into the ALTM system so that both full waveform and the conventional first and last returns are recorded for each transmitted laser pulse. This unique capability allows for conventional lidar data to be directly compared to the full waveform. We present examples of full waveform lidar mapping over different environments and discuss future applications.

  6. On the integration of Airborne full-waveform laser scanning and optical imagery for Site Detection and Mapping: Monteserico study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, R.; Guariglia, A.; Lacovara, B.; Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.

    2009-04-01

    This paper analyses the capability of airborne LiDAR derived data in the recognition of archaeological marks. It also evaluates the benefits to integrate them with aerial photos and very high resolution satellite imagery. The selected test site is Monteserico, a medieval village located on a pastureland hill in the North East of Basilicata (Southern Italy). The site, attested by documentary sources beginning from the 12th century, was discovered by aerial survey in 1996 [1] and investigated in 2005 by using QuickBird imagery [2]. The only architectural evidence is a castle, built on the western top of the hill; whereas on the southern side, earthenware, pottery and crumbling building materials, related to the medieval settlement, could be observed. From a geological point of view, the stratigraphic sequence is composed of Subappennine Clays, Monte Marano sands and Irsina conglomerates. Sporadic herbaceous plants grow over the investigated area. For the purpose of this study, a full-waveform laser scanning with a 240.000 Hz frequency was used. The average point density value of dataset is about 30 points/m2. The final product is a 0.30 m Digital Surface Models (DSMs) accurately modelled. To derive the DSM the point cloud of the ALS was filtered and then classified by applying appropriate algorithms. In this way surface relief and archaeological features were surveyed with great detail. The DSM was compared with other remote sensing data source such as oblique and nadiral aerial photos and QuickBird imagery, acquired in different time. In this way it was possible to evaluate, compare each other and overlay the archaeological features recorded from each data source (aerial, satellite and lidar). Lidar data showed some interesting results. In particular, they allowed for identifying and recording differences in height on the ground produced by surface and shallow archaeological remains (the so-called shadow marks). Most of these features are visible also by the optical

  7. Cloud-shadow suppression technique for enhancement of Airborne Thematic Mapper imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, L.J.; Moore, J.M. )

    1993-08-01

    Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data are often degraded by the shadows from clouds above the aircraft during the flight. The spectral information in cloud-shadowed areas is reduced but not totally lost because the reflected energy of diffuse illumination (sky light) reaches the sensors from the shadowed ground despite obstruction of direct solar radiation. The thermal band image is almost unaffected by the temporary change of radiation caused by clouds. An enhancement technique for cloud-shadow suppression has been developed based on differencing, RGB-HSI-RGB transformation, and thermal band modulation. The method suppresses cloud shadows with topographic shading retained; spectral information is retrieved and enhanced. The result is a nearly normal color composite with full topographic expression but without cloud shadows. Such a color composite is easy to interpret for geological structures and lithologies. 6 refs.

  8. Assessment of EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Concentrations using Landsat-7 and Airborne Microwave Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Hall, Dorothy K.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    An assessment of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea ice concentrations under winter conditions using ice concentrations derived from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery obtained during the March 2003 Arctic sea ice validation field campaign is presented. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory's Airborne Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer Measurements, which were made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration P 3B aircraft during the campaign, were used primarily as a diagnostic tool to understand the comparative results and to suggest improvements to the AMSR-E ice concentration algorithm. Based on the AMSR-E/ETM+ comparisons, a good overall agreement with little bias (approx. 1%) for areas of first year and young sea ice was found. Areas of new ice production result in a negative bias of about 5% in the AMSR-E ice concentration retrievals, with a root mean square error of 8%. Some areas of deep snow also resulted in an underestimate of the ice concentration (approx. 10%). For all ice types combined and for the full range of ice concentrations, the bias ranged from 0% to 3%, and the rms errors ranged from 1% to 7%, depending on the region. The new-ice and deep-snow biases are expected to be reduced through an adjustment of the new-ice and ice-type C algorithm tie points.

  9. a Detailed Study about Digital Surface Model Generation Using High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, K.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry is currently in a process of renaissance, caused by the development of dense stereo matching algorithms to provide very dense Digital Surface Models (DSMs). Moreover, satellite sensors have improved to provide sub-meter or even better Ground Sampling Distances (GSD) in recent years. Therefore, the generation of DSM from spaceborne stereo imagery becomes a vivid research area. This paper presents a comprehensive study about the DSM generation of high resolution satellite data and proposes several methods to implement the approach. The bias-compensated Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs) Bundle Block Adjustment is applied to image orientation and the rectification of stereo scenes is realized based on the Project-Trajectory-Based Epipolarity (PTE) Model. Very dense DSMs are generated from WorldView-2 satellite stereo imagery using the dense image matching module of the C/C++ library LibTsgm. We carry out various tests to evaluate the quality of generated DSMs regarding robustness and precision. The results have verified that the presented pipeline of DSM generation from high resolution satellite imagery is applicable, reliable and very promising.

  10. Use of a new high-speed digital data acquisition system in airborne ice-sounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Bradley, Jerry A.; Hodge, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A high-speed digital data acquisition and signal averaging system for borehole, surface, and airborne radio-frequency geophysical measurements was designed and built by the US Geological Survey. The system permits signal averaging at rates high enough to achieve significant signal-to-noise enhancement in profiling, even in airborne applications. The first field use of the system took place in Greenland in 1987 for recording data on a 150 by 150-km grid centered on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. About 6000-line km were flown and recorded using the new system. The data can be used to aid in siting a proposed scientific corehole through the ice sheet.

  11. Assessment of the Quality of Digital Terrain Model Produced from Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Kerin, A.; Mesarič, M.; Peterman, V.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Production of digital terrain model (DTM) is one of the most usual tasks when processing photogrammetric point cloud generated from Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery. The quality of the DTM produced in this way depends on different factors: the quality of imagery, image orientation and camera calibration, point cloud filtering, interpolation methods etc. However, the assessment of the real quality of DTM is very important for its further use and applications. In this paper we first describe the main steps of UAS imagery acquisition and processing based on practical test field survey and data. The main focus of this paper is to present the approach to DTM quality assessment and to give a practical example on the test field data. For data processing and DTM quality assessment presented in this paper mainly the in-house developed computer programs have been used. The quality of DTM comprises its accuracy, density, and completeness. Different accuracy measures like RMSE, median, normalized median absolute deviation and their confidence interval, quantiles are computed. The completeness of the DTM is very often overlooked quality parameter, but when DTM is produced from the point cloud this should not be neglected as some areas might be very sparsely covered by points. The original density is presented with density plot or map. The completeness is presented by the map of point density and the map of distances between grid points and terrain points. The results in the test area show great potential of the DTM produced from UAS imagery, in the sense of detailed representation of the terrain as well as good height accuracy.

  12. Does the Data Resolution/origin Matter? Satellite, Airborne and Uav Imagery to Tackle Plant Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllerová, Jana; Brůna, Josef; Dvořák, Petr; Bartaloš, Tomáš; Vítková, Michaela

    2016-06-01

    Invasive plant species represent a serious threat to biodiversity and landscape as well as human health and socio-economy. To successfully fight plant invasions, new methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring, such as remote sensing, are needed. In an ongoing project, optical remote sensing (RS) data of different origin (satellite, aerial and UAV), spectral (panchromatic, multispectral and color), spatial (very high to medium) and temporal resolution, and various technical approaches (object-, pixelbased and combined) are tested to choose the best strategies for monitoring of four invasive plant species (giant hogweed, black locust, tree of heaven and exotic knotweeds). In our study, we address trade-offs between spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions required for balance between the precision of detection and economic feasibility. For the best results, it is necessary to choose best combination of spatial and spectral resolution and phenological stage of the plant in focus. For species forming distinct inflorescences such as giant hogweed iterative semi-automated object-oriented approach was successfully applied even for low spectral resolution data (if pixel size was sufficient) whereas for lower spatial resolution satellite imagery or less distinct species with complicated architecture such as knotweed, combination of pixel and object based approaches was used. High accuracies achieved for very high resolution data indicate the possible application of described methodology for monitoring invasions and their long-term dynamics elsewhere, making management measures comparably precise, fast and efficient. This knowledge serves as a basis for prediction, monitoring and prioritization of management targets.

  13. Mapping forest stand complexity for woodland caribou habitat assessment using multispectral airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Hu, B.; Woods, M.

    2014-11-01

    The decline of the woodland caribou population is a result of their habitat loss. To conserve the habitat of the woodland caribou and protect it from extinction, it is critical to accurately characterize and monitor its habitat. Conventionally, products derived from low to medium spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as land cover classification and vegetation indices are used for wildlife habitat assessment. These products fail to provide information on the structure complexities of forest canopies which reflect important characteristics of caribou's habitats. Recent studies have employed the LiDAR system (Light Detection And Ranging) to directly retrieve the three dimensional forest attributes. Although promising results have been achieved, the acquisition cost of LiDAR data is very high. In this study, utilizing the very high spatial resolution imagery in characterizing the structural development the of forest canopies was exploited. A stand based image texture analysis was performed to predict forest succession stages. The results were demonstrated to be consistent with those derived from LiDAR data.

  14. Design and modeling of spectral-thermal unmixing targets for airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, Phil

    2006-05-01

    Techniques to determine the proportions of constituent materials within a single pixel spectrum are well documented in the reflective (0.4-2.5μm) domain. The same capability is also desirable for the thermal (7-14μm) domain, but is complicated by the thermal contributions to the measured spectral radiance. Atmospheric compensation schemes for the thermal domain have been described along with methods for estimating the spectral emissivity from a spectral radiance measurement and hence the next stage to be tackled is the unmixing of thermal spectral signatures. In order to pursue this goal it is necessary to collect data of well-calibrated targets which will expose the limits of the available techniques and enable more robust methods to be designed. This paper describes the design of a set of ground targets for an airborne hyperspectral imager, which will test the effectiveness of available methods. The set of targets include panels to explore a number of difficult scenarios such as isothermal (different materials at identical temperature), isochromal (identical materials, but at differing temperatures), thermal adjacency and thermal point sources. Practical fabrication issues for heated targets and selection of appropriate materials are described. Mathematical modelling of the experiments has enabled prediction of at-sensor measured radiances which are used to assess the design parameters. Finally, a number of useful lessons learned during the fielding of these actual targets are presented to assist those planning future trials of thermal hyperspectral sensors.

  15. Hydrological characterization of a riparian vegetation zone using high resolution multi-spectral airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasheh, Osama Z.

    The Middle Rio Grande River (MRGR) is the main source of fresh water for the state of New Mexico. Located in an arid area with scarce local water resources, this has led to extensive diversions of river water to supply the high demand from municipalities and irrigated agricultural activities. The extensive water diversions over the last few decades have affected the composition of the native riparian vegetation by decreasing the area of cottonwood and coyote willow and increasing the spread of invasive species such as Tamarisk and Russian Olives, harmful to the river system, due to their high transpiration rates, which affect the river aquatic system. The need to study the river hydrological processes and their relation with its health is important to preserve the river ecosystem. To be able to do that a detailed vegetation map was produced using a Utah State University airborne remote sensing system for 286 km of river reach. Also a groundwater model was built in ArcGIS environment which has the ability to estimate soil water potential in the root zone and above the modeled water table. The Modified Penman-Monteith empirical equation was used in the ArcGIS environment to estimate riparian vegetation ET, taking advantage of the detailed vegetation map and spatial soil water potential layers. Vegetation water use per linear river reach was estimated to help decision makers to better manage and release the amount of water that keeps a sound river ecosystem and to support agricultural activities.

  16. Lysimetric evaluation of SEBAL using high resolution airborne imagery from BEAREX08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, George; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Vara Prasad, P. V.; Howell, Terry A.; Staggenborg, Scott A.; Neale, Christopher M. U.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was evaluated for its ability to derive aerodynamic components and surface energy fluxes from very high resolution airborne remote sensing data acquired during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment 2008 (BEAREX08) in Texas, USA. Issues related to hot and cold pixel selection and the underlying assumptions of difference between air and surface temperature (dT) being linearly related to the surface temperature were also addressed. Estimated instantaneous evapotranspiration (ET) and other components of the surface energy balance were compared with measured data from four large precision weighing lysimeter fields, two each managed under irrigation and dryland conditions. Instantaneous ET was estimated with overall mean bias error and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13 and 0.15 mm h-1 (23.8 and 28.2%) respectively, where relatively large RMSE was contributed by dryland field. Sensitivity analysis of the hot and cold pixel selection indicated that up to 20% of the variability in ET estimates could be attributed to differences in the surface energy balance and roughness properties of the anchor pixels. Adoption of an excess resistance to heat transfer parameter model into SEBAL significantly improved the instantaneous ET estimates.

  17. Integrating an RGB - CIR Digital Camera With an Airborne Laser Swath Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Carter, W.; Shrestha, R.

    2003-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) utilizes the airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) system jointly owned by the University of Florida (UF) and Florida International University (FIU). The UF/FIU ALSM system is comprised of an Optech Inc. Model 1233 ALTM unit, with supporting GPS receiver and real-time navigation display, mounted in a twin-inline-engine Cessna 337 aircraft. Shortly after taking delivery of the ALSM system, UF researchers, in collaboration with a commercial partner, added a small format digital camera (Kodak 420) to the system, rigidly mounting it to the ALSM sensor head. Software was developed to use the GPS position and orientation parameters from the IMU unit in the ALSM sensor to rectify and mosaic the digital images. The ALSM height and intensity values were combined pixel by pixel with the RGB digital images, to classify surface materials. Based on our experience with the initial camera, and recommendations received at the NCALM workshop, UF researchers decided to upgrade the system to a Redlake MASD Inc. model MS4100 RGB/CIR camera. The MS4100 contains three CCD arrays, which simultaneously capture full spatial resolution images in red and near IR band bands, and a factor of two lower spatial resolution images in the blue and green bands (the blue and green bands share a single CCD array and the color bands are separated with a Bayer filter). The CCD arrays are rectangular with 1920 x 1080 elements, each element being 7.4 x 7.4 micrometers. With a 28 mm focal length lens, and at a flying height of 550 meters, the effective groundel is approximately 15 x 15 cm. The new digital camera should be particularly useful for studies of vegetation, including agricultural and forestry applications, and for computer automated classification of surface materials. Examples of early results using the improved ALSM-digital imaging capabilities will be presented.

  18. Mapping of macro and micro nutrients of mixed pastures using airborne AisaFENIX hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, Gábor; Yule, I. J.

    2016-07-01

    On-farm assessment of mixed pasture nutrient concentrations is important for animal production and pasture management. Hyperspectral imaging is recognized as a potential tool to quantify the nutrient content of vegetation. However, it is a great challenge to estimate macro and micro nutrients in heterogeneous mixed pastures. In this study, canopy reflectance data was measured by using a high resolution airborne visible-to-shortwave infrared (Vis-SWIR) imaging spectrometer measuring in the wavelength region 380-2500 nm to predict nutrient concentrations, nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn) copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) in heterogeneous mixed pastures across a sheep and beef farm in hill country, within New Zealand. Prediction models were developed using four different methods which are included partial least squares regression (PLSR), kernel PLSR, support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR) algorithms and their performance compared using the test data. The results from the study revealed that RFR produced highest accuracy (0.55 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.78; 6.68% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 26.47%) compared to all other algorithms for the majority of nutrients (N, P, K, Zn, Na, Cu and Mg) described, and the remaining nutrients (S and Mn) were predicted with high accuracy (0.68 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.86; 13.00% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 14.64%) using SVR. The best training models were used to extrapolate over the whole farm with the purpose of predicting those pasture nutrients and expressed through pixel based spatial maps. These spatially registered nutrient maps demonstrate the range and geographical location of often large differences in pasture nutrient values which are normally not measured and therefore not included in decision making when considering more effective ways to utilized pasture.

  19. Georeferencing of mobile ground-based hyperspectral digital single-lens reflex imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Sassi, Naoufal; Wilkinson, Ben; Dewitt, Bon

    2016-01-01

    The georeferencing accuracy of a ground-based mobile mapping system designated for agricultural applications is tested. The system integrates a hyperspectral sensor, digital camera, global navigation satellite system receivers, and an inertial navigation system. Acquired imagery was synchronized with GPS time using custom hardware and software solutions developed in-house. The imaging platform was mounted on a forklift and used to conduct three imaging missions along a paved road segment and agricultural beds. Sixteen ground control points were established in each site and used to calibrate the system and test the positional accuracy. The control point coordinates were determined using GNSS and total station observations independent from the imaging data. The navigation data were postprocessed to extract sensor positions and attitude along the imaging trajectories. The pushbroom hyperspectral images were georeferenced using ReSe Parge software, while the digital camera images were analyzed using Agisoft PhotoScan software. Control point coordinates extracted from the georeferenced imagery were compared to corresponding ground-surveyed coordinates. The maximum root mean square errors obtained for the hyperspectral images in all experiments were 2.4 and 3.1 cm in the easting and northing directions, respectively. These results were achieved using only two control points at both ends of the scan line to estimate the boresight offsets. The RMSE values of the orthorectified image constructed using the digital camera images and two control points at each end of the agricultural site were 1.6 and 2.6 cm in the easting and northing directions.

  20. Georeferencing of mobile ground-based hyperspectral digital single-lens reflex imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Sassi, Naoufal; Wilkinson, Ben; Dewitt, Bon

    2016-01-01

    The georeferencing accuracy of a ground-based mobile mapping system designated for agricultural applications is tested. The system integrates a hyperspectral sensor, digital camera, global navigation satellite system receivers, and an inertial navigation system. Acquired imagery was synchronized with GPS time using custom hardware and software solutions developed in-house. The imaging platform was mounted on a forklift and used to conduct three imaging missions along a paved road segment and agricultural beds. Sixteen ground control points were established in each site and used to calibrate the system and test the positional accuracy. The control point coordinates were determined using GNSS and total station observations independent from the imaging data. The navigation data were postprocessed to extract sensor positions and attitude along the imaging trajectories. The pushbroom hyperspectral images were georeferenced using ReSe Parge software, while the digital camera images were analyzed using Agisoft PhotoScan software. Control point coordinates extracted from the georeferenced imagery were compared to corresponding ground-surveyed coordinates. The maximum root mean square errors obtained for the hyperspectral images in all experiments were 2.4 and 3.1 cm in the easting and northing directions, respectively. These results were achieved using only two control points at both ends of the scan line to estimate the boresight offsets. The RMSE values of the orthorectified image constructed using the digital camera images and two control points at each end of the agricultural site were 1.6 and 2.6 cm in the easting and northing directions.

  1. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  2. Mapping beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Sobhan, Istiak

    2009-06-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.). Airborne HyMap images and data on forest structural attributes were collected from the Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive performances of vegetation indices (VI) derived from all possible two-band combinations (VI ( i, j) = ( Ri - Rj)/( Ri + Rj), where Ri and Rj = reflectance in any two bands) were evaluated using calibration ( n = 33) and test ( n = 20) data sets. The potential of partial least squares (PLS) regression, a multivariate technique involving several bands was also assessed. New VIs based on the contrast between reflectance in the red-edge shoulder (756-820 nm) and the water absorption feature centred at 1200 nm (1172-1320 nm) were found to show higher correlations with the forest structural parameters than standard VIs derived from NIR and visible reflectance (i.e. the normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI). PLS regression showed a slight improvement in estimating the beech forest structural attributes (prediction errors of 27.6%, 32.6% and 46.4% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively) compared to VIs using linear regression models (prediction errors of 27.8%, 35.8% and 48.3% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively). Mean DBH was the best predicted variable among the stand parameters (calibration R2 = 0.62 for an exponential model fit and standard error of prediction = 5.12 cm, i.e. 25% of the mean). The predicted map of mean DBH revealed high heterogeneity in the beech forest structure in the study area. The spatial variability of mean DBH occurs at less than 450 m. The DBH

  3. Correlation and registration of ERTS multispectral imagery. [by a digital processing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrud, L. O.; Henrikson, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examples of automatic digital processing demonstrate the feasibility of registering one ERTS multispectral scanner (MSS) image with another obtained on a subsequent orbit, and automatic matching, correlation, and registration of MSS imagery with aerial photography (multisensor correlation) is demonstrated. Excellent correlation was obtained with patch sizes exceeding 16 pixels square. Qualities which lead to effective control point selection are distinctive features, good contrast, and constant feature characteristics. Results of the study indicate that more than 300 degrees of freedom are required to register two standard ERTS-1 MSS frames covering 100 by 100 nautical miles to an accuracy of 0.6 pixel mean radial displacement error. An automatic strip processing technique demonstrates 600 to 1200 degrees of freedom over a quater frame of ERTS imagery. Registration accuracies in the range of 0.3 pixel to 0.5 pixel mean radial error were confirmed by independent error analysis. Accuracies in the range of 0.5 pixel to 1.4 pixel mean radial error were demonstrated by semi-automatic registration over small geographic areas.

  4. A comparison of airborne GEMS/SAR with satellite-borne Seasat/SAR radar imagery - The value of archived multiple data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Bradford C.; Dellwig, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In a study concerning the value of using radar imagery from systems with diverse parameters, X-band images of the Northern Louisiana Salt dome area generated by the airborne Goodyear electronic mapping system (GEMS) are analyzed in conjunction with imagery generated by the satelliteborne Seasat/SAR. The GEMS operated with an incidence angle of 75 to 85 deg and a resolution of 12 m, whereas the Seasat/SAR operated with an incidence angle of 23 deg and a resolution of 25 m. It is found that otherwise unattainable data on land management activities, improved delineation of the drainage net, better definition of surface roughness in cleared areas, and swamp identification, became accessible when adjustments for the time lapse between the two missions were made and supporting ground data concerning the physical and vegetative characteristics of the terrain were acquired.

  5. Very fast road database verification using textured 3D city models obtained from airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, Dimitri; Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Pohl, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    Road databases are known to be an important part of any geodata infrastructure, e.g. as the basis for urban planning or emergency services. Updating road databases for crisis events must be performed quickly and with the highest possible degree of automation. We present a semi-automatic algorithm for road verification using textured 3D city models, starting from aerial or even UAV-images. This algorithm contains two processes, which exchange input and output, but basically run independently from each other. These processes are textured urban terrain reconstruction and road verification. The first process contains a dense photogrammetric reconstruction of 3D geometry of the scene using depth maps. The second process is our core procedure, since it contains various methods for road verification. Each method represents a unique road model and a specific strategy, and thus is able to deal with a specific type of roads. Each method is designed to provide two probability distributions, where the first describes the state of a road object (correct, incorrect), and the second describes the state of its underlying road model (applicable, not applicable). Based on the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a single distribution that refers to three states: correct, incorrect, and unknown. With respect to the interaction of both processes, the normalized elevation map and the digital orthophoto generated during 3D reconstruction are the necessary input - together with initial road database entries - for the road verification process. If the entries of the database are too obsolete or not available at all, sensor data evaluation enables classification of the road pixels of the elevation map followed by road map extraction by means of vectorization and filtering of the geometrically and topologically inconsistent objects. Depending on the time issue and availability of a geo-database for buildings, the urban terrain reconstruction procedure has semantic models

  6. Mapping mine wastes and analyzing areas affected by selenium-rich water runoff in southeast Idaho using AVIRIS imagery and digital elevation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Remotely sensed hyperspectral and digital elevation data from southeastern Idaho are combined in a new method to assess mine waste contamination. Waste rock from phosphorite mining in the area contains selenium, cadmium, vanadium, and other metals. Toxic concentrations of selenium have been found in plants and soils near some mine waste dumps. Eighteen mine waste dumps and five vegetation cover types in the southeast Idaho phosphate district were mapped by using Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery and field data. The interaction of surface water runoff with mine waste was assessed by registering the AVIRIS results to digital elevation data, enabling determinations of (1) mine dump morphologies, (2) catchment watershed areas above each mine dump, (3) flow directions from the dumps, (4) stream gradients, and (5) the extent of downstream wetlands available for selenium absorption. Watersheds with the most severe selenium contamination, such as the South Maybe Canyon watershed, are associated with mine dumps that have large catchment watershed areas, high stream gradients, a paucity of downstream wetlands, and dump forms that tend to obstruct stream flow. Watersheds associated with low concentrations of dissolved selenium, such as Angus Creek, have mine dumps with small catchment watershed areas, low stream gradients, abundant wetlands vegetation, and less obstructing dump morphologies. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating sand grain sizes from digital imagery via chord-distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in beach sediment size, supply, and composition are important parameters in understanding patterns of sediment transport and erosion. Traditional methods of characterizing sediments (including mechanical sieving, water column settlement, and laser diffraction) involve recovery of a sample and its removal to the lab for measurement, a time and labor intensive process. Consequently, despite the evidence suggesting the importance of grain size and variability in sediment transport and morphodynamic processes and the inherent spatial and temporal variability of sediments at many locales, most studies are based on relatively few samples. In-situ, rapid characterization of sediments would allow greater spatial data coverage and, consequently, tighter constraints in sediment transport and erosion models. Rubin (J. Sediment. Res., 74, 160-165, 2004) suggested one approach, analyzing the autocorrelation of digital images of sediments to determine grain size distribution rapidly. The technique has the advantages of rapid data collection (via a digital camera) and a relatively straight forward data processing algorithm. However, the autocorrelation technique is not always able to discriminate robustly between different grain morphologies. Using the same tools (digital imagery and computational resources), I examine an alternative approach to characterization of beach sediments: using chord-distribution functions to discriminate grain size distribution and variability. Chord-distribution functions have been shown to be extremely sensitive to small changes in particle morphology in biphasic media (Levitz and Tchoubar, J. Phyisque I, 2, 771-790, 1992). Initial results indicate that with proper pre-processing of the digital image, the technique robustly characterizes the distribution of grains in beach sediment samples from Oahu's north shore.

  8. Design of an in-line, digital holographic imaging system for airborne measurement of clouds.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Scott M; Fugal, Jacob

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the design and performance of an airborne (underwing) in-line digital holographic imaging system developed for characterizing atmospheric cloud water droplets and ice particles in situ. The airborne environment constrained the design space to the simple optical layout that in-line non-beam-splitting holography affords. The desired measurement required the largest possible sample volume in which the smallest desired particle size (∼5 μm) could still be resolved, and consequently the magnification requirement was driven by the pixel size of the camera and this particle size. The resulting design was a seven-element, double-telecentric, high-precision optical imaging system used to relay and magnify a hologram onto a CCD surface. The system was designed to preserve performance and high resolution over a wide temperature range. Details of the optical design and construction are given. Experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of recording holograms that can be reconstructed with resolution of better than 6.5 μm within a 15 cm(3) sample volume.

  9. First Results from an Airborne Ka-band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    NASA/JPL has developed SweepSAR technique that breaks typical Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) trade space using time-dependent multi-beam DBF on receive. Developing SweepSAR implementation using array-fed reflector for proposed DESDynI Earth Radar Mission concept. Performed first-of-a-kind airborne demonstration of the SweepSAR concept at Ka-band (35.6 GHz). Validated calibration and antenna pattern data sufficient for beam forming in elevation. (1) Provides validation evidence that the proposed Deformation Ecosystem Structure Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI) SAR architecture is sound. (2) Functions well even with large variations in receiver gain / phase. Future plans include using prototype DESDynI SAR digital flight hardware to do the beam forming in real-time onboard the aircraft.

  10. Forest fuel treatment detection using multi-temporal airborne Lidar data and high resolution aerial imagery ---- A case study at Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Guo, Q.; Collins, B.; Fry, D.; Kelly, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest fuel treatments (FFT) are often employed in Sierra Nevada forest (located in California, US) to enhance forest health, regulate stand density, and reduce wildfire risk. However, there have been concerns that FFTs may have negative impacts on certain protected wildlife species. Due to the constraints and protection of resources (e.g., perennial streams, cultural resources, wildlife habitat, etc.), the actual FFT extents are usually different from planned extents. Identifying the actual extent of treated areas is of primary importance to understand the environmental influence of FFTs. Light detection and ranging (Lidar) is a powerful remote sensing technique that can provide accurate forest structure measurements, which provides great potential to monitor forest changes. This study used canopy height model (CHM) and canopy cover (CC) products derived from multi-temporal airborne Lidar data to detect FFTs by an approach combining a pixel-wise thresholding method and a object-of-interest segmentation method. We also investigated forest change following the implementation of landscape-scale FFT projects through the use of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and standardized principle component analysis (PCA) from multi-temporal high resolution aerial imagery. The same FFT detection routine was applied on the Lidar data and aerial imagery for the purpose of comparing the capability of Lidar data and aerial imagery on FFT detection. Our results demonstrated that the FFT detection using Lidar derived CC products produced both the highest total accuracy and kappa coefficient, and was more robust at identifying areas with light FFTs. The accuracy using Lidar derived CHM products was significantly lower than that of the result using Lidar derived CC, but was still slightly higher than using aerial imagery. FFT detection results using NDVI and standardized PCA using multi-temporal aerial imagery produced almost identical total accuracy and kappa coefficient

  11. Evolution of a highly dilatant fault zone in the grabens of Canyonlands National Park, Utah/USA - integrating field work, ground penetrating radar and airborne imagery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, M.; Grützner, C.; van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.; Reicherter, K.; Mertens, J.

    2015-03-01

    The grabens of the Canyonlands National Park are a young and active system of sub-parallel, arcuate grabens, whose evolution is the result of salt movement in the subsurface and a slight regional tilt of the faulted strata. We present results of ground penetrating radar surveys in combination with field observations and analysis of high resolution airborne imagery. GPR data show intense faulting of the Quaternary sediments at the flat graben floors, implying a more complex fault structure than visible at the surface. Direct measurements of heave and throw at several locations to infer fault dips at depth, combined with observations of primary joint surfaces in the upper 100 m suggest a model of the highly dilatant fault geometry in profile. Sinkholes observed in the field as well as in airborne imagery give insights in local massive dilatancy and show where water and sediments are transported underground. Based on correlations of paleosols observed in outcrops and GPR profiles, we argue that the grabens in Canyonlands National Park are either older than previously assumed, or that sedimentation rates were much higher in the Pleistocene.

  12. Evolution of a highly dilatant fault zone in the grabens of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA - integrating fieldwork, ground-penetrating radar and airborne imagery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, M.; Grützner, C.; van Gent, H. W.; Urai, J. L.; Reicherter, K.; Mertens, J.

    2015-07-01

    The grabens of Canyonlands National Park are a young and active system of sub-parallel, arcuate grabens, whose evolution is the result of salt movement in the subsurface and a slight regional tilt of the faulted strata. We present results of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys in combination with field observations and analysis of high-resolution airborne imagery. GPR data show intense faulting of the Quaternary sediments at the flat graben floors, implying a more complex fault structure than visible at the surface. Direct measurements of heave and throw at several locations to infer fault dips at depth, combined with observations of primary joint surfaces in the upper 100 m, suggest a highly dilatant fault geometry. Sinkholes observed in the field as well as in airborne imagery give insights in local dilatancy and show where water and sediments are transported underground. Based on correlations of paleosols observed in outcrops and GPR profiles, we argue that either the grabens in Canyonlands National Park are older than previously assumed or that sedimentation rates were much higher in the Pleistocene.

  13. Traceable calibration, performance metrics, and uncertainty estimates of minirhizotron digital imagery for fine-root measurements.

    PubMed

    Roberti, Joshua A; SanClements, Michael D; Loescher, Henry W; Ayres, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Even though fine-root turnover is a highly studied topic, it is often poorly understood as a result of uncertainties inherent in its sampling, e.g., quantifying spatial and temporal variability. While many methods exist to quantify fine-root turnover, use of minirhizotrons has increased over the last two decades, making sensor errors another source of uncertainty. Currently, no standardized methodology exists to test and compare minirhizotron camera capability, imagery, and performance. This paper presents a reproducible, laboratory-based method by which minirhizotron cameras can be tested and validated in a traceable manner. The performance of camera characteristics was identified and test criteria were developed: we quantified the precision of camera location for successive images, estimated the trueness and precision of each camera's ability to quantify root diameter and root color, and also assessed the influence of heat dissipation introduced by the minirhizotron cameras and electrical components. We report detailed and defensible metrology analyses that examine the performance of two commercially available minirhizotron cameras. These cameras performed differently with regard to the various test criteria and uncertainty analyses. We recommend a defensible metrology approach to quantify the performance of minirhizotron camera characteristics and determine sensor-related measurement uncertainties prior to field use. This approach is also extensible to other digital imagery technologies. In turn, these approaches facilitate a greater understanding of measurement uncertainties (signal-to-noise ratio) inherent in the camera performance and allow such uncertainties to be quantified and mitigated so that estimates of fine-root turnover can be more confidently quantified.

  14. Traceable calibration, performance metrics, and uncertainty estimates of minirhizotron digital imagery for fine-root measurements.

    PubMed

    Roberti, Joshua A; SanClements, Michael D; Loescher, Henry W; Ayres, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Even though fine-root turnover is a highly studied topic, it is often poorly understood as a result of uncertainties inherent in its sampling, e.g., quantifying spatial and temporal variability. While many methods exist to quantify fine-root turnover, use of minirhizotrons has increased over the last two decades, making sensor errors another source of uncertainty. Currently, no standardized methodology exists to test and compare minirhizotron camera capability, imagery, and performance. This paper presents a reproducible, laboratory-based method by which minirhizotron cameras can be tested and validated in a traceable manner. The performance of camera characteristics was identified and test criteria were developed: we quantified the precision of camera location for successive images, estimated the trueness and precision of each camera's ability to quantify root diameter and root color, and also assessed the influence of heat dissipation introduced by the minirhizotron cameras and electrical components. We report detailed and defensible metrology analyses that examine the performance of two commercially available minirhizotron cameras. These cameras performed differently with regard to the various test criteria and uncertainty analyses. We recommend a defensible metrology approach to quantify the performance of minirhizotron camera characteristics and determine sensor-related measurement uncertainties prior to field use. This approach is also extensible to other digital imagery technologies. In turn, these approaches facilitate a greater understanding of measurement uncertainties (signal-to-noise ratio) inherent in the camera performance and allow such uncertainties to be quantified and mitigated so that estimates of fine-root turnover can be more confidently quantified. PMID:25391023

  15. Land cover/use mapping using multi-band imageries captured by Cropcam Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autopilot (UAV) over Penang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuyi, Tan; Boon Chun, Beh; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Hwee San, Lim; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Mohammad Tahrin, Norhaslinda

    2012-11-01

    The problem of difficulty in obtaining cloud-free scene at the Equatorial region from satellite platforms can be overcome by using airborne imagery. Airborne digital imagery has proved to be an effective tool for land cover studies. Airborne digital camera imageries were selected in this present study because of the airborne digital image provides higher spatial resolution data for mapping a small study area. The main objective of this study is to classify the RGB bands imageries taken from a low-altitude Cropcam UAV for land cover/use mapping over USM campus, penang Island, Malaysia. A conventional digital camera was used to capture images from an elevation of 320 meter on board on an UAV autopilot. This technique was cheaper and economical compared with other airborne studies. The artificial neural network (NN) and maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) were used to classify the digital imageries captured by using Cropcam UAV over USM campus, Penang Islands, Malaysia. The supervised classifier was chosen based on the highest overall accuracy (<80%) and Kappa statistic (<0.8). The classified land cover map was geometrically corrected to provide a geocoded map. The results produced by this study indicated that land cover features could be clearly identified and classified into a land cover map. This study indicates the use of a conventional digital camera as a sensor on board on an UAV autopilot can provide useful information for planning and development of a small area of coverage.

  16. Prediction of soil stability and erosion in semiarid regions using numerical hydrological model (MCAT) and airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    promising models is the MCAT, which is a MATLAB library of visual and numerical analysis tools for the evaluation of hydrological and environmental models. The model applied in this paper presents an innovative infrastructural system for predicting soil stability and erosion impacts. This integrated model is applicable to mixed areas with spatially varying soil properties, landscape, and land-cover characteristics. Data from a semiarid site in southern Israel was used to evaluate the model and analyze fundamental erosion mechanisms. The findings estimate the sensitivity of the suggested model to the physical parameters and encourage the use of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery (HSI). The proposed model is integrated according to the following stages: 1. The soil texture, aggregation, soil moisture estimated via airborne HSI data, including soil surface clay and calcium carbonate erosions; 2. The mechanical stability of soil assessed via pedo-transfer function corresponding to load dependent changes in soil physical properties due to pre-compression stress (set of equations study shear strength parameters take into account soil texture, aggregation, soil moisture and ecological soil variables); 3. The precipitation-related runoff model program (RMP) satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of surface runoff for the current climate simulation; 4. The Monte Carlo Analysis Toolbox (MCAT), a library of visual and numerical analysis tools for the evaluation of hydrological and environmental models, is proposed as a tool for integrate all the approaches to an applicable model. The presented model overcomes the limitations of existing modeling methods by integrating physical data produced via HSI and yet stays generic in terms of space and time independency.

