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Sample records for airborne dust particles

  1. Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment SAMUM 2006: Airborne observations of dust particle properties and vertical dust profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Esselborn, M.; Fiebig, M.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.; Müller, D.; Wendisch, M.; Schuetz, L.; Kandler, K.; Kahn, R.; Wagner, F.; Pereira, S.; Virkkula, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is an initiative of several German institutes. Its goal is the characterisation of optical, physical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan dust at the source region. SAMUM data may serve as ground truth data to validate satellite products and atmospheric transport models, and to support the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) mission. The first SAMUM intensive field phase was carried out in May/June 2006 in Southern Morocco. Ground sites were Ouarzazate (30.93° N, 6.9° W), Zagora (30.15° N, 5.37°), and Evora (38.53°N, 7.90°E) in Portugal for long- range transport studies. Research aircraft were operating from Ouarzazate (Partenavia, local flights) and Casablanca (DLR Falcon) at the Moroccan west coast As part of SAMUM, airborne measurements of dust particle properties were conducted using the German research aircraft Falcon. The DLR Falcon was equipped with an extensive set of aerosol physico-chemical instruments for size, volatility, and absorption measurements, impactor sampling for chemical analyses and with a nadir-looking high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) for measuring aerosol extinction at 532 nm, and aerosol backscatter and depolarisation at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The field sites were equipped with aerosol sampling devices and instruments for particle size distribution measurements. During the SAMUM core phase, three large-scale dust events were probed which extended from southern Morocco to Portugal. Vertical (0 10 km) and horizontal (Saharan border to southern Portugal) dust plume structures, aerosol optical depth as well as particle microphysical and optical properties were studied for all cases. The upper boundary of the dust layers was found at altitudes between 4 and 6 km above sea level. The internal structure of the dust layers varied from well mixed to stratified. The influence of the Atlas Mountains on the lifting of the dust layers was monitored

  2. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles.

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy

  3. Partitioning of phthalates among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Salthammer, Tunga; Fromme, Hermann

    A critical evaluation of human exposure to phthalate esters in indoor environments requires the determination of their distribution among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust. If sorption from the gas phase is the dominant mechanism whereby a given phthalate is associated with both airborne particles and settled dust, there should be a predictable relationship between its particle and dust concentrations. The present paper tests this for six phthalate esters (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP and DEHP) that have been measured in both the air and the settled dust of 30 Berlin apartments. The particle concentration, CParticle, of a given phthalate was calculated from its total airborne concentration and the concentration of airborne particles (PM 4). This required knowledge of the particle-gas partition coefficient, Kp, which was estimated from either the saturation vapor pressure ( ps) or the octanol/air partition coefficient ( KOA). For each phthalate in each apartment, the ratio of its particle concentration to its dust concentration ( CParticle/ CDust) was calculated. The median values of this ratio were within an order of magnitude of one another for five of the phthalate esters despite the fact that their vapor pressures span four orders of magnitude. This indicates that measurements of phthalate ester concentrations in settled dust can provide an estimate of their concentration in airborne particles. When the latter information is coupled with measurements of airborne particle concentrations, the gas-phase concentrations of phthalates can also be estimated and, subsequently, the contribution of each of these compartments to indoor phthalate exposures.

  4. MicroMED: a dust particle counter for the characterization of airborne dust close to the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzolino, Fabio; Esposito, Francesca; Molfese, Cesare; Cortecchia, Fausto; Saggin, Bortolino; D'amato, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of airborne dust is very important in planetary climatology. Indeed, dust absorbs and scatter solar and thermal radiation, severely affecting atmospheric thermal structure, balance and dynamics (in terms of circulations). Wind-driven blowing of sand and dust is also responsible for shaping planetary surfaces through the formation of sand dunes and ripples, the erosion of rocks, and the creation and transport of soil particles. Dust is permanently present in the atmosphere of Mars and its amount varies with seasons. During regional or global dust storms, more than 80% of the incoming sunlight is absorbed by dust causing an intense atmospheric heating. Airborne dust is therefore a crucial climate component on Mars which impacts atmospheric circulations at all scales. Main dust parameters influencing the atmosphere heating are size distribution, abundance, albedo, single scattering phase function, imaginary part of the index of refraction. Moreover, major improvements of Mars climate models require, in addition to the standard meteorological parameters, quantitative information about dust lifting, transport and removal mechanisms. In this context, two major quantities need to be measured for the dust source to be understood: surface flux and granulometry. While many observations have constrained the size distribution of the dust haze seen from the orbit, it is still not known what the primary airborne dust (e.g. the recently lifted dust) is made of, size-wise. MicroMED has been designed to fill this gap. It will measure the abundance and size distribution of dust, not in the atmospheric column, but close to the surface, where dust is lifted, so to be able to monitor dust injection into the atmosphere. This has never been performed in Mars and other planets exploration. MicroMED is an Optical Particle Counter, analyzing light scattered from single dust particles to measure their size and abundance. A proper fluid-dynamic system, including a pump and a

  5. Airborne dust and soil particles at the Phoenix landing site, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, M. B.; Drube, L.; Goetz, W.; Leer, K.; Falkenberg, T. V.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Haspang, M. P.; Hviid, S. F.; Ellehøj, M. D.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The three iSweep targets on the Phoenix lander instrument deck utilize permanent magnets and 6 different background colors for studies of airborne dust [1]. The name iSweep is short for Improved Sweep Magnet experiments and derives from MER heritage [2, 3] as the rovers carried a sweep magnet, which is a very strong ring magnet built into an aluminum structure. Airborne dust is attracted and held by the magnet and the pattern formed depends on magnetic properties of the dust. The visible/near-infrared spectra acquired of the iSweep are rather similar to typical Martian dust and soil spectra. Because of the multiple background colors of the iSweeps the effect of the translucence of thin dust layers can be studied. This is used to estimate the rate of dust accumulation and will be used to evaluate light scattering properties of the particles. Some particles raised by the retro-rockets during the final descent came to rest on the lander deck and spectra of these particles are studied and compared with those of airborne dust and with spectra obtained from other missions. High resolution images acquired by the Optical Microscope (OM) [4] showed subtle differences between different Phoenix soil samples in terms of particle size and color. Most samples contain orange dust (particles smaller than 10 micrometer) as their major component and silt-sized (50-80 micrometer large) subrounded particles. Both particle types are substantially magnetic. Based on results from the Mars Exploration Rovers, the magnetization of the silt-sized particles is believed to be caused by magnetite. Morphology, texture and color of these particles (ranging from colorless, red-brown to almost black) suggest a multiple origin: The darkest particles probably represent lithic fragments, while the brighter ones could be impact or volcanic glasses. [1] Leer K. et al. (2008) JGR, 113, E00A16. [2] Madsen M.B. et al. (2003) JGR, 108, 8069. [3] Madsen M.B. et al. (2008) JGR (in print). [4] Hecht M.H. et

  6. A Methodology to Monitor Airborne PM10 Dust Particles Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Erskine, Peter; Cliff, David; Heuff, Darlene

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the process of coal extraction from surface mines, gases and particles are emitted in the form of fugitive emissions by activities such as hauling, blasting and transportation. As these emissions are diffuse in nature, estimations based upon emission factors and dispersion/advection equations need to be measured directly from the atmosphere. This paper expands upon previous research undertaken to develop a relative methodology to monitor PM10 dust particles produced by mining activities making use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A module sensor using a laser particle counter (OPC-N2 from Alphasense, Great Notley, Essex, UK) was tested. An aerodynamic flow experiment was undertaken to determine the position and length of a sampling probe of the sensing module. Flight tests were conducted in order to demonstrate that the sensor provided data which could be used to calculate the emission rate of a source. Emission rates are a critical variable for further predictive dispersion estimates. First, data collected by the airborne module was verified using a 5.0 m tower in which a TSI DRX 8533 (reference dust monitoring device, TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA) and a duplicate of the module sensor were installed. Second, concentration values collected by the monitoring module attached to the UAV (airborne module) obtaining a percentage error of 1.1%. Finally, emission rates from the source were calculated, with airborne data, obtaining errors as low as 1.2%. These errors are low and indicate that the readings collected with the airborne module are comparable to the TSI DRX and could be used to obtain specific emission factors from fugitive emissions for industrial activities. PMID:28216557

  7. A Methodology to Monitor Airborne PM10 Dust Particles Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Erskine, Peter; Cliff, David; Heuff, Darlene

    2017-02-14

    Throughout the process of coal extraction from surface mines, gases and particles are emitted in the form of fugitive emissions by activities such as hauling, blasting and transportation. As these emissions are diffuse in nature, estimations based upon emission factors and dispersion/advection equations need to be measured directly from the atmosphere. This paper expands upon previous research undertaken to develop a relative methodology to monitor PM10 dust particles produced by mining activities making use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A module sensor using a laser particle counter (OPC-N2 from Alphasense, Great Notley, Essex, UK) was tested. An aerodynamic flow experiment was undertaken to determine the position and length of a sampling probe of the sensing module. Flight tests were conducted in order to demonstrate that the sensor provided data which could be used to calculate the emission rate of a source. Emission rates are a critical variable for further predictive dispersion estimates. First, data collected by the airborne module was verified using a 5.0 m tower in which a TSI DRX 8533 (reference dust monitoring device, TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA) and a duplicate of the module sensor were installed. Second, concentration values collected by the monitoring module attached to the UAV (airborne module) obtaining a percentage error of 1.1%. Finally, emission rates from the source were calculated, with airborne data, obtaining errors as low as 1.2%. These errors are low and indicate that the readings collected with the airborne module are comparable to the TSI DRX and could be used to obtain specific emission factors from fugitive emissions for industrial activities.

  8. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  9. Airborne bacteria transported with Sahara dust particles from Northern Africa to the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, A.; Meola, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Sahara Desert is the most important source of aerosols transported across the Mediterranean towards Europe. Airborne microorganisms associated with aerosols may be transported over long distances and act as colonizers of distant habitats. However, little is known on the composition and viability of such microorganisms, due to difficulties related to their detection, collection and isolation. Here we describe an in-depth assessment of the bacterial communities associated with Sahara dust (SD) particles deposited on snow. Two distinct SD events reaching the European Alps in February and May 2014 were preserved as distinct ochre-coloured layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples from a snow profile at 3621 m a.s.l. close to the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps). SD particles were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Backward trajectories were calculated using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Bacterial communities were charac-terized by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial physiological profiles were assessed by incubation of samples on BIOLOG plates. The SD-layers were generally enriched in illite and kaolinite particles as compared to the adjacent snow layers. The source of SD could be traced back to Algeria. We observed distinct bacterial community structures in the SD-layers as compared to the clean snow layers. While sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers, low abundant (<1%) phyla such as Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bioindicators for SD. Both phyla are adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation and thus are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-distance airborne transport. Our results show that bacteria are viable and metabolically active after the trek to the European Alps.

  10. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Jin; Kim, BoWha; Malek, Md Abdul; Koo, Yong Sung; Jung, Jong Hoon; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-04-30

    Previous studies have reported the major chemical species of underground subway particles to be Fe-containing species that are generated from wear and friction processes at rail-wheel-brake and catenaries-pantographs interfaces. To examine chemical composition of Fe-containing particles in more details, floor dusts were collected at five sampling locations of an underground subway station. Size-segregated floor dusts were separated into magnetic and non-magnetic fractions using a permanent magnet. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX), iron metal, which is relatively harmless, was found to be the dominating chemical species in the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions with minor fractions of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, S, and C. From SEM analysis, the floor dusts of the <25 μm size fractions collected on railroad ties appeared to be smaller than 10 μm, indicating that their characteristics should somewhat reflect the characteristics of airborne particles in the tunnel and the platform. As most floor dusts are magnetic, PM levels at underground subway stations can be controlled by removing magnetic indoor particles using magnets. In addition, airborne subway particles, most of which were smaller than 10 μm, were collected using permanent magnets at two underground subway stations, namely Jegi and Yangjae stations, in Seoul, Korea. XRD and SEM/EDX analyses showed that most of the magnetic aerosol particles collected at Jegi station was iron metal, whereas those at Yangjae station contained a small amount of Fe mixed with Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and C. The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used.

  11. Characteristics of airborne ultrafine and coarse particles during the Australian dust storm of 23 September 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaratne, E. R.; Johnson, G. R.; McGarry, P.; Cheung, H. C.; Morawska, L.

    2011-08-01

    Particle number concentrations and size distributions, visibility and particulate mass concentrations and weather parameters were monitored in Brisbane, Australia, on 23 September 2009, during the passage of a dust storm that originated 1400 km away in the dry continental interior. The dust concentration peaked at about mid-day when the hourly average PM 2.5 and PM 10 values reached 814 and 6460 μg m -3, respectively, with a sharp drop in atmospheric visibility. A linear regression analysis showed a good correlation between the coefficient of light scattering by particles (Bsp) and both PM 10 and PM 2.5. The particle number in the size range 0.5-20 μm exhibited a lognormal size distribution with modal and geometrical mean diameters of 1.6 and 1.9 μm, respectively. The modal mass was around 10 μm with less than 10% of the mass carried by particles smaller than 2.5 μm. The PM 10 fraction accounted for about 68% of the total mass. By mid-day, as the dust began to increase sharply, the ultrafine particle number concentration fell from about 6 × 10 3 cm -3 to 3 × 10 3 cm -3 and then continued to decrease to less than 1 × 10 3 cm -3 by 14 h, showing a power-law decrease with Bsp with an R2 value of 0.77 ( p < 0.01). Ultrafine particle size distributions also showed a significant decrease in number during the dust storm. This is the first scientific study of particle size distributions in an Australian dust storm.

  12. Airborne Dust in Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust, suspended inside a space vehicle or in future celestial habitats, can present a serious threat to crew health if it is not controlled. During the Apollo missions to the moon, lunar dust brought inside the capsule caused eye irritation and breathing difficulty to the crew when they launched from the moon and re-acquired "microgravity." During Shuttle flights reactive and toxic dusts such as lithium hydroxide have created a risk to crew health, and fine particles from combustion events can be especially worrisome. Under nominal spaceflight conditions, airborne dusts and particles tend to be larger than on earth because of the absence of gravity settling. Aboard the ISS, dusts are effectively managed by HEPA filters, although floating dust in newly-arrived modules can be a nuisance. Future missions to the moon and to Mars will present additional challenges because of the possibility that external dust will enter the breathing atmosphere of the habitat and reach the crew's respiratory system. Testing with simulated lunar and Martian dust has shown that these materials are toxic when placed into the lungs of test animals. Defining and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of Martian dusts through robotic missions will challenge our ability to prepare better dust simulants and to determine the risk to crew health from exposure to such dusts.

  13. Airborne Sea of Dust over China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TDust covered northern China in the last week of March during some of the worst dust storms to hit the region in a decade. The dust obscuring China's Inner Mongolian and Shanxi Provinces on March 24, 2002, is compared with a relatively clear day (October 31, 2001) in these images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Each image represents an area of about 380 by 630 kilometers (236 by 391 miles). In the image from late March, shown on the right, wave patterns in the yellowish cloud liken the storm to an airborne ocean of dust. The veil of particulates obscures features on the surface north of the Yellow River (visible in the lower left). The area shown lies near the edge of the Gobi desert, a few hundred kilometers, or miles, west of Beijing. Dust originates from the desert and travels east across northern China toward the Pacific Ocean. For especially severe storms, fine particles can travel as far as North America. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer, built and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is one of five Earth-observing instruments aboard the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The instrument acquires images of Earth at nine angles simultaneously, using nine separate cameras pointed forward, downward and backward along its flight path. The change in reflection at different view angles affords the means to distinguish different types of atmospheric particles, cloud forms and land surface covers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team

  14. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  15. Exposure to mineral sands dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Barros Leite, C. V.; Zays, Z.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the airborne particles in a Brazilian region with high concentration of mineral sands (Buena village). In this study proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), plasma desorption mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry were used for analyses of airborne particles. The analyses of aerosol samples and lichen samples show that the inhabitants of the Buena village are exposed to airborne particles in the fine fraction of aerosols. The main anthropogenic sources of particles are the mineral sands processing plant and truck traffic, and natural sources as the sea, soil and the swamp. The results from the lichen samples show that at least during the last 15 years the inhabitants of the village have been exposed to monazite particles. The results from aerosols and lichens samples also suggested that the swamp is a source of 226Ra and 210Pb bearing particles besides the monazite dust.

  16. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  17. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  18. Airborne biological particles and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninghoff, William S.; Benninghoff, Anne S.

    1982-01-01

    In November and December 1977 at McMurdo Station in Antarctica we investigated the kinds, numbers, and deposition of airborne particles larger than 2 μm while measuring electric field gradient at 2.5 m above the ground. Elementary collecting devices were used: Staplex Hi-Volume and Roto-rod samplers, Tauber (static sedimentation) traps, petrolatum-coated microscope slides, and snow (melted and filtered). The electric fields were measured by a rotating dipole (Stanford Radioscience Laboratory field mill number 2). During periods of blowing snow and dust the electric field gradient was + 500 to + 2500 V/m, and Tauber traps with grounded covers collected 2 or more times as much snow and dust as the ones with ungrounded covers. During falling snow the electric field gradient was -1000 to -1500 V/m, and the ungrounded traps collected almost twice as much snow and dust as those grounded. These observations suggest that under the prevailing weather conditions in polar regions the probable net effect is deposition of greater quantities of dust, including diaspores and minute organisms, on wet, grounded surfaces. This hypothesis needs examination for its use in explanation of biological distribution patterns.

  19. Immune Alterations in Rats Exposed to Airborne Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of lunar dust on human physiology. This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and systemic immune parameters.

  20. Mineralogical, Chemical, and Optical Interrelationships of Airborne Mineral Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Pincock, S. L.; Jayanty, R. K. M.; Casuccio, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide information on the mineralogical, chemical and physical interrelationships of re-suspended mineral dust samples collected as grab samples from global dust sources. Surface soil samples were collected from about 65 desert sites, including the southwestern USA (12), Mali (3), Chad (3), Morocco (1), Canary Islands (8), Cape Verde (1), Djibouti (1), Afghanistan (3), Iraq (6), Kuwait (5), Qatar (1), UAE (1), Serbia (3), China (5), Namibia (3), Botswana (4), Australia (3), and Chile (1). The < 38 μm sieved fraction of each sample was re-suspended in an entrainment chamber, from which the airborne mineral dust could be monitored, sampled and analyzed. Instruments integrated into the entrainment facility included two PM10 and two PM2.5 filter samplers, a beta attenuation gauge for the continuous measurement of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate mass fractions, an aerodynamic particle size (APS) analyzer, and a three wavelength (405, 532, 781nm) photoacoustic resonator with integrating reciprocal nephelometer for monitoring absorption and scattering coefficients during the dust re-suspension process. Filter sample media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis (71 species), and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The < 38 μm sieved fractions were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction for their mineral content while the > 38 μm, < 125 μm soil fractions were mineralogically characterized by optical microscopy. We will be presenting results on the optical measurements, also showing the relationship between single scattering albedo (SSA) at three different wavelengths, and chemical as well as mineralogical content and interdependencies of the entrained dust samples. Examples showing the relationships between the single scattering albedos of airborne dusts, and iron (Fe) in hematite, goethite, and clay minerals (montmorillonite, illite, palygorskite), will

  1. Sampling and analysis method for measuring airborne coal dust mass in mixtures with limestone (rock) dust

    PubMed Central

    Barone, T. L.; Patts, J. R.; Janisko, S. J.; Colinet, J. F.; Patts, L. D.; Beck, T. W.; Mischler, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne coal dust mass measurements in underground bituminous coal mines can be challenged by the presence of airborne limestone dust, which is an incombustible dust applied to prevent the propagation of dust explosions. To accurately measure the coal portion of this mixed airborne dust, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a sampling and analysis protocol that used a stainless steel cassette adapted with an isokinetic inlet and the low temperature ashing (LTA) analytical method. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) routinely utilizes this LTA method to quantify the incombustible content of bulk dust samples collected from the roof, floor, and ribs of mining entries. The use of the stainless steel cassette with isokinetic inlet allowed NIOSH to adopt the LTA method for the analysis of airborne dust samples. Mixtures of known coal and limestone dust masses were prepared in the laboratory, loaded into the stainless steel cassettes, and analyzed to assess the accuracy of this method. Coal dust mass measurements differed from predicted values by an average of 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1% for samples containing 20%, 91%, and 95% limestone dust, respectively. The ability of this method to accurately quantify the laboratory samples confirmed the validity of this method and allowed NIOSH to successfully measure the coal fraction of airborne dust samples collected in an underground coal mine. PMID:26618374

  2. Sampling and analysis method for measuring airborne coal dust mass in mixtures with limestone (rock) dust.

    PubMed

    Barone, T L; Patts, J R; Janisko, S J; Colinet, J F; Patts, L D; Beck, T W; Mischler, S E

    2016-01-01

    Airborne coal dust mass measurements in underground bituminous coal mines can be challenged by the presence of airborne limestone dust, which is an incombustible dust applied to prevent the propagation of dust explosions. To accurately measure the coal portion of this mixed airborne dust, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a sampling and analysis protocol that used a stainless steel cassette adapted with an isokinetic inlet and the low temperature ashing (LTA) analytical method. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) routinely utilizes this LTA method to quantify the incombustible content of bulk dust samples collected from the roof, floor, and ribs of mining entries. The use of the stainless steel cassette with isokinetic inlet allowed NIOSH to adopt the LTA method for the analysis of airborne dust samples. Mixtures of known coal and limestone dust masses were prepared in the laboratory, loaded into the stainless steel cassettes, and analyzed to assess the accuracy of this method. Coal dust mass measurements differed from predicted values by an average of 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1% for samples containing 20%, 91%, and 95% limestone dust, respectively. The ability of this method to accurately quantify the laboratory samples confirmed the validity of this method and allowed NIOSH to successfully measure the coal fraction of airborne dust samples collected in an underground coal mine.

  3. Microbial immigration across the Mediterranean via airborne dust

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Riccardo; Fiamma, Maura; Deligios, Massimo; Pintus, Gabriella; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Duce, Pierpaolo; Squartini, Andrea; Muresu, Rosella; Cappuccinelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Dust particles lifting and discharge from Africa to Europe is a recurring phenomenon linked to air circulation conditions. The possibility that microorganisms are conveyed across distances entails important consequences in terms of biosafety and pathogens spread. Using culture independent DNA-based analyses via next generation sequencing of the 16 S genes from the airborne metagenome, the atmospheric microbial community was characterized and the hypothesis was tested that shifts in species diversity could be recorded in relation to dust discharge. As sampling ground the island of Sardinia was chosen, being an ideal cornerstone within the Mediterranean and a crossroad of wind circulation amidst Europe and Africa. Samples were collected in two opposite coastal sites and in two different weather conditions comparing dust-conveying winds from Africa with a control situation with winds from Europe. A major conserved core microbiome was evidenced but increases in species richness and presence of specific taxa were nevertheless observed in relation to each wind regime. Taxa which can feature strains with clinical implications were also detected. The approach is reported as a recommended model monitoring procedure for early warning alerts in frameworks of biosafety against natural spread of clinical microbiota across countries as well as to prevent bacteriological warfare. PMID:26542754

  4. Airborne Dust Monitoring Activities at the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G.; McNamara, D.; Taylor, J.

    2002-12-01

    particles such as dust. Techniques effective for the monitoring of airborne dust are used operationally by NESDIS and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction at the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, which monitors the presence of airborne volcanic ash, optically similar to airborne dust.

  5. Photoelectric Charging of Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sickafoose, A.; Colwell, J.; Horanyi, M.; Robertson, S.; Walch, B.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed on the photoelectric charging of dust particles which are either isolated or adjacent to a surface that is also a photoemitter. We find that zinc dust charges to a positive potential of a few volts when isolated in vacuum and that it charges to a negative potential of a few volts when passed by a photoemitting surface. The illumination is an arc lamp emitting wavelengths longer than 200 nm and the emitting surface is a zirconium foil.

  6. Sources of zodiacal dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    2007-08-01

    The orbital evolution of dust particles produced by asteroids, comets, and trans- Neptunian objects was integrated [1-3]. Analysis of results of these integrations testify in favor of a considerable fraction of particles produced by comets among overall zodiacal dust particles, but it does not contradict to >30% of asteroidal dust needed for explanation of formation of dust bands. Fractions of asteroidal particles, particles originating beyond Jupiter's orbit (including trans-Neptunian particles), and cometary particles originating inside of Jupiter's orbit are estimated to be about 1/3 each, with a possible deviation from 1/3 up to 0.1-0.2. Comparison of the plots of the number density vs. the distance R from the Sun obtained for particles produced by different small bodies with the plots based on observations shows that asteroidal and trans- Neptunian particles alone can not explain the observed almost constant number density at R ∼3-18 AU and a lot of particles must be produced by comets at R ∼5-10 AU [2-3]. Comparison of the WHAM (Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper spectrometer) observations of spectra of zodiacal light with our models showed [4-5] that a significant fraction of particles produced by short-period comets is required to fit the observations of the width and velocity of the Mg I line. Comparison of the observations of the number density inside Jupiter's orbit with the number density of particles produced by different small bodies leads to the same conclusion about a considerable fraction of cometary particles. This comparison does not make limitations on cometary particles produced beyond Jupiter's orbit, but it shows that the fraction of particles produced by Encke-type comets (with eccentricities ∼0.8-0.9) does not exceed 0.15 of the overall population. The estimated fraction of particles produced by long-period and Halley-type comets among zodiacal dust also does not exceed 0.1-0.15. Though trans-Neptunian particles fit different observations of

  7. Detecting Space Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Humes, Donald H.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Wortman, Jim; Singer, S. Fred; Stanley, John

    1988-01-01

    Technique records times specific craters formed in targets exposed in space and permits determination of direction in which impacting particles traveled at times of impacts. MOS capacitor is short-circuited by impact of particle striking at high speed. After recovery of targets from space, compositions of impacting particles established through post-flight laboratory analyses of residual materials in craters. On earth technique has industrial and military uses in detection of fragments driven by explosions. Studies of orbital dynamics of particles produced by solid-propellant rocket-motor firings in space made using technique.

  8. Elemental composition of airborne dust in the Shale Shaker House during an offshore drilling operation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A B; Larsen, E; Hansen, L V; Lyngsaae, M; Kunze, H

    1991-12-01

    During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among them chrome lignosulphonate and chrome lignite, was circulated between the borehole and the Shale Shaker House. The concentration of airborne dust in the atmosphere was determined and the elemental composition of the particles analysed by both PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The total amount of dust collected varied from 0.04 to 1.41 mg m-3 with barium (Ba) as the single most abundant element. The open shale shakers turned out to be the major cause of generation of dust from the solid components of the drilling mud.

  9. Airborne fungal and bacterial components in PM1 dust from biofuel plants.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Schlünssen, Vivi; Olsen, Tina; Sigsgaard, Torben; Avci, Hediye

    2009-10-01

    Fungi grown in pure cultures produce DNA- or RNA-containing particles smaller than spore size (<1.5 microm). High exposures to fungi and bacteria are observed at biofuel plants. Airborne cultivable bacteria are often described to be present in clusters or associated with larger particles with an aerodynamic diameter (d(ae)) of 2-8 microm. In this study, we investigate whether airborne fungal components smaller than spore size are present in bioaerosols in working areas at biofuel plants. Furthermore, we measure the exposure to bacteria and fungal components in airborne particulate matter (PM) with a D(50) of 1 microm (called PM(1) dust). PM(1) was sampled using Triplex cyclones at a working area at 14 Danish biofuel plants. Millipore cassettes were used to sample 'total dust'. The PM(1) particles (29 samples) were analysed for content of 11 different components and the total dust was analysed for cultivable fungi, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans. In the 29 PM(1) samples, cultivable fungi were found in six samples and with a median concentration below detection level. Using microscopy, fungal spores were identified in 22 samples. The components NAGase and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans, which are mainly associated with fungi, were present in all PM(1) samples. Thermophilic actinomycetes were present in 23 of the 29 PM(1) samples [average = 739 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3)]. Cultivable and 'total bacteria' were found in average concentrations of, respectively, 249 CFU m(-3) and 1.8 x 10(5) m(-3). DNA- and RNA-containing particles of different lengths were counted by microscopy and revealed a high concentration of particles with a length of 0.5-1.5 microm and only few particles >1.5 microm. The number of cultivable fungi and beta-glucan in the total dust correlated significantly with the number of DNA/RNA-containing particles with lengths of between 1.0 and 1.5 microm, with DNA/RNA-containing particles >1.5 microm, and with other

  10. Velocities of Zodiacal Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Madsen, G. J.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2005-09-01

    Ipatov et al. (2005, LPSC, 1266) compared the observational plots of the zodiacal light spectrum near the solar Mg Iλ 5184 absorption line (Reynolds, Madsen and Moseley, ApJ, 2004, 612, 1206-1213) with the spectrum obtained by analyzing computer simulation results of the distribution of dust particles which migrated from different sources (Ipatov et al., Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 2004, v. 1017, 66-80). Now we compare the rotation curves, i.e., plots of velocities of Mg I line (at zero inclination) versus elongations ǎrepsilon (measured eastward from the Sun). The comparison of the observed rotation curves with the models for dust particles of different sizes (hence for different values of the ratio between the radiation pressure force and gravitational force β ) started from asteroids, comets (2P/Encke, 10P/Tempel 2, 39P/Oterma), and trans-Neptunian objects allowed to make some conclusions about sources of zodiacal dust particles. The rotation curves obtained for different scattering functions were similar for 30<ǎrepsilon<330 deg. For asteroidal dust particles and particles originating from comets 39P and 10P, rotation curves are relatively close to each other at β <0.2. For 2P particles the difference between the rotation curves obtained at different β was considerable in case of the particles produced at aphelion. For asteroidal dust particles modeled rotation curves differed from the observed ones, and for ǎrepsilon<240o modeled velocities were smaller by several km/s; for 10P and 39P particles they were smaller than those for observations at ǎrepsilon<160o and 60<ǎrepsilon<150o, respectively, but for 39P particles the difference was smaller than that for asteroidal and 10P particles. For trans-Neptunian particles the rotation curves were in agreement with the observations at ǎrepsilon<180o, but modeled velocities were smaller than observational velocities at 200<ǎrepsilon<250o. The rotation curves corresponding to particles originating

  11. Endotoxins in baled cottons and airborne dusts in textile mills in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed Central

    Olenchock, S A; Christiani, D C; Mull, J C; Ye, T T; Lu, P L

    1983-01-01

    Bulk cotton samples and airborne vertical elutriated cotton dusts were obtained from textile mills in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Analysis of endotoxin contents revealed that baled cottons which were grown in different countries varied in endotoxin contamination. The two textile mills, which operated at similar overall airborne dust levels, differed markedly in the levels of airborne endotoxins. The data suggest that the biological activity or "toxicity" of airborne cotton dusts may not be correlated directly with gravimetric dust levels. PMID:6639029

  12. Airborne Dust, "The Good Guy or the Bad Guy": How Much do We Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    Processes in generating, transporting, and dissipating the airborne dust particles are global phenomena -African dust regularly reaching the Alps; Asian dust seasonally crossing the Pacific into North America, and ultimately the Atlantic into Europe. One of the vital biogeochemical roles dust storms play in Earth's ecosystem is routinely mobilizing mineral dust, as a source of iron, from deserts into oceans for fertilizing the growth of phytoplankton -the basis of the oceanic food chain. Similarly, these dust-laden airs also supply crucial nutrients for the soil of tropical rain forests, the so-called womb of life that hosts 50-90% of the species on Earth. With massive amounts of dust lifted from desert regions and injected into the atmosphere, however, these dust storms often affect daily activities in dramatic ways: pushing grit through windows and doors, forcing people to stay indoors, causing breathing problems, reducing visibility and delaying flights, and by and large creating chaos. Thus, both increasing and decreasing concentrations of doses result in harmful biological effects; so do the airborne dust particles to our Living Earth. Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites - the Earth Observing System - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Through participation in many satellite remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, we have gradually developed and refined the SMART (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) and COMMIT (Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile observatories, a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement the satellite observations. In this talk, we will present SMART-COMMIT which has played key roles, serving as network or supersite, in major international research projects such

  13. Interplanetary dust particles and impact erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klacka, J.; Saniga, M.

    1992-11-01

    Consideration is given to the motion of interplanetary dust particles under the effect of collisions with much smaller interplanetary dust particles. The equation of motion is derived. Perturbation equations of celestial mechanics are also discussed. The results are compared with the Poynting-Robertson effect and the effect of solar wind on the motion of the interplanetary dust particles.

  14. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  15. Electrical charge measurements on fine airborne particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tardos, G.I.; Dietz, P.W.; Snaddon, R.W.L.

    1984-11-01

    A small parallel-plate precipitator and a theoretical collection model have been used to determine the distribution of charges acquired by monodisperse airborne polystyrene latex particles in a corona charger. The mean charge based on the total number of particles was found to be slightly higher than half the predicted saturation charge, and it agreed well with independent measurements made in a Faraday cage particle separator. The importance of careful measurements of particle charge in fine particle transport studies is highlighted by a discussion of the effect of charge (particle mobility) distribution width on observed transport characteristics.

  16. Particle Lifting Processes in Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neakrase, L. D. V.; Balme, M. R.; Esposito, F.; Kelling, T.; Klose, M.; Kok, J. F.; Marticorena, B.; Merrison, J.; Patel, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-11-01

    Particle lifting in dust devils on both Earth and Mars has been studied from many different perspectives, including how dust devils could influence the dust cycles of both planets. Here we review our current understanding of particle entrainment by dust devils by examining results from field observations on Earth and Mars, laboratory experiments (at terrestrial ambient and Mars-analog conditions), and analytical modeling. By combining insights obtained from these three methodologies, we provide a detailed overview on interactions between particle lifting processes due to mechanical, thermal, electrodynamical and pressure effects, and how these processes apply to dust devils on Earth and Mars. Experiments and observations have shown dust devils to be effective lifters of dust given the proper conditions on Earth and Mars. However, dust devil studies have yet to determine the individual roles of each of the component processes acting at any given time in dust devils.

  17. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  18. Grain fever syndrome induced by inhalation of airborne grain dust.

    PubMed

    doPico, G A; Flaherty, D; Bhansali, P; Chavaje, N

    1982-05-01

    To study the clinical and physiologic manifestations of the grain fever syndrome and the potentially pathogenic role of complement activation, 12 subjects (six grain workers and six healthy non-grain workers) underwent inhalation provocations with airborne grain dust. The clinical response was characterized by facial warmth, headache, malaise, myalgias, feverish sensation, chilliness, throat and tracheal burning sensation, chest tightness, dyspnea, cough, and expectoration. Fever developed in four grain workers and two controls. Leukocytosis, ranging between 11,700 and 24,300 leukocytes/mm3 with left shift, developed in five grain workers and five controls. There was no evidence of complement activation by the classical or alternate pathway. None of the subjects had serum precipitins to grain dust. The pulmonary response was characterized by a decrease in FEV1, FVC, MMF, Vmax50, and Vmax75, with significant rise in pulmonary resistance and consistent change in dynamic compliance but without changes in static compliance or diffusing capacity. Hence, grain dust inhalation induced diffuse airways obstruction without detectable parenchymal reaction. The airways response to high concentrations of grain dust inhalation were unrelated to the presence of immediate skin hypersensitivity. Although we cannot exclude the etiopathogenetic role of an immunologic reaction to grain dust, our data do not support the hypothesis that the grain fever syndrome is a precipitin-mediated allergic pneumonitis. More likely, the manifestations of grain fever probably reflect the host reaction to grain dust bacterial endotoxins and/or nonallergic mediator release by grain or grain dust constituents.

  19. Planetary Magnetosphere Probed by Charged Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.

    2010-12-01

    In-situ and remote sensing observations combined with theoretical and numerical modeling greatly advanced our understanding planetary magnetospheres. Dust is an integral component of the Saturnian and Jovian magnetospheres where it can act as a source/sink of plasma particles (dust particles are an effective source for plasma species like O2, OH, etc. through sputtering of ice particles, for example); its distribution is shaped by electrodynamic forces coupled radiation pressure, plasma, and neutral drag, for example. The complex interaction can lead to unusual dust dynamics, including the transport, capture, and ejection of dust grains. The study of the temporal and spatial evolution of fine dust within or outside the magnetosphere thus provides a unique way to combine data from a large number of observations: plasma, plasma wave, dust, and magnetic field measurements. The dust detectors on board the Galileo and Cassini spacecrafts lead to major discoveries, including the jovian dust stream originating from Io or the in-situ sampling and analysis of the plumes of Enceladus. Recent advancement in dust detector technology enables accurate measurement of the dust trajectory and elemental composition that can greatly enhance the understanding of dust magnetorspheric interaction and indentify the source of the dust with high precision. The capabilities of a modern dust detector thus can provide support for the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  20. Airborne Nanostructured Particles and Occupational Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Kuempel, Eileen D.

    2005-12-01

    Nanotechnology is leading to the development in many field, of new materials and devices in many fields that demonstrate nanostructure-dependent properties. However, concern has been expressed that these same properties may present unique challenges to addressing potential health impact. Airborne particles associated with engineered nanomaterials are of particular concern, as they can readily enter the body through inhalation. Research into the potential occupational health risks associated with inhaling engineered nanostructured particles is just beginning. However, there is a large body of data on occupational and environmental aerosols, which is applicable to developing an initial assessment of potential risk and risk reduction strategies. Epidemiological and pathological studies of occupational and environmental exposures to airborne particles and fibers provide information on the aerosol-related lung diseases and conditions that have been observed in humans. Toxicological studies provide information on the specific disease mechanisms, dose-response relationships, and the particle characteristics that influence toxicity, including the size, surface area, chemistry or reactivity, solubility, and shape. Potential health risk will depend on the magnitude and nature of exposures to airborne nanostructured particles, and on the release, dispersion, transformation and control of materials in the workplace. Aerosol control methods have not been well-characterized for nanometer diameter particles, although theory and limited experimental data indicate that conventional ventilation, engineering control and filtration approaches should be applicable in many situations. Current information supports the development of preliminary guiding principles on working with engineered nanomaterials. However critical research questions remain to be answered before the potential health risk of airborne nanostructured particles in the workplace can be fully addressed.

  1. Particle atlas of World Trade Center dust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has begun a reassessment of the presence of World Trade Center (WTC) dust in residences, public buildings, and office spaces in New York City, New York. Background dust samples collected from residences, public buildings, and office spaces will be analyzed by multiple laboratories for the presence of WTC dust. Other laboratories are currently studying WTC dust for other purposes, such as health effects studies. To assist in inter-laboratory consistency for identification of WTC dust components, this particle atlas of phases in WTC dust has been compiled.

  2. On the visibility of airborne volcanic ash and mineral dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; Sauer, D. N.; Minikin, A.; Reitebuch, O.; Dahlkötter, F.; Mayer, B. C.; Emde, C.; Tegen, I.; Gasteiger, J.; Petzold, A.; Veira, A.; Kueppers, U.; Schumann, U.

    2012-12-01

    After the eruption of the Eyjafjalla volcano (Iceland) in April 2010 which caused the most extensive restrictions of the airspace over Europe since the end of World War II, the aviation safety concept of avoiding "visible ash", i.e. volcanic ash that can be seen by the human eye, was recommended. However so far, no clear definition of "visible ash" and no relation between the visibility of an aerosol layer and related aerosol mass concentrations are available. The goal of our study is to assess whether it is possible from the pilot's perspective in flight to detect the presence of volcanic ash and to distinguish between volcanic ash and other aerosol layers just by sight. In our presentation, we focus the comparison with other aerosols on aerosol types impacting aviation: Besides volcanic ash, dust storms are known to be avoided by aircraft. We use in-situ and lidar data as well photographs taken onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiments (SAMUM) in 2006 and 2008 and during the Eyjafjalla volcanic eruption in April/May 2010. We complement this analysis with numerical modelling, using idealized radiative transfer simulations with the 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MYSTIC for a variety of selected viewing geometries. Both aerosol types, Saharan mineral dust and volcanic ash, show an enhanced coarse mode (> 1 μm) aerosol concentration, but volcanic ash aerosol additionally contains a significant number of Aitken mode particles (< 150 nm). Volcanic ash is slightly more absorbing than mineral dust, and the spectral behaviour of the refractive index is slightly different. According to our simulations, these differences are not detectable just by human eye. Furthermore, our data show, that it is difficult to define a lower threshold for the visibility of an aerosol layer because the visual detectability depends on many parameters, including the thickness of the aerosol layer, the brightness and color contrast between the

  3. Dust particles interaction with plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, C. M.; Jepu, I.; Lungu, C. P.; Chiru, P.; Zaroschi, V.

    2009-11-10

    The flow of plasma and particularly the flow of ions play an important role in dusty plasmas. Here we present some instances in laboratory experiments where the ion flow is essential in establishing dust dynamics in strongly or weakly coupled dust particles. The formation of ion wake potential and its effect on the dynamics of dust crystals, or the ion drag force exerted on micron size dust grains are some of the phenomena observed in the presented experiments.

  4. Airborne Dust Modified the North American Climate During the 1930's Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Solmon, F.; Sloan, L. C.; Snyder, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    In the 1930's Dust Bowl, drought in Mid-Western North America, in conjunction with wide-scale planting of drought-vulnerable crops, resulted in massive dust storms. The presence of dust in the atmosphere may have directly altered the energy budget of North America by the scattering and absorption of radiation and thus may have acted as a feedback to the regional drought conditions. Through a climate modeling sensitivity study of North American climate investigating the impact of airborne dust during the 1930's (using a regional model, RegCM3), we find that areas with moderate to high dust-loading have reduced surface temperatures (~1K) and reduced evapotranspiration (~0.5 mm/day). We also find spatially-coherent, statistically significant changes in precipitation patterns over eastern North America during Spring, Summer, and Fall: areas gain and lose as much as 2 mm/day of precipitation. We are working on a more detailed analysis to determine the causal relationship(s) between airborne dust and precipitation patterns; we hypothesize that the spatially non-uniform change in the energy budget, caused by dust loading, modifies regional dynamics and indirectly modifies precipitation patterns.

  5. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-08-12

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  6. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  7. Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the most important factors contributing to air pollution. Epidemiological studies have related increased levels of atmospheric particulate matter to premature human mortality caused by cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, a limited number of investigations have focused on the contribution of airborne desert dust particles. Here we assess the effects of dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (DU2.5) on human mortality for the year 2005. We used the EMAC atmospheric-chemistry general circulation model at high resolution to simulate global atmospheric dust concentrations. We applied a health impact function to estimate premature mortality for the global population of 30 yr and older, using parameters from epidemiological studies. We estimate a global cardiopulmonary mortality of about 402 000 in 2005. The associated years of life lost are about 3.47 million per year. We estimate the global fraction of the cardiopulmonary deaths caused by atmospheric desert dust to be about 1.8%, though in the 20 countries most affected by dust this is much higher, about 15-50%. These countries are primarily found in the so-called "dust belt" from North Africa across the Middle East and South Asia to East Asia

  8. Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-09-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the most important factors contributing to air pollution. Epidemiological studies have related increased levels of atmospheric particulate matter to premature human mortality caused by cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, a limited number of investigations have focused on the contribution of airborne desert dust particles. Here we assess the effects of dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (DU2.5) on human mortality for the year 2005. We used the EMAC atmospheric chemistry general circulation model at high resolution to simulate global atmospheric dust concentrations. We applied a health impact function to estimate premature mortality for the global population of 30 yr and older, using parameters from epidemiological studies. We estimate a global cardiopulmonary mortality of about 402 thousand and about 10 thousand by lung cancer in 2005. The associated years of life lost are about 3.47 million and 96 thousand per year due to cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, respectively. We estimate the global fraction of the cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths caused by atmospheric desert dust to be about 1.7%, though in the 20 countries most affected by dust this is much higher, about 15-50%. These countries are primarily found in the so-called "dust belt" from North Africa across the Middle East and South Asia to East Asia.

  9. Influence of dust particles on glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, D. N.; Shumova, V. V.; Vasilyak, L. M.; Fortov, V. E.

    2010-11-01

    The gas discharge-dust particle interaction for a dc discharge in air with micron-sized particles is investigated. The plasma of the dc column is described in the frame of diffusion approximation combined with the orbital motion limited approximation for ion and electron flow on the dust component surface. The problem is solved for dust particles of 2 μm radius, embedded in a uniform glow discharge column with a diameter of 16 mm at air pressure 0.5 torr, discharge current 0.5-3 mA and particle concentration up to 105 cm-3. The current-voltage characteristics as an easy-to-observe measure of the nonlocal dust influence on the total amount of charge carriers in the discharge, as well as the radial distributions of plasma components in the dc discharge, are calculated for different dust concentrations and discharge currents. The results are compared with recently published experimental data. The presence of dust particles leads to an increase of the longitudinal electric field due to additional loss of ions and electrons. A decrease of the radial electric field within the dust cloud under the action of dust particles results in an essential change of the electron concentration profile, down to the appearance of the local minimum at the axis of the discharge.

  10. Model of Image Artifacts from Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Reg

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of image artifacts produced by dust particles on lenses has been derived. Machine-vision systems often have to work with camera lenses that become dusty during use. Dust particles on the front surface of a lens produce image artifacts that can potentially affect the performance of a machine-vision algorithm. The present model satisfies a need for a means of synthesizing dust image artifacts for testing machine-vision algorithms for robustness (or the lack thereof) in the presence of dust on lenses. A dust particle can absorb light or scatter light out of some pixels, thereby giving rise to a dark dust artifact. It can also scatter light into other pixels, thereby giving rise to a bright dust artifact. For the sake of simplicity, this model deals only with dark dust artifacts. The model effectively represents dark dust artifacts as an attenuation image consisting of an array of diffuse darkened spots centered at image locations corresponding to the locations of dust particles. The dust artifacts are computationally incorporated into a given test image by simply multiplying the brightness value of each pixel by a transmission factor that incorporates the factor of attenuation, by dust particles, of the light incident on that pixel. With respect to computation of the attenuation and transmission factors, the model is based on a first-order geometric (ray)-optics treatment of the shadows cast by dust particles on the image detector. In this model, the light collected by a pixel is deemed to be confined to a pair of cones defined by the location of the pixel s image in object space, the entrance pupil of the lens, and the location of the pixel in the image plane (see Figure 1). For simplicity, it is assumed that the size of a dust particle is somewhat less than the diameter, at the front surface of the lens, of any collection cone containing all or part of that dust particle. Under this assumption, the shape of any individual dust particle artifact

  11. Variations in the structure of airborne bacterial communities in Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert area during dust events.

    PubMed

    Maki, Teruya; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Onishi, Kazunari; Lee, Kevin C; Pointing, Stephen B; Jugder, Dulam; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Masato

    2017-01-01

    Asian dust events transport the airborne bacteria in Chinese desert regions as well as mineral particles and influence downwind area varying biological ecosystems and climate changes. However, the airborne bacterial dynamics were rarely investigated in the Gobi desert area, where dust events are highly frequent. In this study, air samplings were sequentially performed at a 2-m high above the ground at the sampling site located in desert area (Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert; Mongolia 44.2304°N, 105.1700°E). During the dust event days, the bacterial cells and mineral particles increased to more than tenfold of concentrations. MiSeq sequencing targeting 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the airborne bacteria in desert area mainly belonged to the classes Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Bacilli, Alpha-proteobacteria, Beta-proteobacteria, and Gamma-proteobacteria. The bacterial community structures were different between dust events and non-dust events. The air samples collected at the dust events indicated high abundance rates of Alpha-proteobacteria, which were reported to dominate on the leaf surfaces of plants or in the saline lake environments. After the dust events, the members of Firmicutes (Bacilli) and Bacteroidetes, which are known to form endospore and attach with coarse particles, respectively, increased their relative abundances in the air samples. Presumably, the bacterial compositions and diversities in atmosphere significantly vary during dust events, which carry some particles from grassland (phyllo-sphere), dry lake, and sand surfaces, as well as some bacterial populations such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes maintain in the atmosphere for longer time.

  12. Volatiles in interplanetary dust particles - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the volatiles found within interplanetary dust particles. These particles have been shown to represent primitive material from early in the solar system's formation and also may contain records of stellar processes. The organogenic elements (i.e., H, C, N, O, and S) are among the most abundant elements in our solar system, and their abundances, distributions, and isotopic compositions in early solar system materials permit workers to better understand the processes operating early in the evolutionary history of solar system materials. Interplanetary dust particles have a range of elemental compositions, but generally they have been shown to be similar to carbonaceous chondrites, the solar photosphere, Comet Halley's chondritic cores, and matrix materials of chondritic chondrites. Recovery and analysis of interplanetary dust particles have opened new opportunities for analysis of primitive materials, although interplanetary dust particles represent major challenges to the analyst because of their small size.

  13. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  14. Alterations in the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events occurring between February and March 2015 in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seho; Lee, Dongwook; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lim, Sora; Yang, Dahye; Seo, Taegun

    2016-01-01

    During Asian dust events, a relatively high concentration of particulate matter is transported by wind from arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts, to nearby countries, including China, Korea, and Japan. The dust particles contain various microorganisms, which can affect human health as well as the environmental microbe population. In the current study, we investigated the characteristics of the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events between February and March 2015 in South Korea. Bacterial diversity indexes such as operational taxonomic units, Chao1 and Inverse Simpson index were increased, along with total 16S rRNA gene copy number during Asian dust events. The bacterial community structure during Asian dust events was clearly distinguishable from that during non-Asian dust days. The genera Bacillus and Modestobacter were increased 3.9- and 2.7-fold, respectively, while Escherichia-Shigella was decreased by 89.8%. A non-metric multidimensional scaling plot with metadata analysis revealed association of particulate matter concentration, but not temperature, humidity or wind speed, with bacterial community structure, suggesting that the newly transported dust particles contain various microorganisms that influence the airborne bacterial environment. PMID:27849049

  15. Investigation of coal properties and airborne respirable dust generation. Report of investigations/1998

    SciTech Connect

    Organiscak, J.A.; Page, S.J.

    1998-10-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low- to high-volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust (ARD) generation. This research was conducted to identify the principles of ARD liberation from the coal product. Five U.S. bituminous coals were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low-velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, coal grindability, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific ARD generated. The results of this investigation indicate that a combination of several factors are associated with ARD generation. One factor is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics, defined by Schuhmann size function parameters. Another key factor is the effect of air dry loss (ADL) moisture in the coal seam on the breakage-induced electrostatic field of airborne dust. The effect of these factors is that different percentages of <10-micrometers coal particles are dispersed as ARD. A discussion of electrostatic field principles, coal ADL, and its effect on ARD generation is presented.

  16. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  17. Effect of ultraviolet on the survival of bacteria airborne in simulated Martian dust clouds.

    PubMed

    Hagen, C A; Hawrylewicz, E J; Anderson, B T; Cephus, M L

    1970-01-01

    A chamber was constructed to create simulated Martian dust storms and thereby study the survival of airborne micro-organisms while exposed to the rigors of the Martian environment, including ultraviolet irradiation. Representative types of sporeforming and non-sporeforming bacteria present in spacecraft assembly areas and indigenous to humans were studied. It was found that daily ultraviolet irradiation of 2 to 9 X 10(7) erg cm-2 was not sufficient to sterilize the dust clouds. The soil particles protected the organisms from ultraviolet irradiation since the numbers of survivors from irradiated environments were similar to those from unirradiated environments. Pending further data of the Martian environment, the contamination and dissemination of Mars with terrestrial micro-organisms is still a distinct possibility.

  18. Airborne particle exposure and extrinsic skin aging.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothea; Matsui, Mary; Krämer, Ursula; Krutmann, Jean

    2010-12-01

    For decades, extrinsic skin aging has been known to result from chronic exposure to solar radiation and, more recently, to tobacco smoke. In this study, we have assessed the influence of air pollution on skin aging in 400 Caucasian women aged 70-80 years. Skin aging was clinically assessed by means of SCINEXA (score of intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging), a validated skin aging score. Traffic-related exposure at the place of residence was determined by traffic particle emissions and by estimation of soot in fine dust. Exposure to background particle concentration was determined by measurements of ambient particles at fixed monitoring sites. The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables. Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to wrinkles. An increase in soot (per 0.5 × 10(-5) per m) and particles from traffic (per 475  kg per year and square km) was associated with 20% more pigment spots on forehead and cheeks. Background particle pollution, which was measured in low residential areas of the cities without busy traffic and therefore is not directly attributable to traffic but rather to other sources of particles, was also positively correlated to pigment spots on face. These results indicate that particle pollution might influence skin aging as well.

  19. Sampling Interplanetary Dust Particles from Antarctic Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Lever, J. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Brownlee, D. E.; Messenger, S.; Littler, L. R.; Stroud, R. M.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Clement, S.

    2016-08-01

    We are undertaking a NASA and NSF supported project to filter large volumes of clean Antarctic air to collect a broad range of cosmic dust, including CP-IDPs, rare ultra-carbonaceous particles and particles derived from specific meteor streams.

  20. Light scattering from nonspherical airborne particles: Experimental and theoretical comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Edwin; Kaye, Paul H.; Guppy, John R.

    1994-10-01

    Spatial intensity distribution of laser light scattered by airborne hazardous particles such as asbestos fiber is studied to classify particles shape and size. Theoretical treatment is based on Rayleigh-Gans formalism. Theoretical and experimental data are in good agreement.

  1. Using NASA EOS in the Arabian and Saharan Deserts to Examine Dust Particle Size and Spectral Signature of Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenton, J. C.; Keeton, T.; Barrick, B.; Cowart, K.; Cooksey, K.; Florence, V.; Herdy, C.; Luvall, J. C.; Vasquez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of airborne particulate matter can have adverse effects on the human respiratory system. Ground-based studies conducted in Iraq have revealed the presence of potential human pathogens in airborne dust. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), airborne particulate matter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) can cause long-term damage to the human respiratory system. Given the relatively high incidence of new-onset respiratory disorders experienced by US service members deployed to Iraq, this research offers a new glimpse into how satellite remote sensing can be applied to questions related to human health. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) can be used to determine spectral characteristics of dust particles, the depth of dust plumes, as well as dust particle sizes. Comparing dust particle size from the Sahara and Arabian Deserts gives insight into the composition and atmospheric transport characteristics of dust from each desert. With the use of NASA SeaWiFS DeepBlue Aerosol, dust particle sizes were estimated using Angström exponent. Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) equation was used to determine the distribution of particle sizes, the area of the dust storm, and whether silicate minerals were present in the dust. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra satellite was utilized in calculating BTD. Minimal research has been conducted on the spectral characteristics of airborne dust in the Arabian and Sahara Deserts. Mineral composition of a dust storm that occurred 17 April 2008 near Baghdad was determined using imaging spectrometer data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library and EO-1 Hyperion data. Mineralogy of this dust storm was subsequently compared to that of a dust storm that occurred over the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara Desert on 7 June 2003.