  17. Building a 2.5D Digital Elevation Model from 2D Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Curtis W.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Brennan, Shane; Cheng, Yang; Clouse, Daniel S.; Almeida, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When projecting imagery into a georeferenced coordinate frame, one needs to have some model of the geographical region that is being projected to. This model can sometimes be a simple geometrical curve, such as an ellipse or even a plane. However, to obtain accurate projections, one needs to have a more sophisticated model that encodes the undulations in the terrain including things like mountains, valleys, and even manmade structures. The product that is often used for this purpose is a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The technology presented here generates a high-quality DEM from a collection of 2D images taken from multiple viewpoints, plus pose data for each of the images and a camera model for the sensor. The technology assumes that the images are all of the same region of the environment. The pose data for each image is used as an initial estimate of the geometric relationship between the images, but the pose data is often noisy and not of sufficient quality to build a high-quality DEM. Therefore, the source imagery is passed through a feature-tracking algorithm and multi-plane-homography algorithm, which refine the geometric transforms between images. The images and their refined poses are then passed to a stereo algorithm, which generates dense 3D data for each image in the sequence. The 3D data from each image is then placed into a consistent coordinate frame and passed to a routine that divides the coordinate frame into a number of cells. The 3D points that fall into each cell are collected, and basic statistics are applied to determine the elevation of that cell. The result of this step is a DEM that is in an arbitrary coordinate frame. This DEM is then filtered and smoothed in order to remove small artifacts. The final step in the algorithm is to take the initial DEM and rotate and translate it to be in the world coordinate frame [such as UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), MGRS (Military Grid Reference System), or geodetic] such that it can be saved in

  18. Analysis of airborne LiDAR as a basis for digital soil mapping in Alpine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kringer, K.; Tusch, M.; Geitner, C.; Meißl, G.; Rutzinger, M.

    2009-04-01

    Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps the formation of soil is highly influenced by relief characteristics. Among all factors included in Jenny's (1941) model for soil development, relief is the one most commonly used in approaches to create digital soil maps and to derive soil properties from secondary data sources (McBratney et al. 2003). Elevation data, first order (slope, aspect) and second order derivates (plan, profile and cross-sectional curvature) as well as complex morphometric parameters (various landform classifications, e.g., Wood 1996) and compound indices (e.g., topographic wetness indices, vertical distance to drainage network, insolation) can be calculated from digital elevation models (DEM). However, while being an important source of information for digital soil mapping on small map scales, "conventional" DEMs are of limited use for the design of large scale conceptual soil maps for small areas due to rather coarse raster resolutions with cell sizes ranging from 20 to 100 meters. Slight variations in elevation and small landform features might not be discernible even though they might have a significant effect to soil formation, e.g., regarding the influence of groundwater in alluvial soils or the extent of alluvial fans. Nowadays, Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) provides highly accurate data for the elaboration of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM) even in forested areas. In the project LASBO (Laserscanning in der Bodenkartierung) the applicability of digital terrain models derived from LiDAR for the identification of soil-relevant geomorphometric parameter is investigated. Various algorithms which were initially designed for coarser raster data are applied on high-resolution DTMs. Test areas for LASBO are located in the region of Bruneck (Italy) and near the municipality of Kramsach in the Inn Valley (Austria). The freely available DTM for Bruneck has a raster resolution of 2.5 meters while in Kramsach a DTM with

  19. Characterizing arid region alluvial fan surface roughness with airborne laser swath mapping digital topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Kurt L.; Dolan, James F.

    2007-06-01

    Range-front alluvial fan deposition in arid environments is episodic and results in multiple fan surfaces and ages. These distinct landforms are often defined by descriptions of their surface morphology, desert varnish accumulation, clast rubification, desert pavement formation, soil development, and stratigraphy. Although quantifying surface roughness differences between alluvial fan units has proven to be difficult in the past, high-resolution airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) digital topographic data are now providing researchers with an opportunity to study topography in unprecedented detail. Here we use ALSM data to calculate surface roughness on two alluvial fans in northern Death Valley, California. We define surface roughness as the standard deviation of slope in a 5-m by 5-m moving window. Comparison of surface roughness values between mapped fan surfaces shows that each unit is statistically unique at the 99% confidence level. Furthermore, there is an obvious smoothing trend from the presently active channel to a deposit with cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl surface exposure ages of ˜70 ka. Beyond 70 ka, alluvial landforms become progressively rougher with age. These data suggest that alluvial fans in arid regions smooth out with time until a threshold is crossed where roughness increases at greater wavelength with age as a result of surface runoff and headward tributary incision into the oldest surfaces.

  20. From HYSOMA to ENSOMAP - A new open source tool for quantitative soil properties mapping based on hyperspectral imagery from airborne to spaceborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Rabe, Andreas; Foerster, Saskia; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Soil spectroscopy from the visible-near infrared to the short wave infrared has been shown to be a proven method for the quantitative prediction of key soil surface properties in the laboratory, field, and up to airborne studies for exposed soils in appropriate surface conditions. With the upcoming launch of the next generation of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors within the next 3 to 5 years (EnMAP, HISUI, PRISMA, SHALOM), a great potential for the global mapping and monitoring of soil properties is appearing. This potential can be achieved only if adequate software tools are available, as shown by the increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products from the geoscience community that have neither the capacity nor the expertise to deliver these soil products. In this context, recently many international efforts were tuned toward the development of robust and easy-to-access soil algorithms to allow non-remote sensing experts to obtain geoscience information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In particular, several algorithms for geological and mineral mapping were recently released such as the U.S. Geological Survey Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM) software, or the GFZ EnMAP Geological Mapper. For quantitative soil mapping and monitoring, the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral Soil Mapper) software interface was developed at GFZ under the EUFAR (www.eufar.net) and the EnMAP (www.enmap.org) programs. HYSOMA was specifically oriented toward digital soil mapping applications and has been distributed since 2012 for free as IDL plug-ins under the IDL-virtual machine at www.gfz-potsdam.de/hysoma under a close source license. The HYSOMA interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. With more than 100 users around the world

  1. Spatially explicit rangeland erosion monitoring using high-resolution digital aerial imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Barger, Nichole N.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all of the ecosystem services supported by rangelands, including production of livestock forage, carbon sequestration, and provisioning of clean water, are negatively impacted by soil erosion. Accordingly, monitoring the severity, spatial extent, and rate of soil erosion is essential for long-term sustainable management. Traditional field-based methods of monitoring erosion (sediment traps, erosion pins, and bridges) can be labor intensive and therefore are generally limited in spatial intensity and/or extent. There is a growing effort to monitor natural resources at broad scales, which is driving the need for new soil erosion monitoring tools. One remote-sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil movement is a time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) created using aerial photogrammetry methods. By geographically coregistering the DEMs and subtracting one surface from the other, an estimate of soil elevation change can be created. Such analysis enables spatially explicit quantification and visualization of net soil movement including erosion, deposition, and redistribution. We constructed DEMs (12-cm ground sampling distance) on the basis of aerial photography immediately before and 1 year after a vegetation removal treatment on a 31-ha Piñon-Juniper woodland in southeastern Utah to evaluate the use of aerial photography in detecting soil surface change. On average, we were able to detect surface elevation change of ± 8−9cm and greater, which was sufficient for the large amount of soil movement exhibited on the study area. Detecting more subtle soil erosion could be achieved using the same technique with higher-resolution imagery from lower-flying aircraft such as unmanned aerial vehicles. DEM differencing and process-focused field methods provided complementary information and a more complete assessment of soil loss and movement than any single technique alone. Photogrammetric DEM differencing could be used as a technique to

  2. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals.An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions.Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15-20% of variance.Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit. PMID:26208644

  3. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals. An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions. Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15−20% of variance. Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit. PMID:26208644

  4. Multispectral airborne imagery in the field reveals genetic determinisms of morphological and transpiration traits of an apple tree hybrid population in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Costes, Evelyne; Martinez, Sébastien; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    Genetic studies of response to water deficit in adult trees are limited by low throughput of the usual phenotyping methods in the field. Here, we aimed at overcoming this bottleneck, applying a new methodology using airborne multispectral imagery and in planta measurements to compare a high number of individuals.An apple tree population, grafted on the same rootstock, was submitted to contrasting summer water regimes over two years. Aerial images acquired in visible, near- and thermal-infrared at three dates each year allowed calculation of vegetation and water stress indices. Tree vigour and fruit production were also assessed. Linear mixed models were built accounting for date and year effects on several variables and including the differential response of genotypes between control and drought conditions.Broad-sense heritability of most variables was high and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) independent of the dates were detected on nine linkage groups of the consensus apple genetic map. For vegetation and stress indices, QTLs were related to the means, the intra-crown heterogeneity, and differences induced by water regimes. Most QTLs explained 15-20% of variance.Airborne multispectral imaging proved relevant to acquire simultaneous information on a whole tree population and to decipher genetic determinisms involved in response to water deficit.

  5. Remote distinction of a noxious weed (musk thistle: Carduus nutans) using airborne hyperspectral imagery and the support vector machine classifier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote detection of invasive plant species using geospatial imagery may significantly improve monitoring, planning, and management practices by eliminating shortfalls such as observer bias and accessibility involved in ground-based surveys. The use of remote sensing for accurate mapping invasion ex...

  6. The use of ERTS/LANDSAT imagery in relation to airborne remote sensing for terrain analysis in Western Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator); Owen-Jones, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery contrast the geology of the Cloncurry-Dobbyn and the Gregory River-Mt. Isa areas very clearly. Known major structural features and lithological units are clearly displayed while, hitherto unknown lineaments were revealed. Throughout this area, similar rock types produce similar spectral signatures, e.g. quartzites produce light signatures, iron rich rocks produce dark signatures. More geological data are discernible at the 1:50,000 scale than on the 1:250,000 scale. Ore horizons may be identified at the 1:50,000 scale, particularly where they are associated with iron rich rocks. On the level plains north of Cloncurry, distinctive spectral signatures produced by the combined reflectances of plant cover, soils, and geology, distinguish different types of superficial deposits. Existing and former channels of the Cloncurry and Williams Rivers are distinguished at the 1:50,000 scale on both the LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery. On the Cloncurry Plains, fence lines are discernible on the 1:50,000 LANDSAT 2 imagery.

  7. Airborne nanoparticle characterization with a digital ion trap-reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenyi; Johnston, Murray V.

    2006-12-01

    A digital ion trap-reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer is described for airborne nanoparticle characterization. Charged particles sampled into this nanoaerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS) are captured in the ion trap and ablated with a high fluence laser pulse to reach the "complete ionization limit". Atomic ions produced from the trapped particle(s) are mass analyzed by time of flight, and the elemental composition is determined from the relative signal intensities in the mass spectrum. The particle size range captured in the ion trap is selected by the frequency applied to the ring electrode. Size selection is based on the mass normalized particle diameter, defined as the diameter of a spherical particle with unit density that has the same mass as the particle being analyzed. For the current instrument configuration, ring electrode frequencies between 5 and 140 kHz allow selective trapping of particles with a mass normalized diameter between 7 and 25 nm with a geometric standard deviation of about 1.1. The particle detection efficiency, defined as the fraction of charged particles entering the mass spectrometer that are subsequently captured and analyzed, is between l x l0-4 and 3 x l0-4 over this size range. The effective particle density can be determined from simultaneous measurement of the mobility and mass normalized diameters. Test nanoparticles composed of sucrose, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate and copper(II) chloride are investigated. In most cases, the measured elemental compositions match the expected elemental compositions within +/-5% or less and the measured compositions do not change with particle size. The one exception is copper chloride, which does not yield a well-developed plasma when it is irradiated by the laser pulse.

  8. Automatic Extraction of Optimal Endmembers from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery Using Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and Spectral Discrimination Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ahram; Chang, Anjin; Choi, Jaewan; Choi, Seokkeun; Kim, Yongil

    2015-01-01

    Pure surface materials denoted by endmembers play an important role in hyperspectral processing in various fields. Many endmember extraction algorithms (EEAs) have been proposed to find appropriate endmember sets. Most studies involving the automatic extraction of appropriate endmembers without a priori information have focused on N-FINDR. Although there are many different versions of N-FINDR algorithms, computational complexity issues still remain and these algorithms cannot consider the case where spectrally mixed materials are extracted as final endmembers. A sequential endmember extraction-based algorithm may be more effective when the number of endmembers to be extracted is unknown. In this study, we propose a simple but accurate method to automatically determine the optimal endmembers using such a method. The proposed method consists of three steps for determining the proper number of endmembers and for removing endmembers that are repeated or contain mixed signatures using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) images obtained from Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and spectral discrimination measurements. A synthetic hyperpsectral image and two different airborne images such as Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Application (AISA) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data were tested using the proposed method, and our experimental results indicate that the final endmember set contained all of the distinct signatures without redundant endmembers and errors from mixed materials. PMID:25625907

  9. Daily evapotranspiration estimates from extrapolating instantaneous airborne remote sensing ET values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, six extrapolation methods have been compared for their ability to estimate daily crop evapotranspiration (ETd) from instantaneous latent heat flux estimates derived from digital airborne multispectral remote sensing imagery. Data used in this study were collected during an experiment...

  10. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  11. Documenting and Communicating the Dynamics of a Rapidly Changing Cryosphere Through the Use of Repeat Ground-Based, Airborne, and Space-Based Photography and Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    Alaska supports thousands of glaciers, covering an area of about 75,000 square kilometers. Today, most large low elevation Alaskan glaciers are rapidly retreating and/or thinning in response to increasing temperature. Considering the breadth of Alaska's glacier cover, documenting the response of these glaciers to changing climate is only possible through a comprehensive collection and assessment of ground-based, airborne, and space-based photography and multispectral imagery. Pairing these data with historical imagery provides unequivocal visual evidence of changes within the glacier component of the Alaskan cryosphere. Since 1972, all Alaskan glaciers have been sequentially imaged with space-based multispectral sensors. Additionally, many Alaskan glaciers have been repeatedly photographed from the ground (beginning in 1893), from the air (beginning in 1926), and from space (beginning in the early 1960s). Analysis of this massive compilation of repeat photographs and multispectral images has been used to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the distribution, extent, and multiple decadal-scale behavior of glaciers throughout Alaska. These results have recently been published by the U.S. Geological Survey in "Glaciers of Alaska", Chapter K of the "Satellite Image Atlas of the Glaciers of the World", Professional Paper 1386-K. Additionally, a website ("Glacier and Landscape Change in Response to Changing Climate" - www.usgs.gov/global_change/glaciers/default.asp) has been developed to broadly communicate and distribute this information to the general public, scientists and engineers, the press, civil protection government agencies, and a multitude of other governmental and non-governmental agencies. This poster presents details about the new book and website. For the poster, several areas with extensive records of historic ground-based photography and space-based imagery were selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach to communicate information

  12. BOREAS Level-0 NS001 TMS Imagery: Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Data collections occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns.

  13. Assessing the accuracy and repeatability of automated photogrammetrically generated digital surface models from unmanned aerial system imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavis, Christopher

    Using commercial digital cameras in conjunction with Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to generate 3-D Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and orthomosaics is emerging as a cost-effective alternative to Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Powerful software applications such as Pix4D and APS can automate the generation of DSM and orthomosaic products from a handful of inputs. However, the accuracy of these models is relatively untested. The objectives of this study were to generate multiple DSM and orthomosaic pairs of the same area using Pix4D and APS from flights of imagery collected with a lightweight UAS. The accuracy of each individual DSM was assessed in addition to the consistency of the method to model one location over a period of time. Finally, this study determined if the DSMs automatically generated using lightweight UAS and commercial digital cameras could be used for detecting changes in elevation and at what scale. Accuracy was determined by comparing DSMs to a series of reference points collected with survey grade GPS. Other GPS points were also used as control points to georeference the products within Pix4D and APS. The effectiveness of the products for change detection was assessed through image differencing and observance of artificially induced, known elevation changes. The vertical accuracy with the optimal data and model is ≈ 25 cm and the highest consistency over repeat flights is a standard deviation of ≈ 5 cm. Elevation change detection based on such UAS imagery and DSM models should be viable for detecting infrastructure change in urban or suburban environments with little dense canopy vegetation.

  14. The use of ERTS/LANDSAT imagery in relation to airborne remote sensing for terrain analysis in western Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator); Owen-Jones, S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Distinctive spectral signatures were found associated with areas of near surface bedrock with covered ground east of Dugald River and along the Thorntonia River valley west of Lady Annie. Linears identified in the Dugald River area on LANDSAT 2 imagery taken in March and July 1975 over the Cloncurry-Dobbyn area, displayed preferred orientation. A linear group with NE-SW orientation was identified in the Lady Annie area. In this area, the copper mineralization in the Mt. Kelly area occurs along a well marked linear with NNW/SSE direction apparent on images for March, September, and November 1975. Geobotanical anomalies provided surface expression of the copper deposits in Mt. Kelley.

  15. Accuracy assessment of airborne photogrammetrically derived high-resolution digital elevation models in a high mountain environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Johann; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Thee, Patrick; Ginzler, Christian

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) generated by airborne remote sensing are frequently used to analyze landform structures (monotemporal) and geomorphological processes (multitemporal) in remote areas or areas of extreme terrain. In order to assess and quantify such structures and processes it is necessary to know the absolute accuracy of the available DEMs. This study assesses the absolute vertical accuracy of DEMs generated by the High Resolution Stereo Camera-Airborne (HRSC-A), the Leica Airborne Digital Sensors 40/80 (ADS40 and ADS80) and the analogue camera system RC30. The study area is located in the Turtmann valley, Valais, Switzerland, a glacially and periglacially formed hanging valley stretching from 2400 m to 3300 m a.s.l. The photogrammetrically derived DEMs are evaluated against geodetic field measurements and an airborne laser scan (ALS). Traditional and robust global and local accuracy measurements are used to describe the vertical quality of the DEMs, which show a non Gaussian distribution of errors. The results show that all four sensor systems produce DEMs with similar accuracy despite their different setups and generations. The ADS40 and ADS80 (both with a ground sampling distance of 0.50 m) generate the most accurate DEMs in complex high mountain areas with a RMSE of 0.8 m and NMAD of 0.6 m They also show the highest accuracy relating to flying height (0.14‰). The pushbroom scanning system HRSC-A produces a RMSE of 1.03 m and a NMAD of 0.83 m (0.21‰ accuracy of the flying height and 10 times the ground sampling distance). The analogue camera system RC30 produces DEMs with a vertical accuracy of 1.30 m RMSE and 0.83 m NMAD (0.17‰ accuracy of the flying height and two times the ground sampling distance). It is also shown that the performance of the DEMs strongly depends on the inclination of the terrain. The RMSE of areas up to an inclination <40° is better than 1 m. In more inclined areas the error and outlier occurrence

  16. Use of spectral vegetation indices derived from airborne hyperspectral imagery for detection of European corn borer infestation in Iowa corn plots.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Matthew W; Glaser, John A; Hellmich, Richard L; Hunt, Thomas E; Sappington, Thomas W; Calvin, Dennis; Copenhaver, Ken; Fridgen, John

    2008-10-01

    Eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery and evaluated in 2004 and 2005 for their ability to detect experimental plots of corn manually inoculated with Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) neonate larvae. Manual inoculations were timed to simulate infestation of corn, Zea mays L., by first and second flights of adult O. nubilalis. The ability of spectral vegetation indices to detect O. nubilalis-inoculated plots improved as the growing season progressed, with multiple spectral vegetation indices able to identify infested plots in late August and early September. Our findings also indicate that for detecting O. nubilalis-related plant stress in corn, spectral vegetation indices targeting carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments are not as effective as those targeting chlorophyll. Analysis of image data suggests that feeding and stem boring by O. nubilalis larvae may increase the rate of plant senescence causing detectable differences in plant biomass and vigor when compared with control plots. Further, we identified an approximate time frame of 5-6 wk postinoculation, when spectral differences of manually inoculated "second" generation O. nubilalis plots seem to peak. PMID:18950044

  17. Evaluation of terrestrial photogrammetric point clouds derived from thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Jeremy P.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    Computer vision and photogrammetric techniques have been widely applied to digital imagery producing high density 3D point clouds. Using thermal imagery as input, the same techniques can be applied to infrared data to produce point clouds in 3D space, providing surface temperature information. The work presented here is an evaluation of the accuracy of 3D reconstruction of point clouds produced using thermal imagery. An urban scene was imaged over an area at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, viewing from above as with an airborne system. Terrestrial thermal and RGB imagery were collected from a rooftop overlooking the site using a FLIR SC8200 MWIR camera and a Canon T1i DSLR. In order to spatially align each dataset, ground control points were placed throughout the study area using Trimble R10 GNSS receivers operating in RTK mode. Each image dataset is processed to produce a dense point cloud for 3D evaluation.

  18. Co-Registration Airborne LIDAR Point Cloud Data and Synchronous Digital Image Registration Based on Combined Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zheng, T.; Lai, W. B.; Zou, Z. R.; Zou, B.

    2016-06-01

    Aim at the problem of co-registration airborne laser point cloud data with the synchronous digital image, this paper proposed a registration method based on combined adjustment. By integrating tie point, point cloud data with elevation constraint pseudo observations, using the principle of least-squares adjustment to solve the corrections of exterior orientation elements of each image, high-precision registration results can be obtained. In order to ensure the reliability of the tie point, and the effectiveness of pseudo observations, this paper proposed a point cloud data constrain SIFT matching and optimizing method, can ensure that the tie points are located on flat terrain area. Experiments with the airborne laser point cloud data and its synchronous digital image, there are about 43 pixels error in image space using the original POS data. If only considering the bore-sight of POS system, there are still 1.3 pixels error in image space. The proposed method regards the corrections of the exterior orientation elements of each image as unknowns and the errors are reduced to 0.15 pixels.

  19. Applications and Innovations for Use of High Definition and High Resolution Digital Motion Imagery in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    The first live High Definition Television (HDTV) from a spacecraft was in November, 2006, nearly ten years before the 2016 SpaceOps Conference. Much has changed since then. Now, live HDTV from the International Space Station (ISS) is routine. HDTV cameras stream live video views of the Earth from the exterior of the ISS every day on UStream, and HDTV has even flown around the Moon on a Japanese Space Agency spacecraft. A great deal has been learned about the operations applicability of HDTV and high resolution imagery since that first live broadcast. This paper will discuss the current state of real-time and file based HDTV and higher resolution video for space operations. A potential roadmap will be provided for further development and innovations of high-resolution digital motion imagery, including gaps in technology enablers, especially for deep space and unmanned missions. Specific topics to be covered in the paper will include: An update on radiation tolerance and performance of various camera types and sensors and ramifications on the future applicability of these types of cameras for space operations; Practical experience with downlinking very large imagery files with breaks in link coverage; Ramifications of larger camera resolutions like Ultra-High Definition, 6,000 [pixels] and 8,000 [pixels] in space applications; Enabling technologies such as the High Efficiency Video Codec, Bundle Streaming Delay Tolerant Networking, Optical Communications and Bayer Pattern Sensors and other similar innovations; Likely future operations scenarios for deep space missions with extreme latency and intermittent communications links.

  20. Mapping tree health using airborne laser scans and hyperspectral imagery: a case study for a floodplain eucalypt forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendryk, Iurii; Tulbure, Mirela; Broich, Mark; McGrath, Andrew; Alexandrov, Sergey; Keith, David

    2016-04-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) are two complementary remote sensing technologies that provide comprehensive structural and spectral characteristics of forests over large areas. In this study we developed two algorithms: one for individual tree delineation utilizing ALS and the other utilizing ALS and HSI to characterize health of delineated trees in a structurally complex floodplain eucalypt forest. We conducted experiments in the largest eucalypt, river red gum forest in the world, located in the south-east of Australia that experienced severe dieback over the past six decades. For detection of individual trees from ALS we developed a novel bottom-up approach based on Euclidean distance clustering to detect tree trunks and random walks segmentation to further delineate tree crowns. Overall, our algorithm was able to detect 67% of tree trunks with diameter larger than 13 cm. We assessed the accuracy of tree delineations in terms of crown height and width, with correct delineation of 68% of tree crowns. The increase in ALS point density from ~12 to ~24 points/m2 resulted in tree trunk detection and crown delineation increase of 11% and 13%, respectively. Trees with incorrectly delineated crowns were generally attributed to areas with high tree density along water courses. The accurate delineation of trees allowed us to classify the health of this forest using machine learning and field-measured tree crown dieback and transparency ratios, which were good predictors of tree health in this forest. ALS and HSI derived indices were used as predictor variables to train and test object-oriented random forest classifier. Returned pulse width, intensity and density related ALS indices were the most important predictors in the tree health classifications. At the forest level in terms of tree crown dieback, 77% of trees were classified as healthy, 14% as declining and 9% as dying or dead with 81% mapping accuracy. Similarly, in terms of tree

  1. First Results from an Airborne Ka-Band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory A.; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    SweepSAR is a wide-swath synthetic aperture radar technique that is being studied for application on the future Earth science radar missions. This paper describes the design of an airborne radar demonstration that simulates an 11-m L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz) reflector geometry at Ka-band (35.6 GHz) using a 40-cm reflector. The Ka-band SweepSAR Demonstration system was flown on the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory and used to study engineering performance trades and array calibration for SweepSAR configurations. We present an instrument and experiment overview, instrument calibration and first results.

  2. Unique digital imagery interface between a silicon graphics computer and the kinetic kill vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulator (KHILS) wideband infrared scene projector (WISP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ricky A.; Moren, Stephen E.; Skalka, Marion S.

    1998-07-01

    Providing a flexible and reliable source of IR target imagery is absolutely essential for operation of an IR Scene Projector in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment. The Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) at Eglin AFB provides the capability, and requisite interfaces, to supply target IR imagery to its Wideband IR Scene Projector (WISP) from three separate sources at frame rates ranging from 30 - 120 Hz. Video can be input from a VCR source at the conventional 30 Hz frame rate. Pre-canned digital imagery and test patterns can be downloaded into stored memory from the host processor and played back as individual still frames or movie sequences up to a 120 Hz frame rate. Dynamic real-time imagery to the KHILS WISP projector system, at a 120 Hz frame rate, can be provided from a Silicon Graphics Onyx computer system normally used for generation of digital IR imagery through a custom CSA-built interface which is available for either the SGI/DVP or SGI/DD02 interface port. The primary focus of this paper is to describe our technical approach and experience in the development of this unique SGI computer and WISP projector interface.

  3. Observation of wave celerity evolution in the nearshore using digital video imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, J.; Fritz, H. M.; Haas, K. A.; Work, P. A.; Barnes, C. F.; Cho, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Celerity of incident waves in the nearshore is observed from oblique video imagery collected at Myrtle Beach, S.C.. The video camera covers the field view of length scales O(100) m. Celerity of waves propagating in shallow water including the surf zone is estimated by applying advanced image processing and analysis methods to the individual video images sampled at 3 Hz. Original image sequences are processed through video image frame differencing, directional low-pass image filtering to reduce the noise arising from foam in the surf zone. The breaking wave celerity is computed along a cross-shore transect from the wave crest tracks extracted by a Radon transform-based line detection method. The observed celerity from the nearshore video imagery is larger than the linear wave celerity computed from the measured water depths over the entire surf zone. Compared to the nonlinear shallow water wave equation (NSWE)-based celerity computed using the measured depths and wave heights, in general, the video-based celerity shows good agreements over the surf zone except the regions across the incipient wave breaking locations. In the regions across the breaker points, the observed wave celerity is even larger than the NSWE-based celerity due to the transition of wave crest shapes. The observed celerity using the video imagery can be used to monitor the nearshore geometry through depth inversion based on the nonlinear wave celerity theories. For this purpose, the exceeding celerity across the breaker points needs to be corrected accordingly compared to a nonlinear wave celerity theory applied.

  4. Digital processing of satellite imagery application to jungle areas of Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomalaza, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Pomalaza, C. A.; Espinoza, J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The use of clustering methods permits the development of relatively fast classification algorithms that could be implemented in an inexpensive computer system with limited amount of memory. Analysis of CCTs using these techniques can provide a great deal of detail permitting the use of the maximum resolution of LANDSAT imagery. Potential cases were detected in which the use of other techniques for classification using a Gaussian approximation for the distribution functions can be used with advantage. For jungle areas, channels 5 and 7 can provide enough information to delineate drainage patterns, swamp and wet areas, and make a reasonable broad classification of forest types.

  5. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Daedalus TMS Imagery Digital Counts in BIL Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The level-0 Daedalus Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information about radiant energy over the primary BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Two flights of the Daedalus TMS instrument were made onboard the ER-2 aircraft on 16-Sep-1994 and 17-Sep-1994.

  6. Commercial tree species discrimination using airborne AISA Eagle hyperspectral imagery and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peerbhay, Kabir Yunus; Mutanga, Onisimo; Ismail, Riyad

    2013-05-01

    Discriminating commercial tree species using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques is critical in monitoring the spatial distributions and compositions of commercial forests. However, issues related to data dimensionality and multicollinearity limit the successful application of the technology. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique in accurately classifying six exotic commercial forest species (Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus smithii, Pinus patula, Pinus elliotii and Acacia mearnsii) using airborne AISA Eagle hyperspectral imagery (393-900 nm). Additionally, the variable importance in the projection (VIP) method was used to identify subsets of bands that could successfully discriminate the forest species. Results indicated that the PLS-DA model that used all the AISA Eagle bands (n = 230) produced an overall accuracy of 80.61% and a kappa value of 0.77, with user's and producer's accuracies ranging from 50% to 100%. In comparison, incorporating the optimal subset of VIP selected wavebands (n = 78) in the PLS-DA model resulted in an improved overall accuracy of 88.78% and a kappa value of 0.87, with user's and producer's accuracies ranging from 70% to 100%. Bands located predominantly within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (393-723 nm) showed the most capability in terms of discriminating between the six commercial forest species. Overall, the research has demonstrated the potential of using PLS-DA for reducing the dimensionality of hyperspectral datasets as well as determining the optimal subset of bands to produce the highest classification accuracies.

  7. Extrapolation of in situ data from 1-km squares to adjacent squares using remote sensed imagery and airborne lidar data for the assessment of habitat diversity and extent.

    PubMed

    Lang, M; Vain, A; Bunce, R G H; Jongman, R H G; Raet, J; Sepp, K; Kuusemets, V; Kikas, T; Liba, N

    2015-03-01

    Habitat surveillance and subsequent monitoring at a national level is usually carried out by recording data from in situ sample sites located according to predefined strata. This paper describes the application of remote sensing to the extension of such field data recorded in 1-km squares to adjacent squares, in order to increase sample number without further field visits. Habitats were mapped in eight central squares in northeast Estonia in 2010 using a standardized recording procedure. Around one of the squares, a special study site was established which consisted of the central square and eight surrounding squares. A Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image was used for correlation with in situ data. An airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) vegetation height map was also included in the classification. A series of tests were carried out by including the lidar data and contrasting analytical techniques, which are described in detail in the paper. Training accuracy in the central square varied from 75 to 100 %. In the extrapolation procedure to the surrounding squares, accuracy varied from 53.1 to 63.1 %, which improved by 10 % with the inclusion of lidar data. The reasons for this relatively low classification accuracy were mainly inherent variability in the spectral signatures of habitats but also differences between the dates of imagery acquisition and field sampling. Improvements could therefore be made by better synchronization of the field survey and image acquisition as well as by dividing general habitat categories (GHCs) into units which are more likely to have similar spectral signatures. However, the increase in the number of sample kilometre squares compensates for the loss of accuracy in the measurements of individual squares. The methodology can be applied in other studies as the procedures used are readily available. PMID:25648761

  8. Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to derive high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish. Generally, the use of traditional manual surveying methods to map levees is a costly and time consuming process that typically produces cross-levee profiles every few hundred meters, at best. The purpose of our paper is to describe and test methods for extracting levee crest elevations in an efficient, comprehensive manner using high resolution lidar generated DEMs. In addition, the vertical uncertainty in the elevation data and its effect on the resultant estimate of levee crest heights is addressed in an assessment of whether the federal levees in our study meet the USACE minimum height design criteria.

  9. Method for indexing and retrieving manufacturing-specific digital imagery based on image content

    DOEpatents

    Ferrell, Regina K.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.

    2004-06-15

    A method for indexing and retrieving manufacturing-specific digital images based on image content comprises three steps. First, at least one feature vector can be extracted from a manufacturing-specific digital image stored in an image database. In particular, each extracted feature vector corresponds to a particular characteristic of the manufacturing-specific digital image, for instance, a digital image modality and overall characteristic, a substrate/background characteristic, and an anomaly/defect characteristic. Notably, the extracting step includes generating a defect mask using a detection process. Second, using an unsupervised clustering method, each extracted feature vector can be indexed in a hierarchical search tree. Third, a manufacturing-specific digital image associated with a feature vector stored in the hierarchicial search tree can be retrieved, wherein the manufacturing-specific digital image has image content comparably related to the image content of the query image. More particularly, can include two data reductions, the first performed based upon a query vector extracted from a query image. Subsequently, a user can select relevant images resulting from the first data reduction. From the selection, a prototype vector can be calculated, from which a second-level data reduction can be performed. The second-level data reduction can result in a subset of feature vectors comparable to the prototype vector, and further comparable to the query vector. An additional fourth step can include managing the hierarchical search tree by substituting a vector average for several redundant feature vectors encapsulated by nodes in the hierarchical search tree.

  10. Using high-resolution digital aerial imagery to map land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, J.J.; Robinson, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has used aerial photography to map land cover/land use on federally owned and managed lands for over 20 years. Until recently, that process used 23- by 23-centimeter (9- by 9-inch) analog aerial photos to classify vegetation along the Upper Mississippi River System, on National Wildlife Refuges, and in National Parks. With digital aerial cameras becoming more common and offering distinct advantages over analog film, UMESC transitioned to an entirely digital mapping process in 2009. Though not without challenges, this method has proven to be much more accurate and efficient when compared to the analog process.

  11. A digital system to produce imagery from SAR data. [Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a digital processing algorithm and its associated system design for producing images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The proposed system uses the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach to perform the two-dimensional correlation process. The range migration problem, which is often a major obstacle to efficient processing, can be alleviated by approximating the locus of echoes from a point target by several linear segments. SAR data corresponding to each segment is correlated separately, and the results are coherently summed to produce full-resolution images. This processing approach exhibits greatly improved computation efficiency relative to conventional digital processing methods.

  12. Applying emerging digital video interface standards to airborne avionics sensor and digital map integrations: benefits outweigh the initial costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehl, C. Stephen

    1996-06-01

    Video signal system performance can be compromised in a military aircraft cockpit management system (CMS) with the tailoring of vintage Electronics Industries Association (EIA) RS170 and RS343A video interface standards. Video analog interfaces degrade when induced system noise is present. Further signal degradation has been traditionally associated with signal data conversions between avionics sensor outputs and the cockpit display system. If the CMS engineering process is not carefully applied during the avionics video and computing architecture development, extensive and costly redesign will occur when visual sensor technology upgrades are incorporated. Close monitoring and technical involvement in video standards groups provides the knowledge-base necessary for avionic systems engineering organizations to architect adaptable and extendible cockpit management systems. With the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the process of adopting the Digital HDTV Grand Alliance System standard proposed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC), the entertainment and telecommunications industries are adopting and supporting the emergence of new serial/parallel digital video interfaces and data compression standards that will drastically alter present NTSC-M video processing architectures. The re-engineering of the U.S. Broadcasting system must initially preserve the electronic equipment wiring networks within broadcast facilities to make the transition to HDTV affordable. International committee activities in technical forums like ITU-R (former CCIR), ANSI/SMPTE, IEEE, and ISO/IEC are establishing global consensus on video signal parameterizations that support a smooth transition from existing analog based broadcasting facilities to fully digital computerized systems. An opportunity exists for implementing these new video interface standards over existing video coax/triax cabling in military aircraft cockpit management systems. Reductions in signal

  13. Assessment of the Spatial Co-registration of Multitemporal Imagery from Large Format Digital Cameras in the Context of Detailed Change Detection

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Lloyd L.; Stow, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Large format digital camera (LFDC) systems are becoming more broadly available and regularly collect image data over large areas. Spectral and radiometric attributes of imagery from LFDC systems make this type of image data appropriate for semi-automated change detection. However, achieving accurate spatial co-registration between multitemporal image sets is necessary for semi-automated change detection. This study investigates the accuracy of co-registration between multitemporal image sets acquired using the Leica Geosystems ADS40, Intergraph Z/I Imaging® DMC, and Vexcel UltraCam-D sensors in areas of gentle, moderate, and extreme terrain relief. Custom image sets were collected and orthorectified by imagery vendors, with guidance from the authors. Results indicate that imagery acquired by vendors operating LFDC systems may be co- registered with pixel or sub-pixel level accuracy, even for environments with high terrain relief. Specific image acquisition and processing procedures facilitating this level of co- registration are discussed.