  2. Direct Characterization of Airborne Particles Associated with Arsenic-rich Mine Tailings: Particle Size Mineralogy and Texture

    SciTech Connect

    M Corriveau; H Jamieson; M Parsons; J Campbell; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Windblown and vehicle-raised dust from unvegetated mine tailings can be a human health risk. Airborne particles from As-rich abandoned Au mine tailings from Nova Scotia, Canada have been characterized in terms of particle size, As concentration, As oxidation state, mineral species and texture. Samples were collected in seven aerodynamically fractionated size ranges (0.5-16 {micro}m) using a cascade impactor deployed at three tailings fields. All three sites are used for recreational activities and off-road vehicles were racing on the tailings at two mines during sample collection. Total concentrations of As in the <8 {micro}m fraction varied from 65 to 1040 ng/m{sup 3} of air as measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The same samples were analysed by synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy ({micro}XANES) and X-ray diffraction ({micro}XRD) and found to contain multiple As-bearing mineral species, including Fe-As weathering products. The As species present in the dust were similar to those observed in the near-surface tailings. The action of vehicles on the tailings surface may disaggregate material cemented with Fe arsenate and contribute additional fine-grained As-rich particles to airborne dust. Results from this study can be used to help assess the potential human health risks associated with exposure to airborne particles from mine tailings.

  3. Dust particle dynamics in magnetized plasma sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudabadi, M.; Mashayek, F.

    2005-07-15

    In this paper, the structure of a plasma sheath in the presence of an oblique magnetic field is investigated, and dynamics of a dust particle embedded in the sheath is elaborated. To simulate the sheath, a weakly collisional two-fluid model is implemented. For various magnitudes and directions of the magnetic field and chamber pressures, different plasma parameters including the electron and ion densities, ion flow velocity, and electric potential are calculated. A complete set of forces acting on the dust particle originating from the electric field in the sheath, the static magnetic field, gravity, and ion and neutral drags is taken into account. Through the trapping potential energy, the particle stable and unstable equilibria are studied while the particle is stationary inside the sheath. Other features such as the possibility of the dust levitation and trapping in the sheath, and the effect of the Lorentz force on the charged dust particle motion are also examined. An interesting feature is captured for the variation of the particle charge as a function of the magnetic field magnitude.

  4. Methods for reducing particle concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and mouldy hay dust.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J H; Trotman, D M; Mason, O F

    1985-08-01

    The effectiveness of commercially available domestic air purifiers to reduce airborne Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and mouldy hay dust was investigated. It was found that the rate of particle clearance is a function of the volume of air passing through the purifiers but that the low throughflow of air makes their use of little value in clearing particles from a normal sized room. Vacuum cleaners were more effective than air purifiers because of their higher air throughput, so too were high volume fan systems in conjunction with simple filtration units. Ionizers had no effect but steam condensation was very efficient at clearing airborne particles.

  5. Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.

  6. Endotoxin exposure assessment in wood-processing industry: airborne versus settled dust levels.

    PubMed

    Pipinić, Ivana Sabolić; Varnai, Veda Marija; Lucić, Ruzica Beljo; Cavlović, Ankica; Prester, Ljerka; Orct, Tatjana; Macan, Jelena

    2010-06-01

    Wood processing is usually performed in environments with large amounts of endotoxin-rich bioaerosols that are associated with a variety of health effects. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the relation between endotoxin levels in settled and airborne dust in wood-processing industry. Ten pairs of airborne and settled dust samples were collected in a sawmill and parquet manufacture of two wood-processing plants in Croatia. Endotoxin was assayed with a chromogenic end-point LAL (Limulus amebocyte lysate) method. The results showed that endotoxin levels in airborne respirable dust were above the proposed occupational exposure limit of 125 EU m(-3) and could be considered hazardous for the respiratory system. In settled dust they ranged between 229.7 EU mg(-1) and 604.3 EU mg(-1) and in airborne dust between 166.8 EU mg(-1) and 671.6 EU m(-3), but there was no significant correlation between them (Spearman's rho=0.358, P=0.310). This study points to sawmill settled dust as endotoxin reservoir and suggests that it may add to already high exposure to airborne endotoxins associated with wood processing. Investigations of the relation between settled and airborne endotoxin levels should be continued to better understand the sources and sites of endotoxin contamination in wood-processing industry.

  7. Rotational bursting of interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paddack, S. J.; Rhee, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Solar radiation pressure is discussed as a cause of rotational bursting, and of eventual elimination of asymmetric dust particles from the solar system, by a windmill effect. The predicted life span with this process for metallic particles with radii of 0.00001 to 0.01 cm ranges from 10 to 10,000 years. The effects of magnetic spin damping were considered. This depletion mechanism works faster than the traditional Poynting-Robertson effect by approximately one order of magnitude for metallic particles and about two orders of magnitude for nonmetallic particles.

  8. Enumerating Spore-Forming Bacteria Airborne with Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory method has been conceived to enable the enumeration of (1) Cultivable bacteria and bacterial spores that are, variously, airborne by themselves or carried by, parts of, or otherwise associated with, other airborne particles; and (2) Spore-forming bacteria among all of the aforementioned cultivable microbes.

  9. Airborne Sunphotometry of African Dust and Marine Boundary Layer Aerosols in PRIDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip; Schmid, Beat; Reid, Jeff; Pilewskie, Peter; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE) was conducted during summer 2000 to study the radiative, microphysical and transport properties of Saharan dust in the Caribbean region. During PRIDE, NASA Ames Research Center's six-channel airborne autotracking sunphotometer (AATS-6) was operated aboard a Piper Navajo airplane based at Roosevelt Roads Naval Station on the northeast coast of Puerto Rico. AATS-6 measurements were taken during 21 science flights off the coast of Puerto Rico in the western Caribbean. Data were acquired within and above the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the Saharan Aerosol Layer (SAL) up to 5.5 km altitude tinder a wide range of dust loadings. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and columnar water vapor (CWV) values have been calculated from the AATS-6 measurements by using sunphotometer calibration data obtained at Mauna Loa Observatory (3A kin ASL) before (May) and after (October) PRIDE. Mid-visible AOD values measured near the surface during PRIDE ranged from 0.07 on the cleanest day to 0.55 on the most turbid day. Values measured above the MBL were as high as 0.35; values above the SAL were as low as 0.01. The fraction of total column AOD due to Saharan dust cannot be determined precisely from AATS-6 AOD data alone due to the uncertainty in the extent of vertical mixing of the dust down through the MBL. However, analyses of ground-based and airborne in-situ aerosol sampling measurements and ground-based aerosol lidar backscatter data should yield accurate characterization of the vertical mixing that will enable calculation of the Saharan dust AOD component from the sunphotometer data. Examples will be presented showing measured AATS-6 AOD spectra, calculated aerosol extinction and water vapor density vertical profiles, and aerosol size distributions retrieved by inversion of the AOD spectra. Near sea-surface AOD spectra acquired by AATS-6 during horizontal flight legs at 30 m ASL are available for validation of AOD derived from coincident

  10. Reanalysis of porous chondritic cosmic dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapisinsky, I.; Figusch, V.; Ivan, J.; Izdinsky, K.; Zemankova, M.

    2001-10-01

    The particles reanalysed in this study were obtained from the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Cosmic Dust Collection. The reanalysis of the particle L2008 P9 indicates typical assemblage of olivine - pyroxene. This sample can be classified as a chondritic porous IDP with the metallic phase grain containing essential amount of nickel and copper (the latter element is most probably due to instrumental artefact). The chemical composition of the particle L2011 S5 corresponds mostly to an assemblage of pyroxene phase - (Mg,Fe,Ni)SiO_3 roughly 75 wt.% and a sulphide phase - probably pyrrhotite (Fe,Ni)S about 25 wt.%.

  11. Plasma-Based Detector of Outer-Space Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Brinza, David E.; Henry, Michael D.; Clay, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    A report presents a concept for an instrument to be flown in outer space, where it would detect dust particles - especially those associated with comets. The instrument would include a flat plate that would intercept the dust particles. The anticipated spacecraft/dust-particle relative speeds are so high that the impingement of a dust particle on the plate would generate a plasma cloud. Simple electric dipole sensors located equidistantly along the circumference of the plate would detect the dust particle indirectly by detecting the plasma cloud. The location of the dust hit could be estimated from the timing of the detection pulses of the different dipoles. The mass and composition of the dust particle could be estimated from the shapes and durations of the pulses from the dipoles. In comparison with other instruments for detecting hypervelocity dust particles, the proposed instrument offers advantages of robustness, large collection area, and simplicity.

  12. Early Solar Nebula Grains - Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, J. P.

    This chapter examines the compositions, mineralogy, sources, and geochemical significance of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Despite their micrometer-scale dimensions and nanogram masses, it is now possible, primarily as a result of advances in small particle handling techniques and analytical instrumentation, to examine IDPs at close to atomic-scale resolution. The most widely used instruments for IDP studies are presently the analytical electron microscope, synchrotron facilities, and the ion microprobe. These laboratory analytical techniques are providing fundamental insights about IDP origins, mechanisms of formation, and grain processing phenomena that were important in the early solar system and presolar environments. At the same time, laboratory data from IDPs are being compared with astronomical data from dust in comets, circumstellar disks, and the interstellar medium. The direct comparison of grains in the laboratory with grains in astronomical environments is known as "astromineralogy."

  13. Origins and Dynamics of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2005-01-01

    This is a final report for research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration issued through the Office of Space Science Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, covering all relevant activities during its 3-year period of funding from 02/01/2002 through to 01/31/2005. The ongoing aim of the research supported through this grant, and now through a successor award, is to investigate the origin of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and their dynamical and collisional evolution, in order to: (1) understand the provenance of zodiacal cloud particles and their transport from their source regions to the inner solar system; (2) produce detailed models of the zodiacal cloud and its constituent components; (3) determine the origin of the dust particles accreted by the Earth; (4) ascertain the level of temporal variations in the dust environment of the inner solar system and the accretion rate of IDPs by the Earth, and evaluate potential effects on global climate; and to (5) exploit this research as a basis for interpreting the structure observed in exozodiacal clouds that may result from the collisional evolution of planetesimals and the presence of unseen planets.

  14. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in the Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. These particles exist in liquid, amorphous semi-solid, or solid (glassy) phase states depending on their composition and ambient conditions5. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi- solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Here we report field evidence for airborne solid organic particles generated by a “raindrop” mechanism7 pertinent to atmosphere – land surface interactions (Fig. 1). We find that after rain events at Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA, submicron solid particles, with a composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles in number. Subsequent experiments indicate that airborne soil organic particles are ejected from the surface of soils caused by intensive rains or irrigation. Our observations suggest that formation of these particles may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events such as agricultural systems and grasslands8. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of their physico-chemical properties suggests that airborne soil organic particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation and hence, are an important type of particles.

  15. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, I. D. R.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1987-08-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of current investigations on the mineralogy of chondritic micrometeorites obtained from the lower stratosphere using flat-plate collection surfaces attached to high-flying aircraft. A compilation of detailed mineralogical analyses for 30 documented chondritic interplanetary dust particles indicates a wide variety of minerals present in assemblages which, as yet, are poorly defined. Two possible assemblages are: (1) carbonaceous phases and layer silicates and (2) carbonaceous and chain silicates or nesosilicates. Particles with both types of silicate assemblages are also observed.

  16. Nearedge Absorption Spectroscopy of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, S.; Luening, K.; Pianetta, P.; Bradley, J.; Graham, G.; Westphal, A.; Snead, C.; Dominguez, G.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-25

    Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are derived from primitive Solar System bodies like asteroids and comets. Studies of IDPs provide a window onto the origins of the solar system and presolar interstellar environments. We are using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) techniques developed for the measurement of the cleanliness of silicon wafer surfaces to analyze these particles with high detection sensitivity. In addition to elemental analysis of the particles, we have collected X-ray Absorption Near-Edge spectra in a grazing incidence geometry at the Fe and Ni absorption edges for particles placed on a silicon wafer substrate. We find that the iron is dominated by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  17. A study of local electrostatic filtration and main pre-filtration on airborne and surface dust levels in air-conditioned office premises.

    PubMed

    Croxford, B; Tham, K W; Young, A; Oreszczyn, T; Wyon, D

    2000-09-01

    The impact of electrostatic precipitation as a useful form of particulate filtration in the breathing zone is investigated in an intervention study in an air-conditioned commercial office in central London. Surface dust deposition and airborne dust levels are measured in the open plan zones of two floors--a control floor and a floor where the intervention is effected. The intervention consists of a sequence of weekly scenarios where the main pre-filters of the air-handling unit are switched between new and old filters, and where the electrostatic filters, located as uniformly as practicable on the open plan areas, are switched on or off. This 2 x 2 set of interventions is repeated over 4 cycles. It was found that the breathing zone filtration (BZF) by electrostatic precipitators reduces airborne dust significantly and appears to be more efficient in reducing smaller sized particles. No significant effect of BZF filters in reducing surface dust deposition was detected.

  18. Temperature Measurement for Dust Particles in a GEC Reference Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-10-01

    The thermal motion of a dust particle levitated in a plasma chamber is similar to that described by Brownian motion in many ways. The primary differences between a dust particle in a plasma system and a free Brownian particle is that in addition to the random collisions between the dust particle and the neutral gas atoms, there are electric field fluctuations, dust charge fluctuations, and correlated motions from unwanted continuous signals originating within the plasma system itself. Correlated motion cannot be qualified as random motion, and therefore should not be included in a measurement of the dust temperature. In this presentation, we discuss how to separate random and coherent motion of a dust particle confined in a glass box within a GEC radio frequency reference cell. Dust particle fluctuation data are obtained experimentally and analyzed using the mean square displacement and other techniques, and temperatures obtained by various methods are compared. NSF / DOE funding is gratefully acknowledged - PHY1414523 & PHY1262031.

  19. Airborne desert dust and aeromicrobiology over the Turkish Mediterranean coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kubilay, Nilgün; Koçak, Mustafa; Gray, Mike A.; Borden, Timothy C.; Shinn, Eugene A.

    Between 18 March and 27 October 2002, 220 air samples were collected on 209 of 224 calendar days, on top of a coastal atmospheric research tower in Erdemli, Turkey. The volume of air filtered for each sample was 340 liters. Two hundred fifty-seven bacterial and 2598 fungal colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated from the samples using a low-nutrient agar. Ground-based dust measurements demonstrated that the region is routinely impacted by dust generated regionally and from North Africa and that the highest combined percent recovery of total CFU and African dust deposition occurred in the month of April (93.4% of CFU recovery and 91.1% of dust deposition occurred during African dust days versus no African dust present, for that month). A statistically significant correlation was observed (peak regional African dust months of March, April and May; rs=0.576, P=0.000) between an increase in the prevalence of microorganisms recovered from atmospheric samples on dust days (regional and African as determined by ground-based dust measurements), versus that observed on non-dust days. Given the prevalence of atmospherically suspended desert dust and microorganisms observed in this study, and that culture-based studies typically only recover a small fraction (<1.0%) of the actual microbial population in any given environment, dust-borne microorganisms and other associated constituents (organic detritus, toxins, etc.) may play a significant role in the regional human and ecosystem health.

  20. HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AIRBORNE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Part of the explanation for the persistent epidemiological findings of associations between mortality and morbidity with relatively modest ambient exposures to airborne particles may be that some people are much more susceptible to particle-induced responses than others. This stu...

  1. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  2. Carbon in Comet Halley dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomenkova, M. N.; Chang, S.

    Comets are small bodies of the solar system containing primarily a mixture of frozen gases and carbonaceous and mineral grains. They are likely to preserve volatile mineral from cold regions of the protosolar nebula and remnants of interstellar dust and gas. More than 2500 mass spectra of cometary grains with masses in the range 5 x 10 exp -17 to 5 x 10 exp -12 g were measured in situ by PUMA1 and PUMA2 mass spectrometers on board the VEGA spacecraft during flyby missions to Comet Halley. In this paper, we discuss different organic and inorganic C-containing components discovered so far in Comet Halley dust particles, the nature and abundance of which provide information about possible astrophysical sources of C and constrain models of interstellar grains.

  3. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    SciTech Connect

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M. )

    1989-03-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust. 27 refs.

  4. Precession of cylindrical dust particles in the plasma sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Banu, N.; Ticoş, C. M.

    2015-10-15

    The vertical precession of cylindrical dust particles levitated in the sheath of an rf plasma is experimentally investigated. Typically, the dust particles have two equilibrium positions depending on the orientation of their longitudinal axis: horizontal and vertical. A transition between these two states is induced by rapidly increasing the neutral gas pressure in the plasma chamber. During this transition, the cylindrical dust particles make an angle with the horizontal and rotate about their center of mass. The rotation speed increases as the dust rods aligned with the vertical axis. All dust particles will eventually end up in the vertical state while spinning fast about their longitudinal axis. Dust-dust interaction and the attracting ion wakes are possible mechanisms for inducing the observed dust precession.

  5. Heterogeneous ice nucleation on dust particles sourced from nine deserts worldwide - Part 1: Immersion freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boose, Yvonne; Welti, André; Atkinson, James; Ramelli, Fabiola; Danielczok, Anja; Bingemer, Heinz G.; Plötze, Michael; Sierau, Berko; Kanji, Zamin A.; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-12-01

    Desert dust is one of the most abundant ice nucleating particle types in the atmosphere. Traditionally, clay minerals were assumed to determine the ice nucleation ability of desert dust and constituted the focus of ice nucleation studies over several decades. Recently some feldspar species were identified to be ice active at much higher temperatures than clay minerals, redirecting studies to investigate the contribution of feldspar to ice nucleation on desert dust. However, so far no study has shown the atmospheric relevance of this mineral phase.For this study four dust samples were collected after airborne transport in the troposphere from the Sahara to different locations (Crete, the Peloponnese, Canary Islands, and the Sinai Peninsula). Additionally, 11 dust samples were collected from the surface from nine of the biggest deserts worldwide. The samples were used to study the ice nucleation behavior specific to different desert dusts. Furthermore, we investigated how representative surface-collected dust is for the atmosphere by comparing to the ice nucleation activity of the airborne samples. We used the IMCA-ZINC setup to form droplets on single aerosol particles which were subsequently exposed to temperatures between 233 and 250 K. Dust particles were collected in parallel on filters for offline cold-stage ice nucleation experiments at 253-263 K. To help the interpretation of the ice nucleation experiments the mineralogical composition of the dusts was investigated. We find that a higher ice nucleation activity in a given sample at 253 K can be attributed to the K-feldspar content present in this sample, whereas at temperatures between 238 and 245 K it is attributed to the sum of feldspar and quartz content present. A high clay content, in contrast, is associated with lower ice nucleation activity. This confirms the importance of feldspar above 250 K and the role of quartz and feldspars determining the ice nucleation activities at lower temperatures as found

  6. Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

  7. Airborne desert dust and aeromicrobiology over the Turkish Mediterranean coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kubilay, Nilgün; Kocak, Mustafa; Gray, Mike A.; Borden, Timothy C.; Shinn, Eugene A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 18 March and 27 October 2002, 220 air samples were collected on 209 of 224 calendar days, on top of a coastal atmospheric research tower in Erdemli, Turkey. The volume of air filtered for each sample was 340 liters. Two hundred fifty-seven bacterial and 2598 fungal colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated from the samples using a low-nutrient agar. Ground-based dust measurements demonstrated that the region is routinely impacted by dust generated regionally and from North Africa and that the highest combined percent recovery of total CFU and African dust deposition occurred in the month of April (93.4% of CFU recovery and 91.1% of dust deposition occurred during African dust days versus no African dust present, for that month). A statistically significant correlation was observed (peak regional African dust months of March, April and May; rs=0.576, P=0.000) between an increase in the prevalence of microorganisms recovered from atmospheric samples on dust days (regional and African as determined by ground-based dust measurements), versus that observed on non-dust days. Given the prevalence of atmospherically suspended desert dust and microorganisms observed in this study, and that culture-based studies typically only recover a small fraction (

  8. Airborne Astronomy Symposium on the Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust, volume 73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R. (Editor); Davidson, Jacqueline A. (Editor); Erickson, Edwin F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This symposium was organized to review the science related to NASA's Airborne Astronomy Program on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The theme selected, 'The Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust,' was considered to capture the underlying commonality of much of the research discussed. The 8 sessions were as follows: The Interstellar Medium; The Life Cycle of the ISM in Other Galaxies; Star and Planetary System Formation; Our Planetary System: The Solar System; The Enrichment of the Interstellar Medium; The Galactic Center: A Unique Region of the Galactic Ecosystem; Instrumentation for Airborne Astronomy; KAO History and Education; and Missions and the Future of Infrared Astronomy.

  9. Assessment of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of airborne dust in the Sistan region, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rashki, A; Eriksson, P G; Rautenbach, C J de W; Kaskaoutis, D G; Grote, W; Dykstra, J

    2013-01-01

    Windblown transport and deposition of dust is widely recognized as an important physical and chemical concern to climate, human health and ecosystems. Sistan is a region located in southeast Iran with extensive wind erosion, severe desertification and intense dust storms, which cause adverse effects in regional air quality and human health. To mitigate the impact of these phenomena, it is vital to ascertain the physical and chemical characteristics of airborne and soil dust. This paper examines for the first time, the mineralogical and chemical properties of dust over Sistan by collecting aerosol samples at two stations established close to a dry-bed lake dust source region, from August 2009 to August 2010. Furthermore, soil samples were collected from topsoil (0-5 cm depth) at several locations in the dry-bed Hamoun lakes and downwind areas. These data were analyzed to investigate the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of dust, relevance of inferred sources and contributions to air pollution. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of airborne and soil dust samples shows that the dust mineralogy is dominated mainly by quartz (30-40%), calcite (18-23%), muscovite (10-17%), plagioclase (9-12%), chlorite (~6%) and enstatite (~3%), with minor components of dolomite, microcline, halite and gypsum. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses of all the samples indicate that the most important oxide compositions of the airborne and soil dust are SiO(2), CaO, Al(2)O(3), Na(2)O, MgO and Fe(2)O(3), exhibiting similar percentages for both stations and soil samples. Estimates of Enrichment Factors (EFs) for all studied elements show that all of them have very low EF values, suggesting natural origin from local materials. The results suggest that a common dust source region can be inferred, which is the eroded sedimentary environment in the extensive Hamoun dry lakes lying to the north of Sistan.

  10. Vanadium concentrations in settled outdoor dust particles.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Mustafa S

    2006-12-01

    Atmospheric dustfall is an important aspect of urban dust studies. Vanadium is considered as the marker element of air pollution emitted from residual oil and coal combustion. In this study, vanadium levels of outdoor dust particles are determined. The studied area covers the six sites located in Adapazarí (Turkey), which represents an earthquake-hit environment. The mass deposition rate was calculated for each sampling plate over the 30-days collection periods. The deposition rates for the six places in Adapazarí ranged from 20.5 to 84.9 microg/cm2/day. The arithmetic mean deposition rate for all places was 45.3 microg/cm2/day. Total dust deposition and vanadium loadings typically increased in magnitude according to the area order: Kampus > Serdivan > Cark C. > Ozanlar > Erenler > Yeşiltepe and Kampus > Serdivan > Cark C. > Ozanlar > Erenler > Yeşiltepe, respectively. The results suggested that vanadium may be useful for assessing the level of environmental pollution.

  11. Particle Distribution Of A Moon-Fed Dust Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamrath, E.; Makuch, M.; Spahn, F.

    2008-09-01

    Enceladus' south-polar gey- sers support a huge gas-dust plume towering the south pole of the moon. It is considered to be the main source Saturns E-ring, the largest dust complex of the solar system. Contrary to the spherically sym- metric impactor ejecta dust cre- ation, the dust plume provides a directed particle outflow from the moon. Using a simple probabilistic model, we study the effects of this asymmetric dust ejection on Enceladus' dust torus. Dust con- figurations are described by par- ticle distribution functions and the dynamical properties of the system are adressed through a set of transformations. The re- sulting distribution function of orbital elements describes the unperturbed dust torus. We showcase the differences in the resulting particle distributions between impactor ejecta pro- cesses and dust production by Enceladus plume, modeled by a directed point-sized source. The obtained orbital element distri- bution is compared to the results of numerical simulations of the problem.

  12. Formation of Jet Propulsion Near Dust Particle in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyak, L. M.; Vysykailo, F. I.; Fortov, V. E.; Molotkov, V. I.; Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.

    2011-11-29

    Processes of asymmetric ionization and cumulation of electric field and electron and ion flows can develop near the surface of charged dust particles in plasma. In the region of cumulation asymmetry on heating, the particle surface and ion momentum transfer arises; as a result, the dust particle moves in the plasma with high velocity.

  13. Receptor modeling of globally circulating airborne particles collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Weekly airborne particle samples were collected at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), Hawaii from February 1979 through May 1985. Receptor models were used to identify sources of airborne particles at MLO, determine compositions of particles from these sources, and assess the relative impacts of them. Major sources of ambient particles at MLO include Asian continental material, oceanic biological production of Se and SO{sub 4} species, marine particles, Asian anthropogenic material, local volcanic emissions, and basalt. Source composition profiles were developed for each component. The Asian continental component represents particles transported from Eastern Asia to the North Pacific, and the component consists of crustal material contaminated by anthropogenic emissions. To account for variations in the relative strengths of anthropogenic and crustal sources, a separate Asian anthropogenic component was also developed. During the dust season, Asian continental material accounts for 80% of total suspended particulate material (TSP) at MLO, oceanic productions of Se and SO{sub 4} 11%, marine particles 2.8%, basalt 1.9%, volcanic emissions 1.7%, and Asian anthropogenic material in excess of Asian continental material 3.2%. During the clean season, the oceanic biological production of Se and SO{sub 4} contributes 62% of TSP at MLO. Continental material contributes 22%, marine particles 6.4%, basalt 2.7%, volcanic emissions 2.4%, and anthropogenic materials in excess of continental material 4.3%.

  14. Aggregate dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mark S.; Schmied, Roland; Mannel, Thurid; Torkar, Klaus; Jeszenszky, Harald; Romstedt, Jens; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Weber, Iris; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Koeberl, Christian; Havnes, Ove

    2016-09-01

    Comets are thought to preserve almost pristine dust particles, thus providing a unique sample of the properties of the early solar nebula. The microscopic properties of this dust played a key part in particle aggregation during the formation of the Solar System. Cometary dust was previously considered to comprise irregular, fluffy agglomerates on the basis of interpretations of remote observations in the visible and infrared and the study of chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles that were thought, but not proved, to originate in comets. Although the dust returned by an earlier mission has provided detailed mineralogy of particles from comet 81P/Wild, the fine-grained aggregate component was strongly modified during collection. Here we report in situ measurements of dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The particles are aggregates of smaller, elongated grains, with structures at distinct sizes indicating hierarchical aggregation. Topographic images of selected dust particles with sizes of one micrometre to a few tens of micrometres show a variety of morphologies, including compact single grains and large porous aggregate particles, similar to chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles. The measured grain elongations are similar to the value inferred for interstellar dust and support the idea that such grains could represent a fraction of the building blocks of comets. In the subsequent growth phase, hierarchical agglomeration could be a dominant process and would produce aggregates that stick more easily at higher masses and velocities than homogeneous dust particles. The presence of hierarchical dust aggregates in the near-surface of the nucleus of comet 67P also provides a mechanism for lowering the tensile strength of the dust layer and aiding dust release.

  15. Aggregate dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Mark S; Schmied, Roland; Mannel, Thurid; Torkar, Klaus; Jeszenszky, Harald; Romstedt, Jens; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Weber, Iris; Jessberger, Elmar K; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Koeberl, Christian; Havnes, Ove

    2016-09-01

    Comets are thought to preserve almost pristine dust particles, thus providing a unique sample of the properties of the early solar nebula. The microscopic properties of this dust played a key part in particle aggregation during the formation of the Solar System. Cometary dust was previously considered to comprise irregular, fluffy agglomerates on the basis of interpretations of remote observations in the visible and infrared and the study of chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles that were thought, but not proved, to originate in comets. Although the dust returned by an earlier mission has provided detailed mineralogy of particles from comet 81P/Wild, the fine-grained aggregate component was strongly modified during collection. Here we report in situ measurements of dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The particles are aggregates of smaller, elongated grains, with structures at distinct sizes indicating hierarchical aggregation. Topographic images of selected dust particles with sizes of one micrometre to a few tens of micrometres show a variety of morphologies, including compact single grains and large porous aggregate particles, similar to chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles. The measured grain elongations are similar to the value inferred for interstellar dust and support the idea that such grains could represent a fraction of the building blocks of comets. In the subsequent growth phase, hierarchical agglomeration could be a dominant process and would produce aggregates that stick more easily at higher masses and velocities than homogeneous dust particles. The presence of hierarchical dust aggregates in the near-surface of the nucleus of comet 67P also provides a mechanism for lowering the tensile strength of the dust layer and aiding dust release.

  16. Amino Acid Formation on Interstellar Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Munoz Caro, G. M.; Barbier, B.; Brack, A.; Thiemann, W.; Goesmann, F.; Rosenbauer, H.

    2003-04-01

    In the dense interstellar medium dust particles accrete ice layers of known molecular composition. In the diffuse interstellar medium these ice layers are subjected to energetic UV-irradiation. Here, photoreactions form complex organic molecules. The interstellar processes were recently successfully simulated in two laboratories. At NASA Ames Research Center three amino acids were detected in interstellar ice analogues [1], contemporaneously, our European team reported on the identification of 16 amino acids therein [2]. Amino acids are the molecular building blocks of proteins in living organisms. The identification of amino acids on the simulated icy surface of interstellar dust particles strongly supports the assumption that the precursor molecules of life were delivered from interstellar and interplanetary space via (micro-) meteorites and/or comets to the earyl Earth. The results shall be verified by the COSAC experiment onboard the ESA cometary mission Rosetta [3]. [1] M.P. Bernstein, J.P. Dworkin, S.A. Sandford, G.W. Cooper, L.J. Allamandola: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 401-403. [2] G.M. Muñoz Caro, U.J. Meierhenrich, W.A. Schutte, B. Barbier, A. Arcones Sergovia, H. Rosenbauer, W.H.-P. Thiemann, A. Brack, J.M. Greenberg: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 403-406. [3] U. Meierhenrich, W.H.-P. Thiemann, H. Rosenbauer: itshape Chirality \\upshape 11 (1999), 575-582.

  17. Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chu, D. A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Schuster, G. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Omar, A. H.; Slusher, D. L.; Kleb, M. M.; Reid, J. S.; Twohy, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Anderson, B. E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the international project entitled "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA)", NAMMA (NASA AMMA) aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the African Easterly Waves (AEWs), the Sahara Air Layer (SAL), and tropical cyclogenesis. The NAMMA airborne field campaign was based out of the Cape Verde Islands during the peak of the hurricane season, i.e., August and September 2006. Multiple Sahara dust layers were sampled during 62 encounters in the eastern portion of the hurricane main development region, covering both the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the western Saharan desert (i.e., 5-22° N and 10-35° W). The centers of these layers were located at altitudes between 1.5 and 3.3 km and the layer thickness ranged from 0.5 to 3 km. Detailed dust microphysical and optical properties were characterized using a suite of in-situ instruments aboard the NASA DC-8 that included a particle counter, an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, a nephelometer, and a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer. The NAAMA sampling inlet has a size cut (i.e., 50% transmission efficiency size) of approximately 4 μm in diameter for dust particles, which limits the representativeness of the NAMMA observational findings. The NAMMA dust observations showed relatively low particle number densities, ranging from 268 to 461 cm-3, but highly elevated volume density with an average at 45 μm3 cm-3. NAMMA dust particle size distributions can be well represented by tri-modal lognormal regressions. The estimated volume median diameter (VMD) is averaged at 2.1 μm with a small range of variation regardless of the vertical and geographical sampling locations. The Ångström Exponent assessments exhibited strong wavelength dependence for absorption but a weak one for scattering. The single scattering albedo was estimated at 0.97 ± 0.02. The imaginary part of the refractive index for Sahara dust was estimated at 0.0022, with a

  18. Small-size dust particles near Halley's Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdeev, R. Z.; Evlanov, E. N.; Fomenkova, M. N.; Prilutskii, O. F.; Zubkov, B. V.

    Dust-impact PUMA mass-analyzers aboard the spacecrafts VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 allow to conduct the first direct measurements of mass-spectra of comet Halley's dust envelope particles with masses higher than 10 to the -17th g. The analysis of spectra measured by the PUMA instruments showed that unindentified peaks in this spectra could be associated with very small particles. Detection of small-size particles in the dust envelope of comet Halley agrees with the idea that the comet's nucleus is an interstellar dust aggregate which contains very small particles.

  19. Pyrogenic effect of respirable road dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, Umesh; Tollemark, Linda; Tagesson, Christer; Leanderson, Per

    2009-02-01

    Because pyrogenic (fever-inducing) compounds on ambient particles may play an important role for particle toxicity, simple methods to measure pyrogens on particles are needed. Here we have used a modified in vitro pyrogen test (IPT) to study the release of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in whole human blood exposed to respirable road-dust particles (RRDP). Road dusts were collected from the roadside at six different streets in three Swedish cities and particles with a diameter less than 10 μm (RRDP) were prepared by a water sedimentation procedure followed by lyophilisation. RRDP (200 μl of 1 - 106 ng/ml) were mixed with 50 μl whole blood and incubated at 37 °C overnight before IL-1β was analysed with chemiluminescence ELISA in 384-well plates. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella minnesota), zymosan B and Curdlan (P-1,3-glucan) were used as positive controls. All RRDP samples had a pyrogenic effect and the most active sample produced 1.6 times more IL-1β than the least active. This formation was of the same magnitude as in samples with 10 ng LPS/ml and was larger than that evoked by zymosan B and Curdlan (by mass basis). The method was sensitive enough to determine formation of IL-1β in mixtures with 10 ng RRDP/ml or 0.01 ng LPS/ml. The endotoxin inhibitor, polymyxin B (10 μg/ml), strongly reduced the RRDP-induced formation of IL-1β at 1μg RRDP/ml (around 80 % inhibition), but had only marginal or no effects at higher RRDP-concentrations (10 and 100 μg /ml). In summary, all RRDP tested had a clear pyrogen effect in this in vitro model. Endotoxin on the particles but also other factors contributed to the pyrogenic effect. As opposed to the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay (which measures endotoxin alone), IPT measures a broad range of pyrogens that may be present on particulate matter. The IPT method thus affords a simple, sensitive and quantitative determination of the total pyrogenic potential of ambient particles.

  20. Digital Holographic Interferometry for Airborne Particle Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-19

    hologram and its extinction cross section, and a computational demonstration that holographic interferometry can resolve aerosol particle size ...holographic interferometry can resolve aerosol particle size evolution. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of...Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols workshop, Smolenice, Slovak Republic (2013). 7. Poster : Digital Holographic Imaging of Aerosol Particles In-Flight

  1. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition and trace element characteristics of coarse airborne particles collected with passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoàng-Hòa, Thi Bich; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volker; Guéguen, Florence; Perrone, Thierry; Gieré, Reto

    2015-09-01

    Passive samplers for collection of coarse airborne particulate matter have been installed in and around the coal-mining town of Cam Pha, Quang Ninh Province (Vietnam). Analysis of Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios and of major and trace element distribution patterns in atmospheric particulates collected at three stations allowed for the identification of four important dust components: (1) coal dust from an open-pit mine and fly ash particles from a coal-fired power station, (2) diesel soot, (3) traffic dust from metal, tire and pavement abrasion, and (4) limestone-derived dust. Outside of the coal-mining area, traffic-derived dust defines the atmospheric baseline composition of the studied environment.

  2. Effect of dust particle polarization on scattering processes in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kodanova, S. K.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Bastykova, N. Kh.; Moldabekov, Zh. A.

    2015-06-15

    Screened interaction potentials in dusty plasmas taking into account the polarization of dust particles have been obtained. On the basis of screened potentials scattering processes for ion-dust particle and dust particle-dust particle pairs have been studied. In particular, the scattering cross section is considered. The scattering processes for which the dust grain polarization is unimportant have been found. The effect of zero angle dust particle-dust particle scattering is predicted.

  3. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles5 are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets7. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. Lastly, we suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events8.

  4. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; ...

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles5 are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets7. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemicalmore » composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. Lastly, we suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events8.« less

  5. The Astromineralogy of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, J.

    Some chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are from comets. Because comets accreted at heliocentric distances beyond the giant planets, presolar grains or "astrominerals" both with solar and non-solar isotopic compositions are expected to be even more abundant in cometary IDPs than in primitive meteorites. Non-solar D/H and 15N/14N isotopic enrichments in chondritic IDPs are associated with a carbonaceous carrier. These H and N enrichments are attributed to extreme mass fractionation during chemical reactions in cold (10-100 K), dense interstellar molecular clouds. Nano-diamonds appear to be systematically depleted or even absent in some IDPs suggesting that some meteoritic nano-diamonds may not be (presolar) astrominerals. Enstatite (MgSiO3) and forsterite (Mg2SiO4) crystals in IDPs are physically and compositionally similar to enstatite and forsterite grains detected around young and old stars by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), and large non-solar oxygen isotopic compositions recently measured in an IDP forsterite establish that they are presolar circumstellar silicates. The compositions, mineralogy, and optical properties of GEMS are consistent with those of interstellar amorphous silicates. Submicrometer FeNi sulfide astrominerals like those found in IDPs may be responsible for a broad char 126 23.5 mum feature observed around protostars and protoplanetary discs by ISO. The first returned samples of contemporary interstellar dust as well as dust from comet Wild-2 will be returned to Earth in 2006 by the STARDUST mission, providing a mother lode of astrominerals for future laboratory investigations.

  6. Soluble ferrous iron (Fe (II)) enrichment in airborne dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, Abinash; Reche, Isabel; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The input of soluble iron in dust delivered to the ocean and lakes is critical to their biogeochemistry and phytoplankton productivity. Most iron in soils and sediment deposits is insoluble, while only a tiny fraction is soluble and therefore suitable to meet the phytoplankton's requirements for photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation. Aerosol deposition constitutes a major source of soluble iron to oceans and lakes, and in some regions the low phytoplankton productivity has been related to limitations in the supply of soluble iron from terrestrial sources. It is suggested that during atmospheric transport part of the insoluble iron is converted into soluble form. While the understanding of increased bioavailability of iron during atmospheric transport is improving, there are only a limited number of studies that actually quantify the increase in iron bioavailability in dust. In this study we compare the soluble ferrous iron, Fe (II) content in dust collected at deposition sites in the high-altitude mountains of the Sierra Nevada, Spain, to the source of dust in North Africa. We found that the dust is greatly enriched (on average 15 times) in Fe (II) relative to the fine fraction (<45 µm) of the parent soil collected from North African dust sources.

  7. Volatiles in interplanetary dust particles and aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Harmetz, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    Volatiles measured in 25 interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are a mixture of both indigenous materials and contaminants associated with the collection and processing of the ODPs prior to analysis. Most IDPs have been collected in the stratosphere using a silicone oil/freon mixture (20:1 ratio) coated on collector plates. Studies have shown that silicone oil, freon and hexane residues remain with the ODPs, despite attempts to clean the IDPs. Analysis of the IDPs with the LMMS-technique produces spectra with a mixture of indigeneous and contaminants components. The contamination signal can be identified and removed; however, the contamination signal may obscure some of the indigeneous component's signal. Employing spectra stripping techniques, the indigenous volatile constituents associated with the IDPs can be identified. Volatiles are similar to those measured in CI or CM carbonaceous chondrites. Collection of IDPs in low-Earth orbit utilizing a Cosmic Dust Collection Facility attached to Space Station Freedom has been proposed. The low-density material aerogel has been proposed as a collection substrate for IDPs. Our studies have concentrated on identifying volatile contaminants that are associated with aerogel. We have found that solvents used for the preparation of aerogel remain in aerogel and methods must be developed for removing the entrapped solvents before aerogels can be used for an IDP collection substrate.

  8. Geochemical and microbiological fingerprinting of airborne dust that fell in Canberra, Australia, in October 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Deckker, Patrick; Abed, Raeid M. M.; de Beer, Dirk; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Schefuß, Enno; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Tapper, Nigel J.; van der Kaars, Sander

    2008-12-01

    During the night of 22-23 October 2002, a large amount of airborne dust fell with rain over Canberra, located some 200 km from Australia's east coast, and at an average altitude of 650 m. It is estimated that during that night about 6 g m-2 of aeolian dust fell. We have conducted a vast number of analyses to "fingerprint" some of the dust and used the following techniques: grain size analysis; scanning electron microscope imagery; major, trace, and rare earth elemental, plus Sr and Nd isotopic analyses; organic compound analyses with respective compound-specific isotope analyses; pollen extraction to identify the vegetation sources; and molecular cloning of 16S rRNA genes in order to identify dust bacterial composition. DNA analyses show that most obtained 16S rRNA sequences belong mainly to three groups: Proteobacteria (25%), Bacteriodetes (23%), and gram-positive bacteria (23%). In addition, we investigated the meteorological conditions that led to the dust mobilization and transport using model and satellite data. Grain sizes of the mineral dust show a bimodal distribution typical of proximal dust, rather than what is found over oceans, and the bimodal aspect of size distribution confirms wet deposition by rain droplets. The inorganic geochemistry points to a source along/near the Darling River in NW New South Wales, a region that is characteristically semiarid, and both the organic chemistry and palynoflora of the dust confirm the location of this source area. Meteorological reconstructions of the event again clearly identify the area near Bourke-Cobar as being the source of the dust. This study paves the way for determining the export of Australian airborne dust both in the oceans and other continents.

  9. Dust particle radial confinement in a dc glow discharge.

    PubMed

    Sukhinin, G I; Fedoseev, A V; Antipov, S N; Petrov, O F; Fortov, V E

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent nonlocal model of the positive column of a dc glow discharge with dust particles is presented. Radial distributions of plasma parameters and the dust component in an axially homogeneous glow discharge are considered. The model is based on the solution of a nonlocal Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function, drift-diffusion equations for ions, and the Poisson equation for a self-consistent electric field. The radial distribution of dust particle density in a dust cloud was fixed as a given steplike function or was chosen according to an equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. The balance of electron and ion production in argon ionization by an electron impact and their losses on the dust particle surface and on the discharge tube walls is taken into account. The interrelation of discharge plasma and the dust cloud is studied in a self-consistent way, and the radial distributions of the discharge plasma and dust particle parameters are obtained. It is shown that the influence of the dust cloud on the discharge plasma has a nonlocal behavior, e.g., density and charge distributions in the dust cloud substantially depend on the plasma parameters outside the dust cloud. As a result of a self-consistent evolution of plasma parameters to equilibrium steady-state conditions, ionization and recombination rates become equal to each other, electron and ion radial fluxes become equal to zero, and the radial component of electric field is expelled from the dust cloud.

  10. Characterisation of airborne particles collected within and proximal to an opencast coalmine: South Wales, U.K.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tim; Blackmore, Pete; Leach, Matt; Bérubé, Kelly; Sexton, Keith; Richards, Roy

    2002-05-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected from within, and proximal to, an opencast coal mine in south Wales. This work forms the first part of a three year project to collect and characterise, then determine the possible toxicology of airborne particles in the south Wales region. High-resolution Field Emission SEM has shown that the coal mine dusts consist largely of an assemblage of mineral grains and vehicle exhaust particles. SEM-EDX has shown that the mineralogical make-up of the PM10 is complex, heterogeneous, and constantly changing. These findings are supported by analytical TEM-EPXMA. However, patterns can be determined relating the mineralogical composition of the airborne particles to collection locations and mining activities within the opencast. At our study opencast, Park Slip West, quartz, which has known health effects, never exceeded 30% of the total collection mass, and average levels were much less. Vehicle exhaust emissions was the largest source in terms of particle numbers. The mass of airborne particulate matter within the pit averaged approximately twice that of outside the pit: importantly however, this higher mass was due to relatively large, and non-respirable, mineral grains. This study demonstrates that the physicochemical and mineralogical characterisation of airborne particles from mining and quarrying is essential to quantify the respirable fraction, and to identify potentially hazardous components within the PM10.

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of Anhydrous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Flynn, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is the primary means of mineralogical analysis of materials outside our solar system. The identity and properties of circumstellar grains are inferred from spectral comparisons between astronomical observations and laboratory data from natural and synthetic materials. These comparisons have been facilitated by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), which obtained IR spectra from numerous astrophysical objects over a wide spectral range (out to 50/cm) where crystalline silicates and other phases have distinct features. The anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are particularly important comparison materials because some IDPs contain carbonaceous material with non-solar D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios and amorphous and crystalline silicates with non-solar 0- isotopic ratios, demonstrating that these IDPs contain preserved interstellar material. Here, we report on micro- Fourier transform (FT) IR spectrometry of IDPs, focusing on the inorganic components of primitive IDPs (FTIR spectra from the organic/carbonacecous materials in IDPs are described elsewhere).

  12. Dust Particle Growth in a Sputtering Discharge with Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Tawidian, H.; Mikikian, M.; Lecas, T.; Boufendi, L.

    2011-11-29

    Dust particles are grown in the PKE chamber by sputtering materials. The sputtering efficiency and the gas phase reactions can be affected by the gas type and particularly by the ion mass. Due to the presence of growing dust particles, the huge loss of electrons can trigger many instabilities in the plasma. These instabilities, the growth kinetics and the structure of the dust cloud, are compared by using two different gases: argon and krypton.

  13. Acoustic Resonator Optimisation for Airborne Particle Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devendran, Citsabehsan; Billson, Duncan R.; Hutchins, David A.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    Advances in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and biomedical research necessitate micro-machined manipulators to capture, handle and position delicate micron-sized particles. To this end, a parallel plate acoustic resonator system has been investigated for the purposes of manipulation and entrapment of micron sized particles in air. Numerical and finite element modelling was performed to optimise the design of the layered acoustic resonator. To obtain an optimised resonator design, careful considerations of the effect of thickness and material properties are required. Furthermore, the effect of acoustic attenuation which is dependent on frequency is also considered within this study, leading to an optimum operational frequency range. Finally, experimental results demonstrated good particle levitation and capture of various particle properties and sizes ranging to as small as 14.8 μm.

  14. Experimental Determination of Infrared Extinction Coefficients of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This technique is based on irradiating a single isolated charged dust particle suspended in balance by an electric field, and measuring the scattered radiation as a function of angle. The observed scattered intensity profile at a specific wavelength obtained for a dust particle of known composition is compared with Mie theory calculations, and the variable parameters relating to the particle size and complex refractive index are adjusted for a best fit between the two profiles. This leads to a simultaneous determination of the particle radius, the complex refractive index, and the scattering and extinction coefficients. The results of these experiments can be utilized to examine the IRAS and DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) infrared data sets in order to determine the dust particle physical characteristics and distributions by using infrared models and inversion techniques. This technique may also be employed for investigation of the rotational bursting phenomena whereby large size cosmic and interplanetary particles are believed to fragment into smaller dust particles.

  15. Dust-Particle Transport in Tokamak Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pigarov, A Y; Krasheninnikov, S I; Soboleva, T K; Rognlien, T D

    2005-09-12

    Dust particulates in the size range of 10nm-100{micro}m are found in all fusion devices. Such dust can be generated during tokamak operation due to strong plasma/material-surface interactions. Some recent experiments and theoretical estimates indicate that dust particles can provide an important source of impurities in the tokamak plasma. Moreover, dust can be a serious threat to the safety of next-step fusion devices. In this paper, recent experimental observations on dust in fusion devices are reviewed. A physical model for dust transport simulation, and a newly developed code DUSTT, are discussed. The DUSTT code incorporates both dust dynamics due to comprehensive dust-plasma interactions as well as the effects of dust heating, charging, and evaporation. The code tracks test dust particles in realistic plasma backgrounds as provided by edge-plasma transport codes. Results are presented for dust transport in current and next-step tokamaks. The effect of dust on divertor plasma profiles and core plasma contamination is examined.

  16. Bioprocess of Kosa bioaerosols: effect of ultraviolet radiation on airborne bacteria within Kosa (Asian dust).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Yamada, Maromu; Puspitasari, Findya; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2015-05-01

    Kosa (Asian dust) is a well-known weather phenomenon in which aerosols are carried by the westerly winds from inland China to East Asia. Recently, the frequency of this phenomenon and the extent of damage caused have been increasing. The airborne bacteria within Kosa are called Kosa bioaerosols. Kosa bioaerosols have affected ecosystems, human health and agricultural productivity in downwind areas. In order to develop a new and useful bacterial source and to identify the source region of Kosa bioaerosols, sampling, isolation, identification, measurement of ultraviolet (UV) radiation tolerance and experimental simulation of UV radiation conditions were performed during Kosa bioaerosol transportation. We sampled these bioaerosols using a Cessna 404 airplane and a bioaerosol sampler at an altitude of approximately 2900 m over the Noto Peninsula on March 27, 2010. The bioaerosol particles were isolated and identified as Bacillus sp. BASZHR 1001. The results of the UV irradiation experiment showed that the UV radiation tolerance of Kosa bioaerosol bacteria was very high compared with that of a soil bacterium. Moreover, the UV radiation tolerance of Kosa bioaerosol spores was higher than that of soil bacterial spores. This suggested that Kosa bioaerosols are transported across the atmosphere as living spores. Similarly, by the experimental simulation of UV radiation conditions, the limited source region of this Kosa bioaerosol was found to be southern Russia and there was a possibility of transport from the Kosa source area.

  17. Variations in the structure of airborne bacterial communities in a downwind area during an Asian dust (Kosa) event.

    PubMed

    Maki, Teruya; Puspitasari, Findya; Hara, Kazutaka; Yamada, Maromu; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2014-08-01

    Asian dust (Kosa) events transport airborne microorganisms that significantly impact biological ecosystems, human health, and ice-cloud formation in downwind areas. However, the composition and population dynamics of airborne bacteria have rarely been investigated in downwind areas during Kosa events. In this study, air samplings were sequentially performed at the top of a 10-m high building within the Kosa event arrival area (Kanazawa City, Japan) from May 1 to May 7, 2011, during a Kosa event. The particle concentrations of bacterial cells and mineral particles were ten-fold higher during the Kosa event than on non-Kosa event days. A 16S ribosomal DNA clone library prepared from the air samples primarily contained sequences from three phyla: Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Alphaproteobacteria. The clones from Cyanobacteria were mainly from a marine type of Synechococcus species that was dominant during the first phase of the Kosa event and was continuously detected throughout the Kosa event. The clones from Alphaproteobacteria were mainly detected at the initial and final periods of the Kosa event, and phylogenetic analysis showed that their sequences clustered with those from a marine bacterial clade (the SAR clade) and Sphingomonas spp. During the middle of the Kosa event, the Firmicutes species Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus were predominant; these species are known to be predominant in the atmosphere above the Chinese desert, which is the source of the dust during Kosa events. The clones obtained after the Kosa event had finished were mainly from Bacillus megaterium, which is thought to originate from local terrestrial areas. Our results suggest that airborne bacterial communities at the ground level in areas affected by Kosa events change their species compositions during a Kosa event toward those containing terrestrial and pelagic bacteria transported from the Sea of Japan and the continental area of China by the Kosa event.

  18. Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chu, D. A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Schuster, G. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Omar, A. H.; Slusher, D. L.; Kleb, M. M.; Reid, J. S.; Twohy, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Anderson, B. E.

    2010-05-01

    As part of the international project entitled "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA)", NAMMA (NASA AMMA) aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the African Easterly Waves (AEWs), the Sahara Air Layer (SAL), and tropical cyclogenesis. The NAMMA airborne field campaign was based out of the Cape Verde Islands during the peak of the hurricane season, i.e., August and September 2006. Multiple Sahara dust layers were sampled during 62 encounters in the eastern portion of the hurricane main development region, covering both the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the western Saharan desert (i.e., 5-22° N and 10-35° W). The centers of these layers were located at altitudes between 1.5 and 3.3 km and the layer thickness ranged from 0.5 to 3 km. Detailed dust microphysical and optical properties were characterized using a suite of in situ instruments aboard the NASA DC-8 that included a particle counter, an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, nephelometer, and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer. The NAMMA dust observations showed relatively low particle number densities, ranging from 268 to 461 cm-3, but highly elevated volume density with an average at 45 μm3 cm-3. NAMMA dust particle size distributions were well represented by tri-modal lognormal regressions. The estimated volume median diameter (VMD) is averaged at 2.1 μm with a small range of variation regardless of the vertical and geographical sampling locations. The absorption coefficient measurements exhibited a strong wavelength dependence for absorption but a weak one for scattering. The single scattering albedo was estimated at 0.97±0.02. Closure analyses showed that observed scattering and absorption coefficients are highly correlated with those calculated from spherical Mie-Theory and observed dust particle size distributions. The imaginary part of the refractive index for Sahara dust was estimated at 0.0022, with a range from 0

  19. Transport and Removal experiment of Dust (TReD) for the Dust Particle Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Cho, Soon-Gook; Chung, Kyu-Sun; Park, Eun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Joon; Hong, Suk-Ho

    2011-10-01

    The tokamak dust might be hazardous based on the radioactive from tritium or activated metals (e.g. tritium retention), toxic and/or explosive (or chemically reactive) in steam and air conditions. Therefore, controls of dust particle inventory can be treated a critical issue for safe operation of ITER and next step fusion devices. Although the dust removal experiments for fusion reactor had been tried in 1990s, it cannot directly applied to ITER and next step fusion reactors since scale issues does not solved. In this work, one developed the dedicated plasma device for the dust particle transport and removal tests to the level required in ITER or next step fusion reactors (~1 m dust particle transportation), which is called TReD (Transport and Removal experiments of Dust). The TReD also plan to test the dust particle detectors, such as electrostatic dust detector and capacitance diaphragm microbalance (CDM) used (or will be used) in fusion plasmas. The first experimental results of dust particle transport and removal will be explained along with the design concepts, assembly structure, also collaboration plans, etc.

  20. Assessing sources of airborne mineral dust and other aerosols, in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Jayanty, R. K. M.

    2013-06-01

    Most airborne particulate matter in Iraq comes from mineral dust sources. This paper describes the statistics and modeling of chemical results, specifically those from Teflon® filter samples collected at Tikrit, Balad, Taji, Baghdad, Tallil and Al Asad, in Iraq, in 2006/2007. Methodologies applied to the analytical results include calculation of correlation coefficients, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling. PCA provided a measure of the covariance within the data set, thereby identifying likely point sources and events. These include airborne mineral dusts of silicate and carbonate minerals, gypsum and salts, as well as anthropogenic sources of metallic fumes, possibly from battery smelting operations, and emissions of leaded gasoline vehicles. Five individual PMF factors (source categories) were modeled, four of which being assigned to components of geological dust, and the fifth to gasoline vehicle emissions together with battery smelting operations. The four modeled geological components, dust-siliceous, dust-calcic, dust-gypsum, and evaporate occur in variable ratios for each site and size fraction (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5), and also vary by season. In general, Tikrit and Taji have the largest and Al Asad the smallest percentages of siliceous dust. In contrast, Al Asad has the largest proportion of gypsum, in part representing the gypsiferous soils in that region. Baghdad has the highest proportions of evaporite in both size fractions, ascribed to the highly salinized agricultural soils, following millennia of irrigation along the Tigris River valley. Although dust storms along the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys originate from distal sources, the mineralogy bears signatures of local soils and air pollutants.

  1. Exposure assessment to airborne endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in open style swine houses.

    PubMed

    Chang, C W; Chung, H; Huang, C F; Su, H J

    2001-08-01

    Information is limited for the exposure levels of airborne hazardous substances in swine feed buildings that are not completely enclosed. Open-style breeding, growing and finishing swine houses in six farms in subtropical Taiwan were studied for the airborne concentrations of endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The air in the farrowing and nursery stalls as partially enclosed was also simultaneously evaluated. Three selected gases and airborne dusts were quantified respectively by using Drager diffusion tubes and a filter-weighing method. Endotoxin was analyzed by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Average concentration of airborne total endotoxin among piggeries was between 36.8 and 298 EU/m(3), while that for respirable endotoxin was 14.1-129 EU/m(3). Mean concentration of total dust was between 0.15 and 0.34 mg/m(3), with average level of respirable dust of 0.14 mg/m(3). The respective concentrations of NH3, CO2 and H2S were less than 5 ppm, 600-895 ppm and less than 0.2 ppm. Airborne concentrations of total dust and endotoxin in the nursery house were higher than in the other types of swine houses. The finishing house presented the highest exposure risk to NH3, CO2 and H2S. Employees working in the finishing stalls were also exposed to the highest airborne levels of respirable endotoxin and dust. On the other hand, the air of the breeding units was the least contaminated in terms of airborne endotoxin, dust, NH3, CO2 and H2S. The airborne concentrations of substances measured in the present study were all lower than most of published studies conducted in mainly enclosed swine buildings. Distinct characteristics, including maintaining swine houses in an open status and frequent spraying water inside the stalls, significantly reduce accumulation of gases and airborne particulates.

  2. Mineralogy of Interplanetary Dust Particles from the Comet Giacobini-Zinner Dust Stream Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Westphal, A. J.; Palma, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Draconoid meteor shower, originating from comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, is a low-velocity Earth-crossing dust stream that had a peak anticipated flux on Oct. 8, 2012. In response to this prediction, NASA performed dedicated stratospheric dust collections to target interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from this comet stream on Oct 15-17, 2012 [3]. Twelve dust particles from this targeted collection were allocated to our coordinated analysis team for studies of noble gas (Univ. Minnesota, Minnesota State Univ.), SXRF and Fe-XANES (SSL Berkeley) and mineralogy/isotopes (JSC). Here we report a mineralogical study of 3 IDPs from the Draconoid collection..

  3. Interactive effect of cigarette smoke extract and world trade center dust particles on airway cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Alice; Prophete, Colette; Chen, Lung-chi; Emala, Charles W; Cohen, Mitchell D

    2011-01-01

    Rescue workers and residents exposed to the environment surrounding the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, have suffered a disproportionate incidence of chronic lung disease attributed to the inhalation of airborne dust. To date, the pathophysiology of this lung disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine whether airborne dust contaminants recovered from the surrounding area 24-48 h after the collapse of the WTC demonstrate direct cytotoxicity to two airway cell types that were most directly exposed to inhaled dust, airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells. It was also of interest to determine whether the presence of these dusts could modulate the effects of cigarette smoke on these cell types in that some of the individuals who responded to the collapse site were also smokers. Human cultured airway epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells were exposed to 10% cigarette smoke extract (CSE), WTC dust particles (10-53 μm; 0.01-0.5 μg/μl), or a combination of the two for 2-24 h. Cell viability was measured by determining mitochondrial integrity (MTT assays) and apoptosis (poly-ADP-ribose polymerase [PARP] immunoblotting). Conditioned cell culture media recovered from the CSE- and/or WTC dust-exposed BEAS-2B cells were then applied to cultured human airway smooth muscle cells that were subsequently assayed for mitochondrial integrity and their ability to synthesize cyclic AMP (a regulator of airway smooth muscle constriction). BEAS-2B cells underwent necrotic cell death following exposure to WTC dust or CSE for 2-24 h without evidence of apoptosis. Smooth muscle cells demonstrated cellular toxicity and enhanced cyclic AMP synthesis following exposure to conditioned media from WTC- or CSE-exposed epithelial cells. These acute toxicity assays of WTC dust and CSE offer insights into lung cell toxicity that may contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic lung disease in workers and residents exposed to WTC dust. These studies

  4. Size and composition of airborne particles from pavement wear, tires, and traction sanding.

    PubMed

    Kupiainen, Kaarle J; Tervahattu, Heikki; Räisänen, Mika; Mäkelä, Timo; Aurela, Minna; Hillamo, Risto

    2005-02-01

    Mineral matter is an important component of airborne particles in urban areas. In northern cities of the world, mineral matter dominates PM10 during spring because of enhanced road abrasion caused by the use of antiskid methods, including studded tires and traction sanding. In this study, factors that affect formation of abrasion components of springtime road dust were assessed. Effects of traction sanding and tires on concentrations, mass size distribution, and composition of the particles were studied in a test facility. Lowest particle concentrations were observed in tests without traction sanding. The concentrations increased when traction sand was introduced and continued to increase as a function of the amount of aggregate dispersed. Emissions were additionally affected by type of tire, properties of traction sand aggregate, and driving speed. Aggregates with high fragmentation resistance and coarse grain size distribution had the lowest emissions. Over 90% of PM10 was mineral particles. Mineralogy of the dust and source apportionment showed that they originated from both traction sand and pavement aggregates. The remaining portion was mostly carbonaceous and originated from tires and road bitumen. Mass size distributions were dominated by coarse particles. Contribution of fine and submicron size ranges were approximately 15 and 10% in PM10, respectively.

  5. Middle East Health and Air Quality Utilizing NASA EOS in the Saharan and Arabian Deserts to Examine Dust Particle Size and Mineralogy of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, Tiffany; Barrick, Bradley; Cooksey, Kirstin; Cowart, Kevin; Florence, Victoria; Herdy, Claire; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Luvall, Jeffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based studies conducted in Iraq have revealed the presence of potential human pathogens in airborne dust. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), airborne particulate matter below 2.5micron (PM2.5) can cause long-term damage to the human respiratory system. NASA fs Earth Observing System (EOS) can be used to determine spectral characteristics of dust particles and dust particle sizes. Comparing dust particle size from the Sahara and Arabian Deserts gives insight into the composition and atmospheric transport characteristics of dust from each desert. With the use of NASA SeaWiFS DeepBlue Aerosol, dust particle sizes were estimated using Angstrom Exponent. Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) equation was used to determine the area of the dust storm. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra satellite was utilized in calculating BTD. Mineral composition of a dust storm that occurred 17 April 2008 near Baghdad was determined using imaging spectrometer data from the JPL Spectral Library and EO-1 Hyperion data. Mineralogy of this dust storm was subsequently compared to that of a dust storm that occurred over the Bodele Depression in the Sahara Desert on 7 June 2003.

  6. On the photoelectric quantum yield of small dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectron emission is crucial to electric charging of dust particles around main-sequence stars and gas heating in various dusty environments. An estimate of the photoelectric processes contains an ill-defined parameter called the photoelectric quantum yield, which is the total number of electrons ejected from a dust particle per absorbed photon. Here we revisit the so-called small particle effect of photoelectron emission and provide an analytical model to estimate photoelectric quantum yields of small dust particles in sizes down to nanometers. We show that the small particle effect elevates the photoelectric quantum yields of nanoparticles up to by a factor of 103 for carbon, water ice, and organics, and a factor of 102 for silicate, silicon carbide, and iron. We conclude the surface curvature of the particles is a quantity of great importance to the small particle effect, unless the particles are submicrometers in radius or larger.

  7. Atmospheric aging of dust ice nucleating particles - a combined laboratory and field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boose, Yvonne; Rodríguez, Sergio; García, M. Isabel; Linke, Claudia; Schnaiter, Martin; Zipori, Assaf; Crawford, Ian; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.; Sierau, Berko

    2016-04-01

    We present INP data measured in-situ at two mostly free tropospheric locations: the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ) in the Swiss Alps, located at 3580 m above sea level (asl) and the Izaña observatory on Tenerife, off the West African shore (2373 m asl). INP concentrations were measured online with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber, PINC, at the Jungfraujoch in the winters of 2012, 2013 and 2014 and at Izaña in the summers of 2013 and 2014. Each measurement period lasted between 2 to 6 weeks. During summer, Izaña is frequently within the Saharan Air Layer and thus often exposed to Saharan dust events. Saharan dust also reaches the Jungfraujoch mainly during spring. For offline ice nucleation analysis in the laboratory under similar thermodynamic conditions, airborne dust was collected a) at Izaña with a cyclone directly from the air and b) collected from the surface of the Aletsch glacier close to the JFJ after deposition. Supporting measurements of aerosol particle size distributions and fluorescence were conducted at both locations, as well as cloud water isotope analysis at the Jungfraujoch and aerosol chemistry at Izaña. For both locations the origin of the INPs was investigated with a focus on dust and biological particles using back trajectories and chemical signature. Results show that dust aerosol is the dominant INP type at both locations at a temperature of 241 K. In addition to Saharan dust, also more local, basaltic dust is found at the Jungfraujoch. Biological particles are not observed to play a role for ice nucleation in clouds during winter at Jungfraujoch but are enriched in INP compared to the total aerosol at Izaña also during dust events. The comparison of the laboratory and the field measurements at Izaña indicates a good reproducibility of the field data by the collected dust samples. Field and laboratory data of the dust samples from both locations show that the dust arriving at JFJ is less ice nucleation active

  8. Water uptake of clay and desert dust aerosol particles at sub- and supersaturated water vapor conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Herich, Hanna; Tritscher, Torsten; Wiacek, Aldona; Gysel, Martin; Weingartner, E.; Lohmann, U.; Baltensperger, Urs; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2009-11-01

    Airborne mineral dust particles serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby influencing the formation and properties of warm clouds. It is therefore of particular interest how dust aerosols with different mineralogy behave when exposed to high relative humidity (RH) or supersaturation with respect to liquid water similar to atmospheric conditions. In this study the sub-saturated hygroscopic growth and the supersaturated cloud condensation nucleus activity of pure clays and real desert dust aerosols was determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC), respectively. Five different illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite clay samples as well as three desert dust samples (Saharan dust (SD), Chinese dust (CD) and Arizona test dust (ATD)) were used. Aerosols were generated both with a wet and a dry disperser and the water uptake was parameterized via the hygroscopicity parameter, κ. The hygroscopicity of dry generated dust aerosols was found to be negligible when compared to processed atmospheric aerosols, with CCNC derived κ values between 0.00 and 0.02. The latter value can be idealized as a particle consisting of 96.7% (by volume) insoluble material and ~3.3% ammonium sulfate. Pure clay aerosols were found to be generally less hygroscopic than real desert dust particles. All illite and montmorillonite samples had κ~0.003, kaolinites were least hygroscopic and had κ=0.001. SD (κ=0.023) was found to be the most hygroscopic dry-generated desert dust followed by CD (κ=0.007) and ATD (κ=0.003). Wet-generated dust showed an increased water uptake when compared to dry-generated samples. This is considered to be an artifact introduced by redistribution of soluble material between the particles while immersed in an aqueous medium during atomization, thus indicating that specification of the generation method is critically important when presenting such data. Any atmospheric processing of

  9. Raman observations on individual interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wopenka, B.

    1988-05-01

    A Raman study of 20 representative interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) belonging to different infrared spectral classes is discussed. Six different groups of Raman spectra were discerned among the IDPs studied. Groups 1-5 exhibit the Raman signature of poorly crystallized carbonaceous material, with the degree of disorder of this material increasing from group 1 (most ordered) to group 5 (least ordered). Group 1 contains IDPs that have infrared spectra characteristic of olivines, and are deuterium depleted, while those in groups 2, 3, and 4 contain less ordered carbonaceous material and are deuterium enriched, suggesting different carbonaceous carrier phases for deuterium depletions and enrichments. Groups 5 and 6 contain little or no carbonaceous material, with an abundance of deuterium. No obvious relationship was found between Raman groups and infrared classes based on the 10 micron absorption band due to silicates. Because silicates are known to be present, but are not seen, it is presumed that silicate grains are coated with and/or imbedded in carbonaceous material. Several IDPs show broad visible laser-induced photoluminescence, probably produced by a carbonaceous component.

  10. Water and organics in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, John

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and larger micrometeorites (MMs) impinge on the upper atmosphere where they decelerate at 90 km altitude and settle to the Earths surface. Comets and asteroids are the major sources and the flux, 30,000-40,000 tons/yr, is comparable to the mass of larger meteorites impacting the Earths surface. The sedimentary record suggests that the flux was much higher on the early Earth. The chondritic porous (CP) subset of IDPs together with their larger counterparts, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites (UCMMs), appear to be unique among known meteoritic materials in that they are composed almost exclusively of anhydrous minerals, some of them contain >> 50% organic carbon by volume as well as the highest abundances of presolar silicate grains including GEMS. D/H and 15N abundances implicate the Oort Cloud or presolar molecular cloud as likely sources of the organic carbon. Prior to atmospheric entry, IDPs and MMs spend 104-105 year lifetimes in solar orbit where their surfaces develop amorphous space weathered rims from exposure to the solar wind (SW). Similar rims are observed on lunar soil grains and on asteroid Itokawa regolith grains. Using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) we have detected radiolytic water in the rims on IDPs formed by the interaction of solar wind protons with oxygen in silicate minerals. Therefore, IDPs and MMs continuously deliver both water and organics to the earth and other terrestrial planets. The interaction of protons with oxygen-rich minerals to form water is a universal process.

  11. The elemental abundances in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Peter; Bohsung, Jörg; Maetz, Mischa; Jessberger, Elmar K.

    1996-11-01

    We compiled a table of all major, minor, and trace-element abundances in 89 interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) that includes data obtained with proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), synchroton x-ray fluorescence (SXRF), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). For the first time, the reliability of the trace-element abundances in IDPs is tested by various crosschecks. We also report on the results of cluster analyses that we performed on IDP compositions. Because of the incompleteness of the data set, we included only the elements Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn, normalized to Fe and CI chondrite abundances, that are determined in 73 IDPs. The data arrange themselves in four rather poorly defined groups that we discuss in relation to CI chondrites following the assumption that on the average CI abundances are most probable. The largest group (chondritic), with 44 members, has close to CI abundances for many refractory and moderately refractory elements (Na, Al, Si, P, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ge, Sr). It is slightly depleted in Fe and more in Ca and S, while the volatile elements (Cl, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb) are enriched by =1.7 × CI and Br by 21 × CI. The low-Zn group, with 12 members, is very similar to the chondritic group except for its Zn-depletion, stronger Ca-depletion and Fe-enrichment. The low-Ni group, with 11 members, has Ni/Fe = 0.03 × CI and almost CI-like Ca, but its extraterrestrial origin is not established. The last group (6 members) contains non-systematic particles of unknown origin. We found that Fe is inhomogeneously distributed on a micron scale. Furthermore, the abundances of elements that are measured near their limits of detection are easily overestimated. These biases involved, the incomplete data set and possible contaminating processes prevent us from obtaining information on the specific origin(s) of IDPs from elemental abundances.

  12. Current concepts on airborne particles and health

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence of associations between environmental particulate concentrations and both acute and chronic health effects has grown with numerous recent studies conducted in the US and other countries. An association between short-term changes in particulate levels and acute mortality now seems certain. The association is consistent among studies and coherent among indicators of mortality and morbidity. Effects observed at surprisingly low pollution levels have raised concern for current exposures even in modestly polluted cities. Toxicology did not predict the acute mortality effect, and causal mechanisms are difficult to rationalize. Present data suggest that the fine fraction of particulate pollution is more toxic than larger particles, but the contribution of specific particulate species is poorly understood.

  13. Characteristics of tyre dust in polluted air: Studies by single particle mass spectrometry (ATOFMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; Gietl, Johanna K.; Olatunbosun, Oluremi A.; Yang, Xiaoguang; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-09-01

    There is a paucity of quantitative knowledge on the contributions of non-exhaust (abrasion and re-suspension) sources to traffic emissions. Abrasive emissions can be broadly categorised as tyre wear, brake wear and road dust/road surface wear. Current research often considers road dust and tyre dust as externally mixed particles, the former mainly composed of mineral matter and the latter solely composed of mainly organic matter and some trace elements. The aim of this work was to characterise tyre wear from both laboratory and field studies by using Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS). Real-time single particle chemical composition was obtained from a set of rubber tyres rotating on a metal surface. Bimodal particle number size distributions peaking at 35 nm and 85 nm were obtained from SMPS/APS measurements over the range 6-20,000 nm. ATOFMS mass spectra of tyre wear in the particle size range 200-3000 nm diameter show peaks due to exo-sulphur compounds, nitrate, Zn and ions of high molecular weight (m/z > 100) attributed to organic polymers. Two large ATOFMS datasets collected from a number of outdoor studies were examined. The former was constituted of 48 road dust samples collected on the roads of London. The latter consisted of ATOFMS ambient air field studies from Europe, overall composed of more than 2,000,000 single particle mass spectra. The majority (95%) of tyre wear particles present in the road dust samples and atmospheric samples are internally mixed with metals (Li, Na, Ca, Fe, Ti), as well as phosphate. It is concluded that the interaction of tyres with the road surface creates particles internally mixed from two sources: tyre rubber and road surface materials. Measurements of the tyre rubber component alone may underestimate the contribution of tyre wear to concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The results presented are especially relevant for urban aerosol source apportionment and PM2.5 exposure assessment.

  14. Nano-metric Dust Particles as a Hardly Detectable Component of the Interplanetary Dust Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.; Nabiyev, Sh.

    2015-09-01

    The present work introduces the hypothesis of existence of a hardly detectable component of the interplanetary dust cloud and demonstrates that such a component is a dust formation consisting of the dust particles of nano-metric dimensions. This work describes the main physical properties of such a kind of nano-dust, and its possible chemical and mineralogical peculiarities proposes new explanations related to reddening of the dynamically cold transneptunian objects on account of scattering their light by nano-dust of the hardly detectable component of the interplanetary dust cloud. We propose the relation for the coefficient of absorption by the nano-dust and provide results of the statistical analysis of the TNO color index-orbital inclinations. We also present a critical assessment of the proposed hypothesis.

  15. Three-dimensional single particle tracking in dense dust clouds by stereoscopy of fluorescent particles

    SciTech Connect

    Himpel, Michael; Killer, Carsten; Buttenschoen, Birger; Melzer, Andre

    2012-12-15

    In dense dust clouds of a dusty plasma single particle trajectories are impossible to follow due to occlusion of particles and ambiguities in particle correspondences. By stereoscopic imaging of fluorescent tracer particles, we were able to reconstruct 3D single particle trajectories within dense dust clouds. Several measurements are shown that justify to regard the tracer particles as suitable representatives for the whole dust system. A first analysis of dust density waves in dense clouds already shows that these waves exhibit three-dimensional dynamics at larger wave amplitudes that cannot be resolved by 2D imaging techniques: a broad velocity distribution perpendicular to the oscillation plane due to dust-dust collisions is seen, while the velocity distribution in the oscillation direction is bimodal and shifted due to the bulk wave propagation.

  16. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Peters, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary, central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual’s exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-hour monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  17. Characterization of Hairdresser Exposure to Airborne Particles during Hair Bleaching.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Patrik T; Marini, Sara; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Kåredal, Monica; Blomgren, Eva; Nielsen, Jörn; Buonanno, Giorgio; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms among hairdressers are often ascribed to the use of bleaching powders that contain persulfate salts. Such salts can act as allergens and airway irritants but the mechanisms behind the negative health effects are not fully known. In order to understand why some hairdressers experience respiratory symptoms during, and after, sessions of hair bleaching, it is of importance to characterize how exposure occurs. In this work we used time and particle size resolved instrumentation with the aim to measure the concentration of particles that hairdressers are exposed to during sessions of hair bleaching. We also used filter samples to collect particles for quantitative determination of persulfate (S2O8(2-)) content and for analysis by light microscopy. Two different types of bleaching powders were used, one marked as dust-free and one without this marking (denoted regular). The time resolved instrumentation revealed that particles <10 µm were emitted, specifically when the regular powder was prepared and mixed with hydrogen peroxide. In contrast to other research our work also revealed that supercoarse particles (>10 µm) were emitted during application of the bleaching, when both the regular and the dust-free powders were used. The measured level of persulfate, sampled in the breathing zone of the hairdressers, was on average 26 µg m(-3) when the regular powder was used and 11 µg m(-3) when the dust-free powder was used. This indicates that use of dust-free powder does not eliminate exposure to persulfates, it only lowers the concentration. We show that the site of sampling, or position of the hairdresser with regards to the hair being bleached, is of high importance in the determination of persulfate levels and exposure. This work focuses on the physical and chemical characterization of the particles released to the air and the results are important for accurate exposure assessments. Accurate assessments may in turn lead to a better understanding of

  18. Quantifying particle size and turbulent scale dependence of dust flux in the Sahara using aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Philip D.; Parker, Douglas J.; Ryder, Claire L.; Marsham, John H.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Dorsey, James R.; Brooks, Ian M.; Dean, Angela R.; Crosier, Jonathon; McQuaid, James B.; Washington, Richard

    2014-06-01

    The first size-resolved airborne measurements of dust fluxes and the first dust flux measurements from the central Sahara are presented and compared with a parameterization by Kok (2011a). High-frequency measurements of dust size distribution were obtained from 0.16 to 300 µm diameter, and eddy covariance fluxes were derived. This is more than an order of magnitude larger size range than previous flux estimates. Links to surface emission are provided by analysis of particle drift velocities. Number flux is described by a -2 power law between 1 and 144 µm diameter, significantly larger than the 12 µm upper limit suggested by Kok (2011a). For small particles, the deviation from a power law varies with terrain type and the large size cutoff is correlated with atmospheric vertical turbulent kinetic energy, suggesting control by vertical transport rather than emission processes. The measured mass flux mode is in the range 30-100 µm. The turbulent scales important for dust flux are from 0.1 km to 1-10 km. The upper scale increases during the morning as boundary layer depth and eddy size increase. All locations where large dust fluxes were measured had large topographical variations. These features are often linked with highly erodible surface features, such as wadis or dunes. We also hypothesize that upslope flow and flow separation over such features enhance the dust flux by transporting large particles out of the saltation layer. The tendency to locate surface flux measurements in open, flat terrain means these favored dust sources have been neglected in previous studies.

  19. Charge distribution of particles in an irradiated dust cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Sodha, Mahendra; Dixit, Amrit; Srivastava, Sweta; Mishra, S. K.; Verma, M. P.; Bhasin, L.

    2010-01-01

    This communication is a discussion on the charge distribution of the dust particles in an illuminated dust cloud in near space when the photoelectric emission is the dominant mechanism for electron generation. An analytical model has been developed on the basis of charge neutrality condition and balance of number density and energy of electrons; the approach of statistical mechanics has been followed. Computations correspond to a metallic dust cloud in near space environment, where Lyman-α spectral line radiation is the dominant one for photoelectric emission. A comparison of results from the present statistical theory of charge distribution with the uniform charge theory has been presented. As an interesting conclusion, the theory predicts negative charging of a few dust particles for a certain range of parameters leading to the formation of bigger particles on account of electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged particles.

  20. Flow analysis of airborne particles in a hospital operating room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faeghi, Shiva; Lennerts, Kunibert

    2016-06-01

    Preventing airborne infections during a surgery has been always an important issue to deliver effective and high quality medical care to the patient. One of the important sources of infection is particles that are distributed through airborne routes. Factors influencing infection rates caused by airborne particles, among others, are efficient ventilation and the arrangement of surgical facilities inside the operating room. The paper studies the ventilation airflow pattern in an operating room in a hospital located in Tehran, Iran, and seeks to find the efficient configurations with respect to the ventilation system and layout of facilities. This study uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and investigates the effects of different inflow velocities for inlets, two pressurization scenarios (equal and excess pressure) and two arrangements of surgical facilities in room while the door is completely open. The results show that system does not perform adequately when the door is open in the operating room under the current conditions, and excess pressure adjustments should be employed to achieve efficient results. The findings of this research can be discussed in the context of design and controlling of the ventilation facilities of operating rooms.

  1. Particle size distributions of Trade-Wind African dust measured in the air and after dispersal in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospero, J. M.; Custals, L.

    2012-12-01

    The paleoclimate community uses dust particle size measurements in ice cores and sediments in an effort to retrieve information about dust sources and transport and the changes that occur with time. These measurements are typically made on particles suspended in water using a Coulter-type (electric zone sensing) instrument or with electro-optical measurements calibrated against a Coulter. In contrast the atmospheric community measures particles suspended in the atmosphere using instruments based on completely different principles. Because dust particles are typically complex agglomerates that can disperse in liquids, the measurements made with Coulter-type instruments cannot be easily related to atmospheric measurements. Consequently many of the assumptions made in the paleoclimate community about dust sources and transport based on particle sizes in cores cannot be readily tested against present-day measurements. We addressed this issue by making measurements of airborne dust in Barbados and Miami using a Coulter Multisizer™ 3. We collected airborne particles in two ways: 1) bulk (total) aerosol samples collected on a membrane filters, and 2) size-separated samples collected with a MOUDI cascade impactor which yields information about the degree of agglomeration of particles in different aerosol size classes. During the summer dust season, the bulk filters yield well-defined dust volume distribution peaks that are relatively stable from event-to-event at both Miami and Barbados. Volume geometric mean diameters (GMD) are centered around 2 μm; the GMD is marginally higher during heavy dust days than low-dust days. The most dramatic changes in size distributions occur during winter-spring dust events when the GMD ranges from around 1 μm to around 3 to 4 μm. It is notable that the size distributions truncate above 4 - 5 μm diameter; there are very few particles above 5 - 6 μm diameter except for single particles which could be due to contamination. We attribute

  2. Experimental observation of crystalline particle flows in toroidal dust clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, Jochen Piel, Alexander; Reichstein, Torben

    2015-06-15

    The dust flow in a toroidal dust trap is studied experimentally. The flow is driven by the Hall component of the ion drag force in a magnetized plasma. Dust density waves are found in a torus with a large minor radius a, which allows for several wavelength, 2a>5λ, in the (mostly) radial direction of the ion flow. Beyond an intermediate state with radial sloshing oscillations, a crystalline dust flow with suppressed wave activity could be realized for 2a<2λ. The particles arrange themselves in distinct layers with hexagonal-like local order. Smooth transitions between states with different numbers of layers are found in the inhomogeneous flow.

  3. Strong capping inversion over the Tokyo metropolitan area associated with airborne Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro

    2006-10-01

    Lidar measurements in the Tokyo metropolitan area showed that the optical thickness of airborne Asian dust rapidly increased on the morning of April 28, 2005, owing to the arrival of a thick Asian dust layer (ADL), which settled on the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Radiosonde measurements showed that atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere increased considerably after the arrival of the ADL to the extent that the increment rate reached 12 K/day. Strong capping inversion (CI) was thus formed between the ADL and the PBL with the maximum rate of 0.1 K/m. It was mainly caused by the appearance of a deep isentropic layer that well corresponded to the ADL, indicating that the Asian dust-laden heated and well-mixed air layer led to the temperature increment and consequently induced the CI. The CI inhibited the PBL evolution and caused a higher aerosol concentration in the PBL in the metropolitan area.

  4. Airborne measurements of gases and particles from an Alaskan wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nance, J. D.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Radke, Lawrence F.; Ward, Darold E.

    1993-08-01

    Airborne measurements of several gaseous and particulate chemical species were obtained in the emissions from a wildfire that burned in an old black spruce forest in Alaska during the summer of 1990. The relative proportions of most of the measured plume constituents are consistent with ground-based and airborne measurements in the plumes of several other biomass fires, and with laboratory measurements. Possible exceptions include the mean fine-particle emission factor, which was about 3 times larger than predicted from a regression relation based on measurements of the smoke from several prescribed biomass fires, and the mean CH4/CO molar emission ratio which was at the low end of a range of values measured for other biomass fires. Measurements of water-soluble particulate ions in the smoke plume from the Alaskan wildfire indicate that acids formed from the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen were partially neutralized inside cloud droplets by NH3 absorbed from the plume.

  5. Kuiper Belt Dust Grains as a Source of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Zook, Herbert A.; Dermott, Stanley F.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of the so-called Kuiper belt objects has prompted the idea that these objects produce dust grains that may contribute significantly to the interplanetary dust population. In this paper, the orbital evolution of dust grains, of diameters 1 to 9 microns, that originate in the region of the Kuiper belt is studied by means of direct numerical integration. Gravitational forces of the Sun and planets, solar radiation pressure, as well as Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag are included. The interactions between charged dust grains and solar magnetic field are not considered in the model. Because of the effects of drag forces, small dust grains will spiral toward the Sun once they are released from their large parent bodies. This motion leads dust grains to pass by planets as well as encounter numerous mean motion resonances associated with planets. Our results show that about 80% of the Kuiper belt grains are ejected from the Solar System by the giant planets, while the remaining 20% of the grains evolve all the way to the Sun. Surprisingly, the latter dust grains have small orbital eccentricities and inclinations when they cross the orbit of the Earth. This makes them behave more like asteroidal than cometary-type dust particles. This also enhances their chances of being captured by the Earth and makes them a possible source of the collected interplanetary dust particles; in particular, they represent a possible source that brings primitive/organic materials from the outer Solar System to the Earth. When collisions with interstellar dust grains are considered, however, Kuiper belt dust grains around 9 microns appear likely to be collisionally shattered before they can evolve toward the inner part of the Solar System. The collision destruction can be applied to Kuiper belt grains up to about 50 microns. Therefore, Kuiper belt dust grains within this range may not be a significant part of the interplanetary dust complex in the inner Solar

  6. Polyvinylidene fluoride dust detector response to particle impacts.

    PubMed

    James, D; Hoxie, V; Horanyi, M

    2010-03-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust detectors have flown on many space missions since their first use on the Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft. The fundamental operating principle of these detectors is the production of a charge upon impact by a hypervelocity dust particle. This measured signal, N, depends on the speed, v, and mass, m, of the particle. The relationship between N, v, and m was first empirically derived by Simpson and Tuzzolino. All of the PVDF dust instruments prior to the Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons mission use their formula for the calibration of the detectors. This paper provides additional dust impact calibration data, proposes a modification in the exponents for m and v, and investigates the relationship between detector temperature and detector signal.

  7. Mars Dust: Characterization of Particle Size and Electrostatic Charge Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Saini, D.; Biris, A. S.; Sriama, P. K.; Calle, C.; Buhler, C.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the latest pictures of Mars surface sent by NASA's Spirit rover in early January, 2004, show very cohesive, "mud-like" dust layers. Significant amounts of dust clouds are present in the atmosphere of Mars [1-4]. NASA spacecraft missions to Mars confirmed hypotheses from telescopic work that changes observed in the planet's surface markings are caused by wind-driven redistribution of dust. In these dust storms, particles with a wide range of diameters (less than 1 micrometer to 50 micrometers) are a serious problem to solar cells, spacecraft, and spacesuits. Dust storms may cover the entire planet for an extended period of time [5]. It is highly probable that the particles are charged electrostatically by triboelectrification and by UV irradiation.

  8. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  9. Anthropogenic Osmium in Airborne Particles from Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Sen, I. S.; Geboy, N.

    2012-12-01

    The global geochemical cycle of osmium has been significantly disturbed by the introduction of automobile exhaust catalysts to convert noxious gas emissions into more benign forms. Anthropogenic osmium has been reported in rainwater, snow, and in the urban airborne particles from around the world to reveal global-scale osmium pollution [1, 2]. In this study, we report on the platinum group element (PGE) concentrations and osmium isotope ratios of airborne particles (PM10) collected in Woods Hole, a small coastal town in Massachusetts to better understand inputs of anthropogenic osmium to rural environments. We further investigate the use of osmium isotopes to track sources of airborne particles and support source apportionment studies on a continental scale. The samples used in this study were collected at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution over one year (2008-2009). From this collection twelve samples for which the backward air mass trajectories have been determined were selected for osmium isotope analyses. Our results show that the osmium and platinum concentrations are an order of magnitude lower when compared to downtown Boston [2]. The average Os, Pt and Ir concentrations are 0.006±0.012, 0.019±0.023, and 0.685±0.634 pg m-3, respectively. The 187Os/188Os of the aerosols range from 0.275 to 0.788. As continental crust is radiogenic (187Os/188Os >1) and PGE ore bodies generally have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os (~0.2), the unradiogenic 187Os/188Os signature of the aerosols indicates anthropogenic contributions. With 95% of the total osmium mobilization on land being attributed to human activities [3], it is clear that human imprint on airborne particles is not restricted to urban centers with high traffic flows, but also affects rural environments. Aerosol particles that have backward air mass trajectories from the Southwest, the densely populated and industrialized Eastern seaboard, are characterized by unradiogenic osmium, while air masses from the North

  10. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  11. Water and organics in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, John P.

    2015-08-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and larger micrometeorites (MMs) impinge on the upper atmosphere where they decelerate at ~90 km altitude and settle to the Earth’s surface. Comets and asteroids are the major sources and the flux, 30,000-40,000 tons/yr, is comparable to the mass of larger meteorites impacting the Earth’s surface. The sedimentary record suggests that the flux was much higher on the early Earth. The chondritic porous (CP) subset of IDPs together with their larger counterparts, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites (UCMMs), appear to be unique among known meteoritic materials in that they are composed almost exclusively of anhydrous minerals, some of them contain >> 50% organic carbon by volume as well as the highest abundances of presolar silicate grains including GEMS. D/H and 15N abundances implicate the Oort Cloud or presolar molecular cloud as likely sources of the organic carbon. Prior to atmospheric entry, IDPs and MMs spend ~104-105 year lifetimes in solar orbit where their surfaces develop amorphous space weathered rims from exposure to the solar wind (SW). Similar rims are observed on lunar soil grains and on asteroid Itokawa regolith grains. Using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) we have detected radiolytic water in the rims on IDPs formed by the interaction of solar wind protons with oxygen in silicate minerals. Therefore, IDPs and MMs continuously deliver both water and organics to the earth and other terrestrial planets. The interaction of protons with oxygen-rich minerals to form water is a universal process.Affiliations:a University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.b National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.c Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.d Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of California

  12. Plasma jet acceleration of dust particles to hypervelocities

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, C. M.; Wang, Zhehui; Wurden, G. A.; Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2008-10-15

    A convenient method to accelerate simultaneously hundreds of micron-size dust particles to a few km/s over a distance of about 1 m is based on plasma drag. Plasma jets which can deliver sufficient momentum to the dust particles need to have speeds of at least several tens of km/s, densities of the order of 10{sup 22} m{sup -3} or higher, and low temperature {approx}1 eV, in order to prevent dust destruction. An experimental demonstration of dust particles acceleration to hypervelocities by plasma produced in a coaxial gun is presented here. The plasma flow speed is deduced from photodiode signals while the plasma density is measured by streaked spectroscopy. As a result of the interaction with the plasma jet, the dust grains are also heated to high temperatures and emit visible light. A hypervelocity dust shower is imaged in situ with a high speed video camera at some distance from the coaxial gun, where light emission from the plasma flow is less intense. The bright traces of the flying microparticles are used to infer their speed and acceleration by employing the time-of-flight technique. A simple model for plasma drag which accounts for ion collection on the grain surface gives predictions for dust accelerations which are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  13. Effects of dust particle internal structure on light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemppinen, O.; Nousiainen, T.; Jeong, G. Y.

    2015-10-01

    There is a large variety of internal structures inside atmospheric dust particles, making them inherently inhomogeneous. Such structures may have a large effect on ground-level and atmospheric radiation. So far, dust particle internal structures and their effect on the light scattering properties have proved to be hard to quantify, in part due to challenges in obtaining information about these structures. Recently, internal structures of individual dust particles were revealed through focused ion beam milling and analyzed. Here, we perform a sensitivity study to evaluate the optical impacts of some of the typical internal structures revealed. To obtain suitable model particles, the first step is to generate inhomogeneous particles with varying internal structures by using an algorithm that is based on three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation. The parameters for the particle generation are obtained from studies of real-world Asian dust particles. The second step is to generate homogeneous versions of the generated particles by using an effective-medium approximation, for comparison. Third, light scattering by both versions of these particles is simulated with discrete dipole approximation code. This allows us to see how different internal structures affect light scattering, and how important it is to account for these structures explicitly. Further, this allows us to estimate the potential inaccuracies caused by using only homogeneous model particles for atmospheric studies and remote-sensing measurements. The results show that the effects vary greatly between different kinds of internal structures and single-scattering quantity considered, but for most structure types the effects are overall notable. Most significantly, hematite inclusions in particles impact light scattering heavily. Furthermore, internal pores and hematite-rich coating both affect some form of light scattering noticeably. Based on this work, it seems that it is exceedingly important that the

  14. Effects of dust particle internal structure on light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemppinen, O.; Nousiainen, T.; Jeong, G. Y.

    2015-07-01

    There is a large variety of internal structures inside atmospheric dust particles, making them inherently inhomogeneous. Such structures may have a large effect on ground-level and atmospheric radiation. So far, dust particle internal structures and their effect on the light scattering properties have proved to be hard to quantify, in part due to challenges in obtaining information about these structures. Recently, internal structures of individual dust particles were revealed through focused ion beam milling and analyzed. Here, we perform a sensitivity study to evaluate the optical impacts of some of the typical internal structures revealed. To obtain suitable model particles, the first step is to generate inhomogeneous particles with varying internal structures by using an algorithm that is based on three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation. The parameters for the particle generation are obtained from studies of real-world Asian dust particles. The second step is to generate homogeneous versions of the generated particles by using an effective-medium approximation, for comparison. Third, light scattering by both versions of these particles is simulated with discrete-dipole approximation code. This allows us to see how different internal structures affect light scattering, and how important it is to account for these structures explicitly. Further, this allows us to estimate the potential inaccuracies caused by using only homogeneous model particles for atmospheric studies and remote sensing measurements. The results show that the effects vary greatly between different kinds of internal structures and single-scattering quantity considered, but for most structure types the effects are overall notable. Most significantly, hematite inclusions in particles impact light scattering heavily. Furthermore, internal pores and hematite-rich coating both affect some form of light scattering noticeably. Based on this work, it seems that it is exceedingly important that the

  15. Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions Are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices

    PubMed Central

    Pellissier, Loïc; Oppliger, Anne; Hirzel, Alexandre H.; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Mbayo, Guilain; Mascher, Fabio; Kellenberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to airborne fungi has been associated with different respiratory symptoms and pathologies in occupational populations, such as grain workers. However, the homogeneity in the fungal species composition of these bioaerosols on a large geographical scale and the different drivers that shape these fungal communities remain unclear. In this study, the diversity of fungi in grain dust and in the aerosols released during harvesting was determined across 96 sites at a geographical scale of 560 km2 along an elevation gradient of 500 m by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Associations between the structure of fungal communities in the grain dust and different abiotic (farming system, soil characteristics, and geographic and climatic parameters) and biotic (wheat cultivar and previous crop culture) factors were explored. These analyses revealed a strong relationship between the airborne and grain dust fungal communities and showed the presence of allergenic and mycotoxigenic species in most samples, which highlights the potential contribution of these fungal species to work-related respiratory symptoms of grain workers. The farming system was the major driver of the alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity values of fungal communities. In addition, elevation and soil CaCO3 concentrations shaped the alpha diversity, whereas wheat cultivar, cropping history, and the number of freezing days per year shaped the taxonomic beta diversity of these communities. PMID:26826229

  16. Ice Nucleation Activity of Various Agricultural Soil Dust Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiebel, Thea; Höhler, Kristina; Funk, Roger; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Nadolny, Jens; Steinke, Isabelle; Suski, Kaitlyn J.; Ullrich, Romy; Wagner, Robert; Weber, Ines; DeMott, Paul J.; Möhler, Ottmar

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations at the cloud simulation chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) suggest that agricultural soil dust has an ice nucleation ability that is enhanced up to a factor of 10 compared to desert dust, especially at temperatures above -26 °C (Steinke et al., in preparation for submission). This enhancement might be caused by the contribution of very ice-active biological particles. In addition, soil dust aerosol particles often contain a considerably higher amount of organic matter compared to desert dust particles. To test agricultural soil dust as a source of ice nucleating particles, especially for ice formation in warm clouds, we conducted a series of laboratory measurements with different soil dust samples to extend the existing AIDA dataset. The AIDA has a volume of 84 m3 and operates under atmospherically relevant conditions over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and humidity. By controlled adiabatic expansions, the ascent of an air parcel in the troposphere can be simulated. As a supplement to the AIDA facility, we use the INKA (Ice Nucleation Instrument of the KArlsruhe Institute of Technology) continuous flow diffusion chamber based on the design by Rogers (1988) to expose the sampled aerosol particles to a continuously increasing saturation ratio by keeping the aerosol temperature constant. For our experiments, soil dust was dry dispersed into the AIDA vessel. First, fast saturation ratio scans at different temperatures were performed with INKA, sampling soil dust aerosol particles directly from the AIDA vessel. Then, we conducted the AIDA expansion experiment starting at a preset temperature. The combination of these two different methods provides a robust data set on the temperature-dependent ice activity of various agriculture soil dust aerosol particles with a special focus on relatively high temperatures. In addition, to extend the data set, we investigated the role of biological and organic matter in more

  17. Comet Dust: The Diversity of "Primitive" Particles and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Ishii, Hope A.; Bradley, John P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples ( IDP's(Interplanetary Dust Particles) and AMM's (Antarctic Micrometeorites)) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The uniformity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properties of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  18. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy industrial activities such as mining, metal industry, coal fired power plants have produced large amount of by-products and wide-spread pollution, particularly in the period of centrally dictated economy after WWII, in Hungary. Several studies suggest that significant amount of these pollutants have been deposited in the urban environment. Nowadays, more than half of the world's population is living in urban areas and people spend almost 80% of their lives indoors in developed countries increasing human health risk due to contamination present in urban dwellings. Attic dust sampling was applied to determine the long-term airborne contamination load in the industrial town of Ajka (Hungary). There has been a high industrial activity in Ajka since the end of the 19th century. In addition to aluminum and alumina industry, coal mining, coal fired power plant and glass industry sites, generated numerous waste heaps which act as multi-contamination sources in the area. In October 2010 the Ajka red mud tailings pond failed and caused an accidental regional contamination of international significance. The major objective of this research was to study and map the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in airborne attic dust samples. At 27 sampling sites 30 attic dust samples were collected. Sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design. In each cell a house for attic dust sample collection was selected that was located the closest to a randomly generated point in the grid cell. The project area covers a 8x8 grid of 1x1 km cells with a total area of 64 km2. In order to represent long-term industrial pollution, houses with attics kept intact for at least 30-40 years were selected for sampling. Sampling included the collection of background samples remotely placed from the industrialized urban area. The concentration of the major and toxic elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn

  19. Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunnu, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 μm-25 μm.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 μg/m3 to 1344 μg/m3 with an average of 532 μg/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 μm to 2.43 μm with an average of 1.5 μm ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for

  20. Sensory and other neurogenic effects of exposures to airborne office dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Attermann, J.

    This Danish Office Dust Experiment investigated the response of 24 healthy non-sensitive adult subjects to exposure to normal office dust in the air (7 μg m -3 clean air, 136 and 390 μg m -3 TSP). The dust had no major identifiable specific reactive components. The exposure duration was 5 1/4 h and was arranged in a climate chamber in controlled atmospheric conditions. Measurements were made acutely at exposure onset, subacutely at exposure end and next day (late). As secondary aims the time course and threshold of any observed effect of the exposures, and the characteristics of any hyperresponding subgroup were investigated. In a questionnaire with 36 questions the dust exposures caused increased acute, subacute and late perceptions of reduced air quality, acute and subacute increased odor intensity, acute eye irritation, acute and late heavy head, subacute feeling of perspiration, and subacute general irritation. Cough increased subacutely during exposures. In addition, a performance test showed effects of dust exposures which also affected "Mood Scale" ratings. No effect was seen on an addition test for distraction, and objective measurements of skin humidity. The overall conclusion of the study is that healthy subjects without hypersensitivity reactions seem to respond to airborne house dust. The responses are both subjective sensory reactions and other neurogenic effects even at exposure levels within the range found in normal buildings. Some of the effects appeared acutely and decreased through adaptation while others increased during prolonged exposure and remained for more than 17 h after the exposure ended. The findings may indicate for this type of dust a threshold level for the dose-response relationships below 140 μg m -3.

  1. Dust in Cometary Comae: Present Understanding of the Structure and Composition of Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Zolensky, M.; Lasue, J.

    2007-01-01

    In situ probing of a very few cometary comae has shown that dust particles present a low albedo and a low density, and that they consist of both rocky material and refractory organics. Remote observations of solar light scattered by cometary dust provide information on the properties of dust particles in the coma of a larger set of comets. The observations of the linear polarization in the coma indicate that the dust particles are irregular, with a size greater (on the average) than about one micron. Besides, they suggest, through numerical and experimental simulations, that both compact grains and fluffy aggregates (with a power law of the size distribution in the -2.6 to -3 range), and both rather transparent silicates and absorbing organics are present in the coma. Recent analysis of the cometary dust samples collected by the Stardust mission provide a unique ground truth and confirm, for comet 81P/Wild 2, the results from remote sensing observations. Future space missions to comets should, in the next decade, lead to a more precise characterization of the structure and composition of cometary dust particles.

  2. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked.

  3. Workshop on the Analysis of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the analysis of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) over the past few years. This workshop provided a forum for the discussion of the following topics: observation and modeling of dust in the solar system, mineralogy and petrography of IDP's, processing of IDP's in the solar system and terrestrial atmosphere, comparison of IDP's to meteorites and micrometeorites, composition of IDP's, classification, and collection of IDP's.

  4. Dry deposition of large, airborne particles onto a surrogate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene; Kalman, David; Larson, Timothy

    Simultaneous measurements of particle dry deposition flux and airborne number concentration in the open atmosphere were made using three different types of artificially generated particles in the size range 10-100 μm - perlite, diatomaceous earth and glass beads. A combination of gravimetric analysis, automated microscopy and sonic anemometry provided size-resolved estimates of both the inertial and gravitational components of the quasi-laminar layer particle deposition velocity, ( Vd) b, as a function of size. Eddy inertial deposition efficiency ( ηdI) was determined as a function of dimensionless eddy Stokes number (Stk e). In the range 3particles and gases to environmental surfaces. DOE Report PNL-SA-6721, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA), used in several regulatory models, significantly under-predicted (up to seven times) ( Vd) b for large particles ( da>10 μm).

  5. Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production.

    PubMed

    Boylstein, Randy; Piacitelli, Chris; Grote, Ardith; Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    In microwave popcorn workers, exposure to butter flavorings has been associated with fixed obstructive lung disease resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Inhalation toxicology studies have shown severe respiratory effects in rats exposed to vapors from a paste butter flavoring, and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavorings. To gain a better understanding of worker exposures, we assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from butter flavorings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. We heated bulk samples of 40 different butter flavorings (liquids, pastes, and powders) to approximately 50 degrees C and used gas chromatography, with a mass selective detector, to measure the relative abundance of volatile organic compounds emitted. Air sampling was conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of powder, liquid, or paste flavorings with heated soybean oil at a microwave popcorn plant. To further examine the potential for respiratory exposures to powders, we measured dust generated during different simulated methods of manual handling of several powder butter flavorings. Powder flavorings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. The mean diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 64 and 26 times larger, respectively, than the mean of diacetyl emissions from powders. The median diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 364 and 72 times larger, respectively, than the median of diacetyl emissions from powders. Fourteen of 16 powders had diacetyl emissions that were lower than the diacetyl emissions from any liquid flavoring and from most paste flavorings. However, simulated handling of powder flavorings showed that a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated was of respirable size and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavorings should consider substituting flavorings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of

  6. Measurement of airborne particle concentrations near the Sunset Crater volcano, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Benke, Roland R; Hooper, Donald M; Durham, James S; Bannon, Donald R; Compton, Keith L; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald N

    2009-02-01

    Direct measurements of airborne particle mass concentrations or mass loads are often used to estimate health effects from the inhalation of resuspended contaminated soil. Airborne particle mass concentrations were measured using a personal sampler under a variety of surface-disturbing activities within different depositional environments at both volcanic and nonvolcanic sites near the Sunset Crater volcano in northern Arizona. Focused field investigations were performed at this analog site to improve the understanding of natural and human-induced processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The level of surface-disturbing activity was found to be the most influential factor affecting the measured airborne particle concentrations, which increased over three orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. As the surface-disturbing activity level increased, the particle size distribution and the majority of airborne particle mass shifted from particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mum (0.00039 in) to particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 10 mum (0.00039 in). Under ambient conditions, above average wind speeds tended to increase airborne particle concentrations. In contrast, stronger winds tended to decrease airborne particle concentrations in the breathing zone during light and heavy surface-disturbing conditions. A slight increase in the average airborne particle concentration during ambient conditions was found above older nonvolcanic deposits, which tended to be finer grained than the Sunset Crater tephra deposits. An increased airborne particle concentration was realized when walking on an extremely fine-grained deposit, but the sensitivity of airborne particle concentrations to the resuspendible fraction of near-surface grain mass was not conclusive in the field setting when human activities disturbed the bulk of near-surface material. Although the limited sample size precluded detailed statistical analysis, the differences in airborne particle

  7. ESEM-EDX characterisation of airborne particles from an industrialised area of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Iordanidis, Andreas; Buckman, Jim; Triantafyllou, Athanasios G; Asvesta, Argyro

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise individual airborne particles collected from the Ptolemais-Kozani region (Western Macedonia), northern Greece. Throughout a 1-year period (March 2003 to February 2004), we collected several filters that captured airborne particles at seven sampling sites distributed throughout the area. The airborne particles captured on the filters were then characterised by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The particles were categorised as geogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic. The main anthropogenic airborne particles were fly ash (released from lignite-fired power plants) and carbonaceous (soot and char) and metalliferous (mainly iron- and copper-enriched) particulates. We present here characteristic ESEM and EDX spectra for the airborne particles and underline the presence of characteristic primary and secondary sulphates.

  8. Airborne particle concentrations at schools measured at different spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Fuoco, F. C.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2013-03-01

    Potential adverse effects on children health may result from school exposure to airborne particles. To address this issue, measurements in terms of particle number concentration, particle size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentrations were performed in three school buildings in Cassino (Italy) and its suburbs, outside and inside of the classrooms during normal occupancy and use. Additional time resolved information was gathered on ventilation condition, classroom activity, and traffic count data around the schools were obtained using a video camera. Across the three investigated school buildings, the outdoor and indoor particle number concentration monitored down to 4 nm and up to 3 μm ranged from 2.8 × 104 part cm-3 to 4.7 × 104 part cm-3 and from 2.0 × 104 part cm-3 to 3.5 × 104 part cm-3, respectively. The total particle concentrations were usually higher outdoors than indoors, because no indoor sources were detected. I/O measured was less than 1 (varying in a relatively narrow range from 0.63 to 0.74), however one school exhibited indoor concentrations higher than outdoor during the morning rush hours. Particle size distribution at the outdoor site showed high particle concentrations in different size ranges, varying during the day; in relation to the starting and finishing of school time two modes were found. BC concentrations were 5 times higher at the urban school compared with the suburban and suburban-to-urban differences were larger than the relative differences of ultrafine particle concentrations.

  9. Experimental Studying of Dust Particles Charging by Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrikov, A. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Petrov, O. F.; Vorona, N. A.; Vasiliev, M. N.

    2008-09-07

    The studying of the dusty plasma properties under electron beam action are of great interest because it gives the unique opportunities for experimental investigation of strongly coupled systems as well as for developing the new dusty plasma technologies of creating the new composite materials. Highly charged dust particle generates electrostatic field that can accelerate positive ions to high power. It gives the unique possibilities of using these macroparticles (for deeply ions implantation, as catalysts for increasing rate of reactions with the high energy barrier, in the new ionic engines etc.). Presented work deals with the experimental investigation of dust particles charging under direct influence of electron beam. On the basis of experimental data the average velocities of dust particles were obtained and the charge of macroparticle was estimated.

  10. Fluctuation of charge on dust particles in a complex plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sodha, M. S.; Mishra, S. K.; Misra, Shikha; Srivastava, Sweta

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents an analytical model for the evaluation of the fluctuation of the charge on the dust particles in a complex plasma. In contrast to earlier analyses, which ignored the effect of dust particles on density and temperature of electrons and ions, the present model takes into account the number and energy balance of electrons and ions. Three cases, viz., (i) no emission, (ii) thermionic emission, and (iii) photoelectric emission of electrons from the dust particles, have been considered. The results have been graphically illustrated for typical parameters. It is seen that the plasma parameters, and hence the fluctuations, are considerably affected by the consideration of number and energy balance of electrons and ions. A comparison of the results of the present analysis with those of earlier works has also been made.

  11. Kinetic temperature of dust particle motion in gas-discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Norman, G E; Timofeev, A V

    2011-11-01

    A system of equations describing motion of dust particles in gas discharge plasma is formulated. This system is developed for a monolayer of dust particles with an account of dust particle charge fluctuations and features of the discharge near-electrode layer. Molecular dynamics simulation of the dust particles system is performed. A mechanism of dust particle average kinetic energy increase is suggested on the basis of theoretical analysis of the simulation results. It is shown that heating of dust particles' vertical motion is initiated by forced oscillations caused by the dust particles' charge fluctuations. The process of energy transfer from vertical to horizontal motion is based on the phenomenon of the parametric resonance. The combination of parametric and forced resonances explains the abnormally high values of the dust particles' kinetic energy. Estimates of frequency, amplitude, and kinetic energy of dust particles are close to the experimental values.