  14. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Dillon, Whalen W.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major threats to forest health. This study examines the impacts of fire and exotic disease (sudden oak death) on forests, with an emphasis on the assessment of post-fire burn severity in a forest where trees have experienced three stages of disease progression pre-fire: early-stage (trees retaining dried foliage and fine twigs), middle-stage (trees losing fine crown fuels), and late-stage (trees falling down). The research was conducted by applying Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to MASTER airborne images that were acquired immediately following the fire for rapid assessment and contained both high-spatial (4 m) and high-spectral (50 bands) resolutions. Although GEOBIA has gradually become a standard tool for analyzing high-spatial resolution imagery, high-spectral resolution data (dozens to hundreds of bands) can dramatically reduce computation efficiency in the process of segmentation and object-based variable extraction, leading to complicated variable selection for succeeding modeling. Hence, we also assessed two widely used band reduction algorithms, PCA (principal component analysis) and MNF (minimum noise fraction), for the delineation of image objects and the subsequent performance of burn severity models using either PCA or MNF derived variables. To increase computation efficiency, only the top 5 PCA and MNF and top 10 PCA and MNF components were evaluated, which accounted for 10% and 20% of the total number of the original 50 spectral bands, respectively. Results show that if no band reduction was applied the models developed for the three stages of disease progression had relatively

  15. A Simple Expedient Method for Interpreting the Landscape With Digital Imagery Tools: The Secret Srings Landslide as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, B.; de La Fuente, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    The volcanic borderland between California and Oregon is a remote, pristine area, with limited geologic/environmental information available. This landscape is dominated by the 300-500 m Klamath River gorge, which is incised through Cascade volcanic rocks. Weak pyroclastic rocks exposed in the gorge facilitated the development of massive landslides, the largest of which is the Secret Spring Landslide (Williams 1949), (Hammond 1983), (US Forest Service 1983, 1996), (Hazlett, et al, 1997). It is 2- 4 km wide, 5 km long, and located south of the river, about 11 km upstream from Copco Reservoir. Three dimensional images (from 30 m DEM's) viewed on a monitor screen were used to stratify the landscape around the landslide in an iterative, intuitive process, as follows: a) Observe feature in an image; b) Inspect feature on air photos (stereoscopically) and in the field; c) Examine image again, modifying viewing parameters (scale, relief, sun angle, tilt, etc.) and make new interpretations. This process allows discrimination and delineation of various terrains, e.g., talus slopes., glacial features, landslide scarps, more active to less active landslides, fractures, faults, lineations, evidence of river blockage, abandoned stream channels, etc. Manipulation of viewing parameters is critical for interpretation. Modifying the parameters challenges the interpreter to reexamine the processes involved in shaping the terrain. Focusing on the regional view allows integration of innumerable details of the terrain to define each local view. For the digital imagery work "Hawkeye" digital software developed by M. Vannier was used, (copy) 18 Software, Portland, OR (18software.com).

  16. Age discrimination among basalt flows using digitally enhanced LANDSAT imagery. [Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    Digitally enhanced LANDSAT MSS data were used to discriminate among basalt flows of historical to Tertiary age, at a test site in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Spectral signatures compared favorably with a field-defined classification that permits discrimination among five groups of basalt flows on the basis of geomorphic criteria. Characteristics that contributed to age definition include: surface texture, weathering, color, drainage evolution, and khabrah development. The inherent gradation in the evolution of geomorphic parameters, however, makes visual extrapolation between areas subjective. Therefore, incorporation of spectrally-derived volcanic units into the mapping process should produce more quantitatively consistent age groupings.

  17. Semi-Automated Approach for Mapping Urban Trees from Integrated Aerial LiDAR Point Cloud and Digital Imagery Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogon-Yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-09-01

    Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  18. RPC Stereo Processor (rsp) - a Software Package for Digital Surface Model and Orthophoto Generation from Satellite Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, R.

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale Digital Surface Models (DSM) are very useful for many geoscience and urban applications. Recently developed dense image matching methods have popularized the use of image-based very high resolution DSM. Many commercial/public tools that implement matching methods are available for perspective images, but there are rare handy tools for satellite stereo images. In this paper, a software package, RPC (rational polynomial coefficient) stereo processor (RSP), is introduced for this purpose. RSP implements a full pipeline of DSM and orthophoto generation based on RPC modelled satellite imagery (level 1+), including level 2 rectification, geo-referencing, point cloud generation, pan-sharpen, DSM resampling and ortho-rectification. A modified hierarchical semi-global matching method is used as the current matching strategy. Due to its high memory efficiency and optimized implementation, RSP can be used in normal PC to produce large format DSM and orthophotos. This tool was developed for internal use, and may be acquired by researchers for academic and non-commercial purpose to promote the 3D remote sensing applications.

  19. Definition and trade-off study of reconfigurable airborne digital computer system organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conn, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    A highly-reliable, fault-tolerant reconfigurable computer system for aircraft applications was developed. The development and application reliability and fault-tolerance assessment techniques are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the needs of an all-digital, fly-by-wire control system appropriate for a passenger-carrying airplane.

  20. Formal methods and their role in digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1995-01-01

    This report is based on one prepared as a chapter for the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook (a guide to assist FAA certification specialists with advanced technology issues). Its purpose is to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used in critical applications; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. The presentation concentrates on the rationale for formal methods and on their contribution to assurance for critical applications within a context such as that provided by DO-178B (the guidelines for software used on board civil aircraft); it is intended as an introduction for those to whom these topics are new.

  1. Digital Intermediate Frequency Receiver Module For Use In Airborne Sar Applications

    DOEpatents

    Tise, Bertice L.; Dubbert, Dale F.

    2005-03-08

    A digital IF receiver (DRX) module directly compatible with advanced radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The DRX can combine a 1 G-Sample/sec 8-bit ADC with high-speed digital signal processor, such as high gate-count FPGA technology or ASICs to realize a wideband IF receiver. DSP operations implemented in the DRX can include quadrature demodulation and multi-rate, variable-bandwidth IF filtering. Pulse-to-pulse (Doppler domain) filtering can also be implemented in the form of a presummer (accumulator) and an azimuth prefilter. An out of band noise source can be employed to provide a dither signal to the ADC, and later be removed by digital signal processing. Both the range and Doppler domain filtering operations can be implemented using a unique pane architecture which allows on-the-fly selection of the filter decimation factor, and hence, the filter bandwidth. The DRX module can include a standard VME-64 interface for control, status, and programming. An interface can provide phase history data to the real-time image formation processors. A third front-panel data port (FPDP) interface can send wide bandwidth, raw phase histories to a real-time phase history recorder for ground processing.

  2. Quantifying the Availability of Tidewater Glacial Ice as Habitat for Harbor Seals in a Tidewater Glacial Fjord in Alaska Using Object-Based Image Analysis of Airborne Visible Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Haselwimmer, C. E.; Gens, R.; Womble, J. N.; Ver Hoef, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tidewater glaciers are prominent landscape features that play a significant role in landscape and ecosystem processes along the southeastern and southcentral coasts of Alaska. Tidewater glaciers calve large icebergs that serve as an important substrate for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) for resting, pupping, nursing young, molting, and avoiding predators. Many of the tidewater glaciers in Alaska are retreating, which may influence harbor seal populations. Our objectives are to investigate the relationship between ice conditions and harbor seal distributions, which are poorly understood, in John's Hopkins Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, using a combination of airborne remote sensing and statistical modeling techniques. We present an overview of some results from Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) for classification of a time series of very high spatial resolution (4 cm pixels) airborne imagery acquired over John's Hopkins Inlet during the harbor seal pupping season in June and during the molting season in August from 2007 - 2012. Using OBIA we have developed a workflow to automate processing of the large volumes (~1250 images/survey) of airborne visible imagery for 1) classification of ice products (e.g. percent ice cover, percent brash ice, percent ice bergs) at a range of scales, and 2) quantitative determination of ice morphological properties such as iceberg size, roundness, and texture that are not found in traditional per-pixel classification approaches. These ice classifications and morphological variables are then used in statistical models to assess relationships with harbor seal abundance and distribution. Ultimately, understanding these relationships may provide novel perspectives on the spatial and temporal variation of harbor seals in tidewater glacial fjords.

  3. Enhancing a RADARSAT/ICESat Digital Elevation Model of West Antarctica Using MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran, T. M.; Scambos, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    An image enhancement approach is used to develop a new digital elevation map of West Antarctica, combining multiple MODIS images and both radar altimetry and ICESat laser altimetry Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. The method combines the wide image coverage of MODIS, and its high radiometric sensitivity (which equates to high sunward slope sensitivity), with the high precision and accuracy of ICESat and combined ICESat and radar altimetry DEMs. We calibrate brightness-to-slope relationships for several MODIS images of the central West Antarctic using smoothed DEMs derived from both sources. Using the calibrations, we then created, first, a slope map of the ice sheet surface from the image data (regressing slope information from many images), and then integrated this absolute slope map to yield complete DEMs for the region. ICESat (as of September 2007) has acquired a series of eleven near-repeat tracks over the Antarctic during the period September 2003 to April 2007, covering the continent to 86 deg S. ICESat data are acquired as a series of spot elevations, averaging a ~60m diameter surface region every ~172m. However, ICESat track paths have spacings wide enough (2 km at 85 deg; 20 - 50 km at 75 deg) that some surface ice dynamical features (e.g. flowlines, undulations, ice rises) are missed by the track data used to construct the ICESat DEM. Radar altimetry can provide some of the missing data north of 81.5 deg, but only to a maximum resolution of about 5 km. A set of cloud-cleared MODIS band 1 data from both the Aqua and Terra platforms acquired during the 2003-2004 austral summer, used in generating the Mosaic of Antarctica, MOA, surface morphology image map, were used for the image enhancement. Past analyses of the slope-brightness relationship for MODIS have shown ice surface slope precisions of +/- 0.00015. ICESat spot elevations have nominal precisions of ~5 cm under ideal conditions, although thin-cloud effects and mislocation errors can magnify these

  4. Variations in clast morphology for different till fractions: implementation of digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2014-05-01

    The form of clastic particles provides information about debris history including abrasion and transportation which are vital to geomorphological research because of its usefulness for differentiating subglacial debris form englacialy, supraglacialy and fluvially transported sediments, and for understanding subglacial processes. There are numerous attempts to clastic particles form assessment, both qualitative and quantitative and advance in technology enables the use of digital imaging and image processing in order to calculate the precise indicators of shape and roundness (small-scale surface features superimposed on shape and roundness are not a subject of this study). Computer calculations are fast, reliable and objective and its use decrease probability of errors. They are applicable to till deposits analysis and may help in understanding the processes of glacial deposition. Till deposits consist of a mixture of various fractions of sediment, where coarser and thinner grains are together activated, entrained in ice, transported, deposited and post-depositional transformed together in the same time and conditions. That implies similarity of processes acting on the particles, but not necessarily theirs effects. Physical properties of grain are of great significance for its vulnerability to acting forces. An important feature of the tills is grain size, which has a high volatility in a sample. The hypothesis of this issue suggests it is possible that different fractions of till sediment have significantly different form characteristics. Verification of the thesis is important because standardly only one fraction is selected to analysis and to draw conclusions from. Main objective is to test differences in clast morphology for different till fraction. In order to answer the research problem, the author has examined samples from a contemporary glaciated region, Nordenskiöld glacier foreland in central Spitsbergen. During the field work samples were collected from

  5. The Sensitivity of a Volcanic Flow Model to Digital Elevation Models From Diverse Sources: Digitized Map Contours and Airborne Interferometric Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, N. F.; Manville, V.; Heron, D. W.

    2001-12-01

    A growing trend in the field of volcanic hazard assessment is the use of computer models of a variety of flows to predict potential areas of devastation. The accuracy of these computer models depends on two factors, the nature and veracity of the flow model itself, and the accuracy of the topographic data set over which it is run. All digital elevation models (DEMs) contain innate errors. The nature of these depends on the accuracy of the original measurements of the terrain, and on the method used to build the DEM. We investigate the effect that these errors have on the performance of a simple volcanic flow model designed to delineate areas at risk from lahar inundation. The volcanic flow model was run over two DEMs of southern Ruapehu volcano derived from (1) digitized 1:50,000 topographic maps, and (2) airborne C-band synthetic aperture radar interferometry obtained using the NASA AIRSAR system. On steep slopes (exceeding 4 degrees), drainage channels are more likely to be incised deeply, and flow paths predicted by the model are generally in agreement for both DEMs despite the differing nature of the source data. Over shallow slopes (approx. 4 degrees and less), where channels are less deep and are more likely to meander, problems were encountered with flow path prediction in both DEMs due to interpolation errors and forestry. The predicted lateral and longitudinal extent of deposit inundation was also sensitive to the type of DEM used, most likely in response to the differing degrees of surface texture preserved in the DEMs. A technique to refine contour-derived DEMs and reduce the error in predicted flow paths was tested to improve the reliability of the modeled flow path predictions. The suitability of forthcoming topographic measurements acquired by a single-pass space-borne instrument, the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) are also tested.

  6. Automated thematic mapping and change detection of ERTS-A images. [digital interpretation of Arizona imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramenopoulos, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. For the recognition of terrain types, spatial signatures are developed from the diffraction patterns of small areas of ERTS-1 images. This knowledge is exploited for the measurements of a small number of meaningful spatial features from the digital Fourier transforms of ERTS-1 image cells containing 32 x 32 picture elements. Using these spatial features and a heuristic algorithm, the terrain types in the vicinity of Phoenix, Arizona were recognized by the computer with a high accuracy. Then, the spatial features were combined with spectral features and using the maximum likelihood criterion the recognition accuracy of terrain types increased substantially. It was determined that the recognition accuracy with the maximum likelihood criterion depends on the statistics of the feature vectors. Nonlinear transformations of the feature vectors are required so that the terrain class statistics become approximately Gaussian. It was also determined that for a given geographic area the statistics of the classes remain invariable for a period of a month but vary substantially between seasons.

  7. Processing of SeaMARC swath sonar imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, L.; Malinverno, A.; Edwards, M.; Ryan, W. )

    1990-05-01

    Side-scan swath sonar systems have become an increasingly important means of mapping the sea floor. Two such systems are the deep-towed, high-resolution SeaMARC I sonar, which has a variable swath width of up to 5 km, and the shallow-towed, lower-resolution SeaMARC II sonar, which has a swath width of 10 km. The sea-floor imagery of acoustic backscatter output by the SeaMARC sonars is analogous to aerial photographs and airborne side-looking radar images of continental topography. Geologic interpretation of the sea-floor imagery is greatly facilitated by image processing. Image processing of the digital backscatter data involves removal of noise by median filtering, spatial filtering to remove sonar scans of anomalous intensity, across-track corrections to remove beam patterns caused by nonuniform response of the sonar transducers to changes in incident angle, and contrast enhancement by histogram equalization to maximize the available dynamic range. Correct geologic interpretation requires submarine structural fabrics to be displayed in their proper locations and orientations. Geographic projection of sea-floor imagery is achieved by merging the enhanced imagery with the sonar vehicle navigation and correcting for vehicle attitude. Co-registration of bathymetry with sonar imagery introduces sea-floor relief and permits the imagery to be displayed in three-dimensional perspectives, furthering the ability of the marine geologist to infer the processes shaping formerly hidden subsea terrains.

  8. Design of a fault tolerant airborne digital computer. Volume 1: Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wensley, J. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Green, M. W.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the architecture of a fault tolerant digital computer for an advanced commercial aircraft. All of the computations of the aircraft, including those presently carried out by analogue techniques, are to be carried out in this digital computer. Among the important qualities of the computer are the following: (1) The capacity is to be matched to the aircraft environment. (2) The reliability is to be selectively matched to the criticality and deadline requirements of each of the computations. (3) The system is to be readily expandable. contractible, and (4) The design is to appropriate to post 1975 technology. Three candidate architectures are discussed and assessed in terms of the above qualities. Of the three candidates, a newly conceived architecture, Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT), provides the best match to the above qualities. In addition SIFT is particularly simple and believable. The other candidates, Bus Checker System (BUCS), also newly conceived in this project, and the Hopkins multiprocessor are potentially more efficient than SIFT in the use of redundancy, but otherwise are not as attractive.

  9. Sequential digital elevation models of active lava flows from ground-based stereo time-lapse imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a framework for deriving sequences of digital elevation models (DEMs) for the analysis of active lava flows using oblique stereo-pair time-lapse imagery. A photo-based technique was favoured over laser-based alternatives due to low equipment cost, high portability and capability for network expansion, with images of advancing flows captured by digital SLR cameras over durations of up to several hours. However, under typical field scale scenarios, relative camera orientations cannot be rigidly maintained (e.g. through the use of a stereo bar), preventing the use of standard stereo time-lapse processing software. Thus, we trial semi-automated DEM-sequence workflows capable of handling the small camera motions, variable image quality and restricted photogrammetric control that result from the practicalities of data collection at remote and hazardous sites. The image processing workflows implemented either link separate close-range photogrammetry and traditional stereo-matching software, or are integrated in a single software package based on structure-from-motion (SfM). We apply these techniques in contrasting case studies from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii and Mount Etna, Sicily, which differ in scale, duration and image texture. On Kilauea, the advance direction of thin fluid lava lobes was difficult to forecast, preventing good distribution of control. Consequently, volume changes calculated through the different workflows differed by ∼10% for DEMs (over ∼30 m2) that were captured once a minute for 37 min. On Mt. Etna, more predictable advance (∼3 m h-1 for ∼3 h) of a thicker, more viscous lava allowed robust control to be deployed and volumetric change results were generally within 5% (over ∼500 m2). Overall, the integrated SfM software was more straightforward to use and, under favourable conditions, produced results comparable to those from the close-range photogrammetry pipeline. However, under conditions with limited options for photogrammetric

  10. Design of a fault tolerant airborne digital computer. Volume 2: Computational requirements and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratner, R. S.; Shapiro, E. B.; Zeidler, H. M.; Wahlstrom, S. E.; Clark, C. B.; Goldberg, J.

    1973-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work on the design of a fault tolerant digital computer for aircraft. Volume 2 is composed of two parts. Part 1 is concerned with the computational requirements associated with an advanced commercial aircraft. Part 2 reviews the technology that will be available for the implementation of the computer in the 1975-1985 period. With regard to the computation task 26 computations have been categorized according to computational load, memory requirements, criticality, permitted down-time, and the need to save data in order to effect a roll-back. The technology part stresses the impact of large scale integration (LSI) on the realization of logic and memory. Also considered was module interconnection possibilities so as to minimize fault propagation.

  11. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Dillon, Whalen W.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major threats to forest health. This study examines the impacts of fire and exotic disease (sudden oak death) on forests, with an emphasis on the assessment of post-fire burn severity in a forest where trees have experienced three stages of disease progression pre-fire: early-stage (trees retaining dried foliage and fine twigs), middle-stage (trees losing fine crown fuels), and late-stage (trees falling down). The research was conducted by applying Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to MASTER airborne images that were acquired immediately following the fire for rapid assessment and contained both high-spatial (4 m) and high-spectral (50 bands) resolutions. Although GEOBIA has gradually become a standard tool for analyzing high-spatial resolution imagery, high-spectral resolution data (dozens to hundreds of bands) can dramatically reduce computation efficiency in the process of segmentation and object-based variable extraction, leading to complicated variable selection for succeeding modeling. Hence, we also assessed two widely used band reduction algorithms, PCA (principal component analysis) and MNF (minimum noise fraction), for the delineation of image objects and the subsequent performance of burn severity models using either PCA or MNF derived variables. To increase computation efficiency, only the top 5 PCA and MNF and top 10 PCA and MNF components were evaluated, which accounted for 10% and 20% of the total number of the original 50 spectral bands, respectively. Results show that if no band reduction was applied the models developed for the three stages of disease progression had relatively

  12. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  13. A comparative study of reflectance spectral indices and digital camera imagery to quantify in-vivo foliar chlorophyll concentration in common New England forest species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michael T.

    Quantifying foliar chlorophyll content is an important procedure in ecosystem studies. Established extraction techniques for quantifying chlorophyll concentration were compared to hyperspectral reflectance indices collected with a GER2600 spectroradiometer, and digital image indices derived from digital camera imagery. Findings show REIP:(R 2=0.52) is a strong indicator reflectance changes associated with plant stress, but RE3/RE2:(R2=0.72), FD715/FD705:(R2=0.77) and CRI red-edge(d) :(R2=0.73) predicted differences in chlorophyll concentration across a range of species more accurately. Many spectral indices predict chlorophyll concentrations more accurately than the REIP, but fail to document the blue-shift associated with foliar stress. Camera imagery results show gray card normalized percent red (R-GC)/( R+GC):(R2=0.63) and percent green (G-GC)/(G+GC):(R 2=0.68) to be strong predictors of chlorophyll concentration across multiple species. For individual species (%Red-%Blue)/(%Red+%Blue) or ( RvB:%R) is a reliable camera index that tracks phenological changes in chlorophyll accurately. Pearson's r across the 2008 growing season for black oak (N=40) was (R2=-0.95), and sugar maple (N=33) was (R2=-0.64).

  14. Applications of satellite imagery and digital topography to the construction of a crustal-scale transect across the central Andes at 20[degrees]S latitude

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, T.L.; Isacks, B.L. ); Ellis, J.M. )

    1993-02-01

    The central Andean plateau is one of the Earth's most remote and poorly mapped regions. The plateau has an average elevation of 3.7 km, and extends from central Peru to at least 30[degrees]S latitude. The plateau and flanking Subandean foldthrust belt (FTB) reach their greatest width near 20[degrees]S, and at this latitude both the FTB and the basin within the plateau (Altiplano basin) are areas of active hydrocarbon exploration. We have used Landsat TM imagery, stereoscopic SPOT imagery, and digital topography to construct a crustal-scale transect across the central Andes in order to better understand Andean tectonics at this latitude. Beginning at the Peru-Chile trench and continuing to the east, the transect crosses the Coastal Cordillera, Longitudinal Valley, Active Magmatic Arc, Altiplano basin, Eastern Cordillera, Subandean fold-thrust belt, and Subandean foreland basin. A digital elevation model across the entire region illustrates that the magmatic arc, Altiplano basin, and Eastern cordillera all lie within the plateau region. Satellite imagery across the transect illustrates the characteristic geology, structure, and geomorphology of each of the major morphotectonic regions, as well as the nature of their boundaries. The transect has led us to a number of new insights on Andean tectonics at this latitude. Most importantly, it supports a two-stage model of Andean Cenozoic growth in which a widespread Oligocene to mid-Miocene compressional deformation in the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera is followed in the late Miocene and Pliocene by thrusting localized east of the Eastern Cordillera, forming the Subandean fold-thrust belt.

  15. Spectral discrimination of lithologic facies in the granite of the Pedra Branca Goias using LANDSAT 1 digital imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J.; Almeido, R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating geobotanical associations observed in zones of cassiterite-rich metasomatic alterations in the granitic body of Serra da Pedra Branca was investigated. Computer compatible tapes of dry and rainy season imagery were analyzed. Image enlargement, corrections, linear contrast stretch, and ratioing of noncorrelated spectral bands were performed using the Image 100 with a grey scale of 256 levels between zero and 255. Only bands 5 and 7 were considered. Band ratioing of noncorrelated channels (5 and 7) of rainy season imagery permits distinction of areas with different vegetation coverage percentage, which corresponds to geobotanial associations in the area studied. The linear contrast stretch of channel 5, especially of the dry season image is very unsatisfactory in this area.

  16. High-resolution digital elevation model from tri-stereo Pleiades-1 satellite imagery for lava flow volume estimates at Fogo Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnardi, Marco; González, Pablo J.; Hooper, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Resolving changes in topography through time using accurate high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) is key to understanding active volcanic processes. For the first time in a volcanic environment, we utilize very high-resolution tri-stereo optical imagery acquired by the Pleiades-1 satellite constellation and generate a 1 m resolution DEM of Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde -- the most active volcano in the Eastern Atlantic region. Point cloud density is increased by a factor of 6.5 compared to conventional stereo imagery, and the number of 1 m2 pixels with no height measurements is reduced by 43%. We use the DEM to quantify topographic changes associated with the 2014-2015 eruption at Fogo. Height differences between the posteruptive Pleiades-1 DEM and the preeruptive topography from TanDEM-X give a lava flow volume of 45.83 ± 0.02 × 106 m3, emplaced over an area of 4.8 km2 at a mean rate of 6.8 m3 s-1.

  17. Airborne remote sensing in precision viticolture: assessment of quality and quantity vineyard production using multispectral imagery: a case study in Velletri, Rome surroundings (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontana, Gianluca; Papale, Dario; Girard, Filippo; Belli, Claudio; Pietromarchi, Paolo; Tiberi, Domenico; Comandini, Maria C.

    2009-09-01

    During 2008 an experimental study aimed to investigate the capabilities of a new Airborne Remote sensing platform as an aid in precision viticulture was conducted. The study was carried out on 2 areas located in the town of Velletri, near Rome; the acquisitions were conducted on 07-08-2008 and on 09-09-2008, using ASPIS (Advanced Spectroscopic Imager System) the new airborne multispectral sensor, capable to acquire 12 narrow spectral bands (10 nm) located in the visible and near-infrared region. Several vegetation indices, for a total of 22 independent variables, were tested for the estimation of different oenological parameters. Anova test showed that several oenochemical parameters, such as sugars and acidity, differ according to the variety taken into consideration. The remotely sensed data were significantly correlated with the following oenochemical parameters: Leaf Surface Exposed (SFE) (correlation coefficient R2 ~ 0.8), wood pruning (R2 ~ 0.8), reducing sugars (R2 ~ 0.6 and Root Mean Square Error ~ 5g/l), total acidity (R2 ~ 0.6 and RMSE ~ 0.5 g/l), polyphenols (R2~ 0.9) and anthocyanins content (R2 ~ 0.89) in order to provide "prescriptives" thematic maps related to the oenological variables of interest, the relationships previously carried out have been applied to the vegetation indices.

  18. Practical example for use of the supervised vicarious calibration (SVC) method on multisource hyperspectral imagery data - ValCalHyp airborne hyperspectral campaign under the EUFAR framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, A.; Ben Dor, E.

    2014-09-01

    A novel approach for radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction of airborne hyperspectral (HRS) data, termed supervised vicarious calibration (SVC) was proposed by Brook and Ben-Dor in 2010. The present study was aimed at validating this SVC approach by simultaneously using several different airborne HSR sensors that acquired HSR data over several selected sites at the same time. The general goal of this study was to apply a cross-calibration approach to examine the capability and stability of the SVC method and to examine its validity. This paper reports the result of the multi sensors campaign took place over Salon de Provenance, France on behalf of the ValCalHyp project took place in 2011. The SVC method enabled the rectification of the radiometric drift of each sensor and improves their performance significantly. The flight direction of the SVC targets was found to be a critical issue for such correction and recommendations have been set for future utilization of this novel method. The results of the SVC method were examined by comparing ground-truth spectra of several selected validation targets with the image spectra as well as by comparing the classified water quality images generated from all sensors over selected water bodies.

  19. Imagery Integration Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  20. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): A Medium-Altitude, Digitization-Only, Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Rabine, David L.; Hofton, Michelle A.

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne, scanning laser altimeter designed and developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LVIS operates at altitudes up to 10 km above ground, and is capable of producing a data swath up to 1000 m wide nominally with 25 m wide footprints. The entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized, allowing unambiguous determination of range and return pulse structure. Combined with aircraft position and attitude knowledge, this instrument produces topographic maps with decimeter accuracy and vertical height and structure measurements of vegetation. The laser transmitter is a diode-pumped Nd:YAG oscillator producing 1064 nm, 10 nsec, 5 mJ pulses at repetition rates up to 500 Hz. LVIS has recently demonstrated its ability to determine topography (including sub-canopy) and vegetation height and structure on flight missions to various forested regions in the U.S. and Central America. The LVIS system is the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission (a NASA Earth remote sensing satellite due for launch in 2000), providing simulated data sets and a platform for instrument proof-of-concept studies. The topography maps and return waveforms produced by LVIS provide Earth scientists with a unique data set allowing studies of topography, hydrology, and vegetation with unmatched accuracy and coverage.

  1. An automated, open-source pipeline for mass production of digital elevation models (DEMs) from very-high-resolution commercial stereo satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, David E.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Moratto, Zachary M.; Smith, Benjamin E.; Joughin, Ian R.; Porter, Claire; Morin, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We adapted the automated, open source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthoimages from very-high-resolution (VHR) commercial imagery of the Earth. These modifications include support for rigorous and rational polynomial coefficient (RPC) sensor models, sensor geometry correction, bundle adjustment, point cloud co-registration, and significant improvements to the ASP code base. We outline a processing workflow for ∼0.5 m ground sample distance (GSD) DigitalGlobe WorldView-1 and WorldView-2 along-track stereo image data, with an overview of ASP capabilities, an evaluation of ASP correlator options, benchmark test results, and two case studies of DEM accuracy. Output DEM products are posted at ∼2 m with direct geolocation accuracy of <5.0 m CE90/LE90. An automated iterative closest-point (ICP) co-registration tool reduces absolute vertical and horizontal error to <0.5 m where appropriate ground-control data are available, with observed standard deviation of ∼0.1-0.5 m for overlapping, co-registered DEMs (n = 14, 17). While ASP can be used to process individual stereo pairs on a local workstation, the methods presented here were developed for large-scale batch processing in a high-performance computing environment. We are leveraging these resources to produce dense time series and regional mosaics for the Earth's polar regions.

  2. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over temperate croplands using visible near-infrared airborne hyperspectral imagery and synchronous field spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, E.; Gilliot, J. M.; Bel, L.; Lefevre, J.; Chehdi, K.

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at identifying the potential of Vis-NIR airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soil types comprised haplic luvisols, calcaric cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites sampled either in 2013 or in the 3 previous years and in 2015 were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering 74 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g Kg-1 and were ∼4 g Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the calibration models derived either from Kennard-Stone or conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling on smoothed spectra. The most generalizable model leading to lowest RMSE value of 3.73 g Kg-1 at the regional scale and 1.44 g Kg-1 at the within-field scale and low bias was the cross-validated leave

  3. Hierarchical object-based classification of ultra-high-resolution digital mapping camera (DMC) imagery for rangeland mapping and assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra high resolution digital aerial photography has great potential to complement or replace ground measurements of vegetation cover for rangeland monitoring and assessment. We investigated object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques for classifying vegetation in southwestern U.S. arid rangelands...

  4. Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

  5. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING AIRBORNE LWIR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne longwave infrared LWIR) hyperspectral imagery was utilized to detect and identify gaseous chemical release plumes at sites in sourthern Texzas. The Airborne Hysperspectral Imager (AHI), developed by the University of Hawaii was flown over a petrochemical facility and a ...

  6. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to investigate the influence of soil nitrogen supplies and variable-rate fertilization to winter wheat growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Yan, Guangjian; Wang, Jihua; Liu, Liangyun; Xue, Xuzhang; Li, Cunjun; Huang, Wenjiang

    2007-10-01

    Advanced technology in airborne detection of crop growth can help optimize the strategies of fertilization, and help maximize the grain output by adjusting field inputs. In this study, Push-broom Hyperspectral Image sensor (PHI) was used to investigate the influence of soil nitrogen supplied and variable-rate fertilization to the growth of winter wheat. The objective was to determine to what extent the reflectance obtained in the 80 visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavebands (from 410nm to 832nm) might be related to differences of variance of soil nitrogen and variable-rate fertilization. Management plots were arranged at Beijing Precision Farming Experimental Station. Three flights were made during the wheat growing season. Several field experiments, including the crop sampling, soil sampling and variable-rate fertilization were carried out in the field. Data were analyzed for each flight and each band separately. Some spectrum indices were derived from PHI images and statistical correlation analysis were carried out among the spectrum indices and soil nitrogen, variable-rate fertilization amount. In addition, the spectrum indices difference between elongation stage and grain filling stage are calculated and the correlation analysis was also carried out. The analysis results indicated that the reflectance of winter wheat is significantly influenced at certain wavelength by the soil nitrogen and the variable-rate fertilization. The soil nitrogen effect was detectable in all the three flights. Differences in response due to soil nitrogen variance were most evident at spectrum indices, such as dλ red, INFLEX, Green/Red, NIRness, DVI and RDVI. Furthermore, analysis results also indicated that the variable fertilization can reduce the growth difference of winter wheat caused by spatial distribution difference of soil nitrogen.

  7. Gully erosion and land degradation in the Souss Basin, southern Morocco - application of airborne and terrestrial imagery and SfM procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peter, Klaus Daniel; Brings, Christine; Iserloh, Thomas; Seeger, Manuel; Ghafrani, Hassan; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Marzolff, Irene; Ait Hssaine, Ali; Ries, Johannes B.

    2014-05-01

    Gully erosion is one major issue in soil erosion and land degradation. This major soil degradation process has affected the Souss Basin, located between the High and the Anti-Atlas, historically, and is increasing nowadays again. Since the 16th century, related to the production of sugar cane, gullies have been incising into the sedimentary fans and alluvial terraces. Today, the intensification of agro-industrial production of citrus fruit and vegetables has led to severe changes in surface geomorphology, and thus again to an increase of gully formation. For the understanding of the dynamics and formation of gullies, a combination of methods is needed, such as characterization of the precipitation patterns and quantification of infiltration and runoff generation dynamics as well as soil erosion rates within the gully catchments. In addition, the continuous and short-term monitoring of the gully morphology is essential in order to quantify the soil loss by gully erosion. Due to the complex 3-dimensional shapes of gullies, with overhangs and bank-cuttings, their assessment is a challenge. This paper aims at presenting a combination of terrestrial and airborne methods for quantifying the gully growth related to intensive agricultural productions in the Souss Basin (southern Morocco). Systematic series of images taken by a fixed-wing UAS are combined with detailed terrestrial images. Images were taken in different short-term to medium-term intervals of 11 months to 8 years, and 3D models were generated by means of structure from motion (SfM) algorithms. From these, gully growth volume and gully erosion rates could be quantified. In addition, the 3D visualization of the gully models - in contrast to more traditional 2.5D models common in GIS environments - allows new insights into the complex forms with undercuts, piping outlets etc and into the processes involved in their evolution.

  8. Synergy of airborne LiDAR and Worldview-2 satellite imagery for land cover and habitat mapping: A BIO_SOS-EODHaM case study for the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mücher, C. A.; Roupioz, L.; Kramer, H.; Bogers, M. M. B.; Jongman, R. H. G.; Lucas, R. M.; Kosmidou, V. E.; Petrou, Z.; Manakos, I.; Padoa-Schioppa, E.; Adamo, M.; Blonda, P.

    2015-05-01

    A major challenge is to develop a biodiversity observation system that is cost effective and applicable in any geographic region. Measuring and reliable reporting of trends and changes in biodiversity requires amongst others detailed and accurate land cover and habitat maps in a standard and comparable way. The objective of this paper is to assess the EODHaM (EO Data for Habitat Mapping) classification results for a Dutch case study. The EODHaM system was developed within the BIO_SOS (The BIOdiversity multi-SOurce monitoring System: from Space TO Species) project and contains the decision rules for each land cover and habitat class based on spectral and height information. One of the main findings is that canopy height models, as derived from LiDAR, in combination with very high resolution satellite imagery provides a powerful input for the EODHaM system for the purpose of generic land cover and habitat mapping for any location across the globe. The assessment of the EODHaM classification results based on field data showed an overall accuracy of 74% for the land cover classes as described according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) taxonomy at level 3, while the overall accuracy was lower (69.0%) for the habitat map based on the General Habitat Category (GHC) system for habitat surveillance and monitoring. A GHC habitat class is determined for each mapping unit on the basis of the composition of the individual life forms and height measurements. The classification showed very good results for forest phanerophytes (FPH) when individual life forms were analyzed in terms of their percentage coverage estimates per mapping unit from the LCCS classification and validated with field surveys. Analysis for shrubby chamaephytes (SCH) showed less accurate results, but might also be due to less accurate field estimates of percentage coverage. Overall, the EODHaM classification results encouraged us to derive the heights of

  9. Correlation of coastal water turbidity and current circulation with ERTS-1 and Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Philpot, W.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R.; Shah, N.

    1974-01-01

    The article reviews investigations of current circulation patterns, suspended sediment concentration, coastal frontal systems, and waste disposal plumes based on visual interpretation and digital analysis of ERTS-1 and Skylab/EREP imagery. Data on conditions in the Delaware Bay area were obtained from 10 ERTS-1 passes and one Skylab pass, with simultaneous surface and airborne sensing. The current patterns and sediments observed by ERTS-1 correlated well with ground-based observations. Methods are suggested which would make it possible to identify certain pollutants and sediment types from multispectral scanner data.

  10. Utilization of digital LANDSAT imagery for the study of granitoid bodies in Rondonia: Case example of the Pedra Branca massif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Almeidafilho, R.; Payolla, B. L.; Depinho, O. G.; Bettencourt, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of digital multispectral MSS-LANDSAT images enhanced through computer techniques and enlarged to a video scale of 1:100.000, show the main geological and structura features of the Pedra Branca granitic massif in Rondonia. These are not observed in aerial photographs or adar images. Field work shows that LANDSAT photogeological units correspond to different facies of granitic rocks in the Pedra Branca massif. Even under the particular characteristics of Amazonia (Tropical Forest, deep weathering, and Quaternary sedimentary covers), an adequate utilization of orbital remote sensing images can be important tools for the orientation of field works.

  11. Evaluation of criteria for selecting the spectral attributes of digital LANDSAT MSS imagery for discriminating lithological units in the lower Curaca River Valley, Bahia. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The use of spectral attributes criteria was investigated, based on measures of statistical distance of separability between thematic classes in MSS digital LANDSAT imagery, in order to select the best subsets of channels in composite colors for the detection and discrimination of lithological units in the lower valley of Curaca River, State of Bahia, Brazil. Three situations were investigated: (1) selection of the three best channels, considering all of the original bands (channels 4, 5, 6, and 7); (2) selection of the three best bands, considering the six MSS band-ratios (channels 4/5, 4/6. 4/7, 5/6, 5/7, and 6/7); and (3) selection of the three best bands in a hybrid approach (the four original bands and the six ratios). A visual analysis was done on color composite images using the selected sets. Results show that the hybrid product (bands 4, 5/7, and 7 with green, blue, and red respectively) and the Normal Color Composite (bands 4, 5, and 7 with blue, green, and red colors respectively) had the best performance.

  12. Evaluation of SPOT imagery data

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z.; Brovey, R.L.; Merembeck, B.F.; Hopkins, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    SPOT, the French satellite imaging system that became operational in April 1986, provides two major advances in satellite imagery technology: (1) a significant increase in spatial resolution of the data to 20 m multispectral and 10 m panchromatic, and (2) stereoscopic capabilities. The structural and stratigraphic mapping capabilities of SPOT data and compare favorably with those of other available space and airborne remote sensing data. In the Rhine graben and Jura Mountains, strike and dip of folded strata can be determined using SPOT stereoscopic imagery, greatly improving the ability to analyze structures in complex areas. The increased spatial resolution also allows many features to be mapped that are not visible on thematic mapper (TM) imagery. In the San Rafael swell, Utah, TM spectral data were combined with SPOT spatial data to map lithostratigraphic units of the exposed Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. SPOT imagery provides information on attitude, geometry, and geomorphic expressions of key marker beds that is not available on TM imagery. Over the Central Basin platform, west Texas, SPOT imagery, compared to TM imagery, provided more precise information on the configuration of outcropping beds and drainage patterns that reflect the subtle surface expression of buried structures.

  13. Design of a modular digital computer system DRL 4 and 5. [design of airborne/spaceborne computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design and development efforts for a spaceborne modular computer system are reported. An initial baseline description is followed by an interface design that includes definition of the overall system response to all classes of failure. Final versions for the register level designs for all module types were completed. Packaging, support and control executive software, including memory utilization estimates and design verification plan, were formalized to insure a soundly integrated design of the digital computer system.

  14. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  15. TSS mapping using ALOS and THEOS imageries over Penang island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

    2013-05-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. This study uses an empirical model, based on actual water quality of total suspended solids (TSS) measurements from the Penang Strait, Malaysia to predict TSS based on optical properties of satellite digital imagery using advanced land observing satellite imagery (ALOS) and Thai earth observation system (THEOS) satellite imageries. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. Water samples were collected simultaneously with the airborne image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory. Water sample's locations were determined by using a handheld GPS. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into radiance values and reflectance values. The reflectance values were used for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated based on the observations of correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviations (RMS) with the sea-truth data. This algorithm was then used to map the TSS concentration over Penang, Malaysia. The TSS map was color-coded and geometrically corrected for visual interpretation. The calibrated algorithm had the R and RMS values of 0.9012 and 5.3651 mg/l respectively for ALOS data. The R and RMS values were 0.8515 and 6.2635 mg/l respectively for THEOS data. This study indicates that TSS mapping can be carried out using remote sensing technique of the satellite digital photography system over Penang, Malaysia.

  16. Validating NASA's Airborne Multikilohertz Microlaser Altimeter (Microaltimeter) by Direct Comparison of Data Taken Over Ocean City, Maryland Against an Existing Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Airborne Multikilohertz Microlaser Altimeter (Microaltimeter) is a scanning, photon-counting laser altimeter, which uses a low energy (less than 10 microJuoles), high repetition rate (approximately 10 kHz) laser, transmitting at 532 nm. A 14 cm diameter telescope images the ground return onto a segmented anode photomultiplier, which provides up to 16 range returns for each fire. Multiple engineering flights were made during 2001 and 2002 over the Maryland and Virginia coastal area, all during daylight hours. Post-processing of the data to geolocate the laser footprint and determine the terrain height requires post- detection Poisson filtering techniques to extract the actual ground returns from the noise. Validation of the instrument's ability to produce accurate terrain heights will be accomplished by direct comparison of data taken over Ocean City, Maryland with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the region produced at Ohio State University (OSU) from other laser altimeter and photographic sources. The techniques employed to produce terrain heights from the Microaltimeter ranges will be shown, along with some preliminary comparisons with the OSU DEM.

  17. Development and Application of a new DACOM Airborne Trace Gas Instrument based on Room-Temperature Laser and Detector Technology and all-Digital Control and Data Processin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; DiGangi, J. P.; Pusede, S. E.; Slate, T. A.; Rana, M.

    2014-12-01

    The DACOM (Differential Absorption Carbon monOxide Measurements) instrument has been used for airborne measurements of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide for nearly four decades. Over the years, the instrument has undergone a nearly continuous series of modifications, taking advantage of improvements in available technology and the benefits of experience, but always utilizing cryogenically cooled lasers and detectors. More recently, though, the availability of room-temperature, higher-power single-mode lasers at the mid-infrared wavelengths used by DACOM has made it possible to replace both the cryogenic lasers and detectors with thermoelectrically cooled versions. And the relative stability of these lasers has allowed us to incorporate an all-digital wavelength stabilization technique developed previously for the Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) instrument. The new DACOM flew first in the summer 2013 SEAC4RS campaign, measuring CO from the DC-8 aircraft, and more recently measuring all three gases from the NASA P-3B aircraft in support of the summer 2014 DISCOVER-AQ campaign. We will present relevant aspects of the new instrument design and operation as well as selected data from recent campaigns illustrating instrument performance and some preliminary science.

  18. Digital Image Processing Techniques for Enhancement and Classification of MR1 Side Scan Sonar Imagery and Preliminary Results of Manganese Nodule Occurrence between the Clarion and Clipperton Fracture Zones, NE Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Park, C.; Park, J.; Kim, K.

    2004-12-01

    The recent growth in the production rate of digital side scan sonar images, coupled with the rapid expansion of systematic seafloor exploration programs, has created a need for fast and quantitative means of processing seafloor imagery. A number of numerical techniques used to enhance and classify imagery produced by long range side scan sonar (MR1) in the Clarion and Clippertion Fracture Zones, NE equatorial Pacific. Side scan sonar imagery is traditionally interpreted visually and qualitatively by experts. Textural Analysis enables a more objective approach, supplementing the interpreter with reliable quantitative results. Grey-level co-occurrence matrices describe numerically textual information and detect subtle details invisible to the human eyes. The area between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones (NE equatorial Pacific) is one of the highest manganese nodule abundance in the world oceans. A detailed analysis of MR1 sonar images and ground truth - free-fall grab (FFG) data in the area, reveals a close relationship between sonar characters of seafloor and manganese nodule occurrence. The close relationship between distribution of sonar imagery and manganese nodule abundance implies that seafloor topography and sediment thickness are important controlling factors for occurrence of manganese nodules.

  19. ATARS/JSIPS/E-O LOROPS imagery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgill, Garth; Kidwell, Orval

    1993-02-01

    The ATARS RMS is an advanced digital image formatting and computing unit. It links the ATARS EO and IR sensors, digital tape recorders and datalink together into a coherent tactical reconnaissance sensor suite. Image management, storage and display functions ensure effective reconnaissance data handling. Comprehensive Operational Flight Program processing facilities provide automatic mission management and effective integration of ATARS with the flight crew, host aircraft, and ground station. data. The Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, Maryland has developed a ground test capability which supplies highly diverse and repeatable data and which provides a solid statistical base for the determination of system resolution. Working closely with the 3246 TW/DOR, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, the exploitable nature of these data has been verified. This paper presents the data as actually taken from ground tests of a pushbroom sensor performed at Eglin Air Force Base and illustrates the methods and techniques employed to analyze and evaluate the resulting imagery. recorded by a moving microscope and by a ccd camera with 1-ms charging time interval. The exact distance between the microscope positions at the time of charging the ccd pixels is deduced from the interference and video synchronization signals. It is expected that a total uncertainty of about 100 nm for a 1000-mm scale will be reached. recorder operates in severe airborne environments. Obviously, this same recorder is also suitable for the airborne acquisition of data for other applications.

  20. High-resolution digital elevation model of lower Cowlitz and Toutle Rivers, adjacent to Mount St. Helens, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of October 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the Toutle River basin, which drains the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and lower Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, continues to monitor and mitigate excess sediment in North and South Fork Toutle River basins to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From October 22–27, 2007, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 273 square kilometers (105 square miles) of lower Cowlitz and Toutle River tributaries from the Columbia River at Kelso, Washington, to upper North Fork Toutle River (below the volcano's edifice), including lower South Fork Toutle River. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at

  1. High-resolution digital elevation model of Mount St. Helens crater and upper North Fork Toutle River basin, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the North Fork Toutle River basin, which drains the northern flank of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, built a sediment retention structure on the North Fork Toutle River in 1989 to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From September 16–20, 2009, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 214 square kilometers (83 square miles) of Mount St. Helens and the upper North Fork Toutle River basin from the sediment retention structure to the volcano's crater. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Final results averaged about five laser last

  2. Airborne imaging sensors for environmental monitoring & surveillance in support of oil spills & recovery efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Coppin, Gaelle; Leavaux, Florian; Neyt, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Collection of pushbroom sensor imagery from a mobile platform requires corrections using inertial measurement units (IMU's) and DGPS in order to create useable imagery for environmental monitoring and surveillance of shorelines in freshwater systems, coastal littoral zones and harbor areas. This paper describes a suite of imaging systems used during collection of hyperspectral imagery in northern Florida panhandle and Gulf of Mexico airborne missions to detect weathered oil in coastal littoral zones. Underlying concepts of pushbroom imagery, the needed corrections for directional changes using DGPS and corrections for platform yaw, pitch, and roll using IMU data is described as well as the development and application of optimal band and spectral regions associated with weathered oil. Pushbroom sensor and frame camera data collected in response to the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster is presented as the scenario documenting environmental monitoring and surveillance techniques using mobile sensing platforms. Data was acquired during the months of February, March, April and May of 2011. The low altitude airborne systems include a temperature stabilized hyperspectral imaging system capable of up to 1024 spectral channels and 1376 spatial across track pixels flown from 3,000 to 4,500 feet altitudes. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD video imagery, a 12.3 megapixel digital, a mapping camera using 9 inch film types that yields scanned aerial imagery with approximately 22,200 by 22,200 pixel multispectral imagery (~255 megapixel RGB multispectral images in order to conduct for spectral-spatial sharpening of fused multispectral, hyperspectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric sensitivity solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) with downwelling irradiance fiber optic attachment. These sensors are utilized for

  3. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  4. Accuracy Comparison of Vhr Systematic-Ortho Satellite Imageries against Vhr Orthorectified Imageries Using Gcp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Fajari, M.; Octariady, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imageries such us Pleiades, WorldView-2, GeoEye-1 used for precise mapping purpose must be corrected from any distortion to achieve the expected accuracy. Orthorectification is performed to eliminate geometric errors of the VHR satellite imageries. Orthorectification requires main input data such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Ground Control Point (GCP). The VHR systematic-ortho imageries were generated using SRTM 30m DEM without using any GCP data. The accuracy value differences of VHR systematic-ortho imageries and VHR orthorectified imageries using GCP currently is not exactly defined. This study aimed to identified the accuracy comparison of VHR systematic-ortho imageries against orthorectified imageries using GCP. Orthorectified imageries using GCP created by using Rigorous model. Accuracy evaluation is calculated by using several independent check points.

  5. Mapping invasive weeds using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant species present a serious problem to the natural environment and have adverse ecological and economic impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems they invade. This article provides a brief overview on the use of remote sensing for mapping invasive plant species in both terrestr...

  6. Assessing modern ground survey methods and airborne laser scanning for digital terrain modelling: A case study from the Lake District, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Lloyd, Christopher D.; McKinley, Jennifer; Barry, Lorraine

    2013-02-01

    This paper compares the applicability of three ground survey methods for modelling terrain: one man electronic tachymetry (TPS), real time kinematic GPS (GPS), and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Vertical accuracy of digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from GPS, TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is assessed. Point elevations acquired by the four methods represent two sections of a mountainous area in Cumbria, England. They were chosen so that the presence of non-terrain features is constrained to the smallest amount. The vertical accuracy of the DTMs was addressed by subtracting each DTM from TPS point elevations. The error was assessed using exploratory measures including statistics, histograms, and normal probability plots. The results showed that the internal measurement accuracy of TPS, GPS, and TLS was below a centimetre. TPS and GPS can be considered equally applicable alternatives for sampling the terrain in areas accessible on foot. The highest DTM vertical accuracy was achieved with GPS data, both on sloped terrain (RMSE 0.16 m) and flat terrain (RMSE 0.02 m). TLS surveying was the most efficient overall but veracity of terrain representation was subject to dense vegetation cover. Therefore, the DTM accuracy was the lowest for the sloped area with dense bracken (RMSE 0.52 m) although it was the second highest on the flat unobscured terrain (RMSE 0.07 m). ALS data represented the sloped terrain more realistically (RMSE 0.23 m) than the TLS. However, due to a systematic bias identified on the flat terrain the DTM accuracy was the lowest (RMSE 0.29 m) which was above the level stated by the data provider. Error distribution models were more closely approximated by normal distribution defined using median and normalized median absolute deviation which supports the use of the robust measures in DEM error modelling and its propagation.

  7. Improving the Discoverability and Availability of Sample Data and Imagery in NASA's Astromaterials Curation Digital Repository Using a New Common Architecture for Sample Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, N. S.; Evans, C.

    2015-06-01

    NASA’s Astromaterials Curation Office is leading an initiative to create a common framework for its databases to improve discoverability and access to data and imagery from NASA-curated extraterrestrial samples for planetary science researchers.

  8. DTM generation in forest regions from satellite stereo imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, J.; Krauss, T.; Reinartz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Satellite stereo imagery is becoming a popular data source for derivation of height information. Many new Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation and evaluation methods have been proposed based on these data. A novel Digital Terrain Model (DTM) extraction method based on the DSM from satellite stereo imagery is proposed in this paper. Instead of directly filtering the DSM, firstly a single channel based classification method is proposed. In this step, no multi-spectral information is used, because for some stereo sensors, like Cartosat-1, only panchromatic channels are available. The proposed classification method adopts the random forests method to get initial probability maps of the four main classes in forest regions (high-forest, low-forest, ground, and buildings). To cover the pepper and salt effect of this pixel based classification method, the probability maps are further filtered based on the adaptive Wiener filtering. Then a cube-based greedy strategy is applied in generating the final classification map from these refined probability maps. Secondly, the height distances between neighboring regions are calculated along the boundary regions. These height distances can be used to estimate the relative region heights. Thirdly, the DTM is extracted by subtracting these relative region heights from the DSM in the order of: buildings - low forest - high forest. In the end, the extracted DTM is further smoothed using median filter. The proposed DTM extraction method is finally tested on satellite stereo imagery captured by Cartosat-1. Quality evaluation is performed by comparing the extracted DTMs to a reference DTM, which is generated from the last return airborne laser scanning point cloud.

  9. Second International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    cloud cover analysis, Quadantid meteor shower studies, extra-solar far infrared ionic structure lines measurement, Cape Kennedy launch support, and studies in air pollution, The Products and Services Exhibit showcased new sensor and image processing technologies, aircraft data collection services, unmanned vehicle technology, platform equipment, turn-key services, software a workstations, GPS services, publications, and processing and integration systems by 58 exhibitors. The participation of aircraft users and crews provided unique dialogue between those who plan data collection a operate the remote sensing technology, and those who supply the data processing and integration equipment. Research results using hyperspectral imagery, radar and optical sensors, lidar, digital aerial photography, a integrated systems were presented. Major research and development programs and campaigns we reviewed, including CNR's LARA Project and European Space Agency's 1991-1995 Airborne Campaign. The pre-conference short courses addressed airborne video, photogrammetry, hyperspectral data analysis, digital orthophotography, imagery and GIS integration, IFSAR, GPS, and spectrometer calibration.

  10. Automated Generation of the Alaska Coastline Using High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G.; Porter, C. C.; Cloutier, M. D.; Clementz, M. E.; Reim, C.; Morin, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Previous campaigns to map Alaska's coast at high resolution have relied on airborne, marine, or ground-based surveying and manual digitization. The coarse temporal resolution, inability to scale geographically, and high cost of field data acquisition in these campaigns is inadequate for the scale and speed of recent coastal change in Alaska. Here, we leverage the Polar Geospatial Center (PGC) archive of DigitalGlobe, Inc. satellite imagery to produce a state-wide coastline at 2 meter resolution. We first select multispectral imagery based on time and quality criteria. We then extract the near-infrared (NIR) band from each processed image, and classify each pixel as water or land with a pre-determined NIR threshold value. Processing continues with vectorizing the water-land boundary, removing extraneous data, and attaching metadata. Final coastline raster and vector products maintain the original accuracy of the orthorectified satellite data, which is often within the local tidal range. The repeat frequency of coastline production can range from 1 month to 3 years, depending on factors such as satellite capacity, cloud cover, and floating ice. Shadows from trees or structures complicate the output and merit further data cleaning. The PGC's imagery archive, unique expertise, and computing resources enabled us to map the Alaskan coastline in a few months. The DigitalGlobe archive allows us to update this coastline as new imagery is acquired, and facilitates baseline data for studies of coastal change and improvement of topographic datasets. Our results are not simply a one-time coastline, but rather a system for producing multi-temporal, automated coastlines. Workflows and tools produced with this project can be freely distributed and utilized globally. Researchers and government agencies must now consider how they can incorporate and quality-control this high-frequency, high-resolution data to meet their mapping standards and research objectives.

  11. Study of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Sources of geometric and radiometric fidelity errors in AN/APQ-102A radar imagery are discussed, along with a digital computer program to correct the distortions. The major effort, a computer program which will process digitalized recorded AN/APQ-102A phase histories into imagery, is described. All computer programs are listed.

  12. Semi-automated DIRSIG scene modeling from three-dimensional lidar and passive imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Stephen R.

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model is an established, first-principles based scene simulation tool that produces synthetic multispectral and hyperspectral images from the visible to long wave infrared (0.4 to 20 microns). Over the last few years, significant enhancements such as spectral polarimetric and active Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) models have also been incorporated into the software, providing an extremely powerful tool for multi-sensor algorithm testing and sensor evaluation. However, the extensive time required to create large-scale scenes has limited DIRSIG's ability to generate scenes "on demand." To date, scene generation has been a laborious, time-intensive process, as the terrain model, CAD objects and background maps have to be created and attributed manually. To shorten the time required for this process, this research developed an approach to reduce the man-in-the-loop requirements for several aspects of synthetic scene construction. Through a fusion of 3D lidar data with passive imagery, we were able to semi-automate several of the required tasks in the DIRSIG scene creation process. Additionally, many of the remaining tasks realized a shortened implementation time through this application of multi-modal imagery. Lidar data is exploited to identify ground and object features as well as to define initial tree location and building parameter estimates. These estimates are then refined by analyzing high-resolution frame array imagery using the concepts of projective geometry in lieu of the more common Euclidean approach found in most traditional photogrammetric references. Spectral imagery is also used to assign material characteristics to the modeled geometric objects. This is achieved through a modified atmospheric compensation applied to raw hyperspectral imagery. These techniques have been successfully applied to imagery collected over the RIT campus and the greater Rochester area. The data used

  13. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  14. An Open Source Software and Web-GIS Based Platform for Airborne SAR Remote Sensing Data Management, Distribution and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changyong, Dou; Huadong, Guo; Chunming, Han; Ming, Liu

    2014-03-01

    With more and more Earth observation data available to the community, how to manage and sharing these valuable remote sensing datasets is becoming an urgent issue to be solved. The web based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology provides a convenient way for the users in different locations to share and make use of the same dataset. In order to efficiently use the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data acquired in the Airborne Remote Sensing Center of the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a Web-GIS based platform for airborne SAR data management, distribution and sharing was designed and developed. The major features of the system include map based navigation search interface, full resolution imagery shown overlaid the map, and all the software adopted in the platform are Open Source Software (OSS). The functions of the platform include browsing the imagery on the map navigation based interface, ordering and downloading data online, image dataset and user management, etc. At present, the system is under testing in RADI and will come to regular operation soon.

  15. Digital orthophotography for natural resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Bryan J.

    1995-01-01

    Digital orthophotography provides natural resource managers with an ideal base map for inventories, analysis and regulatory applications. A digital orthophoto is the most accurate and complete representation of the earth's surface available for resource mapping and assessment. This paper describes the production specifications and potential natural resource applications for digital orthophotography, using the example of an ongoing statewide mapping program in Maryland. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources initiated the first ever color infrared digital orthophoto mapping project with the intention of creating an accurate base map series for a new statewide wetlands inventory. The orthophotos, produced in quarter quad format, have since become the foundation for a variety of natural resource management and regulatory programs throughout the State. Combining recent technological advances in airborne GPS control photogrammetry, image processing, graphic arts production and hardware and software capabilities, digital orthophotography enables users to inject ortho-corrected imagery into any of the currently available land or geographic information systems (GIS). Using the map accurate image as a foundation, multiple layers of data can be created, displayed and manipulated, making the digital orthophoto the cornerstone of any GIS. In the five years since the project's initiation, the scope and objectives have expanded making this one of the first collaborative efforts of its kind involving state, federal and private sector organizations working together to create an accurate, consistent GIS tool for natural resource management.

  16. Remote sensing of shorelines using data fusion of hyperspectral and multispectral imagery acquired from mobile and fixed platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Frystacky, Heather

    2012-06-01

    An optimized data fusion methodology is presented and makes use of airborne and vessel mounted hyperspectral and multispectral imagery acquired at littoral zones in Florida and the northern Gulf of Mexico. The results demonstrate the use of hyperspectral-multispectral data fusion anomaly detection along shorelines and in surface and subsurface waters. Hyperspectral imagery utilized in the data fusion analysis was collected using a 64-1024 channel, 1376 pixel swath width; temperature stabilized sensing system; an integrated inertial motion unit; and differential GPS. The imaging system is calibrated using dual 18 inch calibration spheres, spectral line sources, and custom line targets. Simultaneously collected multispectral three band imagery used in the data fusion analysis was derived either a 12 inch focal length large format camera using 9 inch high speed AGFA color negative film, a 12.3 megapixel digital camera or dual high speed full definition video cameras. Pushbroom sensor imagery is corrected using Kalman filtering and smoothing in order to correct images for airborne platform motions or motions of a small vessel. Custom software developed for the hyperspectral system and the optimized data fusion process allows for post processing using atmospherically corrected and georeferenced reflectance imagery. The optimized data fusion approach allows for detecting spectral anomalies in the resolution enhanced data cubes. Spectral-spatial anomaly detection is demonstrated using simulated embedded targets in actual imagery. The approach allows one to utilize spectral signature anomalies to identify features and targets that would otherwise not be possible. The optimized data fusion techniques and software has been developed in order to perform sensitivity analysis of the synthetic images in order to optimize the singular value decomposition model building process and the 2-D Butterworth cutoff frequency selection process, using the concept of user defined "feature

  17. Vegetation canopy discrimination and biomass assessment using multipolarized airborne SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dobson, M. C.; Held, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    Multipolarized airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data were acquired over a largely agricultural test site near Macomb, Illinois, in conjunction with the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-B) experiment in October 1984. The NASA/JPL L-band SAR operating at 1.225 GHz made a series of daily overflights with azimuth view angles both parallel and orthogonal to those of SIR-B. The SAR data was digitally recorded in the quadpolarization configuration. An extensive set of ground measurements were obtained throughout the test site and include biophysical and soil measurements of approximately 400 agricultural fields. Preliminary evaluation of some of the airborne SAR imagery indicates a great potential for crop discrimination and assessment of canopy condition. False color composites constructed from the combination of three linear polarizations (HH, VV, and HV) were found to be clearly superior to any single polarization for purposes of crop classification. In addition, an image constructed using the HH return to modulate intensity and the phase difference between HH and VV returns to modulate chroma indicates a clear capability for assessment of canopy height and/or biomass. In particular, corn fields heavily damaged by infestations of corn borer are readily distinguished from noninfested fields.

  18. Satellite imagery of the earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merifield, P.M.; Cronin, J.; Foshee, L.L.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Neal, J.T.; Stevenson, R.E.; Stone, R.O.; Williams, R.S., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Photography of the Earth from spacecraft has application to both atmospheric and Earth sciences. Gemini and Apollo photographs have furnished information on sea surface roughness, areas of potential upwelling and oceanic current systems. Regional geologic structures and geomorphologic features are also recorded in orbital photographs. Infrared satellite imagery provides meteorological and hydrological data and is potentially useful for locating fresh water springs along coastal areas, sources of geothermal power and volcanic activity. Ground and airborne surveys are being undertaken to create a basis for the interpretation of data obtained from future satellite systems.

  19. KOLAM: a cross-platform architecture for scalable visualization and tracking in wide-area imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Joshua; Haridas, Anoop; Seetharaman, Guna; Rao, Raghuveer M.; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2013-05-01

    KOLAM is an open, cross-platform, interoperable, scalable and extensible framework supporting a novel multi- scale spatiotemporal dual-cache data structure for big data visualization and visual analytics. This paper focuses on the use of KOLAM for target tracking in high-resolution, high throughput wide format video also known as wide-area motion imagery (WAMI). It was originally developed for the interactive visualization of extremely large geospatial imagery of high spatial and spectral resolution. KOLAM is platform, operating system and (graphics) hardware independent, and supports embedded datasets scalable from hundreds of gigabytes to feasibly petabytes in size on clusters, workstations, desktops and mobile computers. In addition to rapid roam, zoom and hyper- jump spatial operations, a large number of simultaneously viewable embedded pyramid layers (also referred to as multiscale or sparse imagery), interactive colormap and histogram enhancement, spherical projection and terrain maps are supported. The KOLAM software architecture was extended to support airborne wide-area motion imagery by organizing spatiotemporal tiles in very large format video frames using a temporal cache of tiled pyramid cached data structures. The current version supports WAMI animation, fast intelligent inspection, trajectory visualization and target tracking (digital tagging); the latter by interfacing with external automatic tracking software. One of the critical needs for working with WAMI is a supervised tracking and visualization tool that allows analysts to digitally tag multiple targets, quickly review and correct tracking results and apply geospatial visual analytic tools on the generated trajectories. One-click manual tracking combined with multiple automated tracking algorithms are available to assist the analyst and increase human effectiveness.

  20. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  1. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF SATELLITE-DERIVED LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO QUADRANGLES, AND AIRBORNE VIDEO DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the rapidly growing archives of satellite remote sensing imagery now span decades' worth of data, there is increasing interest in the study of long-term regional land cover change across multiple image dates. In most cases, however, temporally coincident ground sampled data ar...

  2. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF SATELLITE-DERIVED LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO QUADRANGLES, AND AIRBORNE VIDEO DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the rapidly growing archives of satellite remote sensing imagery now span decades'worth of data, there is increasing interest in the study of long-term regional land cover change across multiple image dates. In most cases, however, temporally coincident ground sampled data are...

  3. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF SATELLITE-DERIVED LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO QUADDRANGLES, AND AIRBORNE VIDEO DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the rapidly growing archives of satellite remote sensing imagery now span decades'worth of data, there is increasing interest in the study of long-term regional land cover change across multiple image dates. In most cases, however, temporally coincident ground sampled data are...

  4. The Setup Phase of Project Open Book: A Report to the Commission on Preservation and Access on the Status of an Effort To Convert Microfilm to Digital Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul; Weaver, Shari

    Digital image quality, indexing structures, and production workflow were the three central issues examined during the second phase--the set-up phase--of Project Open Book, a major effort by Yale University Library to explore the usefulness of digital technologies for preserving and improving access to deteriorating documents. This report outlines…

  5. Evaluating AISA+ hyperspectral imagery for mapping black mangrove along the South Texas Gulf Coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mangrove wetlands are economically and ecologically important ecosystems and accurate assessment of these wetlands with remote sensing can assist in their management and conservation. This study was conducted to evaluate airborne AISA+ hyperspectral imagery and image transformation and classificatio...

  6. Mapping Black Mangrove Along the South Texas Gulf Coast Using AISA+ Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mangrove wetlands are economically and ecologically important ecosystems and accurate assessment of these wetlands with remote sensing can assist in their management and conservation. This study was conducted to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and image compression and classification techniq...

  7. Integrating Smartphone Images and Airborne LIDAR Data for Complete Urban Building Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shenman; Shan, Jie; Zhang, Zhichao; Yan, Jixing; Hou, Yaolin

    2016-06-01

    A complete building model reconstruction needs data collected from both air and ground. The former often has sparse coverage on building façades, while the latter usually is unable to observe the building rooftops. Attempting to solve the missing data issues in building reconstruction from single data source, we describe an approach for complete building reconstruction that integrates airborne LiDAR data and ground smartphone imagery. First, by taking advantages of GPS and digital compass information embedded in the image metadata of smartphones, we are able to find airborne LiDAR point clouds for the corresponding buildings in the images. In the next step, Structure-from-Motion and dense multi-view stereo algorithms are applied to generate building point cloud from multiple ground images. The third step extracts building outlines respectively from the LiDAR point cloud and the ground image point cloud. An automated correspondence between these two sets of building outlines allows us to achieve a precise registration and combination of the two point clouds, which ultimately results in a complete and full resolution building model. The developed approach overcomes the problem of sparse points on building façades in airborne LiDAR and the deficiency of rooftops in ground images such that the merits of both datasets are utilized.

  8. Airborne digital-image data for monitoring the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 2009 - Image-mosaic production and comparison with 2002 and 2005 image mosaics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne digital-image data were collected for the Arizona part of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam in 2009. These four-band image data are similar in wavelength band (blue, green, red, and near infrared) and spatial resolution (20 centimeters) to image collections of the river corridor in 2002 and 2005. These periodic image collections are used by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey to monitor the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the downstream ecosystem. The 2009 collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits, unlike the image sensors that GCMRC used in 2002 and 2005. This study examined the performance of the SH52 sensor, on the basis of the collected image data, and determined that the SH52 sensor provided superior data relative to the previously employed sensors (that is, an early ADS40 model and Zeiss Imaging's Digital Mapping Camera) in terms of band-image registration, dynamic range, saturation, linearity to ground reflectance, and noise level. The 2009 image data were provided as orthorectified segments of each flightline to constrain the size of the image files; each river segment was covered by 5 to 6 overlapping, linear flightlines. Most flightline images for each river segment had some surface-smear defects and some river segments had cloud shadows, but these two conditions did not generally coincide in the majority of the overlapping flightlines for a particular river segment. Therefore, the final image mosaic for the 450-kilometer (km)-long river corridor required careful selection and editing of numerous flightline segments (a total of 513 segments, each 3.2 km long) to minimize surface defects and cloud shadows. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects. The final image mosaic for the western end of the corridor has

  9. An adaptive computer vision technique for estimating the biomass and density of loblolly pine plantations using digital orthophotography and LiDAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolot, Zachary J.

    Forests have been proposed as a means of reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels due to their ability to store carbon as biomass. To quantify the amount of atmospheric carbon sequestered by forests, biomass and density estimates are oven needed. This study develops, implements, and tests an individual tree-based algorithm for obtaining forest density and biomass using orthophotographs and small footprint LiDAR imagery. It was designed to work with a range of forests and image types without modification, which is accomplished by using generic properties of trees found in many types of images. Multiple parameters are employed to determine how these generic properties are used. To set these parameters, training data is used in conjunction with an optimization algorithm (a modified Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm or a genetic algorithm). The training data consist of small images in which density and biomass are known. A first test of this technique was performed using 25 circular plots (radius = 15 m) placed in young pine plantations in central Virginia, together with false color orthophotograph (spatial resolution = 0.5 m) or small footprint LiDAR (interpolated to 0.5 m) imagery. The highest density prediction accuracies (r2 up to 0.88, RMSE as low as 83 trees/ha) were found for runs where photointerpreted densities were used for training and testing. For tests run using density measurements made on the ground, accuracies were consistency higher for orthophotograph-based results than for LiDAR-based results, and were higher for trees with DBH ≥10cm than for trees with DBH ≥7 cm. Biomass estimates obtained by the algorithm using LiDAR imagery had a lower RMSE (as low as 15.6 t/ha) than most comparable studies. The correlations between the actual and predicted values (r2 up to 0.64) were lower than comparable studies, but were generally highly significant (p ≤ 0.05 or 0.01). In all runs there was no obvious sensitive to which training and testing data were

  10. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  11. Simulation of LANDSAT multispectral scanner spatial resolution with airborne scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for simulation of low spatial resolution satellite imagery by using high resolution scanner data is described. The scanner data is convolved with the approximate point spread function of the low resolution data and then resampled to emulate low resolution imagery. The technique was successfully applied to Daedalus airborne scanner data to simulate a portion of a LANDSAT multispectra scanner scene.

  12. Generation of countrywide reference digital terrain model from airborne laser scannig in ISOK project. (Polish Title: Generowanie referencyjnego numerycznego modelu terenu o zasięgu krajowym w oparciu o lotnicze skanowanie laserowe w projekcie ISOK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczyński, Z.; Bakuła, K.

    2013-12-01

    The paper analyzes the selection of main parameters of ALS system having an impact on acquisition of digital elevation models described by the assumed and exorbitant qualitative characteristics on the basis of airborne laser scanning project organized as a part of recommendations included in the Floods Directive in Poland. Such an analysis was the basis for determining conditions for a huge project, whose implementation is still ongoing, as well as its organizational and economic possibilities. Another subject for consideration was the scope of the planned works and time limits for their implementation that imposed the schedule of the project with respect to the efficiency of the work. Among the technical characteristics the authors investigated the density of the LiDAR points, georeferencing of point clouds, meteorological conditions during data acquisition and parameters describing the accuracy of the final products, namely digital elevation models, were also investigated. In such a complex project (the division of the whole project for subareas, many contractors, several final products and many stages of delivery product acceptance as well as quality control are key issues, whose effectiveness is proved by good organization, their scope and the adopted criteria

  13. Habitat Mapping and Classification of the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve using AISA Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, K.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat mapping and classification provides essential information for land use planning and ecosystem research, monitoring and management. At the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (GRDNERR), Mississippi, habitat characterization of the Grand Bay watershed will also be used to develop a decision-support tool for the NERR's managers and state and local partners. Grand Bay NERR habitat units were identified using a combination of remotely sensed imagery, aerial photography and elevation data. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral data, acquired 5 and 6 May 2010, was analyzed and classified using ENVI v4.8 and v5.0 software. The AISA system was configured to return 63 bands of digital imagery data with a spectral range of 400 to 970 nm (VNIR), spectral resolution (bandwidth) at 8.76 nm, and 1 m spatial resolution. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Inverse Minimum Noise Fraction were applied to the data prior to using Spectral Angle Mapper ([SAM] supervised) and ISODATA (unsupervised) classification techniques. The resulting class image was exported to ArcGIS 10.0 and visually inspected and compared with the original imagery as well as auxiliary datasets to assist in the attribution of habitat characteristics to the spectral classes, including: National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography, Jackson County, MS, 2010; USFWS National Wetlands Inventory, 2007; an existing GRDNERR habitat map (2004), SAV (2009) and salt panne (2002-2003) GIS produced by GRDNERR; and USACE lidar topo-bathymetry, 2005. A field survey to validate the map's accuracy will take place during the 2012 summer season. ENVI's Random Sample generator was used to generate GIS points for a ground-truth survey. The broad range of coastal estuarine habitats and geomorphological features- many of which are transitional and vulnerable to environmental stressors- that have been identified within the GRDNERR point to the value of the Reserve for

  14. Evaluation of Different Change Detection Techniques in Forestry for Improvement of Spatial Objects Extraction Algorithms by Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Digital Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, N.

    2013-09-01

    Earth observations which are being useable by spatial analysis ability play an important role in detecting, management and solving environmental problems such as climate changes, deforestation, disasters, land use, water resource and carbon cycle. Remote sensing technology in combination with geospatial information system (GIS) can render reliable information on vegetation cover. Satellite Remote sensed data and GIS for land cover/use with its changes is a key to many diverse applications such as Forestry. Change detection can be defined as the process of identifying differences in the state of an object or phenomenon by observing it at different times. The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover (Forest) by using remotely sensed data is critically importance to natural resource management sciences. The main aim of this review paper is to go through the different change detection methods and algorithms based on very high resolution remote sensing imagery data, evaluate the quality of the spatial individual crown cover extraction in forests with high density, analyse, compare the results by optimized performance of control data for the same objects to provide the improvement in technique for detection and improve the mathematical sides of the change detection algorithms for high dense forests regions with different boundaries.

  15. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  16. LANDSAT imagery: Description of products available from the CSIR Satellite Remote Sensing Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the LANDSAT system is provided along with information to assist prospective users in establishing whether imagery for their areas of interest is available and how to obtain such imagery. Spectral bands, spatial resolution, and digital data are explained as well as worldwide reference system indexing and the identification number assigned to images. The sizes and scales of standard black and white imagery and of false color composite imagery are listed. The format is given for computer compatible tapes and standard enhanced imagery is described. Other information available to users include LANDSAT index maps, catalogs of available imagery, a schedule of overpass dates, and a list of product prices.

  17. Improving the Discoverability and Availability of Sample Data and Imagery in NASA's Astromaterials Curation Digital Repository Using a New Common Architecture for Sample Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, N. S.; Evans, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the designated facility for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. The suite of collections includes the lunar samples from the Apollo missions, cosmic dust particles falling into the Earth's atmosphere, meteorites collected in Antarctica, comet and interstellar dust particles from the Stardust mission, asteroid particles from the Japanese Hayabusa mission, and solar wind atoms collected during the Genesis mission. To support planetary science research on these samples, NASA's Astromaterials Curation Office hosts the Astromaterials Curation Digital Repository, which provides descriptions of the missions and collections, and critical information about each individual sample. Our office is implementing several informatics initiatives with the goal of better serving the planetary research community. One of these initiatives aims to increase the availability and discoverability of sample data and images through the use of a newly designed common architecture for Astromaterials Curation databases.

  18. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  19. Joint spatio-spectral based edge detection for multispectral infrared imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Bender, Steven C.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Jang, Woo-Yong; Paskalva, Biliana S.