  12. Vertical mass impact and features of Saharan dust intrusions derived from ground-based remote sensing in synergy with airborne in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Andrey-Andrés, Javier; Gómez, Laura; Adame, José Antonio; Sorribas, Mar; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Puentedura, Olga; Cuevas, Emilio; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    A study of the vertical mass impact of Saharan dust intrusions is presented in this work. Simultaneous ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in-situ measurements performed during the AMISOC-TNF campaign over the Tenerife area (Canary Islands) in summertime from 01 July to 11 August 2013 were used for that purpose. A particular dusty (DD) case, associated to a progressively arriving dust intrusion lasting for two days on 31 July (weak incidence) and 01 August (strong incidence), is especially investigated. AERONET AOD and AEx values were ranging, respectively, from 0.2 to 1.4 and 0.35 to 0.05 along these two days. Vertical particle size distributions within fine and coarse modes (0.16-2.8 μm range) were obtained from aircraft aerosol spectrometer measurements. Extinction profiles and Lidar Ratio (LR) values were derived from MPLNET/Micro Pulse Lidar observations. MAXDOAS measurements were also used to retrieve the height-resolved aerosol extinction for evaluation purposes in comparison to Lidar-derived profiles. The synergy between Lidar observations and airborne measurements is established in terms of the Mass Extinction Efficiency (MEE) to calculate the vertical mass concentration of Saharan dust particles. Both the optical and microphysical profilings show dust particles mostly confined in a layer of 4.3 km thickness from 1.7 to 6 km height. LR ranged between 50 and 55 sr, typical values for Saharan dust particles. In addition, this 2-day dust event mostly affected the Free Troposphere (FT), being less intense in the Boundary Layer (BL). In particular, rather high Total Mass Concentrations (TMC) were found on the stronger DD day (01 August 2013): 124, 70 and 21 μg m-3 were estimated, respectively, at FT and BL altitudes and on the near-surface level. This dust impact was enhanced due to the increase of large particles affecting the FT, but also the BL, likely due to their gravitational settling. However, the use of an assumed averaged MEE value can be

  13. Real-time PCR detection of toxigenic Fusarium in airborne and settled grain dust and associations with trichothecene mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Eduard, Wijnand; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner

    2006-12-01

    Inhalation of immunomodulating mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. that are commonly found in grain dust may imply health risks for grain farmers. Airborne Fusarium and mycotoxin exposure levels are mainly unknown due to difficulties in identifying Fusarium and mycotoxins in personal aerosol samples. We used a novel real-time PCR method to quantify the fungal trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) and DNA specific to F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum in airborne and settled grain dust, determined the personal inhalant exposure level to toxigenic Fusarium during various activities, and evaluated whether quantitative measurements of Fusarium-DNA could predict trichothecene levels in grain dust. Airborne Fusarium-DNA was detected in personal samples even from short tasks (10-60 min). The median Fusarium-DNA level was significantly higher in settled than in airborne grain dust (p < 0.001), and only the F. langsethiae-DNA levels correlated significantly in settled and airborne dust (r(s) = 0.20, p = 0.003). Both F. langsethiae-DNA and tri5-DNA were associated with HT-2 and T-2 toxins (r(s) = 0.24-0.71, p < 0.05 to p < 00.01) in settled dust, and could thus be suitable as indicators for HT-2 and T-2. The median personal inhalant exposure to specific toxigenic Fusarium spp. was less than 1 genome m(-3), but the exposure ranged from 0-10(5) genomes m(-3). This study is the first to apply real-time PCR on personal samples of inhalable grain dust for the quantification of tri5 and species-specific Fusarium-DNA, which may have potential for risk assessments of inhaled trichothecenes.

  14. Dust particles investigation for future Russian lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolnikov, Gennady; Horanyi, Mihaly; Esposito, Francesca; Zakharov, Alexander; Popel, Sergey; Afonin, Valeri; Borisov, Nikolay; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Lyash, Andrey; Vorobyova, Elena; Petrov, Oleg; Lisin, Evgeny

    One of the complicating factors of the future robotic and human lunar landing missions is the influence of the dust. Meteorites bombardment has accompanied by shock-explosive phenomena, disintegration and mix of the lunar soil in depth and on area simultaneously. As a consequence, the lunar soil has undergone melting, physical and chemical transformations. Recently we have the some reemergence for interest of Moon investigation. The prospects in current century declare USA, China, India, and European Union. In Russia also prepare two missions: Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. Not last part of investigation of Moon surface is reviewing the dust condition near the ground of landers. Studying the properties of lunar dust is important both for scientific purposes to investigation the lunar exosphere component and for the technical safety of lunar robotic and manned missions. The absence of an atmosphere on the Moon's surface is leading to greater compaction and sintering. Properties of regolith and dust particles (density, temperature, composition, etc.) as well as near-surface lunar exosphere depend on solar activity, lunar local time and position of the Moon relative to the Earth's magneto tail. Upper layers of regolith are an insulator, which is charging as a result of solar UV radiation and the constant bombardment of charged particles, creates a charge distribution on the surface of the moon: positive on the illuminated side and negative on the night side. Charge distribution depends on the local lunar time, latitude and the electrical properties of the regolith (the presence of water in the regolith can influence the local distribution of charge). On light side of Moon near surface layer there exists possibility formation dusty plasma system. Altitude of levitation is depending from size of dust particle and Moon latitude. The distribution dust particle by size and altitude has estimated with taking into account photoelectrons, electrons and ions of solar wind, solar

  15. Dynamics of Cometary Dust Particles in Electromagnetic Radiation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranen, Joonas; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    The formation of cometary dust tails and comae is based on solar radiation pressure. The pressure effects of electromagnetic radiation were originally conceptualized in Kepler's observations of the tails of comets and formulated mathematically by Maxwell in 1873. Today, the dynamics of cometary dust are known to be governed by gravity, electromagnetic forces, drag, solar wind, and solar radiation pressure.Solar radiation pressure has its roots in absorption, emission, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation. Due to modern advances in so-called integral equation methods in electromagnetics, a new approach of studying the effect of radiation pressure on cometary dust dynamics can be constructed. We solve the forces and torques due to radiation pressure for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle using volume integral equation methods.We then present a framework for solving the equations of motion of cometary dust particles due to radiative interactions. The solution is studied in a simplified cometary environment, where the radiative effects are studied at different orbits. The rotational and translational equations of motion are solved directly using a quaternion-based integrator. The rotational and translational equations of motion affect dust particle alignment and concentration. This is seen in the polarization of the coma. Thus, our direct dynamical approach can be used in modelling the observed imaging photo-polarimetry of the coma.In future studies, the integrator can be further extended to an exemplary comet environment, taking into account the drag, and the electric and magnetic fields. This enables us to study the dynamics of a single cometary dust particle based on fundamental physics.Acknowledgments. Research supported, in part, bythe European Research Council (ERC, grant Nr. 320773).

  16. CHARACTERIZING THE SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS IN AIRBORNE FINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal and ambient exposures to airborne fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and genotoxic activity has been studied in populations in the US, Japan, China, and the Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors used to collect fine particles were extracted f...

  17. Observation of nitrate coatings on atmospheric mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. J.; Shao, L. Y.

    2009-03-01

    Nitrate compounds have received much attention because of their ability to alter the hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere. However, very little is known about specific characteristics of ambient nitrate-coated mineral particles on an individual particle scale. In this study, sample collection was conducted during brown haze and dust episodes between 24 May and 21 June 2007 in Beijing, northern China. Sizes, morphologies, and compositions of 332 mineral dust particles together with their coatings were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. Structures of some mineral particles were verified using selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). TEM observation indicates that approximately 90% of the collected mineral particles are covered by visible coatings in haze samples whereas only 5% are coated in the dust sample. 92% of the analyzed mineral particles are covered with Ca-, Mg-, and Na-rich coatings, and 8% are associated with K- and S-rich coatings. The majority of coatings contain Ca, Mg, O, and N with minor amounts of S and Cl, suggesting that they are possibly nitrates mixed with small amounts of sulfates and chlorides. These nitrate coatings are strongly correlated with the presence of alkaline mineral components (e.g., calcite and dolomite). CaSO4 particles with diameters from 10 to 500 nm were also detected in the coatings including Ca(NO3)2 and Mg(NO3)2. Our results indicate that mineral particles in brown haze episodes were involved in atmospheric heterogeneous reactions with two or more acidic gases (e.g., SO2, NO2, HCl, and HNO3). Mineral particles that acquire hygroscopic nitrate coatings tend to be more spherical and larger, enhancing their light scattering and CCN activity, both of which have cooling effects on the climate.

  18. Martian Dust Devils: Laboratory Simulations of Particle Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Balme, Matthew R.; Iverson, James D.; Metzger, Stephen; Mickelson, Robert; Phoreman, Jim; White, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus has been fabricated to simulate terrestrial and Martian dust devils. Comparisons of surface pressure profiles through the vortex core generated in the apparatus with both those in natural dust devils on Earth and those inferred for Mars are similar and are consistent with theoretical Rankine vortex models. Experiments to determine particle threshold under Earth ambient atmospheric pressures show that sand (particles > 60 micron in diameter) threshold is analogous to normal boundary-layer shear, in which the rotating winds of the vortex generate surface shear and hence lift. Lower-pressure experiments down to approx. 65 mbar follow this trend for sand-sized particles. However, smaller particles (i.e., dust) and all particles at very low pressures (w 10-60 mbar) appear to be subjected to an additional lift function interpreted to result from the strong decrease in atmospheric pressure centered beneath the vortex core. Initial results suggest that the wind speeds required for the entrainment of grains approx. 2 microns in diameter (i.e., Martian dust sizes) are about half those required for entrainment by boundary layer winds on both Earth and Mars.

  19. Dust Particle Dynamics in The Presence of Highly Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Brian; Konopka, Uwe; Thomas, Edward; Merlino, Robert; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2016-10-01

    Complex plasmas are four component plasmas that contain, in addition to the usual electrons, ions, and neutral atoms, macroscopic electrically charged (nanometer to micrometer) sized ``dust'' particles. These macroscopic particles typically obtain a net negative charge due to the higher mobility of electrons compared to that of ions. Because the electrons, ions, and dust particles are charged, their dynamics may be significantly modified by the presence of electric and magnetic fields. Possible consequences of this modification may be the charging rate and the equilibrium charge. For example, in the presence of a strong horizontal magnetic field (B >1 Tesla), it may be possible to observe dust particle gx B deflection and, from that deflection, determine the dust grain charge. In this poster, we present recent data from performing multiple particle dropping experiments to characterize the g x B deflection in the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX). This work is supported by funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Grant Number DE - SC0010485 and the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL-1543114.

  20. Martian dust devils: Laboratory simulations of particle threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Balme, Matthew R.; Iversen, James D.; Metzger, Stephen; Mickelson, Robert; Phoreman, Jim; White, Bruce

    2003-05-01

    An apparatus has been fabricated to simulate terrestrial and Martian dust devils. Comparisons of surface pressure profiles through the vortex core generated in the apparatus with both those in natural dust devils on Earth and those inferred for Mars are similar and are consistent with theoretical Rankine vortex models. Experiments to determine particle threshold under Earth ambient atmospheric pressures show that sand (particles > 60 μm in diameter) threshold is analogous to normal boundary-layer shear, in which the rotating winds of the vortex generate surface shear and hence lift. Lower-pressure experiments down to ~65 mbar follow this trend for sand-sized particles. However, smaller particles (i.e., dust) and all particles at very low pressures (~10-60 mbar) appear to be subjected to an additional lift function interpreted to result from the strong decrease in atmospheric pressure centered beneath the vortex core. Initial results suggest that the wind speeds required for the entrainment of grains ~2 μm in diameter (i.e., Martian dust sizes) are about half those required for entrainment by boundary layer winds on both Earth and Mars.

  1. Dust particles in high-speed flows: calculations of small-particle re-entry hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, M.T. II

    1984-02-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic calculations are used to model the dispersion of dust injected into a supersonic flow by the explosive disruption of a re-entry vehicle. The particles constitute an initial dustball that expands into the existing velocity field after the detonation. Dust grains subsequently form a plume along the vehicle path. The importance of aerodynamic and radiative heating of the dust is considered but not included in the calculations. Particles in the bow shock heat to the vaporization temperature because of drag and radiative heating, but particles in the dustball are shielded and consequently suffer only a small amount of vaporization. About 20% of the initial dust mass will be vaporized. Application of the results to dust grains entrained in the air blast of a near-surface nuclear explosion is briefly considered. 4 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  2. Iridium enrichment in airborne particles from kilauea volcano: january 1983.

    PubMed

    Zoller, W H; Parrington, J R; Kotra, J M

    1983-12-09

    Airborne particulate matter from the January 1983 eruption of Kilauea volcano was inadvertently collected on air filters at Mauna Loa Observatory at a sampling station used to observe particles in global circulation. Analyses of affected samples revealed unusually large concentrations of selenium, arsenic, indium, gold, and sulfur, as expected for volcanic emissions. Strikingly large concentrations of iridium were also observed, the ratio of iridium to aluminum being 17,000 times its value in Hawaiian basalt. Since iridium enrichments have not previously been observed in volcanic emissions, the results for Kilauea suggest that it is part of an unusual volcanic system which may be fed by magma from the mantle. The iridium enrichment appears to be linked with the high fluorine content of the volcanic gases, which suggests that the iridium is released as a volatile IrF(6).

  3. Carbon abundance and silicate mineralogy of anhydrous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kathie L.; Blanford, George E.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Kloeck, Wolfgang; Mckay, David S.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied nineteen anhydrous chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) using analytical electron microscopy. We have determined a method for quantitative light element EDX analysis of small particles and have applied these techniques to a group of IDPs. Our results show that some IDPs have significantly higher bulk carbon abundances than do carbonaceous chondrites. We have also identified a relationship between carbon abundance and silicate mineralogy in our set of anhydrous IDPs. In general, these particles are dominated by pyroxene, olivine, or a subequal mixture of olivine and pyroxene. The pyroxene-dominated IDPs have a higher carbon abundance than those dominated by olivines. Members of the mixed mineralogy IDPs can be grouped with either the pyroxene- or olivine-dominated particles based on their carbon abundance. The high carbon, pyroxene-dominated particles have primitive mineralogies and bulk compositions which show strong similarities to cometary dust particles. We believe that the lower carbon, olivine-dominated IDPs are probably derived from asteroids. Based on carbon abundances, the mixed-mineralogy group represents particles derived from either comets or asteroids. We believe that the high carbon, pyroxene-rich anhydrous IDPs are the best candidates for cometary dust.

  4. Coagulation of dust particles in a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horanyi, M.; Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The electrostatic charge of small dust grains in a plasma in which the temperature varies in time is discussed, pointing out that secondary electron emission might introduce charge separation. If the sign of the charge on small grains is opposite to that on big ones, enhanced coagulation can occur which will affect the size distribution of grains in a plasma. Two scenarios where this process might be relevant are considered: a hot plasma environment with temperature fluctuations and a cold plasma environment with transient heating events. The importance of the enhanced coagulation is uncertain, because the plasma parameters in grain-producing environments such as a molecular cloud or a protoplanetary disk are not known. It is possible, however, that this process is the most efficient mechanism for the growth of grains in the size range of 0.1-500 microns.

  5. Pulsed Holography of Rapidly Moving Dust Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-31

    orthodontal and dental work as a small "sand blatst" unit. Nitrogen gas at high pressure is passed through a regulator to reduce the pressure to the range 20...34projectile" is a 55 x 135 pmi particle emerging from the nozzle under 30 psi pressure, indicating a velocity of 20 to 60 rn/s. Resolution is

  6. Abundance and Community Structure of Bacteria on Asian Dust Particles Collected in Beijing, China, during the Asian Dust Season.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Baba, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Himezawa, Yuka; Enoki, Kanami; Saraya, Makoto; Li, Pin-Fang; Nasu, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 180 t/km(2) of Asian dust particles are estimated to fall annually on Beijing, China, and there is significant concern about the influence of microbes transported by Asian dust events on human health and downwind ecosystems. In this study, we collected Asian dust particles in Beijing, and analyzed the bacterial communities on these particles by culture-independent methods. Bacterial cells on Asian dust particles were visualized first by laser scanning microscopy, which demonstrated that Asian dust particles carry bacterial cells to Beijing. Bacterial abundance, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was 10(8) to 10(9) cells/g, a value about 10 times higher than that in Asian dust source soils. Inter-seasonal variability of bacterial community structures among Asian dust samples, as compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was low during the Asian dust season. Several viable bacteria, including intestinal bacteria, were found in Asian dust samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Clone library analysis targeting 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences demonstrated that bacterial phylogenetic diversity was high in the dust samples, and most of these were environmental bacteria distributed in soil and air. The dominant species in the clone library was Segetibacter aerophilus (Bacteroidetes), which was first isolated from an Asian dust sample collected in Korea. Our results also indicate the possibility of a change in the bacterial community structure during transportation and increases in desiccation-tolerant bacteria such as Firmicutes.

  7. Characterization of biogenic elements in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    Those particles that were designated cometary are aggregates of amorphous materials including carbon, iron-magnesium silicates, sulfides, metal and trace amounts of unusual phases. Most aggregates are carbon-rich with major and minor element abundances similar to a fine grained matrix of carbonaceous chondrites. Several particles were analyzed by a laser microprobe. The negative ionic species identified to date include carbon clusters, protonated carbon clusters, CN-, HCN-, CNO-, PO2-, PO3-, S-, S2- asnd OH-. These species are similar to those observed in cometary spectra and they support the assumption that organic materials are present. The occurance of phosphate ions suggests the presence of apatite or whitlockite. Cometary particle characteristics may indicate that the component grains represent primitive unaltered dust whose overall properties are extremely similar to altered primitive dust in carbonaceous chondrites.

  8. Automated classification of interplanetary dust particles: Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Catalog Volume 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Stepinski, Tomasz; Bell, Samuel W.

    2010-05-01

    The ``Cosmic Dust Catalog,'' published by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), describes thousands of interplanetary dust particles subjected to preliminary analysis and with labels indicating their origin. However, only about 80% of the particles are assigned unambiguous labels, the labels of the remaining 20% being uncertain. In addition, the Stardust mission results opened up the possibility that some particles classified as terrestrial contaminants are instead of cosmic (cometary) origin. In this article, we present a methodology for automatic classification of particles on the basis of similarity of their X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry spectra. The method is applied to the 467 particles constituting Volume 15 of the catalog. A first part of the analysis is to digitize the spectra from their scanned images. The digitized spectra are subjected to agglomerative clustering, which reveals 16 distinct clusters or compositional types of particles. The Sammon's map is used to visualize the relationship between different clusters; 6 clusters corresponding to cosmic particles and 10 clusters corresponding to terrestrial contaminants are clearly separated on the map indicating overall differences between diverse spectra of cosmic and terrestrial particles. By reconciling labels with the clustering structures, we propose the relabeling of 155 particles including the relabeling of 31 terrestrial contaminants into cosmic particles. The proposed relabeling needs to be confirmed by in-depth study of these particles. The paucity of particles with firmly determined cometary or asteroidal origin makes it difficult to establish whether the spectra based autoclassification can be utilized to discriminate between cometary and asteroidal particles. The methodology presented here can be used to classify all particles published in the catalog, as well as different samples for which comparable spectra are available.

  9. Direct Observation of Completely Processed Calcium Carbonate Dust Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Iedema, Martin J.; Ichkovich, Aviad; Graber, Ellen R.; Taraniuk, Ilya; Rudich, Yinon

    2005-05-27

    This study presents, for the first time, field evidence of complete, irreversible processing of solid calcium carbonate (calcite)-containing particles and quantitative formation of liquid calcium nitrate particles apparently as a result of heterogeneous reaction of calcium carbonate-containing mineral dust particles with gaseous nitric acid. Formation of nitrates from individual calcite and sea salt particles was followed as a function of time in aerosol samples collected at Shoresh, Israel. Morphology and compositional changes of individual particles were observed using conventional scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (SEM/EDX) and computer controlled SEM/EDX. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was utilized to determine and demonstrate the hygroscopic behavior of calcium nitrate particles found in some of the samples. Calcium nitrate particles are exceptionally hygroscopic and deliquesce even at very low relative humidity (RH) of 9 -11% which is lower than typical atmospheric environments. Transformation of non-hygroscopic dry mineral dust particles into hygroscopic wet aerosol may have substantial impacts on light scattering properties, the ability to modify clouds and heterogeneous chemistry.

  10. Dust Particle Velocity Measurement in Shock Tubes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-08

    00. . .. 0 . 37 21 Photography of Electronic System for CERF 6’ Shock Tubeo..o..... 38 22 Record of a Typical Doppler Burst...2.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION. Direct measurement of the particle velocity was obtained using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) [Ref. 2 and 3]. The...and transforms it into an electri- cal signal, known as Doppler burst. The period of the burst (T) is a function of the fringe spacing and the

  11. Potential of laser mass spectrometry for the analysis of environmental dust particles--a review.

    PubMed

    Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent

    2010-02-05

    Laser-based aerosol mass spectrometry in both on-line and off-line modes has become an essential tool to analyze airborne and industrial dust particles. The versatility of laser desorption and/or ionization appears to be a powerful tool to obtain the global composition of environment particles. Laser mass spectrometry to analyze inorganic (elemental and molecular), organic and biological aerosol components without or with a restricted number of preparation steps in both on-line and off-line modes can be regarded as an ideal analytical machine. However, some limitations are associated to this range of mass spectrometry techniques. This review presents the fundamental aspects of laser-based mass spectrometry and the different kinds of analyses, which may be done. A selected number of applications are then given which allows the reader to consider both the capabilities and the drawbacks of laser mass spectrometry to analyze dust environmental particles. Critical discussion is focused on comparison and new trends of these aerosol analytical techniques.

  12. Bacterial Composition and Survival on Sahara Dust Particles Transported to the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Meola, Marco; Lazzaro, Anna; Zeyer, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of Sahara dust (SD) particles is a frequent phenomenon in Europe, but little is known about the viability and composition of the bacterial community transported with SD. The goal of this study was to characterize SD-associated bacteria transported to the European Alps, deposited and entrapped in snow. During two distinct events in February and May 2014, SD particles were deposited and promptly covered by falling snow, thus preserving them in distinct ochre layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples at different depths from a snow profile at the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps; 3621 m a.s.l.). After filtration, we performed various microbiological and physicochemical analyses of the snow and dust particles therein that originated in Algeria. Our results show that bacteria survive and are metabolically active after the transport to the European Alps. Using high throughput sequencing, we observed distinct differences in bacterial community composition and structure in SD-layers as compared to clean snow layers. Sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers; however, phyla with low abundance such as Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bio-indicators for SD. Since many members of these phyla are known to be adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation, they are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-range airborne transport. PMID:26733988

  13. Hydrated interplanetary dust particle linked with carbonaceous chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The results of transmission electron microscope observations of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP) containing Fe-, Mg-rich smectite or mica as a major phase are reported. The sheet silicate appears to have formed by alteration of anhydrous silicates. Fassaite, a Ca, Al clinopyroxene, also occurs in this particle, and one of the crystals exhibits solar-flare tracks, clearly indicating that it is extraterrestrial. Fassaite is a major constituent of the Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions found in the carbonaceous chondrites, so its presence in this particle suggests that there may be a link between hydrated IDPs and carbonaceous chondrites in the early history of the solar system.

  14. Investigation of bacterial effects of Asian dust events through comparison with seasonal variability in outdoor airborne bacterial community

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jonguk; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric bacterial dispersion with aeolian dust has been reported to have a potential impact on public health and ecosystems. Asian dust is a major aeolian event that results in an estimated 4 million tons of Asian dust particles falling in Japan annually, 3,000–5,000 km away from their source regions. However, most studies have only investigated the effects of Asian dust during dust seasons. Therefore, in this study, outdoor bacterial abundance and community composition were determined by 16S rRNA quantitative PCR and amplicon sequencing, respectively, and compared on Asian and non-Asian dust days (2013–2015; 44 samples over four seasons). Seasonal variations in bacterial abundance of non-Asian dust days were not observed. Bacterial abundance of individual samples collected on non-Asian dust days changed dynamically relative to Asian dust days, with bacterial abundance occasionally reaching those of Asian dust days. The bacterial community composition on non-Asian dust days was rather stable seasonally, and did not differ from that on Asian dust days. These results indicate that bacteria in Asian dust does not immediately influence indigenous bacterial communities at the phylum/class level in distant downwind areas; accordingly, further studies of bacterial communities in downwind areas closer to the dust source are warranted. PMID:27761018

  15. Investigation of bacterial effects of Asian dust events through comparison with seasonal variability in outdoor airborne bacterial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jonguk; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric bacterial dispersion with aeolian dust has been reported to have a potential impact on public health and ecosystems. Asian dust is a major aeolian event that results in an estimated 4 million tons of Asian dust particles falling in Japan annually, 3,000–5,000 km away from their source regions. However, most studies have only investigated the effects of Asian dust during dust seasons. Therefore, in this study, outdoor bacterial abundance and community composition were determined by 16S rRNA quantitative PCR and amplicon sequencing, respectively, and compared on Asian and non-Asian dust days (2013–2015 44 samples over four seasons). Seasonal variations in bacterial abundance of non-Asian dust days were not observed. Bacterial abundance of individual samples collected on non-Asian dust days changed dynamically relative to Asian dust days, with bacterial abundance occasionally reaching those of Asian dust days. The bacterial community composition on non-Asian dust days was rather stable seasonally, and did not differ from that on Asian dust days. These results indicate that bacteria in Asian dust does not immediately influence indigenous bacterial communities at the phylum/class level in distant downwind areas; accordingly, further studies of bacterial communities in downwind areas closer to the dust source are warranted.

  16. The charging processes of dust particles and the effects of Lorentz scattering in the circum-solar dust band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. S.; Isobe, Syuzo

    1992-03-01

    An analysis is presented of the charging processes for the dust particles in the circumsolar dust band at 4 solar radii, as well as the effects of the interactions between these charged particles and the magnetized ambient solar wind plasma on the evolution of their orbits. It is concluded that due to the higher values of the potential on the dust particle and the ambient solar wind magnetic field, the Lorentz force affects a much wider size range of particles in the near-solar regions. Since the magnitude of the Lorentz force is much higher and its characteristic time to affect the particle's orbit is much lower than those for the Poynting-Robertson drag force, the Lorentz force is a major perturbing force for dust particles in the circumsolar dust band at 4 solar radii.

  17. Dust Particle Growth and Application in Low Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufendi, L.

    2008-09-01

    Dust particle nucleation and growth has been widely studied these last fifteen years in different chemistries and experimental conditions. This phenomenon is correlated with various electrical changes at electrodes, including self-bias voltage and amplitudes of the various harmonics of current and voltage [1]. Some of these changes, such as the appearance of more resistive plasma impedance, are correctly attributed to loss of electrons in the bulk plasma to form negative molecular ions (e.g. SiH3-) and more precisely charged nanoparticles. These changes were studied and correlated to the different phases on the dust particle formation. It is well known now that, in silane argon gas mixture discharges, in the first step of this particle formation we have formation of nanometer sized crystallites. These small entities accumulate and when their number density reaches a critical value, about 1011 to 1012 cm-1, they start to aggregate to form bigger particles. The different phases are well defined and determined thanks to the time evolution of the different electrical parameter changes. The purpose of this contribution is to compare different chemistries to highlight similarities and/or differences in order to establish possible universal dust particle growth mechanisms. The chemistries we studied concern SiH4-Ar, CH4, CH4-N2 and Sn(CH3)4 [2]. We also refer to works performed in other laboratories in different discharge configurations [3]. Different applications have already developed or are foreseen for these nanoparticles. The first application concerns the inclusion of nanosized dust crystallites in an amorphous matrix in order to modify the optoelectronic and mechanical properties [4-5]. At the present time a very active research programs are devoted towards single electron devises where nanometer sized crystallites play a role of quantum dots. These nanoparticles can be produced in low pressure cold plasmas.

  18. Effective magnetization of the dust particles in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kählert, Hanno

    2012-10-01

    The large mass and size of the dust particles in a complex plasma has several advantages, including low characteristic frequencies on the order of a few Hz and the ability to record their motion with video cameras. However, these properties pose major difficulties for achieving strong magnetization. While the light electrons and ions can be magnetized by (superconducting) magnets, magnetizing the heavy dust component is extremely challenging. Instead of further increasing the magnetic field strengths or decreasing the particle size, we use the analogy between the Lorentz force and the Coriolis force experienced by particles in a rotating reference frame to create ``effective magnetic fields'' which is a well-established technique in the field of trapped quantum gases [1]. To induce rotation in a complex plasma, we take advantage of the neutral drag force, which allows to transmit the motion of a rotating neutral gas to the dust particles [2]. The equations of motion in the rotating frame agree with those in a stationary gas except for the additional centrifugal and Coriolis forces [3]. Due to the slow rotation frequencies (˜ Hz) and contrary to the situation in a strong magnetic field, only the properties of the heavy dust particles are notably affected. Experiments with a rotating electrode realize the desired velocity profile for the neutral gas and allow us to verify the efficiency of the concept [3].[4pt] This work was performed in collaboration with J. Carstensen, M. Bonitz, H. L"owen, F. Greiner, and A. Piel.[4pt] [1] A. L. Fetter, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 647 (2009)[0pt] [2] J. Carstensen, F. Greiner, L.-J. Hou, H. Maurer, and A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 16, 013702 (2009)[0pt] [3] H. K"ahlert, J. Carstensen, M. Bonitz, H. L"owen, F. Greiner, and A. Piel, submitted for publication, arXiv:1206.5073

  19. New Manganese Silicide Mineral Phase in an Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Jones, J. H.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.; Kloeck, W.; Zolensky, M. E.; Messenger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup was identified as a source of an Earth-crossing dust stream with low Earth-encounter velocities, with peak anticipated fluxes during April in 2003 and 2004 [1]. In response to this prediction, NASA performed dedicated stratospheric dust collections using high altitude aircraft to target potential interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from this comet stream in April 2003. Several IDPs from this collection have shown unusually low noble gas abundances [2] consistent with the predicted short space exposure ages of Grigg-Skjellerup dust particles [1]. High abundances of large D enrichments [3] and presolar grains [4] in IDPs from this collection are also consistent with an origin from the comet Grigg-Skjellerup. Here we report a new mineral from one of the cluster IDPs of the "Grigg-Skjellerup" collection, L2055. Our report focuses on an unusual manganese-iron-chromium silicide phase that, to our knowledge, has not been observed previously in nature. This unique phase may also shed light on the genesis of the enigmatic low-Fe,Mn-enriched (LIME) olivine that has been previously reported in IDPs and meteorites [5].

  20. Investigation of aged Asian dust particles by the combined use of quantitative ED-EPMA and ATR-FTIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.-C.; Eom, H.-J.; Jung, H.-J.; Malek, M. A.; Kim, H. K.; Geng, H.; Ro, C.-U.

    2013-03-01

    In our previous works, it was demonstrated that the combined use of quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), which is also known as low-Z particle EPMA, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) imaging has great potential for a detailed characterization of individual aerosol particles. In this study, extensively chemically modified (aged) individual Asian dust particles collected during an Asian dust storm event on 11 November 2002 in Korea were characterized by the combined use of low-Z particle EPMA and ATR-FTIR imaging. Overall, 109 individual particles were classified into four particle types based on their morphology, elemental concentrations, and molecular species and/or functional groups of individual particles available from the two analytical techniques: Ca-containing (38%), NaNO3-containing (30%), silicate (22%), and miscellaneous particles (10%). Among the 41 Ca-containing particles, 10, 8, and 14 particles contained nitrate, sulfate, and both, respectively, whereas only two particles contained unreacted CaCO3. Airborne amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles were observed in this Asian dust sample for the first time, where their IR peaks for the insufficient symmetric environment of CO32- ions of ACC were clearly differentiated from those of crystalline CaCO3. This paper also reports the first inland field observation of CaCl2 particles probably converted from CaCO3 through the reaction with HCl(g). HCl(g) was likely released from the reaction of sea salt with NOx/HNO3, as all 33 particles of marine origin contained NaNO3 (no genuine sea salt particle was encountered). Some silicate particles with minor amounts of calcium were observed to be mixed with nitrate, sulfate, and water. Among 24 silicate particles, 10 particles are mixed with water, the presence of which could facilitate atmospheric heterogeneous reactions of silicate particles including swelling minerals, such

  1. Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Airborne Dust Associated with Mining Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betterton, E. A.; Csavina, J. L.; Field, J. P.; Landázuri, A. C.; Felix Villar, O.; Rine, K. P.; Sáez, A.; Pence, J.; Shayan, H.; Russell, M.

    2011-12-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. In this work, we report the size-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled near an inactive Superfund site and at an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with 10-stage (0.054 to 18 μm aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI), Dustrack monitors, and total suspended particulate (TSP) collectors. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 μm aerodynamic diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources.

  2. Influence of dust-particle concentration on gas-discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.

    2010-01-15

    A self-consistent kinetic model of a low-pressure dc glow discharge with dust particles based on Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function is presented. The ions and electrons production in ionizing processes as well as their recombination on the dust-particle surface and on the discharge tube wall were taken into account. The influence of dust-particle concentration N{sub d} on gas discharge and dust particles parameters was investigated. It is shown that the increase of N{sub d} leads to the increase of an averaged electric field and ion density, and to the decrease of a dust-particle charge and electron density in the dusty cloud. The results were obtained in a wide region of different discharge and dusty plasma parameters: dust particles density 10{sup 2}-10{sup 8} cm{sup -3}, discharge current density 10{sup -1}-10{sup 1} mA/cm{sup 2}, and dust particles radius 1, 2, and 5 mum. The scaling laws for dust-particle surface potential and electric filed dependencies on dust-particle density, particle radius and discharge currents were revealed. It is shown that the absorption of electrons and ions on the dust particles surface does not lead to the electron energy distribution function depletion due to a self-consistent adjustment of dust particles and discharge parameters.

  3. Influence of dust-particle concentration on gas-discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Sukhinin, G I; Fedoseev, A V

    2010-01-01

    A self-consistent kinetic model of a low-pressure dc glow discharge with dust particles based on Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function is presented. The ions and electrons production in ionizing processes as well as their recombination on the dust-particle surface and on the discharge tube wall were taken into account. The influence of dust-particle concentration N(d) on gas discharge and dust particles parameters was investigated. It is shown that the increase of N(d) leads to the increase of an averaged electric field and ion density, and to the decrease of a dust-particle charge and electron density in the dusty cloud. The results were obtained in a wide region of different discharge and dusty plasma parameters: dust particles density 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3), discharge current density 10(-1)-10(1) mA/cm(2), and dust particles radius 1, 2, and 5 microm. The scaling laws for dust-particle surface potential and electric filed dependencies on dust-particle density, particle radius and discharge currents were revealed. It is shown that the absorption of electrons and ions on the dust particles surface does not lead to the electron energy distribution function depletion due to a self-consistent adjustment of dust particles and discharge parameters.

  4. The impact of dust particle morphological details on light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemppinen, Osku; Nousiainen, Timo; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa; Jeong, Gi Young

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the impact of dust particle surface roughness and internal structure on light scattering. Starting from digital representation of realistically shaped dust particles, we vary the particle morphology, and perform light scattering simulations to both the original and the modified particles. By mapping the changes in morphology to the changes in scattering, we will get information of how strongly and in which way a particular change affects scattering. All investigations have been done with complex, irregular particle shapes. For surface roughness studies we have kept the particle total volume virtually constant during the roughening process, and the roughness element size small enough to keep the overall shape relatively unchanged. For internal structure studies, the size and the external shape are kept constant. These safety measures help ensure that the effects seen are in fact due to the feature studied. The work is notable for model development, because some models can not include surface roughness, for example. In that case, the people who use such models have to adjust for the fact that the results are inaccurate, and by knowing how surface roughness typically changes the scattering results, the adjustment can be made. As a corollary, if it is shown that a particular feature does not change scattering results in any noticeable way, the model developers can confidently ignore or simplify it.

  5. Electrostatic Characteristics of Materials Exposed to Martian Simulant Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, C. I.; Kim, H. S.; Young, S.; Jackson, D.; Lombardi, A. J.

    1998-11-01

    The Pathfinder mission to Mars identified Andesitic rock as the primary type of rock at the landing site. Several experiments were designed at NASA/Kennedy Space Center to determine the charging characteristics of common space materials exposed to small particles derived from those rocks. MARS-1, a Martian soil simulant prepared from Andesitic rocks by NASA/JSC was used in this work. Characterization of this simulant was made using scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy coupled with a carbon-sulfur detector. These results were compared to the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer analysis on Pathfinder. The simulant was found to be a suitable substitute for Martian soil for our purposes. Two experimental designs and methods to simulate the exposure of different materials to wind-blown dust were made. These designs permit dust particle delivery to samples at different speeds. Initial experiments made with these designs to determine their viability were promising.

  6. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  7. The effect on cast post dimensions of casting investment and airborne particle abrasion.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Danya; German, Matthew J; Wassell, Robert W

    2011-09-01

    Cast posts can sometimes prove difficult to seat fully during fitting. This study compared two different liquid/water dilutions for phosphate bonded investment and the effect of controlled airborne particle abrasion on resulting post diameter. After measuring polymeric post patterns (n = 18), 3 groups were invested using concentrated solution and 3 groups using dilute solution. After casting they were weighed and remeasured then exposed to airborne particle abrasion. Both solutions produced oversized cast posts. Mean diameter reduction during airborne particle abrasion was 8 microm/10s taking an average of 41s to reach precast size. Where a post pattern fits tightly, airborne particle abrasion for 70s should reduce the casting sufficiently to accommodate the cement lute.

  8. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  9. Stochastic Circumplanetary Dynamics of Rotating Non-Spherical Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, Martin; Brilliantov, N. V.; Sremcevic, M.; Spahn, F.; Krivov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    Influence of stochastically fluctuating radiation pressure on the dynamics of dust grains on circumplanetary orbits was studied. Stochasticity stems from the permanent change of the particle cross-section due to rotation of nonspherical grains, exposed to the solar radiation. We found that stochasticity depends on the characteristic angular velocity of particles which, according to our estimates, spins very fast on the time scale of the orbital motion. According to this we modelled the stochastic part of the radiation pressure by a Gaussian white noise. Gauss perturbation equations with the radiation pressure being a sum of the deterministic and stochastic component have been used. We observed monotonous increasing standard deviation of the orbital elements, that is, the diffusive-like behaviour of the ensemble, which results in a spatial spreading of initially confined set of particles. By linear approximation we obtained expression for the effective diffusion coefficients and estimate their dependence on the geometrical characteristics of particles and their spin. Teoretical results were compared with numerical simulations performed for the putative dust tori of Mars. Our theory agrees fairly well with simulations for the initial period of the system evolution. The agreement however deteriorates with increasing time where impact of the non-linear terms of the perturbation equations becomes important. Analysis shows that the theoretical results may estimate the low boundary of the time-dependent standard deviation of the orbital elements. In the case of dust ejected from Martian moon Deimos we observed a change of orbital elements up to 10% of their initial values during the first 1000 years of orbital evolution. Our results indicate that the stochastic modulation of the radiation pressure can play an important role in the circumplanetary dynamics of dust and may, together with further noise sources (shadow, planetary bowshock, charge fluctuations, etc

  10. Migration of Dust Particles and Their Collisions with the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    Our review of previously published papers on dust migration can be found in [1], where we also present different distributions of migrating dust particles. We considered a different set of initial orbits for the dust particles than those in the previous papers. Below we pay the main attention to the collisional probabilities of migrating dust particles with the planets based on a set of orbital elements during their evolution. Such probabilities were not calculated earlier.

  11. Properties of dust particles near Saturn inferred from voltage pulses induced by dust impacts on Cassini spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.-Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kempf, S.; Hsu, H.-W.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.

    2014-08-01

    The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument can detect dust particles when voltage pulses induced by the dust impacts are observed in the wideband receiver. The size of the voltage pulse is proportional to the mass of the impacting dust particle. For the first time, the dust impacts signals measured by dipole and monopole electric antennas are compared, from which the effective impact area of the spacecraft is estimated to be 4 m2. In the monopole mode, the polarity of the dust impact signal is determined by the spacecraft potential and the location of the impact (on the spacecraft body or the antenna), which can be used to statistically infer the charge state of the spacecraft. It is shown that the differential number density of the dust particles near Saturn can be characterized as a power law dn/dr ∝ rμ, where μ ~ - 4 and r is the particle size. No peak is observed in the size distribution, contrary to the narrow size distribution found by previous studies. The RPWS cumulative dust density is compared with the Cosmic Dust Analyzer High Rate Detector measurement. The differences between the two instruments are within the range of uncertainty estimated for RPWS measurement. The RPWS onboard dust recorder and counter data are used to map the dust density and spacecraft charging state within Saturn's magnetosphere.

  12. Stochastic circumplanetary Dynamics of rotating non-spherical Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, M.; Brilliantov, N. V.; Sremcevic, M.; Spahn, F.; Krivov, A. V.

    We investigate the influence of stochastically fluctuating radiation pressure on the dynamics of dust grains on circumplanetary orbits. The stochasticity stems from the permanent change of the particle cross-section exposed to the solar radiation due to rotation of nonspherical grains. Therefore, the stochastic properties of the radiation pressure are related to the ensemble-averaged characteristics of rotating particles, such as orientational time-correlation function of an individual grain. We evaluate this function and observe that it depends on the characteristic angular velocity of particles, which according to our estimates, spin very fast on the time scale of the orbital motion. This allows to model the stochastic part of the radiation pressure by a Gaussian white noise. The parameters of the noise are expressed in terms of the particle's geometric properties and their characteristic spin. In our analytical approach we use the Gauss perturbation equations with the radiation pressure being a sum of the deterministic and stochastic component and analyse the dynamics of a grains ensemble. We observe a steadily increasing standard deviation of the orbital elements, that is, the diffusive-like behaviour of the ensemble, which results in a spatial spreading of initially confined set of particles. In the linear approximation we obtain analytical expression for the effective diffusion coefficients and estimate their dependence on the geometrical characteristics of particles and their spin. The results of our analytical theory were compared with extensive numerical simulations performed for a specific dust complex, the putative dust tori of Mars. We found that our theory agrees fairly well with simulations for the initial period of the system evolution. The agreement however deteriorates at later time when the impact of the non-linear terms of the perturbation equations, neglected in our theory, becomes important. Nevertheless, the analysis shows that the theoretical

  13. Effects of plasma particle trapping on dust-acoustic solitary waves in an opposite polarity dust-plasma medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Mushtaq, A.; Mamun, A. A.

    2013-03-15

    Dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma containing dust of opposite polarity (adiabatic positive and negative dust), non-isothermal electrons and ions (following vortex like distribution) are theoretically investigated by employing pseudo-potential approach, which is valid for arbitrary amplitude structures. The propagation of small but finite amplitude solitary structures is also examined by using the reductive perturbation method. The basic properties of large (small) amplitude solitary structures are investigated by analyzing the energy integral (modified Korteweg-de Vries equation). It is shown that the effects of dust polarity, trapping of plasma particles (electrons and ions), and temperatures of dust fluids significantly modify the basic features of the dust-acoustic solitary structures that are found to exist in such an opposite polarity dust-plasma medium. The relevance of the work in opposite polarity dust-plasma, which may occur in cometary tails, upper mesosphere, Jupiter's magnetosphere, is briefly discussed.

  14. Dust Particles Alignments and Transitions in a Plasma Sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, J. D. E.; Samarian, A. A.; Vladimirov, S. V.

    2008-09-07

    The alignments and transitions of two dust particles in a plasma sheath have been investigated. It is shown that the Hamiltonian description of a non-Hamiltonian system can be used to predict qualitative features of possible equilibria in a variety of confinement potentials and can provide useful plasma diagnostics. The results compare favorably with simulation and are used to create new experimental hypotheses. In particular, the symmetry breaking transition of the particles as they leave the horizontal plane admits a Hamiltonian description which is used to elucidate the wake parameter.

  15. Erosion of circumstellar particle disks by interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Griffith, Caitlin A.

    1989-01-01

    Circumstellar particle disks appear to be a common phenomenon; however, their properties vary greatly. Models of the evolution of such systems focus on internal mechanisms such as interparticle collisions and Poynting-Robertson drag. Herein it is shown that 'sandblasting' by interstellar dust can be an important and even dominant contributor to the evolution of circumstellar particle disks. Stars spend up to about 3 percent of their main-sequence lifetimes within atomic clouds. Among an IRAS sample of 21 nearby main-sequence A stars, beta Pictoris has the brightest disk; it also possesses the smallest random velocity and therefore the slowest predicted erosion rate.

  16. Analytical electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David F.; Bunch, T. E.; Mardinly, A. J.; Echer, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Properties of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP), Ames-Dec86-11, were investigated using TEM and analytical electron microscopy. The particle was found to have mineralogy and chondritic composition indicating an absence of direct kinship with known carbonaceous chondrites. The available data on the Ames-Dec86-11 suggest that at least one aqueous alteration event took place in this hydrated IDP, during which fine-grained material, possibly glass, was transformed to smectite. This event appears to be unique to hydrated IDPs.

  17. Analytical electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. F.; Mardinly, A. J.; Echer, C. J.; Bunch, T. E.

    Properties of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP), Ames-Dec86-11, were investigated using TEM and analytical electron microscopy. The particle was found to have mineralogy and chondritic composition indicating an absence of direct kinship with known carbonaceous chondrites. The available data on the Ames-Dec86-11 suggest that at least one aqueous alteration event took place in this hydrated IDP, during which fine-grained material, possibly glass, was transformed to smectite. This event appears to be unique to hydrated IDPs.

  18. Particle creation in (2+1) circular dust collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Gutti, Sashideep; Singh, T. P.

    2007-09-15

    We investigate the quantum particle creation during the circularly symmetric collapse of a 2+1 dust cloud, for the cases when the cosmological constant is either zero or negative. We derive the Ford-Parker formula for the 2+1 case, which can be used to compute the radiated quantum flux in the geometric optics approximation. It is shown that no particles are created when the collapse ends in a naked singularity, unlike in the 3+1 case. When the collapse ends in a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, we recover the expected Hawking radiation.

  19. Coagulation of Dust Particles in Argon Plasma of RF Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Olevanov, M. A.; Pal, A. F.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O.; Filippov, A. V.

    2008-09-07

    The experiments on coagulation of poly-disperse particles with various size distributions injected into the argon plasma of the magnetron radio-frequency discharge are discussed. The experiments were carried out under the conditions similar to those using dusty plasma for technology applications. Within the created theory the threshold behavior of the coagulation process was explained for the first time, the estimation of the critical particle size for onset of a fast coagulation was made, and the analytical calculation of the coagulation rate of dust particles was performed. The proposed coagulation mechanism makes it possible to describe the typical features of coagulation processes observed in experiments and to explain the effects of attraction and coalescence of highly negatively charged microns size particles.

  20. Quantification of Spore-forming Bacteria Carried by Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Cholakian, Tanya; Gao, Wenming; Osman, Shariff; Barengoltz, Jack

    2006-01-01

    In order to establish a biological contamination transport model for predicting the cross contamination risk during spacecraft assembly and upon landing on Mars, it is important to understand the relationship between spore-forming bacteria and their carrier particles. We conducted air and surface sampling in indoor, outdoor, and cleanroom environments to determine the ratio of spore forming bacteria to their dust particle carriers of different sizes. The number of spore forming bacteria was determined from various size groups of particles in a given environment. Our data also confirms the existence of multiple spores on a single particle and spore clumps. This study will help in developing a better bio-contamination transport model, which in turn will help in determining forward contamination risks for future missions.

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of Airborne Bacterial Community and Diversity in Seoul, Korea, during December 2014, Asian Dust Event

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seho; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lee, Dongwook; Lim, Sora; Kim, Kyung Sang; Jheong, Weonhwa; Lee, Dong-Won; Park, Eung-Roh; Chung, Hyun-Mi; Choe, Joonho; Kim, Myung Kyum; Seo, Taegun

    2017-01-01

    Asian dust or yellow sand events in East Asia are a major issue of environmental contamination and human health, causing increasing concern. A high amount of dust particles, especially called as particulate matter 10 (PM10), is transported by the wind from the arid and semi-arid tracks to the Korean peninsula, bringing a bacterial population that alters the terrestrial and atmospheric microbial communities. In this study, we aimed to explore the bacterial populations of Asian dust samples collected during November–December 2014. The dust samples were collected using the impinger method, and the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified using PCR followed by pyrosequencing. Analysis of the sequencing data were performed using Mothur software. The data showed that the number of operational taxonomic units and diversity index during Asian dust events were higher than those during non-Asian dust events. At the phylum level, the proportions of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were different between Asian dust and non-Asian dust samples. At the genus level, the proportions of the genus Bacillus (6.9%), Arthrobacter (3.6%), Blastocatella (2%), Planomicrobium (1.4%) were increased during Asian dust compared to those in non-Asian dust samples. This study showed that the significant relationship between bacterial populations of Asian dust samples and non-Asian dust samples in Korea, which could significantly affect the microbial population in the environment. PMID:28122054

  2. Modeling of dust deposition in central Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition of dust particles has a significant influence on the global bio-geochemical cycle. Currently, the lack of spatiotemporal data creates great uncertainty in estimating the global dust budget. To improve our understanding of the fate, transport and cycling of airborne dust, there is a ne...

  3. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Silicate Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolles, Tobias; Burkart, Julia; Häusler, Thomas; Pummer, Bernhard; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Mineral dusts originating from Earth's crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts [1-3]. Nevertheless, among those structures K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. In this study, the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars were investigated in closer details. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. We give a potential explanation of the increased ice nucleation activity of K-feldspar. The ice nucleating sites are very much dependent on the alkali ion present by altering the water structure and the feldspar surface. The higher activity of K-feldspar can be attributed to the presence of potassium ions on the surface and surface bilayer. The alkali-ions have different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar. Chaotropic behavior of Calcium and Sodium ions are lowering the ice nucleation potential of the other feldspars, while kosmotropic Potassium has a neutral or even positive effect. Furthermore we investigated the influence of milling onto the ice nucleation of quartz particles. The ice nucleation activity can be increased by mechanical milling, by introducing more molecular, nucleation active defects to the particle surface. This effect is larger than expected by plane surface increase. [1] Atkinson et al. The Importance of Feldspar for Ice Nucleation by Mineral Dust in Mixed-Phase Clouds. Nature 2013, 498, 355-358. [2] Yakobi-Hancock et al.. Feldspar Minerals as Efficient Deposition Ice Nuclei. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 11175-11185. [3] Zolles et al. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Feldspar Dust Particles. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015 accepted.

  4. Nonviscous motion of a slow particle in a dust crystal under microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhukhovitskii, D I; Fortov, V E; Molotkov, V I; Lipaev, A M; Naumkin, V N; Thomas, H M; Ivlev, A V; Schwabe, M; Morfill, G E

    2012-07-01

    Subsonic motion of a large particle moving through the bulk of a dust crystal formed by negatively charged small particles is investigated using the PK-3 Plus laboratory onboard the International Space Station. Tracing the particle trajectories shows that the large particle moves almost freely through the bulk of the plasma crystal, while dust particles move along characteristic α-shaped pathways near the large particle. In the hydrodynamic approximation, we develop a theory of nonviscous dust particle motion about a large particle and calculate particle trajectories. Good agreement with experiment validates our approach.

  5. High Precision Oxygen Three Isotope Analysis of Wild-2 Particles and Anhydrous Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, D.; Ushikubo, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Joswiak, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Matrajt, G.; Kita, N. T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important discoveries from comet Wild-2 samples was observation of crystalline silicate particles that resemble chondrules and CAIs in carbonaceous chondrites. Previous oxygen isotope analyses of crystalline silicate terminal particles showed heterogeneous oxygen isotope ratios with delta(sup 18)O to approx. delta(sup 17)O down to -50% in the CAI-like particle Inti, a relict olivine grain in Gozen-sama, and an olivine particle. However, many Wild-2 particles as well as ferromagnesian silicates in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) showed Delta(sup 17)O values that cluster around -2%. In carbonaceous chondrites, chondrules seem to show two major isotope reservoirs with Delta(sup 17)O values at -5% and -2%. It was suggested that the Delta(sup 17)O = -2% is the common oxygen isotope reservoir for carbonaceous chondrite chondrules and cometary dust, from the outer asteroid belt to the Kuiper belt region. However, a larger dataset with high precision isotope analyses (+/-1-2%) is still needed to resolve the similarities or distinctions among Wild-2 particles, IDPs and chondrules in meteorites. We have made signifi-cant efforts to establish routine analyses of small particles (< or =10micronsm) at 1-2% precision using IMS-1280 at WiscSIMS laboratory. Here we report new results of high precision oxygen isotope analyses of Wild-2 particles and anhydrous chondritic IDPs, and discuss the relationship between the cometary dust and carbonaceous chondrite chondrules.

  6. Threshold separation distance for attractive interaction between dust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Jabdaraghi, R. Najafi; Sobhanian, S.

    2008-09-07

    Interaction between dust grains in a dusty plasma could be both repulsive and attractive. The Coulomb interaction between two negatively charged dust particulates and the electrostatic force between them are repulsive, while the shadowing force affecting them is attractive. We show in this paper that in some experimental conditions, there is some grain separation zone for which the attractive shadowing force is larger than the repulsive forces between them. In experimental conditions, for the grains separation distance r = 0.4 cm the shadowing force is almost equal to the electrostatic force between them and for r>0.4 cm the shadowing force exceeds the electrostatic force. So the resultant interaction force will be attractive. The possibility of dust crystal formation in this zone and also the motion of dust particles in the resultant potential of the form V = -(a/r)+(b/r{sup 2}) will be discussed. This form of potential comes from the combination electrostatic (F{sub es} (c/r{sup 3})) and shadowing (F{sub shadow} = -(d/r{sup 2})) forces.

  7. Evaluation of Airborne Particle Emissions from Commercial Products Containing Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guannan; Park, Jae Hong; Cena, Lorenzo G.; Shelton, Betsy L.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The emission of the airborne particles from epoxy resin test sticks with different CNT loadings and two commercial products were characterized while sanding with three grit sizes and three disc sander speeds. The total number concentrations, respirable mass concentrations, and particle size number/mass distributions of the emitted particles were measured using a condensation particle counter, an optical particle counter, and a scanning mobility particle sizer. The emitted particles were sampled on a polycarbonate filter and analyzed using electron microscopy. The highest number concentrations (arithmetic mean = 4670 particles/cm3) were produced with coarse sandpaper, 2% (by weight) CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed, whereas the lowest number concentrations (arithmetic mean = 92 particles/cm3) were produced with medium sandpaper, 2% CNT test sticks and slow disc sander speed. Respirable mass concentrations were highest (arithmetic mean = 1.01 mg/m3) for fine sandpaper, 2% CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed and lowest (arithmetic mean = 0.20 mg/m3) for medium sandpaper, 0% CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed. For CNT-epoxy samples, airborne particles were primarily micrometer-sized epoxy cores with CNT protrusions. No free CNTs were observed in airborne samples, except for tests conducted with 4% CNT epoxy. The number concentration, mass concentration, and size distribution of airborne particles generated when products containing CNTs are sanded depends on the conditions of sanding and the characteristics of the material being sanded. PMID:23204914

  8. Evaluation of Airborne Particle Emissions from Commercial Products Containing Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guannan; Park, Jae Hong; Cena, Lorenzo G; Shelton, Betsy L; Peters, Thomas M

    2012-10-01

    The emission of the airborne particles from epoxy resin test sticks with different CNT loadings and two commercial products were characterized while sanding with three grit sizes and three disc sander speeds. The total number concentrations, respirable mass concentrations, and particle size number/mass distributions of the emitted particles were measured using a condensation particle counter, an optical particle counter, and a scanning mobility particle sizer. The emitted particles were sampled on a polycarbonate filter and analyzed using electron microscopy. The highest number concentrations (arithmetic mean = 4670 particles/cm(3)) were produced with coarse sandpaper, 2% (by weight) CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed, whereas the lowest number concentrations (arithmetic mean = 92 particles/cm(3)) were produced with medium sandpaper, 2% CNT test sticks and slow disc sander speed. Respirable mass concentrations were highest (arithmetic mean = 1.01 mg/m(3)) for fine sandpaper, 2% CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed and lowest (arithmetic mean = 0.20 mg/m(3)) for medium sandpaper, 0% CNT test sticks and medium disc sander speed. For CNT-epoxy samples, airborne particles were primarily micrometer-sized epoxy cores with CNT protrusions. No free CNTs were observed in airborne samples, except for tests conducted with 4% CNT epoxy. The number concentration, mass concentration, and size distribution of airborne particles generated when products containing CNTs are sanded depends on the conditions of sanding and the characteristics of the material being sanded.