    2010-06-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important and difficult tasks in digital image processing. It represents a key stage of automated image analysis and interpretation. Segmentation algorithms for gray-scale images utilize basic properties of intensity values such as discontinuity and similarity. However, it is possible to enhance edge-detection capability by means of using spectral information provided by multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) imagery. In this paper we consider image segmentation algorithms for multispectral images with particular emphasis on detection of multi-color or multispectral edges. More specifically, we report on an algorithm for joint spatio-spectral (JSS) edge detection. By joint we mean simultaneous utilization of spatial and spectral characteristics of a given MS or HS image. The JSS-based edge-detection approach, termed Spectral Ratio Contrast (SRC) edge-detection algorithm, utilizes the novel concept of matching edge signatures. The edge signature represents a combination of spectral ratios calculated using bands that enhance the spectral contrast between the two materials. In conjunction with a spatial mask, the edge signature give rise to a multispectral operator that can be viewed as a three-dimensional extension of the mask. In the extended mask, the third (spectral) dimension of each hyper-pixel can be chosen independently. The SRC is verified using MS and HS imagery from a quantum-dot in a well infrared (IR) focal plane array, and the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager.

  20. Determination of pasture quality using airborne hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, Ian J.; Irwin, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Pasture quality is a critical determinant which influences animal performance (live weight gain, milk and meat production) and animal health. Assessment of pasture quality is therefore required to assist farmers with grazing planning and management, benchmarking between seasons and years. Traditionally, pasture quality is determined by field sampling which is laborious, expensive and time consuming, and the information is not available in real-time. Hyperspectral remote sensing has potential to accurately quantify biochemical composition of pasture over wide areas in great spatial detail. In this study an airborne imaging spectrometer (AisaFENIX, Specim) was used with a spectral range of 380-2500 nm with 448 spectral bands. A case study of a 600 ha hill country farm in New Zealand is used to illustrate the use of the system. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, along with automatized georectification of the imagery using Digital Elevation Model (DEM), were applied to the raw images to convert into geocoded reflectance images. Then a multivariate statistical method, partial least squares (PLS), was applied to estimate pasture quality such as crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) from canopy reflectance. The results from this study revealed that estimates of CP and ME had a R2 of 0.77 and 0.79, and RMSECV of 2.97 and 0.81 respectively. By utilizing these regression models, spatial maps were created over the imaged area. These pasture quality maps can be used for adopting precision agriculture practices which improves farm profitability and environmental sustainability.

  1. Structural geologic interpretations from radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Robert G.

    1969-01-01

    Certain structural geologic features may be more readily recognized on sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR) images than on conventional aerial photographs, other remote sensor imagery, or by ground observations. SLAR systems look obliquely to one or both sides and their images resemble aerial photographs taken at low sun angle with the sun directly behind the camera. They differ from air photos in geometry, resolution, and information content. Radar operates at much lower frequencies than the human eye, camera, or infrared sensors, and thus "sees" differently. The lower frequency enables it to penetrate most clouds and some precipitation, haze, dust, and some vegetation. Radar provides its own illumination, which can be closely controlled in intensity and frequency. It is narrow band, or essentially monochromatic. Low relief and subdued features are accentuated when viewed from the proper direction. Runs over the same area in significantly different directions (more than 45° from each other), show that images taken in one direction may emphasize features that are not emphasized on those taken in the other direction; optimum direction is determined by those features which need to be emphasized for study purposes. Lineaments interpreted as faults stand out on radar imagery of central and western Nevada; folded sedimentary rocks cut by faults can be clearly seen on radar imagery of northern Alabama. In these areas, certain structural and stratigraphic features are more pronounced on radar images than on conventional photographs; thus radar imagery materially aids structural interpretation.

  2. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-10-13

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  3. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  4. Generation of a new Greenland Ice Sheet Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, S.; Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A. F.; Babonis, G. S.; Scambos, T. A.; Haran, T. M.; Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    Currently available Digital Elevation Models(DEMs) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were originally derived from radar altimetry data, e.g. Bamber (Bamber et al., 2001) and later improved by photoclinometry to fill the regions between orbits (Scambos and Haran, 2002). The elevation error of these DEMs is a few meters in the higher part (above 2000 m) of the ice sheet, but it can be as much as 50-100 meters in marginal regions. The relatively low resolution and accuracy poses a problem, especially for ice sheet modeling. Although accurate elevation data have been collected by airborne and spaceborne laser altimetry (airborne: Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) (1993-present), Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor(LVIS) (2007,2009 and 2011); spaceborne: Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (2003-2009)) and DEMs have been derived from stereo satellite imagery (e.g., SPOT (40 m), ASTER (15 m)), a high resolution, consistent DEM of GrIS is not yet available. This is due to various problems, such as different error sources in the data and different dates of data acquisition. In order to overcome these difficulties, we generated a multi-resolution DEM of GrIS, reflecting June 2008 conditions, by fusing a photoclinometry DEM, SPOT and ASTER DEMs as well as elevations from ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry. The new multi-resolution DEM has a resolution of 40 m x 40 m in the marginal ice sheet regions and 250 m elsewhere. The ice sheet margin is mapped from SPOT and Landsat imagery and SPOT DEMs are used to cover the complex topography of ice sheet marginal regions. The accuracy of SPOT DEMs is approximately ± 6 m except in the areas covered by clouds regions, where the SPOT elevations were replaced by ASTER DEMs. The ASTER DEMs were checked and improved by the DEM derived from aerial photography from the 1980s. A new photoclinometry DEM, derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery

  5. Characterizing Digital Camera Systems: A Prelude to Data Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation profiles: 1) Digital imaging systems; 2) Specifying a digital imagery product; and 3) Characterization of data acquisition systems. Advanced large array digital imaging systems are routinely being used. Digital imagery guidelines are being developed by ASPRS and ISPRS. Guidelines and standards are of little use without standardized characterization methods. Characterization of digital camera systems is important for supporting digital imagery guidelines. Specifications are characterized in the lab and/or the field. Laboratory characterization is critical for optimizing and defining performance. In-flight characterization is necessary for an end-to-end system test.

  6. An analysis of simulated stereo radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaruck, M. A.; Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Simulated stereo radar imagery is used to investigate parameters for a spaceborne imaging radar. Incidence angles ranging from small to intermediate to large are used with three digital terrain model areas which are representative of relatively flat, moderately rough, and mountainous terrain. The simulated radar imagery was evaluated by interpreters for ease of stereo perception and information content, and rank order within each class of terrain. The interpreter's results are analyzed for trends between the height of a feature and either parallax or vertical exaggeration for a stereo pair. A model is developed which predicts the amount of parallax (or vertical exaggeration) an interpreter would desire for best stereo perception of a feature of a specific height. Results indicate the selection of angle of incidence and stereo intersection angle depend upon the relative relief of the terrain. Examples of the simulated stereo imagery are presented for a candidate spaceborne imaging radar having four selectable angles of incidence.

  7. Proceedings of the 2006 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) team is a collaborative interagency working group formed to leverage different government agencies' capabilities for the characterization of commercial remote sensing products. The team is composed of staff from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Each JACIE agency has a vested interest in the purchase and use of commercial imagery to support government research and operational applications. The intent of the 2006 workshop is to exchange information regarding the characterization and application of commercial imagery used by the government. The main focus of previous workshops has been on high-resolution satellite imagery from systems; such as, IKONOS (Space Imaging, Inc.), QuickBird (DigitalGlobe, Inc.), and OrbView-3 (ORBIMAGE). This workshop is being expanded to cover all civil medium- and high-resolution commercial imagery used by the government.

  8. Processing of airborne laser scanning data to generate accurate DTM for floodplain wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Mirosław-Świątek, Dorota; Grygoruk, Mateusz; Michałowski, Robert; Kardel, Ignacy

    2015-10-01

    Structure of the floodplain, especially its topography and vegetation, influences the overland flow and dynamics of floods which are key factors shaping ecosystems in surface water-fed wetlands. Therefore elaboration of the digital terrain model (DTM) of a high spatial accuracy is crucial in hydrodynamic flow modelling in river valleys. In this study the research was conducted in the unique Central European complex of fens and marshes - the Lower Biebrza river valley. The area is represented mainly by peat ecosystems which according to EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) are called "water-dependent ecosystems". Development of accurate DTM in these areas which are overgrown by dense wetland vegetation consisting of alder forest, willow shrubs, reed, sedges and grass is very difficult, therefore to represent terrain in high accuracy the airborne laser scanning data (ALS) with scanning density of 4 points/m2 was used and the correction of the "vegetation effect" on DTM was executed. This correction was performed utilizing remotely sensed images, topographical survey using the Real Time Kinematic positioning and vegetation height measurements. In order to classify different types of vegetation within research area the object based image analysis (OBIA) was used. OBIA allowed partitioning remotely sensed imagery into meaningful image-objects, and assessing their characteristics through spatial and spectral scale. The final maps of vegetation patches that include attributes of vegetation height and vegetation spectral properties, utilized both the laser scanning data and the vegetation indices developed on the basis of airborne and satellite imagery. This data was used in process of segmentation, attribution and classification. Several different vegetation indices were tested to distinguish different types of vegetation in wetland area. The OBIA classification allowed correction of the "vegetation effect" on DTM. The final digital terrain model was compared and examined

  9. EAARL coastal topography and imagery-Fire Island National Seashore, New York, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Klipp, E.S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired on July 9 and August 3, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar

  10. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  11. The Greenland ice sheet perennial firn aquifer: characteristics, extent and evolution obtained from airborne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miège, C.; Forster, R. R.; Koenig, L.; Brucker, L.; Box, J. E.; Burgess, E. W.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of a perennial firn aquifer (PFA) was identified April 2011, in the southeast part of the Greenland ice sheet, from firn-core drilling, surface- and airborne-radar. The PFA is a component of the ice sheet hydrology and corresponds to a liquid water saturated firn aquifer, which persists over the winter without freezing. The average depth of the top of the aquifer is ~20 m below the surface, and is guided by surface topography, following surface undulations, similar to an unconfined aquifer observed in other groundwater aquifer systems. We use a combination of 400 MHz ground-based radar and the 600 to 900 MHz Accumulation Radar on board NASA's airborne Operation IceBridge (OIB) to identify and map PFA extent and evolution between 2011 and 2013. Here, we present an ice-sheet wide mapping of the PFA, including the 2013 field campaign with detailed ground-based radar grids near the firn core site drilled in April 2013 (PFA-13, 66.18°N, 39.04°W and 1563 m). At the PFA-13 location, OIB Accumulation Radar and ground-based radar data were acquired along the same track within two weeks in both 2011 and 2013, offering a unique comparison dataset. This dataset is used to analyze the three year (2011-2013) evolution of PFA top depth, i.e. stored meltwater volume, in areas where radar transects are repeated from one year to the next. This evolution suggests possible horizontal flow of this stored meltwater toward the ice-sheet margins but must be confirmed by further field investigations. In addition, we derive surface slope from latest digital elevation model available for Southeast Greenland and use this slope as parameter to interpolate the PFA top in the area between ground radar transects and airborne radar flight lines. This slope interpolation would aim to improve PFA water volume/extent estimations for areas without airborne radar coverage. The fate of this stored meltwater is currently unknown, even if flow is suggested and drainage into nearby crevasses

  12. Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (Pre-Flight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first segment of this video gives an overview of the Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, an international effort using balloon payloads, ground based instruments, and airborne instruments to study ozone depletion and the hole in the ozone over Antarctica which occurs every spring. False color imagery taken from NASA's Nimbus 7 satellite which documents daily changes in ozone is also shown. The second segment of this video shows actual take-off and flight footage of the two aircraft used in the experiment: the DC-8 Flying Laboratory and the high flying ER-2.

  13. Integration of Canopy Height Information Derived from Stereo Imagery with SAR Backscatter Data to Improve Biomass Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Ranson, J.; Montesano, P. M.; Ni, W.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate forest biomass estimation over large areas is important for studies of global climate change and the carbon cycle. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known to be effective for assessing forest biomass. SAR penetrates farther into forest canopies than optical sensors, so SAR data from forested areas can be related to standing woody biomass, especially at longer L and P bands wavelength. The effect of forest structure on radar signature reduces its sensitivity to biomass when the biomass reaches a threshold level (e.g. ~100Mg/ha at L-band). Therefore the ability for forest biomass mapping using only backscattering coefficients is limited. However, including height data in forest biomass mapping using SAR data will improve the sensitivity beyond saturation levels. There are many ways to get information related to forest canopy height including: 1) Lidar, a direct measurement of canopy height; 2) Height of scattering phase center (HSPC) from InSAR; 3) HSPC difference from two bands of InSAR, and 4) Polarimetric Interferometric SAR, which employs the polarization-dependent coherences. Photogrammetry (or stereo imagery) is another technique for quantifying forest vertical structure and is a traditional technique for the extraction of a digital surface model. The launch of spaceborne sensors, the application of digital cameras, the maturation of photogrammetry theory and the development of fully digital and automatic image processing make the application of photogrammetric methods feasible. Our previous studies using ALOS PRISM data have shown that the canopy height derived from PRISM stereo data were highly correlated with LVIS RH50 data. In this study we have integrated this canopy height with L-band SAR imagery data to map forest biomass in our test site in Howland, Maine. The point cloud data from multi-pair stereo imageries of five PRISM scenes were co-registered and used along with the USGS NED data to calculate the mean canopy height at 30m pixels. Multi

  14. A building extraction approach for Airborne Laser Scanner data utilizing the Object Based Image Analysis paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomljenovic, Ivan; Tiede, Dirk; Blaschke, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In the past two decades Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) established itself as an efficient approach for the classification and extraction of information from remote sensing imagery and, increasingly, from non-image based sources such as Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) point clouds. ALS data is represented in the form of a point cloud with recorded multiple returns and intensities. In our work, we combined OBIA with ALS point cloud data in order to identify and extract buildings as 2D polygons representing roof outlines in a top down mapping approach. We performed rasterization of the ALS data into a height raster for the purpose of the generation of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) and a derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Further objects were generated in conjunction with point statistics from the linked point cloud. With the use of class modelling methods, we generated the final target class of objects representing buildings. The approach was developed for a test area in Biberach an der Riß (Germany). In order to point out the possibilities of the adaptation-free transferability to another data set, the algorithm has been applied "as is" to the ISPRS Benchmarking data set of Toronto (Canada). The obtained results show high accuracies for the initial study area (thematic accuracies of around 98%, geometric accuracy of above 80%). The very high performance within the ISPRS Benchmark without any modification of the algorithm and without any adaptation of parameters is particularly noteworthy.

  15. Airborne and Ground-Based Platforms for Data Collection in Small Vineyards: Examples from the UK and Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David R.; Gómez, Cristina; Fahrentrapp, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the low-cost ground and airborne platforms and technologies now becoming available for data collection in small area vineyards. Low-cost UAV or UAS platforms and cameras are now widely available as the means to collect both vertical and oblique aerial still photography and airborne videography in vineyards. Examples of small aerial platforms include the AR Parrot Drone, the DJI Phantom (1 and 2), and 3D Robotics IRIS+. Both fixed-wing and rotary wings platforms offer numerous advantages for aerial image acquisition including the freedom to obtain high resolution imagery at any time required. Imagery captured can be stored on mobile devices such as an Apple iPad and shared, written directly to a memory stick or card, or saved to the Cloud. The imagery can either be visually interpreted or subjected to semi-automated analysis using digital image processing (DIP) software to extract information about vine status or the vineyard environment. At the ground-level, a radio-controlled 'rugged' model 4x4 vehicle can also be used as a mobile platform to carry a number of sensors (e.g. a Go-Pro camera) around a vineyard, thereby facilitating quick and easy field data collection from both within the vine canopy and rows. For the small vineyard owner/manager with limited financial resources, this technology has a number of distinct advantages to aid in vineyard management practices: it is relatively cheap to purchase; requires a short learning-curve to use and to master; can make use of autonomous ground control units for repetitive coverage enabling reliable monitoring; and information can easily be analysed and integrated within a GIS with minimal expertise. In addition, these platforms make widespread use of familiar and everyday, off-the-shelf technologies such as WiFi, Go-Pro cameras, Cloud computing, and smartphones or tablets as the control interface, all with a large and well established end-user support base. Whilst there are

  16. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  17. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  18. Analysis of potential debris flow source areas on Mount Shasta, California, by using airborne and satellite remote sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hubbard, B.E.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing data from NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer, Hyperion, show hydrothermally altered rocks mainly composed of natroalunite, kaolinite, cristobalite, and gypsum on both the Mount Shasta and Shastina cones. Field observations indicate that much of the visible altered rock consists of talus material derived from fractured rock zones within and adjacent to dacitic domes and nearby lava flows. Digital elevation data were utilized to distinguish steeply sloping altered bedrock from more gently sloping talus materials. Volume modeling based on the imagery and digital elevation data indicate that Mount Shasta drainage systems contain moderate volumes of altered rock, a result that is consistent with Mount Shasta's Holocene record of mostly small to moderate debris flows. Similar modeling for selected areas at Mount Rainier and Mount Adams, Washington, indicates larger altered rock volumes consistent with the occurrence of much larger Holocene debris flows at those volcanoes. The availability of digital elevation and spectral data from spaceborne sensors, such as Hyperion and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), greatly expands opportunities for studying potential debris flow source characteristics at stratovolcanoes around the world. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection in urban scenario using combined airborne imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renhorn, Ingmar; Axelsson, Maria; Benoist, Koen; Bourghys, Dirk; Boucher, Yannick; Briottet, Xavier; De Ceglie, Sergio; Dekker, Rob; Dimmeler, Alwin; Dost, Remco; Friman, Ola; Kåsen, Ingebjørg; Maerker, Jochen; van Persie, Mark; Resta, Salvatore; Schwering, Piet; Shimoni, Michal; Haavardsholm, Trym Vegard

    2012-06-01

    The EDA project "Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors" (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The project is taking advantage of the combined resources from 7 contributing nations within the EDA framework. An extensive field trial has been carried out in the city of Zeebrugge at the Belgian coast in June 2011. The Belgian armed forces contributed with platforms, weapons, personnel (soldiers) and logistics for the trial. Ground truth measurements with respect to geometrical characteristics, optical material properties and weather conditions were obtained in addition to hyperspectral, multispectral and high resolution spatial imagery. High spectral/spatial resolution sensor data are used for detection, classification, identification and tracking.

  20. The Waypoint Planning Tool: Real Time Flight Planning for Airborne Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yubin; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Hall, John

    2010-01-01

    interactive software tool, that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point-and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map draped with real time satellite imagery. The Waypoint Planning Tool has further advanced to include satellite orbit predictions and seamlessly interfaces with the Real Time Mission Monitor which tracks the aircraft s position when the planes are flying. This presentation will describe the capabilities and features of the Waypoint Planning Tool highlighting the real time aspect, interactive nature and the resultant benefits to the airborne science community.

  1. Geometric registration and rectification of spaceborne SAR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, J. C.; Pang, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of automated location and geometric rectification techniques for digitally processed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A software package has been developed that is capable of determining the absolute location of an image pixel to within 60 m using only the spacecraft ephemeris data and the characteristics of the SAR data collection and processing system. Based on this location capability algorithms have been developed that geometrically rectify the imagery, register it to a common coordinate system and mosaic multiple frames to form extended digital SAR maps. These algorithms have been optimized using parallel processing techniques to minimize the operating time. Test results are given using Seasat SAR data.

  2. Application of multispectral radar and LANDSAT imagery to geologic mapping in death valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, M.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.; Stromberg, W.; Williams, S.; Schaber, G.

    1978-01-01

    Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) images, acquired by JPL and Strategic Air Command Systems, and visible and near-infrared LANDSAT imagery were applied to studies of the Quaternary alluvial and evaporite deposits in Death Valley, California. Unprocessed radar imagery revealed considerable variation in microwave backscatter, generally correlated with surface roughness. For Death Valley, LANDSAT imagery is of limited value in discriminating the Quaternary units except for alluvial units distinguishable by presence or absence of desert varnish or evaporite units whose extremely rough surfaces are strongly shadowed. In contrast, radar returns are most strongly dependent on surface roughness, a property more strongly correlated with surficial geology than is surface chemistry.

  3. Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Xunyu

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We…

  4. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  5. MISR Imagery and Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-27

    ... of select parameters available in the MISR Level 3 global data products Field Campaigns :  Imagery supporting field ... explore the links between atmospheric aerosols, climate change, and ultraviolet rays. Following the World Trade Center plume ...

  6. Satellite Stereo Based Digital Surface Model Generation Using Semi Global Matching in Object and Image Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghuffar, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents methodology and evaluation of Digital Surface Models (DSM) generated from satellite stereo imagery using Semi Global Matching (SGM) applied in image space and georeferenced voxel space. SGM is a well known algorithm, used widely for DSM generation from airborne and satellite imagery. SGM is typically applied in the image space to compute disparity map corresponding to a stereo image pair. As a different approach, SGM can be applied directly to the georeferenced voxel space similar to the approach of volumetric multi-view reconstruction techniques. The matching in voxel space simplifies the DSM generation pipeline because the stereo rectification and triangulation steps are not required. For a comparison, the complete pipeline for generation of DSM from satellite pushbroom sensors is also presented. The results on the ISPRS satellite stereo benchmark using Worldview stereo imagery of 0.5m resolution shows that the SGM applied in image space produce slightly better results than its object space counterpart. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis of the results on Worldview-3 stereo and Pleiades tri-stereo images are presented.

  7. Geometric correction and digital elevation extraction using multiple MTI datasets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Jeffrey A.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Storey, James C.; Smith, Jody L.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are traditionally acquired from a stereo pair of aerial photographs sequentially captured by an airborne metric camera. Standard DEM extraction techniques can be naturally extended to satellite imagery, but the particular characteristics of satellite imaging can cause difficulties. The spacecraft ephemeris with respect to the ground site during image collects is the most important factor in the elevation extraction process. When the angle of separation between the stereo images is small, the extraction process typically produces measurements with low accuracy, while a large angle of separation can cause an excessive number of erroneous points in the DEM from occlusion of ground areas. The use of three or more images registered to the same ground area can potentially reduce these problems and improve the accuracy of the extracted DEM. The pointing capability of some sensors, such as the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), allows for multiple collects of the same area from different perspectives. This functionality of MTI makes it a good candidate for the implementation of a DEM extraction algorithm using multiple images for improved accuracy. Evaluation of this capability and development of algorithms to geometrically model the MTI sensor and extract DEMs from multi-look MTI imagery are described in this paper. An RMS elevation error of 6.3-meters is achieved using 11 ground test points, while the MTI band has a 5-meter ground sample distance.

  8. Digital cloud stereography from geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, J. T.; Desjardins, M. L.; Hasler, A. F.; Minzner, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that geostationary satellite imagery provides an effective means of extracting two-dimensional cloud motion wind measurements over large areas. The addition of cloud height information is necessary, however, for the proper assignment of altitude to the wind vectors. This paper discusses the methodology and accuracy of extracting multilevel cloud motion measurements from stereo digital imagery acquired from geostationary orbit.

  9. Payette National Forest aerial survey project using the Kodak digital color infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1997-11-01

    Staff of the Payette National Forest located in central Idaho used the Kodak Digital Infrared Camera to collect digital photographic images over a wide variety of selected areas. The objective of this aerial survey project is to collect airborne digital camera imagery and to evaluate it for potential use in forest assessment and management. The data collected from this remote sensing system is being compared with existing resource information and with personal knowledge of the areas surveyed. Resource specialists are evaluating the imagery to determine if it may be useful for; identifying cultural sites (pre-European settlement tribal villages and camps); recognizing ecosystem landscape pattern; mapping recreation areas; evaluating the South Fork Salmon River road reconstruction project; designing the Elk Summit Road; assessing the impact of sediment on anadramous fish in the South Fork Salmon River; assessing any contribution of sediment to the South Fork from the reconstructed road; determining post-wildfire stress development in conifer timber; in assessing the development of insect populations in areas initially determined to be within low intensity wildfire burn polygons; and to search for Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat. Project sites include approximately 60 linear miles of the South Fork of the Salmon River; a parallel road over about half that distance; 3 archaeological sites; two transects of about 6 miles each for landscape patterns; 3 recreation areas; 5 miles of the Payette River; 4 miles of the Elk Summit Road; a pair of transects 4.5 miles long for stress assessment in timber; a triplet of transects about 3 miles long for the assessment of the identification of species; and an area of about 640 acres to evaluate habitat for the endangered Idaho Ground Squirrel. Preliminary results indicate that the imagery is an economically viable way to collect site specific resource information that is of value in the management of a national forest.

  10. Airborne Remote Sensing of River Flow and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, S.; Anderson, S. P.; McLean, J.; Redford, R.

    2014-12-01

    River morphology, surface slope and flow are some of the fundamental measurements required for surface water monitoring and hydrodynamic research. This paper describes a method of combining bathymetric lidar with space-time processing of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imagery to simultaneously measure bathymetry, currents and surface slope from an airborne platform. In May 2014, Areté installed a Pushbroom Imaging Lidar for Littoral Surveillance (PILLS) and a FLIR SC8000 MWIR imaging system sampling at 2 Hz in a small twin-engine aircraft. Data was collected over the lower Colorado River between Picacho Park and Parker. PILLS is a compact bathymetric lidar based on streak-tube sensor technology. It provides channel and bank topography and water surface elevation at 1 meter horizontal scales and 25 cm vertical accuracy. Surface currents are derived from the MWIR imagery by tracking surface features using a cross correlation algorithm. This approach enables the retrieval of currents along extended reaches at the forward speed of the aircraft with spatial resolutions down to 5 m with accuracy better than 10 cm/s. The fused airborne data captures current and depth variability on scales of meters over 10's of kilometers collected in just a few minutes. The airborne MWIR current retrievals are combined with the bathymetric lidar data to calculate river discharge which is then compared with real-time streamflow stations. The results highlight the potential for improving our understanding of complex river environments with simultaneous collections from multiple airborne sensors.

  11. Characterization of forest crops with a range of nutrient and water treatments using AISA Hyperspectral Imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Binglei; Im, Jungho; Jensen, John, R.; Coleman, Mark; Rhee, Jinyoung; Nelson, Eric

    2012-07-01

    This research examined the utility of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral imagery for estimating the biomass of three forest crops---sycamore, sweetgum and loblolly pine--planted in experimental plots with a range of fertilization and irrigation treatments on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina.

  12. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  13. Image quality specification and maintenance for airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinard, Mark S.

    2004-08-01

    Specification, verification, and maintenance of image quality over the lifecycle of an operational airborne SAR begin with the specification for the system itself. Verification of image quality-oriented specification compliance can be enhanced by including a specification requirement that a vendor provide appropriate imagery at the various phases of the system life cycle. The nature and content of the imagery appropriate for each stage of the process depends on the nature of the test, the economics of collection, and the availability of techniques to extract the desired information from the data. At the earliest lifecycle stages, Concept and Technology Development (CTD) and System Development and Demonstration (SDD), the test set could include simulated imagery to demonstrate the mathematical and engineering concepts being implemented thus allowing demonstration of compliance, in part, through simulation. For Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E), imagery collected from precisely instrumented test ranges and targets of opportunity consisting of a priori or a posteriori ground-truthed cultural and natural features are of value to the analysis of product quality compliance. Regular monitoring of image quality is possible using operational imagery and automated metrics; more precise measurements can be performed with imagery of instrumented scenes, when available. A survey of image quality measurement techniques is presented along with a discussion of the challenges of managing an airborne SAR program with the scarce resources of time, money, and ground-truthed data. Recommendations are provided that should allow an improvement in the product quality specification and maintenance process with a minimal increase in resource demands on the customer, the vendor, the operational personnel, and the asset itself.

  14. The Maintenance Of 3-D Scene Databases Using The Analytical Imagery Matching System (Aims)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovey, Stanford T.

    1987-06-01

    The increased demand for multi-resolution displays of simulated scene data for aircraft training or mission planning has led to a need for digital databases of 3-dimensional topography and geographically positioned objects. This data needs to be at varying resolutions or levels of detail as well as be positionally accurate to satisfy close-up and long distance scene views. The generation and maintenance processes for this type of digital database requires that relative and absolute spatial positions of geographic and cultural features be carefully controlled in order for the scenes to be representative and useful for simulation applications. Autometric, Incorporated has designed a modular Analytical Image Matching System (AIMS) which allows digital 3-D terrain feature data to be derived from cartographic and imagery sources by a combination of automatic and man-machine techniques. This system provides a means for superimposing the scenes of feature information in 3-D over imagery for updating. It also allows for real-time operator interaction between a monoscopic digital imagery display, a digital map display, a stereoscopic digital imagery display and automatically detected feature changes for transferring 3-D data from one coordinate system's frame of reference to another for updating the scene simulation database. It is an advanced, state-of-the-art means for implementing a modular, 3-D scene database maintenance capability, where original digital or converted-to-digital analog source imagery is used as a basic input to perform accurate updating.

  15. Sub-meter Commercial Imagery Coverage for the Earth's Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, P. J.; Peterman, K.

    2013-12-01

    A complete, high resolution satellite imagery view of the Earth's Polar Regions is important to understand a wide variety of scientific, logistical and geospatial problems. To address this need, near complete sub-meter licensed commercial imagery coverage of the Earth's Polar Regions and all ice on earth is now available to US federal employees and US federally funded researchers with a US federal purpose through the NGA Commercial Imagery Program and the Polar Geospatial Center. Included are historical sub-meter mono and stereo imagery from DigitalGlobe, Inc.'s IKONOS, Geoeye-1, and Quickbird as well as historical imagery and new collects from Worldview-1 and 2. The imagery is available in both 'unprocessed' and orthorectified formats. The orthos are both image strips and mosaics. An orthomosaic of the earth became available in August. Additionally, multispectral imagery is aquired by NGA from WV-2 (8 band) and IKONOS (4 band) with every pan shot. The Polar Geospatial Center has developed the capacity to process as many as 5000 scenes or approximately one third of the US lower 48 states a day. This enables researchers to request imagery for large geographic areas to be custom processed to their specifications. To make this imagery more easily accessible for researchers, the Polar Geospatial Center has developed an imagery mosaic, viewer and web services for 60% of Antarctica, 80% of Greenland and 50% of Alaska. Areas are updated as new imagery is collected. We will discuss data access requirements and limitations, current capabilities, and future direction.

  16. Airborne laser scanning for forest health status assessment and radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Jan; Zemek, Frantisek; Pikl, Miroslav; Janoutova, Ruzena

    2013-04-01

    Structural parameters of forest stands/ecosystems are an important complementary source of information to spectral signatures obtained from airborne imaging spectroscopy when quantitative assessment of forest stands are in the focus, such as estimation of forest biomass, biochemical properties (e.g. chlorophyll /water content), etc. The parameterization of radiative transfer (RT) models used in latter case requires three-dimensional spatial distribution of green foliage and woody biomass. Airborne LiDAR data acquired over forest sites bears these kinds of 3D information. The main objective of the study was to compare the results from several approaches to interpolation of digital elevation model (DEM) and digital surface model (DSM). We worked with airborne LiDAR data with different density (TopEye Mk II 1,064nm instrument, 1-5 points/m2) acquired over the Norway spruce forests situated in the Beskydy Mountains, the Czech Republic. Three different interpolation algorithms with increasing complexity were tested: i/Nearest neighbour approach implemented in the BCAL software package (Idaho Univ.); ii/Averaging and linear interpolation techniques used in the OPALS software (Vienna Univ. of Technology); iii/Active contour technique implemented in the TreeVis software (Univ. of Freiburg). We defined two spatial resolutions for the resulting coupled raster DEMs and DSMs outputs: 0.4 m and 1 m, calculated by each algorithm. The grids correspond to the same spatial resolutions of hyperspectral imagery data for which the DEMs were used in a/geometrical correction and b/building a complex tree models for radiative transfer modelling. We applied two types of analyses when comparing between results from the different interpolations/raster resolution: 1/calculated DEM or DSM between themselves; 2/comparison with field data: DEM with measurements from referential GPS, DSM - field tree alometric measurements, where tree height was calculated as DSM-DEM. The results of the analyses

  17. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  18. DEM Extraction from High-Resolution Stereoscopic Worldview 1 & 2 Imagery of Polar Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.; Howat, I. M.; Niebuhr, S.; Smith, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    There are few reliable digital elevation models (DEMs) in polar regions and most are of low resolution (on the order of 100's of meters to km) or of poor quality. Polar environments are changing rapidly and accurate DEMs are critical for correcting imagery, measuring glacier thickness changes and modeling ice flow and surface melt water drainage. Using in-track stereoscopic images from Worldview-1 and Worldview-2, we derived high-resolution DEMs for outlet glaciers and other areas of interest in Antarctica and the Arctic. We used ERDAS Imagine's LPS eATE (enhanced automated terrain extraction) algorithm to derive a dense point cloud of matches. The resulting point cloud is comparable in density to that obtained by LiDAR flown at 10,000 feet. Preliminary comparisons of our results to ground control points collected by field teams and airborne and satellite laser altimeters show 0.5 - 10 meter vertical error over glaciers and 2 - 10 meter error over ice-free terrain. The error is primarily due to approximations in the sensor model and is consistent across the DEM. Our results indicate that refinements in the sensor model and point matching algorithm will improve accuracy. Given the increasing interest in glacier change detection around the globe, DEMs extracted from frequent satellite stereo pairs can be used to monitor and quantify changes in both movement and volume.

  19. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to land use, forest density and soil investigations in Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yassoglou, N. J.; Skordalakis, E.; Koutalos, A.

    1974-01-01

    Photographic and digital imagery received from ERTS-1 was analyzed and evaluated as to its usefulness for the assessment of agricultural and forest land resources. Black and white, and color composite imagery provided spectral and spatial data, which, when matched with temporal land information, provided the basis for a semidetailed land use and forest site evaluation cartography. Color composite photographs have provided some information on the status of irrigation of agricultural lands. Computer processed digital imagery was successfully used for detailed crop classification and semidetailed soil evaluation. The results and techniques of this investigation are applicable to ecological and geological conditions similar to those prevailing in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on November 28 and 30, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar(EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and

  1. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  2. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  3. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP)—FLIGHT Results from a New Airborne Simulator for Smap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Faulkner, T.; Wu, A.; Patel, H.

    2014-12-01

    1. Introduction and BackgroundThis paper introduces a new NASA airborne instrument, the Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP), which is specially tailored to simulate SMAP. 2. Description of SLAPSLAP has both passive (radiometer) and active (radar) microwave L-band imaging capabilities. The radiometer observes at 1.4 GHz using duplicate front end hardware from the SMAP satellite radiometer. It also includes a duplicate of the digital backend development unit for SMAP, thus the novel Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation features and algorithms for SMAP are duplicated with very high fidelity in SLAP. The digital backend provides 4-Stokes polarization capability. The real-aperture radar operates in the 1215-1300 MHz band with quad-pol capability. Radar and radiometer share one antenna via diplexers that are spare units from the Aquarius satellite instrument. 3. Flight ResultsSLAP's initial flights were conducted in Dec 2013 over the eastern shore of Maryland and successfully demonstrated radiometer imaging over 2 full SMAP 36x36 km grid cells at 1km resolution within 3 hrs, easily meeting the SMAP post-launch cal/val airborne mapping requirements. A second flight on the same day also demonstrated SLAP's quick-turn abilities and high-resolution/wide-swath capabilities with 200m resolution across a 1500m swath from 2000 ft AGL. Additional flights were conducted as part of the GPM iPHEX campaign in May, 2014. 4. ConclusionThis paper presents flight data and imagery, as well as details of the radiometer and radar performance and calibration. The paper will also describe the mission performance achievable on the King Air and other platforms.

  4. Imagery Production Specialist (AFSC 23350).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This course of study is designed to lead the student to full qualification as an Air Force imagery production specialist. The complete course consists of six volumes: general subjects in imagery production (39 hours), photographic fundamentals (57 hours), continuous imagery production (54 hours), chemical analysis and process control (volumes A…

  5. The Imagery-Creativity Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-McGhee, Susan; Davis, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews historical highlights of the imagery-creativity connection, including early and contemporary accounts, along with notable examples of imagery in the creative process. It also looks at cross-modal imagery (synesthesia), a model of image-based creativity and the creative process, and implications for strengthening creativity by…

  6. a Comparison of LIDAR Reflectance and Radiometrically Calibrated Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncat, A.; Briese, C.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    In order to retrieve results comparable under different flight parameters and among different flight campaigns, passive remote sensing data such as hyperspectral imagery need to undergo a radiometric calibration. While this calibration, aiming at the derivation of physically meaningful surface attributes such as a reflectance value, is quite cumbersome for passively sensed data and relies on a number of external parameters, the situation is by far less complicated for active remote sensing techniques such as lidar. This fact motivates the investigation of the suitability of full-waveform lidar as a "single-wavelength reflectometer" to support radiometric calibration of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, this suitability was investigated by means of an airborne hyperspectral imagery campaign and an airborne lidar campaign recorded over the same area. Criteria are given to assess diffuse reflectance behaviour; the distribution of reflectance derived by the two techniques were found comparable in four test areas where these criteria were met. This is a promising result especially in the context of current developments of multi-spectral lidar systems.

  7. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region.

  8. Radiometric stability assessment of an airborne photogrammetric sensor in a test field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Hakala, Teemu; Suomalainen, Juha; Peltoniemi, Jouni

    Radiometric stability is a desired property of digital photogrammetric large-format sensors. This article presents a methodology for determining the radiometric stability of airborne imaging sensors in operational conditions in a test field and the results of stability evaluation of a large-format photogrammetric frame sensor DMC, from Intergraph. The imagery was collected in two days using nine different exposure settings, and images collected with variable exposure time and aperture were compared. The results showed promising stability in many cases, up to a level of 2% of the radiance, but less favorable results also appeared. Possible reasons for the unfavorable results could be the limitations of the experimental set-up or the instability of the sensor. DMC showed high radiometric performance potential, but high sensitivity to the exposure settings. Based on the results, recommendations for the future test field calibration and validation procedures were given. One limitation of the analysis was the insufficient information about the sensor stability potential; proposals were given to sensor manufacturers concerning the necessary information.

  9. Target detection algorithm for airborne thermal hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwaha, R.; Kumar, A.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging is constantly being used for classification purpose. But airborne thermal hyperspectral image usually is a challenge for conventional classification approaches. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that helps in the spatial and spectral analysis of targets utilizing a single sensor. It is based on the technology of Fourier-transform which yields high spectral resolution and enables high accuracy radiometric calibration. The Hypercam instrument has 84 spectral bands in the 868 cm-1 to 1280 cm-1 region (7.8 μm to 11.5 μm), at a spectral resolution of 6 cm-1 (full-width-half-maximum) for LWIR (long wave infrared) range. Due to the Hughes effect, only a few classifiers are able to handle high dimensional classification task. MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction) rotation is a data dimensionality reducing approach to segregate noise in the data. In this, the component selection of minimum noise fraction (MNF) rotation transformation was analyzed in terms of classification accuracy using constrained energy minimization (CEM) algorithm as a classifier for Airborne thermal hyperspectral image and for the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and color digital photograph. On comparing the accuracy of all the classified images for airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and combination of Airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph, it was found that accuracy was highest for MNF component equal to twenty. The accuracy increased by using the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph instead of using LWIR data alone.

  10. Integrating the services' imagery architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, John F.

    1993-04-01

    Any military organization requiring imagery must deal with one or more of several architectures: the tactical architectures of the three military departments, the theater architectures, and their interfaces to a separate national architecture. A seamless, joint, integrated architecture must meet today's imagery requirements. The CIO's vision of 'the right imagery to the right people in the right format at the right time' would serve well as the objective of a joint, integrated architecture. A joint imagery strategy should be initially shaped by the four pillars of the National Military Strategy of the United States: strategic deterrence; forward presence; crisis response; and reconstitution. In a macro view, it must consist of a series of sub-strategies to include science and technology and research and development, maintenance of the imagery related industrial base, acquisition, resource management, and burden sharing. Common imagery doctrine must follow the imagery strategy. Most of all, control, continuity, and direction must be maintained with regard to organizations and systems development as the architecture evolves. These areas and more must be addressed to reach the long term goal of a joint, integrated imagery architecture. This will require the services and theaters to relinquish some sovereignty over at least systems development and acquisition. Nevertheless, the goal of a joint, integrated imagery architecture is feasible. The author presents arguments and specific recommendations to orient the imagery community in the direction of a joint, integrated imagery architecture.

  11. Determination of the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine "Fryderyk" in Tarnowskie Góry, based on airborne laser scanning from the ISOK project and digital orthophotomaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Pająk, Marek; Haryło, Paweł; Lisańczuk, Marek

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine "Fryderyk" in Tarnowskie Góry. Tested area was located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (a large industrial region in Poland). It was a unique refuge habitat - Natura2000; PLH240008. The main aspect of this elaboration was to investigate the possible use of geotechniques and generally available geodata for mapping LULC changes and determining the spatial structure of vegetation. The presented study focuses on the analysis of a spatial structure of vegetation in the research area. This exploration was based on aerial images and orthophotomaps from 1947, 1998, 2003, 2009, 2011 and airborne laser scanning data (2011, ISOK project). Forest succession changes which occurred between 1947 and 2011 were analysed. The selected features of vegetation overgrowing spoil heap "Fryderyk" was determined. The results demonstrated a gradual succession of greenery on soil heap. In 1947, 84% of this area was covered by low vegetation. Tree expansion was proceeding in the westerly and northwest direction. In 2011 this canopy layer covered almost 50% of the research area. Parameters such as height of vegetation, crowns length and cover density were calculated by an airborne laser scanning data. These analyses indicated significant diversity in vertical and horizontal structures of vegetation. The study presents some capacities to use airborne laser scanning for an impartial evaluation of the structure of vegetation.

  12. Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively

  13. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  14. A Knowledge-Based Imagery Exploitation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrniotis, Chuck; Payton, Paul M.; Barrett, Eamon B.

    1989-03-01

    Automation of major portions of the imagery exploitation process is becoming a necessity for meeting current and future imagery exploitation needs. In this paper we describe a prototype Automated Exploitation System (AES) which addresses requirements for monitoring objects of interest and situation assessment in large geographic areas. The purpose of AES is to aid the image analyst in performing routine, commonplace tasks more effectively. AES consists of four main subsystems: Cue Extractor (CE), Knowledge-Based Exploitation (KBE), Interactive Work-Station (IWS), and a database subsystem. The CE processes raw image data, and identifies objects and target cues based on pixel- and object-model data. Cues and image registration coefficients are passed to KBE for screening and verification, situation assessment and planning. KBE combines the cues with ground-truth and doctrinal knowledge in screening the cues to determine their importance. KBE generates reports on image analysis which passes on to the IWS from which an image analyst can monitor, observe, and evaluate system functionality as well as respond to critical items identified by KBE. The database subsystem stores and shares reference imagery, collateral information and digital terrain data to support both automated and interactive processing. This partitioning of functions to subsystems facilitates hierarchical application of knowledge in image interpretation. The AES current prototype helps in identification, capture, representation, and refinement of knowledge. The KBE subsystem, which is the primary focus of the present paper, runs on a Symbolics 3675 computer and its software is written in the ART expert system and LISP language.

  15. Height Gradient Approach for Occlusion Detection in Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, H. C.; Habib, A. F.; Dal Poz, A. P.; Galo, M.

    2015-08-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) significantly increased in the last years. It is used for several different applications, such as mapping, publicity, security, natural disasters assistance, environmental monitoring, 3D building model generation, cadastral survey, etc. The imagery obtained by this kind of system has a great potential. To use these images in true orthophoto generation projects related to urban scenes or areas where buildings are present, it is important to consider the occlusion caused by surface height variation, platform attitude, and perspective projection. Occlusions in UAV imagery are usually larger than in conventional airborne dataset due to the low-altitude and excessive change in orientation due to the low-weight and wind effects during the flight mission. Therefore, this paper presents a method for occlusion detection together with some obtained results for images acquired by a UAV platform. The proposed method shows potential in occlusion detection and true orthophoto generation.

  16. Parallax visualization of UAV FMV and WAMI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Christopher A.; Mayhew, Craig M.

    2012-06-01

    The US Military is increasingly relying on the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Complex arrays of Full-Motion Video (FMV), Wide-Area Motion Imaging (WAMI) and Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) technologies are being deployed on UAV platforms for ISR applications. Nevertheless, these systems are only as effective as the Image Analyst's (IA) ability to extract relevant information from the data. A variety of tools assist in the analysis of imagery captured with UAV sensors. However, until now, none has been developed to extract and visualize parallax three-dimensional information. Parallax Visualization (PV) is a technique that produces a near-three-dimensional visual response to standard UAV imagery. The overlapping nature of UAV imagery lends itself to parallax visualization. Parallax differences can be obtained by selecting frames that differ in time and, therefore, points of view of the area of interest. PV is accomplished using software tools to critically align a common point in two views while alternately displaying both views in a square-wave manner. Humans produce an autostereoscopic response to critically aligned parallax information presented alternately on a standard unaided display at frequencies between 3 and 6 Hz. This simple technique allows for the exploitation of spatial and temporal differences in image sequences to enhance depth, size, and spatial relationships of objects in areas of interest. PV of UAV imagery has been successfully performed in several US Military exercises over the last two years.

  17. A study of the effects of degraded imagery on tactical 3D model generation using structure-from-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolick, Leslie; Harguess, Josh

    2016-05-01

    An emerging technology in the realm of airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems is structure-from-motion (SfM), which enables the creation of three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and 3D models from two-dimensional (2D) imagery. There are several existing tools, such as VisualSFM and open source project OpenSfM, to assist in this process, however, it is well-known that pristine imagery is usually required to create meaningful 3D data from the imagery. In military applications, such as the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for surveillance operations, imagery is rarely pristine. Therefore, we present an analysis of structure-from-motion packages on imagery that has been degraded in a controlled manner.

  18. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  19. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  20. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  1. Hyperspectral imagery and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellman, Mark C.; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    2002-07-01

    Hyperspectral imagery (HSI), a passive infrared imaging technique which creates images of fine resolution across the spectrum is currently being considered for Army tactical applications. An important tactical application of infra-red (IR) hyperspectral imagery is the detection of low contrast targets, including those targets that may employ camouflage, concealment and deception (CCD) techniques [1,2]. Spectral reflectivity characteristics were used for efficient segmentation between different materials such as painted metal, vegetation and soil for visible to near IR bands in the range of 0.46-1.0 microns as shown previously by Kwon et al [3]. We are currently investigating the HSI where the wavelength spans from 7.5-13.7 microns. The energy in this range of wavelengths is almost entirely emitted rather than reflected, therefore, the gray level of a pixel is a function of the temperature and emissivity of the object. This is beneficial since light level and reflection will not need to be considered in the segmentation. We will present results of a step-wise segmentation analysis on the long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectrum utilizing various classifier architectures applied to both the full-band, broad-band and narrow-band features derived from the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) data base. Stepwise segmentation demonstrates some of the difficulties in the multi-class case. These results give an indication of the added capability the hyperspectral imagery and associated algorithms will bring to bear on the target acquisition problem.

  2. The application of airborne imaging radars (L and X-band) to earth resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.; Shuchman, R. A.; Bryan, M. L.; Larson, R. W.; Liskow, C. L.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A multiplexed synthetic aperture Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) that simultaneously images the terrain with X-band (3.2 cm) and L-band (23.0 cm) radar wavelengths was developed. The Feasibility of using multiplexed SLAR to obtain useful information for earth resources purposes. The SLAR imagery, aerial photographs, and infrared imagery are examined to determine the qualitative tone and texture of many rural land-use features imaged. The results show that: (1) Neither X- nor L-band SLAR at moderate and low depression angles can directly or indirectly detect pools of water under standing vegetation. (2) Many of the urban and rural land-use categories present in the test areas can be identified and mapped on the multiplexed SLAR imagery. (3) Water resources management can be done using multiplexed SLAR. (4) Drainage patterns can be determined on both the X- and L-band imagery.

  3. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  4. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  5. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery to model vegetation heights in Hulun Buir grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Xin, X.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in grassland ecosystem is needed to assess grassland health and monitor available forage for livestock and wildlife habitat. Traditional ground-based field methods for measuring vegetation heights are time consuming. Most emerging airborne remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LIDAR) are too expensive to apply at broad scales. Aerial or spaceborne stereo imagery has the cost advantage for mapping height of tall vegetation, such as forest. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of using stereo imagery for modeling heights of short vegetation, such as grass (generally lower than 50cm) needs to be investigated. In this study, 2.5-cm resolution UAV stereo imagery are used to model vegetation heights in Hulun Buir grassland ecosystem. Strong correlations were observed (r > 0.9) between vegetation heights derived from UAV stereo imagery and those field-measured ones at individual and plot level. However, vegetation heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery especially for those areas with high vegetation coverage. The strong correlations between field-collected vegetation heights and metrics derived from UAV stereo imagery suggest that UAV stereo imagery can be used to estimate short vegetation heights such as those in grassland ecosystem. Future work will be needed to verify the extensibility of the methods to other sites and vegetation types.

  6. Linking goniometer measurements to hyperspectral and multisensor imagery for retrieval of beach properties and coastal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Charles M.; Gray, Deric; Abelev, Andrei; Philpot, William; Montes, Marcos J.; Fusina, Robert; Musser, Joseph; Li, Rong-Rong; Vermillion, Michael; Smith, Geoffrey; Korwan, Daniel; Snow, Charlotte; Miller, W. David; Gardner, Joan; Sletten, Mark; Georgiev, Georgi; Truitt, Barry; Killmon, Marcus; Sellars, Jon; Woolard, Jason; Parrish, Christopher; Schwarzscild, Art

    2012-06-01

    In June 2011, a multi-sensor airborne remote sensing campaign was flown at the Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research site with coordinated ground and water calibration and validation (cal/val) measurements. Remote sensing imagery acquired during the ten day exercise included hyperspectral imagery (CASI-1500), topographic LiDAR, and thermal infra-red imagery, all simultaneously from the same aircraft. Airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquisition for a smaller subset of sites occurred in September 2011 (VCR'11). Focus areas for VCR'11 were properties of beaches and tidal flats and barrier island vegetation and, in the water column, shallow water bathymetry. On land, cal/val emphasized tidal flat and beach grain size distributions, density, moisture content, and other geotechnical properties such as shear and bearing strength (dynamic deflection modulus), which were related to hyperspectral BRDF measurements taken with the new NRL Goniometer for Outdoor Portable Hyperspectral Earth Reflectance (GOPHER). This builds on our earlier work at this site in 2007 related to beach properties and shallow water bathymetry. A priority for VCR'11 was to collect and model relationships between hyperspectral imagery, acquired from the aircraft at a variety of different phase angles, and geotechnical properties of beaches and tidal flats. One aspect of this effort was a demonstration that sand density differences are observable and consistent in reflectance spectra from GOPHER data, in CASI hyperspectral imagery, as well as in hyperspectral goniometer measurements conducted in our laboratory after VCR'11.

  7. Developing a Scalable Remote Sampling Design for the NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musinsky, J.; Wasser, L. A.; Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Petroy, S. B.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Serbin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) airborne observation platform (AOP) will collect co-registered high-resolution hyperspectral imagery, discrete and waveform LiDAR, and high-resolution digital photography for more than 60 terrestrial and 23 aquatic sites spread across the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Alaska and Hawaii on an annual basis over the next 30 years. These data, to be made freely available to the public, will facilitate the scaling of field-based biological, physical and chemical measurements to regional and continental scales, enabling a better understanding of the relationships between climate variability and change, land use change and invasive species, and their ecological consequences in areas not directly sampled by the NEON facilities. However, successful up-scaling of in situ measurements requires a flight sampling design that captures environmental heterogeneity and diversity (i.e., ecological and topographic gradients), is sensitive to temporal system variation (e.g., phenology), and can respond to major disturbance events. Alignment of airborne campaigns - composed of two payloads for nominal science acquisitions and one payload for PI-driven rapid-response campaigns -- with other ground, airborne (e.g., AVIRIS) and satellite (e.g., Landsat, MODIS) collections will further facilitate scaling between sensors and data sources of varying spatial and spectral resolution and extent. This presentation will discuss the approach, challenges and future goals associated with the development of NEON AOP's sampling design, using examples from the 2013 nominal flight campaigns in the Central Plains (NEON Domain 10) and the Pacific Southwest (Domain 17), and the rapid response flight campaign of the High Park Fire site outside of Fort Collins, CO. Determination of the specific flight coverage areas for each campaign involved analysis of the landscape scale ecological, geophysical and bioclimatic attributes and trends most closely

  8. Integrated Data Processing Methodology for Airborne Repeat-pass Differential SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, C.; Guo, H.; Han, C.; Yue, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Short temporal baseline and multiple ground deformation information can be derived from the airborne differential synthetic aperture radar Interforemetry (D-InSAR). However, affected by the turbulence of the air, the aircraft would deviate from the designed flight path with high frequent vibrations and changes both in the flight trajectory and attitude. Restricted by the accuracy of the position and orientation system (POS), these high frequent deviations can not be accurately reported, which would pose great challenges in motion compensation and interferometric process. Thus, these challenges constrain its wider applications. The objective of this paper is to investigate the accurate estimation and compensation of the residual motion errors in the airborne SAR imagery and time-varying baseline errors between the diffirent data acquirations, furthermore, to explore the integration data processing theory for the airborne D-InSAR system, and thus help to accomplish the correct derivation of the ground deformation by using the airborne D-InSAR measurements.

  9. Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral imagery using contextual information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we propose approaches to improve the pixel-based support vector machine (SVM) classification for urban land use and land cover (LULC) mapping from airborne hyperspectral imagery with high spatial resolution. Class spatial neighborhood relationship is used to correct the misclassified ...

  10. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  11. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  12. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  13. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance

    PubMed Central

    Lotze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are traveling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory, or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance. PMID:23781196

  14. Collation of earth resources data collected by ERIM airborne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Earth resources imagery from nine years of data collection with developmental airborne sensors is cataloged for reference. The imaging sensors include single and multiband line scanners and side-looking radars. The operating wavelengths of the sensors include ultraviolet, visible and infrared band scanners, and X- and L-band radar. Imagery from all bands (radar and scanner) were collected at some sites and many sites had repeated coverage. The multiband scanner data was radiometrically calibrated. Illustrations show how the data can be used in earth resource investigations. References are made to published reports which have made use of the data in completed investigations. Data collection sponsors are identified and a procedure described for gaining access to the data.

  15. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  16. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  17. Digital photogrammetry and kinematic GPS applied to the monitoring of Vulcano Island, Aeolian Arc, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, P.; Bonvalot, S.; Briole, P.; Marsella, M.

    2000-09-01

    Digital photogrammetry and kinematic global positioning system (GPS) techniques are investigated and compared over a volcanic area as operational approaches to map the topography and monitor surface displacements. The use of terrestrial and airborne GPS to support the photogrammetric survey allowed for operational and processing time reduction without loss of accuracy. A digital elevation model (DEM) is obtained from the processing of the high-resolution digital imagery survey, which provides detailed information over a large area. The internal accuracy of the derived DEM has been verified by the comparison of two sets of data obtained from imagery acquired in different epochs; the observed root-mean-square error of residuals ranges from a few centimetres to 15cm depending on the morphological features. Kinematic and pseudo-kinematic GPS surveys are performed to derive accurate 3-D coordinates at monumented benchmarks and accurate elevation profiles along footpaths. The average repeatability of the GPS measurements on benchmarks is 1cm for measurement durations of 2-3min. The standard deviation of interpolated vertical coordinates obtained at the crossings of kinematic GPS profiles is 4.3cm. The high quality of these GPS coordinates justifies their use also for the validation of the photogrammetric DEM. A comparison of 6000 common points provides a standard deviation of residuals of 18cm. The results show that the deformation pattern of a volcanic area can be rapidly and accurately monitored even in the absence of geodetic benchmarks. The integration of aerial photogrammetry with GPS kinematic surveys may be considered as an optimal approach for deriving high-resolution mapping products to be used in support of studies of volcanic dynamics.

  18. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging of Seagrass and Coral Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, J.; Pan, Z.; Mewes, T.; Herwitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    This talk presents the process of project preparation, airborne data collection, data pre-processing and comparative analysis of a series of airborne hyperspectral projects focused on the mapping of seagrass and coral reef communities in the Florida Keys. As part of a series of large collaborative projects funded by the NASA ROSES program and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, a series of airborne hyperspectral datasets were collected over six sites in the Florida Keys in May 2012, October 2012 and May 2013 by Galileo Group, Inc. using a manned Cessna 172 and NASA's SIERRA Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Precise solar and tidal data were used to calculate airborne collection parameters and develop flight plans designed to optimize data quality. Two independent Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging systems covering 400-100nm were used to collect imagery over six Areas of Interest (AOIs). Multiple collections were performed over all sites across strict solar windows in the mornings and afternoons. Independently developed pre-processing algorithms were employed to radiometrically correct, synchronize and georectify individual flight lines which were then combined into color balanced mosaics for each Area of Interest. The use of two different hyperspectral sensor as well as environmental variations between each collection allow for the comparative analysis of data quality as well as the iterative refinement of flight planning and collection parameters.

  19. Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroutil, Robert T.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.; Miller, David P.; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy; Kudaraskus, Paul

    2010-08-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75 missions that included over 250 hours of flight operation. ASPECT's initial mission responsibility was to provide air quality monitoring (i.e., identification of vapor species) during various oil burning operations. The ASPECT airborne wide-area infrared remote sensing spectral data was used to evaluate the hazard potential of vapors being produced from open water oil burns near the Deepwater Horizon rig site. Other significant remote sensing data products and innovations included the development of an advanced capability to correctly identify, locate, characterize, and quantify surface oil that could reach beaches and wetland areas. This advanced identification product provided the Incident Command an improved capability to locate surface oil in order to improve the effectiveness of oil skimmer vessel recovery efforts directed by the US Coast Guard. This paper discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy and multispectral infrared imagery to address significant issues associated with this national crisis. More specifically, this paper addresses the airborne remote sensing capabilities, technology, and data analysis products developed specifically to optimize the resources and capabilities of the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command structure personnel and their remediation efforts.

  20. Comparison of Digital Terrain Models Derived Using Different Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della-Giustina, D. N.; Kinney Spano, E. K.; Chojnacki, M.; Sutton, S.

    2015-06-01

    In preparation for the OSIRIS-REx Sample Return Mission we examine newly available computer vision and traditional photogrammetry tools capable of producing digital terrain models (DTMs) from stereo imagery.

  1. Visual Imagery without Visual Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolo, Helder

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review…

  2. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  3. Guided Imagery in Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William C.; Eddy, John

    1982-01-01

    Suggests guided imagery can stimulate clients to become more aware of the role of personal values, attitudes, and beliefs in career decision making. Presents guidelines, examples, and implications to enable rehabilitation counselors to use guided imagery exercises in career counseling. (Author)

  4. Automatic Building Extraction and Roof Reconstruction in 3k Imagery Based on Line Segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, A.; Tian, J.; Kurz, F.

    2016-06-01

    We propose an image processing workflow to extract rectangular building footprints using georeferenced stereo-imagery and a derivative digital surface model (DSM) product. The approach applies a line segment detection procedure to the imagery and subsequently verifies identified line segments individually to create a footprint on the basis of the DSM. The footprint is further optimized by morphological filtering. Towards the realization of 3D models, we decompose the produced footprint and generate a 3D point cloud from DSM height information. By utilizing the robust RANSAC plane fitting algorithm, the roof structure can be correctly reconstructed. In an experimental part, the proposed approach has been performed on 3K aerial imagery.

  5. Fusion of LiDAR and Imagery to Estimate Stand-level Tree Mortality Following Wildfire in a Coast Redwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, B. D.; Dietterick, B. C.; White, R. A.; Mastin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Discrete-return airborne LiDAR and digital orthophotography are commonly used to assess the condition of vegetation, including change detection following disturbance events, such as wildland fire. Forest managers have a need for information about fire effects and the spatial distribution of mortality following wildfire, but direct assessment from the field is time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing may be used to estimate varying levels of mortality and provide a more efficient, timely, scalable, and potentially more cost-effective means for post-fire assessment. Similar past studies have generally used an index of fire 'severity' rather than estimating mortality directly. While useful, estimates of severity are not generally sufficient to make stand-level forest management decisions about post-fire response. This study modeled mortality of trees following the Lockheed fire, which burned 3,163 ha in the Santa Cruz Mountains in California from August 12-23, 2009. All trees in forty-seven 0.08 ha continuous forest inventory plots were assessed in the field for three years following the fire. Plot percent mortality of trees 25.4 cm DBH and greater was sorted into three categories: <25%, 25-50%, and >50%. A variety of predictor variables derived from pre- and post-fire airborne LiDAR and 1m resolution color infrared aerial imagery (NAIP) were evaluated. A model using four variables: the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 2010 NAIP imagery, change in ratio of 95th percentile to mean height, and change in percent of points in two height bins, 11-12 and 14-15m, classified plots with 83% accuracy. All plots in the most severe class (mortality >50%) were correctly classified. Models with variables derived from post-fire LiDAR alone, and NDVI alone, were also examined, and had overall accuracies of 76.6 and 68.1%, respectively. These findings indicate that remote sensing data can be used to estimate and map the distribution of tree mortality following

  6. Deciphering the Precision of Stereo IKONOS Canopy Height Models for U.S. Forests with G-LiHT Airborne LiDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudasill-Neigh, Christopher S.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Bourget, Paul; Cook, Bruce; Huang, Chengquan; Rishmawi, Khaldoun; Zhao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the precision of IKONOS stereo data for measuring forest canopy height. The high cost of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data collection for large area studies and the present lack of a spaceborne instrument lead to the need to explore other low cost options. The US Government currently has access to a large archive of commercial high-resolution imagery, which could be quite valuable to forest structure studies. At 1 m resolution, we here compared canopy height models (CHMs) and height data derived from Goddard's airborne LiDAR Hyper-spectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) with three types of IKONOS stereo derived digital surface models (DSMs) that estimate CHMs by subtracting National Elevation Data (NED) digital terrain models (DTMs). We found the following in three different forested regions of the US after excluding heterogeneous and disturbed forest samples: (1) G-LiHT DTMs were highly correlated with NED DTMs with R (sup 2) greater than 0.98 and root mean square errors (RMSEs) less than 2.96 m; (2) when using one visually identifiable ground control point (GCP) from NED, G-LiHT DSMs and IKONOS DSMs had R (sup 2) greater than 0.84 and RMSEs of 2.7 to 4.1 m; and (3) one GCP CHMs for two study sites had R (sup 2) greater than 0.7 and RMSEs of 2.6 to 3 m where data were collected less than four years apart. Our results suggest that IKONOS stereo data are a useful LiDAR alternative where high-quality DTMs are available.

  7. Seagrass Identification Using High-Resolution 532nm Bathymetric LiDAR and Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Prasad, S.; Starek, M. J.; Fernandez Diaz, J. C.; Glennie, C. L.; Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Singhania, A.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    bands) with their CASI 1500 hyperspectral sensor. The ground survey was conducted by CMGL. The team used an airboat to collect in-situ radiometer measurements of sky irradiance and surface water reflectance at different locations in the bay. The team also collected water samples, GPS position, and depth. A follow-up survey was conducted to acquire ground-truth data of benthic type at over 80 locations within the bay. Two complementary approaches were developed to detect and map the seagrass cover over the study area - automated classification algorithms were validated with high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery, and a continuous wavelet based signal processing and pulse broadening analysis of the digitized returns was performed with the full waveform of the bathymetric LiDAR. The two approaches were compared to the collected ground truth data of seagrass type, height, and location. Results of the evaluation will be presented, along with a preliminary discussion of the fusion of the LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery for improved overall classification accuracy.

  8. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  9. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  10. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  11. Natural resources research and development in Lesotho using LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A map of the drainage of the whole country to include at least third order streams was constructed from LANDSAT imagery. This was digitized and can be plotted at any required scale to provide base maps for other cartographic projects. A suite of programs for the interpretation of digital LANDSAT data is under development for a low cost programmable calculator. Initial output from these programs has proved to have better resolution and detail than the standard photographic products, and was to update the standard topographic map of a particular region.

  12. Use Of Infrared Imagery In Continuous Flow Wind Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallings, D. W.; Whetsel, R. G.

    1983-03-01

    Thermal mapping with infrared imagery is a very useful test technique in continuous flow wind tunnels. Convective-heating patterns over large areas of a model can be obtained through remote sensing of the surface temperature. A system has been developed at AEDC which uses a commercially available infrared scanning camera to produce these heat-transfer maps. In addition to the camera, the system includes video monitors, an analog tape recording, an analog-to-digital converter, a digitizer control, and two minicomputers. This paper will describe the individual components, data reduction techniques, and typical applications. *

  13. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  14. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  15. Airborne laser scanning for high-resolution mapping of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, Bea; Schenk, Toni; Krabill, William; Wilson, Terry; Lyons, William; McKenzie, Garry; Hallam, Cheryl; Manizade, Serdar; Paulsen, Timothy

    In order to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning for topographic mapping in Antarctica and to establish calibration/validation sites for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter mission, NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) joined forces to collect high-resolution airborne laser scanning data.In a two-week campaign during the 2001-2002 austral summer, NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) system was used to collect data over several sites in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica (Figure 1a). From the recorded signals, NASA computed laser points and The Ohio State University (OSU) completed the elaborate computation/verification of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in 2003. This article reports about the DEM generation and some exemplary results from scientists using the geomorphologic information from the DEMs during the 2003-2004 field season.

  16. Terrestrial polarization imagery obtained from the Space Shuttle: characterization and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Egan, W G; Johnson, W R; Whitehead, V S

    1991-02-01

    An experiment to measure the polarization of land, sea, haze, and cloud areas from space was carried aboard the Space Shuttle in Sept. 1985. Digitized polarimetric and photometric imagery in mutually perpendicular planes was derived in the red, green, and blue spectral regions from photographs taken with two synchronized Hasselblad cameras using type 5036 Ektachrome film. Digitization at the NASA Houston Video Digital Analysis Systems Laboratory permitted reduction of the imagery into equipolarimetric contours with a relative accuracy of +/-20% for comparison to ground truth. The Island of Hawaii and adjacent sea and cloud areas were the objects of the specific imagery analyzed. Results show that cloud development is uniquely characterized using percent polarization without requiring precision photometric calibration. Furthermore, sea state and wind direction over the sea could be inferred as well as terrestrial soil texture. PMID:20582011

  17. Terrestrial polarization imagery obtained from the Space Shuttle - Characterization and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, Walter G.; Johnson, W. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to measure the polarization of land, sea, haze, and cloud areas from space was carried aboard the Space Shuttle in September 1985. Digitized polarimetric and photometric imagery in mutually perpendicular planes was derived in the red, green, and blue spectral regions from photographs taken with two synchronized Hasselblad cameras using type 5036 Ektachrome film. Digitization at the NASA Houston Video Digital Analysis Systems Laboratory permitted reduction of the imagery into equipolarimetric contours with a relative accuracy of + or - 20 percent for comparison to ground truth. The Island of Hawaii and adjacent sea and cloud areas were the objects of the specific imagery analyzed. Results show that cloud development is uniquely characterized using percent polarization without requiring precision photometric calibration. Furthermore, sea state and wind direction over the sea could be inferred as well as terrestrial soil texture.

  18. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  19. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  20. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  1. Alternative analysis of airborne laser data collected within conventional multi-parameter airborne geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl, Andreas; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.; Schattauer, I.

    2010-05-01

    For the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as well as airborne electromagnetics it is of great importance to determine the distance between the geophysical sensor and the ground surface. Since radar altimeters do not penetrate vegetation, laser altimeters became popular in airborne geophysics over the past years. Currently the airborne geophysical platform of the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) is equipped with a Riegl LD90-3800VHS-FLP high resolution laser altimeter, measuring the distances according to the first and the last reflected pulse. The goal of the presented study was to explore the possibilities of deriving additional information about the survey area from the laser data and to determine the accuracy of such results. On one hand the difference between the arrival time of the first and the last reflected pulse can be used to determine the height of the vegetation. This parameter is for example important for the correction of damping effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements caused by vegetation. Moreover especially for groundwater studies at catchment scale, this parameter can also be applied to support the spatial assessment of evapotranspiration. In combination with the altitude above geoid, determined by a GPS receiver, a rough digital elevation model of the survey area can be derived from the laser altimetry. Based on a data set from a survey area in the northern part of Austria, close to the border with the Czech Republic, the reliability of such a digital elevation model and the calculated vegetation height was tested. In this study a mean deviation of -1.4m, with a standard deviation of ±3.4m, between the digital elevation model from Upper Austria (25m spatial resolution) and the determined elevation model was determined. We also found an obvious correlation between the calculated vegetation heights greater 15m and the mapped forest published by the ‘Department of Forest Inventory' of the ‘Federal Forest Office' of Austria

  2. Coral Reef Remote Sensing using Simulated VIIRS and LDCM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) node at NASA Stennis Space Center, MS, was used to simulate NASA next-generation sensor imagery over well-known coral reef areas: Looe Key, FL, and Kaneohe Bay, HI. The objective was to assess the degree to which next-generation sensor systems the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) might provide key input to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Integrated Coral Observing Network (ICON)/Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Decision Support Tool (DST). The DST data layers produced from the simulated imagery concerned water quality and benthic classification map layers. The water optical parameters of interest were chlorophyll (Chl) and the absorption coefficient (a). The input imagery used by the RPC for simulation included spaceborne (Hyperion) and airborne (AVIRIS) hyperspectral data. Specific field data to complement and aid in validation of the overflight data was used when available. The results of the experiment show that the next-generation sensor systems are capable of providing valuable data layer resources to NOAA's ICON/CREWS DST.

  3. Coral Reef Remote Sensing Using Simulated VIIRS and LDCM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.; Blonski, Slawomir; Moore, Roxzana

    2008-01-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) node at NASA Stennis Space Center, MS, was used to simulate NASA next-generation sensor imagery over well-known coral reef areas: Looe Key, FL, and Kaneohe Bay, HI. The objective was to assess the degree to which next-generation sensor systems-the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)- might provide key input to the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Integrated Coral Observing Network (ICON)/Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Decision Support Tool (DST). The DST data layers produced from the simulated imagery concerned water quality and benthic classification map layers. The water optical parameters of interest were chlorophyll (Chl) and the absorption coefficient (a). The input imagery used by the RPC for simulation included spaceborne (Hyperion) and airborne (AVIRIS) hyperspectral data. Specific field data to complement and aid in validation of the overflight data was used when available. The results of the experiment show that the next-generation sensor systems are capable of providing valuable data layer resources to NOAA s ICON/CREWS DST.

  4. An automated data exploitation system for airborne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    Advanced wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS) sensor systems on manned or unmanned airborne vehicles are essential for wide-area urban security monitoring in order to protect our people and our warfighter from terrorist attacks. Currently, human (imagery) analysts process huge data collections from full motion video (FMV) for data exploitation and analysis (real-time and forensic), providing slow and inaccurate results. An Automated Data Exploitation System (ADES) is urgently needed. In this paper, we present a recently developed ADES for airborne vehicles under heavy urban background clutter conditions. This system includes four processes: (1) fast image registration, stabilization, and mosaicking; (2) advanced non-linear morphological moving target detection; (3) robust multiple target (vehicles, dismounts, and human) tracking (up to 100 target tracks); and (4) moving or static target/object recognition (super-resolution). Test results with real FMV data indicate that our ADES can reliably detect, track, and recognize multiple vehicles under heavy urban background clutters. Furthermore, our example shows that ADES as a baseline platform can provide capability for vehicle abnormal behavior detection to help imagery analysts quickly trace down potential threats and crimes.

  5. Airborne reconnaissance XV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Augustyn, T.W.; Henkel, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in airborne reconnaissance are reported focusing on reconnaissance requiremnts; image processing and exploitation, image acquisition and recording; and advanced development. Particular attention is given to low-intensity conflict aircraft systems; low-cost, low-risk approach to tactical reconnaissance; mission verification systems for FMS applications; tactical reconnaissance mission survivability requirements; high-bandwidth recording in a hostile environment; direct-drive film magazines; a CCD performance model for airborne reconnaissance, and an Ericsson digital recce management system.

  6. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise. PMID:19673775

  7. Airborne remote sensors applied to engineering geology and civil works design investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelnett, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The usefulness of various airborne remote sensing systems in the detection and identification of regional and specific geologic structural features that may affect the design and location of engineering structures on major civil works projects is evaluated. The Butler Valley Dam and Blue Lake Project in northern California was selected as a demonstration site. Findings derived from the interpretation of various kinds of imagery used are given.

  8. The Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.; Manning, W.; Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Results of the first science flight of the airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA ER-2 is discussed. Imagery collected from the flight demonstrates CoSMIR's unique conical/cross-track imaging mode and provides comparison of CoSMIR measurements to those of the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature-2 (SSM/T-2) satellite radiometer.

  9. Coastal and estuarine habitat mapping, using LIDAR height and intensity and multi-spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Franco, Javier; Uriarte, Adolfo

    2008-07-01

    The airborne laser scanning LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTM) that have been applied recently to the characterization, quantification and monitoring of coastal environments. This study assesses the contribution of LIDAR altimetry and intensity data, topographically-derived features (slope and aspect), and multi-spectral imagery (three visible and a near-infrared band), to map coastal habitats in the Bidasoa estuary and its adjacent coastal area (Basque Country, northern Spain). The performance of high-resolution data sources was individually and jointly tested, with the maximum likelihood algorithm classifier in a rocky shore and a wetland zone; thus, including some of the most extended Cantabrian Sea littoral habitats, within the Bay of Biscay. The results show that reliability of coastal habitat classification was more enhanced with LIDAR-based DTM, compared with the other data sources: slope, aspect, intensity or near-infrared band. The addition of the DTM, to the three visible bands, produced gains of between 10% and 27% in the agreement measures, between the mapped and validation data (i.e. mean producer's and user's accuracy) for the two test sites. Raw LIDAR intensity images are only of limited value here, since they appeared heterogeneous and speckled. However, the enhanced Lee smoothing filter, applied to the LIDAR intensity, improved the overall accuracy measurements of the habitat classification, especially in the wetland zone; here, there were gains up to 7.9% in mean producer's and 11.6% in mean user's accuracy. This suggests that LIDAR can be useful for habitat mapping, when few data sources are available. The synergy between the LIDAR data, with multi-spectral bands, produced high accurate classifications (mean producer's accuracy: 92% for the 16 rocky habitats and 88% for the 11 wetland habitats). Fusion of the data enabled discrimination of intertidal communities, such as Corallina elongata

  10. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  11. The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

  12. Digital processing of Mariner 9 television data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.; Seidman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The digital image processing performed by the Image Processing Laboratory (IPL) at JPL in support of the Mariner 9 mission is summarized. The support is divided into the general categories of image decalibration (the removal of photometric and geometric distortions from returned imagery), computer cartographic projections in support of mapping activities, and adaptive experimenter support (flexible support to provide qualitative digital enhancements and quantitative data reduction of returned imagery). Among the tasks performed were the production of maximum discriminability versions of several hundred frames to support generation of a geodetic control net for Mars, and special enhancements supporting analysis of Phobos and Deimos images.