  9. Dust Transport Across the Atlantic Studied by Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar During the Saltrace Experiment in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-06-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment, conducted during June/July 2013, the Saharan dust transport across the Atlantic was analyzed by a set of ground based, in-situ and airborne instruments, including a 2-μm coherent DWL (Doppler wind lidar) mounted onboard the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. An overview of the measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction, horizontal and vertical winds retrieved from the DWL are presented together with a brief description of the applied methods. The retrieved measurements provide direct observation of Saharan dust transport mechanisms across the Atlantic as well as island induced lee waves in the Barbados region.

  10. Self-refreshing characteristics of an airborne particle sensor using a bridged paddle oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsuk; Lee, Seung-Beck; Park, Bonghyun; Sul, Onejae

    2016-05-01

    We report on the self-refreshing characteristics of a micromachined airborne particle sensor. The sensor consists of a bridge-type beam having an oscillating paddle-type particle collector at its center. When a positive potential is applied to the paddle, the sensor is able to attract and collect negatively charged airborne particles while oscillating close to its resonant frequency and thereby measure their density from the change in the oscillating phase at ˜10 pg resolution. When the applied potential is removed, the collected particles are detached from the sensor due to momentum transfer from the oscillating paddle, thus demonstrating a self-refreshing capability.

  11. Mixture state and size of Asian dust particles collected at southwestern Japan in spring 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daizhou; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Shi, Guangyu; Zang, Jiaye; Matsuki, Atsushi; Trochkine, Dmitri

    2003-12-01

    Atmospheric particles were collected at Kumamoto (32°48'N, 130°45'E), a coastal city in southwestern Japan, during three dust storm events in spring 2000. The elemental composition and size of individual dust particles and their mixture state with sea salt, sulfate, and nitrate were analyzed using electron microscopes and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. About 60 ˜ 85% of dust particles were internally mixed with sea salt. Weather records indicated these particles were most probably formed by the collisions and coagulations of dust particles and sea-salt particles. The relative weight ratios of mineral components to sea salt in individual particles showed that the mixtures of particles were dominated by mineral, by sea salt, or by both. Size distributions of the particles segregated by the mixture levels of mineral and sea salt in the three dust storm events were similar and all distributions showed a diameter range of 1 ˜ 8 μm with maximum mode around 3 μm. Out of 1 ˜ 8 μm, dust particles were rarely detected. The combination of dust particles with sea salt caused an increase in size of the dust particles. Therefore the decrease of particle concentrations in the range of diameter >3 μm suggests the critical diameter for dust particle dispersion was possibly around 3 μm and a dust particle might be removed rapidly if it became larger than this scale in the marine atmosphere. Detection of sulfate and nitrate revealed that 91% or more dust particles contained sulfate and 27% or less contained nitrate. The comparisons of the relative weight ratios of sodium, sulfur, and chlorine in mixture particles and in sea-salt particles confirmed previous results that mineral materials could enhance particulate sulfate and nitrate formation and restrain chlorine depletion from the sea-salt components in mixture particles.

  12. Enrichment of Mineral Dust Storm Particles with Sea Salt Elements - Using bulk and Single Particle Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamane, Y.; Perrino, C.; Yossef, O.

    2009-12-01

    Mineral aerosol emitted from African and Asian deserts plays an important role in the atmosphere. During their long-range transport, the physical and chemical properties of mineral dust particles change due to heterogeneous reactions with trace gases, coagulation with other particles, and in-cloud processing. These processes affect the optical and hygroscopic properties of dust particles, and in general influencing the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere. Four African and Arabian dust storm episodes affecting the East Mediterranean Coast in the spring of 2006 have been characterized, to determine if atmospheric natural dust particles are enriched with sea salt and anthropogenic pollution. Particle samplers included PM10 and manual dichotomous sampler that collected fine and coarse particles. Three sets of filters were used: Teflon filters for gravimetric, elemental and ionic analyses; Pre-fired Quartz-fiber filters for elemental and organic carbon; and Nuclepore filters for scanning electron microscopy analysis. Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (Philips XL 30 ESEM) was used to analyze single particle, for morphology, size and chemistry of selected filter samples. A detailed chemical and microscopical characterization has been performed for the particles collected during dust event days and during clear days. The Saharan and Arabian air masses increased significantly the daily mass concentrations of the coarse and the fine particle fractions. Carbonates, mostly as soil calcites mixed with dolomites, and silicates are the major components of the coarse fraction, followed by sea salt particles. In addition, the levels of anthropogenic heavy metals and sea salt elements registered during the dust episode were considerably higher than levels recorded during clear days. Sea salt elements contain Na and Cl, and smaller amounts of Mg, K, S and Br. Cl ranges from 300 to 5500 ng/m3 and Na from 100 to almost 2400 ng/m3. The Cl to Na ratio on dusty days in

  13. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    PubMed

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments.

  14. MOS sensors for detection of small dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, J. C.; Durin, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    Most of recent data on the size distribution of micrometeoroids and small space debris come from passive detectors exposed on low earth orbits. The active instrument presented here is able to study the environment on any kind of orbits. The detectors will use a technology pioneered by J.J. Wortman and used previously on LDEF and Clementine satellites. Thin dielectric capacitor sensors are made from 2 inches diameter silicon wafers. The device is operated with an electrical potential (bias) applied across the capacitor plates : a charge is normally stored in the capacitor. When a high velocity particle impacts the exposed plate with enough energy, it can cause the dielectric to breakdown and results in a discharge of the capacitor. The event is measured by monitoring the charge required to recharge the capacitor. After impact the sensor reaches again its nominal voltage within a short time. Evaporation of the electrode around the impact site usually prevent the occurrence of a permanent short. Comprehensive testing upon impact has been made with an electrostatic dust accelerator in Heidelberg and and a plasma drag accelerator in Munich. The detection threshold for a dielectric 1.4 μm thick is reached with a dust particle of 1 μm in diameter, at a velocity of 3 km/s. This type of detector can be used to monitor the small particulate environment. It is best suited to the detection of micron sized particles on a routine basis. Its foreseen use on satellites and on the ISS could increase our knowledge on the distribution of man-made orbital debris and natural dust particles

  15. Atmospheric and surface temperatures and airborne dust amounts during late southern summer from Mariner 9 IRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M.; Crisp, D.

    1992-01-01

    The temperature structure and dust loading of the Martian atmosphere are investigated using thermal emission spectra recorded in 1972 by the Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS). The analysis focuses on a subset of data consisting of approximately 2400 spectra obtained near the end of the southern summer season (L(sub s) equal to 343 deg to 348 deg), after the global dust storm had largely abated and airborne dust amounts were subsiding to background values. Simultaneous retrieval of the vertical distribution of both atmospheric temperature and dust optical depth is accomplished through an iterative procedure which is performed on each individual spectrum. The atmospheric transmittances are calculated using a Voigt quasi-random band model, which includes absorption by CO2 and dust, but neglects the effects of multiple scattering. Vertical profiles of temperature and dust optical depth are obtained using modified algorithms. These profiles are used to construct global maps of temperature and dust optical depth as functions of latitude (+/- 90 deg), altitude (approximately 0-50 km), and local time of day.

  16. Color-based tracking of plasma dust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Villamayor, Michelle Marie S. Soriano, Maricor N.; Ramos, Henry J.; Kato, Shuichi; Wada, Motoi

    2014-02-15

    Color-based tracking to observe agglomeration of deposited particles inside a compact planar magnetron during plasma discharge was done by creating high dynamic range (HDR) images of photos captured by a Pentax K10D digital camera. Carbon erosion and redeposition was also monitored using the technique. The HDR images were subjected to a chromaticity-based constraint discoloration inside the plasma chamber indicating film formation or carbon redeposition. Results show that dust deposition occurs first near the evacuation pumps due to the pressure gradient and then accumulates at the positively charged walls of the chamber. This method can be applied to monitor dust formation during dusty plasma experiments without major modification of plasma devices, useful especially for large fusion reactors.

  17. Carbon Raman Spectroscopy of 36 Inter-Planetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Davidson, J.; Franchi, I. A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool to determine the degree of order of organic material (OM) in extra-terrestrial matter. As shown for meteoritic OM [e.g., 2], peak parameters of D and G bands are a measure of thermal alteration, causing graphitization (order), and amorphization, e.g. during protoplanetary irradiation, causing disorder. Th e most pristine interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) may come from comets. However, their exact provenance is unknown. IDP collection during Earth?s passage through comet Grigg-Skjellerup?s dust stream ("GSC" collectors) may increase the probability of collecting fresh IDPs from a known, cometary source. We used Raman spectroscopy to compare 21 GSC-IDPs with 15 IDPs collected at different periods, and found that the variation among GSC-IDPs is larger than among non-GSC IDPs, with the most primitive IDPs being mostly GSC-IDPs.

  18. Factors affecting vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Vinni M; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-03-01

    We have quantified vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1→3)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust. Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers' exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants. Also removing strings in cucumber greenhouses caused a lower exposure to bioaerosols than harvest of cucumbers while removal of old plants caused the highest exposure. In general, the exposure was higher in greenhouses than in open fields. The exposures to β-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m(-3)) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers' exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked, the investigated work tasks, and the vegetable crop.

  19. Proof-of-principle results for identifying the composition of dust particles and volcanic ash samples through the technique of photon activation analysis at the IAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtimin, Mayir; Cole, Philip L.; Segebade, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Instrumental analytical methods are preferable in studying sub-milligram quantities of airborne particulates collected in dust filters. The multi-step analytical procedure used in treating samples through chemical separation can be quite complicated. Further, due to the minute masses of the airborne particulates collected on filters, such chemical treatment can easily lead to significant levels of contamination. Radio-analytical techniques, and in particular, activation analysis methods offer a far cleaner alternative. Activation methods require minimal sample preparation and provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting the vast majority of the elements throughout the periodic table. In this paper, we will give a general overview of the technique of photon activation analysis. We will show that by activating dust particles with 10- to 30-MeV bremsstrahlung photons, we can ascertain their elemental composition. The samples are embedded in dust-collection filters and are irradiated "as is" by these photons. The radioactivity of the photonuclear reaction products is measured with appropriate spectrometers and the respective analytes are quantified using multi-component calibration materials. We shall provide specific examples of identifying the elemental components of airborne dust particles and volcanic ash by making use of bremsstrahlung photons from an electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho.

  20. Multielement analysis of interplanetary dust particles using TOF-SIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, T.; Kloeck, W.; Jessberger, E. K.; Rulle, H.; Zehnpfenning, J.

    1993-01-01

    Sections of three stratospheric particles (U2015G1, W7029*A27, and L2005P9) were analyzed with TOF-SIMS (Time Of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) continuing our efforts to investigate the element distribution in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) with high lateral resolution (approximately 0.2 micron), to examine possible atmospheric contamination effects, and to further explore the abilities of this technique for element analysis of small samples. The samples, previously investigated with SXRF (synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis), are highly enriched in Br (Br/Fe: 59 x CI, 9.2 x CI, and 116 x CI, respectively). U2015G1 is the IDP with the by far highest Zn/Fe-ratio (81 x CI) ever reported in chondritic particles.

  1. Stochastic circumplanetary dynamics of rotating non-spherical dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, Martin; Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Sremčević, Miodrag; Spahn, Frank; Krivov, Alexander V.

    2006-08-01

    We develop a model of stochastic radiation pressure for rotating non-spherical particles and apply the model to circumplanetary dynamics of dust grains. The stochastic properties of the radiation pressure are related to the ensemble-averaged characteristics of the rotating particles, which are given in terms of the rotational time-correlation function of a grain. We investigate the model analytically and show that an ensemble of particle trajectories demonstrates a diffusion-like behaviour. The analytical results are compared with numerical simulations, performed for the motion of the dusty ejecta from Deimos in orbit around Mars. We find that the theoretical predictions are in a good agreement with the simulation results. The agreement however deteriorates at later time, when the impact of non-linear terms, neglected in the analytic approach, becomes significant. Our results indicate that the stochastic modulation of the radiation pressure can play an important role in the circumplanetary dynamics of dust and may in case of some dusty systems noticeably alter an optical depth.

  2. Microbial analyses of airborne dust collected from dormitory rooms predict the sex of occupants.

    PubMed

    Luongo, J C; Barberán, A; Hacker-Cary, R; Morgan, E E; Miller, S L; Fierer, N

    2017-03-01

    We have long known that human occupants are a major source of microbes in the built environment, thus raising the question: How much can we learn about the occupants of a building by analyzing the microbial communities found in indoor air? We investigated bacterial and fungal diversity found in airborne dust collected onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) air filters and settling plates from 91 rooms within a university dormitory. The sex of the room occupants had the most significant effect on the bacterial communities, while the room occupants had no significant effect on fungal communities. By examining the abundances of bacterial genera, we could predict the sex of room occupants with 79% accuracy, a finding that demonstrates the potential forensic applications of studying indoor air microbiology. We also identified which bacterial taxa were indicators of female and male rooms, and found that those taxa often identified as members of the vaginal microbiome were more common in female-occupied rooms while taxa associated with human skin or the male urogenital microbiota were more common in male-occupied rooms.

  3. Bioassay of environmental nickel dusts in a particle feeding ciliate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Leibovitz, B.; Donathan, R.; Fisher, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium was used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nickel particles. The biological response of these eukaryotic cells to pure nickel powder and iron-nickel powder was assayed and compared to the effect of the inorganic carcinogen nickel subsulfide. Cytotoxicity was determined by the percent survival of treated cells. Genotoxicity was indicated by significant increases in the fraction of nonviable offspring (presumed index of lethal mutations) found after self-fertilization (autogamy) in parents from the nickel-treated versus neutral control groups. The cells were exposed to the dusts and the biological effects determined. Only the nickel subsulfide consistently showed a significant increase in offspring lethality.

  4. Trace Element Abundance Measurements on Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1996-01-01

    The X-Ray Microprobe on beamline X-26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to determine the abundances of elements from Cr through Sr in individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere and the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X-1A at the NSLS was used to determine the carbon abundances and spatial distributions in IDPs. In addition, modeling was performed in an attempt to associate particular types of IDPs with specific types of parent bodies, and thus to infer the chemistry, mineralogy, and structural properties of those parent bodies.

  5. Parameters of Dust Particles in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Morozhenko, A. V.

    2001-11-01

    A critical analysis of the methods and results of estimating the optical thickness of the dust component in the Martian atmosphere τ_0, the particle size r_0, and the imaginary part of the refractive index n_ihas shown the following. (1) Observational data on the brightness distribution over the Martian disk as well as the phase dependences of diffusely reflected light and the azimuthal dependences of diffusely transmitted light are most appropriate to use only for verifying the reliability of the aerosol parameters determined by other methods. (2) If the morning and evening fogs in the atmosphere are disregarded, the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer method used to analyze the solar-brightness attenuation measured on the planetary surface yields overestimated extraatmospheric solar intensity I_0and atmospheric optical depth τ_0. At the Viking 1landing site, I_0and τ_0could be overestimated by a factor of 1.7 and by 0.35, respectively. (3) The aerosol size determined by analyzing measurements of the azimuthal dependences for the Martian sky brightness at low elevations of the Sun most likely corresponds to the fog particles. (4) If overestimated values of I_0were used to standardize the observations of the solar radiation transmitted by the Martian atmosphere, then n_iwere also overestimated; using overestimated τ_0also affected the reliability of the latter. (5) The problem of reliability of the available τ_0and r_0estimates for periods of high atmospheric transparency is yet to be solved. For the highest activity of the dust storm in 1971, it was found that 4.5 <= r_0<= 7.5 μm for the lognormal particle size distribution with σ^2= 0.2 and the optical thickness of a dust cloud τ_0>= 15. (6) The spectral values of the apparent albedo of Mars measured in October 1971 at a phase angle of 42° in the spectral range 0.250 <= λ <= 0.717 allowed the imaginary part of the refractive index to be estimated in terms of a model of a dust cloud composed of spherical particles with

  6. Migration of Dust Particles from Comet 2P Encke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the migration of dust particles under the gravitational influence of all planets (except for Pluto), radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag for Beta equal to 0.002, 0.004, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4. For silicate particles such values of Beta correspond to diameters equal to about 200, 100, 40, 9, 4, 2, and 1 microns, respectively. We used the Bulirsh-Stoer method of integration, and the relative error per integration step was taken to be less than lo-'. Initial orbits of the particles were close to the orbit of Comet 2P Encke. We considered initial particles near perihelion (runs denoted as Delta tsub o, = 0), near aphelion (Delta tsub o, = 0.5), and also studied their initial positions when the comet moved for Pa/4 after perihelion passage (such runs are denoted as Delta tsub o, =i 0.25), where Pa is the period of the comet. Variations in time T when perihelion was passed was varied with a step 0.1 day for series 'S' and with a step 1 day for series 'L'. For each Beta we considered N = 101 particles for "S" runs and 150 particles for "L" runs.

  7. Comparison of Lead Species in Household Dust Wipes, Soil, and Airborne Particulate Matter in El Paso, Texas, by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the interplay of indoor and outdoor sources of lead in an urban setting is one foundation in establishing risk for lead exposure in children in our cities. A household may be the source for lead contamination due to the deterioration of interior lead-based paint, or a sink if lead particles are tracked or blown into the home from such potential ambient sources as yard soil or urban street dust. In addressing this issue, X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) presents the opportunity to directly and quantitatively speciate lead at low concentrations in bulk samples. We performed XAS analyses on dust wipes from window sills or floors from 8 houses that exceeded Federal standards for lead in dust. We entered these data into a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) that also included El Paso environmental samples: lead-based paints, soils, and airborne particulate matter. A simple two-component mixing system accounted for more than 95% of the variance of this data set. Paint and lead oxide appear to be the principal components, with all the samples falling in a compositional range from pure paint to 75% paint, 25% lead oxide. Note that several different lead compounds are possible constituents of a given lead-based paint. The paints spread from one end out along perhaps a fifth of the range of the compositional axis, followed closely, but not overlapped, by the soil samples, which covered the remainder of the compositional range. Two of the dust wipes plotted within the paint range, and the remaining 6 dust wipes plotted randomly through the soil range. Samples of airborne particulate matter plotted in both the paint and soil ranges. These observations suggest that the lead on most of the dust wipes originated outside the house, probably from deteriorated exterior lead-based paint deposited in adjacent yards. This paint mixed with lead oxide present in the soil and entered the houses by the airborne route. The probable source of the oxide in the soil is former

  8. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry.

    PubMed

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(TM)), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS(TM)), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification.

  9. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry

    PubMed Central

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPITM), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPSTM), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification. PMID:27598180

  10. Observation of chemical modification of Asian Dust particles during long-range transport by the combined use of quantitative ED-EPMA and ATR-FT-IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Chul; Eom, Hyo-Jin; Jung, Hae-Jin; Malek, Md Abdul; Kim, HyeKyeong; Ro, Chul-Un

    2012-10-01

    In our previous works, it was demonstrated that the combined use of quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), which is also known as low-Z particle EPMA, and attenuated total reflectance FT-IR (ATR-FT-IR) imaging has great potential for a detailed characterization of individual aerosol particles. In this study, individual Asian Dust particles collected during an Asian Dust storm event on 11 November 2011 in Korea were characterized by the combined use of low-Z particle EPMA and ATR-FT-IR imaging. The combined use of the two single-particle analytical techniques on the same individual particles showed that Asian Dust particles had experienced extensive chemical modification during long-range transport. Overall, 109 individual particles were classified into four particle types based on their morphology, elemental concentrations, and molecular species and/or functional groups of individual particles available from the two analytical techniques: Ca-containing (38%); NaNO3-containing (30%); silicate (22%); and miscellaneous particles (10%). Among the 41 Ca-containing particles, 10, 8, and 14 particles contained nitrate, sulfate, and both, respectively, whereas only two particles contained unreacted CaCO3. Airborne amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles were observed in this Asian Dust sample for the first time, where their IR peaks for the insufficient symmetric environment of CO32- ions of ACC were clearly differentiated from those of crystalline CaCO3. This paper also reports the field observations of CaCl2 particles converted from CaCO3 for the Asian Dust sample collected in the planetary boundary layer. Thirty three particles contained NaNO3, which are the reaction products of sea-salt and NOx/HNO3, whereas no genuine sea-salt particles were encountered, indicating that sea-salt particles are more reactive than CaCO3 particles. Some silicate particles were observed to contain nitrate, sulfate, and water. Among 24 silicate

  11. Rapid Identification of Airborne Biological Particles by Flow Cytometry, Gas Chromatography, and Genetic Probes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    isolated culture of Heterobasidion annosum. The yeast and bacterial specimens have not been identified, since their identifications require biochemical...RZ-SZAACH. DEVELOPMENr & E-NONEERINO CENTER U.S. AR..!f CHR ICAL AND SIOLOGIC-NL DEFENSE COMNMA1D RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE BIOLOGICAL...Ground, Maryland 21010-5423 ERRATUM SHEET 30 October 1997 REPORT NO. ERDEC-TR-443 TITLE RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE BIOLOGICAL PARTICLES BY FLOW

  12. A brief report of gram-negative bacterial endotoxin levels in airborne and settled dusts in animal confinement buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thedell, T.D.; Mull, J.C.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, implicated in adverse worker health responses, were found in settled and airborne dust samples obtained from poultry and swine confinement units. Results of the Limulus amebocyte lysate gel test found endotoxin levels in dust samples ranged from 4.5 to 47.7 micrograms of FDA Klebsiella endotoxin equivalents/gm. Differences in endotoxin levels between dust samples may have been due to variables in time, geographic locations, confined animals, confinement buildings and equipment, and methods of sample collection. Animal confinement workers are potentially exposed to large amounts of gram-negative bacterial endotoxins; however, the respiratory health effects of such exposures to animal confinement workers have yet to be determined.

  13. Temperature measurement of a dust particle in a RF plasma GEC reference cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-10-01

    The thermal motion of a dust particle levitated in a plasma chamber is similar to that described by Brownian motion in many ways. The primary difference between a dust particle in a plasma system and a free Brownian particle is that in addition to the random collisions between the dust particle and the neutral gas atoms, there are electric field fluctuations, dust charge fluctuations, and correlated motions from the unwanted continuous signals originating within the plasma system itself. This last contribution does not include random motion and is therefore separable from the random motion in a `normal' temperature measurement. In this paper, we discuss how to separate random and coherent motions of a dust particle confined in a glass box in a Gaseous Electronic Conference (GEC) radio-frequency (RF) reference cell employing experimentally determined dust particle fluctuation data analysed using the mean square displacement technique.

  14. What We are Learning about Airborne Particles from MISR Multi-angle Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    The NASA Earth Observing System’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument has been collecting global observations in 36 angular-spectral channels about once per week for over 14 years. Regarding airborne particles, MISR is contributing in three broad areas: (1) aerosol optical depth (AOD), especially over land surface, including bright desert, (2) wildfire smoke, desert dust, and volcanic ash injection and near-source plume height, and (3) aerosol type, the aggregate of qualitative constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA). Early advances in the retrieval of these quantities focused on AOD, for which surface-based sun photometers provided a global network of ground truth, and plume height, for which ground-based and airborne lidar offered near-coincident validation data. MSIR monthly, global AOD products contributed directly to the advances in modeling aerosol impacts on climate made between the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) third and fourth assessment reports. MISR stereo-derived plume heights are now being used to constrain source inventories for the AeroCom aerosol-climate modeling effort. The remaining challenge for the MISR aerosol effort is to refine and validate our global aerosol type product. Unlike AOD and plume height, aerosol type as retrieved by MISR is a qualitative classification derived from multi-dimensional constraints, so evaluation must be done on a categorical basis. Coincident aerosol type validation data are far less common than for AOD, and, except for rare Golden Days during aircraft field campaigns, amount to remote sensing retrievals from suborbital instruments having uncertainties comparable to those from the MISR product itself. And satellite remote sensing retrievals of aerosol type are much more sensitive to scene conditions such as surface variability and AOD than either AOD or plume height. MISR aerosol type retrieval capability and information content have been

  15. "CHON" particles: The interstellar component of cometary dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, David J.

    1998-04-01

    Interstellar dust is characterized by strong absorption in the ultraviolet and the mid-IR. Current models of interstellar dust are based on three chemically distinct components: a form of carbon (usually graphite), a silicate, and a blend of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or other carbonaceous material. Previous work using effective medium theories to understand the optical properties of cometary dust suggested that an amalgam of materials could reproduce the observed interstellar and cometary dust features. Recently, Lawler and Brownlee (1992) re-analyzed the PIA and PUMA-1 data sets from the Giotto flyby of P/Halley and discovered that the so-called "CHON" particles were actually composed of a blend of carbon-bearing and silicon-bearing materials. Based on effective medium theories, the absorption spectrum of such a material would display the spectral features of each of the components - strong UV absorption from the carbonaceous component and strong absorption in the IR from the silicate component. To test this idea, vapor-deposited samples were created using two different deposition techniques: sputtering with an argon RF magnetron and deposition from an argon plasma torch. Two different compositions were tested: a blend of graphite and silica in a 7:1 ratio and an amalgam of materials whose approximate composition matches the "CHON"-silicate abundances for the uncompressed PIA data set of Lawler and Brownlee: graphite, iron oxide, magnesium oxide, ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and silica in mass ratios of 6:4.3:4:2.2:1:9. The samples were finely ground and pressed into 2" diameter disks using a 40 ton press. In all, four different experiments were performed: one with each of the compositions (C:SiO and "CHON") in both the RF magnetron and the plasma torch chambers. The RF magnetron created a uniform dark thin film on the substrate surface, and the plasma torch created a coating of small (<100 micron) diameter grey particles. The spectra of all four

  16. "CHON" particles: The interstellar component of cometary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Interstellar dust is characterized by strong absorption in the ultraviolet and the mid-IR. Current models of interstellar dust are based on three chemically distinct components: a form of carbon (usually graphite), a silicate, and a blend of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or other carbonaceous material. Previous work using effective medium theories to understand the optical properties of cometary dust suggested that an amalgam of materials could reproduce the observed interstellar and cometary dust features. Recently, Lawler and Brownlee (1992) re-analyzed the PIA and PUMA-1 data sets from the Giotto flyby of P/Halley and discovered that the so-called "CHON" particles were actually composed of a blend of carbon-bearing and silicon-bearing materials. Based on effective medium theories, the absorption spectrum of such a material would display the spectral features of each of the components - strong UV absorption from the carbonaceous component and strong absorption in the IR from the silicate component. To test this idea, vapor-deposited samples were created using two different deposition techniques: sputtering with an argon RF magnetron and deposition from an argon plasma torch. Two different compositions were tested: a blend of graphite and silica in a 7:1 ratio and an amalgam of materials whose approximate composition matches the "CHON"-silicate abundances for the uncompressed PIA data set of Lawler and Brownlee: graphite, iron oxide, magnesium oxide, ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and silica in mass ratios of 6:4.3:4:2.2:1:9. The samples were finely ground and pressed into 2" diameter disks using a 40 ton press. In all, four different experiments were performed: one with each of the compositions (C:SiO and "CHON") in both the RF magnetron and the plasma torch chambers. The RF magnetron created a uniform dark thin film on the substrate surface, and the plasma torch created a coating of small (<100 micron) diameter grey particles. The spectra of all four

  17. Analysis of Measurements of Saharan Dust by Airborne and Ground-based Remote Sensing Methods during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kinney, James E.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, E. Judd; Tsay, Si-Chee; Eleuterio, Daniel P.; Campbell, James; Christopher, Sundar A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.

    2003-01-01

    For 26 days in mid-June and July 2000, a research group comprised of U.S. Navy, NASA, and university scientists conducted the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). In this paper we give a brief overview of mean meteorological conditions during the study. We focus on findings on African dust transported into the Caribbean utilizing Navajo aircraft and AERONET Sun photometer data. During the study midvisible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in Puerto Rico averaged 0.25, with a maximum less than 0.5 and with clean marine periods of _0.08. Dust AOTs near the coast of Africa (Cape Verde Islands and Dakar) averaged _0.4, 30% less than previous years. By analyzing dust vertical profiles in addition to supplemental meteorology and MPLNET lidar data we found that dust transport cannot be easily categorized into any particular conceptual model. Toward the end of the study period, the vertical distribution of dust was similar to the commonly assumed Saharan Air Layer (SAL) transport. During the early periods of the study, dust had the highest concentrations in the marine and convective boundary layers with only a, weak dust layer in the SAL being present, a state usually associated with wintertime transport patterns. We corroborate the findings of Maring et al. that in most cases, there was an unexpected lack of vertical stratification of dust particle size. We systematically analyze processes which may impact dust vertical distribution and determine and speculate that dust vertical distribution predominately influenced by flow patterns over Africa and differential advection couple with mixing by easterly waves and regional subsidence.

  18. Laboratory Study of Airborne Fallout Particles and Their Time Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. A., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Samples of filtered airborne particulate, collected daily for the first month after the September 18, 1977 Chinese nuclear detonation, showed fourteen fission products. Fluctuations in the daily fallout activity levels suggested a global fallout orbit time of approximately twenty days. (Author/BB)

  19. Fractal signatures in analogs of interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, Nisha; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are an important constituent of the earths stratosphere, interstellar and interplanetary medium, cometary comae and tails, etc. Their physical and optical characteristics are significantly influenced by the morphology of silicate aggregates which form the core in IDPs. In this paper we reinterpret scattering data from laboratory analogs of cosmic silicate aggregates created by Volten et al. (2007) [1] to extract their morphological features. By evaluating the structure factor, we find that the aggregates are mass fractals with a mass fractal dimension dm≃1.75. The same fractal dimension also characterizes clusters obtained from diffusion limited aggregation (DLA). This suggests that the analogs are formed by an irreversible aggregation of stochastically transported silicate particles.

  20. Nonstationary stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shotorban, B.

    2011-06-15

    Stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle that are due to discreteness of electrons and ions in plasmas can be described by a one-step process master equation [T. Matsoukas and M. Russell, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4285 (1995)] with no exact solution. In the present work, using the system size expansion method of Van Kampen along with the linear noise approximation, a Fokker-Planck equation with an exact Gaussian solution is developed by expanding the master equation. The Gaussian solution has time-dependent mean and variance governed by two ordinary differential equations modeling the nonstationary process of dust particle charging. The model is tested via the comparison of its results to the results obtained by solving the master equation numerically. The electron and ion currents are calculated through the orbital motion limited theory. At various times of the nonstationary process of charging, the model results are in a very good agreement with the master equation results. The deviation is more significant when the standard deviation of the charge is comparable to the mean charge in magnitude.

  1. Micromorphology and chemistry of airborne particles in Brussels during agriculture working periods in surrounding region.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, P; Lénelle, Y; Meurrens, A; Carati, D; Brenig, L; Offer, Z Y; Zaady, E

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of our research was to compare the airborne particle micromorphology and chemistry in the Brussels environment during agriculture working periods in the surrounding farming region. We used specific methods and instrumentation that are adapted to the climate peculiarities of the Brussels region, the period of investigations (12 months) and the proposed objectives. For the agricultural works we defined the following six periods: before sowing, sowing, after sowing, before harvest, harvest and after harvest. The results indicate a possible temporal correlation between agricultural work periods and airborne particle concentration, micromorphology and chemistry in the Brabant-Brussels region. For wheat and corn plant-growth periods, the average particle size, defined as the area obtained by a planar projection of the particulate, showed important variations in time. For sugar beet and endive, the average area size variations are less important. The roughness and sphericity parameters for the growth periods of the four different plants also showed significant differences. Many of the larger particulates (> 10 microm) are aggregates of even finer particles coated with many still finer ones. The airborne particle chemistry averages (atomic percentage At%), showed that three constituents (Si, S and Fe) dominate all the samples (except for particles 3-10 microm in size, which contain a relatively large percentage of Al). Applying similar investigation methods to study the correlations between airborne particle dynamics in urban zones and the agriculture working periods in their surrounding regions could be of interest to better understand the complexity of the PM problematic.

  2. Layer-like Structure of Radio-Frequency Discharge with Dust Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, O. Y.; Vakulenko, A. V.; Lisitchenko, T. Y.; Levada, G. I.

    2008-09-07

    In this paper we are carried out the computer simulation of the dust particles dynamics in the radio frequency discharges at the microgravity conditions using PIC/MCC method for electrons and ions and hydrodynamics model for dust particles. The moving of dust particles is governed by the electrostatic force, ion and neutral drag forces, which are averaged over period of RF discharge. The obtained results show that dust particles form layers with sharp boundaries in the discharge chamber that is response on the instability of the radio-frequency discharge.

  3. Self-organization and oscillation of negatively charged dust particles in a 2-dimensional dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. L.; Huang, F.; Chen, Z. Y.; Liu, Y. H.; Yu, M. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Negatively charged dust particles immersed in 2-dimensional dusty plasma system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the confinement potential and attraction interaction potential on dust particle self-organization are studied in detail and two typical dust particle distributions are obtained when the system reaches equilibrium. The average radial velocity (ARV), average radial force (ARF) and radial mean square displacement are employed to analyze the dust particles' dynamics. Both ARVs and ARFs exhibit oscillation behaviors when the simulation system reaches equilibrium state. The relationships between the oscillation and confinement potential and attraction potential are studied in this paper. The simulation results are qualitatively similar to experimental results.

  4. An Assessment of the Surface Longwave Direct Radiative Effect of Airborne Saharan Dust During the NAMMA Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansell, R. A.; Tsay, S. C.; Ji, Q.; Hsu, N. C.; Jeong, M. J.; Wang, S. H.; Reid, J. S.; Liou, K. N.; Ou, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2006, NASA Goddard s mobile ground-based laboratories were deployed to Sal Island in Cape Verde (16.73degN, 22.93degW) to support the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) field study. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), a key instrument for spectrally characterizing the thermal IR, was used to retrieve the dust IR aerosol optical depths (AOTs) in order to examine the diurnal variability of airborne dust with emphasis on three separate dust events. AERI retrievals of dust AOT are compared with those from the coincident/collocated multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR), micropulse lidar (MPL), and NASA Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) sensors. The retrieved AOTs are then inputted into the Fu-Liou 1D radiative transfer model to evaluate local instantaneous direct longwave radiative effects (DRE(sub LW)) of dust at the surface in cloud-free atmospheres and its sensitivity to dust microphysical parameters. The top-of-atmosphere DRE(sub LW) and longwave heating rate profiles are also evaluated. Instantaneous surface DRE(sub LW) ranges from 2 to 10 W/sq m and exhibits a strong linear dependence with dust AOT yielding a DRE(sub LW) of 16 W/sq m per unit dust AOT. The DRE(sub LW) is estimated to be approx.42% of the diurnally averaged direct shortwave radiative effect at the surface but of opposite sign, partly compensating for the shortwave losses. Certainly nonnegligible, the authors conclude that DRE(sub LW) can significantly impact the atmospheric energetics, representing an important component in the study of regional climate variation.

  5. Airborne measurements of cloud forming nuclei and aerosol particles at Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, L. F.; Langer, G.; Hindman, E. E., II

    1978-01-01

    Results of airborne measurements of the sizes and concentrations of aerosol particles, ice nuclei, and cloud condensation nuclei that were taken at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are presented along with a detailed description of the instrumentation and measuring capabilities of the University of Washington airborne measuring facility (Douglas B-23). Airborne measurements made at Ft. Collins, Colorado, and Little Rock, Arkansas, during the ferry of the B-23 are presented. The particle concentrations differed significantly between the clean air over Ft. Collins and the hazy air over Little Rock and Kennedy Space Center. The concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei over Kennedy Space Center were typical of polluted eastern seaboard air. Three different instruments were used to measure ice nuclei: one used filters to collect the particles, and the others used optical and acoustical methods to detect ice crystals grown in portable cloud chambers. A comparison of the ice nucleus counts, which are in good agreement, is presented.

  6. Airborne Coarse Mode Aerosol Measurements with the CAS-DPOL Instrument: Effects of Particle Shape and Refractive Index and Implications for Radiative Transfer Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, D. N.; Weinzierl, B.; Gasteiger, J.; Spanu, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Gross, S.

    2015-12-01

    Each year huge amounts of mineral dust are mobilized in deserts and arid regions of the world and transported over large distances forming thick elevated aerosol layers with a substantial fraction of coarse mode particles. Optical properties of mineral dust, including the absorptive refractive index of some components, cause a significant effect on the atmospheric radiative energy balance from optical to infrared wavelengths. The aerosol characteristics, in particular its coarse mode size distribution, are modified during long-range transport by aging and deposition processes. This also affects the aerosol optical properties and therefore the effect on the atmospheric radiative energy budget. In-situ measurements of aerosol microphysical properties are essential to characterize those effects in order to be implemented in global climate models in parametrized form. However, in-situ measurements of airborne coarse mode aerosols such as mineral dust and volcanic ash are challenging and the measurements are usually affected by substantial uncertainties. In this work we use airborne measurements of mineral dust from our optical light-scattering spectrometer CAS-DPOL during SALTRACE 2013 to discuss the analysis of such data. We cover the effects of varying refractive index and particle shapes and develop recommendations for the configuration of the CAS-DPOL for aerosol studies. We also present an inversion method to derive coarse mode size distributions from light-scattering probes for mixtures of non-spherical, absorbing aerosols. The size distributions retrieved from the in-situ measurements are then validated using an independent analysis with a combination of sun-photometer and lidar data. We apply these methods to investigate the Saharan mineral dust particle size distributions measured on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and discuss the influence of aerosol aging on the atmospheric radiative energy budget. With this example we also assess how the uncertainties

  7. Optical Investigations of Dust Particles Distribution in RF and DC Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Filatova, I. I.; Azharonok, V. V.

    2008-09-07

    Optical emission spectroscopy is used to study dust particles movement and conditions of a formation of ordered plasma-dust structures in a capacitively coupled RF discharge. 3D binocular diagnostics of plasma-dust structures in dc discharge was made.

  8. Cosmic dust or other similar outer-space particles location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aver, S.

    1973-01-01

    Cosmic dust may be serious radiation hazard to man and electronic equipment caught in its path. Dust detector uses two operational amplifiers and offers narrower areas for collection of cosmic dust. Detector provides excellent resolution as result of which recording of particle velocities as well as positions of their impact are more accurately determined.

  9. Investigation of the dynamics of nanometer-size dust particles in the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'brien, L.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and size distribution of submicron-sized interplanetary dust particles at 1 AU is highly variable due to the nature of its production and transport through the solar system. Nano-dust particles are thought to be produced by mutual collisions between interplanetary dust particles slowly spiraling toward the Sun and are accelerated outward to high velocities by interaction with the solar wind. The WAVES instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft reported the detection, strong temporal variation, and potentially high flux of these particles [Meyer-Vernet et al., 2009]. Simulations of nano-dust dynamics are performed to gain an understanding of their transport in the inner heliosphere and distribution near 1 AU where they can potentially be detected. Simulations show that the temporal variation in nano-dust detection, as suggested by the STEREO observations, can be described by the dust's interaction with the complex structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) [Juhasz and Horanyi, 2013]. The dust trajectories and their distribution near Earth's orbit is a function of the initial conditions of both nano-dust particles and the IMF. Le Chat et al. (2015) reported on the correlation between high nano-dust fluxes observed by STEREO and the observed Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). We present the results from simulating nano-dust interaction with ICMEs that are modeled as magnetic clouds, and report that the dust trajectories and, thus, their distribution and velocities at 1 AU are significantly altered.

  10. Influence of Air Humidity and Water Particles on Dust Control Using Ultrasonic Atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Nishi, Kentaro; Shindo, Dai; Kawamura, Youhei

    2012-07-01

    The influence of air humidity and water particles on dust control was examined using ultrasonic atomization at 2.4 MHz, an acrylic box (61 L), and four types of ore dust samples: green tuff (4 µm), green tuff (6 µm), kaolin, and silica. It was clearly demonstrated that ultrasonic atomization was effective in raising humidity rapidly. However, at high relative air humidity, the water particles remained stable in the box without changing to water vapor. Ultrasonic atomization was applied to suppress dust dispersion and 40-95% dust reduction was achieved at 83% relative air humidity. Dust dispersion was more effective with ultrasonic atomization than without.

  11. Application of the focused ion beam technique in aerosol science: detailed investigation of selected, airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Kaegi, R; Gasser, Ph

    2006-11-01

    The focused ion beam technique was used to fabricate transmission electron microscope lamellas of selected, micrometre-sized airborne particles. Particles were sampled from ambient air on Nuclepore polycarbonate filters and analysed with an environmental scanning electron microscope. A large number of particles between 0.6 and 10 microm in diameter (projected optical equivalent diameter) were detected and analysed using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy. From the resulting dataset, where the chemistry, morphology and position of each individual particle are stored, two particles were selected for a more detailed investigation. For that purpose, the particle-loaded filter was transferred from the environmental scanning electron microscope to the focused ion beam, where lamellas of the selected particles were fabricated. The definition of a custom coordinate system enabled the relocation of the particles after the transfer. The lamellas were finally analysed with an analytical transmission electron microscope. Internal structure and elemental distribution maps of the interior of the particles provided additional information about the particles, which helped to assign the particles to their sources. The combination of computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy offers new possibilities for characterizing airborne particles in great detail, eventually enabling a detailed source apportionment of specific particles. The particle of interest can be selected from a large dataset (e.g. based on chemistry and/or morphology) and then investigated in more detail in the transmission electron microscope.

  12. Size distribution of airborne particle-bound polybrominated diphenyl ethers and its implications for dry and wet deposition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pei; Ni, Hong-Gang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-12-02

    Size distribution of particles in part dictates the environmental behavior of particle-bound organic pollutants in the atmosphere. The present study was conducted to examine the potential mechanisms responsible for the distribution of organic pollutants in size fractionated particles and their environmental implications, using an e-waste recycling zone in South China as a case study. Size-fractionated atmospheric particles were collected at the heights of 1.5, 5, and 20 m near two residential apartments and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The concentrations of particle-bound ΣPBDE (sum of 18 PBDE congeners) were significantly greater at 5 and 20 m than those at 1.5 m. The size-fractionated distributions of airborne ΣPBDE displayed trimodal peaks in 0.10–0.18, 1.8–3.2, and 10–18 μm at 1.5 m but only an unimodal peak in 1.0–1.8 μm at 20 m height. Emission sources, resuspension of dust and soil, and volatility of PBDEs were important factors influencing the size distribution of particle-bound PBDEs. The dry deposition fluxes of particle-bound PBDE estimated from the measured data in the present study were approximately twice the estimated wet deposition fluxes, with a total deposition flux of 3000 ng m(–2) d(–1). The relative contributions of particles to dry and wet deposition fluxes were also size-dependent, e.g., coarse (aerodynamic diameters (Dp) > 1.8 μm) and fine (Dp < 1.8 μm) particles dominated the dry and wet deposition fluxes of PBDEs, respectively.

  13. Impact of Sahara dust transport on Cape Verde atmospheric element particles.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Silva, M; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Pio, C A; Nunes, T; Cardoso, J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct an elemental characterization of airborne particles sampled in Cape Verde and (2) assess the influence of Sahara desert on local suspended particles. Particulate matter (PM(10)) was collected in Praia city (14°94'N; 23°49'W) with a low-volume sampler in order to characterize its chemical composition by k0-INAA. The filter samples were first weighed and subsequently irradiated at the Portuguese Research Reactor. Results showed that PM(10) concentrations in Cape Verde markedly exceeded the health-based air quality standards defined by the European Union (EU), World Health Organization (WHO), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in part due to the influence of Sahara dust transport. The PM(10) composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (K, Sm, Co, Fe, Sc, Rb, Cr, Ce, and Ba) and sea (Na), and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Zn, and Sb). In addition, the high concentrations of PM measured in Cape Verde suggest that health of the population may be less affected compared with other sites where PM(10) concentrations are lower but more enriched with toxic elements.

  14. [Migration and transformation of heavy metals in street dusts with different particle sizes during urban runoff].

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Hong-Tao; Li, Xu-Yong; Lian, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2012-03-01

    The heavy metal pollution in runoff caused by street dust washoff has been an increasingly prominent problem in the context of rapid urbanization in China. Based on measurement of heavy metal contents in street dusts with different particle sizes and an experiment of street dust washoff using simulated rainfall, we analyzed the role of particle size of street dust in heavy metal pollution, and the variation in geometrical forms of heavy metals during street dust washoff. Our results showed that the heavy metal concentration decreased from "static" street dust to "dynamic" runoff particulate in the same diameter particles. Heavy metals in street dust were dissolved and extracted during washoff. The average loss proportion of the five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were 24.3%, 56.8%, 34.3%, 22.8%, 27.3%, respectively. The loss proportion increased with the decrease of the particle size of street dust. Proportion of extracted form dust was higher in street than that in washoff samples, which suggested some dissolved loss in water. In washoff samples, dissolved metals of waterphase did not have significant changes; however, heavy metals with particle state in waterphase reduced rapidly during runoff. Meanwhile, heavy metals of solid-phase particle reduced during runoff. Street dust with small particle size had higher loss rate during runoff. The variation rate of street dust loss among different particle sizes varied from 4.6% to 62.1%. Street dust with smaller particle size had higher migration ability in runoff, which was more risky to urban water pollution.

  15. Wave-particle dynamics of wave breaking in the self-excited dust acoustic wave.

    PubMed

    Teng, Lee-Wen; Chang, Mei-Chu; Tseng, Yu-Ping; I, Lin

    2009-12-11

    The wave-particle microdynamics in the breaking of the self-excited dust acoustic wave growing in a dusty plasma liquid is investigated through directly tracking dust micromotion. It is found that the nonlinear wave growth and steepening stop as the mean oscillating amplitude of dust displacement reaches about 1/k (k is the wave number), where the vertical neighboring dust trajectories start to crossover and the resonant wave heating with uncertain crest trapping onsets. The dephased dust oscillations cause the abrupt dropping and broadening of the wave crest after breaking, accompanied by the transition from the liquid phase with coherent dust oscillation to the gas phase with chaotic dust oscillation. Corkscrew-shaped phase-space distributions measured at the fixed phases of the wave oscillation cycle clearly indicate how dusts move in and constitute the evolving waveform through dust-wave interaction.

  16. Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-01-11

    Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth’s energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  17. Layer silicates in a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy on individual grains from a portion of a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (aggregate W7029C1 from the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection) shows that layer silicates compose 50 percent of the silicate fraction examined. These layer silicates can be classified into two distinct crystallochemical groups: (1) fine-grained, polycrystalline smectite minerals; and (2) well-ordered, single crystals of kaolinite and Mg-poor talc. The layer silicates in this portion of sample W7029(asterisk)A are dissimilar to those described in other chondritic porous aggregates. The predominant layer silicate assemblage in W7029(asterisk)A indicates that heating of the aggregate during atmospheric entry was brief and probably to a temperature less than 300 C. Comparison with terrestrial phyllosilicate occurrences suggests that some layer silicates in aggregate W7029(asterisk)A may have been formed by alteratiton from preexisting silicate minerals at low temperatures (less than 25 C) after aggregate formation.

  18. Layer silicates in a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; MacKinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-11-01

    Analytical electron microscopy on individual grains from a portion of a chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (aggregate W7029C1 from the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection) shows that layer silicates compose 50 percent of the silicate fraction examined. These layer silicates can be classified into two distinct crystallochemical groups: (1) fine-grained, polycrystalline smectite minerals; and (2) well-ordered, single crystals of kaolinite and Mg-poor talc. The layer silicates in this portion of sample W7029(asterisk)A are dissimilar to those described in other chondritic porous aggregates. The predominant layer silicate assemblage in W7029(asterisk)A indicates that heating of the aggregate during atmospheric entry was brief and probably to a temperature less than 300 C. Comparison with terrestrial phyllosilicate occurrences suggests that some layer silicates in aggregate W7029(asterisk)A may have been formed by alteratiton from preexisting silicate minerals at low temperatures (less than 25 C) after aggregate formation.

  19. Mechanisms of particle-induced pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model: exposure to wood dust.

    PubMed

    Määttä, Juha; Lehto, Maili; Leino, Marina; Tillander, Sari; Haapakoski, Rita; Majuri, Marja-Leena; Wolff, Henrik; Rautio, Sari; Welling, Irma; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri

    2006-09-01

    Repeated airway exposure to wood dust has long been known to cause adverse respiratory effects such as asthma and chronic bronchitis and impairment of lung function. However, the mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses of the airways after wood dust exposure are poorly known. We used a mouse model to elucidate the mechanisms of particle-induced inflammatory responses to fine wood dust particles. BALB/c mice were exposed to intranasally administered fine (more than 99% of the particles had a particle size of < or = 5 microm, with virtually identical size distribution) birch or oak dusts twice a week for 3 weeks. PBS, LPS, and titanium dioxide were used as controls. Intranasal instillation of birch or oak dusts elicited influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs in mice. Enhancement of lymphocytes and neutrophils was seen after oak dust exposure, whereas eosinophil infiltration was higher after birch dust exposure. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was associated with an increase in the mRNA levels of several cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in lung tissue. Oak dust appeared to be a more potent inducer of these inflammatory mediators than birch dust. The results from our in vivo mouse model show that repeated airway exposure to wood dust can elicit lung inflammation, which is accompanied by induction of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Oak and birch dusts exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in the elicitation of pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that the inflammatory responses induced by the wood species may rise via different cellular mechanisms.

  20. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M; Bostrom, Thor E; Bekessy, Lambert K; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-09-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant.

  1. Heterogeneous ice nucleation of mineral dust particles exposed to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanji, Zamin A.; Welti, André; Chou, Cédric; Stetzer, Olaf; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2013-05-01

    Deposition and immersion mode ice nucleation studies of kaolinite (Ka) and Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles exposed to ozone at 430 ppbv, 1.4 and 4.3 ppmv for approximately 2 hours in a stainless steel aerosol tank are presented. The polydisperse particles used have a mode mobility diameter of 800 nm for Ka and 400 nm for ATD. The portable ice nucleation chamber (PINC) and immersion chamber (IMCA-ZINC) were used to study deposition and immersion mode ice nucleation respectively. Both instruments sampled through a particle impactor with a diameter cut-off size of 1 μm. Preliminary results indicate that ice nucleation can be enhanced or inhibited depending on ozone concentration used for the ageing process with higher concentrations suppressing ice nucleation in both immersion and deposition modes. Additionally, Ka and ATD respond differently to the ageing process and to the different modes of ice nucleation. Ozone surface coverage and initial uptake coefficients are presented for the low exposure studies to explain the ice nucleation behavior observed. Ice Active Surface Site Densities (IASSD) are presented as a means of comparison and parameterization of the data to predict potential atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) concentrations.

  2. Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemett, S. J.; Maechling, C. R.; Zare, R. N.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of PAH's. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the PAH's are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, PAH's in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.

  3. Changes of Dust Grain Properties Under Particle Bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlu, J.; Richterova, I.; Safrankova, J.; Nemecek, Z.; Fujita, D.

    2008-09-07

    The dust in space environments is exposed to particle bombardment. Under an impact of ions, electrons, and photons, the charge of a particular grain changes and, in some cases, the grain structure can be modified. The present study deals with spherical melamine formaldehyde resin grains that are frequently used in many dusty plasmas and microgravity experiments and it concentrates on the influence of the electron beam impact on a grain size. We have performed series of experiments based on the SEM technique. Our investigation has shown that the electron impact can cause a significant increase of the grain size. We discuss changes of material properties and consequences for its applications in laboratory and space experiments.

  4. Nitrogen Isotopic Anomalies in a Hydrous Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. B.; Dai, Z. R.; Weber, P. K.; Graham, G. A.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Bajt, S.; Ishii, H.; Bradley, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are the fine-grained end member (5 - 50 microns in size) of the meteoritic material available for investigation in the laboratory. IDPs are derived from either cometary or asteroidal sources. Some IDPs contain cosmically primitive materials with isotopic signatures reflecting presolar origins. Recent detailed studies using the NanoSIMS have shown there is a wide variation of isotopic signatures within individual IDPs; grains with a presolar signature have been observed surrounded by material with a solar isotopic composition. The majority of IDPs studied have been anhydrous. We report here results from integrated NanoSIMS/FIB/TEM/Synchrotron IR studies of a hydrous IDP, focused on understanding the correlations between the isotopic, mineralogical and chemical compositions of IDPs.

  5. Aqueous alteration in five chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1991-02-01

    Results are presented on AEM observations carried out on chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), which include data on alkali-rich layer silicates and new observations of nonstoichiometric plagioclase and alkali feldspars in individual CP IDPs. The compositional similarities found between the feldspar minerals and the layer silicates suggest that the latter have formed from these feldspars during low-temperature aqueous alterations at a stage of diagenesis in the CP IDP parent bodies. Small, but persistent, amounts of layer silicates, carbonates, and barite found in several nominally anhydrous CP IDPs support the suggestion of incipient aqueous alterations in their parent bodies, which may include short-period comet nuclei and outer-belt asteroids.

  6. Unequilibrated, equilibrated, and reduced aggregates in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, J. P.

    1993-03-01

    Track-rich anhydrous IDP's are probably the most primitive IDP's because they have escaped significant post-accretional alteration; they exhibit evidence of (nebular) gas phase reactions; their mineralogy is similar to comet Halley's dust; and some of them exhibit comet-like IR spectral characteristics. However, basic questions about the mineralogy and petrography of anhydrous IDP's remain unanswered, because they contain aggregated components that can be heterogeneous on a scale of nanometers. In some IDP's, aggregates account for greater than 75 percent of the volume of the particle. The aggregates have been systematically examined using an analytical electron microscope (AEM), which provides probe-forming optics and (x-ray and electron) spectrometers necessary to analyze individual nanometer-sized grains. The AEM results reveal at least three mineralogically distinct classes of aggregates in an hydrous IDP's, with mineralogies reflecting significantly different formation/aggregation environments.