  13. Digital exploitation of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A digital processing and analysis scheme for use with digitized synthetic aperture radar data was developed. Using data from a four channel system, the imagery is preprocessed using specially designed software and then analyzed using preexisting facilities originally intended for use with MSS type data. Geometric and radiometric correction may be performed if desired, as well as classification analysis, Fast Fourier transform, filtering and level slice and display functions. The system provides low cost output in real time, permitting interactive imagery analysis. System information flow diagrams as well as sample output products are shown.

  14. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  15. Imagery: Paintings in the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Albert R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes using the overlapping areas of relaxation, meditation, hypnosis, and imagery as a counseling technique. Explains the methods in terms of right brain functioning, a capability children use naturally. (ABB)

  16. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred W; Tartaglia, Elisa M; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not "really" new but just new "interpretations." In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within "known" models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience.

  17. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred W; Tartaglia, Elisa M; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not "really" new but just new "interpretations." In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within "known" models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience. PMID:23060830

  18. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  19. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  20. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  1. 'unlocking the Archive': Using Digital Photogrammetry of Modern Airborne Aerial Photography for Analysis of Historic Aerial Photographs to Extend the Record of Glacier Mass Balance Change on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, L. E.; Miller, P.; Fox, A. J.; Mills, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes to glacier fronts and ice shelves and glacier acceleration are well documented, but there are almost no data on mass changes for the more than 400 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. Satellite data have been used to calculate change over the last 3 decades, but methods to quantify this over longer timescales have eluded researchers. However there is an archive of aerial photography dating back to the 1940s, this has been largely ignored due to the range of technical problems associated with deriving quantitative data from historic imagery and the lack of ground control data. This presentation demonstrates how advances in photogrammetric processing and capture of modern aerial photography has allowed this archive to be 'unlocked'. Accurate photogrammetric reconstruction from aerial photographs traditionally requires known ground control points acquired in the field; however, in remote and inaccessible areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, this is often impossible. A method for providing control for historic photos without fieldwork, by linking them to a newly acquired, highly accurate photogrammetric model adjusted through direct kinematic GPS positioning of the camera has been applied to a number of glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsula. This presentation will outline the photogrammetric workflow and associated errors to highlight the suitability of this technique and demonstrate the data that can be obtained. Accurate measurements of surface elevation change on glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula over a 70 year time span have enabled quantification of spatial and temporal patterns of change. The results show a general trend of glacier retreat, but with thinning of the glacier terminus marginally offset by accumulation in the upper areas of the glacier. The use of this technique opens up possibilities for 'unlocking the archive' in other remote glacial areas where historic aerial photography exists but the collection of ground control points is limited.

  2. The Utility and Validity of Kinematic GPS Positioning for the Geosar Airborne Terrain Mapping Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Adam; Hensley, Scott; Chapin, Elaine; Kroger, Peter; Hussain, Mushtaq; Allred, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    GeoSAR is an airborne, interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) system for terrain mapping, currently under development by a consortium including NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., a California mapping sciences company, and the California Department of Conservation (CaIDOC), with funding provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Topographic Engineering Center (TEC) and the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). IFSAR data processing requires high-accuracy platform position and attitude knowledge. On 9 GeoSAR, these are provided by one or two Honeywell Embedded GPS Inertial Navigation Units (EGI) and an Ashtech Z12 GPS receiver. The EGIs provide real-time high-accuracy attitude and moderate-accuracy position data, while the Ashtech data, post-processed differentially with data from a nearby ground station using Ashtech PNAV software, provide high-accuracy differential GPS positions. These data are optimally combined using a Kalman filter within the GeoSAR motion measurement software, and the resultant position and orientation information are used to process the dual frequency (X-band and P-band) radar data to generate high-accuracy, high -resolution terrain imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). GeoSAR requirements specify sub-meter level planimetric and vertical accuracies for the resultant DEMS. To achieve this, platform positioning errors well below one meter are needed. The goal of GeoSAR is to obtain 25 cm or better 3-D positions from the GPS systems on board the aircraft. By imaging a set of known point target corner-cube reflectors, the GeoSAR system can be calibrated. This calibration process yields the true position of the aircraft with an uncertainty of 20- 50 cm. This process thus allows an independent assessment of the accuracy of our GPS-based positioning systems. We will present an overview of the GeoSAR motion measurement system, focusing on the use of GPS and the blending of position data from the

  3. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  4. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  5. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  6. An assessment of IceBridge airborne data quality over Arctic sea ice via comparison with in situ measurements gathered in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Connor, L. N.; Kurtz, N. T.; Elder, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice pack has experienced rapid changes over the last decade with well documented losses in ice extent. More recently, observations suggest a decline in sea ice thickness leading to a basin-wide loss of ice volume. Fundamental to our capabilities to monitor and forecast these changes are observations from airborne and satellite-based laser and radar altimeters. The accurate mapping of sea ice thickness, using these instruments, requires the largest identified contributors to thickness errors to be better constrained: namely the uncertainties in sea ice freeboard and snow depth. To quantify these errors a 9 km long survey line was established in March 2011 near the US Navy ICEX2011 ice camp in the Beaufort Sea. The survey line was strategically located to cover a wide range of Arctic ice types: refrozen leads, deformed and undeformed first year ice, and multiyear ice. Survey measurements included estimates of ice thickness using the EM31 (an electromagnetic ground-conductivity meter), direct measurements of sea ice freeboard, snow thickness using a snow magnaprobe and snow pits to characterize the snow layer. The primary goal of the ICEX experiment was to provide an assessment of the remaining errors associated with aircraft-derived snow depth and sea ice thickness as a function of ice type. An Operation IceBridge (OIB) aircraft overflight of the survey line was conducted on the 23rd March 2011 from an altitude of ~465 m. The OIB instrument suite on the aircraft included: the Ku-band radar altimeter (13-17 GHz), the snow radar (2-8 GHz), the Airborne Topographical Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter and the Digital Mapping System (DMS) digital camera, which together provide estimates of sea ice freeboard, thickness, surface roughness and snow depth. We present a new methodology for analyzing the snow radar data for the extraction and estimation of snow depth utilizing a novel wavelet-based layer-picking technique. The snow depths derived from the snow radar

  7. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  8. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  9. Use of Spatial Variance Information From Remote Sensing Imagery to Map Vegetation Foliage Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthall, C. L.; Timlin, D.; Pachepsky, Y.; Dulaney, W.; Daughtry, C.

    2002-12-01

    Maps of foliage density expressed as leaf area index (LAI) are used for natural resources inventories, land surface-atmosphere interaction modeling, and hydrologic modeling. Remote sensing imagery can be used to produce these maps by relating spectral vegetation indexes (SVIs) to LAI calibration samples acquired at selected locations on the surface. This approach traditionally uses ordinary least squares (OLS) relationships between the surface measurements and the SVIs, and does not fully take advantage of the spatial information content of the imagery. Spatial information inherent in a semivariogram of the imagery may provide additional information for mapping LAI patterns. This is demonstrated using a spatially dense sample of corn LAI and calibrated airborne imagery. An LAI map is produced by interpolating surface measurements with a semivariogram from the imagery. The resulting LAI map captures the main spatial features of a LAI map produced by interpolating the surface LAI data with its semivariogram. The image semivariogram approach also provides a product that has less noise characteristic of OLS-based remote sensing methods. The use of the image semivariogram with the surface LAI calibration samples suggests that the spatial domain information can complement spectral information for improving LAI maps especially at high spatial resolution where OLS methods may not perform well.

  10. Clod-o-meter: A New Method for the Calculation of Shrinkage/Swelling Curves for Soil Clods by Integrating an Open Source Software Solution and Digital Imagery Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Characterizing the shrinkage and swelling dynamics of swelling soils is fundamental to the understanding of soil cracking and moisture movement within the vadose zone. The shrinkage and swelling curves relate the change in the soil’s specific volume (volume of soil/mass of solids) to the change in the soil’s moisture content. Current methods determine clod volume by dipping saran-coated clods in water or by relying on expensive equipment and proprietary software (such as using laser scanners to measure the sample in three dimensions). We propose an alternative method for determining the volume of a soil clod, which is both low-cost and utilizes completely free and open-source software. To measure the volume, the clod is placed on a stand and imaged from multiple angles using a digital camera. The images are then combined using the free Microsoft program, Photosynth, to create a 3-dimensional point cloud (a three-dimensional set of vertices, representing the outer surface of the object). This point cloud is then edited using the open source program Meshlab to remove outliers and create a Poisson surface mesh. Finally, an Octave code is used to calculate the relative volume of the 3-dimensional surface. To obtain the actual volume of the clod, the relative volume needs to be calibrated using an object within the same 3D image with known dimensions and volume. For this analysis we used the soil clod holder (a cylinder painted with bright, random patterns) as the calibration object to be able to calculate the real volume of the clod from the relative volume obtained by Octave. The clods were kept at room temperature under small temperature and humidity fluctuations to ensure slow and uniform shrinkage. This procedure was repeated at multiple moisture contents (clod weight was recorded immediately prior to each image session). To verify the final volume calculation from the image processing, the clod was dipped in saran resin and placed into a water-filled graduated

  11. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  12. Monitoring Areal Snow Cover Using NASA Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshburger, Brian J.; Blandford, Troy; Moore, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop products and tools to assist in the hydrologic modeling process, including tools to help prepare inputs for hydrologic models and improved methods for the visualization of streamflow forecasts. In addition, this project will facilitate the use of NASA satellite imagery (primarily snow cover imagery) by other federal and state agencies with operational streamflow forecasting responsibilities. A GIS software toolkit for monitoring areal snow cover extent and producing streamflow forecasts is being developed. This toolkit will be packaged as multiple extensions for ArcGIS 9.x and an opensource GIS software package. The toolkit will provide users with a means for ingesting NASA EOS satellite imagery (snow cover analysis), preparing hydrologic model inputs, and visualizing streamflow forecasts. Primary products include a software tool for predicting the presence of snow under clouds in satellite images; a software tool for producing gridded temperature and precipitation forecasts; and a suite of tools for visualizing hydrologic model forecasting results. The toolkit will be an expert system designed for operational users that need to generate accurate streamflow forecasts in a timely manner. The Remote Sensing of Snow Cover Toolbar will ingest snow cover imagery from multiple sources, including the MODIS Operational Snowcover Data and convert them to gridded datasets that can be readily used. Statistical techniques will then be applied to the gridded snow cover data to predict the presence of snow under cloud cover. The toolbar has the ability to ingest both binary and fractional snow cover data. Binary mapping techniques use a set of thresholds to determine whether a pixel contains snow or no snow. Fractional mapping techniques provide information regarding the percentage of each pixel that is covered with snow. After the imagery has been ingested, physiographic data is attached to each cell in the snow cover image. This data

  13. Radiometric calibration of multiple Earth observation sensors using airborne hyperspectral data at the Newell County rangeland test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teillet, Phil M.; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Gauthier, Robert P.; Shin, Raymond T.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Ripley, Herb T.; Meygret, Aime

    1999-09-01

    A single data set of spatially extensive hyperspectral imagery is used to carry out vicarious calibrations for multiple Earth observation sensors. Results are presented based on a data acquisition campaign at the newell County rangeland test site in Alberta in October 1998, which included ground-based measurements, satellite imagery, and airborne casi hyperspectral data. This paper present new calibration monitoring obtained for NOAA-14 AVHRR, OrbView-2 SeaWiFS, SPOT-4 VGT, Landsat-5 TM, and SPOT-2 HRV.

  14. Digital Library for Aerospace Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudashev, Å. B.

    The article reviews the experience of the development of digital digital library for the problems in organisation of state-of-the-art education in remote sensing for environmental research. Information-education resources are installed on the Web-Server of Space Research Institute. Web Server was organized in the form the Remote Sensing Data Server, and Metadata Server on the base of digital catalogues with satellite imagery. The integration of Russian Satellite Data of Remote Sensing would conclude the Digital Library. For this project we had the following guiding principles: create the Web resources of Satellite Data, Metadata, and Geospatial Information for University community; provide the information support for the Inter-University Aerospace Centre; provide free Web access and obtaining satellite images over Internet; provide the information exchange and data acquisition.

  15. Death imagery and death anxiety.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R T; Hilgendorf, W A

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between positive/negative death imagery and death anxiety. Subjects were 179 undergraduate students at a large, private, midwestern university. Results reveal that on five measures of death anxiety the subjects with low death anxiety scores had significantly more positive death images than did those with high death anxiety scores. The few subjects who imagined death to be young (N = 14) had a significantly more positive image of death than those who perceived it to be an old person. Death was seen as male by 92% of the male respondents and 74% of the female respondents. Significant differences in death imagery and death anxiety were found between subjects enrolled in an introductory psychology course and those enrolled in a thanatology course. No sex differences in death anxiety or positive/negative death imagery were found.

  16. Research in digital adaptive flight controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H.

    1976-01-01

    A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.

  17. Development Of A Digital Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Allan; Meyer, George

    1988-01-01

    Feed-forward control path includes inversion of model of the aircraft. Report describes concept, development, tests of digital flight-control system for vertical-attitude-takeoff-and-landing aircraft. System based in airborne digital computer. Combines control of attitude and thrust in unified system for operation over full coupled ranges of velocity, altitude, attitude, and acceleration.

  18. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  19. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  20. Precise Ortho Imagery as the Source for Authoritative Airport Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, H.; Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    As the aviation industry moves from paper maps and charts to the digital cockpit and electronic flight bag, producers of these products need current and accurate data to ensure flight safety. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) require certified suppliers to follow a defined protocol to produce authoritative map data for the aerodrome. Typical airport maps have been produced to meet 5 m accuracy requirements. The new digital aviation world is moving to 1 m accuracy maps to provide better situational awareness on the aerodrome. The commercial availability of 0.5 m satellite imagery combined with accurate ground control is enabling the production of avionics certified .85 m orthophotos of airports around the globe. CompassData maintains an archive of over 400+ airports as source data to support producers of 1 m certified Aerodrome Mapping Database (AMDB) critical to flight safety and automated situational awareness. CompassData is a DO200A certified supplier of authoritative orthoimagery and attendees will learn how to utilize current airport imagery to build digital aviation mapping products.

  1. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-05-23

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  2. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  3. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  4. Imagery: A Neglected Correlate of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmer, H. T.; Parkay, Forrest W.

    Imagery has a significant role in cognitive development. Reading research has established the fact that good readers image spontaneously and that there is a high interrelationship between overall preference for a story, the amount of text-related imagery in the story, comprehension, and recall. Imagery researchers agree that everyone is capable of…

  5. Perceptual evaluation of color transformed multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-04-01

    Color remapping can give multispectral imagery a realistic appearance. We assessed the practical value of this technique in two observer experiments using monochrome intensified (II) and long-wave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First, we investigated the amount of detail observers perceive in a short timespan. REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty in extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations during free image exploration. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF, and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representations such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior corresponding to daylight color imagery.

  6. Perceptual evaluation of colorized nighttime imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-02-01

    We recently presented a color transform that produces fused nighttime imagery with a realistic color appearance (Hogervorst and Toet, 2010, Information Fusion, 11-2, 69-77). To assess the practical value of this transform we performed two experiments in which we compared human scene recognition for monochrome intensified (II) and longwave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First we investigated the amount of detail observers can perceive in a short time span (the gist of the scene). Participants watched brief image presentations and provided a full report of what they had seen. Our results show that REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while both II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations of participants who freely explored the images. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representation such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior for daylight color imagery.

  7. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  8. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  9. Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…

  10. Automatic polar ice thickness estimation from SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Yari, Masoud; Fox, Geoffrey C.

    2016-05-01

    Global warming has caused serious damage to our environment in recent years. Accelerated loss of ice from Greenland and Antarctica has been observed in recent decades. The melting of polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers has a considerable influence on sea level rise and altering ocean currents, potentially leading to the flooding of the coastal regions and putting millions of people around the world at risk. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are able to provide relevant information about subsurface structure of polar ice sheets. Manual layer identification is prohibitively tedious and expensive and is not practical for regular, longterm ice-sheet monitoring. Automatic layer finding in noisy radar images is quite challenging due to huge amount of noise, limited resolution and variations in ice layers and bedrock. Here we propose an approach which automatically detects ice surface and bedrock boundaries using distance regularized level set evolution. In this approach the complex topology of ice and bedrock boundary layers can be detected simultaneously by evolving an initial curve in radar imagery. Using a distance regularized term, the regularity of the level set function is intrinsically maintained that solves the reinitialization issues arising from conventional level set approaches. The results are evaluated on a large dataset of airborne radar imagery collected during IceBridge mission over Antarctica and Greenland and show promising results in respect to hand-labeled ground truth.

  11. Towards a real-time wide area motion imagery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R. I.; Foulkes, S. B.

    2015-10-01

    It is becoming increasingly important in both the defence and security domains to conduct persistent wide area surveillance (PWAS) of large populations of targets. Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) is a key technique for achieving this wide area surveillance. The recent development of multi-million pixel sensors has provided sensors with wide field of view replete with sufficient resolution for detection and tracking of objects of interest to be achieved across these extended areas of interest. WAMI sensors simultaneously provide high spatial and temporal resolutions, giving extreme pixel counts over large geographical areas. The high temporal resolution is required to enable effective tracking of targets. The provision of wide area coverage with high frame rates generates data deluge issues; these are especially profound if the sensor is mounted on an airborne platform, with finite data-link bandwidth and processing power that is constrained by size, weight and power (SWAP) limitations. These issues manifest themselves either as bottlenecks in the transmission of the imagery off-board or as latency in the time taken to analyse the data due to limited computational processing power.

  12. Mapping Hazardous River Ice from High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C.; Kielland, K.; Prakash, A.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    In interior Alaska, frozen river systems are important transportation corridors, due to the very limited road network. Long-time Alaskan residents report that winter travel conditions on Interior rivers have become more dangerous in recent memory. Field experience suggested that visual clues may provide experienced river travelers with clues of ice conditions. We explored the utility of airborne or satellite imagery as useful tools to map dangerous ice conditions on rivers in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high-resolution satellite imagery was used to identify and map open water and degraded ice conditions on the Tanana River. An accuracy assessment indicated that snow, degraded ice, and open water were mapped with an overall accuracy of 73%, producer's accuracies between (82 and 100%), and user's accuracy ranging from (62 to 86%). Over 95% of the errors were caused by shadowing of trees or topographic features in the snow. The classification system performed well for a variety of satellite images and across different satellite platforms. With further development, these types of satellite remote sensing tools could prove to be very useful across a range of disciplines and industry in northern climates.

  13. Oblique Aerial Imagery for NMA - Some best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Holland, D.; McGill, A.; Talaya Lopez, J.; Magarinos, A.

    2016-06-01

    Oblique airborne photogrammetry is rapidly maturing and being offered by service providers as a good alternative or replacement of the more traditional vertical imagery and for very different applications (Fig.1). EuroSDR, representing European National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and research organizations of most EU states, is following the development of oblique aerial cameras since 2013, when an ongoing activity was created to continuously update its members on the developments in this technology. Nowadays most European NMAs still rely on the traditional workflow based on vertical photography but changes are slowly taking place also at production level. Some NMAs have already run some tests internally to understand the potential for their needs whereas other agencies are discussing on the future role of this technology and how to possibly adapt their production pipelines. At the same time, some research institutions and academia demonstrated the potentialities of oblique aerial datasets to generate textured 3D city models or large building block models. The paper provides an overview of tests, best practices and considerations coming from the R&D community and from three European NMAs concerning the use of oblique aerial imagery.

  14. Quantifying structural physical habitat attributes using LIDAR and hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert K; Watkins, Russell L; Heggem, Daniel T; Jones, K Bruce; Kaufmann, Philip R; Moore, Steven B; Gregory, Sandra J

    2009-12-01

    Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity, and riparian vegetation cover and structure. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is designed to assess the status and trends of ecological resources at different scales. High-resolution remote sensing provides unique capabilities in detecting a variety of features and indicators of environmental health and condition. LIDAR is an airborne scanning laser system that provides data on topography, channel dimensions (width, depth), slope, channel complexity (residual pools, volume, morphometric complexity, hydraulic roughness), riparian vegetation (height and density), dimensions of riparian zone, anthropogenic alterations and disturbances, and channel and riparian interaction. Hyperspectral aerial imagery offers the advantage of high spectral and spatial resolution allowing for the detection and identification of riparian vegetation and natural and anthropogenic features at a resolution not possible with satellite imagery. When combined, or fused, these technologies comprise a powerful geospatial data set for assessing and monitoring lentic and lotic environmental characteristics and condition. PMID:19165614

  15. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  16. Picture processing of SAR L-band imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.; Stromberg, W. D.; Farr, T.

    1977-01-01

    Data digitization and thresholding are applied to two scenes - sea ice and fresh-water lakes - to define the possible uses of automatic picture processing of uncalibrated SAR L-band imagery. It is shown that certain types of features, those which have constant returns which are also very high or very low in intensity can be effectively studied using simple automatic picture processing techniques applied to uncalibrated radar data. In areas which are generally inaccessible or in which monitoring of the changes of some types of earth surfaces are required, the uncalibrated SAR data can provide valuable inputs for modeling and mapping purposes.

  17. High-resolution satellite imagery for mesoscale meteorological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David B.; Flament, Pierre; Bernstein, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In this article high-resolution satellite imagery from a variety of meteorological and environmental satellites is compared. Digital datasets from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Landsat, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellites were archived as part of the 1990 Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) and form the basis of the comparisons. During HaRP, GOES geostationary satellite coverage was marginal, so the main emphasis is on the polar-orbiting satellites.

  18. Dialectical Imagery and Postmodern Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kevin G.

    2006-01-01

    This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…

  19. Satellite imagery and discourses of transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chad Vincent

    In the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in satellite imagery available in the commercial marketplace and to the public in general. Satellite imagery systems and imagery archives, a knowledge domain formally monopolized by nation states, have become available to the public, both from declassified intelligence data and from fully integrated commercial vendors who create and market imagery data. Some of these firms have recently launched their own satellite imagery systems and created rather large imagery "architectures" that threaten to rival military reconnaissance systems. The increasing resolution of the imagery and the growing expertise of software and imagery interpretation developers has engendered a public discourse about the potentials for increased transparency in national and global affairs. However, transparency is an attribute of satellite remote sensing and imagery production that is taken for granted in the debate surrounding the growing public availability of high-resolution satellite imagery. This paper examines remote sensing and military photo reconnaissance imagery technology and the production of satellite imagery in the interests of contemplating the complex connections between imagery satellites, historically situated discourses about democratic and global transparency, and the formation and maintenance of nation state systems. Broader historical connections will also be explored between satellite imagery and the history of the use of cartographic and geospatial technologies in the formation and administrative control of nation states and in the discursive formulation of national identity. Attention will be on the technology itself as a powerful social actor through its connection to both national sovereignty and transcendent notions of scientific objectivity. The issues of the paper will be explored through a close look at aerial photography and satellite imagery both as communicative tools of power and as culturally relevant

  20. Exploitation of combined visible hyperspectral and infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey B.; Marmorino, George O.; Miller, W. David

    2008-11-01

    Natural and anthropogenic surfactants accumulate at the air-sea interface, forming microlayer films, slicks, and foam patches. The resulting enhanced viscoelasticity of the interface alters the small-scale wave spectrum and near-surface turbulence. These changes alter the surface thermal boundary layer and ``skin'' temperature, making infrared thermal imagery ideal for detecting/mapping/studying ocean slicks. Slicks are found under a range of conditions and can result from physical straining of the sea surface (e.g. internal waves) as well as from local biological processes (e.g. plankton blooms). Airborne datasets that combine simultaneous airborne infrared and visible wavelength hyperspectral remote sensing data are now available and provide new opportunities to investigate the physical and biological processes that result in ocean slicks. In addition to the multiple sensors, these datasets are at spatial and time scales much smaller than possible with available satellite remote sensors. This enables the study of a much broader range of phenomena. In particular we investigate the relationship between surface accumulations of vegetative material, ocean slicks and surface temperature changes. We also investigate the relationship between the presence of slicks and water column chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM).

  1. Information through color imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1975-01-01

    The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.

  2. Geoscience Applications of Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding David J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in lidar altimetry technology have enabled new methods to describe the vertical structure of the Earth's surface with great accuracy. Application of these methods in several geoscience disciplines will be described. Airborne characterization of vegetation canopy structure will be illustrated, including a validation of lidar-derived Canopy Height Profiles for closed-canopy, broadleaf forests. Airborne detection of tectonic landforms beneath dense canopy will also be illustrated, with an application mapping active fault traces in the Puget Lowland of Washington state for earthquake hazard assessment purposes. Application of data from the first and second flights of the Shuttle Laser Altimeter will also be discussed in an assessment of global digital elevation model accuracy and error characteristics. Two upcoming space flight missions will be described, the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) and the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Mission (ICESat), which will provide comprehensive lidar altimeter observations of the Earth's topography and vegetation cover.

  3. Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

  4. Sea floor classification with satellite data and airborne lidar bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael; Philipson, Petra; Kautsky, Hans; Wikström, Sofia A.

    2013-06-01

    While land maps of vegetation cover and substrate types exist, similar underwater maps are rare or almost non-existing. We developed the use of airborne bathymetric lidar mapping and high resolution satellite data to a combined method for shallow sea floor classification. A classification accuracy of about 80% is possible for six classes of substrate and vegetation, when validated against field data taken from underwater video recordings. The method utilizes lidar data directly (topography, slopes) and as means for correction of image data for water depth and turbidity. In this paper we present results using WorldView-2 imagery and data from the HawkEye II lidar system in a Swedish archipelago area.

  5. Remote sensing capabilities of the GEO-CAPE airborne simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott J.

    2014-09-01

    The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Airborne Simulator (GCAS) was designed and built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as a technology demonstration instrument for the atmospheric science study group of GEO-CAPE and potential validation instrument for NASA's Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring Pollution (TEMPO) mission. GCAS was designed to make high altitude remote sensing observations of tropospheric and boundary layer pollutants, coastal and ocean water leaving radiances, and visible imagery for cloud and surface information. The instrument has participated in one flight campaign in Houston, TX as part of the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) in September 2013. An overview of the instrument's design, characterization, and preliminary slant column retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign will be provided in this paper.

  6. Automated motion imagery exploitation for surveillance and reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Laliberte, France; Kotamraju, Vinay; Dutkiewicz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for many military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning and others, such as post-operation analysis / damage assessment. Motion imagery gathered from both manned and unmanned platforms provides surveillance and reconnaissance information that can be used for pre- and post-operation analysis, but these sensors can gather large amounts of video data. It is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyse hours of collected data without the aid of automated tools. At MDA Systems Ltd. (MDA), we have previously developed a suite of automated video exploitation tools that can process airborne video, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, within a GIS framework. The mosaicking tool produces a geo-referenced 2D map from the sequence of video frames. The change detection tool identifies differences between two repeat-pass videos taken of the same terrain. The 3D reconstruction tool creates calibrated geo-referenced photo-realistic 3D models. The key objectives of the on-going project are to improve the robustness, accuracy and speed of these tools, and make them more user-friendly to operational users. Robustness and accuracy are essential to provide actionable intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information. Speed is important to reduce operator time on data analysis. We are porting some processor-intensive algorithms to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to improve throughput. Many aspects of video processing are highly parallel and well-suited for optimization on GPUs, which are now commonly available on computers. Moreover, we are extending the tools to handle video data from various airborne platforms and developing the interface to the Coalition Shared Database (CSD). The CSD server enables the dissemination and storage of data from different sensors among NATO countries. The CSD interface allows

  7. Airborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Survey of the Southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Tratt, D. M.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) between Desert Hot Springs and Bombay Beach has been surveyed with Mako, an airborne hyperspectral imager operating across the wavelength range 7.6-13.2 μm in the thermal-infrared (TIR) spectral region. The data were acquired with a 4-km swath width centered on the SAF, and many tectonic features are recorded in the imagery. Spectral analysis using diagnostic features of minerals can identify rocks, soils and vegetation. Mako imagery can also locate rupture zones and measure slip distances. Designed and built by The Aerospace Corporation, the innovative and highly capable airborne imaging spectrometer used for this work enables low-noise performance (NEΔT ≲ 0.1 K @ 10 μm) at small pixel IFOV (0.55 mrad) and high frame rates, making possible an area-coverage rate of 20 km2 per minute with 2-m ground resolution from 12,500 ft (3.8 km) above-ground altitude. Since its commissioning in 2010, Mako has been used in numerous studies involving other earthquake fault systems (Hector Mine, S. Bristol Mts.), mapping of surface geology, geothermal sources (fumaroles near the Salton Sea), urban surveys, and the detection, quantification, and tracking of natural and anthropogenic gaseous emission plumes. Mako is available for airborne field studies and new applications are of particular interest. It can be flown at any altitude below 20,000 ft to achieve the desired GSD.

  8. Satellite Imagery Assisted Road-Based Visual Navigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, A.; Gibbens, P. W.

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing demand for unmanned aerial systems as autonomous surveillance, exploration and remote sensing solutions. Among the key concerns for robust operation of these systems is the need to reliably navigate the environment without reliance on global navigation satellite system (GNSS). This is of particular concern in Defence circles, but is also a major safety issue for commercial operations. In these circumstances, the aircraft needs to navigate relying only on information from on-board passive sensors such as digital cameras. An autonomous feature-based visual system presented in this work offers a novel integral approach to the modelling and registration of visual features that responds to the specific needs of the navigation system. It detects visual features from Google Earth* build a feature database. The same algorithm then detects features in an on-board cameras video stream. On one level this serves to localise the vehicle relative to the environment using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM). On a second level it correlates them with the database to localise the vehicle with respect to the inertial frame. The performance of the presented visual navigation system was compared using the satellite imagery from different years. Based on comparison results, an analysis of the effects of seasonal, structural and qualitative changes of the imagery source on the performance of the navigation algorithm is presented. * The algorithm is independent of the source of satellite imagery and another provider can be used

  9. Prediction of landslides using ASTER imagery and data mining models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyo-Young; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Inhye; Lee, Changwook; Lee, Saro

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify landslide-related factors using only remotely sensed data and to present landslide susceptibility maps using a geographic information system, data-mining models, an artificial neural network (ANN), and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS). Landslide-related factors were identified in Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery. The slope, aspect, and curvature of topographic features were calculated from a digital elevation model that was made using the ASTER imagery. Lineaments, land-cover, and normalized difference vegetative index layers were also extracted from the imagery. Landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed and mapped based on occurrence factors using the ANN and ANFIS. The generalized bell-shaped built-in membership function of the ANFIS was applied to landslide susceptibility mapping. Analytical results were validated using landslide test location data. In the validation results, the ANN model showed 80.42% prediction accuracy and the ANFIS model showed 86.55% prediction accuracy. These results suggest that the ANFIS model has a better performance than does the ANN in predicting landslide susceptibility.

  10. Digital Video Over Space Systems and Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of digital video with space systems and networks. The earliest use of video was the use of film precluding live viewing, which gave way to live television from space. This has given way to digital video using internet protocol for transmission. This has provided for many improvements with new challenges. Some of these ehallenges are reviewed. The change to digital video transmitted over space systems can provide incredible imagery, however the process must be viewed as an entire system, rather than piece-meal.

  11. Object Based Image Analysis Combining High Spatial Resolution Imagery and Laser Point Clouds for Urban Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid developments of the sensor technology, high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds can be captured nowadays, which make classification, extraction, evaluation and analysis of a broad range of object features available. High resolution imagery, Lidar dataset and parcel map can be widely used for classification as information carriers. Therefore, refinement of objects classification is made possible for the urban land cover. The paper presents an approach to object based image analysis (OBIA) combing high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds. The advanced workflow for urban land cover is designed with four components. Firstly, colour-infrared TrueOrtho photo and laser point clouds were pre-processed to derive the parcel map of water bodies and nDSM respectively. Secondly, image objects are created via multi-resolution image segmentation integrating scale parameter, the colour and shape properties with compactness criterion. Image can be subdivided into separate object regions. Thirdly, image objects classification is performed on the basis of segmentation and a rule set of knowledge decision tree. These objects imagery are classified into six classes such as water bodies, low vegetation/grass, tree, low building, high building and road. Finally, in order to assess the validity of the classification results for six classes, accuracy assessment is performed through comparing randomly distributed reference points of TrueOrtho imagery with the classification results, forming the confusion matrix and calculating overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient. The study area focuses on test site Vaihingen/Enz and a patch of test datasets comes from the benchmark of ISPRS WG III/4 test project. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most types of urban land cover. Overall accuracy is 89.5% and Kappa coefficient equals to 0.865. The OBIA approach provides an effective and convenient way to combine high

  12. Volumetric Forest Change Detection Through Vhr Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, Devrim; Stylianidis, Efstratios; Smagas, Konstantinos; Hofer, Martin; Poli, Daniela; Gruen, Armin; Sanchez Martin, Victor; Altan, Orhan; Walli, Andreas; Jimeno, Elisa; Garcia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Quick and economical ways of detecting of planimetric and volumetric changes of forest areas are in high demand. A research platform, called FORSAT (A satellite processing platform for high resolution forest assessment), was developed for the extraction of 3D geometric information from VHR (very-high resolution) imagery from satellite optical sensors and automatic change detection. This 3D forest information solution was developed during a Eurostars project. FORSAT includes two main units. The first one is dedicated to the geometric and radiometric processing of satellite optical imagery and 2D/3D information extraction. This includes: image radiometric pre-processing, image and ground point measurement, improvement of geometric sensor orientation, quasiepipolar image generation for stereo measurements, digital surface model (DSM) extraction by using a precise and robust image matching approach specially designed for VHR satellite imagery, generation of orthoimages, and 3D measurements in single images using mono-plotting and in stereo images as well as triplets. FORSAT supports most of the VHR optically imagery commonly used for civil applications: IKONOS, OrbView - 3, SPOT - 5 HRS, SPOT - 5 HRG, QuickBird, GeoEye-1, WorldView-1/2, Pléiades 1A/1B, SPOT 6/7, and sensors of similar type to be expected in the future. The second unit of FORSAT is dedicated to 3D surface comparison for change detection. It allows users to import digital elevation models (DEMs), align them using an advanced 3D surface matching approach and calculate the 3D differences and volume changes between epochs. To this end our 3D surface matching method LS3D is being used. FORSAT is a single source and flexible forest information solution with a very competitive price/quality ratio, allowing expert and non-expert remote sensing users to monitor forests in three and four dimensions from VHR optical imagery for many forest information needs. The capacity and benefits of FORSAT have been tested in

  13. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  14. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The microdensitometer will be used to analyze data acquired by ERTS-1 imagery. The classification programs and software packages have been acquired and are being prepared for use with the information as it is received. Photo and digital tapes have been acquired for coverage of virtually 100 percent of the test site areas. These areas are located in South Dakota, Idaho, Missouri, and Kansas. Hass 70mm color infrared, infrared, black and white high altitude aerial photography of the test sites is available. Collection of ground truth for updating the data base has been completed and a computer program written to count the number of fields and give total acres by size group for the segments in each test site. Results are given of data analysis performed on digitized data from densitometer measurements of fields of corn, sugar, beets, and alfalfa in Kansas.

  15. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  16. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  17. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  18. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  19. Graph Matching for the Registration of Persistent Scatterers to Optical Oblique Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schack, L.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.

    2016-06-01

    Matching Persistent Scatterers (PS) to airborne optical imagery is one possibility to augment applications and deepen the understanding of SAR processing and products. While recently this data registration task was done with PS and optical nadir images the alternatively available optical oblique imagery is mostly neglected. Yet, the sensing geometry of oblique images is very similar in terms of viewing direction with respect to SAR.We exploit the additional information coming with these optical sensors to assign individual PS to single parts of buildings. The key idea is to incorporate topology information which is derived by grouping regularly aligned PS at facades and use it together with a geometry based measure in order to establish a consistent and meaningful matching result. We formulate this task as an optimization problem and derive a graph matching based algorithm with guaranteed convergence in order to solve it. Two exemplary case studies show the plausibility of the presented approach.

  20. Computational Methods for Analyzing Fluid Flow Dynamics from Digital Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Luttman, A.

    2012-03-30

    The main goal (long term) of this work is to perform computational dynamics analysis and quantify uncertainty from vector fields computed directly from measured data. Global analysis based on observed spatiotemporal evolution is performed by objective function based on expected physics and informed scientific priors, variational optimization to compute vector fields from measured data, and transport analysis proceeding with observations and priors. A mathematical formulation for computing flow fields is set up for computing the minimizer for the problem. An application to oceanic flow based on sea surface temperature is presented.

  1. Application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical imagery, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorre, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Several areas of applications of image processing to astronomy were identified and discussed. These areas include: (1) deconvolution for atmospheric seeing compensation; a comparison between maximum entropy and conventional Wiener algorithms; (2) polarization in galaxies from photographic plates; (3) time changes in M87 and methods of displaying these changes; (4) comparing emission line images in planetary nebulae; and (5) log intensity, hue saturation intensity, and principal component color enhancements of M82. Examples are presented of these techniques applied to a variety of objects.

  2. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  3. Geobotanical characterization of a geothermal system using hyperspectral imagery: Long Valley Caldera, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M R; Cochran, S A; Martini, B A; Pickles, W L; Potts, D C; Priest, R E; Silver, E A; Wayne, B A; White, W T

    1998-12-01

    We have analyzed hyperspectral Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging System (AVIRIS) imagery taken in September of 1992 in Long Valley Caldera, CA, a geothermally active region expressed surficially by hot springs and fumaroles. Geological and vegetation mapping are attempted through spectral classification of imagery. Particular hot spring areas in the caldera are targeted for analysis. The data is analyzed for unique geobotanical patterns in the vicinity of hot springs as well as gross identification of dominant plant and mineral species. Spectra used for the classifications come from a vegetation spectral library created for plant species found to be associated with geothermal processes. This library takes into account the seasonality of vegetation by including spectra for species on a monthly basis. Geological spectra are taken from JPL and USGS mineral libraries. Preliminary classifications of hot spring areas indicate some success in mineral identification and less successful vegetation species identification. The small spatial extent of individual plants demands either sub-pixel analysis or increased spatial resolution of imagery. Future work will also include preliminary analysis of a hyperspectral thermal imagery dataset and a multitemporal air photo dataset. The combination of these remotely sensed datasets for Long Valley will yield a valuable product for geothermal exploration efforts in other regions.

  4. Trace gas detection in hyperspectral imagery using the wavelet packet subspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Mark A. Z.

    This dissertation describes research into a new remote sensing method to detect trace gases in hyperspectral and ultra-spectral data. This new method is based on the wavelet packet transform. It attempts to improve both the computational tractability and the detection of trace gases in airborne and spaceborne spectral imagery. Atmospheric trace gas research supports various Earth science disciplines to include climatology, vulcanology, pollution monitoring, natural disasters, and intelligence and military applications. Hyperspectral and ultra-spectral data significantly increases the data glut of existing Earth science data sets. Spaceborne spectral data in particular significantly increases spectral resolution while performing daily global collections of the earth. Application of the wavelet packet transform to the spectral space of hyperspectral and ultra-spectral imagery data potentially improves remote sensing detection algorithms. It also facilities the parallelization of these methods for high performance computing. This research seeks two science goals, (1) developing a new spectral imagery detection algorithm, and (2) facilitating the parallelization of trace gas detection in spectral imagery data.

  5. Mapping the Distribution of Cloud Forests Using MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M. W.; Mejia, J.; Murillo, J.; Orozco, R.

    2007-05-01

    Tropical cloud forests - those forests that are frequently immersed in clouds or otherwise very humid, are extremely difficult to map from the ground, and are not easily distinguished in satellite imagery from other forest types, but they have a very different flora and fauna than lowland rainforest. Cloud forests, although found in many parts of the tropics, have a very restricted vertical extent and thus are also restricted horizontally. As a result, they are subject to both human disturbance (coffee growing for example) and the effects of possible climate change. Motivated by a desire to seek meteorological explanations for the distribution of cloud forests, we have begun to map cloudiness using MODIS Terra and Aqua visible imagery. This imagery, at ~1030 LT and 1330 LT, is an approximation for mid-day cloudiness. In tropical regions the amount of mid-day cloudiness strongly controls the shortwave radiation and thus the potential for evaporation (and aridity). We have mapped cloudiness using a simple algorithm that distinguishes between the cloud-free background brightness and the generally more reflective clouds to separate clouds from the underlying background. A major advantage of MODIS imagery over many other sources of satellite imagery is its high spatial resolution (~250m). This, coupled with precisely navigated images, means that detailed maps of cloudiness can be produced. The cloudiness maps can then be related to the underlying topography to further refine the location of the cloud forests. An advantage of this technique is that we are mapping the potential cloud forest, based on cloudiness, rather than the actual cloud forest, which are commonly based on forest estimates from satellite and digital elevation data. We do not derive precipitation, only estimates of daytime cloudiness. Although only a few years of MODIS imagery has been used in our studies, we will show that this is sufficient to describe the climatology of cloudiness with acceptable

  6. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  7. Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1999-09-01

    Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery resolution 20 percent, extending countermeasures keep-out range by a factor of 5, doubling the range for ladar detection and identification, and compensating for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft boundary layers. Innovative concepts are required for atmospheric pat hand boundary layer compensation. We have developed design that perform these tasks using high speed scene-based wavefront sensing, IR aerosol laser guide stars, and extended-object wavefront beacons. We have developed a number of adaptive optics system configurations that met the spatial resolution requirements and we have determined that sensing and signal processing requirements can be met. With the help of micromachined deformable mirrors and sensor, we will be able to integrate the systems into existing airborne pods and missiles as well as next generation electro-optical systems.

  8. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  9. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  10. Interpretation key for SAR /L-band/ imagery of sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    An interpretation key, similar to those previously developed for use with aerial photography and other remotely sensed data, was developed for L-band (25 cm) radar imagery collected over the Arctic Ocean. Data from April, August, and October were considered. The procedure for developing a valid interpretation key for operation use involves substituting time for space. Open water situations (polynyas, leads, flaws), examples of unconsolidated ice (frazil, slush, brash), thin ice (nilas), and annual ice (first year, multi-year ice) situations are examined. It is suggested that the interpretation key will enhance the use of side looking airborne radar data in the qualitative photo interpretation mode.

  11. Multi-spectral analysis of ice sheets using co-registered SAR and TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vornberger, P. L.; Bindschadler, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper and airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery acquired over an area of south-western Greenland are coregistered and analyzed. Significant corrections to the SAR data were required to account for range-darkening, non-square pixel dimensions, speckle, and relief distortion. In one area, exposed rock was available for use as co-registration control, while in another area it was absent and supraglacial lakes and streams were used. The coregistered scenes highlight many differences between the optical and radar signatures of ice sheets.

  12. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, Amy E.

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  13. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  14. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  15. Landsat imagery: a unique resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, H.; Sexton, N.; Koontz, L.

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites provide high-quality, multi-spectral imagery of the surface of the Earth. These moderate-resolution, remotely sensed images are not just pictures, but contain many layers of data collected at different points along the visible and invisible light spectrum. These data can be manipulated to reveal what the Earth’s surface looks like, including what types of vegetation are present or how a natural disaster has impacted an area (Fig. 1).

  16. Meditation, yoga, and guided imagery.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, P M

    2001-03-01

    The author presents an introduction to insight or mindfulness meditation, yoga, and guided imagery from theoretical and practical perspectives. She provides clear, easy-to-follow steps to begin using sitting meditation, walking meditation, and yoga for the health care provider and for the patient. She presents the material first for self-knowledge and self-care and secondarily for connecting to others in healing relationships.

  17. Meditation, yoga, and guided imagery.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, P M

    2001-03-01

    The author presents an introduction to insight or mindfulness meditation, yoga, and guided imagery from theoretical and practical perspectives. She provides clear, easy-to-follow steps to begin using sitting meditation, walking meditation, and yoga for the health care provider and for the patient. She presents the material first for self-knowledge and self-care and secondarily for connecting to others in healing relationships. PMID:11342401

  18. Simplified signal processing for an airborne CO2 Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwiesow, R. L.; Spowart, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    In the development of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) airborne infrared lidar system (NAILS), we have emphasized a simple, modular design to suit the instrument to its mission of providing measurements of atmospheric structure and dynamics from an aircraft platform. Based on our research to this point, we believe that a significant simplification of the signal processing approach compared to that now used is possible by using high speed digitization of the signal. The purpose here is to place signal processing in the context of the overall system design and to explore the basis of the alternative technique so that the community can comment on the approach.

  19. Electronics design of the airborne stabilized platform attitude acquisition module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Wei, Guiling; Cheng, Yong; Li, Baolin; Bu, Hongyi; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Zhanwei; Li, Xingni

    2014-02-01

    We present an attitude acquisition module electronics design for the airborne stabilized platform. The design scheme, which is based on Integrated MEMS sensor ADIS16405, develops the attitude information processing algorithms and the hardware circuit. The hardware circuits with a small volume of only 44.9 x 43.6 x 24.6 mm3, has the characteristics of lightweight, modularization and digitalization. The interface design of the PC software uses the combination plane chart with track line to receive the attitude information and display. Attitude calculation uses the Kalman filtering algorithm to improve the measurement accuracy of the module in the dynamic environment.

  20. Integration of radar and Landsat imagery for structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    Radar imagery contains information on texture, structural orientation, and topography that augments data interpretable from Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data. Integrating data available from these two remote-sensing systems results in a more complete interpretation of surface features related to subsurface structures. Examples of improved interpretation emphasize the importance of radar's variable illumination azimuth for recognizing structural trends in addition to those seen on Landsat data. Also, textural detail and increased resolution from radar imagery improve the interpretability of fracture patterns and fracture density, and high resolution and variable illumination angle enhance topographic detail and recognition of structurally controlled topography. Tonal variations in the visible-near infrared, seen on Landsat data, can be related to fracture density, structurally controlled soil moisture conditions, and structurally controlled topography. Integrating the surface expression of structural features on the two types of data results in better maps of the surface expression of subsurface structures. Examples presented illustrate applications of such integrated analysis. Data from Landsat and radar sensors can be integrated visually, during the interpretation process, or digitally. Both approaches have advantages; visual integration is more practical for regional analysis, and digital integration can be applied in high-graded areas.

  1. Knowledge-based architecture for airborne mine and minefield detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Menon, Deepak; Swonger, C. W.

    2004-09-01

    One of the primary lessons learned from airborne mid-wave infrared (MWIR) based mine and minefield detection research and development over the last few years has been the fact that no single algorithm or static detection architecture is able to meet mine and minefield detection performance specifications. This is true not only because of the highly varied environmental and operational conditions under which an airborne sensor is expected to perform but also due to the highly data dependent nature of sensors and algorithms employed for detection. Attempts to make the algorithms themselves more robust to varying operating conditions have only been partially successful. In this paper, we present a knowledge-based architecture to tackle this challenging problem. The detailed algorithm architecture is discussed for such a mine/minefield detection system, with a description of each functional block and data interface. This dynamic and knowledge-driven architecture will provide more robust mine and minefield detection for a highly multi-modal operating environment. The acquisition of the knowledge for this system is predominantly data driven, incorporating not only the analysis of historical airborne mine and minefield imagery data collection, but also other "all source data" that may be available such as terrain information and time of day. This "all source data" is extremely important and embodies causal information that drives the detection performance. This information is not being used by current detection architectures. Data analysis for knowledge acquisition will facilitate better understanding of the factors that affect the detection performance and will provide insight into areas for improvement for both sensors and algorithms. Important aspects of this knowledge-based architecture, its motivations and the potential gains from its implementation are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  2. A study on airborne integrated display system and human information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizumoto, K.; Iwamoto, H.; Shimizu, S.; Kuroda, I.

    1983-01-01

    The cognitive behavior of pilots was examined in an experiment involving mock ups of an eight display electronic attitude direction indicator for an airborne integrated display. Displays were presented in digital, analog digital, and analog format to experienced pilots. Two tests were run, one involving the speed of memorization in a single exposure and the other comprising two five second exposures spaced 30 sec apart. Errors increased with the speed of memorization. Generally, the analog information was assimilated faster than the digital data, with regard to the response speed. Information processing was quantified as 25 bits for the first five second exposure and 15 bits during the second.

  3. Comparison of airborne and spaceborne TIR data for studying volcanic geothermal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying the surface expression of geothermal heat flux in volcanic geothermal areas is important for establishing baseline thermal activity to better detect and understand any future changes that may be related to hydrothermal or volcanic processes, or human activities. Volcanic geothermal areas are often too large and inaccessible for only field-based thermal monitoring, so thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing tools are also used. High resolution (sub-meter) airborne TIR imagery can be used for detailed, quantitative analyses of small, subtle geothermal features. Airborne data acquisitions have the advantage of being able to be acquired under ideal conditions (e.g., predawn, cloud-free), but the disadvantage of high costs - thus precluding high-frequency monitoring. Satellite-based TIR data from the Landsat 8 platform are freely available and can be acquired regularly for change detection, but are acquired with coarser spatial resolution (e.g., 100-m pixels), and thus are not as sensitive to subtle thermal characteristics. Two geothermal areas with clear, nighttime TIR data from nearly concurrent (within days) airborne and spaceborne instruments were investigated: Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, WY; and the Casa Diablo geothermal field, near Mammoth Lakes, CA. At Norris Geyser Basin, the area covered by high-resolution airborne TIR imagery is almost entirely geothermally heated ground, with hundreds of fumaroles, hot springs, and thermal drainages - although some non-geothermal background is exposed. With the coarser resolution Landsat 8 data, there are thermal variations within the smaller area covered by the airborne data, but the entire area appears to be thermally anomalous with respect to the non-geothermal background outside the basin. In the geothermal field around the Casa Diablo geothermal site, there are numerous, small areas of geothermal heating that are clearly distinguishable above the background by the high

  4. Side oblique real-time orthophotography with the 9Kx9K digital framing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Brian A.

    2003-08-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has reported on a new framing camera incorporating an ultra high resolution CCD detector array comprised of 9,216 x 9,216 pixels fabricated on one silicon wafer. The detector array features a 1:2 frame-per-second readout capable of stereo imagery with Nyquist resolution of 57 lp/mm from high velocity, low altitude (V/H) airborne platforms. Flight tests demonstrated the capability of the focal plane electronics for differential image motion compensation (IMC) with Nyquist performance utilizing a focal plane shutter (FPS) to enable both nadir and significant side and forward oblique imaging angles. The impact of FPS for differential image motion compensation is evaluated with the exterior orientation calibration parameters, which include the existing shutter velocity and flight dynamics from sample mapping applications. System requirements for GPS/INS are included with the effect of vertical error and side oblique angle impact of the digital elevation map (DEM) required to create the orthophoto. Results from the differentiated "collinearity equations" which relate the image coordinates to elements of interior and exterior orientation are combined with the DEM impact to provide useful guidelines for side oblique applications. The application of real-time orthophotography is described with the implications for system requirements for side oblique orthophoto capability.

  5. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  6. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  7. Airborne chemicals and forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, J.N.; Cowling, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  9. Puerto Rico: marine sediments, terrestrial and seafloor imagery, and tectonic interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Briere, Peter R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Puerto Rico is an island situated in the plate boundary zone between the Caribbean and the North American Plates. This is a geologically fascinating, tectonically active region, where the Caribbean Plate has over-ridden the North American Plate and is now sliding past it with strike-slip motion. The details of this tectonic interaction are poorly understood, largely because much of the region lies under water, making it difficult to study. The geologic setting of Puerto Rico has created or contributed to several pressing societal issues, related to human safety, environmental health, and economic development. Because the island lies on an active plate boundary, earthquakes are a constant threat and the densely populated coastal areas are vulnerable to tsunamis. Coastal erosion is a concern in many coastal areas, but is particularly serious to an island economy which relies heavily on a thriving tourist industry. In Puerto Rico, illegal mining of beach sands for use as aggregate has exacerbated coastal erosion and left coastal communities more exposed to the ravages of storms and tsunamis. The serious need for an affordable local source of aggregate to use in the growing construction industry on the island has created a strong interest in locating and evaluating offshore sand and gravel deposits. During the last 20 years the U.S. Geological Survey, often in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources and/or the University of Puerto Rico, has conducted a variety of projects to address the geologic aspects of these pressing societal issues. The papers and data presented here are the results of these projects. Some have been previously published elsewhere; others, such as the database of surficial sediments of the Puerto Rico insular shelf, interpretation of side-looking airborne radar imagery of the island, and the GIS data, are presented here for the first time. The purpose of this CD is to make the results of these diverse studies

  10. Detection and identification of toxic air pollutants using airborne LWIR hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David J.; Feldman, Barry L.; Williams, Tim J.; Pilant, Drew; Lucey, Paul G.; Worthy, L. D.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne longwave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imagery was utilized to detect and identify gaseous chemical release plumes at sites in southern Texas. The Airborne Hyperspectral Imager (AHI), developed by the University of Hawai"i, was flown over a petrochemical facility and a confined animal feeding operation on a modified DC-3 during April, 2004. Data collected by the AHI system was successfully used to detect and identify numerous plumes at both sites. Preliminary results indicate the presence of benzene and ammonia and several other organic compounds. Emissions were identified using regression analysis on atmospherically compensated data. Data validation was conducted using facility emission inventories. This technology has great promise for monitoring and inventorying facility emissions, and may be used as means to assist ground inspection teams to focus on actual fugitive emission points.

  11. Airborne monitoring of crop canopy temperatures for irrigation scheduling and yield prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.; Lapado, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the program discussed was to develop techniques for remotely measuring crop irrigation needs and predicting crop yields, with emphasis on wheat. Airborne measurements, using an IR line scanner and color IR photography, were made to evaluate the feasibility of measuring minimum and maximum (dawn and afternoon) crop temperatures to compute a parameter, termed 'stress degree day' (SDD) - a valuable indicator of crop water needs, which can be related to irrigation scheduling and yield. Crop canopy temperature measurements by airborne IR techniques revealed the superiority of thermal IR data over color IR photography. Water stress undetected in the latter technique was clearly detected in thermal imagery. Color IR photography, however, is valuable in discerning vegetation. The pseudo-colored temperature-difference images (and pseudo-colored images, reading directly in daily SDD increments) are shown to be well suited for assessing plant water status and, thus, for determining the irrigation needs and crop yield potentials.

  12. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  13. First results from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    After engineering flights aboard the NASA U-2 research aircraft in the winter of 1986 to 1987 and spring of 1987, extensive data collection across the United States was begun with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) in the summer of 1987 in support of a NASA data evaluation and technology assessment program. This paper presents some of the first results obtained from AVIRIS. Examples of spectral imagery acquired over Mountain View and Mono Lake, California, and the Cuprite Mining District in western Nevada are presented. Sensor performance and data quality are described, and in the final section of this paper, plans for the future are discussed.

  14. Remotely Measured Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence Using Airborne G-LiHT and APFS Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, W. B.; Yee, J. H.; Corp, L. A.; Cook, B. D.; Huemmrich, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    In September 2014 the Goddard Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) and the APL/JHU Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) were flown together on a NASA Langley King Air over vegetated targets in North Carolina and Virginia. The instruments provided high spatial and spectral resolution data in the visible and near infrared, down-welling irradiance, elevation maps, and thermal imagery. Ground validation data was also collected concurrently. Here we report the results of these measurements and show the feasibility of using these types of instruments for collection the fluorescence and other information essential for ecological and carbon cycle studies.

  15. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  16. The Functional Equivalence between Movement Imagery, Observation, and Execution Influences Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer; Edwards, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Based on literature identifying movement imagery, observation, and execution to elicit similar areas of neural activity, research has demonstrated that movement imagery and observation successfully prime movement execution. To investigate whether movement and observation could prime ease of imaging from an external visual-imagery perspective, an…

  17. The Intersection of Imagery Ability, Imagery Use, and Learning Style: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, Gina; Chatfield, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the intersection of the individual's imagery ability, imagery use in dance training and performance, and learning style. Thirty-four intermediate-level ballet and modern dance students at the University of Oregon completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-3 (LSI-3). The four…

  18. Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimeteric Imager (AirMSPI): Calibration and Comparison with Collocated Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, F. C.; Diner, D. J.; Bruegge, C. J.; Rheingans, B. E.; Garay, M. J.; Daugherty, B. J.; Chipman, R. A.; Davis, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is a pushbroom multiangle spectropolarimetric camera with spectral bands near 355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, and 935 nm. Flying on NASAs's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft since 2010, AirMSPI uses dual photoelastic modulator (PEM)-based technology to provide accurate measurements of the Stokes linear polarization parameters Q and U in the 470, 660, and 865 nm bands, providing unique observing capabilities for aerosol, cloud, and surface studies. We describe the methodologies used for radiometric and polarimetric calibration and characterization of the AirMSPI instrument, which make use of a combination of laboratory and vicarious techniques. A 1.65 m integrating sphere and overflights of Ivanpah Playa, NV are used for radiometric calibration. Radiometric cross-comparisons with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), also flying on the ER-2, are used to validate the radiometric scale. For polarimetric calibration, a well-calibrated Polarization State Generator is used to provide known polarimetric inputs. A high-extinction rotating wiregrid polarizer is used to derive polarimetric calibration coefficients for each pixel, and the results are then validated using partially polarized light generated using tilted glass plates. Examples of collocated multiangular, polarimetric imagery from AirMSPI and hyperspectral imagery from AVIRIS will be shown, presenting new opportunities for atmosphere and surface remote sensing.

  19. Using Hyperspectral Imagery to Identify Turfgrass Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, Kendall; Shaw, David

    2008-01-01

    The use of a form of remote sensing to aid in the management of large turfgrass fields (e.g. golf courses) has been proposed. A turfgrass field of interest would be surveyed in sunlight by use of an airborne hyperspectral imaging system, then the raw observational data would be preprocessed into hyperspectral reflectance image data. These data would be further processed to identify turfgrass stresses, to determine the spatial distributions of those stresses, and to generate maps showing the spatial distributions. Until now, chemicals and water have often been applied, variously, (1) indiscriminately to an entire turfgrass field without regard to localization of specific stresses or (2) to visible and possibly localized signs of stress for example, browning, damage from traffic, or conspicuous growth of weeds. Indiscriminate application is uneconomical and environmentally unsound; the amounts of water and chemicals consumed could be insufficient in some areas and excessive in most areas, and excess chemicals can leak into the environment. In cases in which developing stresses do not show visible signs at first, it could be more economical and effective to take corrective action before visible signs appear. By enabling early identification of specific stresses and their locations, the proposed method would provide guidance for planning more effective, more economical, and more environmentally sound turfgrass-management practices, including application of chemicals and water, aeration, and mowing. The underlying concept of using hyperspectral imagery to generate stress maps as guides to efficient management of vegetation in large fields is not new; it has been applied in the growth of crops to be harvested. What is new here is the effort to develop an algorithm that processes hyperspectral reflectance data into spectral indices specific to stresses in turfgrass. The development effort has included a study in which small turfgrass plots that were, variously, healthy or

  20. A procedure for orthorectification of sub-decimeter resolution imagery obtained with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great value for resource management due to the flexibility and relatively low cost for image acquisition, and very high resolution imagery (5 cm) which allows for mapping bare soil and vegetation types, structure and patter...

  1. The Effect of Visual and Auditory Enhancements on Excitability of the Primary Motor Cortex during Motor Imagery: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Kohei; Higashi, Toshio; Sugawara, Kenichi; Tomori, Kounosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The effect of visual and auditory enhancements of finger movement on corticospinal excitability during motor imagery (MI) was investigated using the transcranial magnetic stimulation technique. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited from the abductor digit minimi muscle during MI with auditory, visual and, auditory and visual information, and no…

  2. Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April 2003 to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  3. Vividness of Object and Spatial Imagery.

    PubMed

    Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2016-04-01

    Vividness is one of the fundamental characteristics of visual mental imagery. The first research goal was to examine whether vividness that refer to imagery of pictorial object (color, texture, or shape) versus spatial (three dimensional structure, location, or mechanism) properties constitute separate vividness dimensions. The second goal was to develop a vividness questionnaire separately assessing dimensions of imagery vividness. In Study 1, 111 students (M age = 21.8 years, SD = 1.3) evaluated the vividness of imagery evoked by nine object and nine spatial items from the pilot version of the new Vividness of Object and Spatial Imagery (VOSI) questionnaire, completed a self-report assessment of object and spatial imagery, and rated their aptitudes in art and science. Analysis indicated that imagery vividness comprised object and spatial dimensions. Object vividness items were positively associated with the self-report measure and ratings of artistic abilities, whereas spatial vividness items were positively associated with self-report measure and ratings of science abilities. In Study 2, an independent sample of 205 students (M age = 21 years, SD = 1.7) completed the second version of the VOSI, art and science aptitude ratings, and a number of self-report and performance measures assessing object and spatial imagery. Object and spatial imagery vividness items loaded on factors with 28 retained items; this two-factor vividness model fit the data better than a unidimensional vividness model. The questionnaire had satisfactory Cronbach's α for object vividness scale (.88) and for spatial vividness scale (.85). Correlational analyses supported convergent and discriminative validity of the VOSI. While object imagery vividness and spatial imagery vividness share some underlying vividness variance, they are dissociated into separate dimensions. PMID:27166329

  4. Development of an airborne laser bathymeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H., H.; Cervenka, P. O.; Lankford, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne laser depth sounding system was built and taken through a complete series of field tests. Two green laser sources were tried: a pulsed neon laser at 540 nm and a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG transmitter at 532 nm. To obtain a depth resolution of better than 20 cm, the pulses had a duration of 5 to 7 nanoseconds and could be fired up to at rates of 50 pulses per second. In the receiver, the signal was detected by a photomultiplier tube connected to a 28 cm diameter Cassegrainian telescope that was aimed vertically downward. Oscilloscopic traces of the signal reflected from the sea surface and the ocean floor could either be recorded by a movie camera on 35 mm film or digitized into 500 discrete channels of information and stored on magnetic tape, from which depth information could be extracted. An aerial color movie camera recorded the geographic footprint while a boat crew of oceanographers measured depth and other relevant water parameters. About two hundred hours of flight time on the NASA C-54 airplane in the area of Chincoteague, Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay, and in Key West, Florida, have yielded information on the actual operating conditions of such a system and helped to optimize the design. One can predict the maximum depth attainable in a mission by measuring the effective attenuation coefficient in flight. This quantity is four times smaller than the usual narrow beam attenuation coefficient. Several square miles of a varied underwater landscape were also mapped.

  5. Microprocessor-Based Airborne Spectrometer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kates, John C.

    1980-08-01

    A system for airborne infrared spectral signature measurements has been developed using a Fourier transform spectrometer interfaced to a microprocessor data acquisition, control and display system. The microprocessor is a DEC LSI-ll with 20KW RAM, 4KW EPROM, DMA spectrometer interface, digital magnetic tape, and dot-matrix video graphic display. A real-time executive tailored to the requirements and resources available allows concurrent data acquisition, recording, reduction and display. Using multiple buffers, acquisition of spectrometer data via DMA is overlapped with magnetic tape output. A background task selects the most recent spectrometer data and processes it using an FFT into a raw spectrum. A reference background spectrum is subtracted to isolate the data component, then a reference instrument response function is applied to obtain a calibrated absolute irradiance spectrum. The irradiance spectrum is displayed on the video graphic display and mixed with boresight camera video to show the target spectrum superimposed on the target image. Extensive selftest facilities are incorporated for testing all system components and compatibility with data reduction systems. System calibration is supported by selection of reference blackbody temperatures, apertures, and distances. The instrument response curve obtained during calibration is displayed for verification of correct spectrometer operation or diagnosis of faults.

  6. Airborne measured analytic signal for UXO detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gamey, T.J.; Holladay, J.S.; Mahler, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Altmark Tank Training Range north of Haldensleben, Germany has been in operation since WWI. Weapons training and testing has included cavalry, cannon, small arms, rail guns, and tank battalions. Current plans are to convert the area to a fully digital combat training facility. Instead of using blank or dummy ordnance, hits will be registered with lasers and computers. Before this can happen, the 25,000 ha must be cleared of old debris. In support of this cleanup operation, Aerodat Inc., in conjunction with IABG of Germany, demonstrated a new high resolution magnetic survey technique involving the measurement of 3-component magnetic gradient data. The survey was conducted in May 1996, and covered 500 ha in two blocks. The nominal line spacing was 10 m, and the average sensor altitude was 7 m. The geologic column consisted of sands over a sedimentary basin. Topographic relief was generally flat with approximately 3 m rolling dunes and occasional man-made features such as fox holes, bunkers, tank traps and reviewing stands. Trees were sparse and short (2-3 metres) due to frequent burn off and tank activity. As such, this site was nearly ideal for low altitude airborne surveying.

  7. The alpine Swiss-French airborne gravity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdun, Jérôme; Klingelé, Emile E.; Bayer, Roger; Cocard, Marc; Geiger, Alain; Kahle, Hans-Gert

    2003-01-01

    In February 1998, a regional-scale, airborne gravity survey was carried out over the French Occidental Alps within the framework of the GéoFrance 3-D research program.The survey consisted of 18 NS and 16 EW oriented lines with a spacing of 10 and 20 km respectively, covering the whole of the Western French Alps (total area: 50 000 km2; total distance of lines flown: 10 000 km). The equipment was mounted in a medium-size aircraft (DeHavilland Twin Otter) flowing at a constant altitude of 5100 m a.s.l, and at a mean ground speed of about 280 km h-1. Gravity was measured using a LaCoste & Romberg relative, air/sea gravimeter (type SA) mounted on a laser gyro stabilized platform. Data from 5 GPS antennae located on fuselage and wings and 7 ground-based GPS reference stations were used to determine position and aircraft induced accelerations.The gravimeter passband was derived by comparing the vertical accelerations provided by the gravimeter with those estimated from the GPS positions. This comparison showed that the gravimeter is not sensitive to very short wavelength aircraft accelerations, and therefore a simplified formulation for computing airborne gravity measurements was developed. The intermediate and short wavelength, non-gravitational accelerations were eliminated by means of digital, exponential low-pass filters (cut-off wavelength: 16 km). An important issue in airborne gravimetry is the reliability of the airborne gravity surveys when compared to ground surveys. In our studied area, the differences between the airborne-acquired Bouguer anomaly and the ground upward-continued Bouguer anomaly of the Alps shows a good agreement: the rms of these differences is equal to 7.68 mGal for a spatial resolution of 8 km. However, in some areas with rugged topography, the amplitudes of those differences have a striking correlation with the topography. We then argue that the choice of an appropriate density (reduction by a factor of 10 per cent) for computing the

  8. Digital Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  9. Multi-Scale Validation of Forest Insect Mortality Using QuickBird and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddens, A. J.; Hicke, J. A.; Vierling, L. A.

    2008-12-01

    Insects are major disturbances in forested ecosystems, affecting forest succession, carbon cycling, and fuel loads. Insect-caused tree mortality causes significant change in forest structure as dead trees lose their needles and eventually fall to the ground. To manage forests and establish natural resource policy, accurate estimates of the extent of insect disturbance are needed. Mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), one of the most damaging insect species, have affected large forested areas in the United States and Canada. Our goal is to map landscape-level tree mortality caused by insect outbreaks across the western United States using satellite remote sensing. Here we report on the methods we are developing and applying to an outbreak of mountain pine beetle in Colorado as well as the means of evaluating the classification using field measurements and finer spatial resolution aerial imagery. In August 2008, 36 forest inventory plots were established in an area affected by mountain pine beetle in the Arapaho National Forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA. A digital aerial multispectral image with a spatial resolution of 30 cm and a QuickBird image with a spatial resolution of 2.4 m were acquired in the same area. We are employing a nested validation approach using the aerial imagery and QuickBird imagery to ultimately validate a Landsat-based insect disturbance detection product. Tree-level field measurements are used to evaluate classified the aerial imagery. The classified aerial imagery is subsequently used to evaluate classified QuickBird imagery, which in turn is used to evaluate the Landsat product. The outcomes of finer spatial level classification can be used to increase understanding of the coarser spatial image classification and provide means to investigate disturbance level thresholds for the detection of insect outbreaks using the coarser resolution imagery.

  10. Proceedings of the 2004 High Spatial Resolution Commercial Imagery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: NASA Applied Sciences Program; USGS Land Remote Sensing: Overview; QuickBird System Status and Product Overview; ORBIMAGE Overview; IKONOS 2004 Calibration and Validation Status; OrbView-3 Spatial Characterization; On-Orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Measurement of QuickBird; Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season; Image Quality Evaluation of QuickBird Super Resolution and Revisit of IKONOS: Civil and Commercial Application Project (CCAP); On-Orbit System MTF Measurement; QuickBird Post Launch Geopositional Characterization Update; OrbView-3 Geometric Calibration and Geopositional Accuracy; Geopositional Statistical Methods; QuickBird and OrbView-3 Geopositional Accuracy Assessment; Initial On-Orbit Spatial Resolution Characterization of OrbView-3 Panchromatic Images; Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps; Stennis Space Center Verification and Validation Capabilities; Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Team; Adjacency Effects in High Resolution Imagery; Effect of Pulse Width vs. GSD on MTF Estimation; Camera and Sensor Calibration at the USGS; QuickBird Geometric Verification; Comparison of MODTRAN to Heritage-based Results in Vicarious Calibration at University of Arizona; Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Determine Impervious Surface in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Estimating Sub-Pixel Proportions of Sagebrush with a Regression Tree; How Do YOU Use the National Land Cover Dataset?; The National Map Hazards Data Distribution System; Recording a Troubled World; What Does This-Have to Do with This?; When Can a Picture Save a Thousand Homes?; InSAR Studies of Alaska Volcanoes; Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Data Products; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: High Resolution Scanners; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: Phoenix Digitizing System Product Distribution; System and Product Characterization: Issues Approach

  11. Landsat 8 Multispectral and Pansharpened Imagery Processing on the Study of Civil Engineering Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Karagianni, A. Ch.

    2016-06-01

    Scientific and professional interests of civil engineering mainly include structures, hydraulics, geotechnical engineering, environment, and transportation issues. Topics included in the context of the above may concern urban environment issues, urban planning, hydrological modelling, study of hazards and road construction. Land cover information contributes significantly on the study of the above subjects. Land cover information can be acquired effectively by visual image interpretation of satellite imagery or after applying enhancement routines and also by imagery classification. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM - Landsat 8) is the latest satellite in Landsat series, launched in February 2013. Landsat 8 medium spatial resolution multispectral imagery presents particular interest in extracting land cover, because of the fine spectral resolution, the radiometric quantization of 12bits, the capability of merging the high resolution panchromatic band of 15 meters with multispectral imagery of 30 meters as well as the policy of free data. In this paper, Landsat 8 multispectral and panchromatic imageries are being used, concerning surroundings of a lake in north-western Greece. Land cover information is extracted, using suitable digital image processing software. The rich spectral context of the multispectral image is combined with the high spatial resolution of the panchromatic image, applying image fusion - pansharpening, facilitating in this way visual image interpretation to delineate land cover. Further processing concerns supervised image classification. The classification of pansharpened image preceded multispectral image classification. Corresponding comparative considerations are also presented.

  12. Project Gemini online digital archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    An archive containing the first high-resolution digital scans of the original flight films from Project Gemini, the second U.S. human spaceflight program, was unveiled by the NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University's (ASU) School of Earth and Space Exploration on 6 January. The archive includes images from 10 flights. Project Gemini, which ran from 1964 to 1966, followed Project Mercury and preceded the Apollo spacecraft. Mercury and Apollo imagery are also available through ASU. For more information, see http://tothemoon.ser.asu.edu/gallery/gemini and http://apollo.sese.asu.edu/index.html.

  13. Correlation between high-resolution remote-sensing imagery and detailed field mapping in Cordilleran Miogeocline

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, S.C.; Taranik, J.V.

    1986-05-01

    Selected areas were mapped at a scale of 1:6000 in the southern hot Creek Range (south-central Nevada), which is underlain by Paleozoic autochthonous limestone, shale, and sandstone, Paleozoic allochthonous chert and siltstone, and Tertiary rhyolitic to dactitic ash flow tuff. The mapping was compared with computer-processed Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The AIS imagery of the Hot Creek Range was acquired in 1984 by a NASA C-130 aircraft; it has a spatial resolution of 12 m, and swath width of 380 m. The sensor was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is the first in a series of NASA imaging spectrometers. The AIS collects 128 spectral bands, having a bandwidth of approximately 9 nm, in the short-wave infrared between 1.2 and 2.4 ..mu..m. This part of the spectrum contains important narrow spectral absorption features for the carbonate ion, hydroxyl ion, and water of hydration. Using computer-processed AIS imagery, therefore, the authors can separate calcite from dolomite, and kaolinite from illite and montmorillonite as well as differentiate geologic units containing these minerals. On the AIS imagery, the Upper Mississippian Tripon Pass Limestone shows a distinctive calcite absorption feature at 2.34 ..mu..m; this feature is not as pronounced in Cambrian and Ordovician limestones. The dolomitized Nevada Formation exhibits the dolomite absorption feature at 2.32 ..mu..m. Clay mineral absorption features near 2.2 ..mu..m can be distinguished in altered volcanics. Mineralogic identification was confirmed with field and laboratory spectroradiometer measurements, thin-section examination, and x-ray analysis. AIS results and field mapping were also compared to computer-processed Landsat TM imagery, the highest spectral and spatial resolution worldwide data set currently available.

  14. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings.

  15. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    PubMed

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings. PMID:25460242

  16. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Ketchel, Juanita; Reeder, Anthony I

    2007-01-01

    Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ) television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television. PMID:17270053

  17. Using Mental Imagery to Enhance Athletic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenitzer, Raymond F.; Briddell, W. Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Four steps help coaches implement a mental imagery program to improve their athletes' performance and emotional control: evaluate athletes' imaging ability; provide an imaging warm-up; integrate the senses; and use goal achievement strategies. The article notes that imagery skills must be maintained and practiced consistently. (SM)

  18. Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polland, Mark J.

    In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

  19. Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedlic, Brie; Hall, Nathan; Munroe-Chandler, Krista; Hall, Craig

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether coaches encourage their athletes to use imagery, two studies were undertaken. In the first, 317 athletes completed the Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use Questionnaire. In the second, 215 coaches completed a slightly modified version of this questionnaire. It was found that coaches and athletes generally agreed…

  20. Spatial Grouping, Imagery, and Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Wayne H.; Wheatley, Paula C.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred undergraduates learned lists of high- or low-imagery nouns in one column (ungrouped) or in three columns (grouped). Grouped-list recall was significantly greater than ungrouped on the third and fourth trials. Spatial grouping seems to provide important cues which are independent of the words learned or imagery level. (Author/CM)