  7. Origin of the hydrocarbon component of interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Lee, Wei

    1994-01-01

    Using experiments as a basis, we have developed a scenario for the origin of the hydrocarbon material of carbonaceous chondrites. This scenario can also serve as an explanation for the origin of the hydrocarbon component of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in the atmospheres of C stars undergoing a late stage of stellar evolution is indicated by the observed unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands. Those molecules are then transported through interstellar space where they become enriched with D through ion molecule reactions when passing through cold, dark clouds. Many of those PAH molecules are subsequently hydrogenated and cracked in a H-dominated plasma such as would have occurred in the solar nebula. The resulting mixture of alkanes and residual D-rich PAH molecules was then incorporated into the mineral fraction of the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites and IDP's.

  8. Low voltage scanning electron microscopy of interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Bunch, T. E.; Reilly, T. W.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The resolution of available low-voltage SEM (LVSEM) models used in the characterization of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is limited by a number of factors including energy spread in the electron source, beam brightness, scanning electron detector geometry, and various lens aberrations. This paper describes an improved model of LVSEM which offers an increased resolution at low voltage. The improvements include a cold cathode FE source which has an extremely low inherent energy spread and high brightness, a second condenser lens to converge the beam and maintain an optimum aperture half-angle, and a detector optimized for low-voltage scanning-electron collection. To reduce lens aberrations, the specimen is immersed in the objective lens field. The features of several IDP samples observed using the images obtained with this LVSEM model are described.

  9. Halley comet dust particle classification according to the data obtained by mass spectrometer Puma-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikov, Yu. P.; Evlanov, E. N.; Fomenkova, M. N.; Mukhin, L. M.; Nazarov, M. A.; Prilutsky, O. F.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Zubkov, B. V.

    Nonzero mode spectra of the dust component of Comet Halley obtained by the dust particle impact mass-spectrometer, Puma-1, on Vega, are used to examine the origin of the mineral phase. The element compositions of 511 cometary particles are studied, using data on ions of Na, Ca, C, H, N, S, Si, Mg, Fe, Cr, and Al. The results are used to determine the mineral composition of the dust of Comet Halley.

  10. Sungrazing dust particles against the sporadic meteor background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubaev, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    From the results of the statistical study, the genetic relation between some meteors (from -5 m to +5 m ) of the sporadic background and the comets of the Kreutz, Marsden, and Kracht families has been revealed. The radiants of sporadic meteors are concentrated at the geocentric ecliptic latitudes 7°-10° northward and southward of the ecliptic. The radiants of the sungrazing meteoroids, that were detected on their heliocentric orbits "before" and "after" the perihelion passage, are concentrated in the elongation intervals of approximately 120°-165° and 20°-60° from the Sun, respectively. Each of the specified radiant regions, in its turn, breaks up into two groups. The group of radiants with elongations of about 30° and 155° from the Sun belongs to the Marsden and Kracht cometary families, while the group with 50° and 135°, to the Kreutz cometary family. In the distribution by perihelion distance, a sharp decrease of the number of observed dust particles with q < 0.08 AU was found. This corresponds to the heliocentric distances (20-30 R ⊙), where the production of microscopic dust due to sublimation of cometary nuclei, while approaching the Sun, terminates. The number of sporadic sungrazing meteoroids detected after their passage in the vicinity of the Sun is approximately 20 times smaller than the number of similar particles in the preperihelion part of the trajectory. This result is of special importance for studying the thermodesorption effect of meteoroids (i.e., the change in the content of chemical elements in meteoroids as a function of the perihelion distance).

  11. Fabrication and testing of an airborne ice particle counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebabian, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    An optical ice particle counter was proposed as a companion instrument to the GSFC laser nephelometer. By counting ice particles and total cloud particles (both ice and liquid water), these two instruments may be used to study the balance between ice and water in clouds.

  12. Observation of the Effects of Dust Particles on Plasma Fluctuation Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ratynskaia, S.; De Angeli, M.; Lontano, M.; Lazzaro, E.; Gervasini, G.; De Angelis, U.; Marmolino, C.; Capobianco, G.; Morfill, G. E.

    2007-08-17

    Charged dust particles are theoretically expected to modify the amplitude and spectrum of plasma fluctuations, and this can eventually provide novel diagnostic tools. Direct experimental evidence of the effects of dust particles on the fluctuations of a low collisionality plasma is reported, in agreement with the expectations of kinetic theory.

  13. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Dust Particle Trajectories in the NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    W.U. Boeglin, A.L. Roquemore, and R. Maqueda

    2009-03-06

    Highly mobile incandescent dust particles are routinely observed on NSTX using two fast cameras operating in the visible region. An analysis method to reconstruct dust particle trajectories in space using two fast cameras is presented in this paper. Position accuracies of a few millimeters depending on the particle's location have been achieved and particle velocities between 10 and 200 m/s have been observed. 2008 American Institute of Physics. __________________________________________________

  14. Laboratory Studies of Optical Characteristics and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.; Venturini, C. C.

    2000-01-01

    Information about the optical characteristics and physical processes involving cosmic dust particles is vital for interpretation of astronomical observations and an understanding of the formation and processing of dust in the evolutionary cycle of matter in the interstellar medium. Cosmic dust particles are formed in a variety of astrophysical environments such as in cool stellar outflows and circumstellar envelopes. Definitive knowledge of the nature, composition, and physical processes of cosmic dust grains, however, can only be inferred from astronomical observations through laboratory experiments on the analogs of hypothesized dust particles and with modeling calculations. Laboratory investigations of the nature, composition, and optical characteristics of cosmic dust particles are being, carried out at many institutions with a variety of experimental techniques. Despite a wealth of available data, however, many basic issues remain unresolved. An experimental facility based on suspension of dust particles in electrodynamic balance in a pressure/temperature controlled environment in a cavity has been operational at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and is currently being employed for studies of dust particle charging mechanisms using electron beams and with UV radiation. In this paper, we discuss two general classes of experiments under planning stages that may be simultaneously carried out on this facility for cosmic dust investigations (i) Infrared optical characteristics (extinction coefficients and scattering phase functions) of the analogs of hypothesized of cosmic dust particles, such as natural and synthetic amorphous silicates with varying compositions, amorphous carbon grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and icy core-mantle particles etc. The initial spectral range under consideration is 1-25 micrometers, to be extended to the far infrared region in the future (ii) Condensation of volatile gases on nucleus dust particles to be

  15. Thermal and Photochemical Oxidation of Organic Compounds on Model Mineral Dust Particles Exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raff, J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.; Szanyi, J.

    2010-12-01

    Alumina is an important component of airborne dust particles as well as of building materials and soils found in the tropospheric boundary layer. While the uptake and reactions of oxides of nitrogen and their photochemistry on alumina have been reported in the past, little is known about the chemistry when organics are also present. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study at ~23 °C reactions of NO2 on γ-Al2O3 particles that had been derivatized using 7-octenyltrichlorosilane to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). For comparison, the reactions with untreated γ-Al2O3 were also studied. In both cases, the particles were exposed to water vapor prior to NO2 to provide adsorbed water for reaction. As expected, surface-bound HONO, NO2-, and NO3- were formed. Surprisingly, oxidation of the organic by surface-bound nitrogen oxides was observed in the dark, forming organo-nitrogen products identified as nitronates (R2C=NO2-). Oxidation was more rapid under irradiation (λ > 290 nm) and formed organic nitrates and carbonyl compounds and/or peroxy nitrates in addition to the products observed in the dark. Mass spectrometry of the gas phase during irradiation revealed the production of NO, CO2, and CO. These studies provide evidence for oxidation of organic compounds on particles and boundary layer surfaces that are exposed to air containing oxides of nitrogen, as well as new pathways for the formation of nitrogen-containing compounds on these surfaces.

  16. Interplanetary dust particles, not wind blown dust, control high altitude ice clouds on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwick, Victoria; Toon, Owen B.

    2016-10-01

    Water ice clouds on Mars are commonly observed at high altitudes. However, current generation Mars three-dimensional general circulation models (GCM) struggle to reproduce clouds above approximately 20-30 km. On Mars, as on Earth, ice cloud formation likely initiates by heterogeneous nucleation, which requires a population of suspended ice nuclei contiguous with supersaturated atmospheric water vapor. Although supersaturation is observed at high altitudes and has been reproduced in models, models predict very few ice nuclei. The small number of ice nuclei in the upper atmosphere is due to the assumption in Mars GCMs that the only source of ice nuclei is dust from the Martian surface. However, terrestrial mesospheric noctilucent clouds have been shown to form by ice nucleation on particles originating from ablated micrometeroids. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that a population of micrometeoric ablation biproducts on Mars exists and can act as a site for cloud nucleation at high altitudes. We present simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model for Mars (MarsCAM) based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model for Earth,coupled with a physically based, state-of-the-art cloud and dust physics model, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to show that ablating micrometeoroids can yield abundant ice nuclei throughout the upper atmosphere of Mars. We find that simulations including a constant annual micrometeoroid flux allows us to reproduce the observed properties of high altitude water ice clouds including vertical distribution and particle size. In general, effective radius decreases with increasing altitude. We have additionally explored the impact of variable ablation rates. Preliminary results suggest that relatively high ablation rates, near or greater than 50%, are required to reproduce observed cloud features.

  17. The impact of mineral dust particles on radiation and cloud formation during a Saharan dust event over Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, M.; Nenes, A.; Vogel, B.; Vogel, H.; Barahona, D.; Kumar, P.; Blahak, U.; Seifert, A.

    2010-12-01

    Dust, through their action as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), has long been hypothesized to impact clouds and the hydrological cycle. This effect is particularly strong during dust outbreaks. Europe, being adjacent to the Sahara, is susceptible to the effects of dust storms; a quantitative assessment remains elusive and is the subject of this study. This talk focuses on one major dust event that occurred in May 2008. Its origin was in the Sahara and from there mineral dust particles were transported over the western Mediterranean, covering large areas of Western Europe. During the episode, high aerosol concentrations were observed throughout Europe; ice nuclei concentrations significantly increased (compared to pre-event levels) at Kleiner Feldberg, Germany (Bingemer et al. 2009). During this time, traditional weather forecast models (which currently neglect aerosol impacts on atmospheric processes) exhibited poor prediction skill. The impacts of dust on atmospheric state is studied with the regional scale online coupled model system COSMO-ART (Vogel et al., 2009) that accounts for feedbacks between chemistry, aerosols, radiation, and clouds. A two-moment cloud microphysics scheme (Seifert & Beheng 2001) is coupled together with comprehensive parameterisations for aerosol activation (Kumar et al. 2009; Barahona et al. 2010) and ice nucleation (Barahona and Nenes 2009) to simulate the impact of the various aerosol particles on the cloud microphysics and therefore on cloud properties and precipitation. The sensitivity of predicted atmospheric state to the dust amount, properties (hygroscopicity) and parameterization is thoroughly studied.

  18. Fluorescence of Bacteria, Pollens, and Naturally Occurring Airborne Particles: Excitation/Emission Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    biological particles (1–10) are important in the transmission of diseases (11, 12) of humans (e.g., tuberculosis , influenza), farm animals (e.g...the air. Bacteria, rickettsia, viruses, protein toxins, and some neurotoxins produced by microbes have been feared as potential airborne biological

  19. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  20. Comparison Between Dust Particle Generation In CH4 or CH4/N2 Mixing RF Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Jeremy; Massereau-Guilbaud, Veronique; Geraud-Grenier, Isabelle; Plain, Andre

    2005-10-31

    Dust particles have been spontaneously generated either in pure CH4 or in CH4/N2 r.f. plasmas. The dust particle formation results from homogeneous nucleation in the plasma and is detected by laser light scattering (Ar+, {lambda} = 514.5 nm). The temporal and spatial behaviour of dust particles is studied. In pure methane gas, particles are trapped in well defined clouds at the plasma sheath boundaries. In a CH4/N2 mixture, the nitrogen addition leads to an expansion of the clouds. For nitrogen contents higher than 50%, the space between the electrodes is nearly completely filled with dust particles leading to plasma instabilities and a void appears in the center of the discharge. The particles are spherical with diameters in the range 0.8-2 {mu}m. For nitrogen-rich plasmas, the particles growth is improved and leads to a rough shape with an orange-peel-type surface texture.

  1. Mineralogical properties and internal structures of individual fine particles of Saharan dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Park, Mi Yeon; Kandler, Konrad; Nousiainen, Timo; Kemppinen, Osku

    2016-10-01

    Mineral dust interacts with incoming/outgoing radiation, gases, other aerosols, and clouds. The assessment of its optical and chemical impacts requires knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of bulk dust and single particles. Despite the existence of a large body of data from field measurements and laboratory analyses, the internal properties of single dust particles have not been defined precisely. Here, we report on the mineralogical organization and internal structures of individual fine ( < 5 µm) Saharan dust particles sampled at Tenerife, Canary Islands. The bulk of Tenerife dust was composed of clay minerals (81 %), followed by quartz (10 %), plagioclase (3 %), and K-feldspar (2 %). Cross-sectional slices of Saharan dust particles prepared by the focused ion beam technique were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to probe the particle interiors. TEM analysis showed that the most common particle type was clay-rich agglomerate, dominated by illite-smectite series clay minerals with subordinate kaolinite. Submicron grains of iron (hydr)oxides (goethite and hematite) were commonly dispersed through the clay-rich particles. The median total volume of the iron (hydr)oxide grains included in the dust particles was estimated to be about 1.5 % vol. The average iron content of clay minerals, assuming 14 wt % H2O, was determined to be 5.0 wt %. Coarse mineral cores, several micrometers in size, were coated with thin layers of clay-rich agglomerate. Overall, the dust particles were roughly ellipsoidal, with an average axial ratio of 1.4 : 1.0 : 0.5. The mineralogical and structural properties of single Saharan dust particles provide a basis for the modeling of dust radiative properties. Major iron-bearing minerals, such as illite-smectite series clay minerals and iron (hydr)oxides, were commonly submicron- to nano-sized, possibly enhancing their biogeochemical availability to remote marine ecosystems lacking micronutrients.

  2. Investigation of aged aerosols in size-resolved Asian dust storm particles transported from Beijing, China to Incheon, Korea using low-Z particle EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Hwang, H. J.; Liu, X.; Dong, S.; Ro, C.-U.

    2013-10-01

    This is the first study of Asian dust storm (ADS) particles collected in Beijing, China and Incheon, Korea during the same spring ADS event. Using a seven-stage May impactor and a quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA, also known as low-Z particle EPMA), we examined the composition and morphology of 4200 aerosol particles at stages 1-6 (with a size cut-off of 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter, respectively) collected during an ADS event on 28-29 April 2005. The results showed that there were large differences in the chemical compositions between particles in sample S1 collected in Beijing immediately after the peak time of the ADS and in samples S2 and S3, which were collected in Incheon approximately 5 h and 24 h later, respectively. In sample S1, mineral dust particles accounted for more than 88% in relative number abundance at stages 1-5, and organic carbon (OC) and reacted NaCl-containing particles accounted for 24% and 32%, respectively, at stage 6. On the other hand, in samples S2 and S3, in addition to approximately 60% mineral dust, many sea salt particles reacted with airborne SO2 and NOx, often mixed with mineral dust, were encountered at stages 1-5, and (C, N, O, S)-rich particles (likely a mixture of water-soluble organic carbon with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3) and K-containing particles were abundantly observed at stage 6. This suggests that the secondary aerosols and the internal mixture of mineral dust with sea spray aerosol increased when the ADS particles passed over the Yellow Sea. In the reacted or aged mineral dust and sea salt particles, nitrate-containing and both nitrate- and sulfate-containing species vastly outnumbered the sulfate-containing species, implying that ambient nitrogen oxides had a greater influence on the atmospheric particles during the ADS episode than SO2. In addition to partially- or totally-reacted CaCO3, reacted or aged Mg-containing aluminosilicates (likely including amesite

  3. Interplanetary Dust Particles as Samples of Icy Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Brunetto, R.; Demeo, F. E.; Djouadi, Z.; Dumas, C.; Merouane, S.; Mousis, O.; Zanda, B.

    2015-06-01

    Meteorites have long been considered as reflections of the compositional diversity of main belt asteroids and consequently they have been used to decipher their origin, formation, and evolution. However, while some meteorites are known to sample the surfaces of metallic, rocky and hydrated asteroids (about one-third of the mass of the belt), the low-density icy asteroids (C-, P-, and D-types), representing the rest of the main belt, appear to be unsampled in our meteorite collections. Here we provide conclusive evidence that the surface compositions of these icy bodies are compatible with those of the most common extraterrestrial materials (by mass), namely anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Given that these particles are quite different from known meteorites, it follows that the composition of the asteroid belt consists largely of more friable material not well represented by the cohesive meteorites in our collections. In the light of our current understanding of the early dynamical evolution of the solar system, meteorites likely sample bodies formed in the inner region of the solar system (0.5-4 AU) whereas chondritic porous IDPs sample bodies that formed in the outer region (>5 AU).

  4. Interplanetary Dust Particles As Samples of Icy Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, Pierre; Marsset, Michael; Beck, Pierre; Binzel, Richard; Birlan, Mirel; Brunetto, Rosario; DeMeo, Francesca; Djouadi, Zahia; Dumas, Christophe; Merouane, Sihane; Mousis, Olivier; Zanda, Brigitte

    2015-11-01

    Meteorites have long been considered as reflections of the compositional diversity of main belt asteroids and consequently they have been used to decipher their origin, formation, and evolution. However, while some meteorites are known to sample the surfaces of metallic, rocky and hydrated asteroids (about one-third of the mass of the belt), the low-density icy asteroids (C-, P-, and D-types), representing the rest of the main belt, appear to be unsampled in our meteorite collections. Here we provide conclusive evidence that the surface compositions of these icy bodies are compatible with those of the most common extraterrestrial materials (by mass), namely anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Given that these particles are quite different from known meteorites, it follows that the composition of the asteroid belt consists largely of more friable material not well represented by the cohesive meteorites in our collections. In the light of our current understanding of the early dynamical evolution of the solar system, meteorites likely sample bodies formed in the inner region of the solar system (0.5-4 AU) whereas chondritic porous IDPs sample bodies that formed in the outer region (>5 AU).

  5. Shielding of a Moving Charged Dust Particle in the Nonequilibrium Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Filippov, A. V.; Pal, A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Momot, A. I.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2008-09-07

    Study of shielding of a moving charged dust particle in the nonequilibrium plasma was performed. It is known that in the collisionless so-called Vlasov plasma the electric field of a slowly moving charged particle at high distances corresponds to quadrupole [1, 2, 3]. It was found that in the collisional plasma the electric field of a moving dust particle had the dipole component and the long distance behavior of the electric fields was defined by this component. Therefore the interaction of dust particles in plasma flow became dependent on the relative orientation of the interpaticle radius-vector and the flow velocity vector.

  6. A parallel direct numerical simulation of dust particles in a turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. V.; Yokota, R.; Stenchikov, G.; Kocurek, G.

    2012-04-01

    Due to their effects on radiation transport, aerosols play an important role in the global climate. Mineral dust aerosol is a predominant natural aerosol in the desert and semi-desert regions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The Arabian Peninsula is one of the three predominant source regions on the planet "exporting" dust to almost the entire world. Mineral dust aerosols make up about 50% of the tropospheric aerosol mass and therefore produces a significant impact on the Earth's climate and the atmospheric environment, especially in the MENA region that is characterized by frequent dust storms and large aerosol generation. Understanding the mechanisms of dust emission, transport and deposition is therefore essential for correctly representing dust in numerical climate prediction. In this study we present results of numerical simulations of dust particles in a turbulent flow to study the interaction between dust and the atmosphere. Homogenous and passive dust particles in the boundary layers are entrained and advected under the influence of a turbulent flow. Currently no interactions between particles are included. Turbulence is resolved through direct numerical simulation using a parallel incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver. Model output provides information on particle trajectories, turbulent transport of dust and effects of gravity on dust motion, which will be used to compare with the wind tunnel experiments at University of Texas at Austin. Results of testing of parallel efficiency and scalability is provided. Future versions of the model will include air-particle momentum exchanges, varying particle sizes and saltation effect. The results will be used for interpreting wind tunnel and field experiments and for improvement of dust generation parameterizations in meteorological models.

  7. Identifying airborne metal particles sources near an optoelectronic and semiconductor industrial park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yea; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chuang, Yen-Hsun; Lin, Yu-Hao

    2016-06-01

    The recently developed Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) in central Taiwan is home to an optoelectronic and semiconductor industrial cluster. Therefore, exploring the elemental compositions and size distributions of airborne particles emitted from the CTSP would help to prevent pollution. This study analyzed size-fractionated metal-rich particle samples collected in upwind and downwind areas of CTSP during Jan. and Oct. 2013 by using micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI). Correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and particle mass-size distribution analysis are performed to identify the source of metal-rich particle near the CTSP. Analyses of elemental compositions and particle size distributions emitted from the CTSP revealed that the CTSP emits some metals (V, As, In Ga, Cd and Cu) in the ultrafine particles (< 1 μm). The statistical analysis combines with the particle mass-size distribution analysis could provide useful source identification information. In airborne particles with the size of 0.32 μm, Ga could be a useful pollution index for optoelectronic and semiconductor emission in the CTSP. Meanwhile, the ratios of As/Ga concentration at the particle size of 0.32 μm demonstrates that humans near the CTSP would be potentially exposed to GaAs ultrafine particles. That is, metals such as Ga and As and other metals that are not regulated in Taiwan are potentially harmful to human health.

  8. An analytical electron microscope study of airborne industrial particles in Sosnowiec, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Janeczek, Janusz

    The types and the relative amounts of airborne particles in the city of Sosnowiec (Poland) during 21-22 June, 1994 were identified by analytical electron microscope analyses. They are mostly aspherical angular Al-bearing silica particles (0.1-5.15 μm) and clusters thereof. Carbonaceous particles form sheets of soluble volatile-rich materials (0.3-33.9 μm) and rare soot. Numerous nanometer-sized Al-bearing silica grains and salt minerals are associated with the larger particles. They resulted from inefficient combustion of low-grade coals by the local industries whereby the silica particles are coal impurities that survived combustion. The total particle emission was constant during a 24 h period but silica shards dominated the nighttime emission while carbonaceous particles abounded during the daytime. This study showed that tropospheric particles in regions dominated by inefficient coal combustion are fundamentally different from typical coal fly ash spheres.

  9. Airborne Particles: What We Have Learned About Their Role in Climate from Remote Sensing, and Prospects for Future Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Desert dust, wildfire smoke, volcanic ash, biogenic and urban pollution particles, all affect the regional-scale climate of Earth in places and at times; some have global-scale impacts on the column radiation balance, cloud properties, atmospheric stability structure, and circulation patterns. Remote sensing has played a central role in identifying the sources and transports of airborne particles, mapping their three-dimensional distribution and variability, quantifying their amount, and constraining aerosol air mass type. The measurements obtained from remote sensing have strengths and limitations, and their value for characterizing Earths environment is enhanced immensely when they are combined with direct, in situ observations, and used to constrain aerosol transport and climate models. A similar approach has been taken to study the role particles play in determining the climate of Mars, though based on far fewer observations. This presentation will focus what we have learned from remote sensing about the impacts aerosol have on Earths climate; a few points about how aerosols affect the climate of Mars will also be introduced, in the context of how we might assess aerosol-climate impacts more generally on other worlds.

  10. Geltape method for measurement of work related surface contamination with cobalt containing dust: correlation between surface contamination and airborne exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, O M; Olsen, E; Christensen, J M; Vinzent, P; Petersen, O H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The geltape method is a new method for optical measurement of total amount of dust on surfaces. The objectives were to study the potential applicability of this method to measurements of work related cobalt exposure during painting of plates with cobalt dye. METHODS--Consecutive series of work related geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside and outside the ventilation cabins of two plate painters during two full working days. The amount of dust picked up by the geltapes was measured optically with a field monitor. Also, personal air samples were collected on filters at the different work processes. In the laboratory the contents of cobalt on the geltape prints and the filters were measured with inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. RESULTS--The key results were: (a) when the geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside the cabins the optically measured area of the geltapes covered with total dust (area (%)) correlated well with the chemically measured amount of cobalt present on the geltapes. Linear correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.91 for geltape prints taken on the floor and 0.94 for prints taken on the ceiling; (b) the cumulative airborne cobalt exposure, calculated from data on work related exposure by personal sampling, correlated with the area (%) of geltape prints taken from the ceiling of the cabin (R2 = 0.98); (c) the geltape method could be used to distinguish both between work processes with different levels of cobalt exposure, and between plate painters subjected to significant differences in airborne cobalt exposure. CONCLUSION--The geltape method could produce measures of the work related exposures as well as whole day exposure for cobalt. The geltape results correlated with measurements of personal airborne cobalt exposure. In this industry the profile of exposure is well-defined in time, and it seems reasonable to apply this fast and low cost method in routine exposure surveillance to obtain a more detailed

  11. The development and the tests of the electrostatic probe for dust particle collection in thermonuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Voityuk, A. N.; Zakharov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Formation of dust particles in thermonuclear reactors can greatly affect the plasma parameters and lead to accumulation of tritium. The rates of formation and deposition of dust need to be measured, and the parameters of formation of dust particles and clusters need to be studied. A model of a device for collection of fine conductive particles capable of removing them from the reactor chamber for future research is proposed in this paper. The dust collector's operation is based on a principle of applied electrostatic field. The model was tested in different operating conditions: in vacuum, at the atmospheric pressure in the atmosphere of air and dry nitrogen. The experiments were conducted with a stationary system and with the dust collector in motion relative to the dusty surface. It is shown that, during the probe moving relative to the surface, it can remove up to 95% of fine tungsten particles with sizes ranging from 1 to 10 μm.

  12. Laboratory investigation of electric charging of dust particles by electrons, ions, and UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svestka, Jiri; Pinter, S.; Gruen, E.

    1989-01-01

    In many cosmic environments electric charging of dust particles occurs by electrons, ions, and UV radiation. In case of interstellar dust particles the value of their electric charge can have, for instance, very important consequences for their destruction rate in supernova remnant's shock waves and can globally influence the overall life cycle of dust particles in galaxies. For experimental simulation of charging processes a vacuum chamber was used in which the particles fall through an electron or ion beam of energies up to 10 KeV. The aim of the experiments was to attain maximum charge of dust particles. Furthermore the influence of the rest gas was also determined because electrons and ions produced by collisional ionization of the rest gas can result in significant effects. For measurement particles from 1 to 100 microns from glass, carbon, Al, Fe, MgO, and very loosely bound conglomerates of Al2O3 were used.

  13. Elastic back-scattering patterns via particle surface roughness and orientation from single trapped airborne aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Richard; Wang, Chuji; Muñoz, Olga; Videen, Gorden; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Pan, Yong-Le

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for simultaneously measuring the back-scattering patterns and images of single laser-trapped airborne aerosol particles. This arrangement allows us to observe how the back-scattering patterns change with particle size, shape, surface roughness, orientation, etc. The recoded scattering patterns cover the angular ranges of θ=167.7-180° (including at 180° exactly) and ϕ=0-360° in spherical coordinates. The patterns show that the width of the average speckle intensity islands or rings is inversely proportional to particle size and how the shape of these intensity rings or islands also depends on the surface roughness. For an irregularly shaped particle with substantial roughness, the back-scattering patterns are formed with speckle intensity islands, the size and orientations of these islands depend more on the overall particle size and orientation, but have less relevance to the fine alteration of the surface structure and shapes. The back-scattering intensity at 180° is very sensitive to the particle parameters. It can change from a maximum to a minimum with a change of 0.1% in particle size or refractive index. The method has potential use in characterizing airborne aerosol particles, and may be used to provide back-scattering information for LIDAR applications.

  14. Automated SIMS Isotopic Analysis Of Small Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittler, L.; Alexander, C.; Gyngard, F.; Morgand, A.; Zinner, E. K.

    2009-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of sub-μm to μm sized dust grains are of increasing interest in cosmochemistry, nuclear forensics and terrestrial aerosol research. Because of its high sensitivity and spatial resolution, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is the tool of choice for measuring isotopes in such small samples. Indeed, SIMS has enabled an entirely new sub-field of astronomy: presolar grains in meteorites. In recent years, the development of the Cameca NanoSIMS ion probe has extended the reach of isotopic measurements to particles as small as 100 nm in diameter, a regime where isotopic precision is strongly limited by the total number of atoms in the sample. Many applications require obtaining isotopic data on large numbers of particles, necessitating the development of automated techniques. One such method is isotopic imaging, wherein images of multiple isotopes are acquired, each containing multiple dispersed particles, and image processing is used to determine isotopic ratios for individual particles. This method is powerful, but relatively inefficient for raster-based imaging on the NanoSIMS. Modern computerized control of instrumentation has allowed for another approach, analogous to commercial automated SEM-EDS particle analysis systems, in which images are used solely to locate particles followed by fully automated grain-by-grain analysis. The first such system was developed on the Carnegie Institution’s Cameca ims-6f, and was used to generate large databases of presolar grains. We have recently developed a similar system for the NanoSIMS, whose high sensitivity allows for smaller grains to be analyzed with less sample consumption than is possible with the 6f system. The 6f and NanoSIMS systems are functionally identical: an image of dispersed grains is obtained with sufficient statistical precision for an algorithm to identify the positions of individual particles, the primary ion beam is deflected to each particle in turn and rastered in a small

  15. The adsorption of fungal ice-nucleating proteins on mineral dusts: a terrestrial reservoir of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel; Murray, Benjamin J.; Ross, James; Webb, Michael E.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in our atmosphere has a profound impact on the properties and lifetime of supercooled clouds. However, the identities, sources and abundances of airborne particles capable of efficiently nucleating ice at relatively low supercoolings (T > -15 °C) remain enigmatic. Recently, several studies have suggested that unidentified biogenic residues in soil dusts are likely to be an important source of these efficient atmospheric INPs. While it has been shown that cell-free proteins produced by common soil-borne fungi are exceptional INPs, whether these fungi are a source of ice-nucleating biogenic residues in soils has yet to be shown. In particular, it is unclear whether upon adsorption to soil mineral particles, the activity of fungal ice-nucleating proteins is retained or is reduced, as observed for other soil enzymes. Here we show that proteins from a common soil fungus (Fusarium avenaceum) do in fact preferentially bind to and impart their ice-nucleating properties to the common clay mineral kaolinite. The ice-nucleating activity of the proteinaceous INPs is found to be unaffected by adsorption to the clay, and once bound the proteins do not readily desorb, retaining much of their activity even after multiple washings with pure water. The atmospheric implications of the finding that nanoscale fungal INPs can effectively determine the nucleating abilities of lofted soil dusts are discussed.

  16. A note on the stochastic nature of particle cohesive force and implications to threshold friction velocity for aerodynamic dust entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yaping; Klose, Martina

    2016-09-01

    There is considerable interest to determine the threshold for aeolian dust emission on Earth and Mars. Existing schemes for threshold friction velocity are all deterministic in nature, but observations show that in the dust particle size range the threshold friction velocity scatters strongly due to stochastic inter-particle cohesion. In the real world, there always exists a certain amount of free dust which can be easily lifted from the surface by weak winds or even turbulence, as exemplified by dust devils. It has been proposed in the dust-devil research community, that the pressure drop at dust-devil center may be a major mechanism for dust-devil dust emission, known as the Δp effect. It is questioned here whether the Δp effect is substantial or whether the elevated dust concentration in dust devils is due to free dust emission. A simple analysis indicates that the Δp effect appears to be small and the dust in dust devils is probably due to free dust emission and dust convergence. To estimate free dust emission, it is useful to define a lower limit of dust-particle threshold friction velocity. A simple expression for this velocity is proposed by making assumptions to the median and variance of inter-particle cohesive force. The simple expression is fitted to the data of the Arizona State University Vortex Generator. While considerable uncertainty remains in the scheme, this note highlights the need for additional research on the stochastic nature of dust emission.

  17. Design and development of a dust dispersion chamber to quantify the dispersibility of rock dust.

    PubMed

    Perera, Inoka E; Sapko, Michael J; Harris, Marcia L; Zlochower, Isaac A; Weiss, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Dispersible rock dust must be applied to the surfaces of entries in underground coal mines in order to inert the coal dust entrained or made airborne during an explosion and prevent propagating explosions. 30 CFR. 75.2 states that "… [rock dust particles] when wetted and dried will not cohere to form a cake which will not be dispersed into separate particles by a light blast of air …" However, a proper definition or quantification of "light blast of air" is not provided. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has, consequently, designed a dust dispersion chamber to conduct quantitative laboratory-scale dispersibility experiments as a screening tool for candidate rock dusts. A reproducible pulse of air is injected into the chamber and across a shallow tray of rock dust. The dust dispersed and carried downwind is monitored. The mass loss of the dust tray and the airborne dust measurements determine the relative dispersibility of the dust with respect to a Reference rock dust. This report describes the design and the methodology to evaluate the relative dispersibility of rock dusts with and without anti-caking agents. Further, the results of this study indicate that the dispersibility of rock dusts varies with particle size, type of anti-caking agent used, and with the untapped bulk density. Untreated rock dusts, when wetted and dried forming a cake that was much less dispersible than the reference rock dust used in supporting the 80% total incombustible content rule.

  18. Aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer: real-time measurement of emission spectra of airborne biological particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Steven C.; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Nachman, Paul; Chen, Gang; Chang, Richard K.; Mayo, Michael W.; Fernandez, Gilbert L.

    1995-10-01

    We have assembled an aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer (AFS), which can measure the fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering of airborne particles as they flow through a laser beam. The aerosols traverse a scattering cell where they are illuminated with intense (50 kW/cm 2) light inside the cavity of an argon-ion laser operating at 488 nm. This AFS can obtain fluorescence spectra of individual dye-doped polystyrene microspheres as small as 0.5 mu m in diameter. The spectra obtained from microspheres doped with pink and green-yellow dyes are clearly different. We have also detected the fluorescence spectra of airborne particles (although not single particles) made from various

  19. Formation and alteration of airborne particles in the subway environment.

    PubMed

    Moreno, T; Querol, X; Martins, V; Minguillón, M C; Reche, C; Ku, L H; Eun, H R; Ahn, K H; Capdevila, M; de Miguel, E

    2017-01-25

    Most particles in the rail subway environment are sub-micron sized ferruginous flakes and splinters generated mechanically by frictional wear of brake pads, wheels and rails. To better understand the mechanisms of formation and the alteration processes affecting inhalable particles in subways, PM samples (1-2.5 μm and 2.5-10 μm) were collected in the Barcelona Metro and then studied under a scanning electron microscope. Most particles in these samples are hematitic (up to 88%), with relatively minor amounts of mineral matter (up to 9%) and sulphates (up to 5%). Detailed microscopy (using back scattered and TEM-DRX imaging) reveals how many of the metallic particles comprise the metallic Fe nucleus surrounded by hematite (Fe2O3) and a coating of sulphate and chloride salts mixed with mineral matter (including Ca-carbonates, clay minerals and quartz). These observations record the emission of fine to ultrafine FePM by frictional wear at elevated temperatures that promote rapid partial (or complete) oxidation of the native metal. Water condensing on the PM surface during cooling leads to the adsorption of inorganic mineral particles that coat the iron oxide. The distinctively layered polymineralic structure that results from these processes is peculiar to particles generated in the subway environment and very different from PM typically inhaled outdoors.

  20. A Micro Aerosol Sensor for the Measurement of Airborne Ultrafine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Particle number concentration and particle size are the two key parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne nanoparticles or ultrafine particles that have attracted the most attention. This paper proposes a simple micro aerosol sensor for detecting the number concentration and particle size of ultrafine particles with diameters from 50 to 253 nm based on electrical diffusion charging. The sensor is composed of a micro channel and a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, which thus integrate charging, precipitating and measurement elements into one chip, the overall size of which is 98 × 38 × 25 mm3. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor is useful for measuring monodisperse aerosol particles with number concentrations from 300 to 2.5 × 104 /cm3 and particle sizes from 50 to 253 nm. The aerosol sensor has a simple structure and small size, which is favorable for use in handheld devices. PMID:26999156

  1. Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment and comparison with land, aircraft, and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Allen, Duane A.; Torres, Omar; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent N.; Smirnov, Alexander; Dubovik, Oleg; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Wang, Jun; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2003-10-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements obtained with the six-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) mounted on a twin-engine aircraft during the summer 2000 Puerto Rico Dust Experiment are presented. In general, aerosol extinction values calculated from AATS-6 AOD measurements acquired during aircraft profiles up to 5 km above sea level (asl) reproduce the vertical structure measured by coincident aircraft in situ measurements of total aerosol number concentration. AATS-6 extinction retrievals also agree with corresponding values derived from ground-based lidar measurements for altitudes above the trade inversion. The spectral behavior of AOD within specific layers beneath the top of the aircraft profile is consistent with attenuation of incoming solar radiation by large dust particles or by dust plus sea salt, with mean Ångström wavelength exponents of ˜0.20. Values of CWV calculated from profile measurements by AATS-6 at 941.9 nm and from aircraft in situ measurements agree to within ˜4% (0.13 g/cm2). AATS-6 AOD values measured on the ground at Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Station and during low-altitude aircraft runs over the adjacent Cabras Island aerosol/radiation ground site agree to within 0.004-0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/sky radiometer located on Cabras Island. For the same observation times, AERONET retrievals of CWV exceed AATS-6 values by ˜21%. AATS-6 AOD values measured during low-altitude aircraft traverses over the ocean are compared with corresponding AOD values retrieved over water from upwelling radiance measurements by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and GOES 8 Imager satellite sensors, with mixed results.

  2. Saharan dust long-range transport across the Atlantic studied by an airborne Doppler wind lidar and the MACC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Benedetti, Angela; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-09-01

    A huge amount of dust is transported every year from north Africa into the Caribbean region. This paper presents an investigation of this long-range transport process based on airborne Doppler wind lidar (DWL) measurements conducted during the SALTRACE campaign (June-July 2013), as well as an evaluation of the ability of the MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) global aerosol model to reproduce it and its associated features. Although both the modeled winds from MACC and the measurements from the DWL show a generally good agreement, some differences, particularly in the African easterly jet (AEJ) intensity, were noted. The observed differences between modeled and measured wind jet speeds are between 5 and 10 m s-1. The vertical aerosol distribution within the Saharan dust plume and the marine boundary layer is investigated during the June-July 2013 period based on the MACC aerosol model results and the CALIOP satellite lidar measurements. While the modeled Saharan dust plume extent shows a good agreement with the measurements, a systematic underestimation of the marine boundary layer extinction is observed. Additionally, three selected case studies covering different aspects of the Saharan dust long-range transport along the west African coast, over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean are presented. For the first time, DWL measurements are used to investigate the Saharan dust long-range transport. Simultaneous wind and backscatter measurements from the DWL are used, in combination with the MACC model, to analyze different features associated with the long-range transport, including an African easterly wave trough, the AEJ and the intertropical convergence zone.

  3. First detection of charged dust particles in the Earth's mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havnes, O.; Trøim, J.; Blix, T.; Mortensen, W.; Næsheim, L. I.; Thrane, E.; Tønnesen, T.

    1996-05-01

    Some theories for the observed anomalous radar backscatter during the summer (polar mesospheric summer echoes, or PMSE) and electron bite outs measured by rockets require the presence of charged dust. To investigate this, two dust probes have been launched in 1994 from Andyøa Rocket Range and we here report the results from the dust and an electron probe on the two payloads. The dust probes were designed to block out the electron and ion components at the mesopause but to detect primary currents due to impacts of charged dust and also to detect secondary plasma production during dust impacts. The results indicate that both during PMSE and noctilucent cloud (NLC) conditions, large amounts of dust, with average sizes apparently of about 0.1 μm and less, were present. The number densities Nd can be up to many thousand per cubic centimeter, and the charge density NdZd likewise. Large local gradients in density and charge density of dust are detected. Dust carrying both positive and negative charges can apparently be present on different occasions. In some parts of the NLC/PMSE layers we find that the negative charge density locked in grains is so large that the number of free electrons is significantly reduced there because the dust acts like sinks for electrons, and an electron bite out results. We also find that in one case the presence of positive dust leads to an increase in the local electron density by photoionization. The main uncertainties in the data analysis are the structure of the dust and the secondary plasma production at the comparatively low dust impact velocities (1 kms-1) in the experiment.

  4. Urban particle size distributions during two contrasting dust events originating from Taklimakan and Gobi Deserts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Xia, Dunsheng; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Li, Fang

    2015-12-01

    The dust origins of the two events were identified using HYSPLIT trajectory model and MODIS and CALIPSO satellite data to understand the particle size distribution during two contrasting dust events originated from Taklimakan and Gobi deserts. The supermicron particles significantly increased during the dust events. The dust event from Gobi desert affected significantly on the particles larger than 2.5 μm, while that from Taklimakan desert impacted obviously on the particles in 1.0-2.5 μm. It is found that the particle size distributions and their modal parameters such as VMD (volume median diameter) have significant difference for varying dust origins. The dust from Taklimakan desert was finer than that from Gobi desert also probably due to other influencing factors such as mixing between dust and urban emissions. Our findings illustrated the capacity of combining in situ, satellite data and trajectory model to characterize large-scale dust plumes with a variety of aerosol parameters.

  5. Application of 252Cf-PDMS to characterize airborne particles deposited in an Antarctic glacier.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, K Dias; Evangelista, H; Dalia, K C; Simões, J C; Barros Leite, C V

    2004-05-05

    The aim of this study is to apply the (252)Cf-PDMS (plasma desorption mass spectrometry) technique to characterize particles deposited in ice samples. This technique allows identification of molecular ions, even large molecules, desorbed from the sample surface, in contrast with PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) or EDS (energy dispersive spectrometry). Two shallow snow cores obtained from different glacial drainage basins on King George Island ice cap, South Shetland Islands (Antarctica), were analyzed by PDMS. The chemical compounds identified in the ice mass spectra show that the particle contents of both samples were statistically different, indicating a non-homogeneous spatial deposition distribution for the deposited particles. The analysis of the ice mass spectra suggests some possible sources for the airborne particles. The mass spectra of ice samples collected at a site exposed directly to air masses coming from the Drake Passage show a significant contribution of particles from crustal and anthropogenic sources. However, the mass spectra of ice samples taken from a site on a slope towards a local inlet point out a high influence of marine aerosol. Therefore, it was concluded that particles deposited onto the ice cap were attributable to different aerosol sources, besides long-range atmospheric transport. The (252)Cf-PDMS technique can be considered a powerful tool for studies of snow and ice samples, providing important information for understanding the global atmospheric transport and deposition of airborne particles.

  6. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Peters, TM; Elzey, S; Johnson, R; Park, H; Grassian, VH; Maher, T; O'Shaughnessy, P

    2016-01-01

    Two methods were used to distinguish airborne engineered nanomaterials from other airborne particles in a facility that produces nano-structured lithium titanate metal oxide powder. The first method involved off-line analysis of filter samples collected with conventional respirable samplers at each of seven locations (six near production processes and one outdoors). Throughout most of the facility and outdoors, respirable mass concentrations were low (<0.050 mg m−3) and were attributed to particles other than the nanomaterial (<10% by mass titanium determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). In contrast, in a single area with extensive material handling, mass concentrations were greatest (0.118 mg m−3) and contained up to 39% +/− 11% lithium titanium, indicating the presence of airborne nanomaterial. Analysis of the filter samples collected in this area by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope revealed that the airborne nanomaterial was associated only with spherical aggregates (clusters of fused 10–80 nm nanoparticles) that were larger than 200 nm. This analysis also showed that nanoparticles in this area were the smallest particles of a larger distribution of submicrometer chain agglomerates likely from welding in an adjacent area of the facility. The second method used two, hand-held, direct-reading, battery-operated instruments to obtain a time series of very fine particle number (<300 nm), respirable mass, and total mass concentration, which were then related to activities within the area of extensive material handling. This activity-based monitoring showed that very fine particle number concentrations (<300 nm) had no apparent correlation to worker activities, but that sharp peaks in the respirable and total mass concentration coincided with loading a hopper and replacing nanomaterial collection bags. These findings were consistent with those from the filter-based method in that they

  7. Influence of dust particles on ionization and excitation in neon dc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumova, V. V.; Polyakov, D. N.; Vasilyak, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of dust particles on the concentration of metastable neon atoms and ionization was investigated using the developed drift/diffusion model for plasma of positive column of glow discharge. The detailed de-excitation in neon was considered. In addition to usual plasma losses in dusty plasmas, the quenching of metastable atoms on dust particle surface was considered. The strong influence of dust particles on the ionization rate and concentration of metastable neon atoms in a positive column of glow discharge is shown to result from the change in the longitudinal electric field strength.

  8. Salts in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Grain-by-grain analytical electron microscope analyses of two micrometeorites, or interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) of the chondritic porous subtype show the presence of rare barite (BaSO4) and magnesium carbonate, probably magnesite. Salt minerals in chondritic porous (CP) IDPs give evidence for in situ aqueous alteration in their parent bodies. The uniquely high barium content of CP IDP W7029(asterisk)C1 is consistent with barite precipitation from a mildly acidic (pH above 5) aqueous fluid at temperatures below 417 K and low oxygen fugacity. The presence of magnesite in olivine-rich, anhydrous CP IDP W7010(asterisk)A2 is evidence that carbonate minerals occur in both the chondritic porous and chondritic smooth subtypes of chondritic IDPs. Citing Schramm et al. (1989) for putative asteroidal-type aqueous alteration in IDPs and probable sources of chondritic IDPs, salt minerals in CP IDPs could support low-temperature aqueous activity in nuclei of active short-period comets.

  9. Airborne Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor During the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment, and Comparison with Land, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Reid, Jeffrey; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Allen, Duane A.; Torres, Omar; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent N.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements obtained with the six-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) mounted on a twin-engine aircraft during the summer 2000 Puerto Rico Dust Experiment are presented. In general, aerosol extinction values calculated from AATS-6 AOD measurements acquired during aircraft profiles up to 5 km ASL reproduce the vertical structure measured by coincident aircraft in-situ measurements of total aerosol number and surface area concentration. Calculations show that the spectral dependence of AOD was small (mean Angstrom wavelength exponents of approximately 0.20) within three atmospheric layers defined as the total column beneath the top of each aircraft profile, the region beneath the trade wind inversion, and the region within the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) above the trade inversion. This spectral behavior is consistent with attenuation of incoming solar radiation by large dust particles or by dust plus sea salt. Values of CWV calculated from profile measurements by AATS-6 at 941.9 nm and from aircraft in-situ measurements by a chilled mirror dewpoint hygrometer agree to within approximately 4% (0.13 g/sq cm). AATS-6 AOD values measured on the ground at Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Station and during low altitude aircraft runs over the adjacent Cabras Island aerosol/radiation ground site agree to within 0.004 to 0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/sky Cimel radiometer located at Cabras Island. For the same observation times, AERONET retrievals of CWV exceed AATS-6 values by a mean of 0.74 g/sq cm (approximately 21 %) for the 2.9-3.9 g/sq cm measured by AATS-6. Comparison of AATS-6 aerosol extinction values obtained during four aircraft ascents over Cabras Island with corresponding values calculated from coincident aerosol backscatter measurements by a ground-based micro-pulse lidar (MPL-Net) located at Cabras yields a similar vertical structure above the trade

  10. Numerical investigation of the coagulation mixing between dust and hygroscopic aerosol particles and its impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, I.-Chun; Chen, Jen-Ping; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Chung-Kuang Chou, Charles; Chen, Wei-Nai

    2015-05-01

    A statistical-numerical aerosol parameterization was incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system to study the coagulation mixing process focusing on a dust storm event that occurred over East Asia. Simulation results show that the coagulation mixing process tends to decrease aerosol mass, surface area, and number concentrations over the dust source areas. Over the downwind oceanic areas, aerosol concentrations generally increased due to enhanced sedimentation as particles became larger upon coagulation. The mixture process can reduce the overall single-scattering albedo by up to 10% as a result of enhanced core with shell absorption by dust and reduction in the number of scattering particles. The enhanced dry deposition speed also altered the vertical distribution. In addition, the ability of aerosol particles to serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) increased from around 107 m-3 to above 109 m-3 over downwind areas because a large amount of mineral dust particles became effective CCN with solute coating, except over the highly polluted areas where multiple collections of hygroscopic particles by dust in effect reduced CCN number. This CCN effect is much stronger for coagulation mixing than by the uptake of sulfuric acid gas on dust, although the nitric acid gas uptake was not investigated. The ability of dust particles to serve as ice nuclei may decrease or increase at low or high subzero temperatures, respectively, due to the switching from deposition nucleation to immersion freezing or haze freezing.

  11. Time resolved collection and characterization of dust particles moving in the TEXTOR scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, I.; Bergsåker, H.; Ratynskaia, S.; Litnovsky, A.; Petersson, P.; Possnert, G.

    2013-07-01

    Moving dust has been collected in the SOL of TEXTOR in a time-resolved way with silica aerogel collectors [1-3]. The collectors were exposed to the toroidal particle flux in NBI heated discharges during the start-up and flat top phase. Intrinsic dust was collected in several discharges. Other discharges were accompanied with injection of known amounts of pre-characterized dust (W, C flakes and C microspheres) from a position toroidally 120° away from the collector. Particle flux, composition and dust size distribution have been determined with SEM and EDX. Calibration allowed particle velocity estimates to be made. Upper limits for the deuterium content of individual dust grains have been determined by NRA.

  12. Advanced In-Situ Detection and Chemical Analysis of Interstellar Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Gemer, A.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Maute, K.; Postberg, F.; Srama, R.; Williams, E.; O'brien, L.; Rocha, J. R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ulysses dust detector discovered that interstellar dust particles pass through the solar system. The Hyperdsut instrument is developed for the in-situ detection and analysis of these particles to determine the elemental, chemical and isotopic compositions. Hyperdust builds on the heritage of previous successful instruments, e.g. the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on Cassini. Hyperdust combines a highly sensitive Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) and the high mass resolution Chemical Analyzer (CA). The DTS will detect dust particles as small as 0.3 μm in radius, and the velocity vector information is used to confirm the interstellar origin and/or reveal the dynamics from the interactions within the solar system. The effective target area of the CA is > 600 cm2 achieves mass resolution in excess of 200, which is considerably higher than that of CDA, and is acheved by advanced ion optics design. The Hyperdust instrument is in the final phases of development to TRL 6.

  13. AIRBORNE PARTICLE SIZES AND SOURCES FOUND IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes results of a literature search into the sources, sizes, and concentrations of particles in indoor air, including the various types: plant, animal, mineral, combustion, home/personal care, and radioactive aerosols. This information, presented in a summary figu...

  14. Indoor emissions as a primary source of airborne allergenic fungal particles in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Hospodsky, Denina; Dannemiller, Karen C; Nazaroff, William W; Peccia, Jordan

    2015-04-21

    This study quantifies the influence of ventilation and indoor emissions on concentrations and particle sizes of airborne indoor allergenic fungal taxa and further examines geographical variability, each of which may affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Quantitative PCR and multiplexed DNA sequencing were employed to count and identify allergenic fungal aerosol particles indoors and outdoors in seven school classrooms in four different countries. Quantitative diversity analysis was combined with building characterization and mass balance modeling to apportion source contributions of indoor allergenic airborne fungal particles. Mass balance calculations indicate that 70% of indoor fungal aerosol particles and 80% of airborne allergenic fungal taxa were associated with indoor emissions; on average, 81% of allergenic fungi from indoor sources originated from occupant-generated emissions. Principal coordinate analysis revealed geographical variations in fungal communities among sites in China, Europe, and North America (p < 0.05, analysis of similarity), demonstrating that geography may also affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Indoor emissions including those released with occupancy contribute more substantially to allergenic fungal exposures in classrooms sampled than do outdoor contributions from ventilation. The results suggest that design and maintenance of buildings to control indoor emissions may enable reduced indoor inhalation exposures to fungal allergens.

  15. Synchrotron FTIR Examination of Interplanetary Dust Particles: An Effort to Determine the Compounds and Minerals in Interstellar and Circumstellar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    Some interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), collected by NASA from the Earth's stratosphere, are the most primitive extraterrestrial material available for laboratory analysis. Many exhibit isotopic anomalies in H, N, and O, suggesting they contain preserved interstellar matter. We report the preliminary results of a comparison of the infrared absorption spectra of subunits of the IDPs with astronomical spectra of interstellar grains.

  16. A detailed petrological analysis of hydrated, low-nickel, nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    A detailed petrological analysis of three low-Ni, K-bearing, nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles is performed, and these particles are compared to products of high-energy, explosive (Plinian-type) volcanic events. The analytical electron microscope (AEM) analyses show pervasive layer silicates, carbonate and goethite, and chemical fractionation in the matrix of these particles similar to hydrothermal alteration in volcanic ejecta. Along with low Ni content and the presence of potassium, the texture and mineralogy of particles L2001-18, L2001-20, and L2002 C2 are similar to at least two nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles of the igneous subgroup for which an extraterrestrial origin has been suggested based on their minor- and trace-element abundances. The petrological characteristics of some low-Ni, K-bearing nonchondritic stratospheric dust particles supports a probable terrestrial volcanic origin, but the AEM data alone cannot exclude an extraterrestrial origin for these particles.

  17. Particle size and metals concentrations of dust from a paint manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siew Lai; Yin, Chun-Yang; Yap, Siaw Yang

    2010-02-15

    In this study, the particle size distribution and concentration of metallic elements of solvent- and water-based paint dust from bulk dust collected from dust-collecting hoppers were determined. The mean particle size diameter over a 12-week sampling period was determined using a particle size analyzer. The metals composition and concentration of the dust were determined via acid digestion technique followed by concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma. The volume weighted mean particle diameters were found to be 0.941+/-0.016 and 8.185+/-0.201 microm for solvent- and water-based paint dust, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in solvent-based paint dust were found to be 100+/-20.00 microg/g (arsenic), 1550+/-550.00 microg/g (copper), 15,680+/-11,780.00 microg/g (lead) and 30,460+/-10,580.00 microg/g (zinc) while the mean concentrations of metals in water-based paint dust were found to be 20.65+/-6.11 microg/g (arsenic), 9.14+/-14.65 microg/g (copper), 57.46+/-22.42 microg/g (lead) and 1660+/-1260 microg/g (zinc). Both paint dust types could be considered as hazardous since almost all of the dust particles were smaller than 10 microm. Particular emphasis on containment of solvent-based paint dust particles should be given since it was shown that they were very fine in size (<1 microm) and had high lead and zinc concentrations.

  18. On the Elemental Abundances in Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, P.; Maetz, M.; Jessberger, E. K.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: Major, minor, and trace element contents may play a decisive role in unrevealing the possible origin(s) of stratospheric interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). We compiled a complete table of all analysed IDPs that includes data of 89 particles obtained with PIXE, SXRF, or SIMS. Before subjecting these data to statistical analyses the reliability of the trace element data was proven by various cross-checks: Reliability: In 1989, Wallenwein et al. had analysed two IDPs with PIXE in Heidelberg and afterwards with SXRF in Hamburg and found non-conflicting abundances for 16 detected elements and only one discrepancy for each IDP [1]. In 1992 we re-analysed with PIXE six IDPs that were measured also with PIXE in 1985 by van der Stap and found an agreement within a factor of about 2.5 between both data sets which is not really satisfying. With PIXE in Heidelberg we repeated analyses of the same two IDPs and found identical results. A comparison between the actual facilities of PIXE in Heidelberg and SXRF in Brookhaven leads to a convincing agreement between these two techniques [2]. As a test--actually as a by-product of an experiment to determine the influence of pulse heating on CI material [3] ( we analysed by means of PIXE 64 fragments (~50-100 micrometers) from the CI chondrites Orgueil and Alais to test the reliability of our actual pixe data [4]. We found most of the 18 elements between Mg and Zr in good agreement with CI [5]. But the means of these elements, for which our limits of detection (LODs) were close to CI, appear enriched which was the case for Sc, Co, As, Rb, Y, and Zr. Statistical analyses: Here we report on the results of cluster analyses we performed on IDP compositions. We took into account data from 89 particles and 28 elements between Na and Zr. Because of missing data - only Fe could be detected in all 89 particles - we clustered with the elements Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn (normalized to Fe and CI chondrites), which were determined in

  19. Airborne birch pollen antigens in different particle sizes.

    PubMed

    Rantio-Lehtimäki, A; Viander, M; Koivikko, A

    1994-01-01

    Two particle samplers for ambient air, situated together: a static size-selective bio-aerosol sampler (SSBAS) and a Burkard pollen and spore trap were compared in sampling intact birch pollen grains through one flowering period of Betula (a total of 44 days). The SSBAS trapped pollen grains three times more efficiently than the Burkard trap, but the variations in pollen counts were significantly correlated. In contrast, birch pollen antigenic activity and the pollen count in the Burkard samples were not closely correlated. The antigenic concentration was occasionally high both before and after the pollination period. There was a high birch pollen antigenic activity in particle size classes where intact pollen grains were absent, even on days when the pollen count was very low. Correspondingly, on days with high birch pollen counts in the air, pollen antigenic activity was on several occasions low, indicating that pollen grains were empty of antigenic material. The small particle size classes are especially important to allergic patients because they are able to penetrate immediately into the alveoli and provoke asthmatic reactions. Therefore, aerobiological information systems based on pollen and spore counts should be supplemented with information concerning antigenic activities in the air.

  20. Computerized control of the procedure for detecting and removing airborne particles in operating rooms.

    PubMed

    Bay, Omer Faruk; Ergül, Nesip

    2004-04-01

    Surgical-site infections are still a major problem in modern medicine. Normal skin fora of patients or healthcare workers causes more than half of all infections following clean surgery, but the importance of airborne particles in this setting remains controversial. The use of ultraclean air in operating rooms has been shown to reduce infection rates significantly. High efficiency particlulate air (HEPA) filters are used in some modern operating rooms. Although the uses of HEPA filters, the air quality should be controlled by another device to make safe the air in operating rooms and intensive care units. In this study, a computerized system was established to control the cleanliness of the air by measuring the presence of airborne particles of varying sizes and numbers in operating rooms. When the maximum values are exceeded, the system warns the authorized people by phone, sound, or displays.

  1. The measurement and interpretation of Br/Pb ratios in airborne particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Sturges, W. T.

    Concentrations of bromide in atmospheric particles have commonly been used as an indicator of vehicle-emitted lead, since the two elements are associated in auto exhaust. A depression in the Br/Pb ratio from that in fresh auto exhaust has generally been interpreted in terms of an industrial contribution to airborne lead, despite the known loss of bromine from airborne particles during ageing processes in the atmosphere. In this article the available analytical techniques for determination of Br/Pb ratios are critically evaluated, and the reported values of Br/Pb ratios in ambient air are reviewed. The possible reasons for variability in Br/Pb ratios are discussed and recommendations made for the evaluation of Br/Pb ratio data.

  2. Dynamic Dust Accumulation and Dust Removal Observed on the Mars Exploration Rover Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertelsen, P.; Bell, J. F., III; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hviid, S. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Kinch, K. M.; Knudsen, J. M.; Madsen, M. B.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers each carry a set of Magnetic Properties Experiments designed to investigate the properties of the airborne dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is a preferred interpretation of previous experiments that the airborne dust in the Martian atmosphere is primarily composed by composite silicate particles containing one or more highly magnetic minerals as a minor constituent. The ultimate goal of the magnetic properties experiments on the Mars Exploration Rover mission is to provide some information/ constraints on whether the dust is formed by volcanic, meteoritic, aqueous, or other processes. The first problem is to identify the magnetic mineral(s) in the airborne dust on Mars. While the overall results of the magnetic properties experiments are presented in, this abstract will focus on dust deposition and dust removal on some of the magnets.

  3. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses’ station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3–1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3–10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37–81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18–59% and 1–5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1–10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  4. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  5. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  6. Comparison of Contributions of Wind-blown and Anthropogenic Fugitive Dust Particles to Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Gong, S.

    2010-12-01

    A new wind-blown-dust emissions module was recently implemented into AURAMS, a Canadian regional air quality model (Park et al., 2009; Park et al., 2007), to investigate the relative impact of wind-blown dust vs. anthropogenic fugitive dust on air quality in North America. In order to apply the wind-blown dust emissions module to the entire North American continent, a soil-grain-size-distribution map was developed using the outputs of four monthly runs of AURAMS for 2002 and available PM2.5 dust-content observations. The simulation results using the new soil-grain-size-distribution map showed that inclusion of wind-blown dust emissions is essential to predict the impact of dust aerosols on air quality in North America, especially in the western U.S.. The wind-blown dust emissions varied widely by season, whereas the anthropogenic fugitive dust emissions did not change significantly. In the spring (April), the continental monthly average emissions rate of wind-blown dust was much higher than that of anthropogenic fugitive dust. The total amount of wind-blown dust emissions in North America predicted by the model for 2002 was comparable to that of anthropogenic fugitive dust emissions. Even with the inclusion of wind-blown dust emissions, however, the model still had difficulty simulating dust concentrations. Further improvements are needed, in terms of both limitations of the wind-blown-dust emission module and uncertainties in the anthropogenic fugitive dust emissions inventories, for improved dust modelling. References Park, S.H., S.L. Gong, W. Gong, P.A. Makar, M.D. Moran, C.A. Stroud, and J. Zhang, Sensitivity of surface characteristics on the simulation of wind-blown dust source in North America, Atmospheric Environment, 43 (19), 3122-3129, 2009. Park, S.H., S.L. Gong, T.L. Zhao, R.J. Vet, V.S. Bouchet, W. Gong, P.A. Makar, M.D. Moran, C. Stroud, and J. Zhang, Simulation of entrainment and transport of dust particles within North America in April 2001 ("Red

  7. Evaluation of an electrostatic particle ionization technology for decreasing airborne pathogens in pigs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Carmen; Raynor, Peter C; Davies, Peter R; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    Influenza A virus (IAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and Staphylococcus aureus are important swine pathogens capable of being transmitted via aerosols. The electrostatic particle ionization system (EPI) consists of a conductive line that emits negative ions that charge particles electrically resulting in the settling of airborne particles onto surfaces and potentially decreasing the risk of pathogen dissemination. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the EPI system on the quantity and viability of IAV, PRRSV, PEDV and S. aureus in experimentally generated aerosols and in aerosols generated by infected animals. Efficiency at removing airborne particles was evaluated as a function of particle size (ranging from 0.4 to 10 µm), distance from the source of ions (1, 2 and 3 m) and relative air humidity (RH 30 vs. 70 %). Aerosols were sampled with the EPI system "off" and "on." Removal efficiency was significantly greater for all pathogens when the EPI line was the closest to the source of aerosols. There was a greater reduction for larger particles ranging between 3.3 and 9 µm, which varied by pathogen. Overall airborne pathogen reduction ranged between 0.5 and 1.9 logs. Viable pathogens were detected with the EPI system "on," but there was a trend to reducing the quantity of viable PRRSV and IAV. There was not a significant effect on the pathogens removal efficiency based on the RH conditions tested. In summary, distance to the source of ions, type of pathogen and particle size influenced the removal efficiency of the EPI system. The reduction in infectious agents in the air by the EPI technology could potentially decrease the microbial exposure for pigs and people in confinement livestock facilities.

  8. Characterizing Particle Size Distributions of Crystalline Silica in Gold Mine Dust

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, Lauren G.; Cauda, Emanuele G.

    2017-01-01

    Dust containing crystalline silica is common in mining environments in the U.S. and around the world. The exposure to respirable crystalline silica remains an important occupational issue and it can lead to the development of silicosis and other respiratory diseases. Little has been done with regard to the characterization of the crystalline silica content of specific particle sizes of mine-generated dust. Such characterization could improve monitoring techniques and control technologies for crystalline silica, decreasing worker exposure to silica and preventing future incidence of silicosis. Three gold mine dust samples were aerosolized in a laboratory chamber. Particle size-specific samples were collected for gravimetric analysis and for quantification of silica using the Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). Dust size distributions were characterized via aerodynamic and scanning mobility particle sizers (APS, SMPS) and gravimetrically via the MOUDI. Silica size distributions were constructed using gravimetric data from the MOUDI and proportional silica content corresponding to each size range of particles collected by the MOUDI, as determined via X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic quantification of silica. Results indicate that silica does not comprise a uniform proportion of total dust across all particle sizes and that the size distributions of a given dust and its silica component are similar but not equivalent. Additional research characterizing the silica content of dusts from a variety of mine types and other occupational environments is necessary in order to ascertain trends that could be beneficial in developing better monitoring and control strategies. PMID:28217139

  9. Transport and trapping of dust particles in a potential well created by inductively coupled diffused plasmas.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, S; Bandyopadhyay, P

    2016-05-01

    A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well, which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self-excited dust acoustic waves, and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust particle, and some of the preliminary experimental results are presented.

  10. Transport and trapping of dust particles in a potential well created by inductively coupled diffused plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    2016-05-01

    A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well, which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self-excited dust acoustic waves, and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust particle, and some of the preliminary experimental results are presented.

  11. Determination of coal dust in airborne particulate materials by automated optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McQuaker, N.R.; Sandberg, D.K.

    1984-11-01

    An automated optical technique for the determination of coal in airborne particulate materials is described. The technique may be used over the interval 1-5% (wt) coal when the sample is uniformly deposited as a monolayer on a cellulose acetate filter. The analytical precision is found to be acceptable. The accuracy for reference samples is shown to be either +/- 0.5% (by weight) or +/- 10% over the analytical range. The application of the method to authentic samples of airborne particulate materials is also discussed.

  12. Deposition of Selected Airborne Particles into a Microfluidic Flow Cytometer for Bioanalysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Deposition of Selected Airborne Particles Into a Microfluidic Flow Cytometer for Bioanalysis by Hermes Huang , Yong -Le Pan, Steven C. Hill...Bioanalysis Hermes Huang , Yong -Le Pan, and Richard K. Chang Yale University, New Haven, CT Steven C. Hill Computational and Information...Bioanalysis 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hermes Huang , Yong -Le Pan, Steven C. Hill, and Richard K

  13. Effects of radiofrequency on dust particle dynamics in a plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, C.; Shotorban, B.; Davoudabadi, M.

    2011-12-01

    A numerical solution is obtained for the electron and ion number densities, and electric field of an rf argon plasma in a low pressure reactor utilizing a one-dimensional model. These variables are used to solve the equations describing the dynamical behavior of a dust particle under the influence of the electrical, gravity, and ion and neutral drag forces. The effects of the rf oscillations of the plasma on the dust particle are investigated through comparisons made between two sets of results. The first set is generated by a model in which the rf-period-averaged plasma variables are used in the dust particle equations while the second set is generated using the instantaneous plasma variables, without rf-period averaging. These two sets of results including the positions and charges of, and the various forces acting on the dust particles with different sizes and densities, are compared and significant differences are found.

  14. Toward a complete inventory of stratospheric dust particles with implications and their classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    As the Earth travels about the Sun it continuously sweeps up material laying in its path. The material includes dust-sized fragments of the meteors, comets and asteroids that have passed by as well as much older particles from out between the stars. These grains first become caught in the mesosphere and then slowly pass down through the stratosphere and the troposphere, finally raining down upon the Earth's surface. In the stratosphere the cosmic dust particles encounter increasing amounts of contaminants from the Earth. At the highest reaches of Earth's atmosphere these contaminants consists mainly of dust from the most explosive volcanoes, rocket exhaust, and other manmade space debris. In the troposphere windborne particles and pollen become an increasingly larger fraction of the atmospheric dust load. An increased knowledge of the nature of cosmic particles is suggested.

  15. Impacts of fast meteoroids and the separation of dust particles from the surface of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, S. I.; Golub', A. P.; Lisin, E. A.; Izvekova, Yu. N.; Atamaniuk, B.; Dol'nikov, G. G.; Zakharov, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2016-05-01

    The possibility of the separation of dust particles owing to impacts of micrometeoroids on the surface of the Moon has been discussed. It has been shown that this effect is significant and should be taken into account when determining the number of particles rising over the surface of the Moon at the formation of a plasma-dust system. The average number of regolith particles leaving the surface of the Moon owing to the impacts of fast meteoroids has been determined for various altitudes over the Moon. The size distribution function of particles leaving the surface of the Moon because of impacts of meteoroids has been determined. It has been shown that impacts of meteoroids constitute an important source of dust microparticles in the plasma-dust system over the surface of the Moon.

  16. Physical and chemical characterization of airborne particles from welding operations in automotive plants.

    PubMed

    Dasch, Jean; D'Arcy, James

    2008-07-01

    Airborne particles were characterized from six welding operations in three automotive plants, including resistance spot welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of aluminum and resistance spot welding, MIG welding and weld-through sealer of galvanized steel. Particle levels were measured throughout the process area to select a sampling location, followed by intensive particle sampling over one working shift. Temporal trends were measured, and particles were collected on filters to characterize their size and chemistry. In all cases, the particles fell into a bimodal size distribution with very large particles >20 mum in diameter, possibly emitted as spatter or metal expulsions, and very small particles about 1 mum in diameter, possibly formed from condensation of vaporized metal. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was about 1 mum, with only about 7% of the particle mass present as ultrafine particles <100 nm. About half the mass of aluminum welding particles could be accounted for by chemical analysis, with the remainder possibly present as oxygen. Predominant species were organic carbon, elemental carbon, iron, and aluminum. More than 80% of the particle mass could be accounted for from steel welding, primarily present as iron, organic carbon, zinc, and copper. Particle concentrations and elemental concentrations were compared with allowable concentrations as recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. In all cases, workplace levels were at least 11 times lower than recommended levels.

  17. Airborne measurements of gas and particle pollutants during CAREBeijing-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, T.; Yang, W.; Bai, Z.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, Y.; Yin, B.; Zhao, X.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous pollutants - including ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX = NO + NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particle number concentrations (5.6-560 nm and 0.47-30 μm) - and meteorological parameters (T, RH, P) were conducted during the Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Regions in 2008 (CAREBeijing-2008), from 27 August through 13 October 2008. The data from a total 18 flights (70 h flight time) from near the surface to 2100 m altitude were obtained with a Yun-12 aircraft in the southern surrounding areas of Beijing (38-40° N, 114-118° E). The objectives of these measurements were to characterize the regional variation of air pollution during and after the Olympics of 2008, determine the importance of air mass trajectories and to evaluate of other factors that influence the pollution characteristics. The results suggest that there are primarily four distinct sources that influenced the magnitude and properties of the pollutants in the measured region based on back-trajectory analysis: (1) southerly transport of air masses from regions with high pollutant emissions, (2) northerly and northeasterly transport of less pollutant air from further away, (3) easterly transport from maritime sources where emissions of gaseous pollutant are less than from the south but still high in particle concentrations, and (4) the transport of air that is a mixture from different regions; that is, the air at all altitudes measured by the aircraft was not all from the same sources. The relatively long-lived CO concentration is shown to be a possible transport tracer of long-range transport from the northwesterly direction, especially at the higher altitudes. Three factors that influenced the size distribution of particles - i.e., air mass transport direction, ground source emissions and meteorological influences - are also discussed.

  18. Gene Expression Profiling of Lung Tissue of Rats Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Ploutz-Snyder Robert; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zalesak, Selina M.; Scully, Robert R.; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in the lung tissue of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. Multiple pathways and transcription factors were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool, showing the potential networks of these signaling regulations involved in lunar dust-induced prolonged proflammatory response and toxicity. The data presented in this study, for the first time, explores the molecular mechanisms of lunar dust induced toxicity. This work contributes not only to the risk assessment for future space exploration, but also to the understanding of the dust-induced toxicity to humans on earth.

  19. The Martian polar cap - Radiative effects of ozone, clouds, and airborne dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1990-01-01

    The solar and thermal flux striking the polar cap of Mars is computed for various ozone, dust, and cloud abundances and for three solar zenith angles. Ozone does not significantly affect the total energy budget of the polar cap. Hence the observed hemispherical asymmetry in ozone abundance causes only an insignificant hemispherical asymmetry in the polar caps. Vertical optical depths of dust and cloud ranging from zero to 1 cause little change in the total flux absorbed by the polar cap near its edge but increase the absorbed flux significantly as one travels poleward. Hemispherical asymmetries in dust abundance, cloud cover, and surface pressure combine to cause a significant hemispherical asymmetry in the total flux absorbed by the residual polar caps, which helps to explain the dichotomy in the residual polar caps on Mars. Other processes which affect the energy budget of the polar cap are proposed and reviewed, particularly with respect to their interaction with the radiative effects of clouds and dust.

  20. Retrospective view of airborne dust levels in workplace of a chrysotile mine in Ural, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kashansky, S V; Domnin, S G; Kochelayev, V A; Monakhov, D D; Kogan, F M

    2001-04-01

    The Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit has been exploited for 115 years. All the technological operations in the quarry are accompanied by the formation of high-dispersion asbestos-containing aerosols. The dust concentrations at the miner's working places for the last 30 years (1970-2000) were at or below the Russian MACs(m.s.) level (4.0 mg/m3). The seasonal precipitation amount in the deposit area causes a rise in dust content in certain periods. The maximum density of asbestos respirable fibres exceeded 2.7 f/cm3. All the identified fibres belonged to chrysotile asbestos, and no amphibole asbestos, such as tremolite asbestos, has been identified. An excessive dust level remains, despite the dust content level decrease, at the work sites of oversized lump drillers and unloaders, and oncopathology heightened risk remains in these occupational groups, as a result.

  1. The possible existence of interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in collected interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Extraterrestrial dust particles which are 3 to 50 microns in size are routinely collected in the stratosphere and are now available for general laboratory study. These grains represent true Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Issues associated with the carbon containing components of IDPs which occur in a variety of physical forms, including amorphous mantles and matrix materials, are addressed. The observed properties of the hydrocarbon phase in IDPs are compared with those expected for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  2. Particle size effect for metal pollution analysis of atmospherically deposited dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rajhi, M. A.; Al-Shayeb, S. M.; Seaward, M. R. D.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    The metallic compositions of 231 atmospherically deposited dust samples obtained from widely-differing environments in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, have been investigated in relation to the particle size distributions. Sample data are presented which show that particle size classification is very important when analysing dust samples for atmospheric metal pollution studies. By cross-correlation and comparison, it was found that the best way to express the results of the metal concentration trend was as an average of particle ratios. Correlations between the six metals studied, namely Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Li, were found for every particle size (eight categories) and reveal that the metal concentrations increased as the particle size decreased. On the basis of this work, it is strongly recommended that future international standards for metal pollutants in atmospherically deposited dusts should be based on particle size fractions.

  3. Measurement of Characteristics of Micron Size Individual Dust Particles of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D.; Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Spann, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory facility for levitating single isolated dust particles in an electrodynamic balance has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for conducting studies of the physical and optical properties of the analogs of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains of 0.2-20 micron size under controlled pressures/temperatures simulating astrophysical environments. We plan three classes of experiments using this facility: (1) Charge characteristics of micron size single dust grains: The photoelectric efficiencies, yields, and equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation found from these measurements will provide much-needed photoelectric emission data for individual dust particles; (2) Infrared optical properties of dust particles: Specifically, we will determines the complex refractive indices, the extinction coefficients, the scattering phase functions, and the polarization properties of single dust grains of interest in interstellar environments, in the 1- 25 micron spectral region; (3) Condensation experiments to investigate the deposition of volatile gases on colder nucleated particles in dense interstellar clouds and lower planetary atmospheres: The measured data will permit determination of the sticking efficiencies of volatile gases of astrophysical interest. Brief descriptions of the experimental setup for the last two classes of experiments will be given. We will present results of measurements of photoelectric emission using 0.2-6.6 micron size silica particles exposed to UV radiation at 120-200 nm and also results of radiation pressure measurements using the same size silica particles and laser light at 5320 Angstrom.

  4. Charging of dust particles in an illuminated open complex plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the charging of dust particles in a dusty plasma, irradiated by white light in near space at satellite altitudes. In deference to the recent emphasis on the character of openness in a dusty plasma, the investigation is based on the balance of the number density and energy of electrons, ions, and neutral particles as well as the energy balance of the dust particles and the charge neutrality condition. The accretion of electrons/ions and the emission of electrons by the dust particles, the ionization of neutral particles and the recombination of electrons and ions, and binary collisions between electrons, ions, and neutral atoms are the processes considered herein; the energy exchange associated with these processes has also been considered. The formulation is applicable to dusty plasmas in space and laboratory, where the photoemission of electrons is the dominant mechanism for electron generation. As an illustration a parametric study of the charging of the dust of Cs (cesium) coated bronze, LaB{sub 6}, and CeO{sub 2}, illuminated by solar radiation in a plasma environment, characteristic of day time ionosphere at an altitude of 150 km has been made. The theory is valid when the mean free path of electrons for accretion by the dust particles is less than the dimensions of the dust clouds.

  5. Orbital evolution of dust particles from comets and asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. A.; Zook, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a computer simulation in which dust grains of three different sizes were released at perihelion passage from each of (1) 15 main belt asteroids, (2) 15 short-period comets with perihelion greater than 1 AU, and (3) 5 such comets with perihelion less than 1 AU. The evolving-orbit calculations for each of the dust rains include the effects of solar and planetary gravity, radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag, and solar wind drag. It is noted that when dust grains evolve to intersection with the earth's orbit, they retain orbital characteristics indicative of their origins.

  6. Orbital evolution of dust particles from comets and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, A. A.; Zook, H. A.

    1992-05-01

    Results are presented from a computer simulation in which dust grains of three different sizes were released at perihelion passage from each of (1) 15 main belt asteroids, (2) 15 short-period comets with perihelion greater than 1 AU, and (3) 5 such comets with perihelion less than 1 AU. The evolving-orbit calculations for each of the dust rains include the effects of solar and planetary gravity, radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson drag, and solar wind drag. It is noted that when dust grains evolve to intersection with the earth's orbit, they retain orbital characteristics indicative of their origins.

  7. On the size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo‐Sánchez, J. D.; Feng, W.; Nesvorný, D.; Janches, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the Earth's atmosphere is uncertain. Here we show that the relative concentrations of metal atoms in the upper mesosphere, and the surface accretion rate of cosmic spherules, provide sensitive probes of this distribution. Three cosmic dust models are selected as case studies: two are astronomical models, the first constrained by infrared observations of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud and the second by radar observations of meteor head echoes; the third model is based on measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector. For each model, a Monte Carlo sampling method combined with a chemical ablation model is used to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Mg, and Ca above 60 km and cosmic spherule production rate. It appears that a significant fraction of the cosmic dust consists of small (<5 µg) and slow (<15 km s−1) particles. PMID:27478282

  8. On the size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Sánchez, J D; Plane, J M C; Feng, W; Nesvorný, D; Janches, D

    2015-08-16

    The size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the Earth's atmosphere is uncertain. Here we show that the relative concentrations of metal atoms in the upper mesosphere, and the surface accretion rate of cosmic spherules, provide sensitive probes of this distribution. Three cosmic dust models are selected as case studies: two are astronomical models, the first constrained by infrared observations of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud and the second by radar observations of meteor head echoes; the third model is based on measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector. For each model, a Monte Carlo sampling method combined with a chemical ablation model is used to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Mg, and Ca above 60 km and cosmic spherule production rate. It appears that a significant fraction of the cosmic dust consists of small (<5 µg) and slow (<15 km s(-1)) particles.

  9. On the size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Nesvorný, D.; Janches, D.

    2015-08-01

    The size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the Earth's atmosphere is uncertain. Here we show that the relative concentrations of metal atoms in the upper mesosphere, and the surface accretion rate of cosmic spherules, provide sensitive probes of this distribution. Three cosmic dust models are selected as case studies: two are astronomical models, the first constrained by infrared observations of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud and the second by radar observations of meteor head echoes; the third model is based on measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector. For each model, a Monte Carlo sampling method combined with a chemical ablation model is used to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Mg, and Ca above 60 km and cosmic spherule production rate. It appears that a significant fraction of the cosmic dust consists of small (<5 µg) and slow (<15 km s-1) particles.

  10. Bromine in Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs): Evidence for Stratospheric Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1992-07-01

    contamination layer. I calculate the atmospheric residence time of individual particles using a new two-stage model for settling of atmospheric dust that emphasizes a function between individual particle diameter and the gas mean free path of the atmosphere [7]. The result in Figure 1 shows a linear correlation [corr. coeff. = 0.93] instead of the scattergram when using particle dimension [cf. 1]. The particles U2022B2 and W7013H17 are omitted; both have an atypical IDP morphology with considerable smooth surface area. CONCLUSION. The AEM data together with a new model for the atmospheric residence time of individual IDPs argue in favor of a bromine layer on chondritic IDPs due to stratospheric contamination. The excellent correlation also suggests that curatorial rinsing may not strongly affect the bromine content of most chondritic IDPs. Figure 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows mass- normalized bromine content and stratospheric residence time of IDPs; cf. ref. 1 for bromine data. References. 1. Flynn G.J. & Sutton S.R. (1990) Proc. 20th LPSC, 335-342; 2. Flynn G.J. & Sutton S.R. (1992) Meteoritics 26, 334; 3. Sutton S.R. & Flynn G.J. (1990) Proc. 20th LPSC, 357-361; 4. Jessberger E.K. et al. (1992) Intern Rpt. Max Planck Inst. Heidelberg, 13 pp.; 5. Rietmeijer F.J.M. (1989) Meteoritics 24, 319-320; 6. Rietmeijer F.J.M. (1988) JVGR 34, 173184; 7. Rietmeijer F.J.M. (1992) JVGR, in press. This work is supported by NASA Grant NAG 9-160.

  11. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    PubMed

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were

  12. Effect of turbulence on collisions of dust particles with planetesimals in protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, H.; Guillot, T.; Bec, J.; Ormel, C. W.; Ida, S.; Tanga, P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Planetesimals in gaseous protoplanetary disks may grow by collecting dust particles. Hydrodynamical studies show that small particles generally avoid collisions with the planetesimals because they are entrained by the flow around them. This occurs when St, the Stokes number, defined as the ratio of the dust stopping time to the planetesimal crossing time, becomes much smaller than unity. However, these studies have been limited to the laminar case, whereas these disks are believed to be turbulent. Aims: We want to estimate the influence of gas turbulence on the dust-planetesimal collision rate and on the impact speeds. Methods: We used three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of a fixed sphere (planetesimal) facing a laminar and turbulent flow seeded with small inertial particles (dust) subject to a Stokes drag. A no-slip boundary condition on the planetesimal surface is modeled via a penalty method. Results: We find that turbulence can significantly increase the collision rate of dust particles with planetesimals. For a high turbulence case (when the amplitude of turbulent fluctuations is similar to the headwind velocity), we find that the collision probability remains equal to the geometrical rate or even higher for St ≳ 0.1, i.e., for dust sizes an order of magnitude smaller than in the laminar case. We derive expressions to calculate impact probabilities as a function of dust and planetesimal size and turbulent intensity.

  13. On the Effect of Dust Particles on Global Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Cloud Droplet Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karydis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Barahona, D.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction studies to date consider aerosol with a substantial fraction of soluble material as the sole source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Emerging evidence suggests that mineral dust can act as good CCN through water adsorption onto the surface of particles. This study provides a first assessment of the contribution of insoluble dust to global CCN and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). Simulations are carried out with the NASA Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model with an online aerosol simulation, considering emissions from fossil fuel, biomass burning, marine, and dust sources. CDNC is calculated online and explicitly considers the competition of soluble and insoluble CCN for water vapor. The predicted annual average contribution of insoluble mineral dust to CCN and CDNC in cloud-forming areas is up to 40 and 23.8%, respectively. Sensitivity tests suggest that uncertainties in dust size distribution and water adsorption parameters modulate the contribution of mineral dust to CDNC by 23 and 56%, respectively. Coating of dust by hygroscopic salts during the atmospheric aging causes a twofold enhancement of the dust contribution to CCN; the aged dust, however, can substantially deplete in-cloud supersaturation during the initial stages of cloud formation and can eventually reduce CDNC. Considering the hydrophilicity from adsorption and hygroscopicity from solute is required to comprehensively capture the dust-warm cloud interactions. The framework presented here addresses this need and can be easily integrated in atmospheric models.

  14. Wind tunnel study of twelve dust samples by large particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannak, B.; Corsmeier, U.; Kottmeier, Ch.; Al-azab, T.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the lack of data by large dust and sand particle, the fluid dynamics characteristics, hence the collection efficiencies of different twelve dust samplers have been experimentally investigated. Wind tunnel tests were carried out at wind velocities ranging from 1 up to 5.5 ms-1. As a large solid particle of 0.5 and 1 mm in diameter, Polystyrene pellets called STYRO Beads or polystyrene sphere were used instead of sand or dust. The results demonstrate that the collection efficiency is relatively acceptable only of eight tested sampler and lie between 60 and 80% depending on the wind velocity and particle size. These samplers are: the Cox Sand Catcher (CSC), the British Standard Directional Dust Gauge (BSD), the Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE), the Suspended Sediment Trap (SUSTRA), the Modified Wilson and Cooke (MWAC), the Wedge Dust Flux Gauge (WDFG), the Model Series Number 680 (SIERRA) and the Pollet Catcher (POLCA). Generally they can be slightly recommended as suitable dust samplers but with collecting error of 20 up to 40%. However the BSNE verify the best performance with a catching error of about 20% and can be with caution selected as a suitable dust sampler. Quite the contrary, the other four tested samplers which are the Marble Dust Collector (MDCO), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Inverted Frisbee Sampler (IFS) and the Inverted Frisbee Shaped Collecting Bowl (IFSCB) cannot be recommended due to their very low collection efficiency of 5 up to 40%. In total the efficiency of sampler may be below 0.5, depending on the frictional losses (caused by the sampler geometry) in the fluid and the particle's motion, and on the intensity of airflow acceleration near the sampler inlet. Therefore, the literature data of dust are defective and insufficient. To avoid false collecting data and hence inaccurate mass flux modeling, the geometry of the dust sampler should be considered and furthermore improved.

  15. Particle size traces modern Saharan dust transport and deposition across the equatorial North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Does, Michèlle; Korte, Laura F.; Munday, Chris I.; Brummer, Geert-Jan A.; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.

    2016-11-01

    Mineral dust has a large impact on regional and global climate, depending on its particle size. Especially in the Atlantic Ocean downwind of the Sahara, the largest dust source on earth, the effects can be substantial but are poorly understood. This study focuses on seasonal and spatial variations in particle size of Saharan dust deposition across the Atlantic Ocean, using an array of submarine sediment traps moored along a transect at 12° N. We show that the particle size decreases downwind with increased distance from the Saharan source, due to higher gravitational settling velocities of coarse particles in the atmosphere. Modal grain sizes vary between 4 and 32 µm throughout the different seasons and at five locations along the transect. This is much coarser than previously suggested and incorporated into climate models. In addition, seasonal changes are prominent, with coarser dust in summer and finer dust in winter and spring. Such seasonal changes are caused by transport at higher altitudes and at greater wind velocities during summer than in winter. Also, the latitudinal migration of the dust cloud, associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, causes seasonal differences in deposition as the summer dust cloud is located more to the north and more directly above the sampled transect. Furthermore, increased precipitation and more frequent dust storms in summer coincide with coarser dust deposition. Our findings contribute to understanding Saharan dust transport and deposition relevant for the interpretation of sedimentary records for climate reconstructions, as well as for global and regional models for improved prediction of future climate.

  16. Personal sampling of airborne particles: method performance and data quality.

    PubMed

    Janssen, N A; Hoek, G; Harssema, H; Brunekreef, B

    1998-01-01

    A study of personal exposure to respirable particles (PM10) and fine particles (FP) was conducted in groups of 50-70 year-old adults and primary school children in the Netherlands. Four to eight personal measurements per subject were conducted, on weekdays only. Averaging time was 24 hours. Method performance was evaluated regarding compliance, flow, weighing procedure, field blanks and co-located operation of the personal samplers with stationary methods. Furthermore, the possibility that subjects change their behavior due to the wearing of personal sampling equipment was studied by comparing time activity on days of personal sampling with time activity other weekdays. Compliance was high; 95% of the subjects who agreed to continue participating after the first measurement, successfully completed the study, and, expect for the first two days of FP sampling, over 90% of all personal measurements were successful. All pre and post sampling flow readings were within 10% of the required flow rate of 4 L/min. For PM10 precision of the gravimetric analyses was 2.8 microgram/m3 and 0.7 micrograms/m3 for filters weighted on an analytical and a micro-balance respectively. The detection limit was 10.8 micrograms/m3 and 8.6 micrograms/m3 respectively. For FP, weighing precision was 0.4 micrograms/m3 and the detection limit was 5.3 micrograms/m3. All measurements were above the detection limit. Co-located operation of the personal sampler with stationary samplers gave highly correlated concentration (R > 0.90). Outdoor PM10 concentrations measured with the personal sampler were on average 4% higher compared to a Sierra Anderson (SA) inlet and 9% higher compared to a PM10 Harvard Impactor (HI). With the FP cyclone 6% higher classroom concentrations were measured compared to a PM2.5 HI. Adults spent significantly less time outdoor (0.5 hour) and more time at home (0.9 hour) on days of personal sampling compared to other weekdays. For children no significant differences in time

  17. Mineral phases in the Comet Halley dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikov, Iu. P.; Evlanov, E. N.; Zubkov, B. V.; Mukhin, L. M.; Nazarov, M. A.; Prilutskii, O. F.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Fomenkova, M. N.

    1991-06-01

    Results are presented of the analyses of mass spectra of 517 grains collected from the Comet Halley dust, which were performed by the dust-impact mass spectrometers Puma 1,2 on board Vega. The results indicate the presence of H, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Cr, and Fe, distributed among silicates; oxides and hydroxides; carbonates and bicarbonates; sulfates and sulfides; and nitrates, cyanides, and rhodanides. These mineral components form various mixtures with organic matter.

  18. Dust particles from comets and asteroids collected at the Earth's orbit: Parent-daughter relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. A.; Zook, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relative contributions of comets and asteroids to the reservoir of dust in the interplanetary medium is not well known. There are direct observations of dust released from comets and there is evidence to associate the IRAS dust bands with possible collisions of Asteroids in the main belt. It is believed that one may combine lab analysis of the physics and chemistry of captured particles with orbital data in order to identify comet and asteroid parent bodies. It is possible to use the collected orbits of the dust to connect with its source in two ways. One is to consider the long time orbit evolution of the dust under Poynting-Robertson drag. The other is to look at the prompt orbit change of dust from comets onto trajectories that intersect the earth's orbit. In order to characterize the orbits of dust particles evolved over a long period of time, a study of its orbital evolution was undertaken. Various parameters associated with these dust orbits as they cross the Earth's orbit were considered in order to see if one may discriminate between particles evolved from comets and asteroids. The method was to calculate by a numerical procedure the orbits of dust particles after they left their parent bodies. It appears that as the particles pass the Earth's orbit, asteroidal grains and cometary grains can be differentiated on the basis of their measured orbital eccentricities even after much planetary perturbation. Broad parent daughter associations can be made on this basis from measurement of their trajectories intercepted in earth orbit.

  19. Effect of airborne particles from selected indoor and outdoor environments on gap-junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Alink, G M; Sjögren, M; Bos, R P; Doekes, G; Kromhout, H; Scheepers, P T

    1998-08-01

    The effect of airborne particles from diesel exhaust, rubber and metal industry, urban air and biological sources (poultry, pig farming, compost industry) on gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) were compared, using HEPA1c1c7 cells. Particles as such were compared with aqueous and organic extracts. Significant inhibition of GJIC by particle suspensions was only observed for the diesel and rubber samples, and for one biological sample (compost). Up to 83% of the inhibition of the whole suspension could be attributed to the particles as such. Washing the particles with organic solvents (aceton, methanol, hexane) did not result in a significant loss of activity from the particles, although the organic fractions showed a significant activity towards GJIC. More active organics was eluted from the rubber industry particles than from the diesel particles by the organic solvent. It is suggested that cancer promoting potential as measured by inhibition of GJIC may vary widely depending on the particle source, and that this effect may be exerted by the particles as such and/or by means of tightly bound bio-active material to the surface.

  20. Electron density modification in ionospheric E layer by inserting fine dust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we have developed the kinetics of E-region ionospheric plasma comprising of fine dust grains and shown that the electron density in E-layer can purposely be reduced/enhanced up to desired level by inserting fine dust particles of appropriate physical/material properties; this may certainly be promising for preferred rf-signal processing through these layers. The analytical formulation is based on average charge theory and includes the number and energy balance of the plasma constituents along with charge balance over dust particles. The effect of varying number density, work function, and photo-efficiency of dust particles on ionospheric plasma density at different altitude in E-layer has been critically examined and presented graphically.

  1. Momentum transfer cross-section for ion scattering on dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, I. L.; Khrapak, S. A.; Thomas, H. M.

    2017-03-01

    The momentum transfer cross-section for ion scattering on charged dust particles is calculated using different models of the interaction potential. The results are applied to estimate the ion drag force for typical conditions used in the experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas. The influence of two factors on the ion-dust collision cross section is discussed. The first is related to the nonlinear screening effects associated with the strong coupling between ions and dust particles. The second factor is the plasma absorption by dust particles. It is shown that the nonlinear screening effects are of importance and affect both the momentum transfer cross-section and the ion drag force. On the other hand, the absorption process affects the scattering momentum transfer cross-section only at low collision energies and thus can be neglected in estimating the ion drag force.

  2. Mass of comet Halley dust particles from results of the PUMA experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evlanov, E. I.; Prilutskij, O. F.; Fomenkova, M. N.

    1992-01-01

    The authors estimate the mass of dust particles whose spectra were measured by the PUMA-1 and -2 instruments. The total set of spectra of each instrument was divided into groups according to the analog signals measured at the moment of dust impact on the target. Absolute mass for each group was determined by comparing the distribution obtained with data from the SP-2 dust counter. It was determined that particles recorded by the PUMA-1 instrument have mass in the range 5·1017 to 5·10-12g, while particles recorded by the PUMA-2 instrument have mass in the range 2·10-16 to 5·10-12g. The dependence of dust properties on mass has also been examined.

  3. Astro-Mineralogy: The Comparison of Infrared Spectra from Astrophysical Environments with those from Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, J. A., III; Molster, F. J.; Sitko, M. L.; Bradley, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    The infrared spectral properties of interplanetary dust particles are directly compared with those of astronomical dust in several astrophysical environments as measured by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes.

    PubMed

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  5. Passive airborne dust sampling with the electrostatic dustfall collector: optimization of storage and extraction procedures for endotoxin and glucan measurement.

    PubMed

    Noss, Ilka; Doekes, Gert; Sander, Ingrid; Heederik, Dick J J; Thorne, Peter S; Wouters, Inge M

    2010-08-01

    We recently introduced a passive dust sampling method for airborne endotoxin and glucan exposure assessment-the electrostatic dustfall collector (EDC). In this study, we assessed the effects of different storage and extraction procedures on measured endotoxin and glucan levels, using 12 parallel EDC samples from 10 low exposed indoor environments. Additionally, we compared 2- and 4-week sampling with the prospect of reaching higher dust yields. Endotoxin concentrations were highest after extraction with pyrogen-free water (pf water) + Tween. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-Tween yielded significantly (44%) lower levels, and practically no endotoxin was detected after extraction in pf water without Tween. Glucan levels were highest after extraction in PBS-Tween at 120 degrees C, whereas extracts made in NaOH at room temperature or 120 degrees C were completely negative. Direct extraction from the EDC cloth or sequential extraction after a preceding endotoxin extraction yielded comparable glucan levels. Sample storage at different temperatures before extraction did not affect endotoxin and glucan concentrations. Doubling the sampling duration yielded similar endotoxin and only 50% higher glucan levels. In conclusion, of the tested variables, the extraction medium was the predominant factor affecting endotoxin and glucan yields.

  6. Adsorption of organic compounds pertinent to urban environments onto mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Alla H.; Schkolnik, Gal; Ganor, Eliezer; Rudich, Yinon

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of mineral dust particles from the Sahara with semivolatile organic compounds over an urban region in Israel's coastal plain was studied. Dust samples were collected during numerous dust storm events in 2000 and 2001, under varying meteorological conditions. Organic compounds adsorbed on collected mineral dust particles were analyzed using an integrated, multitechnique study that employed a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersion system (SEM-EDS) and bulk aerosol analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and ion chromatography (IC). The SEM-EDS analysis exemplifies the coexistence of inorganic and organic species on individual mineral dust particles. Using the GC/MS and IC analysis, specific tracers for urban air pollution and photodegradation products of agriculture emissions have been identified, and their size distributions have been obtained. Redistribution of semivolatile organics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and pesticides from submicron to larger particle size fractions, governed by the mineral dust transport trajectory and size distributions, was observed. Nonvolatile species, such as anhydrous sugars and large PAH, do not redistribute between the phases because of their low vapor pressure. The concentrations of short chain carboxylic acids increased with higher ambient relative humidity, suggesting water-assisted uptake onto the mineral particles.

  7. Laboratory measurements of light scattering properties of a carbonaceous interstellar dust analogue (soot particles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoi, Ankur; Choudhury, Amarjyoti; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Kashyap Boruah, Goutam

    2012-07-01

    Dust particles are present everywhere in the solar system, cometary comae and tail, interstellar dust clouds, asteroidal atmospheres and aerosols of other planetary atmospheres. The in situ sampling of the cometary dust composition conducted by CIDA (Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer) and observed interstellar extinction and polarization revealed the presence of amorphous carbon, graphite, silicate, graphite, carbonates, metal oxide grains, ice particles and nanodiamonds in the interstellar medium. These particles act as the heterogeneous media to scatter solar or steller light. Observations and simulations of the light scattered by dust particles in cometary comae, interplanetary space and planetary regolith (or analogous terrestrial dust aggregates) is necessary to deduce the physical properties of their constituent particles and may lead to a better understanding of the formation of solar system. Notably the measurement of the volume scattering function (VSF) and degree of linear polarization (DLP) can be used to estimate parameters like size, porosity and roughness of the dust particles. In this contribution we report the design and fabrication of a laser based laboratory light scattering instrument that uses an array of 16 static Si photodetectors and can be operated at three different incident wavelengths (543.5 nm, 594.5 nm and 632.8 nm). The accuracy and the reliability of the setup were verified by conducting light scattering measurements on spherical water droplets and comparing the results with theoretical Mie calculations. The results of the measurements of the VSF and DLP of carbonaceous soot particles (agglomerates) that were sprayed in front of the laser beam by using an aerosol sprayer are presented. The experimental results were further analyzed by comparing with theoretically generated T-matrix and DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation) plots with estimated parameters to yield more fruitful conclusions. Significant variations of the light

  8. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  9. Determination of airborne wood dust in Button samples by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Cheol-Woong; Chirila, Madalina M; Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Rando, Roy J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging concerns regarding the toxicity of inhaled wood dust support the need for techniques to quantitate wood content of mixed industrial dusts. The diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis technique was applied to the determination of wood content of 181 inhalable dust samples (geometric mean concentration: 0.895 mg/m(3); geometric standard deviation: 2.73) collected from six wood product industry factories using 25mm glass fibre filters with the Button aerosol sampler. Prior to direct DRIFTS analysis the filter samples were treated with ethyl acetate and re-deposited uniformly. Standards ranging from 125 μg to 4000 μg were prepared for red oak, southern yellow pine, and red cedar and used for quantitation of samples depending upon the wood materials present at a given factory. The oak standards spectra were quantitated by linear regression of response in Kubelka-Munk units at 1736 cm(-1), whereas the pine standards and the cedar standards spectra were quantitated by polynomial regression of response in log 1/R units at 1734 cm(-1), with the selected wavenumbers corresponding to stretching vibration of free C=O from cellulose and hemicelluloses. For one factory which used both soft- and hardwoods, a separate polynomial standard curve was created by proportionally combining the oak and pine standards polynomial regression equations based on response (log 1/R) at 1734 cm(-1). The analytical limits of detection were approximately 52 μg of oak, 20 μg of pine, 30 μg of cedar, and 16 μg of mixed oak and pine for the factory with mixed woods. Overall, the average of dry wood dust percentage of inhalable dust was approximately 56% and the average dry wood dust weight was 0.572mg for the Button samples. Across factories, there were statistically significant differences (p<0.001) for the percentage of dry wood dust in inhalable dust with factory averages ranging from 33.5 to 97.6%.

  10. Determination of airborne wood dust in Button samples by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Cheol-Woong; Chirila, Madalina M.; Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Rando, Roy J.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging concerns regarding the toxicity of inhaled wood dust support the need for techniques to quantitate wood content of mixed industrial dusts. The diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis technique was applied to the determination of wood content of 181 inhalable dust samples (geometric mean concentration: 0.895 mg/m3; geometric standard deviation: 2.73) collected from six wood product industry factories using 25mm glass fibre filters with the Button aerosol sampler. Prior to direct DRIFTS analysis the filter samples were treated with ethyl acetate and re-deposited uniformly. Standards ranging from 125 μg to 4000 μg were prepared for red oak, southern yellow pine, and red cedar and used for quantitation of samples depending upon the wood materials present at a given factory. The oak standards spectra were quantitated by linear regression of response in Kubelka-Munk units at 1736 cm−1, whereas the pine standards and the cedar standards spectra were quantitated by polynomial regression of response in log 1/R units at 1734 cm−1, with the selected wavenumbers corresponding to stretching vibration of free C=O from cellulose and hemicelluloses. For one factory which used both soft- and hardwoods, a separate polynomial standard curve was created by proportionally combining the oak and pine standards polynomial regression equations based on response (log 1/R) at 1734 cm−1. The analytical limits of detection were approximately 52 μg of oak, 20 μg of pine, 30 μg of cedar, and 16 μg of mixed oak and pine for the factory with mixed woods. Overall, the average of dry wood dust percentage of inhalable dust was approximately 56% and the average dry wood dust weight was 0.572mg for the Button samples. Across factories, there were statistically significant differences (p<0.001) for the percentage of dry wood dust in inhalable dust with factory averages ranging from 33.5 to 97.6%. PMID:26526539

  11. Species-specific Fungal DNA in Airborne Dust as Surrogate for Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors

    2008-01-01

    Possible health risks associated with occupational inhalation of mycotoxin-containing dust remain largely unknown, partly because methods for mycotoxin detection are not sensitive enough for the small dust masses obtained by personal sampling, which is needed for inhalable exposure measurements. Specific and sensitive PCR detection of fungi with mycotoxin-producing potential seem to be a good surrogate for occupational exposure measurements that include all fungal structures independent of morphology and cultivability. Results should, however, be interpreted with caution due to variable correlations with mycotoxin concentrations. PMID:19330091

  12. Electrodynamic Balance for Studies of Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F.; Abbas, M. M.; Venturini, C. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of the formation and distribution of interstellar, interplanetary, and planetary dust grains, and their physical, chemical and optical characteristics provide valuable information about many issues dealing with the origin and formation of the solar system bodies, interplanetary and interstellar environments as well as various industrial processes. Understanding the microphysics of individual grains and their interaction with the surrounding, environment is key to properly model various conditions and interpret existing data. The theory and models of individual dust grains are well developed for environments that vary from dense planetary atmospheres to dusty plasmas to diffuse environments such as interplanetary space. However, experimental investigations of individual dust grains in equilibrium are less common, perhaps due to the difficulty of these experiments. Laboratory measurements of dust grains have primarily measured ensemble properties or transient properties of single grains. A technique developed in the 1950's for ion spectroscopy, generally referred to as a quadrupole trap has recently been employed as an electrodynamic balance to investigate single micron-sized dust grains and for atmospheric aerosol research. A description of the theoretical basis and the experimental setup of the electrodynamic balance being developed in our laboratory are given. This laboratory technique lends itself to many applications that relate to planetary atmospheres, heliospheric environments, pre-stellar and pre-planetary conditions, and industrial settings. We present results from some recent experiments carried out to investigate the equilibrium potential of dust grains exposed to far ultraviolet light or to an electron beam. Some future experiments using an electrodynamic balance to investigate the optical characteristics, and condensation process involving dust grains in various astrophysical environments are discussed.

  13. Vacuum cleaner emissions as a source of indoor exposure to airborne particles and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; He, Congrong; Duchaine, Caroline; Morawska, Lidia

    2012-01-03

    Vacuuming can be a source of indoor exposure to biological and nonbiological aerosols, although there are few data that describe the magnitude of emissions from the vacuum cleaner itself. We therefore sought to quantify emission rates of particles and bacteria from a large group of vacuum cleaners and investigate their potential determinants, including temperature, dust bags, exhaust filters, price, and age. Emissions of particles between 0.009 and 20 μm and bacteria were measured from 21 vacuums. Ultrafine (<100 nm) particle emission rates ranged from 4.0 × 10(6) to 1.1 × 10(11) particles min(-1). Emission of 0.54-20 μm particles ranged from 4.0 × 10(4) to 1.2 × 10(9) particles min(-1). PM(2.5) emissions were between 2.4 × 10(-1) and 5.4 × 10(3) μg min(-1). Bacteria emissions ranged from 0 to 7.4 × 10(5) bacteria min(-1) and were poorly correlated with dust bag bacteria content and particle emissions. Large variability in emission of all parameters was observed across the 21 vacuums, which was largely not attributable to the range of determinant factors we assessed. Vacuum cleaner emissions contribute to indoor exposure to nonbiological and biological aerosols when vacuuming, and this may vary markedly depending on the vacuum used.

  14. Characterization and Control of Airborne Particles Emitted During Production of Epoxy / Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Cena, Lorenzo G.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    This work characterized airborne particles that were generated from the weighing of bulk, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured using an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), and particle morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The ratios of the geometric mean (GM) concentrations measured during the process to that measured in the background (P/B ratios) were used as indices of the impact of the process and the LEVs on observed concentrations. Processing CNT-epoxy nanocomposites materials released respirable size airborne particles (P/B ratio: weighing = 1.79; sanding = 5.90) but generally no nanoparticles (P/B ratiô1). The particles generated during sanding were predominately micron-sized with protruding CNTs and very different from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in large (>1 μm) tangled clusters. Respirable mass concentrations in the operator’s breathing zone were lower when sanding was performed in the biological safety cabinet (GM = 0.20 μg/m3) compared to those with no LEV (GM = 2.68 μg/m3) or those when sanding was performed inside the fume hood (GM = 21.4 μg/m3; p-value < 0.0001). The poor performance of the custom fume hood used in this study may have been exacerbated by its lack of a front sash and rear baffles and its low face velocity (0.39 m/sec). PMID:21253981

  15. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations.

  16. Wood dust particle and mass concentrations and filtration efficiency in sanding of wood materials.

    PubMed

    Welling, Irma; Lehtimäki, Matti; Rautio, Sari; Lähde, Tero; Enbom, Seppo; Hynynen, Pasi; Hämeri, Kaarle

    2009-02-01

    The importance of fine particles has become apparent as the knowledge of their effects on health has increased. Fine particle concentrations have been published for outside air, plasma arc cutting, welding, and grinding, but little data exists for the woodworking industry. Sanding was evaluated as the producer of the woodworking industry's finest particles, and was selected as the target study. The number of dust particles in different particle size classes and the mass concentrations were measured in the following environments: workplace air during sanding in plywood production and in the inlet and return air; in the dust emission chamber; and in filter testing. The numbers of fine particles were low, less than 10(4) particles/cm(3) (10(7) particles/L). They were much lower than typical number concentrations near 10(6) particles/cm(3) measured in plasma arc cutting, grinding, and welding. Ultrafine particles in the size class less than 100 nm were found during sanding of MDF (medium density fiberboard) sheets. When the cleaned air is returned to the working areas, the dust content in extraction systems must be monitored continuously. One way to monitor the dust content in the return air is to use an after-filter and measure pressure drop across the filter to indicate leaks in the air-cleaning system. The best after-filtration materials provided a clear increase in pressure drop across the filter in the loading of the filter. The best after-filtration materials proved to be quite effective also for fine particles. The best mass removal efficiencies for fine particles around 0.3 mum were over 80% for some filter materials loaded with sanding wood dust.

  17. A Novel Size-Selective Airborne Particle Sampling Instrument (Wras) for Health Risk Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnewuch, H.; Muir, R.; Gorbunov, B.; Priest, N. D.; Jackson, P. R.

    Health risks associated with inhalation of airborne particles are known to be influenced by particle sizes. A reliable, size resolving sampler, classifying particles in size ranges from 2 nm—30 μm and suitable for use in the field would be beneficial in investigating health risks associated with inhalation of airborne particles. A review of current aerosol samplers highlighted a number of limitations. These could be overcome by combining an inertial deposition impactor with a diffusion collector in a single device. The instrument was designed for analysing mass size distributions. Calibration was carried out using a number of recognised techniques. The instrument was tested in the field by collecting size resolved samples of lead containing aerosols present at workplaces in factories producing crystal glass. The mass deposited on each substrate proved sufficient to be detected and measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mass size distributions of lead were produced and the proportion of lead present in the aerosol nanofraction calculated and varied from 10% to 70% by weight.

  18. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a

  19. Concentration, Size Distribution, and Infectivity of Airborne Particles Carrying Swine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Carmen; Raynor, Peter C.; Davies, Peter R.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    When pathogens become airborne, they travel associated with particles of different size and composition. Particle size determines the distance across which pathogens can be transported, as well as the site of deposition and the survivability of the pathogen. Despite the importance of this information, the size distribution of particles bearing viruses emitted by infectious animals remains unknown. In this study we characterized the concentration and size distribution of inhalable particles that transport influenza A virus (IAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) generated by acutely infected pigs and assessed virus viability for each particle size range. Aerosols from experimentally infected pigs were sampled for 24 days using an Andersen cascade impactor able to separate particles by size (ranging from 0.4 to 10 micrometer (μm) in diameter). Air samples collected for the first 9, 20 and the last 3 days of the study were analyzed for IAV, PRRSV and PEDV, respectively, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified as geometric mean copies/m3 within each size range. IAV was detected in all particle size ranges in quantities ranging from 5.5x102 (in particles ranging from 1.1 to 2.1μm) to 4.3x105 RNA copies/m3 in the largest particles (9.0–10.0μm). PRRSV was detected in all size ranges except particles between 0.7 and 2.1μm in quantities ranging from 6x102 (0.4–0.7μm) to 5.1x104 RNA copies/m3 (9.0–10.0μm). PEDV, an enteric virus, was detected in all particle sizes and in higher quantities than IAV and PRRSV (p < 0.0001) ranging from 1.3x106 (0.4–0.7μm) to 3.5x108 RNA copies/m3 (9.0–10.0μm). Infectious status was demonstrated for the 3 viruses, and in the case of IAV and PRRSV, viruses were isolated from particles larger than 2.1μm. In summary, our results indicated that airborne PEDV, IAV and PRRSV can be found in a wide range of

  20. A Lagrangian particle model to predict the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D.; Reiczigel, J.; Rubel, F.

    Airborne spread of bioaerosols in the boundary layer over a complex terrain is simulated using a Lagrangian particle model, and applied to modelling the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus. Two case studies are made with study domains located in a hilly region in the northwest of the Styrian capital Graz, the second largest town in Austria. Mountainous terrain as well as inhomogeneous and time varying meteorological conditions prevent from application of so far used Gaussian dispersion models, while the proposed model can handle these realistically. In the model, trajectories of several thousands of particles are computed and the distribution of virus concentration near the ground is calculated. This allows to assess risk of infection areas with respect to animal species of interest, such as cattle, swine or sheep. Meteorological input data like wind field and other variables necessary to compute turbulence were taken from the new pre-operational version of the non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model LMK ( Lokal-Modell-Kürzestfrist) running at the German weather service DWD ( Deutscher Wetterdienst). The LMK model provides meteorological parameters with a spatial resolution of about 2.8 km. To account for the spatial resolution of 400 m used by the Lagrangian particle model, the initial wind field is interpolated upon the finer grid by a mass consistent interpolation method. Case studies depict a significant influence of local wind systems on the spread of virus. Higher virus concentrations at the upwind side of the hills and marginal concentrations in the lee are well observable, as well as canalization effects by valleys. The study demonstrates that the Lagrangian particle model is an appropriate tool for risk assessment of airborne spread of virus by taking into account the realistic orographic and meteorological conditions.

  1. The mineralogy of preplanetary matter - Inferences from cometary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, H.; Wasch, R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper investigates some obvious features of the inorganic dust component of Comet Halley. It is based on spectra obtained by the time-of-flight mass spectrometer PUMA-1 on board VEGA-1 which passed Comet P/Halley March 1986. The interpretation of the spectra and an instrumental effect are explained. The chemical composition of the dust is comparable to CI-carbonaceous chondrites within a factor of two for most elements. Carbon and nitrogen are significantly enriched. The mineralogy is dominated by anhydrous Mg-silicates (Mg-rich pyroxen and olivine), Fe-sulfides and probably Fe-metal. Fe-oxides like magnetite cannot be excluded but seem to play only a small role. The question of an occurrence of hydrous silicates in the dust is not yet clear.

  2. Laboratory Experiments with the Concordia College High-Speed Dust Particle Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    During the Apollo Era, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center built a 2MeV high-speed, dust particle accelerator. This facility was used to test and calibrate the LEAM instrument which was flown to the lunar surface by Apollo 17. As the Apollo project wound down, NASA no longer had need of the dust particle accelerator, and in 1975, it was move to Concordia College in Moorhead, MN. Through the years, it has been maintained and some modifications and improvements have been made to it. In the past decade, the facility has been revived and used by several collaborating institutions to study dust detector instrumentation as well as the effects of dust impacts on various materials. We have tested a prototype, space-flight dust particle detector. Also, piezoelectric pins which can be used as dust detectors were studied to learn the pin's response to single particle impacts of different energies and momenta, and then those measured responses were compared with theoretical models. The effects of high speed impacts on ultra-high temperature ceramics, aerogel, and several different thin films have also been studied at our facility. The results of these experiments will be presented.

  3. Evaluation of SEVIRI Thermal Infra-Red data for airborne dust detection in an arid regions: the UAE case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherboudj, I.; Parajuli, S. P.; Ghedira, H.

    2011-12-01

    Our interest in the study of the dust emission cycle over arid area results from the impacts that they have on the climate and atmospheric processes. Large dust concentration emitted even naturally or anthropogenic may reduce surface insolation by extinction of solar radiation. In addition, the knowledge of its spatio-temporal distribution is essential for monitoring several applications such as solar energy potential and health effect. Satellite-based remote sensing is an efficient tool to improve our understanding of the interaction of the desert dust and surrounding climate over regional and global scales with high frequency measurements. Thermal infrared (TIR) channels (3μm -15μm) of different satellites (MVIRI, AVHRR, MODIS, ADEOS-2/POLDER, TOMS, and MSG/SERIVI) were widely used for dust detection. Several dust detection and forecasting algorithms have been proposed based on these satellite data. However, the spatial and temporal variability of the physical characteristics of dust (concentrations, particle size distribution, location in the atmosphere, and chemical composition) has limited their estimations particularly with the dependence of the dust emission on the wind, soil water content, vegetation, and sediment availability. This study focuses on the analysis of the sensitivity of the MSG/SEVIRI TIR observation to dust generation, surface wind, soil moisture, and surface emissivity over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). SEVIRI observations were acquired in 2009 with temporal and spatial resolutions of 30 minutes and about 3km respectively. While the soil moisture is extracted from the AMSR-E data (1:30 AM and 1:30 PM) at spatial resolution of 25 km, the surface emissivity and Aerosol Optical Thickness were extracted from the MODIS products at spatial resolutions of 1 km and 100 km respectively. In coincidence with the satellites acquisitions, meteorological measurements were collected from seven met stations distributed over the selected study area (wind

  4. A solid-phase mechanism of shock-wave formation of dust particles of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. E.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Khvorostin, V. N.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of formation of dust particles in solid as a result of shock-wave destruction of the initial crystalline material structure and subsequent coalescence of atomic clusters (nanoparticles), which leads to the aggregation of mesocrystalline particles (grains) in the shocked layer, is discussed.

  5. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra

  6. COLLECTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICLES BY A HIGH-GRADIENT PERMANENT MAGNETIC METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Allman, Steve L; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Avens, Larry R

    2014-01-01

    We report on the use of magnetic force in collection of airborne particles by a high- gradient permanent magnetic separation (HGPMS) device. Three aerosol particles of different magnetic susceptibility (NaCl, CuO, and Fe2O3) were generated in the electrical mobility size range of 10 to 200 nm and were used to study HGPMS collection. One HGPMS matrix element, made of stainless steel wool, was used in the device configuration. Three flow rates were selected to simulate the environmental wind speeds of interest to the study. Magnetic force was found to exhibit an insignificant effect on the separation of NaCl particles, even in the HGPMS configuration. Diffusion was a major mechanism in the removal of the diamagnetic particles; however, diffusion is insignificant under the influence of a high-gradient magnetic field for paramagnetic or ferromagnetic particles. The HGPMS showed high-performance collection (> 99%) of paramagnetic CuO and ferromagnetic Fe2O3 particles for particle sizes greater than or equal to 60 nm. As the wind speed increases, the influence of the magnetic force weakens, and the capability to remove particles from the gas stream diminishes. The results suggest that the HGPMS principle could be explored for development of an advanced miniaturized passive aerosol collector.

  7. Saharan Dust: Particle Size Distributions and Light Absorption From Measurements During PRIDE and AEROCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoie, D. L.; Maring, H. B.

    2001-12-01

    During July 2000, the Office of Naval Reseach and NASA co-sponsored the Puerto Rican Dust Experiment (PRIDE) to assess the physical and optical properties of Saharan dust over the western Atlantic. Numerous aerosol characterization instruments were deployed on Isla Cabras (18.21 N, 65.60 W) in the Roosevelt Roads Naval Station at the eastern end of Puerto Rico. As part of AEROCE (Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment), we had previously made similar measurements over the eastern Atlantic at Izana, Tenerife, Canary Islands (28.30 N, 16.48 W). Instrumentation included a TSI APS33 aerodynamic particle sizer, a Ruprecht and Patashnick Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), and a Radiance Research particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). At the same locations, daily, high-volume, bulk aerosol samples were collected and analyzed for mineral dust, sea-salt, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium and for aerosol light absorption (every 10 nm from 300 to 1100 nm via total diffuse reflectance measurements). With the concurrent aerosol chemistry, variations in the in-situ aerosol physical and optical properties can be linked to variations in the concentrations of particles from specific sources. High concentrations of Saharan dust were present at Izana during the last half of July 1995. The APS data at Izana are almost exclusively from dust as there is no sea-salt at this free troposphere site. We used the measured particle size distributions for high dust periods from this campaign to establish an average dust size distribution. Because of the nearly zero correlation between sea-salt and dust, the APS size distributions during PRIDE could be reasonably well resolved between these two components. In contrast to the situation at Izana, there were virtually no particles larger than 10 um geometric diameter at Puerto Rico. Progressively lesser fractions of particles were lost between the eastern and western Atlantic as the particle size decreased. With the natural

  8. High concentration dust monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienfeld, P.

    1981-06-01

    The development, design, fabrication, and testing of a portable, self-contained prototype monitoring instrument capable of detecting and measuring airborne coal dust levels as concentrations in the range of 20 to 500 g/cu m is described. The output of the high concentration dust monitor is essentially independent of particle size and composition, with a response time of 10 seconds. Direct concentration readout as well as internal memory or recording capabilities are incorporated in the device. The operation of the instrument is based on direct sensing of the mass concentration of airborne dust by air-path beta radiation attenuation. The monitor is battery operated and incorporates a microprocessor that controls periodic automatic zero referencing, executes the mass computations, records the data for subsequent playback, and performs internal diagnostic checks.

  9. Laboratory Studies of the Optical Properties and Condensation Processes of Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Craven, Paul D.; Spann, James F.; Tankosic, Dragana; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory facility for levitating single isolated dust particles in an electrodynamics balance has been developing at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for conducting a variety of experimental, of astrophysical interest. The objective of this research is to employ this innovative experimental technique for studies of the physical and optical properties of the analogs of cosmic grains of 0.2-10 micron size in a chamber with controlled pressure/temperatures simulating astrophysical environments. In particular, we will carry out three classes of experiments to investigate the microphysics of the analogs of interstellar and interplanetary dust grains. (1) Charge characteristics of micron size single dust grains to determine the photoelectric efficiencies, yields, and equilibrium potentials when exposed to UV radiation. These measurements will provide the much-needed photoelectric emission data relating to individual particles as opposed to that for the bulk materials available so far. (2) Infrared optical properties of dust particles obtained by irradiating the particles with radiation from tunable infrared diode lasers and measuring the scattered radiation. Specifically, the complex refractive indices, the extinction coefficients, the scattering phase functions, and the polarization properties of single dust grains of interest in interstellar environments, in the 1-25 micron spectral region will be determined. (3) Condensation experiments to investigate the deposition of volatile gases on colder nucleated particles in dense interstellar clouds and lower planetary atmospheres. The increase in the mass or m/q ratio due to condensation on the particle will be monitored as a function of the dust particle temperature and the partial pressure of the injected volatile gas. The measured data wild permit determination of the sticking efficiencies of volatile gases of astrophysical interest. Preliminary results based on photoelectric emission experiments on 0.2-6.6 micron

  10. Physicochemical impacts of dust particles on alpine glacier meltwater at the Laohugou Glacier basin in western Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Jizu; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Cui, Xiaoqing; Du, Zhiheng; Kang, Shichang

    2014-09-15

    This work discusses the temporal variation of various physicochemical species in the meltwater runoff of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (4260 ma.s.l.) in central Asia, and their correlation with dust particles, based on a two-year field observation in summer 2012 and 2013, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, meltwater chemistry, particles SEM-EDX analysis in the meltwater, and MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields around the Qilian Mountains in central Asia. We find that, the volume-size distribution of dust particles in the meltwater is mainly composed of three parts, which includes fine aerosol particles (with diameter of 0~3.0 μm, mainly PM 2.5), atmospheric dust (with diameter of 3.0~20 μm), and local dust particles (20~100 μm), respectively. Comparison of dust particles in the snowpack and meltwater runoff indicates that, large part of dust particles in the meltwater may have originated from atmospheric dust deposition to the snow and ice on the glacier, and transported into the meltwater runoff. Moreover, temporal variation of dust and major ions (especially crustal species) is very similar with each other, showing great influence of dust particles to the chemical constituents of the glacier meltwater. SPM and TDS implied significant influences of dust to the physical characteristics of the glacier meltwater. Results showed that, accelerated glacier melting may affect physicochemical characteristics of the meltwater at an alpine basin under global warming. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, showed great influence of regional dust transportation over western Qilian Mountains in springtime. SEM-EDX analysis shows that dust particles in the glacier meltwater contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, and fly ash, similar to that deposited in snowpack. These results showed great and even currently underestimated influences of atmospheric dust

  11. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An understanding of carbonaceous matter in primitive extraterrestrial materials is an essential component of studies on dust evolution in the interstellar medium and the early history of the Solar System. Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) on carbonaceous material in two Chondritic Porous (CP) aggregrates is presented. The study suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may also be preserved in these materials.

  12. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Mackinnon, Ian D. R.

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of carbonaceous matter in primitive extraterrestrial materials is an essential component of studies on dust evolution in the interstellar medium and the early history of the Solar System. Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) on carbonaceous material in two Chondritic Porous (CP) aggregates is presented. The study suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may also be preserved in these materials.

  13. Development of a Charged Particle Detector for Windborne Martian Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, C. I.; Mantovani, J. G.; Groop, E. E.; Buehler, M. G.; Buhler, C. R.; Nowicki, A. W.

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of an aerodynamic electrometer to measure the electrostatic properties of Martian atmospheric dust has been constructed. The instrument will enable a more thorough understanding of the potential for electrostatic discharge of different materials on Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Airborne particle concentration and meteorologic conditions associated with pneumonia incidence in feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    MacVean, D.W.; Franzen, D.K.; Keefe, T.J.; Bennett, B.W.

    1986-12-01

    To elucidate the role of air quality on the occurrence of pneumonia in feedlot cattle, the following environmental values were measured at a feedlot: suspended particulates in 5 particle-size fractions, relative humidity, air temperature, and barometric pressure. Pneumonia incidence data were classified by the number of days the cattle had been at the feedlot (days on feed). The concentration of airborne particles, range of temperature, days on feed, and season of the year were associated with incidence of pneumonia in cattle. Pneumonia incidence rates were greatest both within 15 days of arrival at the feedlot and during the fall sampling periods. The incidence of pneumonia in the 16 to 30 days-on-feed group was closely associated with the concentration of particles 2.0 to 3.3 microns in diameter and the range of daily temperature when exposure occurred 15 days before the onset of disease in the fall and 10 days before in the spring.

  15. Trajectory-capture cell instrumentation for measurement of dust particle mass, velocity and trajectory, and particle capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust detector for space missions--such as the Halley Comet Missions where the impact velocity was very high as well as for missions where the impact velocity is low was extended to include: (1) the capability for impact position determination - i.e., x,y coordinate of impact; and (2) the capability for particle velocity determination using two thin PVDF sensors spaced a given distance apart - i.e., by time-of-flight. These developments have led to space flight instrumentation for recovery-type missions, which will measure the masses (sizes), fluxes and trajectories of incoming dust particles and will capture the dust material in a form suitable for later Earth-based laboratory measurements. These laboratory measurements would determine the elemental, isotopic and mineralogical properties of the captured dust and relate these to possible sources of the dust material (i.e., comets, asteroids), using the trajectory information. The instrumentation described here has the unique advantages of providing both orbital characteristics and physical and chemical properties--as well as possible origin--of incoming dust.

  16. Comparison of Morphologies of Apollo 17 Dust Particles with Lunar Simulant, JSC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Hill, Eddy; Kihm, Kenneth D.; Day, James D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar dust (< 20 microns) makes up approx.20 wt.% of the lunar soil. Because of the abrasive and adhering nature of lunar soil, a detailed knowledge of the morphology (size, shape and abundance) of lunar dust is important for dust mitigation on the Moon. This represents a critical step towards the establishment of long-term human presence on the Moon (Taylor et al. 2005). Machinery design for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) on the Moon also requires detailed information on dust morphology and general physical/chemical characteristics. Here, we report a morphological study of Apollo 17 dust sample 70051 and compare it to lunar soil stimulant, JSC-1. W e have obtained SEM images of dust grains from sample 70051 soil (Fig. 1). The dust grains imaged are composed of fragments of minerals, rocks, agglutinates and glass. Most particles consist largely of agglutinitic impact glass with their typical vesicular textures (fine bubbles). All grains show sub-angular to angular shapes, commonly with sharp edges, common for crushed glass fragments. There are mainly four textures: (1) ropey-textured pieces (typical for agglutinates), (2) angular shards, (3) blocky bits, and (4) Swiss-cheese grains. This last type with its high concentration of submicron bubbles, occurs on all scales. Submicron cracks are also present in most grains. Dust-sized grains of lunar soil simulant, JSC-1, were also studied. JSC-1 is a basaltic tuff with relatively high glass content (approx.50%; McKay et al. 1994). It was initially chosen in the early 90s to approximate the geotechnical properties of the average lunar soil (Klosky et al. 1996). JSC-1 dust grains also show angular blocky and shard textures (Fig. 2), similar to those of lunar dust. However, the JSC-1 grains lack the Swiss-cheese textured particles, as well as submicron cracks and bubbles in most grains.

  17. Ice formation on nitric acid coated dust particles: Laboratory and modeling studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Chun; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Liu, Xiaohong; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-08-16

    Changes in the ice nucleation characteristics of atmospherically relevant mineral dust particles due to nitric acid coating are not well understood. Further, the atmospheric implications of dust coating on ice-cloud properties under different assumptions of primary ice nucleation mechanisms are unknown. We investigated ice nucleation ability of Arizona test dust, illite, K-feldspar and quartz as a function of temperature (-25 to -30°C) and relative humidity with respect to water (75 to 110%). Particles were size selected at 250 nm and transported (bare or coated) to the ice nucleation chamber to determine the fraction of particles nucleating ice at various temperature and water saturation conditions. All dust nucleated ice at water-subsaturated conditions, but the coated particles showed a reduction in their ice nucleation ability compared to bare particles. However, at water-supersaturated conditions, we observed that bare and coated particles had nearly similar ice nucleation characteristics. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that structural properties of bare dust particles modified after acid treatment. We found that lattice parameters were slightly different, but crystallite sizes of the coated particles were reduced compared to bare particles. Next, single-column model results show that simulated ice crystal number concentrations mostly depends upon fraction of particles that are coated, primary ice nucleation mechanisms, and the competition between ice nucleation mechanisms to nucleate ice. In general, we observed that coating modify the ice-cloud properties and the picture of ice and mixed-phase cloud evolution is complex when different primary ice nucleation mechanisms are competing for fixed water vapor mass.

  18. A microfluidics-based on-chip impinger for airborne particle collection.

    PubMed

    Mirzaee, I; Song, M; Charmchi, M; Sun, H

    2016-06-21

    Capturing airborne particles from air into a liquid is a critical process for the development of many sensors and analytical systems. A miniaturized airborne particle sampling device (microimpinger) has been developed in this research. The microimpinger relies on a controlled bubble generation process produced by driving air through microchannel arrays. The particles confined in the microscale bubbles are captured in the sampling liquid while the bubbles form, are released and travel in a millimetre-scale sealed liquid reservoir. The microchannel arrays in the impinger are fabricated using a soft-lithography method with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. To prevent air leakage at the connections, a PDMS-only sealing technique is successfully developed. The hydrophobicity of the microchannel surface is found to be critical for generating continuous and stable bubbles in the bubbling process. A Teflon layer is coated on the walls of a microchannel array by vapor deposition which effectively increases the hydrophobicity of the PDMS. The collection efficiency of the microimpinger is measured by counting different sizes of fluorescent polystyrene latex particles on polycarbonate membrane filters. Collection efficiencies above 90% are achieved. Furthermore, the particle capturing mechanisms during the injection, formation and rise of a single microbubble are investigated by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with the use of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to capture the bubble deformations and the particles are tracked using a Lagrangian equation of motion. The model is also employed to study the effect of bubble size on the collection efficiency of the microimpinger.

  19. On Meteoric Dust Particles in the Near-Earth Space Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, Alireza; Farahani, Majid Mazraeh Ei; Mohebalhojeh, Ali R.; Scales, Wayne

    2016-07-01

    Over 40 metric tons of meteoric dust enters the earth's atmosphere every day. This dust settles and creates natural dust layers in the altitude ranges between 80 and 100 kilometers which spans the earth's upper mesosphere to lower thermosphere. The dust layers in the lower atmosphere have a great impact on climate, human health as well as communication and navigation signals. The main goal of this study is the role of meteoric smoke particles on the formation of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). Recent rocket experiments have detected the presence of these particles. Since these dust layers are immersed in the earth's upper atmosphere, they become charged due to collection of electrons and ions from the earth's ionospheric plasma. Noctilucent Clouds NLCs are a fascinating visual manifestation of these dust layers. So-called Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes PMSEs are radar echoes that are a direct consequence of the sub-visible charged dust that exists at altitudes above NLC regions. Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) are strong echoes that have been typically observed in the frequency range from 50MHz to 1.3GHz and in the altitude about 85km. Unlike PMSE, Polar mesospheric winter echoes (PMWE) are less known. PMWE appear at a lower altitude and is weaker in comparison with PMSE. The focus of this study is on meteoric smoke particles and how they affect PMWE source region. Parameters associated with smoke dust particles such as size distribution, charging characteristics, density and positive or negative charge will be considered. The second part of this presentation will be on the effect of gravity waves on PMC. Full coupling to a turbulent neutral field with a statistical analysis will be discussed. Impact of a neutral turbulence driving field on small amplitude plasma fluctuations in such a configuration and some of the important consequences will be also presented. This has important consequences for electric field and potential measurements on rocket probes as

  20. The search for refractory interplanetary dust particles from preindustrial aged Antarctic ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Webb, Susan J.; Thomas, Kathie

    1988-01-01

    In a study of refractory interplanetary dust particles, preindustrial-aged Antarctic ice samples have been collected, melted, and filtered to separate the particle load. Particles containing a significant amount of aluminum, titanium, and/or calcium were singled out for detailed SEM and STEM characterization. The majority of these particles are shown to be volcanic tephra from nearby volcanic centers. Six spherical aggregates were encountered that consist of submicron-sized grains of rutile within polycrystalline cristobalite. These particles are probably of terrestrial volcanic origin, but have not been previously reported from any environment. One aggregate particle containing fassaite and hibonite is described as a probable interplanetary dust particle. The constituent grain sizes of this particle vary from 0.1 to 0.3 microns, making it significantly more fine-grained than meteoritic calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions. This particle is mineralogically and morphologically similar to recently reported refractory interplanetary dust particles collected from the stratosphere, and dissimilar to the products of modern spacecraft debris.

  1. LOAC (Light Optical Particle Counter): a new small aerosol counter with particle characterization capabilities for surface and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenael; Jégou, Fabrice; Jeannot, Matthieu; Jourdain, Line; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Thaury, Claire; Tonnelier, Thierry; Verdier, Nicolas; Charpentier, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The determination of the size distribution of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols with conventional optical counters is difficult when different natures of particles are present (droplets, soot, mineral dust, secondary organic or mineral particles...). Also, a light and cheap aerosol counter that can be used at ground, onboard drones or launched under all kinds of atmospheric balloons can be very useful during specific events as volcanic plumes, desert dust transport or local pollution episodes. These goals can be achieved thanks to a new generation of aerosol counter, called LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter). The instrument was developed in the frame of a cooperation between French scientific laboratories (CNRS), the Environnement-SA and MeteoModem companies and the French Space Agency (CNES). LOAC is a small optical particle counter/sizer of ~250 grams, having a low electrical power consumption. The measurements are conducted at two scattering angles. The first one, at 12°, is used to determine the aerosol particle concentrations in 19 size classes within a diameter range of 0.3-100 micrometerers. At such an angle close to forward scattering, the signal is much more intense and the measurements are the least sensitive to the particle nature. The second angle is at 60°, where the scattered light is strongly dependent on the particle refractive index and thus on the nature of the aerosols. The ratio of the measurements at the two angles is used to discriminate between the different types of particles dominating the nature of the aerosol particles in the different size classes. The sensor particularly discriminates wet or liquid particles, soil dust and soot. Since 2011, we have operated LOAC in various environments (Arctic, Mediterranean, urban and peri-urban…) under different kinds of balloons including zero pressure stratospheric, tethered, drifting tropospheric, and meteorological sounding balloons. For the last case, the total weight of the gondola

  2. Meteoroid impacts and dust particles in near-surface lunar exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, S. I.; Golub', A. P.; Lisin, E. A.; Izvekova, Yu N.; Atamaniuk, B.; Dolnikov, G. G.; Zakharov, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that for consideration of dust particle release from the lunar surface one has to take into account (among other effects) both adhesion and meteoroid impacts. The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion intensity on the Moon is discussed. The rate of meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface per unit area is determined. The strength of the regolith due to the adhesion effect is estimated. The processes occurring when a high-speed meteoroid impacts with the lunar surface are described. In particular, the characteristic parameters of zones of evaporation of the substance, its melting, destruction of particles constituting lunar regolith, their irreversible deformations, and elastic deformation of the regolith substance are found. A possibility of the rise of micrometer-sized dust particles above the lunar surface is shown. It is demonstrated that most of the particles rising over lunar surface due to the meteoroid impact originates from the elastic deformation zone. The number of dust particles raised over the lunar surface as result of meteoroid impacts is calculated. The size-distribution function of particles released from the lunar surface due to meteoroid impacts is determined. It is noted that micrometeoroid impacts can result in rise of dust particles of the size of a few μm up to an altitude of about 30 cm that explains the effect of “horizon glow” observed by Surveyor lunar lander.

  3. Red-ox speciation and mixing state of iron in individual African dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboudt, Karine; Gloter, Alexandre; Mussi, Alexandre; Flament, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    The Fe distribution in African dust particles collected in Senegal (North-Western Africa) during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observation Period 0 (AMMA-"SOP 0," February 2006) was assessed using individual particle analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy respectively equipped with X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (TEM-EELS)). Senegal is not a dust source area; the chemical composition of collected dusts indicates that they originate primarily in the North-Western Sahara, which is consistent with previous studies of the area. Fe can be present inside dust particles as a substitution element in the crystalline lattice of aluminosilicate, but a high proportion (62%) of aluminosilicate Fe-containing particles are also found as an internal mixture of aluminosilicate with Fe oxide grains (including both oxide and hydroxide species). The 3D structure of such particles obtained by tomography reveals that these Fe-rich inclusions are often found at the surface of aluminosilicate particles but that some are also included inside particles. These Fe oxide grains can result from crustal earth or atmospheric processes during long-range transport. FeIII is dominant in both the aluminosilicate matrix and the Fe oxide grains (FeIII/Σ Fe ratio = 76.8% and 90.0%, respectively, on average), with notable heterogeneities of Fe valence inside grains at a nanometer scale.

  4. Evaluation of particle clustering algorithms in the prediction of brownout dust clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindarajan, Bharath Madapusi

    2011-07-01

    A study of three Lagrangian particle clustering methods has been conducted with application to the problem of predicting brownout dust clouds that develop when rotorcraft land over surfaces covered with loose sediment. A significant impediment in performing such particle modeling simulations is the extremely large number of particles needed to obtain dust clouds of acceptable fidelity. Computing the motion of each and every individual sediment particle in a dust cloud (which can reach into tens of billions per cubic meter) is computationally prohibitive. The reported work involved the development of computationally efficient clustering algorithms that can be applied to the simulation of dilute gas-particle suspensions at low Reynolds numbers of the relative particle motion. The Gaussian distribution, k-means and Osiptsov's clustering methods were studied in detail to highlight the nuances of each method for a prototypical flow field that mimics the highly unsteady, two-phase vortical particle flow obtained when rotorcraft encounter brownout conditions. It is shown that although clustering algorithms can be problem dependent and have bounds of applicability, they offer the potential to significantly reduce computational costs while retaining the overall accuracy of a brownout dust cloud solution.

  5. Dust survey following the final shutdown of TEXTOR: metal particles and fuel retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Weckmann, A.; Grzonka, J.; Rubel, M.; Esser, H. G.; Freisinger, M.; Kreter, A.; Sergienko, G.; Ström, P.

    2016-02-01

    The work presents results of a broad TEXTOR dust survey in terms of its composition, structure, distribution and fuel content. The dust particles were collected after final shutdown of TEXTOR in December 2013. Fuel retention, as determined by thermal desorption, varied significantly, even by two orders of magnitude, dependent on the dust location in the machine. Dust structure was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Several categories of dust have been identified. Carbon-based stratified and granular deposits were dominating, but the emphasis in studies was on metal dust. They were found in the form of small particles, small spheres, flakes and splashes which formed ‘comet’-like structures, clearly indicating directional effects in the impact on surfaces of plasma-facing components. Nickel-rich alloys from the Inconel liner and iron-based ones from various diagnostic holders were the main components of metal-containing dust, but also molybdenum and tungsten debris were detected. Their origin is discussed.

  6. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure.

  7. Exploring the wake of a dust particle by a continuously approaching test grain

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hendrik Greiner, Franko; Asnaz, Oguz Han; Piel, Alexander; Carstensen, Jan

    2015-05-15

    The structure of the ion wake behind a dust particle in the plasma sheath of an rf discharge is studied in a two-particle system. The wake formation leads to attractive forces between the negatively charged dust and can cause a reduction of the charge of a particle. By evaluating the dynamic response of the particle system to small external perturbations, these quantities can be measured. Plasma inherent etching processes are used to achieve a continuous mass loss and hence an increasing levitation height of the lower particle, so that the structure of the wake of the upper particle, which is nearly unaffected by etching, can be probed. The results show a significant modification of the wake structure in the plasma sheath to one long potential tail.

  8. Scattering Properties of Large Irregular Cosmic Dust Particles at Visible Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Palmer, C.; Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of internal inhomogeneities and surface roughness on the scattering behavior of large cosmic dust particles is studied by comparing model simulations with laboratory measurements. The present work shows the results of an attempt to model a dust sample measured in the laboratory with simulations performed by a ray-optics model code. We consider this dust sample as a good analogue for interplanetary and interstellar dust as it shares its refractive index with known materials in these media. Several sensitivity tests have been performed for both structural cases (internal inclusions and surface roughness). Three different samples have been selected to mimic inclusion/coating inhomogeneities: two measured scattering matrices of hematite and white clay, and a simulated matrix for water ice. These three matrices are selected to cover a wide range of imaginary refractive indices. The selection of these materials also seeks to study astrophysical environments of interest such as Mars, where hematite and clays have been detected, and comets. Based on the results of the sensitivity tests shown in this work, we perform calculations for a size distribution of a silicate-type host particle model with inclusions and surface roughness to reproduce the experimental measurements of a dust sample. The model fits the measurements quite well, proving that surface roughness and internal structure play a role in the scattering pattern of irregular cosmic dust particles.

  9. Soil-derived sulfate in atmospheric dust particles at Taklimakan desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Zhang, Daizhou; Cao, Junji; Xu, Hongmei; An, Zhisheng

    2012-12-01

    Dust-associated sulfate is believed to be a key species which can alter the physical and chemical properties of dust particles in the atmosphere. Its occurrence in the particles has usually been considered to be the consequence of particles' aging in the air although it is present in some crustal minerals. Our observation at the north and south edge of Taklimakan desert, one of the largest dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere, during a dust episode in April 2008 revealed that sulfate in atmospheric dust samples most likely originated directly from surface soil. Its TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 content was proportional to samples' mass and comprised steadily about 4% in the differently sized samples, the ratio of elemental sulfur to iron was approximately constant 0.3, and no demonstrable influence of pollutants from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning was detected. These results suggest that sulfate could be substantially derived from surface soil at the desert area and the lack of awareness of this origin may impede accurate results in any investigation of atmospheric sulfur chemistry associated with Taklimakan dust and its subsequent local, regional and global effects on the atmosphere.

  10. Implications of particle composition and shape to dust radiative effect: A case study from the Great Indian Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Dey, Sagnik; Tripathi, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    The assessment of direct radiative forcing (DRF) of aerosol is uncertain, particularly where the natural dust particles mix with the anthropogenic components. One of the sources of such uncertainty is the assumption of morphology (size and shape) and composition of pure dust particles. Recently Mishra and Tripathi [2008] have computationally assessed the effect of particle morphology on optical properties over the Great Indian Desert. As a continuation of the previous study, in this paper, we have further examined the effects on dust radiative properties. Non-spherical pure dust particles show large variations in the optical and radiative properties from spherical pure dust particles, however, particle composition is found to have greater influence than particle shape on the radiative properties. Among the various shapes, sharp-edged particles show larger difference than smooth-shaped particles. Although the overall atmospheric absorption monotonically increases with increase in hematite content, maximum effect of particle non-sphericity at 4% hematite content implies that non-sphericity should be considered to minimize the uncertainty of regional estimates of aerosol DRF, as most of the global dusts contain that much hematite. However the difference in radiative properties for two different background dust cases due to particle morphology is low. Our results show that ignoring non-sphericity will lead to under-estimation of the regional warming and dust-absorption efficiency.

  11. Measuring the Dust Flux and Dust Particle Mass Distribution in the Saturn Rings with HRD Dust Instrument on the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzzolino, A. J.; Economou, T. E.

    In July 2004, the Cassini spacecraft will go into the Saturn orbit and start a 4 year intensive investigation of the planet itself, its multiple satellites and its rings with a multinational instrument payload. The High Rate Detectors (HRD) instrument provided by the Laboratory of Astrophysics and Space Research of the University of is part of the German Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) and its main scientific objective is to provide quantitative measurements and mass distributions of dust particles in the rings of Saturn in the 10-11 to 10-4 grams mass range. The HRD instrument consists of two dust detectors -- a 20 and a 200 cm2 polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors -- and an electronic box that contains all the analog and digital electronics and in addition provides interface between the HRD and CDA instrument. The CDA stores all the HRD data in its memory and transmits the data to Earth. The HRD weighs 1.7 kg and consumes 1.8 W of power [1]. The HRD instrument was fully calibrated through the entire mass range using two dust particle accelerators at Heidelberg and Munich in Germany. The HRD electronics is very fast and it will provide spatial and time distributions of up to 0.1 second. It can handle rates up to 104 counts/sec expected to be encountered during the Saturn ring crossings without any dead time. The HRD instrument operated successfully during all of the time that it was under power and detected many interplanetary dust particles. Almost all of these particles were close to the lowest mass threshold. References 1 A.J. TUZZOLINO, T.E. ECONOMOU, R.B. MCKIBBEN, J.A. SIMPSON, J.A.M. MCDONNELL, M.J. BURCHELL, B.A.M. VAUGHAN, P. TSOU, M.S. HANNER, B.C. CLARK AND D.E. BROWNLEE. THE DUST FLUX MONITOR INSTRUMENT FOR THE STARDUST MISSION TO COMET WILD-2, J. GEOPHYS. RES., 108, DOI:10.1029/2003JE002091, 2003.

  12. Distribution of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust as a function of particle size.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R G; Fortune, C R; Willis, R D; Camann, D E; Antley, J T

    1999-01-01

    House dust is a repository for environmental pollutants that may accumulate indoors from both internal and external sources over long periods of time. Dust and tracked-in soil accumulate most efficiently in carpets, and the pollutants associated with dust and soil may present an exposure risk to infants and toddlers, who spend significant portions of their time in contact with or in close proximity to the floor and who engage in frequent mouthing activities. The availability of carpet dust for exposure by transfer to the skin or by suspension into the air depends on particle size. In this study, a large sample of residential house dust was obtained from a commercial cleaning service whose clients were homeowners residing in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill (Research Triangle) area of North Carolina. The composite dust was separated into seven size fractions ranging from < 4 to 500 microm in diameter, and each fraction was analyzed for 28 pesticides and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Over 20% of the fractionated dust sample consisted of particles < 25 microm in diameter. Fourteen pesticides and all 10 of the target PAHs were detected in one or more of the seven size-fractionated samples. Sample concentrations reported range from 0.02 to 22 microg/g; the synthetic pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin were the most abundant pesticide residue. The concentrations of nearly all of the target analytes increased gradually with decreasing particle size for the larger particles, then increased dramatically for the two smallest particle sizes (4-25 microm and < 4 microm). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10464072

  13. Gazification of coal dust particles in the blast furnace tuyere apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvydky, V. S.; Yaroshenko, Yu G.; Spirin, N. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The mathematical statement of the problem on gasification of coal dust particles in the blast-furnace tuyere apparatus is given, which includes the motion equation of a variable mass particle, heat equation of a particle and the heat-balance equation of the blast flow. The results of calculations are obtained by using mathematical software packages (Mathcad, Maple). Relatively weak effect of the volatiles combustion process on the thermal state of the tuyere zone is shown.

  14. Photoelectric charging of dust particles: Effect of spontaneous and light induced field emission of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sodha, M. S.; Dixit, A.

    2009-09-07

    The authors have analyzed the charging of dust particles in a plasma, taking into account the electron/ion currents to the particles, electron/ion generation and recombination, electric field emission, photoelectric emission and photoelectric field emission of electrons under the influence of light irradiation; the irradiance has been assumed to be at a level, which lets the particles retain the negative sign of the charge. Numerical results and discussion conclude the papers.

  15. A simultaneous charge and size measurement method for individual airborne particles using digital holographic particle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Adam; Dou, Zhongwang; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, significant inquiry to understand the effects of particle charge on particle laden flow have been made, particularly in the study of Lagrangian particle-pair statistics. Quantification of individual particle charge allows relation of inter-particle electric forces and turbulence-induced forces. Here we offer a simultaneous, individual particle charge and size measurement technique utilizing in-line digital holographic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (hPTV). The method measures particle electric mobility through its velocity response within a uniform electric field using a sequence of holograms, next the particle diameter is measured with the same holograms using a matched-filter developed by Lu et al. (2012) as an input for calculation of charge. Consequently, a benefit of this method is that particle charge is calculated on the individual level, versus a mean charge calculated from a group of particles, offering improved estimations of charge distributions for studies of particle laden flow. This work was supported by NSF CBET-0967407 and CBET-0967349.

  16. The immersion freezing behavior of mineral dust particles mixed with biological substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Wex, H.; Denjean, C.; Hartmann, S.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, S.; Ebert, M.; Stratmann, F.

    2015-10-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INM). It has been suggested that these INM maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INM in e.g., soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INM. If particles from such soils which contain biological INM are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a measurement campaign within the research unit INUIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). To characterize the mixing state of the generated aerosol we used different methods which will also be discussed. We found that internally mixed particles, containing ice active biological material, follow the ice nucleation behavior observed for the purely biological particles, i.e. freezing occurs at temperatures at which mineral dusts themselves are not yet ice active. It can be concluded that INM located on a mineral dust particle determine the freezing behavior of that particle.

  17. Single particle chemical composition, state of mixing and shape of fresh and aged Saharan dust in Morocco and at Cape Verde Islands during SAMUM I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandler, Konrad; Emmel, Carmen; Ebert, Martin; Lieke, Kirsten; Müller-Ebert, Dörthe; Schütz, Lothar; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    The Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) is focussed to the understanding of the radiative effects of mineral dust. During the SAMUM 2006 field campaign at Tinfou, southern Morocco, chemical and mineralogical properties of fresh desert aerosol was measured. The winter campaign of Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment II in 2008 was based in Praia, Island of Santiago, Cape Verde. This second field campaign was dedicated to the investigation of transported Saharan Mineral Dust. Ground-based and airborne measurements were performed in the winter season, where mineral dust from the Western Sahara and biomass burning aerosol from the Sahel region occurred. Samples were collected with a miniature impactor system, a sedimentation trap, a free-wing impactor, and a filter sampler. Beryllium discs as well as carbon coated nickel discs, carbon foils, and nuclepore and fiber filters were used as sampling substrates. The size-resolved particle aspect ratio and the chemical composition are determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of single particles. Mineralogical bulk composition is determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. In Morocco, three size regimes are identified in the aerosol: Smaller than 500 nm in diameter, the aerosol consists of sulfates and mineral dust. Larger than 500 nm up to 50 µm, mineral dust dominates, consisting mainly of silicates, and - to a lesser extent - carbonates and quartz. Larger than 50 µm, approximately half of the particles consist of quartz. Time series of the elemental composition show a moderate temporal variability of the major compounds. Calcium-dominated particles are enhanced during advection from a prominent dust source in Northern Africa (Chott El Djerid and surroundings). More detailed results are found in Kandler et al. (2009) At Praia, Cape Verde, the boundary layer aerosol consists of a superposition of mineral dust, marine aerosol and ammonium sulfate, soot, and other sulfates as well as

  18. Solar flare track densities in interplanetary dust particles The determination of an asteroidal versus cometary source of the zodiacal dust cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Sandford, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    The possibility is explored whether an IDP (interplanetary dust particle) is cometary or asteroidal from measurements of the solar flare track density within its constituent mineral grains. Dust particles that are larger than 1 micron, when injected into the Solar System from comets and asteroids, will spiral into the sun due to the Poynting-Robertson effect. During the process of spiraling in, such dust particles accumulate solar flare tracks. The accumulated track density for a given dust grain is a function of the duration of its space exposure and its distance from the sun. Using a computer model, it was determined that the expected track density distributions from grains produced by comets are very different from those produced by asteroids. Individual asteroids produce populations of particles that arrive at 1 AU with scaled track density distributions containing spikes, while comets supply particles with a flatter and wider distribution of track densities. 36 references.

  19. The influence of Asian dust outflow on particle microphysical and optical properties at Mt. Tai in central east China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X. J.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, T. T.; Wang, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Fan, R. X.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, D. Z.

    2016-10-01

    An in-situ measurement of the particle number size distribution and optical properties (scattering and absorption coefficients) of PM2.5 was conducted at Mt. Tai, a mountain top station in central east China in the spring of 2011. It was found that the particle size distribution, mass concentration, as well as the optical properties have been modified during the dust periods. The mean mass concentration of PM2.5 during the dust periods was nearly twice of that during the non-dust period. The number and volume size distribution showed a higher concentration in the size range of 0.5-2.5 μm during the dust period, which were identified as dust particles. The absorption coefficient increased by ∼40%, while the scattering coefficient did not show much difference. The single scattering albedo of 0.85 during dust period was also comparable with the value of 0.89 during non-dust period. The Mie model was applied to simulate the aerosol optical properties and validated through a closure study for an intensive dust event. This study quantitatively demonstrated that dust particles contributed to nearly 63% of the scattering coefficient, while the remainder was mainly due to anthropogenic particles on dust days. The dust particles took a lower portion to the absorption, about 40%, indicating the anthropogenic particles still played a more dominant role in absorbing. This study also indicated that although there were only a few tens of dust particles during dust period, they could influence in particle optical properties significantly.

  20. Identification of Ice Nucleation Active Sites on Feldspar Dust Particles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mineral dusts originating from Earth’s crust are known to be important atmospheric ice nuclei. In agreement with earlier studies, feldspar was found as the most active of the tested natural mineral dusts. Here we investigated in closer detail the reasons for its activity and the difference in the activity of the different feldspars. Conclusions are drawn from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and oil-immersion freezing experiments. K-feldspar showed by far the highest ice nucleation activity. Finally, we give a potential explanation of this effect, finding alkali-metal ions having different hydration shells and thus an influence on the ice nucleation activity of feldspar surfaces. PMID:25584435

  1. Characterization of Exposures to Airborne Nanoscale Particles During Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E.; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; Mccarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M. Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 μm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 μm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM2.5 concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 μm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at ∼30 and ∼550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at ∼4.0 × 105 particles cm−3, whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm−3, depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10–100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) μg m−3; the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may exist, especially in larger scale industrial

  2. Characterization of exposures to airborne nanoscale particles during friction stir welding of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; McCarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-07-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 microm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 microm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM(2.5) concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 microm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at approximately 30 and approximately 550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at approximately 4.0 x 10(5) particles cm(-3), whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm(-3), depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10-100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) microg m(-3); the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may

  3. The Influence of Trapped Ions and Non-equilibrium EDF on Dust Particle Charging

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.; Antipov, S. N.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2008-09-07

    Dust particles charging in a low-pressure glow discharge was investigated theoretically with the help of model for trapped and free ions coupled with the self-consistent solution of Poisson equation for electric potential. Non-equilibrium (non-Maxwellian) character of electron energy distribution function depending on gas pressure and electric field was also taken into account on the basis of the solution of kinetic Boltzmann equation. The results were compared with the experimental measurements of dust particle charge depending on gas pressure. It was shown that the calculated effective charge, i.e. the difference of the dust particle charge and trapped ion charge, is in a fairly good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Identification of solar nebula condensates in interplanetary dust particles and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloeck, W.; Thomas, K. L.; Mckay, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    Orthopyroxene and olivine grains, low in FeO, but containing MnO contents up to 5 wt percent were found in interplanetary dust particles (IDP) collected in the stratosphere. The majority of olivines and pyroxenes in meteorites contain less than 0.5 wt percent MnO. Orthopyroxenes and olivines high in Mn and low in FeO have only been reported from a single coarse grained chondrule rim in the Allende meteorite and from a Tieschitz matrix augite grain. The bulk MnO contents of the extraterrestrial dust particles with high MnO olivines and pyroxenes are close to CI chondrite abundances. High MnO, low FeO olivines and orthopyroxenes were also found in the matrix of Semarkona, an unequilibrated ordinary chondrite. This may indicate a related origin for minerals in extraterrestrial dust particles and in the matrix of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites.

  5. ALMA resolves SN 1987A's dust factory and particle accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indebetouw, Remy; SN1987A ALMA Cycle 0 Team

    2014-01-01

    SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is the closest supernova to earth to be observed since 1604, making it a unique laboratory to study supernova physics in real time. Among SN87A's remarkable properties are a very large mass of new dust forming in the supernova ejecta. This dust was inferred from Herschel data, but its location not proven since Herschel could not resolve the 1.8" diameter remnant. Another mystery is whether the explosion left behind a neutron star - neither pulsar nor pulsar wind nebula has been detected so far. Excess emission from a PWN should be easiest to detect at millimeter wavelengths, if it can be spatially resolved from the synchrotron-emitting supernova shock. We present the first spatially resolved images of SN1987A at 450um, 870um, and 1.4mm, observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). ALMA resolves emission from the newly formed dust, unambiguously locating it within the ejecta, interior to the reverse shock. The shocked ring is also well-resolved, and separated spatially from the ejecta. The ring shows no spectral break compared to centimeter wavelengths, and no free-free or PWN emission is required to explain the data. We discuss physical properties of the components of the remnant determined from these high resolution ALMA images.

  6. Evaluating the applicability of a semi-continuous aerosol sampler to measure Asian dust particles.

    PubMed

    Son, Se-Chang; Park, Seung Shik

    2015-03-01

    A Korean prototype semi-continuous aerosol sampler was used to measure Asian dust particles. During two dust-storm periods, concentrations of crustal and trace elements were significantly enriched. Dust storms are one of the most significant natural sources of air pollution in East Asia. The present study aimed to evaluate use of a Korean semi-continuous aerosol sampler (K-SAS) in observation of mineral dust particles during dust storm events. Aerosol slurry samples were collected at 60 min intervals using the K-SAS, which was operated at a sampling flow rate of 16.7 L min(-1) through a PM10 cyclone inlet. The measurements were made during dust storm events at an urban site, Gwangju in Korea, between April 30 and May 5, 2011. The K-SAS uses particle growth technology as a means of collecting atmospheric aerosol particles. Concentrations of 16 elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ti, V, Ni, Co, As, and Se) were determined off-line in the collected slurry samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The sampling periods were classified into two types, based on the source regions of the dust storms and the transport pathways of the air masses reaching the sampling site. The first period "A" was associated with dust particles with high Ca content, originating from the Gobi desert regions of northern China and southern Mongolia. The second period "B" was associated with dust particles with low Ca content, originating from northeastern Chinese sandy deserts. The results from the K-SAS indicated noticeable differences in concentrations of crustal and trace elements in the two sampling periods, as a result of differences in the source regions of the dust storms, the air mass transport pathways, and the impact of smoke from forest fires. The concentrations of the crustal (Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) and anthropogenic trace elements (Vi, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb) were enriched significantly during the two dust storm periods. However, the

  7. Asian Dust particles impacts on air quality and radiative forcing over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.; Song, C. H.; Yoon, S. C.; Han, J. S.

    2009-03-01

    Asian Dust particles originated from the deserts and loess areas of the Asian continent are often transported over Korea, Japan, and the North Pacific Ocean during spring season. Major air mass pathway of Asian dust storm to Korea is from either north-western Chinese desert regions or north-eastern Chinese sandy areas. The local atmospheric environment condition in Korea is greatly impacted by Asian dust particles transported by prevailing westerly wind. Since these Asian dust particles pass through heavily populated urban and industrial areas in China before it reach Korean peninsular, their physical, chemical and optical properties vary depending on the atmospheric conditions and air mass pathway characteristics. An integrated system approach has been adopted at the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea for effective monitoring of atmospheric aerosols utilizing various in-situ and optical remote sensing methods, which include a multi-channel Raman LIDAR system, sunphotometer, satellite, and in-situ instruments. Results from recent studies on impacts of Asian dust particles on local air quality and radiative forcing over Korea are summarized here.

  8. A Quick Method to Determine the Charge on Dust Particles in a Complex Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhiyue; Qiao, Ke; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-10-01

    The individual levitation height for two, paired dust particles (each having a diameter of 8.89 μm and mass of 5.55e-13 kg as stated by the manufacturer) was measured inside both 1.0-inch and a 0.5-inch glass boxes, placed on the lower powered electrode within a GEC RF reference cell. These heights were compared to that of a single particle levitated under identical conditions, with the equilibrium position of the upper particle within the pair found to be slightly higher than that of the single particle. The measured difference between the two is small (and assumed to be caused by the repulsive interaction between the dust particles), so although the top particle deviates slightly from its equilibrium position (i.e., the equilibrium position acquired by a single particle under the same conditions) it may still be assumed to be influenced by the normal set of restoring forces. Assuming a simplified Coulomb interparticle interaction, applying a standard force balance calculation provides the charge for each dust particle. In this manner, the particle charge was measured for rf powers between 250 mV and 700 mV at a constant gas pressure of 40 mTorr. The resulting data shows the particle dust charge to remain relatively stable, varying less than 10% from an average charge of 14,000 e-, for powers between 450 mV and 700 mV. However, below 450mV the measured particle charge fluctuates dramatically. The implications of these results will be examined and discussed. NSF / DOE funding is gratefully acknowledged - PHY1414523 & PHY1262031.

  9. Experimental and modeling researches of dust particles in the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Hui; Yan, Long-Wen; Tomita, Yukihiro; Feng, Zhen; Cheng, Jun; Hong, Wen-Yu; Pan, Yu-Dong; Yang, Qing-Wei; Duan, Xu-Ru

    2015-02-01

    The investigation of dust particle characteristics in fusion devices has become more and more imperative. In the HL-2A tokamak, the morphologies and compositions of dust particles are analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) with mapping. The results indicate that the sizes of dust particles are in a range from 1 μm to 1 mm. Surprisingly, stainless steel spheres with a diameter of 2.5 μm-30 μm are obtained. The production mechanisms of dust particles include flaking, disintegration, agglomeration, and arcing. In addition, dynamic characteristics of the flaking dust particles are observed by a CMOS fast framing camera and simulated by a computer program. Both of the results display that the ion friction force is dominant in the toroidal direction, while the centrifugal force is crucial in the radial direction. Therefore, the visible dust particles are accelerated toriodally by the ion friction force and migrated radially by the centrifugal force. The averaged velocity of the grain is on the order of ˜ 100 m/s. These results provide an additional supplement for one of critical plasma-wall interaction (PWI) issues in the framework of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) programme. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant Nos. 2014GB107000 and 2013GB112008), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11320101005, 11175060, 11375054, and 11075046), and the China-Korean Joint Foundation (Grant No. 2012DFG02230).

  10. Particle-Wave Micro-Dynamics in Nonlinear Self-Excited Dust Acoustic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.-Y.; Teng, L.-W.; Liao, C.-T.; I Lin

    2008-09-07

    The large amplitude dust acoustic wave can be self-excited in a low-pressure dusty plasma. In the wave, the nonlinear wave-particle interaction determines particle motion, which in turn determines the waveform and wave propagation. In this work, the above behaviors are investigated by directly tracking particle motion through video-microscopy. A Lagrangian picture for the wave dynamics is constructed. The wave particle interaction associated with the transition from ordered to disordered particle oscillation, the wave crest trapping and wave heating are demonstrated and discussed.

  11. Polarized polymer films as electronic pulse detectors of cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new type of dust particle detector has been developed which consists of a polarized film of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) having conducting electrons on its surface and operating with no bias voltage. Here, the response characteristics of PVDF detectors with areas in the range 4-150 sq cm and thickness in the range 2-28 microns to iron particles accelerated to velocities in the range 1-12 km/s are reported. The discussion also covers the mechanism of detection, fast pulse response, noise characteristics, and the dependence of the detector signal amplitude on particle mass and velocity. The detectors exhibit long-term stability and can be operated for extended periods of time over the temperature range -50 to +50 C; their response to dust particle impacts is unaffected by high background fluxes of charged particles.

  12. Determination of the levitation limits of dust particles within the sheath in complex plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, Angela; Land, Victor; Qiao Ke; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2012-01-15

    Experiments are performed in which dust particles are levitated at varying heights above the powered electrode in a radio frequency plasma discharge by changing the discharge power. The trajectories of particles dropped from the top of the discharge chamber are used to reconstruct the vertical electric force acting on the particles. The resulting data, together with the results from a self-consistent fluid model, are used to determine the lower levitation limit for dust particles in the discharge and the approximate height above the lower electrode where quasineutrality is attained, locating the sheath edge. These results are then compared with current sheath models. It is also shown that particles levitated within a few electron Debye lengths of the sheath edge